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Sample records for flux cancellation model

  1. Magnetic Flux Cancellation and Formation of Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Kim, Mun Song; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Kyong Chol

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic flux cancellation appears to be closely related to various kinds of solar activities such as flares, microflares/surges/jets, X-ray bright points, erupting mini-filaments, transition region explosive events, filament formation, filament activation and eruption, and coronal mass ejections. It is commonly believed that magnetic reconnections in the low atmosphere are responsible for canceling magnetic features, and magnetic fragments are observed to originate as bipoles. According to the Sweet-Parker type reconnection model, the inflow speed closely corresponds to the converging speed of each pole in a canceling magnetic feature and the rate of flux cancellation must be explained by the observed converging speed. As distinct from the corona, the efficiency of photospheric magnetic reconnection may be due to the small Cowling conductivity, instead of the Spitzer, of weakly ionized and magnetized plasma in the low atmosphere of the sun. Using the VAL-C atmospheric model and Cowling conductivity, we have computed the parameters describing Sweet-Parker type reconnecting current sheets in the plasma of the solar photosphere and chromosphere, and particularly for the phenomena of magnetic flux cancellation and dark filament formation which occurred on July 2, 1994 we have estimated the rate of flux cancellation, the inflow speed(the converging speed) and the upward mass flux to compare with the observation. The results show that when taking account of the Cowling conductivity in the low atmosphere, large flux cancellation rates(>1019Mxhr-1) in solar active regions are better explained than by the Spitzer conductivity-considered reconnection model. Particularly for the flux cancellation event on July 2, 1994, the inflow speed(0.26kms-1)is almost similar to the converging speed(0.22kms-1)and the upward mass flux(3.3X1012gs-1) in the model is sufficient for the large dark filament formation in a time of several hours through magnetic flux cancellation process.

  2. Flux Cancellation Leading to Solar Filament Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, R. M.; Panesar, N. K.; Sterling, A. C.; Moore, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to 100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable by either magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions and find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two events in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field and are in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  3. Flux Cancellation Leading to CME Filament Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popescu, Roxana M.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filaments are strands of relatively cool, dense plasma magnetically suspended in the lower density hotter solar corona. They trace magnetic polarity inversion lines (PILs) in the photosphere below, and are supported against gravity at heights of up to approx.100 Mm above the chromosphere by the magnetic field in and around them. This field erupts when it is rendered unstable, often by magnetic flux cancellation or emergence at or near the PIL. We have studied the evolution of photospheric magnetic flux leading to ten observed filament eruptions. Specifically, we look for gradual magnetic changes in the neighborhood of the PIL prior to and during eruption. We use Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), both on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to study filament eruptions and their photospheric magnetic fields. We examine whether flux cancellation or/and emergence leads to filament eruptions. We find that continuous flux cancellation was present at the PIL for many hours prior to each eruption. We present two CME-producing eruptions in detail and find the following: (a) the pre-eruption filament-holding core field is highly sheared and appears in the shape of a sigmoid above the PIL; (b) at the start of the eruption the opposite arms of the sigmoid reconnect in the middle above the site of (tether-cutting) flux cancellation at the PIL; (c) the filaments first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt. We conclude that these two filament eruptions result from flux cancellation in the middle of the sheared field, and thereafter evolve in agreement with the standard model for a CME/flare filament eruption from a closed bipolar magnetic field [flux cancellation (van Ballegooijen and Martens 1989 and Moore and Roumelrotis 1992) and runaway tether-cutting (Moore et. al 2001)].

  4. Understanding the Physics of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Brian; Fisher, G.; Sun, X.

    2011-05-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in magnetograms has been defined in observational terms as "the mutual apparent loss of magnetic flux in closely spaced features of opposite polarity." Physically, this removal of flux could correspond to one of three mechanisms: (i) the emergence of U-shaped magnetic loops, (ii) the submergence of Omega-shaped loops, or (iii) reconnection in the magnetogram layer. Evidence has been reported for all three of these mechanisms, but does one predominate? Does most canceling flux enter the outer solar atmosphere, or submerge into the interior? Answers to these questions will improve our understanding of both the solar-cycle and quiet-Sun dynamos, as well as the origins of structures that erupt in coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We can investigate cancellation mechanisms at work in an active region's magnetic fields using time-averaged Doppler shifts along polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the line-of-sight (LOS) magnetic field near disk center. Along these PILs, the LOS component of the magnetic field vanishes, so LOS flows inferred from Doppler shifts are perpendicular to the magnetic field. If the evolution is ideal, such flows imply the transport of magnetic flux across the atmospheric layer imaged in the magnetogram. As a preliminary step in our study, we present an innovative method to remove biases in the measured Doppler velocities due to offset in the line-center position, which might arise from a well-known correlation between brightness and blueshifts in the convecting photospheric plasma. In cases with significant discrepancies between flux cancellation rates separately inferred from (1) changes in LOS flux near canceling PILs and (2) combined Doppler velocities and transverse field strengths along PILs, we can characterize departures from ideal evolution in terms of an effective magnetic diffusivity, which can be evaluated from the data.

  5. Flux Cancelation: The Key to Solar Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse; Moore, Ronald; Chakrapani, Prithi; Innes, Davina; Schmit, Don; Tiwari, Sanjiv

    2017-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are magnetically channeled eruptions that occur in all types of solar environments (e.g. active regions, quiet-Sun regions and coronal holes). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of small-scare filaments (minifilaments). Once the eruption is underway magnetic reconnection evidently makes the jet spire and the bright emission in the jet base. However, the triggering mechanism of these eruptions and the formation mechanism of the pre-jet minifilaments are still open questions. In this talk, mainly using SDOAIA and SDOHIM data, first I will address the question: what triggers the jet-driving minifilament eruptions in different solar environments (coronal holes, quiet regions, active regions)? Then I will talk about the magnetic field evolution that produces the pre-jet minifilaments. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in line-of-sight HMI magnetograms while examining concurrent EUV images of coronal and transition-region emission, we find clear evidence that flux cancelation is the main process that builds pre-jet minifilaments, and is also the main process that triggers the eruptions. I will also present results from our ongoing work indicating that jet-driving minifilament eruptions are analogous to larger-scare filament eruptions that make flares and CMEs. We find that persistent flux cancellation at the neutral line of large-scale filaments often triggers their eruptions. From our observations we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process from the buildup and triggering of solar eruptions of all sizes.

  6. 20 and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta= 1 level (Le., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a lOW-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  7. 2D and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta=1 level (i.e., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a low-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  8. 2D and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta=1 level (i.e., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a low-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  9. Magnetic Flux Cancellation in Ellerman Bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E.; Nelson, C. J.; Henriques, V.; Ray, T.

    2016-06-01

    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are often found to be co-spatial with bipolar photospheric magnetic fields. We use Hα imaging spectroscopy along with Fe i 6302.5 Å spectropolarimetry from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), combined with data from the Solar Dynamic Observatory, to study EBs and the evolution of the local magnetic fields at EB locations. EBs are found via an EB detection and tracking algorithm. Using NICOLE inversions of the spectropolarimetric data, we find that, on average, (3.43 ± 0.49) × 1024 erg of stored magnetic energy disappears from the bipolar region during EB burning. The inversions also show flux cancellation rates of 1014-1015 Mx s-1 and temperature enhancements of 200 K at the detection footpoints. We investigate the near-simultaneous flaring of EBs due to co-temporal flux emergence from a sunspot, which shows a decrease in transverse velocity when interacting with an existing, stationary area of opposite polarity magnetic flux, resulting in the formation of the EBs. We also show that these EBs can be fueled further by additional, faster moving, negative magnetic flux regions.

  10. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hagenaar, H. J.

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  11. The Triggering Mechanism of coronal jets and CMEs: Flux Cancelation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent investigations show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of a small-scale filament (10,000 - 20,000 km long, called a minifilament) following magnetic flux cancelation at the neutral line underneath the minifilament. Minifilament eruptions appear to be analogous to larger-scale solar filament eruptions: they both reside, before the eruption, in the highly sheared field between the adjacent opposite-polarity magnetic flux patches (neutral line); jet-producing minifilament and larger-scale solar filament first show a slow-rise, followed by a fast-rise as they erupt; during the jet-producing minifilament eruption a jet bright point (JBP) appears at the location where the minifilament was rooted before the eruption, analogous to the situation with CME-producing larger-scale filament eruptions where a solar flare arcade forms during the filament eruption along the neutral line along which the filament resided prior to its eruption. In the present study we investigate the triggering mechanism of CME-producing large solar filament eruptions, and find that enduring flux cancelation at the neutral line of the filaments often triggers their eruptions. This corresponds to the finding that persistent flux cancelation at the neutral is the cause of jet-producing minifilament eruptions. Thus our observations support coronal jets being miniature version of CMEs.

  12. Flux canceling in three-dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Irina; Spruit, H. C.

    2017-05-01

    We aim to study the processes involved in the disappearance of magnetic flux between regions of opposite polarity on the solar surface using realistic three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. "Retraction" below the surface driven by magnetic forces is found to be a very effective mechanism of flux canceling of opposite polarities. The speed at which flux disappears increases strongly with initial mean flux density. In agreement with existing inferences from observations we suggest that this is a key process of flux disappearance within active complexes. Intrinsic kG strength concentrations connect the surface to deeper layers by magnetic forces, and therefore the influence of deeper layers on the flux canceling process is studied. We do this by comparing simulations extending to different depths. For average flux densities of 50 G, and on length scales on the order of 3 Mm in the horizontal and 10 Mm in depth, deeper layers appear to have only a mild influence on the effective rate of diffusion.

  13. Chromospheric heating due to internetwork magnetic flux cancellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosic, Milan; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; De Pontieu, Bart; Bellot Rubio, Luis; Ortiz, Ada; Esteban Pozuelo, Sara

    2017-08-01

    The heating of the solar chromosphere is one of the most intriguing unanswered problems in solar physics. It is believed that this phenomenon may significantly be supported by small-scale internetwork (IN) magnetic fields. Indeed, cancellations of IN magnetic flux patches might be an efficient way to transport flux and energy from the photosphere to the chromosphere. Because of this, it is essential to determine where they occur, the rates at which they proceed, and understand their influence on the chromosphere. Here we study the spatial and temporal evolution of IN cancelling patches using high resolution, multiwavelength, coordinated observations obtained with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope (SST). Employing multi-line inversions of the Mg II h&k lines we show that cancelling events, while occurring ubiquitously over IN regions, produce clear signatures of heating in the upper atmospheric layers. Using the RADYN code we determine the energy released due to cancellations of IN elements and discuss about their impact on the dynamics and energetics of the solar chromosphere.

  14. Hypercharge Flux, Exotics, and Anomaly Cancellation in F-theory Grand Unification

    SciTech Connect

    Marsano, Joseph

    2011-02-25

    We sharpen constraints related to hypercharge flux in F-theory grand unified theories that possess U(1) symmetries and argue that they arise as a consequence of four-dimensional anomaly cancellation. This gives a physical explanation for all restrictions that were observed in spectral cover models while demonstrating that the phenomenological implications for a well-motivated set of models are not tied to any particular formalism.

  15. Comments on Magnetic Reconnection Models of Canceling Magnetic Features on the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2015-06-01

    Data analysis and theoretical arguments support magnetic reconnection in a chromospheric current sheet as the mechanism of the observed photospheric magnetic flux cancellation on the Sun. Flux pile-up reconnection in a Sweet-Parker current sheet can explain the observed properties of canceling mag-netic features, including the speeds of canceling magnetic fragments, the magnetic uxes in the fragments, and the flux cancellation rates, inferred from the data. It is discussed how more realistic chromospheric reconnection models can be developed by relaxing the assumptions of a negligible current sheet curvature and a constant height of the reconnection site above the photosphere.

  16. A Sheep Model for Cancellous Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Angad; Pelletier, Matthew Henry; Yu, Yan; Christou, Chris; Walsh, William Robert

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate well-characterized bone defect animal models remain essential for preclinical research. This pilot study demonstrates a relevant animal model for cancellous bone defect healing. Three different defect diameters (8, 11, 14 mm) of fixed depth (25 mm) were compared in both skeletally immature (18-month-old) and aged sheep (5-year-old). In each animal, four defects were surgically created and placed in the cancellous bone of the medial distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses bilaterally. Animals were euthanized at 4 weeks post-operatively to assess early healing and any biological response. Defect sites were graded radiographically, and new bone formation quantified using μCT and histomorphometry. Fibrous tissue was found within the central region in most of the defects with woven bone normally forming near the periphery of the defect. Bone volume fraction [bone volume (BV)/TV] significantly decreased with an increasing defect diameter. Actual BV, however, increased with defect diameter. Bone ingrowth was lower for all defect diameters in the aged group. This pilot study proposes that the surgical creation of 11 mm diameter defects in the proximal tibial and distal femoral epiphyses of aged sheep is a suitable large animal model to study early healing of cancellous bone defects. The refined model allows for the placement of four separate bone defects per animal and encourages a reduction in animal numbers required for preclinical research. PMID:25593961

  17. Magnetic Flux Cancellation as the Origin of Solar Quiet-region Pre-jet Minifilaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the origin of 10 solar quiet-region pre-jet minifilaments, using EUV images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and magnetograms from the SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). We recently found that quiet-region coronal jets are driven by minifilament eruptions, where those eruptions result from flux cancellation at the magnetic neutral line under the minifilament. Here, we study the longer-term origin of the pre-jet minifilaments themselves. We find that they result from flux cancellation between minority-polarity and majority-polarity flux patches. In each of 10 pre-jet regions, we find that opposite-polarity patches of magnetic flux converge and cancel, with a flux reduction of 10%-40% from before to after the minifilament appears. For our 10 events, the minifilaments exist for periods ranging from 1.5 hr to 2 days before erupting to make a jet. Apparently, the flux cancellation builds a highly sheared field that runs above and traces the neutral line, and the cool transition region plasma minifilament forms in this field and is suspended in it. We infer that the convergence of the opposite-polarity patches results in reconnection in the low corona that builds a magnetic arcade enveloping the minifilament in its core, and that the continuing flux cancellation at the neutral line finally destabilizes the minifilament field so that it erupts and drives the production of a coronal jet. Thus, our observations strongly support that quiet-region magnetic flux cancellation results in both the formation of the pre-jet minifilament and its jet-driving eruption.

  18. Flux Cancellation and the Evolution of the Eruptive Filament of 2011 June 7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yardley, S. L.; Green, L. M.; Williams, D. R.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Valori, G.; Dacie, S.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate whether flux cancellation is responsible for the formation of a very massive filament resulting in the spectacular eruption on 2011 June 7. We analyze and quantify the amount of flux cancellation that occurs in NOAA AR 11226 and its two neighboring active regions (ARs 11227 & 11233) using line-of-sight magnetograms from the Heliospheric Magnetic Imager. During a 3.6 day period building up to the eruption of the filament, 1.7 × 1021 Mx, 21% of AR 11226's maximum magnetic flux, was canceled along the polarity inversion line (PIL) where the filament formed. If the flux cancellation continued at the same rate up until the eruption then up to 2.8 × 1021 Mx (34% of the AR flux) may have been built into the magnetic configuration that contains the filament plasma. The large flux cancellation rate is due to an unusual motion of the positive-polarity sunspot, which splits, with the largest section moving rapidly toward the PIL. This motion compresses the negative polarity and leads to the formation of an orphan penumbra where one end of the filament is rooted. Dense plasma threads above the orphan penumbra build into the filament, extending its length, and presumably injecting material into it. We conclude that the exceptionally strong flux cancellation in AR 11226 played a significant role in the formation of its unusually massive filament. In addition, the presence and coherent evolution of bald patches in the vector magnetic field along the PIL suggest that the magnetic field configuration supporting the filament material is that of a flux rope.

  19. Two Types of Magnetic Flux Cancellation in the Solar Eruption of 2007 May 20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterlin, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Mason, Helen

    2010-01-01

    We study a solar eruption of 2007 May 20, in an effort to understand the cause of the eruption's onset. The event produced a GOES class B6.7 flare peaking at 05:56 UT, while ejecting a surge/filament and producing a coronal mass ejection (CME). We examine several data sets, including H-alpha images from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode, EUV images from TRACE, and line-of-sight magnetograms from SOHO/MDI. Flux cancelation occurs among two different sets of flux elements inside of the erupting active region: First, for several days prior to eruption, opposite-polarity sunspot groups inside the region move toward each other, leading to the cancelation of approximately 10^{21} Mx of flux over three days. Second, within hours prior to the eruption, positive-polarity moving magnetic features (MMFs) flowing out of the positive-flux spots at approximately 1 kilometer per second repeatedly cancel with field inside a patch of negative-polarity flux located north of the sunspots. The filament erupts as a surge whose base is rooted in the location where the MMF cancelation occurs, while during the eruption that filament flows out along the polarity inversion line between the converging spot groups. We conclude that a plausible scenario is that the converging spot fields brought the magnetic region to the brink of instability, and the MMF cancelation pushed the system "over the edge." triggering the eruption.

  20. BUILDUP OF MAGNETIC SHEAR AND FREE ENERGY DURING FLUX EMERGENCE AND CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fang Fang; Manchester, Ward IV; Van der Holst, Bart; Abbett, William P.

    2012-07-20

    We examine a simulation of flux emergence and cancellation, which shows a complex sequence of processes that accumulate free magnetic energy in the solar corona essential for the eruptive events such as coronal mass ejections, filament eruptions, and flares. The flow velocity at the surface and in the corona shows a consistent shearing pattern along the polarity inversion line (PIL), which together with the rotation of the magnetic polarities, builds up the magnetic shear. Tether-cutting reconnection above the PIL then produces longer sheared magnetic field lines that extend higher into the corona, where a sigmoidal structure forms. Most significantly, reconnection and upward-energy-flux transfer are found to occur even as magnetic flux is submerging and appears to cancel at the photosphere. A comparison of the simulated coronal field with the corresponding coronal potential field graphically shows the development of non-potential fields during the emergence of the magnetic flux and formation of sunspots.

  1. Flux Cancelation as the trigger of quiet-region coronal jet eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2017-08-01

    Coronal jets are frequent transient features on the Sun, observed in EUV and X-ray emissions. They occur in active regions, quiet Sun and coronal holes, and appear as a bright spire with base brightenings. Recent studies show that many coronal jets are driven by the eruption of a minifilament. Here we investigate the magnetic cause of jet-driving minifilament eruptions. We study ten randomly-found on-disk quiet-region coronal jets using SDO/AIA intensity images and SDO/HMI magnetograms. For all ten events, we track the evolution of the jet-base region and find that (a) a cool (transition-region temperature) minifilament is present prior to each jet eruption; (b) the pre-eruption minifilament resides above the polarity-inversion line between majority-polarity and minority-polarity magnetic flux patches; (c) the opposite-polarity flux patches converge and cancel with each other; (d) the ongoing cancelation between the majority-polarity and minority-polarity flux patches eventually destabilizes the field holding the minifilament to erupt outwards; (e) the envelope of the erupting field barges into ambient oppositely-directed far-reaching field and undergoes external reconnection (interchange reconnection); (f) the external reconnection opens the envelope field and the minifilament field inside, allowing reconnection-heated hot material and cool minifilament material to escape along the reconnected far-reaching field, producing the jet spire. In summary, we found that each of our ten jets resulted from a minifilament eruption during flux cancelation at the magnetic neutral line under the pre-eruption minifilament. These observations show that flux cancelation is usually the trigger of quiet-region coronal jet eruptions.

  2. Chiral fermions and anomaly cancellation on orbifolds with Wilson lines and flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus; Ruehle, Fabian; Schweizer, Julian

    2015-11-01

    We consider six-dimensional supergravity compactified on orbifolds with Wilson lines and bulk flux. Torus Wilson lines are decomposed into Wilson lines around the orbifold fixed points, and twisted boundary conditions of matter fields are related to fractional localized flux. Both, orbifold singularities and flux lead to chiral fermions in four dimensions. We show that in addition to the standard bulk and fixed point anomalies the Green-Schwarz term also cancels the four-dimensional anomaly induced by the flux background. The two axions contained in the antisymmetric tensor field both contribute to the cancellation of the four-dimensional anomaly and the generation of a vector boson mass via the Stueckelberg mechanism. An orthogonal linear combination of the axions remains massless and couples to the gauge field in the standard way. Furthermore, we construct convenient expressions for the wave functions of the zero modes and relate their multiplicity and behavior at the fixed points to the bulk flux quanta and the Wilson lines.

  3. Helioseismic Holography and a Study of the Process of Magnetic Flux Disappearance in Canceling Bipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles; Harvey, Karen L.; Braun, D.; Jones, H. P.; Penn, M.; Hassler, D.

    2001-01-01

    Project 1: We have developed and applied a technique of helioseismic holography along the lines of originally set out in our proposal. The result of the application of this diagnostic technique to solar activity and the quiet Sun has produced a number of important discoveries: (1) acoustic moats surrounding sunspots; (2) acoustic glories surround large active regions; (3) acoustic condensations beneath active regions; and (4) temporally-resolve acoustic images of a solar flare. These results have been published in a series of papers in the Astrophysical Journal. We think that helioseismic holography is now established as the most powerful and discriminating diagnostic in local helioseismology. Project 2: We conducted a collaborative observational program to define the physical character and magnetic geometry of canceling magnetic bipoles aimed at determining if the cancellation process is the result of submergence of magnetic fields. This assessment is based on ground-based observations combining photospheric and chromospheric magnetograms from NSO/KP, BBSO, and SOHO-MDI, and EUV and X-ray images from SOHO EIT/CDS, Yohkoh/SXT, and TRACE. Our study involves the analysis of data taken during three observing campaigns to define the height structure of canceling bipoles inferred from magnetic field and intensity images, and how this varies with time. We find that some canceling bipoles can be explained by the submerge of their magnetic flux. A paper on the results of this analysis will be presented at an upcoming scientific meeting and be written up for publication.

  4. Magnetic Flux Cancelation as the Trigger of Solar Quiet-region Coronal Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panesar, Navdeep K.; Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Chakrapani, Prithi

    2016-11-01

    We report observations of 10 random on-disk solar quiet-region coronal jets found in high-resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and having good coverage in magnetograms from the SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). Recent studies show that coronal jets are driven by the eruption of a small-scale filament (called a minifilament). However, the trigger of these eruptions is still unknown. In the present study, we address the question: what leads to the jet-driving minifilament eruptions? The EUV observations show that there is a cool-transition-region-plasma minifilament present prior to each jet event and the minifilament eruption drives the jet. By examining pre-jet evolutionary changes in the line of sight photospheric magnetic field, we observe that each pre-jet minifilament resides over the neutral line between majority-polarity and minority-polarity patches of magnetic flux. In each of the 10 cases, the opposite-polarity patches approach and merge with each other (flux reduction between 21% and 57%). After several hours, continuous flux cancelation at the neutral line apparently destabilizes the field holding the cool-plasma minifilament to erupt and undergo internal reconnection, and external reconnection with the surrounding coronal field. The external reconnection opens the minifilament field allowing the minifilament material to escape outward, forming part of the jet spire. Thus, we found that each of the 10 jets resulted from eruption of a minifilament following flux cancelation at the neutral line under the minifilament. These observations establish that magnetic flux cancelation is usually the trigger of quiet-region coronal jet eruptions.

  5. UNRESOLVED MIXED POLARITY MAGNETIC FIELDS AT FLUX CANCELLATION SITE IN SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE AT 0.''3 SPATIAL RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, Masahito; Low, Boon Chye; Lites, Bruce W

    2014-09-20

    This is a follow-up investigation of a magnetic flux cancellation event at a polarity inversion line (PIL) on the Sun observed with the spectropolarimeter on board Hinode. Anomalous circular polarization (Stokes V) profiles are observed in the photosphere along the PIL at the cancellation sites. Kubo et al. previously reported that the theoretically expected horizontal fields between the canceling opposite-polarity magnetic elements in this event are not detected at granular scales. We show that the observed anomalous Stokes V profiles are reproduced successfully by adding the nearly symmetric Stokes V profiles observed at pixels immediately adjacent to the PIL. This result suggests that these observed anomalous Stokes V profiles are not indications of a flux removal process, but are the result of either a mixture of unresolved, opposite-polarity magnetic elements or the unresolved width of the PIL, at an estimated resolution element of about 0.''3. The hitherto undetected flux removal process accounting for the larger-scale disappearance of magnetic flux during the observing period is likely to also fall below resolution.

  6. Experimental models for cancellous bone healing in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Olof; Aspenberg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose — Cancellous bone appears to heal by mechanisms different from shaft fracture healing. There is a paucity of animal models for fractures in cancellous bone, especially with mechanical evaluation. One proposed model consists of a screw in the proximal tibia of rodents, evaluated by pull-out testing. We evaluated this model in rats by comparing it to the healing of empty drill holes, in order to explain its relevance for fracture healing in cancellous bone. To determine the sensitivity to external influences, we also compared the response to drugs that influence bone healing. Methods — Mechanical fixation of the screws was measured by pull-out test and related to the density of the new bone formed around similar, but radiolucent, PMMA screws. The pull-out force was also related to the bone density in drill holes at various time points, as measured by microCT. Results — The initial bone formation was similar in drill holes and around the screw, and appeared to be reflected by the pull-out force. Both models responded similarly to alendronate or teriparatide (PTH). Later, the models became different as the bone that initially filled the drill hole was resorbed to restore the bone marrow cavity, whereas on the implant surface a thin layer of bone remained, making it change gradually from a trauma-related model to an implant fixation model. Interpretation — The similar initial bone formation in the different models suggests that pull-out testing in the screw model is relevant for assessment of metaphyseal bone healing. The subsequent remodeling would not be of clinical relevance in either model. PMID:26200395

  7. Constitutive models for impacted morsellised cortico-cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Pankaj, Pankaj; May, Fraser; Taylor, Kenneth; Howie, Colin; Usmani, Asif

    2006-03-01

    Constitutive models are developed, based on the results of confined compression testing, to describe the visco-elastic, and non-linear elasto-plastic behaviour of morsellised cortico-cancellous bone (MCB). It is found that the elastic modulus, E of MCB can be expressed as a linear function of the applied pressure, p. E varied from 3 to 30N/mm(2) for pressures up to 1N/mm(2). The visco-elastic behaviour of MCB can be described using a fourth-order Prony series. The plastic behaviour of MCB can be described using a Drucker Prager Cap (DPC) yield criterion, in which consolidation behaviour is described using an exponential function. The developed relationships allow MCB to be included in a realistic manner in finite element models, for example of the acetabular construct, following revision hip arthroplasty, carried out using the Slooff-Ling impaction grafting technique.

  8. Maximizing Adaptivity in Hierarchical Topological Models Using Cancellation Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P; Pascucci, V; Hamann, B

    2008-12-08

    We present a highly adaptive hierarchical representation of the topology of functions defined over two-manifold domains. Guided by the theory of Morse-Smale complexes, we encode dependencies between cancellations of critical points using two independent structures: a traditional mesh hierarchy to store connectivity information and a new structure called cancellation trees to encode the configuration of critical points. Cancellation trees provide a powerful method to increase adaptivity while using a simple, easy-to-implement data structure. The resulting hierarchy is significantly more flexible than the one previously reported. In particular, the resulting hierarchy is guaranteed to be of logarithmic height.

  9. Combined Hinode, STEREO, and TRACE Observations of a Solar Filament Eruption: Evidence for Destabilization by Flux-Cancelation Tether Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations from Hinode, STEREO, and TRACE of a solar filament eruption and flare that occurred on 2007 March 2. Data from the two new satellites, combined with the TRACE observations, give us fresh insights into the eruption onset process. HINODE/XRT shows soft X-ray (SXR) activity beginning approximately 30 minutes prior to ignition of bright flare loops. STEREO andTRACE images show that the filament underwent relatively slow motions coinciding with the pre-eruption SXR brightenings, and it underwent rapid eruptive motions beginning near the time of flare onset. Concurrent HINODE/SOT magnetograms showed substantial flux cancelation under the filament at the site of the pre-eruption SXR activity. From these observations we infer that progressive tether-cutting reconnection driven by photospheric convection caused the slow rise of the filament and led to its eruption. NASA supported this work through a NASA Heliosphysics GI grant.

  10. Combined Hinode, STEREO, and TRACE Observations of a Solar Filament Eruption: Evidence for Destabilization by Flux-Cancelation Tether Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations from Hinode, STEREO, and TRACE of a solar filament eruption and flare that occurred on 2007 March 2. Data from the two new satellites, combined with the TRACE observations, give us fresh insights into the eruption onset process. HINODE/XRT shows soft X-ray (SXR) activity beginning approximately 30 minutes prior to ignition of bright flare loops. STEREO andTRACE images show that the filament underwent relatively slow motions coinciding with the pre-eruption SXR brightenings, and it underwent rapid eruptive motions beginning near the time of flare onset. Concurrent HINODE/SOT magnetograms showed substantial flux cancelation under the filament at the site of the pre-eruption SXR activity. From these observations we infer that progressive tether-cutting reconnection driven by photospheric convection caused the slow rise of the filament and led to its eruption. NASA supported this work through a NASA Heliosphysics GI grant.

  11. Flux Tube Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, O.

    2011-05-01

    This Fortran code computes magnetohydrostatic flux tubes and sheets according to the method of Steiner, Pneuman, & Stenflo (1986) A&A 170, 126-137. The code has many parameters contained in one input file that are easily modified. Extensive documentation is provided in README files.

  12. The finite element method for micro-scale modeling of ultrasound propagation in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Vafaeian, B; El-Rich, M; El-Bialy, T; Adeeb, S

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative ultrasound for bone assessment is based on the correlations between ultrasonic parameters and the properties (mechanical and physical) of cancellous bone. To elucidate the correlations, understanding the physics of ultrasound in cancellous bone is demanded. Micro-scale modeling of ultrasound propagation in cancellous bone using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been so far utilized as one of the approaches in this regard. However, the FDTD method accompanies two disadvantages: staircase sampling of cancellous bone by finite difference grids leads to generation of wave artifacts at the solid-fluid interface inside the bone; additionally, this method cannot explicitly satisfy the needed perfect-slip conditions at the interface. To overcome these disadvantages, the finite element method (FEM) is proposed in this study. Three-dimensional finite element models of six water-saturated cancellous bone samples with different bone volume were created. The values of speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) were calculated through the finite element simulations of ultrasound propagation in each sample. Comparing the results with other experimental and simulation studies demonstrated the capabilities of the FEM for micro-scale modeling of ultrasound in water-saturated cancellous bone.

  13. Empirical angle-dependent Biot and MBA models for acoustic anisotropy in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Il; Hughes, E R; Humphrey, V F; Leighton, T G; Choi, Min Joo

    2007-01-07

    The Biot and the modified Biot-Attenborough (MBA) models have been found useful to understand ultrasonic wave propagation in cancellous bone. However, neither of the models, as previously applied to cancellous bone, allows for the angular dependence of acoustic properties with direction. The present study aims to account for the acoustic anisotropy in cancellous bone, by introducing empirical angle-dependent input parameters, as defined for a highly oriented structure, into the Biot and the MBA models. The anisotropy of the angle-dependent Biot model is attributed to the variation in the elastic moduli of the skeletal frame with respect to the trabecular alignment. The angle-dependent MBA model employs a simple empirical way of using the parametric fit for the fast and the slow wave speeds. The angle-dependent models were used to predict both the fast and slow wave velocities as a function of propagation angle with respect to the trabecular alignment of cancellous bone. The predictions were compared with those of the Schoenberg model for anisotropy in cancellous bone and in vitro experimental measurements from the literature. The angle-dependent models successfully predicted the angular dependence of phase velocity of the fast wave with direction. The root-mean-square errors of the measured versus predicted fast wave velocities were 79.2 m s(-1) (angle-dependent Biot model) and 36.1 m s(-1) (angle-dependent MBA model). They also predicted the fact that the slow wave is nearly independent of propagation angle for angles about 50 degrees , but consistently underestimated the slow wave velocity with the root-mean-square errors of 187.2 m s(-1) (angle-dependent Biot model) and 240.8 m s(-1) (angle-dependent MBA model). The study indicates that the angle-dependent models reasonably replicate the acoustic anisotropy in cancellous bone.

  14. SSII cancellation in an EAM-based OFDM-IMDD transmission system employing a novel dynamic chirp model.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Dar-Zu; Wei, Chia-Chien; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Lu, Yi-Cheng; Song, Cih-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Jyehong

    2013-01-14

    We develop a novel subcarrier-to-subcarrier intermixing interference (SSII) cancellation technique to estimate and eliminate SSII. For the first time, the SSII cancellation technique is experimentally demonstrated in an electro-absorption modulator- (EAM-) based intensity-modulation-direct-detection (IMDD) multi-band OFDM transmission system. Since the characteristics of SSII are seriously affected by the chirp parameter, a simple constant chirp model, we found, cannot effectively remove the SSII. Therefore, assuming that the chirp parameter linearly depends on the optical power, a novel dynamic chirp model is developed to obtain better estimation and cancellation of SSII. Compared with 23.6% SSII cancellation by the constant chirp model, our experimental results show that incorporating the dynamic chirp model into the SSII cancellation technique can achieve up to 74.4% SSII cancellation and 2.8-dB sensitivity improvement in a 32.25-Gbps OFDM system over 100-km uncompensated standard single-mode fiber.

  15. Modeling Coronal Jets with FLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmeler, L. A.; Pariat, E.; Antiochos, S. K.; Deforest, C. E.

    2008-05-01

    We report on a comparative study of coronal jet formation with and without reconnection using two different simulation strategies. Coronal jets are features on the solar surface that appear to have some properties in common with coronal mass ejections, but are less energetic, massive, and broad. Magnetic free energy is built up over time and then suddenly released, which accelerates plasma outward in the form of a coronal jet. We compare results from the ARMS adaptive mesh and FLUX reconnection-less codes to study the role of reconnection in this system. This is the first direct comparison between FLUX and a numerical model with a 3D spatial grid.

  16. Development of technique to detect and classify small-scale magnetic flux cancellation and rapid blue-shifted excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Deng, Na; Lamb, Derek A.; Jing, Ju; Liu, Chang; Liu, Rui; Park, Sung-Hong; Wang, Haimin

    2015-07-01

    We present a set of tools for detecting small-scale solar magnetic cancellations and the disk counterpart of type II spicules (the so-called Rapid Blueshifted Excursions (RBEs)), using line-of-sight photospheric magnetograms and chromospheric spectroscopic observations, respectively. For tracking magnetic cancellation, we improve the Southwest Automatic Magnetic Identification Suite (SWAMIS) so that it is able to detect certain obscure cancellations that can be easily missed. For detecting RBEs, we use a normalized reference profile to reduce false-positive detections caused by the non-uniform background and seeing condition. Similar to the magnetic feature tracking in SWAMIS, we apply a dual-threshold method to enhance the accuracy of RBE detection. These tools are employed to analyze our coordinated observations using the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer at the Dunn Solar Telescope of the National Solar Observatory and Hinode. We present the statistical properties of magnetic cancellations and RBEs, and explore their correlation using this data set.

  17. A solar EUV flux model

    SciTech Connect

    Tobiska, W.K.; Barth, C.A. )

    1990-06-01

    A model of the solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance variability has been developed for aeronomical use and has been named SERF2 by the Solar Electromagnetic Radiation Flux Study. The model is valid between 1981 and 1989 and is based on the Atmosphere Explorer E (AE-E) satellite EUV data set which is correlated with independent solar emissions measured during and after the AE-E mission. Additionally, spectral modifications are made to the model based on 18 separate rocket flights for all levels of solar activity. Two daily measured solar emissions, the H Lyman {alpha} line at 121.6 nm observed by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer satellite and the Ottawa 10.7-cm radio flux observed at the ground, are used in the model as indices for full-disk solar EUV chromospheric irradiance variations and transition region-coronal irradiance variations, respectively. The model wavelength equation coefficients are presented in tabular form for 39 wavelength groups or discrete lines from 1.9 to 105.0 nm along with spectral weighting function coefficients which modify the irradiance magnitudes based upon model wavelength fits to rocket-observed spectra. The model satisfies the general constraint of duplicating rocket-observed EUV irradiance for a wise variety of solar activity conditions. The model development is discussed, an example calculation is given, and the comparisons with constraining rocket data sets are shown.

  18. Early Detection of Tibial Cartilage Degradation and Cancellous Bone Loss in an Ovariectomized Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinong; Liu, Zhiwei; Wang, Qing; Feng, Qianjin; Chen, Wufan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate degradation of the articular cartilage and loss of the cancellous bone in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model simulating early human menopausal stage. Fourteen health female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 per group): an OVX group that underwent bilateral ovariectomy to create an OVX model with low estrogen levels and a sham group in which only the periovarian fatty tissue was exteriorized. All the animals were sacrificed at 3 weeks after ovariectomy. The left tibiae were harvested. The articular cartilage at medial tibial plateau (MTP) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP) was assessed with quantitative high-frequency ultrasound. The cancellous bone was evaluated with micro-CT. The results indicated that, in comparison with the sham rats, the OVX rats exhibited significant alterations in acoustic parameters of the articular cartilage but insignificant changes in microarchitectural parameters of the cancellous bone in early stage of low estrogen levels. The results of this study suggest that cartilage degradation induced by estrogen reduction was detected earlier with quantitative ultrasound than that of the cancellous bone loss in 3 wk OVX rats.

  19. Early Detection of Tibial Cartilage Degradation and Cancellous Bone Loss in an Ovariectomized Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinong; Liu, Zhiwei; Chen, Wufan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate degradation of the articular cartilage and loss of the cancellous bone in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model simulating early human menopausal stage. Fourteen health female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 per group): an OVX group that underwent bilateral ovariectomy to create an OVX model with low estrogen levels and a sham group in which only the periovarian fatty tissue was exteriorized. All the animals were sacrificed at 3 weeks after ovariectomy. The left tibiae were harvested. The articular cartilage at medial tibial plateau (MTP) and lateral tibial plateau (LTP) was assessed with quantitative high-frequency ultrasound. The cancellous bone was evaluated with micro-CT. The results indicated that, in comparison with the sham rats, the OVX rats exhibited significant alterations in acoustic parameters of the articular cartilage but insignificant changes in microarchitectural parameters of the cancellous bone in early stage of low estrogen levels. The results of this study suggest that cartilage degradation induced by estrogen reduction was detected earlier with quantitative ultrasound than that of the cancellous bone loss in 3 wk OVX rats. PMID:28182095

  20. A Pause-then-Cancel model of stopping: evidence from basal ganglia neurophysiology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert; Berke, Joshua D

    2017-04-19

    Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ('stopping'). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a 'Go' process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary 'Stop' process, there appear to be separate, complementary 'Pause' and 'Cancel' mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time-in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may serve more generally to optimize speed-accuracy trade-offs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'.

  1. Comparison of debris flux models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdunnus, H.; Beltrami, P.; Klinkrad, H.; Matney, M.; Nazarenko, A.; Wegener, P.

    The availability of models to estimate the impact risk from the man-made space debris and the natural meteoroid environment is essential for both, manned and unmanned satellite missions. Various independent tools based on different approaches have been developed in the past years. Due to an increased knowledge of the debris environment and its sources e.g. from improved measurement capabilities, these models could be updated regularly, providing more detailed and more reliable simulations. This paper addresses an in-depth, quantitative comparison of widely distributed debris flux models which were recently updated, namely ESA's MASTER 2001 model, NASA's ORDEM 2000 and the Russian SDPA 2000 model. The comparison was performed in the frame of the work of the 20t h Interagency Debris Coordination (IADC) meeting held in Surrey, UK. ORDEM 2000ORDEM 2000 uses careful empirical estimates of the orbit populations based onthree primary data sources - the US Space Command Catalog, the H ystackaRadar, and the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft returned surfaces.Further data (e.g. HAX and Goldstone radars, impacts on Shuttle windows andradiators, and others) were used to adjust these populations for regions in time,size, and space not covered by the primary data sets. Some interpolation andextrapolation to regions with no data (such as projections into the future) wasprovided by the EVOLVE model. MASTER 2001The ESA MASTER model offers a full three dimensional description of theterrestrial debris distribution reaching from LEO up to the GEO region. Fluxresults relative to an orbiting target or to an inertial volume can be resolved intosource terms, impactor characteristics and orbit, as well as impact velocity anddirection. All relevant debris source terms are considered by the MASTERmodel. For each simulated source, a corresponding debris generation model interms of mass/diameter distribution, additional velocities, and directionalspreading has been developed. A

  2. Nonlinear modelling of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell stack using nonlinear cancellation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Barus, R. P. P.; Tjokronegoro, H. A.; Leksono, E.; Ismunandar

    2014-09-25

    Fuel cells are promising new energy conversion devices that are friendly to the environment. A set of control systems are required in order to operate a fuel cell based power plant system optimally. For the purpose of control system design, an accurate fuel cell stack model in describing the dynamics of the real system is needed. Currently, linear model are widely used for fuel cell stack control purposes, but it has limitations in narrow operation range. While nonlinear models lead to nonlinear control implemnetation whos more complex and hard computing. In this research, nonlinear cancellation technique will be used to transform a nonlinear model into a linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics. The transformation is done by replacing the input of the original model by a certain virtual input that has nonlinear relationship with the original input. Then the equality of the two models is tested by running a series of simulation. Input variation of H2, O2 and H2O as well as disturbance input I (current load) are studied by simulation. The error of comparison between the proposed model and the original nonlinear model are less than 1 %. Thus we can conclude that nonlinear cancellation technique can be used to represent fuel cell nonlinear model in a simple linear form while maintaining the nonlinear characteristics and therefore retain the wide operation range.

  3. Application of an extended equalization-cancellation model to speech intelligibility with spatially distributed maskers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rui; Durlach, Nathaniel I; Colburn, H Steven

    2010-12-01

    An extended version of the equalization-cancellation (EC) model of binaural processing is described and applied to speech intelligibility tasks in the presence of multiple maskers. The model incorporates time-varying jitters, both in time and amplitude, and implements the equalization and cancellation operations in each frequency band independently. The model is consistent with the original EC model in predicting tone-detection performance for a large set of configurations. When the model is applied to speech, the speech intelligibility index is used to predict speech intelligibility performance in a variety of conditions. Specific conditions addressed include different types of maskers, different numbers of maskers, and different spatial locations of maskers. Model predictions are compared with empirical measurements reported by Hawley et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 115, 833-843 (2004)] and by Marrone et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 1146-1158 (2008)]. The model succeeds in predicting speech intelligibility performance when maskers are speech-shaped noise or broadband-modulated speech-shaped noise but fails when the maskers are speech or reversed speech.

  4. Compressive properties of commercially available polyurethane foams as mechanical models for osteoporotic human cancellous bone

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Purvi SD; Shepherd, Duncan ET; Hukins, David WL

    2008-01-01

    Background Polyurethane (PU) foam is widely used as a model for cancellous bone. The higher density foams are used as standard biomechanical test materials, but none of the low density PU foams are universally accepted as models for osteoporotic (OP) bone. The aim of this study was to determine whether low density PU foam might be suitable for mimicking human OP cancellous bone. Methods Quasi-static compression tests were performed on PU foam cylinders of different lengths (3.9 and 7.7 mm) and of different densities (0.09, 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3), to determine the Young's modulus, yield strength and energy absorbed to yield. Results Young's modulus values were 0.08–0.93 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 15.1–151.4 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. Yield strength values were 0.01–0.07 MPa for the 0.09 g.cm-3 foam and from 0.9–4.5 MPa for the 0.16 and 0.32 g.cm-3 foam. The energy absorbed to yield was found to be negligible for all foam cylinders. Conclusion Based on these results, it is concluded that 0.16 g.cm-3 PU foam may prove to be suitable as an OP cancellous bone model when fracture stress, but not energy dissipation, is of concern. PMID:18844988

  5. Chesapeake Bay Sediment Flux Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    KL12J [N0 3(2)] = [N0 3 (l) 1 KNo3 .H KL2 (4) The equality s - K LoM, (eq.II-14), is used for the surface mass transfer coefficient where s - SOD/0 2 (O...L 2 = 0.01 (m/d), and KNo3 ., - 0.1 (m/d). Note that the normalized flux data exhibits an increased flux for intermediate s and an upward curvature...to compute the denitrification flux: [N2(g)]i, j= KN03. ,H,[NO3 (1)],.J KNO3 . 2 H 2 [N0 3 (2)],., 2 / (Tl. 1-20) - 0X•NO3𔃻"NO3$,. _ [N03(l)],. ’+VNO3

  6. Finite element models predict the location of microdamage in cancellous bone following uniaxial loading.

    PubMed

    Goff, M G; Lambers, F M; Sorna, R M; Keaveny, T M; Hernandez, C J

    2015-11-26

    High-resolution finite element models derived from micro-computed tomography images are often used to study the effects of trabecular microarchitecture and loading mode on tissue stress, but the degree to which existing finite element methods correctly predict the location of tissue failure is not well characterized. In the current study, we determined the relationship between the location of highly strained tissue, as determined from high-resolution finite element models, and the location of tissue microdamage, as determined from three-dimensional fluoroscopy imaging, which was performed after the microdamage was generated in-vitro by mechanical testing. Fourteen specimens of human vertebral cancellous bone were assessed (8 male donors, 2 female donors, 47-78 years of age). Regions of stained microdamage, were 50-75% more likely to form in highly strained tissue (principal strains exceeding 0.4%) than elsewhere, and generally the locations of the regions of microdamage were significantly correlated (p<0.05) with the locations of highly strained tissue. This spatial correlation was stronger for the largest regions of microdamage (≥1,000,000μm(3) in volume); 87% of large regions of microdamage were located near highly strained tissue. Together, these findings demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between regions of microdamage and regions of high strain in human cancellous bone, particularly for the biomechanically more important large instances of microdamage.

  7. Evaluation of ultrasonic scattering in human cancellous bone by using a binary mixture model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong; Gong, Xiufen

    2007-01-07

    A weak scattering model based on small perturbations in a binary mixture is developed to estimate the ultrasonic scattering from human cancellous bone, which is modelled as a random isotropic continuum containing identical scatters. Ultrasonic scattering is determined by both velocity fluctuation and density fluctuation, when k(2)a(2) < 1 is satisfied. Two kinds of trabeculae thickness distributions, i.e. even distribution and Gauss distribution, are applied in the calculation of attenuation and backscattering. Frequency dependence of the backscatter coefficient is found to be Af(3.13) and Af(2.84) with the Gauss distribution and an even distribution, respectively. Both backscattering and attenuation change significantly against porosity for the case of high porosity. The predicted results are close to the measured ones from the literature. The errors of this theoretical model are also discussed in this paper.

  8. Chesapeake Bay sediment flux model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, D.M.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    Formulation and application of a predictive diagenetic sediment model are described in this report. The model considers two benthic sediment layers: a thin aerobic layer in contact with the water column and a thicker anaerobic layer. Processes represented include diagenesis, diffusion, particle mixing, and burial. Deposition of organic matter, water column concentrations, and temperature are treated as independent variables that influence sediment-water fluxes. Sediment oxygen demand and sediment-water fluxes of sulfide, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and silica are predicted. The model was calibrated using sediment-water flux observations collected in Chesapeake Bay 1985-1988. When independent variables were specified based on observations, the model correctly represented the time series of sediment-water fluxes observed at eight stations in the Bay and tributaries.... Chesapeake Bay, Models, Sediments, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrogen Eutrophication, Phosphorus.

  9. Filament Interaction Modeled by Flux Rope Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Török, T.; Chandra, R.; Pariat, E.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Aulanier, G.; Linton, M. G.; Mandrini, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Hα observations of solar active region NOAA 10501 on 2003 November 20 revealed a very uncommon dynamic process: during the development of a nearby flare, two adjacent elongated filaments approached each other, merged at their middle sections, and separated again, thereby forming stable configurations with new footpoint connections. The observed dynamic pattern is indicative of "slingshot" reconnection between two magnetic flux ropes. We test this scenario by means of a three-dimensional zero β magnetohydrodynamic simulation, using a modified version of the coronal flux rope model by Titov and Démoulin as the initial condition for the magnetic field. To this end, a configuration is constructed that contains two flux ropes which are oriented side-by-side and are embedded in an ambient potential field. The choice of the magnetic orientation of the flux ropes and of the topology of the potential field is guided by the observations. Quasi-static boundary flows are then imposed to bring the middle sections of the flux ropes into contact. After sufficient driving, the ropes reconnect and two new flux ropes are formed, which now connect the former adjacent flux rope footpoints of opposite polarity. The corresponding evolution of filament material is modeled by calculating the positions of field line dips at all times. The dips follow the morphological evolution of the flux ropes, in qualitative agreement with the observed filaments.

  10. Supersymmetric models on magnetized orbifolds with flux-induced Fayet-Iliopoulos terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Sumita, Keigo; Tatsuta, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We study supersymmetric (SUSY) models derived from the ten-dimensional SUSY Yang-Mills theory compactified on magnetized orbifolds, with nonvanishing Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) terms induced by magnetic fluxes in extra dimensions. Allowing the presence of FI-terms relaxes a constraint on flux configurations in SUSY model building based on magnetized backgrounds. In this case, charged fields develop their vacuum expectation values to cancel the FI-terms in the D-flat directions of fluxed gauge symmetries, which break the gauge symmetries and lead to a SUSY vacuum. Based on this idea, we propose a new class of SUSY magnetized orbifold models with three generations of quarks and leptons. Especially, we construct a model where the right-handed sneutrinos develop their vacuum expectation values which restore the supersymmetry but yield lepton number violating terms below the compactification scale, and show their phenomenological consequences.

  11. Anomalous Cancellation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, R. P., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of getting a correct result when a fraction is reduced by cancelling a digit which appears in both the numerator and the denominator is extended from the base ten situation to any number base. (DT)

  12. A digital flux-locked loop for high temperature SQUID magnetometer and gradiometer systems with field cancellation

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Bracht, R.; Flynn, E.R.

    1996-12-01

    The SQUID sensor is typically operated in a null detector mode where an analogue flux-locked-loop, FLL, provides a negative feedback to maintain linear operation. The modulated SQUID signal is amplified, filtered, demodulated, and integrated in the FLL. The resulting analog signal is a measure of the magnetic field and noise at the SQUID and is also fed back to the modulation and feedback (M & F) coil to null the flux at the SQUID to maintain the linear operating point. Thus, the FLL output signal is proportional to the change in magnetic field at the SQUID pickup coil, provided the slew rate and dynamic range of the SQUID and FLL system are not exceeded. The goal of the work is to advance technologies needed for a practical fieldable SQUID biomagnetic sensor. We used HTC SQUIDs to realize the benefits noted above. We also implemented the FLL algorithm on a digital-signal-processor (DSP) to realize a number of benefits including (1) software control of noise filtering and background rejection to enable unshielded use of SQUID sensors, (2) flux quanta countin and resetting SQUID operating point to increase system slew rate and dynamic range, (3) programmable FLL adaptable to numerous specific applications, (4) digital signal output (up to 32-bit precision), and (5) reduced FLL package cost. This paper presents results of external signal rejection for a sensor system using HTC SQUIDs, preamplifier circuit, and DSP FLL designed and built at our laboratory. We also note a companion paper in these proceedings and other references to the use of DSP in SQUID applications.

  13. Topological A-type models with flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojevic, Vid

    2008-05-01

    We study deformations of the A-model in the presence of fluxes, by which we mean rank-three tensors with antisymmetrized upper/lower indices, using the AKSZ construction. There are two natural deformations of the A-model in the AKSZ language: 1) the Zucchini model, which can be defined on a generalized complex manifold and reduces to the A-model when the generalized complex structure comes from a symplectic structure, and 2) a topological membrane model, which naturally accommodates fluxes, and reduces to the Zucchini model on the boundary of the membrane when the fluxes are turned off. We show that the fluxes are related to deformations of the Courant bracket which generalize the twist by a closed 3-from H, in the sense that satisfying the AKSZ master equation implies precisely the integrability conditions for an almost generalized complex structure with respect to the deformed Courant bracket. In addition, the master equation imposes conditions on the fluxes that generalize dH = 0. The membrane model can be defined on a large class of U(m)- and U(m) × U(m)-structure manifolds relevant for string theory, including geometries inspired by (1, 1) supersymmetric σ-models with additional supersymmetries due to almost complex (but not necessarily complex) structures in the target space. In addition we show that the model can be defined on three particular half-flat manifolds related to the Iwasawa manifold. When only the closed 3-form flux is turned on it is possible to obtain a topological string model, which we do for the case of a Calabi-Yau. We argue that deformations from the standard A-model are due to the choice of gauge fixing fermion, rather than a flux deformation of the AKSZ action. The particularly interesting cases arise when the fermion depends on auxiliary fields, the simplest possibility being due to the (2, 0)+(0, 2) component of a non-trivial b-field. The model is generically no longer evaluated on holomorphic maps and defines new topological

  14. Estimates of current debris from flux models

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Flux models that balance accuracy and simplicity are used to predict the growth of space debris to the present. Known and projected launch rates, decay models, and numerical integrations are used to predict distributions that closely resemble the current catalog-particularly in the regions containing most of the debris.

  15. Modeling eruptive coronal magnetohydrodynamic systems with FLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmeler, L. A.

    In this dissertation I explore solar coronal energetic eruptions in the context of magnetic reconnection, which is commonly thought to be a required trigger mechanism for solar eruptions. Reconnection is difficult to directly observe in the corona, and current numerical methods cannot model reconnectionless control cases. Thus, it is not possible to determine if reconnection is a necessary component of these eruptions. I have executed multiple controlled simulations to determine the importance of reconnection for initiation and evolution of several eruptive systems using FLUX, a numerical model that uses the comparatively new fluxon technique. I describe two types of eruptions modeled with FLUX: a metastable confined flux rope theory for coronal mass ejection (CME) initiation, and symmetrically twisted coronal jets in a uniform vertical background field. In the former, I identified an ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability that allows metastable twisted flux rope systems to suddenly lose stability and erupt even in the absence of reconnection, contradicting previous conjecture. The CME result is in contrast to the azimuthally symmetric coronal jet initiation model, where jet-like behavior does not manifest without reconnection. My work has demonstrated that some of the observed eruptive phenomena may be triggered by non-reconnective means such as ideal MHD instabilities, and that magnetic reconnection is not a required element in all coronal eruptions.

  16. Modeling Eruptive Coronal Magnetohydrodynamic Systems with FLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachmeler, Laurel

    2010-05-01

    I explore solar coronal energetic eruptions in the context of magnetic reconnection, which is commonly thought to be a required trigger mechanism for solar eruptions. Reconnection is difficult to observe in the corona, and current numerical methods cannot model reconnectionless control cases. Thus, it is not possible to determine if it is a necessary component. I have executed multiple controlled simulations to determine the importance of reconnection for initiation and evolution of several eruptive systems using FLUX, a numerical model that uses the comparatively new fluxon technique. I describe two types of eruptions modeled with FLUX: a confined flux rope theory for CME initiation, and symmetrically twisted coronal jets in a uniform vertical background field. In the former, I identified an ideal MHD instability that allows metastable twisted flux rope systems to suddenly lose stability and erupt even in the absence of reconnection, contradicting previous conjecture. The CME result is in contrast to the azimuthally symmetric coronal jet initiation model, where jet-like behavior does not manifest without reconnection. I demonstrate that some eruptive phenomena may be triggered by non-reconnective means such as ideal MHD instabilities, and that magnetic reconnection is not a required element in all coronal eruptions.

  17. A helically distorted MHD flux rope model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theobald, Michael L.; Montgomery, David

    1990-01-01

    A flux rope model is proposed which has a variable degree of helical distortion from axisymmetry. The basis for this suggestion is a series of numerical and analytical investigations of magnetohydrodynamic states which result when an axial electric current is directed down on dc magnetic field. The helically distorted states involve a flow velocity and seem to be favored because of their lower rate of energy dissipation. Emphasis is on the magnetometer and particle energy analyzer traces that might be characteristic of such flux ropes. It is shown that even a fractionally small helical distortion may considerably alter the traces in minimum-variance coordinates. In short, what may be fairly common MHD processes can render a flux rope almost unrecognizable under standard diagnostics, even if the departures from axisymmetry are not great.

  18. Actinic Flux Calculations: A Model Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Flittner, D.; Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    calculate direct and diffuse surface irradiance and actinic flux (downwelling (2p) and total (4p)) for the reference model. Sensitivity analysis has shown that the accuracy of the radiative transfer flux calculations for a unit ETS (i.e. atmospheric transmittance) together with a numerical interpolation technique for the constituents' vertical profiles is better than 1% for SZA less than 70(sub o) and wavelengths longer than 310 nm. The differences increase for shorter wavelengths and larger SZA, due to the differences in pseudo-spherical correction techniques and vertical discretetization among the codes. Our sensitivity study includes variation of ozone cross-sections, ETS spectra and the effects of wavelength shifts between vacuum and air scales. We also investigate the effects of aerosols on the spectral flux components in the UV and visible spectral regions. The "aerosol correction factors" (ACFs) were calculated at discrete wavelengths and different SZAs for each flux component (direct, diffuse, reflected) and prescribed IPMMI aerosol parameters. Finally, the sensitivity study was extended to calculation of selected photolysis rates coefficients.

  19. Actinic Flux Calculations: A Model Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Flittner, D.; Ahmad, Z.; Herman, J. R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    calculate direct and diffuse surface irradiance and actinic flux (downwelling (2p) and total (4p)) for the reference model. Sensitivity analysis has shown that the accuracy of the radiative transfer flux calculations for a unit ETS (i.e. atmospheric transmittance) together with a numerical interpolation technique for the constituents' vertical profiles is better than 1% for SZA less than 70(sub o) and wavelengths longer than 310 nm. The differences increase for shorter wavelengths and larger SZA, due to the differences in pseudo-spherical correction techniques and vertical discretetization among the codes. Our sensitivity study includes variation of ozone cross-sections, ETS spectra and the effects of wavelength shifts between vacuum and air scales. We also investigate the effects of aerosols on the spectral flux components in the UV and visible spectral regions. The "aerosol correction factors" (ACFs) were calculated at discrete wavelengths and different SZAs for each flux component (direct, diffuse, reflected) and prescribed IPMMI aerosol parameters. Finally, the sensitivity study was extended to calculation of selected photolysis rates coefficients.

  20. Modeling the Historical Flux of Planetary Impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Roig, Fernando; Bottke, William F.

    2017-03-01

    The impact cratering record of the Moon and the terrestrial planets provides important clues about the formation and evolution of the solar system. Especially intriguing is the epoch ≃3.8–3.9 Gyr ago (Ga), known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), when the youngest lunar basins such as Imbrium and Orientale formed. The LHB was suggested to originate from a slowly declining impactor flux or from a late dynamical instability. Here, we develop a model for the historical flux of large asteroid impacts and discuss how it depends on various parameters, including the time and nature of the planetary migration/instability. We find that the asteroid impact flux dropped by 1–2 orders of magnitude during the first 1 Gyr and remained relatively unchanged over the last 3 Gyr. The early impacts were produced by asteroids whose orbits became excited during the planetary migration/instability, and by those originating from the inner extension of the main belt. The profiles obtained for the early and late versions of the planetary instability initially differ, but end up being similar after ∼3 Ga. Thus, the time of the instability can only be determined by considering the cratering and other constraints during the first ≃1.5 Gyr of the solar system history. Our absolute calibration of the impact flux indicates that asteroids were probably not responsible for the LHB, independently of whether the instability happened early or late, because the calibrated flux is not large enough to explain Imbrium/Orientale and a significant proportion of large lunar craters.

  1. Parameter Estimation and Modeling of Interference Cancellation Technique for Multiple Signal Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Miridakis and D. D. Vergados, “A survey on the successive interference cancellation performance for single-antenna and multiple-antenna OFDM ...antenna and multiple-antenna OFDM systems,” IEEE Comms. Surveys & Tutorials, vol.15, no. 1, pp. 312–335, 2013. [2] J. G. Andrews, “Interference

  2. Bone augmentation for cancellous bone- development of a new animal model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reproducible and suitable animal models are required for in vivo experiments to investigate new biodegradable and osteoinductive biomaterials for augmentation of bones at risk for osteoporotic fractures. Sheep have especially been used as a model for the human spine due to their size and similar bone metabolism. However, although sheep and human vertebral bodies have similar biomechanical characteristics, the shape of the vertebral bodies, the size of the transverse processes, and the different orientation of the facet joints of sheep are quite different from those of humans making the surgical approach complicated and unpredictable. Therefore, an adequate and safe animal model for bone augmentation was developed using a standardized femoral and tibia augmentation site in sheep. Methods The cancellous bone of the distal femur and proximal tibia were chosen as injection sites with the surgical approach via the medial aspects of the femoral condyle and proximal tibia metaphysis (n = 4 injection sites). For reproducible drilling and injection in a given direction and length, a custom-made c-shaped aiming device was designed. Exact positioning of the aiming device and needle positioning within the intertrabecular space of the intact bone could be validated in a predictable and standardized fashion using fluoroscopy. After sacrifice, bone cylinders (∅ 32 mm) were harvested throughout the tibia and femur by means of a diamond-coated core drill, which was especially developed to harvest the injected bone area exactly. Thereafter, the extracted bone cylinders were processed as non-decalcified specimens for μCT analysis, histomorphometry, histology, and fluorescence evaluation. Results The aiming device could be easily placed in 63 sheep and assured a reproducible, standardized injection area. In four sheep, cardiovascular complications occurred during surgery and pulmonary embolism was detected by computed tomography post surgery in all of these animals

  3. Pentaquark in the flux tube model

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, M.; Takagi, F.

    2008-03-01

    We propose a model for pentaquarks in an excited state in the flux tube picture. The pentaquark is assumed to be composed of two diquarks and an antiquark connected by a color flux tube with a junction. If the pentaquark is rotating rapidly, it is polarized into two clusters: one is a diquark and the other is an antiquark plus another diquark. Excited energy of this quasilinear system is calculated with the use of the WKB approximation. It is predicted that there exist quasistable excited pentaquarks: 1690 MeV(3/2{sup +}), 2000 MeV(5/2{sup -}), 2250 MeV(7/2{sup +}) etc., which decay mainly through three-body modes.

  4. Pentaquark in the flux tube model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, M.; Takagi, F.

    2008-03-01

    We propose a model for pentaquarks in an excited state in the flux tube picture. The pentaquark is assumed to be composed of two diquarks and an antiquark connected by a color flux tube with a junction. If the pentaquark is rotating rapidly, it is polarized into two clusters: one is a diquark and the other is an antiquark plus another diquark. Excited energy of this quasilinear system is calculated with the use of the WKB approximation. It is predicted that there exist quasistable excited pentaquarks: 1690MeV(3/2+), 2000MeV(5/2-), 2250MeV(7/2+) etc., which decay mainly through three-body modes.

  5. OpenFLUX: efficient modelling software for 13C-based metabolic flux analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Lake-Ee; Wittmann, Christoph; Nielsen, Lars K; Krömer, Jens O

    2009-01-01

    Background The quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes, i.e., in vivo activities of intracellular enzymes and pathways, provides key information on biological systems in systems biology and metabolic engineering. It is based on a comprehensive approach combining (i) tracer cultivation on 13C substrates, (ii) 13C labelling analysis by mass spectrometry and (iii) mathematical modelling for experimental design, data processing, flux calculation and statistics. Whereas the cultivation and the analytical part is fairly advanced, a lack of appropriate modelling software solutions for all modelling aspects in flux studies is limiting the application of metabolic flux analysis. Results We have developed OpenFLUX as a user friendly, yet flexible software application for small and large scale 13C metabolic flux analysis. The application is based on the new Elementary Metabolite Unit (EMU) framework, significantly enhancing computation speed for flux calculation. From simple notation of metabolic reaction networks defined in a spreadsheet, the OpenFLUX parser automatically generates MATLAB-readable metabolite and isotopomer balances, thus strongly facilitating model creation. The model can be used to perform experimental design, parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis either using the built-in gradient-based search or Monte Carlo algorithms or in user-defined algorithms. Exemplified for a microbial flux study with 71 reactions, 8 free flux parameters and mass isotopomer distribution of 10 metabolites, OpenFLUX allowed to automatically compile the EMU-based model from an Excel file containing metabolic reactions and carbon transfer mechanisms, showing it's user-friendliness. It reliably reproduced the published data and optimum flux distributions for the network under study were found quickly (<20 sec). Conclusion We have developed a fast, accurate application to perform steady-state 13C metabolic flux analysis. OpenFLUX will strongly facilitate and enhance the design

  6. Slow rise and partial eruption of a double-decker filament. II. A double flux rope model

    SciTech Connect

    Kliem, Bernhard; Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2014-09-10

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov and Démoulin and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically becoming unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold value, the configuration also admits evolutions which lead to partial eruptions with only the upper flux rope becoming unstable and the lower one remaining in place. This can be triggered by a transfer of flux and current from the lower to the upper rope, as suggested by the observations of a split filament in Paper I. It can also result from tether-cutting reconnection with the ambient flux at the X-type structure between the flux ropes, which similarly influences their stability properties in opposite ways. This is demonstrated for the numerically constructed equilibrium.

  7. Slow Rise and Partial Eruption of a Double-decker Filament. II. A Double Flux Rope Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliem, Bernhard; Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Liu, Rui; Liu, Chang; Wang, Haimin

    2014-09-01

    Force-free equilibria containing two vertically arranged magnetic flux ropes of like chirality and current direction are considered as a model for split filaments/prominences and filament-sigmoid systems. Such equilibria are constructed analytically through an extension of the methods developed in Titov & Démoulin and numerically through an evolutionary sequence including shear flows, flux emergence, and flux cancellation in the photospheric boundary. It is demonstrated that the analytical equilibria are stable if an external toroidal (shear) field component exceeding a threshold value is included. If this component decreases sufficiently, then both flux ropes turn unstable for conditions typical of solar active regions, with the lower rope typically becoming unstable first. Either both flux ropes erupt upward, or only the upper rope erupts while the lower rope reconnects with the ambient flux low in the corona and is destroyed. However, for shear field strengths staying somewhat above the threshold value, the configuration also admits evolutions which lead to partial eruptions with only the upper flux rope becoming unstable and the lower one remaining in place. This can be triggered by a transfer of flux and current from the lower to the upper rope, as suggested by the observations of a split filament in Paper I. It can also result from tether-cutting reconnection with the ambient flux at the X-type structure between the flux ropes, which similarly influences their stability properties in opposite ways. This is demonstrated for the numerically constructed equilibrium.

  8. Application of a short-time version of the Equalization-Cancellation model to speech intelligibility experiments with speech maskers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Rui; Durlach, Nathaniel I; Colburn, H Steven

    2014-08-01

    A short-time-processing version of the Equalization-Cancellation (EC) model of binaural processing is described and applied to speech intelligibility tasks in the presence of multiple maskers, including multiple speech maskers. This short-time EC model, called the STEC model, extends the model described by Wan et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 128, 3678-3690 (2010)] to allow the EC model's equalization parameters τ and α to be adjusted as a function of time, resulting in improved masker cancellation when the dominant masker location varies in time. Using the Speech Intelligibility Index, the STEC model is applied to speech intelligibility with maskers that vary in number, type, and spatial arrangements. Most notably, when maskers are located on opposite sides of the target, this STEC model predicts improved thresholds when the maskers are modulated independently with speech-envelope modulators; this includes the most relevant case of independent speech maskers. The STEC model describes the spatial dependence of the speech reception threshold with speech maskers better than the steady-state model. Predictions are also improved for independently speech-modulated noise maskers but are poorer for reversed-speech maskers. In general, short-term processing is useful, but much remains to be done in the complex task of understanding speech in speech maskers.

  9. Variational Study on Loop Currents in Bose Hubbard model with Staggered Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toga, Y.; Yokoyama, H.

    In view of strongly interacting bosons in an optical lattice with a large gauge field, we study phase transitions in a two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model with a staggered flux, on the basis of variational Monte Carlo calculations. Inthe trial states,besides typical onsite and intersite correlation factors, we introduce a configuration-dependent phase factor,which was recently found essential for treating current-carrying states. It is found that this phase factor is qualitativelyvitalfordescribing a Mott insulating (MI) state in the present model. Thereby, the Peierls phasesattached in relevant hopping processes are cancelled out. As a result, local currents completely suppressed in MI states, namely, a chiral Mott state does not appear for the square lattice, in contrast tothecorresponding two-leg ladder model. In addition, we discuss other features of the first-order superfluid-MI transition in this model.

  10. Mathematical modeling of isotope labeling experiments for metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Nargund, Shilpa; Sriram, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Isotope labeling experiments (ILEs) offer a powerful methodology to perform metabolic flux analysis. However, the task of interpreting data from these experiments to evaluate flux values requires significant mathematical modeling skills. Toward this, this chapter provides background information and examples to enable the reader to (1) model metabolic networks, (2) simulate ILEs, and (3) understand the optimization and statistical methods commonly used for flux evaluation. A compartmentalized model of plant glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway illustrates the reconstruction of a typical metabolic network, whereas a simpler example network illustrates the underlying metabolite and isotopomer balancing techniques. We also discuss the salient features of commonly used flux estimation software 13CFLUX2, Metran, NMR2Flux+, FiatFlux, and OpenFLUX. Furthermore, we briefly discuss methods to improve flux estimates. A graphical checklist at the end of the chapter provides a reader a quick reference to the mathematical modeling concepts and resources.

  11. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    SciTech Connect

    Ormerod, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  12. G4-flux and standard model vacua in F-theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ling; Weigand, Timo

    2016-12-01

    We study the geometry of gauge fluxes in four-dimensional F-theory vacua with gauge group SU (3) × SU (2) × U (1) × U (1) and its implications for phenomenology. The models are defined by a previously introduced class of elliptic fibrations whose fibre is given as a cubic hypersurface in Bl2P2, with the non-abelian gauge group factors SU (3) × SU (2) engineered torically via the top construction. To describe gauge fluxes on these fibrations we provide a classification of the primary vertical middle cohomology group in a fashion valid for any choice of base space. Using the ideal theoretic technique of primary decomposition we compute the cohomology classes of the matter surfaces associated with states charged under the non-abelian gauge group. These expressions allow us to interpret the cancellation of the pure and mixed non-abelian anomalies geometrically as a result of the general form of the matter surfaces, without reference to a specific type of gauge flux. Explicit results for the chiral indices of all matter states are obtained in terms of intersection numbers of the base and can be directly applied to any choice of base consistent with the fibration. As a demonstration we scan for globally consistent F-theory vacua on P3, Bl1P3 and Bl2P3, and find a globally consistent flux configuration with the chiral Standard Model spectrum plus an extra triplet pair, which may be lifted by a recombination process.

  13. Integrated Belowground Greenhouse Gas Flux Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play a significant role as biotic feedbacks to climate change. However, these complex processes, involving C, N, and O2 substrates and inhibitors, interactions with plant processes, and environmental influences of temperature, moisture, and gas transport, remain challenging to simulate in process models. Because CO2, CH4, and N2O production and consumption processes are inter-linked through common substrates and the contrasting effects of O2 as either an essential substrate or a potential inhibitor, the simulation of fluxes of any one gas must be consistent with mechanistic simulations and observations of fluxes of the other gases. Simulating the fluxes of one gas alone is a simpler task, but simulating all three gases simultaneously would provide multiple constraints and would afford greater confidence that the most important mechanisms are aptly simulated. A case in point is the challenge of resolving the apparent paradox of observed simultaneous CO2 production by aerobic respiration, CH4 uptake (oxidation), CH4 production, and N2O uptake (reduction) in the same soil profile. Consumption of atmospheric N2O should occur only under reducing conditions, and yet we have observed uptake of atmospheric CH4 (oxidation) and N2O (reduction) simultaneously. One of the great challenges of numerical modeling is determining the appropriate level of complexity when representing the most important environmental controllers. Ignoring complexity, such as simulating microbial processes with only simple Q10 functions, often results in poor model performance, because soil moisture and substrate supply can also be important factors. On the other hand, too much complexity, while perhaps mechanistically compelling, may result in too many poorly constrained parameters. Here we explore a parsimonious modeling framework for consistently integrated mechanistic and mathematical representation of the biophysical processes of belowground GHG production and

  14. Shifted orbifold models with magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Miura, Takashi; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    We propose a mechanism to obtain the generation of matter in the standard model. We start from the analysis of the T2/ZN shifted orbifold with magnetic flux, which imposes a ZN symmetry on torus. We also consider several orbifolds such as (T2×T2)/ZN, (T2×T2×T2)/(ZN×ZN') and (T2×T2×T2)/(ZN×ZN'×ZN''). On such orbifolds, we study the behavior of fermions in two different means—the operator formalism and the explicit analysis of wave functions. For an interesting result, it is found that the number of zero-mode fermions is related to N of the ZN symmetry. In other words, the generation of matter relates to the type of orbifolds. Moreover, we find that shifted orbifold models are severely restricted from realizing three generations. For example, the three-generation model on the type of M4×(T2×T2)/ZN is unique. One can also construct other types of three-generation orbifold models with rich flavor structure. Those results may bring us a realistic model with desired Yukawa structure.

  15. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.

    1999-12-27

    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.

  16. Effect of flux adjustments on temperature variability in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMIP investigators; Duffy, P. B.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.

    2000-03-01

    It has been suggested that “flux adjustments” in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.

  17. On comparison of modeled surface flux variations to aircraft observations.

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Wesely, M. L.; Environmental Research; Northern Illinois Univ.

    2003-07-30

    Evaluation of models of air-surface exchange is facilitated by an accurate match of areas simulated with those seen by micrometeorological flux measurements. Here, spatial variations in fluxes estimated with the parameterized subgrid-scale surface (PASS) flux model were compared to flux variations seen aboard aircraft above the Walnut River Watershed (WRW) in Kansas. Despite interference by atmospheric eddies, the areas where the modeled sensible and latent heat fluxes were most highly correlated with the aircraft flux estimates were upwind of the flight segments. To assess whether applying a footprint function to the surface values would improve the model evaluation, a two-dimensional correlation distribution was used to identify the locations and relative importance of contributing modeled surface pixels upwind of each segment of the flight path. The agreement between modeled surface fluxes and aircraft measurements was improved when upwind fluxes were weighted with an optimized footprint parameter {var_phi}, which can be estimated from wind profiler data and surface eddy covariance. Variations of the flight-observed flux were consistently greater than those modeled at the surface, perhaps because of the smoothing effect of using 1 km pixels in the model. In addition, limited flight legs prevented sufficient filtering of the effects of atmospheric convection, possibly accounting for some of the more prominent changes in fluxes measured along the flight paths.

  18. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic c...

  19. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic c...

  20. On the relationship between magnetic cancellation and UV burst formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Erdélyi, R.

    2016-12-01

    Burst-like events with signatures in the UV are often observed co-spatial to strong line-of-sight photospheric magnetic fields. Several authors, for example, have noted the spatial relationship between Ellerman bombs (EBs) and moving magnetic features (MMFs), regions of flux which disconnect from a sunspot or pore before propagating away in the moat flow and often displaying evidence of cancellation. In this article, data collected by the Solar Dynamics Observatory's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly are analysed in an attempt to understand the potential links between such cancellation and UV burst formation. Two MMFs from AR 11579, three bi-poles from AR 11765, and six bi-poles (four of which were co-spatial to Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph bursts) in AR 11850 were identified for analysis. All of these cancellation features were found to have lifetimes of the order hours and cancellation rates of the order 1014-1015 Mx s-1. Hα line wing data from the Dunn Solar Telescope's Interferometric BIdimensional Spectrometer were also available for AR 11579 facilitating a discussion of links between MMFs and EBs. Using an algebraic model of photospheric magnetic reconnection, the measured cancellation rates are then used to ascertain estimates of certain quantities (such as upflow speeds, jet extents, and potential energy releases), which compared reasonably to the properties of EBs reported within the literature. Our results suggest that cancellation rates of the order measured here are capable of supplying enough energy to drive certain UV bursts (including EBs), however, they are not a guaranteeing condition for burst formation.

  1. Statistics of Helicity Flux in Shell Models of Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiaoning; Chen, Shiyi; Eyink, Gregory L.; Holm, Darryl D.

    2001-11-01

    We present results of simulations of two shell models of turbulence, the standard SABRA model and a helical version of the SABRA model ( called SABRA 3 ) patterned after the GOY 3 model of Biferale and Kerr. We investigate a known difference in helicity statistics between the standard and helical versions of the shell models. In standard GOY, the scaling exponents of absolute helicity flux structure functions were found by Ditlevsen and Giuliani to be larger than those of energy flux. In contrast, Biferale et al. have found the scaling exponents of energy and helicity flux for GOY 3 to be nearly equal. We confirm this difference in helicity flux scaling for standard SABRA and helical SABRA 3. We find that the identical scaling properties of energy and helicity flux in SABRA 3 are associated with strong statistical correlations of the two fluxes for large values. On the other hand, in SABRA there is a "blocking" effect, where large energy flux is associated to small helicity flux. By a conditional sampling of bursting events, we provide a dynamical explanation of blocking in SABRA and of its absence in SABRA 3. Finally, we discuss the relevance of both shell models to helicity statistics in 3D Navier-Stokes turbulence.

  2. Green House Gases Flux Model in Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurgaliev, Ildus

    Analytical dynamic model of the turbulent flux in the three-layer boundary system is presented. Turbulence is described as a presence of the non-zero vorticity. The generalized advection-diffusion-reaction equation is derived for an arbitrary number of components in the flux. The fluxes in the layers are objects for matching requirements on the boundaries between the layers. Different types of transport mechanisms are dominant on the different levels of the layers.

  3. Inverse modeling of the terrestrial carbon flux in China with flux covariance among inverted regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Jiang, F.; Chen, J. M.; Ju, W.; Wang, H.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative understanding of the role of ocean and terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, their response and feedback to climate change is required for the future projection of the global climate. China has the largest amount of anthropogenic CO2 emission, diverse terrestrial ecosystems and an unprecedented rate of urbanization. Thus information on spatial and temporal distributions of the terrestrial carbon flux in China is of great importance in understanding the global carbon cycle. We developed a nested inversion with focus in China. Based on Transcom 22 regions for the globe, we divide China and its neighboring countries into 17 regions, making 39 regions in total for the globe. A Bayesian synthesis inversion is made to estimate the terrestrial carbon flux based on GlobalView CO2 data. In the inversion, GEOS-Chem is used as the transport model to develop the transport matrix. A terrestrial ecosystem model named BEPS is used to produce the prior surface flux to constrain the inversion. However, the sparseness of available observation stations in Asia poses a challenge to the inversion for the 17 small regions. To obtain additional constraint on the inversion, a prior flux covariance matrix is constructed using the BEPS model through analyzing the correlation in the net carbon flux among regions under variable climate conditions. The use of the covariance among different regions in the inversion effectively extends the information content of CO2 observations to more regions. The carbon flux over the 39 land and ocean regions are inverted for the period from 2004 to 2009. In order to investigate the impact of introducing the covariance matrix with non-zero off-diagonal values to the inversion, the inverted terrestrial carbon flux over China is evaluated against ChinaFlux eddy-covariance observations after applying an upscaling methodology.

  4. Influence of 3D QCT scan protocol on the QCT-based finite element models of human vertebral cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongtao; Engelke, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element (FE) models provide a better prediction of vertebral strength than dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. However, FE models are often created from datasets acquired at different CT scan protocols and it is unclear whether this influences the FE results. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether there was an effect of the CT scan protocol on the FE models. 12 human thoracolumbar vertebrae were scanned on top of a calcium hydroxyapatite calibration phantom using a standard QCT scan protocol - 120kV, 100mAs (PA); and a low dose protocol - 90kV, 150mAs (PB). FE cancellous models with cuboid volume of interest and inhomogeneous nonlinear bone properties were created. Axial compression was simulated. The apparent BMD, modulus and yield strength showed significant differences between the two scan protocols. The apparent BMD, the modulus and yield strength between the two groups were highly linearly correlated. This paper indicated that the FE models created from image datasets acquired at different X-ray tube voltage settings would give significantly different results and this effect could be possibly corrected using a linear correction approach. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Future mission studies: Preliminary comparisons of solar flux models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.

    1991-01-01

    The results of comparisons of the solar flux models are presented. (The wavelength lambda = 10.7 cm radio flux is the best indicator of the strength of the ionizing radiations such as solar ultraviolet and x-ray emissions that directly affect the atmospheric density thereby changing the orbit lifetime of satellites. Thus, accurate forecasting of solar flux F sub 10.7 is crucial for orbit determination of spacecrafts.) The measured solar flux recorded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is compared against the forecasts made by Schatten, MSFC, and NOAA itself. The possibility of a combined linear, unbiased minimum-variance estimation that properly combines all three models into one that minimizes the variance is also discussed. All the physics inherent in each model are combined. This is considered to be the dead-end statistical approach to solar flux forecasting before any nonlinear chaotic approach.

  6. Gaussian mixture models as flux prediction method for central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobler, Annemarie; Gauché, Paul; Smit, Willie

    2016-05-01

    Flux prediction methods are crucial to the design and operation of central receiver systems. Current methods such as the circular and elliptical (bivariate) Gaussian prediction methods are often used in field layout design and aiming strategies. For experimental or small central receiver systems, the flux profile of a single heliostat often deviates significantly from the circular and elliptical Gaussian models. Therefore a novel method of flux prediction was developed by incorporating the fitting of Gaussian mixture models onto flux profiles produced by flux measurement or ray tracing. A method was also developed to predict the Gaussian mixture model parameters of a single heliostat for a given time using image processing. Recording the predicted parameters in a database ensures that more accurate predictions are made in a shorter time frame.

  7. The development, evaluation, and application of O3 flux and flux-response models for additional agricultural crops

    Treesearch

    L. D. Emberson; W. J. Massman; P. Buker; G. Soja; I. Van De Sand; G. Mills; C. Jacobs

    2006-01-01

    Currently, stomatal O3 flux and flux-response models only exist for wheat and potato (LRTAP Convention, 2004), as such there is a need to extend these models to include additional crop types. The possibility of establishing robust stomatal flux models for five agricultural crops (tomato, grapevine, sugar beet, maize and sunflower) was investigated. These crops were...

  8. Fixed-Angle, Posteriorly Connected Anterior Cage Reconstruction Improves Stiffness and Decreases Cancellous Subsidence in a Spondylectomy Model.

    PubMed

    Colman, Matthew W; Guss, Andrew; Bachus, Kent N; Spiker, W Ryan; Lawrence, Brandon D; Brodke, Darrel S

    2016-05-01

    An idealized biomechanical model. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical properties of a construct designed to minimize intervertebral cage subsidence and maximize stiffness. Reconstruction after vertebral resection typically involves posterior segmental fixation and anterior interbody support. However, poor bone density, adjuvant radiation, or the oncologic need for endplate resection make interbody device subsidence and resultant instrumentation failure a significant concern. An idealized thoracolumbar spondylectomy reconstruction model was constructed using titanium segmental instrumentation and Delrin plastic. In vivo mechanical stress was simulated on a custom multi-axis spine simulator. Rigid body position in space was measured using an optical motion-capture system. Cancellous subsidence was modeled using a 1 cm thick wafer of number 3 closed-cell Sawbones foam at one endplate. Ten foam specimens were tested in a control state consisting of posterior segmental fixation with a free interbody cage. Ten additional foam specimens were tested in the test state, with the Delrin interbody cage "connected" to the posterior rods using two additional pedicle screws placed into the cage. Foam indentation was quantified using a precision digital surface-mapping device, and subsidence volume calculated using geometric integration. The control group exhibited significantly greater foam indentation after cycling, with a mean subsidence volume of 1906 mm [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1810-2001] than the connected cage group subsidence volume of 977 mm (95% CI 928-1026 mm; P < 0.001]. Construct stiffness was greater in the connected cage group (3.1 Nm/degree, 95% CI 3.1-3.2) than in the control group (2.3 Nm/degree, 95% CI 2.2-2.4; P < 0.001). In an idealized spondylectomy model, connecting the anterior column cage to the posterior instrumentation using additional pedicle screws results in a construct that is nearly 40% stiffer and

  9. A Model Relating Root Permeability to Flux and Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Burlyn E.

    1977-01-01

    A model that relates hydraulic permeability to water flux and to gradients in pressure potential and solute potential was tested using soybean (Glycine max) plants. Water flux was varied by additions of polyethylene glycol 6,000 around one portion of a divided root system and by changing the light intensity and CO2 concentration around the plants. The data are compatible with the model only if the hydraulic permeability varies with flux; however, the data were insufficient for rigorous testing. Three sets of published data fit the model only if hydraulic permeability varies. Evidence originally presented as involving constant hydraulic permeability is shown, rather, to require variable hydraulic permeability. PMID:16660071

  10. Room temperature housing results in premature cancellous bone loss in growing female mice: implications for the mouse as a preclinical model for age-related bone loss.

    PubMed

    Iwaniec, U T; Philbrick, K A; Wong, C P; Gordon, J L; Kahler-Quesada, A M; Olson, D A; Branscum, A J; Sargent, J L; DeMambro, V E; Rosen, C J; Turner, R T

    2016-10-01

    Room temperature housing (22 °C) results in premature cancellous bone loss in female mice. The bone loss was prevented by housing mice at thermoneutral temperature (32 °C). Thermogenesis differs markedly between mice and humans and mild cold stress induced by standard room temperature housing may introduce an unrecognized confounding variable into preclinical studies. Female mice are often used as preclinical models for osteoporosis but, in contrast to humans, mice exhibit cancellous bone loss during growth. Mice are routinely housed at room temperature (18-23 °C), a strategy that exaggerates physiological differences in thermoregulation between mice (obligatory daily heterotherms) and humans (homeotherms). The purpose of this investigation was to assess whether housing female mice at thermoneutral (temperature range where the basal rate of energy production is at equilibrium with heat loss) alters bone growth, turnover and microarchitecture. Growing (4-week-old) female C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ mice were housed at either 22 or 32 °C for up to 18 weeks. C57BL/6J mice housed at 22 °C experienced a 62 % cancellous bone loss from the distal femur metaphysis during the interval from 8 to 18 weeks of age and lesser bone loss from the distal femur epiphysis, whereas cancellous and cortical bone mass in 32 °C-housed mice were unchanged or increased. The impact of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone was not limited to C57BL/6J mice as C3H/HeJ mice exhibited a similar skeletal response. The beneficial effects of thermoneutral housing on cancellous bone were associated with decreased Ucp1 gene expression in brown adipose tissue, increased bone marrow adiposity, higher rates of bone formation, higher expression levels of osteogenic genes and locally decreased bone resorption. Housing female mice at 22 °C resulted in premature cancellous bone loss. Failure to account for species differences in thermoregulation may seriously confound interpretation of studies

  11. Flux measurement and modeling in a typical mediterranean vineyard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, Serena; Bellucco, Veronica; Pyles, David R.; Falk, Matthias; Sirca, Costantino; Duce, Pierpaolo; Snyder, Richard L.; Tha Paw U, Kyaw; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    Vineyard ecosystems are typical in the Mediterranean area, since wine is one of the most important economic sectors. Nevertheless, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the interactions between this kind of vegetation and the atmosphere. These information are important both to understand the behaviour of such ecosystems in different environmental conditions, and are crucial to parameterize crop and flux simulation models. Combining direct measurements and modelling can obtain reliable estimates of surface fluxes and crop evapotranspiration. This study would contribute both to (1) directly measure energy fluxes and evapotranspiration in a typical Mediterranean vineyard, located in the South of Sardinia (Italy), through the application of the Eddy Covariance micrometeorological technique and to (2) evaluate the land surface model ACASA (Advanced-Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm) in simulating energy fluxes and evapotranspiration over vineyard. Independent datasets of direct measurements were used to calibrate and validate model results during the growing period. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate model performance and accuracy in predicting surface fluxes. Results will be showed as well as the model capability to be used for future studies to predict energy fluxes and crop water requirements under actual and future climate.

  12. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  13. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  14. Modeling flux noise in SQUIDs due to hyperfine interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiansheng; Yu, Clare C

    2012-06-15

    Recent experiments implicate spins on the surface of metals as the source of flux noise in superconducting quantum interference devices and indicate that these spins are able to relax without conserving total magnetization. We present a model of 1/f flux noise in which electron spins on the surface of metals can relax via hyperfine interactions. Our results indicate that flux noise would be significantly reduced in superconducting materials where the most abundant isotopes do not have nuclear moments, such as zinc and lead.

  15. Elliptic-cylindrical analytical flux-rope model for ICMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M.; Hidalgo, M. A. U.; Vourlidas, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present an analytical flux-rope model for realistic magnetic structures embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections. The framework of this model was established by Nieves-Chinchilla et al. (2016) with the circular-cylindrical analytical flux rope model and under the concept developed by Hidalgo et al. (2002). Elliptic-cylindrical geometry establishes the first-grade of complexity of a series of models. The model attempts to describe the magnetic flux rope topology with distorted cross-section as a possible consequence of the interaction with the solar wind. In this model, the flux rope is completely described in the non-euclidean geometry. The Maxwell equations are solved using tensor calculus consistently with the geometry chosen, invariance along the axial component, and with the only assumption of no radial current density. The model is generalized in terms of the radial dependence of the poloidal current density component and axial current density component. The misalignment between current density and magnetic field is studied in detail for the individual cases of different pairs of indexes for the axial and poloidal current density components. This theoretical analysis provides a map of the force distribution inside of the flux-rope. The reconstruction technique has been adapted to the model and compared with in situ ICME set of events with different in situ signatures. The successful result is limited to some cases with clear in-situ signatures of distortion. However, the model adds a piece in the puzzle of the physical-analytical representation of these magnetic structures. Other effects such as axial curvature, expansion and/or interaction could be incorporated in the future to fully understand the magnetic structure. Finally, the mathematical formulation of this model opens the door to the next model: toroidal flux rope analytical model.

  16. The across frequency independence of equalization of interaural time delay in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeroyd, Michael A.

    2004-08-01

    The equalization stage in the equalization-cancellation model of binaural unmasking compensates for the interaural time delay (ITD) of a masking noise by introducing an opposite, internal delay [N. I. Durlach, in Foundations of Modern Auditory Theory, Vol. II., edited by J. V. Tobias (Academic, New York, 1972)]. Culling and Summerfield [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 98, 785-797 (1995)] developed a multi-channel version of this model in which equalization was ``free'' to use the optimal delay in each channel. Two experiments were conducted to test if equalization was indeed free or if it was ``restricted'' to the same delay in all channels. One experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, using an adaptive procedure, for 1-, 5-, or 17-component tones against a broadband masking noise, in three binaural configurations (N0S180, N180S0, and N90S270). The thresholds for the 1-component stimuli were used to normalize the levels of each of the 5- and 17-component stimuli so that they were equally detectable. If equalization was restricted, then, for the 5- and 17-component stimuli, the N90S270 and N180S0 configurations would yield a greater threshold than the N0S180 configurations. No such difference was found. A subsequent experiment measured binaural detection thresholds, via psychometric functions, for a 2-component complex tone in the same three binaural configurations. Again, no differential effect of configuration was observed. An analytic model of the detection of a complex tone showed that the results were more consistent with free equalization than restricted equalization, although the size of the differences was found to depend on the shape of the psychometric function for detection.

  17. Software applications toward quantitative metabolic flux analysis and modeling.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Thomas; Fieselmann, Astrid; Majeed, Saman; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites and their pathways are central for adaptation and survival. Metabolic modeling elucidates in silico all the possible flux pathways (flux balance analysis, FBA) and predicts the actual fluxes under a given situation, further refinement of these models is possible by including experimental isotopologue data. In this review, we initially introduce the key theoretical concepts and different analysis steps in the modeling process before comparing flux calculation and metabolite analysis programs such as C13, BioOpt, COBRA toolbox, Metatool, efmtool, FiatFlux, ReMatch, VANTED, iMAT and YANA. Their respective strengths and limitations are discussed and compared to alternative software. While data analysis of metabolites, calculation of metabolic fluxes, pathways and their condition-specific changes are all possible, we highlight the considerations that need to be taken into account before deciding on a specific software. Current challenges in the field include the computation of large-scale networks (in elementary mode analysis), regulatory interactions and detailed kinetics, and these are discussed in the light of powerful new approaches.

  18. QTAIM charge-charge flux-dipole flux interpretation of electronegativity and potential models of the fluorochloromethane mean dipole moment derivatives.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arnaldo F; da Silva, João V; Haiduke, R L A; Bruns, Roy E

    2011-11-17

    Infrared fundamental vibrational intensities and quantum theory atoms in molecules (QTAIM) charge-charge flux-dipole flux (CCFDF) contributions to the polar tensors of the fluorochloromethanes have been calculated at the QCISD/cc-pVTZ level. A root-mean-square error of 20.0 km mol(-1) has been found compared to an experimental error estimate of 14.4 and 21.1 km mol(-1) for MP2/6-311++G(3d,3p) results. The errors in the QCISD polar tensor elements and mean dipole moment derivatives are 0.059 e when compared with the experimental values. Both theoretical levels provide results showing that the dynamical charge and dipole fluxes provide significant contributions to the mean dipole moment derivatives and tend to be of opposite signs canceling one another. Although the experimental mean dipole moment derivative values suggest that all the fluorochloromethane molecules have electronic structures consistent with a simple electronegativity model with transferable atomic charges for their terminal atoms, the QTAIM/CCFDF models confirm this only for the fluoromethanes. Whereas the fluorine atom does not suffer a saturation effect in its capacity to drain electronic charge from carbon atoms that are attached to other fluorine and chlorine atoms, the zero flux electronic charge of the chlorine atom depends on the number and kind of the other substituent atoms. Both the QTAIM carbon charges (r = 0.990) and mean dipole moment derivatives (r = 0.996) are found to obey Siegbahn's potential model for carbon 1s electron ionization energies at the QCISD/cc-pVTZ level. The latter is a consequence of the carbon mean derivatives obeying the electronegativity model and not necessarily to their similarities with atomic charges. Atomic dipole contributions to the neighboring atom electrostatic potentials of the fluorochloromethanes are found to be of comparable size to the atomic charge contributions and increase the accuracy of Siegbahn's model for the QTAIM charge model results

  19. An animal model in sheep for biocompatibility testing of biomaterials in cancellous bones.

    PubMed

    Nuss, Katja M R; Auer, Joerg A; Boos, Alois; von Rechenberg, Brigitte

    2006-08-15

    The past years have seen the development of many synthetic bone replacements. To test their biocompatibility and ability for osseointegration, osseoinduction and -conduction requires their placement within bone preferably in an animal experiment of a higher species. A suitable experimental animal model in sheep with drill holes of 8 mm diameter and 13 mm depth within the proximal and distal humerus and femur for testing biocompatibility issues is introduced. This present sheep model allows the placing of up to 8 different test materials within one animal and because of the standardization of the bone defect, routine evaluation by means of histomorphometry is easily conducted. This method was used successfully in 66 White Alpine Sheep. When the drill holes were correctly placed no complications such as spontaneous fractures were encountered. This experimental animal model serves an excellent basis for testing the biocompatibility of novel biomaterials to be used as bone replacement or new bone formation enhancing materials.

  20. Surface energy fluxes and their representation in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, M.

    2016-12-01

    Energy fluxes at the Earth surface play a key role in the determination of surface climate and in the coupling of atmosphere, land and ocean components. Unlike their counterparts at the top of atmosphere (TOA), surface fluxes cannot be directly measured from satellites, but have to be inferred from the space-born observations using additional models to account for atmospheric perturbations, or from the limited number of surface observations. Uncertainties in the energy fluxes at the surface have therefore traditionally been larger than at the TOA, and have limited our knowledge on the distribution of the energy flows within the climate system. Accordingly, current climate models still largely differ in their representation of surface and atmospheric energy fluxes. Since the mid-1990s, accurate flux measurements became increasingly available from surface networks such as BSRN, which allow to better constrain the surface energy fluxes. There is, however, still a lack of flux measurements particularly over oceans. Further, the larger-scale representativeness of the station records needs to be assessed to judge their suitability as anchor sites for gridded flux products inferred from satellites, reanalyses and climate models. In addition, historic records need to be carefully quality-checked and homogeneized. In parallel, satellite-derived products of surface fluxes profit from the great advancement in space-born observations since the turn of the millennium, and from improved validation capabilities with surface observations. Ultimately, it is the combination of surface and space-born observations, reanalyses and modeling approaches that will advance our knowledge on the distribution of the surface energy fluxes. Uncertainties remain in the determination of surface albedo, skin temperatures and the partitioning of surface net radiation into the sensible and latent heat. Climate models over generations up to present day (CMIP5) tend to overestimate the downward

  1. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    Grasslands cover nearly one-fifth of the global terrestrial surface and store most of their carbon below ground. The grassland ecosystem in the Great Plains occupies over 1.5 million km2 of land area and is the primary resource for livestock production in North America. However, the contributions of grasslands to local and regional carbon budgets remain uncertain due to the lack of carbon flux data for the expansive grassland ecosystems under various managements, land uses, and climate variability. A quantitative understanding of carbon fluxes across these systems is essential for developing regional, national, and global carbon budgets and providing guidance to policy makers and managers when substantial conversion to biofuels are implemented. Additionally, these estimates will provide insights into how the grassland ecosystem will respond to future climate and what systems are sustainable and offer net carbon sinks. This knowledge base and decisions support tools are needed for developing land management strategies for the region under a variety of environmental conditions and land use options. In the past, we used a remote sensing-based piecewise regression (PWR) model to estimate the grassland carbon fluxes in the northern Great Plains using the 1-km SPOT VEGETATION normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We estimated the carbon fluxes through integrated spatial databases and remotely sensed extrapolations of flux tower data to regional scales. The PWR model was applied to derive an empirical relationship between environmental variables and tower-based measurements. The PWR equations were then applied through time and space to estimate carbon fluxes across the study area at 1-km resolution. We now improve this modeling approach by 1) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with higher temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions (8-day, 500-m, and 7-band) as input; 2) incorporating the actual vegetation evapotranspiration

  2. Assessing cement injection behaviour in cancellous bone: an in vitro study using flow models.

    PubMed

    Bou-Francis, Antony; López, Alejandro; Persson, Cecilia; Hall, Richard M; Kapur, Nikil

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the cement injection behaviour during vertebroplasty and accurately predicting the cement placement within the vertebral body is extremely challenging. As there is no standardized methodology, we propose a novel method using reproducible and pathologically representative flow models to study the influence of cement properties on injection behaviour. The models, confined between an upper glass window and a lower aluminium plate, were filled with bone marrow substitute and then injected (4, 6 and 8 min after cement mixing) with commercially available bone cements (SimplexP, Opacity+, OsteopalV and Parallax) at a constant flow rate (3 mL/min). A load cell was used to measure the force applied on the syringe plunger and calculate the peak pressure. A camera was used to monitor the cement flow during injection and calculate the following parameters when the cement had reached the boundary of the models: the time to reach the boundary, the filled area and the roundness. The peak pressure was comparable to that reported during clinical vertebroplasty and showed a similar increase with injection time. The study highlighted the influence of cement formulations and model structure on the injection behaviour and showed that cements with similar composition/particle size had similar flow behaviour, while the introduction of defects reduced the time to reach the boundary, the filled area and the roundness. The proposed method provides a novel tool for quick, robust differentiation between various cement formulations through the visualization and quantitative analysis of the cement spreading at various time intervals. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Models Robustness for Simulating Drainage and NO3-N Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, Jay; Jabro, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Computer models simulate and forecast appropriate agricultural practices to reduce environmental impact. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare robustness and performance of three models -- LEACHM, NCSWAP, and SOIL-SOILN--for simulating drainage and NO3-N leaching fluxes in an intense pasture system without recalibration. A 3-yr study was conducted on a Hagerstown silt loam to measure drainage and NO3-N fluxes below 1 m depth from N-fertilized orchardgrass using intact core lysimeters. Five N-fertilizer treatments were replicated five times in a randomized complete block experimental design. The models were validated under orchardgrass using soil, water and N transformation rate parameters and C pools fractionation derived from a previous study conducted on similar soils under corn. The model efficiency (MEF) of drainage and NO3-N fluxes were 0.53, 0.69 for LEACHM; 0.75, 0.39 for NCSWAP; and 0.94, 0.91for SOIL-SOILN. The models failed to produce reasonable simulations of drainage and NO3-N fluxes in January, February and March due to limited water movement associated with frozen soil and snow accumulation and melt. The differences between simulated and measured NO3-N leaching and among models' performances may also be related to soil N and C transformation processes embedded in the models These results are a monumental progression in the validation of computer models which will lead to continued diffusion across diverse stakeholders.

  6. Comparisons of satellite-based models for estimating evapotranspiration fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, S.; Vanella, D.

    2014-05-01

    Two different types of remote sensing-based techniques were applied to assess the mass and energy exchange process within the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere of a typical Mediterranean crop. The first approach computes a surface energy balance using the radiometric surface temperature (Ts) for estimating the sensible heat flux (H), and obtaining the evapotranspiration fluxes (ET) as a residual of the energy balance. In the paper, the performance of two different surface energy balance approaches (i.e. one-source and two-source (soil + vegetation)) was compared. The second approach uses vegetation indices (VIs), derived from the canopy reflectance, within the FAO-based soil water balance approach to estimate basal crop coefficients to adjust reference ET0 and compute crop ET. Outputs from these models were compared to fluxes of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat directly measured by the Eddy Covariance method, through a long micrometeorological monitoring campaign carried out in the area of interest. The two-source (2S) model gave the best performance in terms of surface energy fluxes and ET rate estimation, although the overall performance of the three approaches was appreciable. The reflectance-based crop coefficient model has the advantages to do not require any upscaling of the instantaneous ET fluxes from the energy balance models to daily integrated ET. However, its results may be less sensitive to detect crop water stress conditions respect to approaches based on the radiometric surface temperature detection.

  7. Frozen-Flux Modelling for Epochs 1915 and 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, Michael S.; Constable, Catherine G.; Parker, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    The frozen-flux hypothesis for the Earth's liquid core assumes that convective terms dominate diffusive terms in the induction equation governing the behaviour of the magnetic field at the surface of the core. While highly plausible on the basis of estimates of physical parameters, the hypothesis has been questioned. To study this hypothesis, we improve the method which tests the consistency of magnetic observations with the hypothesis by constructing simple, flux-conserving core-field models fitting the data at pairs of epochs. We introduce a new approach that fixes the patch configurations at each of the two epochs before inversion, so that each configuration is consistent with its respective data set but possesses the same patch topology. We expand upon the inversion algorithm, using quadratic programming to maintain the proper flux sign within patches; the modelling calculations are also extended to include data types that depend non-linearly on the model. Every test of a hypothesis depends on the characterization of the observational uncertainties; we undertake a thorough review of this question. For main-field models, the primary source of uncertainty comes from the crustal field. We base our analysis on statistical models of the crustal magnetization, adjusted to bring it into better conformity with our data set. The noise model permits us to take into account the correlations between the measurements and requires that a different weighting be given to horizontal and vertical components. It also indicates that the observations should be fit more closely than has been the practice heretofore. We apply the revised method to Magsat data from 1980 and survey and observatory data from 1915.5, two data sets believed to be particularly difficult to reconcile with the frozen-flux hypothesis. We compute a pair of simple, flux-conserving models that fit the averaged data from each epoch. We therefore conclude that present knowledge of the geomagnetic fields of 1980

  8. Angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Richard N.; Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Angular dependence models (ADM) used for converting the measured radiance to flux at the top of the atmosphere are reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the measure of their effectiveness and the implications of requiring the ADMs to satisfy reciprocity. The overall significance of the ADMs is figured out by analyzing the same satellite data with a single Lambertian model, single mean model, and the 12 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ADMs. It is shown that the Lambertian ADM is inadequate, while the mean ADM results in nearly unbiased fluxes but creates substantial differences for individual pixel fluxes. The standard ERBE ADM works well except for a 10-pct to 15-pct albedo growth across the scan; a modified ADM based on the standard ERBE ADM but forced to satisfy the principle of reciprocity increases the limb brightening and reduces the albedo growth but does not improve the scanner and nonscanner intercomparison.

  9. Analysis of edge stability for models of heat flux width

    DOE PAGES

    Makowski, Michael A.; Lasnier, Charles J.; Leonard, Anthony W.; ...

    2017-05-12

    Detailed measurements of the ne, and Te, and Ti profiles in the vicinity of the separatrix of ELMing H-mode discharges have been used to examine plasma stability at the extreme edge of the plasma and assess stability dependent models of the heat flux width. The results are strongly contrary to the critical gradient model, which posits that a ballooning instability determines a gradient scale length related to the heat flux width. The results of this analysis are not sensitive to the choice of location to evaluate stability. Significantly, it is also found that the results are completely consistent with themore » heuristic drift model for the heat flux width. Here the edge pressure gradient scales with plasma density and is proportional to the pressure gradient inferred from the equilibrium in accordance with the predictions of that theory.« less

  10. Angular dependence models for radiance to flux conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Richard N.; Suttles, John T.; Wielicki, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    Angular dependence models (ADM) used for converting the measured radiance to flux at the top of the atmosphere are reviewed, and emphasis is placed on the measure of their effectiveness and the implications of requiring the ADMs to satisfy reciprocity. The overall significance of the ADMs is figured out by analyzing the same satellite data with a single Lambertian model, single mean model, and the 12 Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) ADMs. It is shown that the Lambertian ADM is inadequate, while the mean ADM results in nearly unbiased fluxes but creates substantial differences for individual pixel fluxes. The standard ERBE ADM works well except for a 10-pct to 15-pct albedo growth across the scan; a modified ADM based on the standard ERBE ADM but forced to satisfy the principle of reciprocity increases the limb brightening and reduces the albedo growth but does not improve the scanner and nonscanner intercomparison.

  11. A deconvolution method for deriving the transit time spectrum for ultrasound propagation through cancellous bone replica models.

    PubMed

    Langton, Christian M; Wille, Marie-Luise; Flegg, Mark B

    2014-04-01

    The acceptance of broadband ultrasound attenuation for the assessment of osteoporosis suffers from a limited understanding of ultrasound wave propagation through cancellous bone. It has recently been proposed that the ultrasound wave propagation can be described by a concept of parallel sonic rays. This concept approximates the detected transmission signal to be the superposition of all sonic rays that travel directly from transmitting to receiving transducer. The transit time of each ray is defined by the proportion of bone and marrow propagated. An ultrasound transit time spectrum describes the proportion of sonic rays having a particular transit time, effectively describing lateral inhomogeneity of transit times over the surface of the receiving ultrasound transducer. The aim of this study was to provide a proof of concept that a transit time spectrum may be derived from digital deconvolution of input and output ultrasound signals. We have applied the active-set method deconvolution algorithm to determine the ultrasound transit time spectra in the three orthogonal directions of four cancellous bone replica samples and have compared experimental data with the prediction from the computer simulation. The agreement between experimental and predicted ultrasound transit time spectrum analyses derived from Bland-Altman analysis ranged from 92% to 99%, thereby supporting the concept of parallel sonic rays for ultrasound propagation in cancellous bone. In addition to further validation of the parallel sonic ray concept, this technique offers the opportunity to consider quantitative characterisation of the material and structural properties of cancellous bone, not previously available utilising ultrasound.

  12. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  13. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  14. Observational & modeling analysis of surface heat and moisture fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E.

    1995-09-01

    An observational and modeling study was conducted to help assess how well current GCMs are predicting surface fluxes under the highly variable cloudiness and flow conditions characteristic of the real atmosphere. The observational data base for the study was obtained from a network of surface flux stations operated during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The study included examination of a surface-driven secondary circulation in the boundary layer resulting from a persistent cross-site gradient in soil moisture, to demonstrate the sensitivity of boundary layer dynamics to heterogeneous surface fluxes, The performance of a biosphere model in reproducing the measured surface fluxes was evaluated with and without the use of satellite retrieval of three key canopy variables with RMS uncertainties commensurate with those of the measurements themselves. Four sensible heat flux closure schemes currently being used in GCMs were then evaluated against the FIFE observations. Results indicate that the methods by which closure models are calibrated lead to exceedingly large errors when the schemes are applied to variable boundary layer conditions. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  15. [Modeling of CO2 fluxes at cropland by using SiB3 model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Geng-Jun; Lu, Li-Xin; Jiang, Ling-Mei; Jiang, Lei; Ian, Baker

    2013-10-01

    The aim is to study the influence of different vegetation types on CO2 fluxes at the same site, taking farmland as the object by using the simple biosphere model (SiB3) , select different vegetation types in Suzhou Dongshan site as input parameters of model to simulate CO2 fluxes, and compare with the observational data in Suzhou Dongshan site during 2011-04-16 to 2011-06-30. Results show that using corn as the site vegetation type input model to simulate CO2 fluxes showed a very good diurnal variation agreement compared to the measured data, but selecting the ordinary crop type input model to simulate CO2 fluxes, CO2 fluxes during the daytime in April and May were undervalued, and CO2 fluxes in June were overvalued; when we select the tea type to input the model, the simulated results significantly overestimated CO2 fluxes during the daytime in May and June. In addition, when using SiB3 model to simulate the daily CO2 fluxes, all three vegetation types input model can effectively simulate daily CO2 fluxes, but not significantly. It shows that choosing the right type vegetation input SiB3 model can effectively simulate the diurnal variation of CO2 fluxes, but can not effectively improve the daily CO2 fluxes simulation.

  16. A proof of the cancellation of the redistribution tidal potential effects on the rotation of an elastic Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baenas, Tomás; Escapa, Alberto; Ferrándiz, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The gravitational action of the Moon and the Sun on the elastic Earth originates a redistribution of its mass. In turn, this redistribution is responsible of an additional term in the gravitational potential energy of the system, commonly referred to as tidal potential of redistribution. Its effects on the Earth rotation were previously discussed in Escapa et al. (2004) and Lambert & Mathews (2006). A numerical approach was followed in those works to show that for an elastic Earth model, assumed to be spherical and non-rotating in the undeformed state, there is no net contribution to the motion of the figure axis. This result is consistent with the corresponding one deduced from the torque approach, where one can derive analytically that the redistribution torque for that elastic Earth model vanishes (e.g., Krasinsky 1999). However, it is far from being a trivial question to recover the same result when working directly with the tidal potential of redistribution, as in Escapa et al. (2004) or Lambert & Mathews (2006). In this investigation we revisit the issue, enhancing and completing former results by Escapa et al. (2004). In particular, we aim at proving, by analytical means, that the redistribution tidal potential of the former elastic Earth model does not affect its rotational motion. To this end we expand that potential in terms of an Andoyer-like set of canonical variables, and then compute the torque associated to it. This choice was motivated by the suitability of this set of variables to extend our calculations to the nutations of other different elastic or anelastic Earth models, through the Hamiltonian framework (e.g., Ferrándiz et al. 2012). We show the exact cancellation of the derived expressions as a consequence of certain properties fulfilled by the expansions of the orbital motion of the perturbing bodies. Acknowledgement. - This work has been partially supported by the Spanish government trhough the MINECO projects I+D+I AYA201022039-C02-01, AYA

  17. Hemostasis and Safety of a Novel Fibrin Dressing Versus Standard Gauze in Bleeding Cancellous Bone in a Caprine Spine Surgery Model.

    PubMed

    Floyd, C Timothy; Padua, Rodolfo A; Olson, Curtis E

    2017-09-01

    Decorticated bone is a significant source of blood loss in scoliosis surgery. Current hemostatic methods include packed gauze (GS), physical barriers such as bone wax, and xenograft collagen-based materials. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a novel fibrin dressing (dextran-thrombin-fibrinogen [DTF]) compared to GS. This dressing comprises lyophilized thrombin and fibrinogen embedded in an elastic electrospun nanofiber dextran matrix. The study tests the hypothesis that DTF is more efficacious than GS in control of bleeding from cancellous bone. A preclinical Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) study. We enrolled 10 goats that were followed for 28 ± 1 days. Each animal was randomly assigned to the test or control group. Both test and control animals had 4 cancellous bone injuries. Test animal injuries were treated with DTF, whereas standard GS was used to control bleeding in the control animals. Bleeding at the bone injury site was characterized as either none, oozing, flowing, or pulsatile and was assessed at 4 and 8 minutes after dressing application. Goats were survived 28 ± 1 days and then necropsied. Application of the fibrin dressing to bleeding cancellous bone, both posterior spinal lamina, and iliac crest graft sites, resulted in control of bleeding within 4 minutes at all injury sites. Eighty percent of control injury sites continued to bleed after 8 minutes and required application of bone wax to control bleeding. There were no differences in prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, or fibrinogen levels between test and control animals at 1 or 28 days. We observed no adverse histologic reactions at 28 days. The fibrin dressing is an efficacious and safe method of controlling blood loss from cancellous bone in a spine surgery model. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.

  19. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; Arge, C. Nick

    2015-04-01

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF) to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.

  20. Stable and flux-conserved meshfree formulation to model shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Michael J.; Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Slawson, Thomas R.; Danielson, Kent T.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate shock modeling requires that two critical issues be addressed: (1) correct representation of the essential shock physics, and (2) control of Gibbs phenomenon oscillation at the discontinuity. In this work a stable (oscillation limiting) and flux-conserved formulation under the reproducing kernel particle method is developed for shock modeling. A smoothed flux divergence is constructed under the framework of stabilized conforming nodal integration, which is locally-enriched with a Riemann solution to satisfy the entropy production constraints. This Riemann-enriched flux divergence is embedded into the reproducing kernel formulation through a velocity correction that also provides oscillation control at the shock. The correction is constrained to the shock region by an automatic shock detection algorithm that is constructed using the intrinsic spectral decomposition feature of the reproducing kernel approximation. Several numerical examples are provided to verify accuracy of the proposed formulation.

  1. Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept. [solar model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Underwood, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions.

  2. Comparison of Meteoroid Flux Models for Near Earth Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drolshagen, G.; Liou, J.-C.; Dikarev, V.; Landgraf, M.; Krag, H.; Kuiper, W.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decade several new models for the sporadic interplanetary meteoroid flux have been developed. These include the Meteoroid Engineering Model (MEM), the Divine-Staubach model and the Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM). They typically cover mass ranges from 10-12 g (or lower) to 1 g and are applicable for model specific sun distance ranges between 0.2 A.U. and 10 A.U. Near 1 A.U. averaged fluxes (over direction and velocities) for all these models are tuned to the well established interplanetary model by Gr?n et. al. However, in many respects these models differ considerably. Examples are the velocity and directional distributions and the assumed meteoroid sources. In this paper flux predictions by the various models to Earth orbiting spacecraft are compared. Main differences are presented and analysed. The persisting differences even for near Earth space can be seen as surprising in view of the numerous ground based (optical, radar) and in-situ (captured IDPs, in-situ detectors and analysis of retrieved hardware) measurements and simulations. Remaining uncertainties and potential additional studies to overcome the existing model discrepancies are discussed.

  3. Modeling energy fluxes in heterogeneous landscapes employing a mosaic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christian; Thieme, Christoph; Priesack, Eckart

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that uncertainties in regional and global climate and weather simulations are partly due to inadequate descriptions of the energy flux exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. One major shortcoming is the limitation of the grid-cell resolution, which is recommended to be about at least 3x3 km² in most models due to limitations in the model physics. To represent each individual grid cell most models select one dominant soil type and one dominant land use type. This resolution, however, is often too coarse in regions where the spatial diversity of soil and land use types are high, e.g. in Central Europe. An elegant method to avoid the shortcoming of grid cell resolution is the so called mosaic approach. This approach is part of the recently developed ecosystem model framework Expert-N 5.0. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the characteristics of two managed fields, planted with winter wheat and potato, on the near surface soil moistures and on the near surface energy flux exchanges of the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. The simulated energy fluxes were compared with eddy flux tower measurements between the respective fields at the research farm Scheyern, North-West of Munich, Germany. To perform these simulations, we coupled the ecosystem model Expert-N 5.0 to an analytical footprint model. The coupled model system has the ability to calculate the mixing ratio of the surface energy fluxes at a given point within one grid cell (in this case at the flux tower between the two fields). This approach accounts for the differences of the two soil types, of land use managements, and of canopy properties due to footprint size dynamics. Our preliminary simulation results show that a mosaic approach can improve modeling and analyzing energy fluxes when the land surface is heterogeneous. In this case our applied method is a promising approach to extend weather and climate models on the regional and on the global scale.

  4. Component and system simulation models for High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sozer, A.

    1989-08-01

    Component models for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) have been developed. The models are HFIR core, heat exchangers, pressurizer pumps, circulation pumps, letdown valves, primary head tank, generic transport delay (pipes), system pressure, loop pressure-flow balance, and decay heat. The models were written in FORTRAN and can be run on different computers, including IBM PCs, as they do not use any specific simulation languages such as ACSL or CSMP. 14 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Modeling the Effects of Meteorological Conditions on the Neutron Flux

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-22

    a statistical model that predicts environmental neutron background as a function of five meteorological variables: inverse barometric pressure...hour, a 20% variation, over five months of data collection with large variation between days. Meteorological data were collected with two commercially...the effects of the meteorological variables on neutron flux while accounting for the correlation among errors at previous time intervals. The dominant

  6. New cancellation technique for electromagnetic induction sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; Malluck, Michael

    2005-06-01

    A new technique is presented for canceling the coupling between the coils of an electromagnetic induction sensor while using simple dipole detection coils. A secondary bucking transformer is used to cancel the coupling between the coils. The technique allows the cancellation that can be obtained using a quadrupole receive coil while maintaining the depth sensitivity and simple detection zone of a dipole coil. Simple circuit models for the sensor with some of the important parasitic effects are developed. An experimental model is developed and used to demonstrate the technique. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate more than 75 dB of cancellation up to 100 kHz and the response of the sensor to a few targets.

  7. Regge trajectories of exotic hadrons in the flux tube model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandan, Hemwati; Ranjan, Akhilesh

    2016-02-01

    We have investigated the Regge trajectories of exotic hadrons by considering different possible pentaquark configurations with finite quark mass in the flux tube model. Significant deviation is observed in the linear behavior of the Regge trajectories for pentaquark systems in view of the universal value of the Regge slope parameter for hadrons. The modified Regge trajectories are also compared with the available experimental and lattice data. It is observed that the nonlinear Regge trajectories of such pentaquark systems can be well described by the relativistic corrections in view of the current quark masses and the high rotational speed of the quarks at the end of flux tube structure.

  8. Z N twisted orbifold models with magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Tomo-hiro; Fujimoto, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Miura, Takashi; Nishiwaki, Kenji; Sakamoto, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We propose new backgrounds of extra dimensions to lead to four-dimensional chiral models with three generations of matter fermions, that is T 2 /Z N twisted orbifolds with magnetic fluxes. We consider gauge theory on six-dimensional space-time, which contains the T 2 /Z N orbifold with magnetic flux, Scherk-Schwarz phases and Wilson line phases. We classify all the possible Scherk-Schwarz and Wilson line phases on T 2 /Z N orbifolds with magnetic fluxes. The behavior of zero modes is studied. We derive the number of zero modes for each eigenvalue of the Z N twist, showing explicitly examples of wave functions. We also investigate Kaluza-Klein mode functions and mass spectra.

  9. Modeling of solvent and ionic fluxes in electronanofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pupunat, L.; Rios, G.M.; Joulie, R.

    1999-07-01

    Electronanofiltration (ENF) is a new membrane separation process that uses an additional electric field between the permeate and retentate sides during nanofiltration. A recently published pioneering work gives the performance with single and mixed ionic solutions containing one monovalent cation and one or two anions (mono-or/and divalent). It appears that the electric field leads to a net increase of cation flux and a decrease of anion permeation at the same time if the cathode is placed on the permeate side. In relation with the well-known dependence of solvent flux on transmembrane pressure, these data open up potential applications of ENF for new integrated operations of ion separation/concentration. In this paper a semiempirical model accounting for permeate and ionic fluxes is proposed. Based on the Sefan-Maxwell approach, a simple set of linearized equations is developed that fits experimental data at various transmembrane pressure ({Delta}P), electric fields ({Delta}U), and concentrations (C).

  10. Behavioral Evaluation of Movement Cancellation

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark M. G.; Gandhi, Neeraj J.

    2013-01-01

    The countermanding saccade task has been used in many studies to investigate the neural mechanisms that underlie the decision to execute or restrain rapid eye movements. In this task, the presentation of a saccade target is sometimes followed by the appearance of a stop cue that indicates that the subject should cancel the planned movement. Performance has been modeled as a race between motor preparation and cancellation processes. The signal that reaches its activation threshold first determines whether a saccade is generated or cancelled. In these studies, an important parameter is the time required to process the stop cue, referred to as the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). The SSRT is estimated using statistical approaches, the validity of which has not been unequivocally established. A more direct measure of this parameter might be obtainable if a method was available to “unmask” the developing motor command. This can be accomplished by air-puff-evoked blinks, which inhibit pontine omnipause neurons that serve as an inhibitory gate for the saccadic system. In the present study, brief puffs of air were used to elicit blinks at various times while rhesus monkeys performed a countermanding saccade task. If the developing motor command has not yet been cancelled, this should trigger a saccade. When blinks occurred between ~50 and 200 ms after target onset, saccades were often evoked. Saccades were rarely evoked more than ~70 ms after stop cue onset; this value represents a behavioral evaluation of SSRT and was comparable to the estimates obtained using standard statistical approaches. When saccades occurred near the SSRT on blink trials, they were often hypometric. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to model the effects of blink time on the race model. Overall, the study supports the validity of the statistical methods currently in use. PMID:16760340

  11. Antideuteron fluxes from dark matter annihilation in diffusion models

    SciTech Connect

    Donato, F.; Fornengo, N.; Maurin, D.

    2008-08-15

    Antideuterons are among the most promising galactic cosmic-ray-related targets for dark matter indirect detection. Currently only upper limits exist on the flux, but the development of new experiments, such as GAPS and AMS-02, provides exciting perspectives for a positive measurement in the near future. In this paper, we present a novel and updated calculation of both the secondary and primary d fluxes. We employ a two-zone diffusion model which successfully reproduces cosmic-ray nuclear data and the observed antiproton flux. We review the nuclear and astrophysical uncertainties and provide an up to date secondary (i.e. background) antideuteron flux. The primary (i.e. signal) contribution is calculated for generic weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs) annihilating in the galactic halo: we explicitly consider and quantify the various sources of uncertainty in the theoretical evaluations. Propagation uncertainties, as is the case of antiprotons, are sizeable. Nevertheless, antideuterons offer an exciting target for indirect dark matter detection for low and intermediate mass WIMP dark matter. We then show the reaching capabilities of the future experiments for neutralino dark matter in a variety of supersymmetric models.

  12. Regularized Biot-Savart Laws for Modeling Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Viacheslav; Downs, Cooper; Mikic, Zoran; Torok, Tibor; Linker, Jon A.

    2017-08-01

    Many existing models assume that magnetic flux ropes play a key role in solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is therefore important to develop efficient methods for constructing flux-rope configurations constrained by observed magnetic data and the initial morphology of CMEs. As our new step in this direction, we have derived and implemented a compact analytical form that represents the magnetic field of a thin flux rope with an axis of arbitrary shape and a circular cross-section. This form implies that the flux rope carries axial current I and axial flux F, so that the respective magnetic field is a curl of the sum of toroidal and poloidal vector potentials proportional to I and F, respectively. The vector potentials are expressed in terms of Biot-Savart laws whose kernels are regularized at the rope axis. We regularized them in such a way that for a straight-line axis the form provides a cylindrical force-free flux rope with a parabolic profile of the axial current density. So far, we set the shape of the rope axis by tracking the polarity inversion lines of observed magnetograms and estimating its height and other parameters of the rope from a calculated potential field above these lines. In spite of this heuristic approach, we were able to successfully construct pre-eruption configurations for the 2009 February13 and 2011 October 1 CME events. These applications demonstrate that our regularized Biot-Savart laws are indeed a very flexible and efficient method for energizing initial configurations in MHD simulations of CMEs. We discuss possible ways of optimizing the axis paths and other extensions of the method in order to make it more useful and robust.Research supported by NSF, NASA's HSR and LWS Programs, and AFOSR.

  13. CH4 and CO2 flux observations in northeast Siberian tundra and its implications for modelling of CH4 fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Huissteden, K. J.; Parmentier, F.; Petrescu, R.; van Beek, L. P.; Karsanaev, S.; Maximov, T.; van der Molen, M.; Dolman, H.

    2009-12-01

    Six years of data on CO2 and CH4 fluxes are available from the tundra research site Kytalyk in the northeast Siberian tundra. The site covers a frequently flooded floodplain area dominated by grasses and Carex/Eriphorum vegetation, and a non-flooded tundra area with more oligotrophic Sphagnum-rich vegetation. CO2 fluxes are related to variations in gross primary productivity. The tundra part of the site is a small net sink for CO2 and total greenhouse gases in summer. The spatial variability of the CH4 fluxes is large. With similar water table, Sphagnum-rich tundra surfaces show low fluxes, while the river floodplain emits high amounts of CH4. The CH4 flux in the river floodplain is sensitive to river discharge, being highest in wet years with flooding. This has implications for large-scale modelling of CH4 fluxes. Sub-grid variation in vegetation variability and in the extent and duration of flooding have to be taken into account. We used a coupled hydrological/CH4 flux model (PCR-GLOBWB global hydrology and PEATLAND-VU CH4) dealing with some of these aspects. Our results show considerable year-to-year variation due to variation in floodplain hydrology and to a lesser degree in wetland extent. Also vegetation variability contributes to uncertainty in modelling fluxes, as shown by model sensitivity to parameters governing within-plant transport and oxidation of CH4.

  14. Driving Coronal MHD Simulations with Flux Evolution Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Downs, C.; Arge, C. N.; Henney, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The solar corona and solar wind strongly influences space weather at Earth. While coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the most obvious source of this influence, the structure and dynamics of the ambient solar corona and solar wind also play an important role. Coronal structure leads to the partitioning of the solar wind into fast and slow streams, which are the source of recurrent geomagnetic activity. The geo-effectiveness of CMEs is in part determined by their interaction with the ambient wind, and the connection of the ambient interplanetary magnetic field to CME-related shocks and impulsive solar flares determines where solar energetic particles propagate. MHD simulations of the solar corona based on maps of the solar magnetic field have been demonstrated to describe many aspects of coronal structure. However, these models are typically integrated to steady state, using synoptic or daily-updated magnetic maps to derive the boundary conditions. The Sun's magnetic flux is always evolving, and these changes in the flux affect the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere. In this presentation, we describe an approach to evolutionary models of the corona and so wind, using time-dependent boundary conditions. A key aspect of our approach is the use of the Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model to develop time-evolving boundary conditions for the magnetic field. ADAPT incorporates data assimilation techniques into the Worden and Harvey (2000) flux evolution model, making it an especially suitable candidate for providing boundary conditions to MHD models. We describe initial results and compare them with more traditional approaches. Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  15. Estimation of In vivo Cancellous Bone Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Takahiko; Mano, Isao; Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tadahito; Teshima, Ryota; Naka, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    The effect of decreasing bone density (a symptom of osteoporosis) is greater for cancellous bone than for dense cortical bone, because cancellous bone is metabolically more active. Therefore, the bone density or bone mineral density of cancellous bone is generally used to estimate the onset of osteoporosis. Elasticity or elastic constant is a fundamental mechanical parameter and is directly related to the mechanical strength of bone. Accordingly, elasticity is a preferable parameter for assessing fracture risk. A novel ultrasonic bone densitometer LD-100 has been developed to determine the mass density and elasticity of cancellous bone with a spatial resolution comparable to that of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone density and bone elasticity are evaluated using ultrasonic parameters based on fast and slow waves in cancellous bone by modeling the ultrasonic wave propagation path. Elasticity is deduced from the measured bone density and the propagation speed of the fast wave. Thus, the elasticity of cancellous bone is approximately expressed by a cubic equation of bone density.

  16. Sediment flux modeling: Simulating nitrogen, phosphorus, and silica cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Jeremy M.; Brady, Damian C.; Di Toro, Dominic M.; Boynton, Walter R.; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.; Kemp, W. Michael

    2013-10-01

    Sediment-water exchanges of nutrients and oxygen play an important role in the biogeochemistry of shallow coastal environments. Sediments process, store, and release particulate and dissolved forms of carbon and nutrients and sediment-water solute fluxes are significant components of nutrient, carbon, and oxygen cycles. Consequently, sediment biogeochemical models of varying complexity have been developed to understand the processes regulating porewater profiles and sediment-water exchanges. We have calibrated and validated a two-layer sediment biogeochemical model (aerobic and anaerobic) that is suitable for application as a stand-alone tool or coupled to water-column biogeochemical models. We calibrated and tested a stand-alone version of the model against observations of sediment-water flux, porewater concentrations, and process rates at 12 stations in Chesapeake Bay during a 4-17 year period. The model successfully reproduced sediment-water fluxes of ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), phosphate (PO43-), and dissolved silica (Si(OH)4 or DSi) for diverse chemical and physical environments. A root mean square error (RMSE)-minimizing optimization routine was used to identify best-fit values for many kinetic parameters. The resulting simulations improved the performance of the model in Chesapeake Bay and revealed (1) the need for an aerobic-layer denitrification formulation to account for NO3- reduction in this zone, (2) regional variability in denitrification that depends on oxygen levels in the overlying water, (3) a regionally-dependent solid-solute PO43- partitioning that accounts for patterns in Fe availability, and (4) a simplified model formulation for DSi, including limited sorption of DSi onto iron oxyhydroxides. This new calibration balances the need for a universal set of parameters that remain true to biogeochemical processes with site-specificity that represents differences in physical conditions. This stand-alone model can be rapidly executed on a

  17. The gas fluxing of aluminum: Mathematical modeling and experimental investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fjeld, Autumn Marie

    Chlorine fluxing is an essential purification step in aluminum refining in which impurities such as Ca, Na, Li, and Mg are removed by bubbling a mixture of chlorine and argon gas through molten aluminum. The gas is injected into the fluxing vessel through a rotating shaft and impeller which simultaneously agitates the melt, while breaking up and dispersing gas bubbles through the liquid phase. The efficiency of impurity removal and control of toxic chlorine and chloride emissions are dependent upon the extent of gas dispersion or mixing, residence time of the bubbles, and surface area of the bubbles. Clearly the gas injection and distribution within the liquid metal cannot be directly observed and such operations are often poorly controlled and not well understood. Problems arise when the injection gas, i.e. chlorine, is not completely consumed by reaction with impurities and the excess is reported as emissions of chlorides such as toxic HCl. The intention is to improve the technology to eliminate this waste (saving on the energy entailed in the chlorine production and reducing pollution) by better dispersion of the injected gas throughout the metal. Previous experimental investigations using a capacitance probe, capable of immersion in liquid aluminum for several hours, have been carried out to detect bubbles in an industrial fluxing unit at the Alcoa Technical Center. Bubble frequency data have shown the bubbles to be fairly well dispersed in the areas of the fluxing unit, decreasing in observed bubble frequency with increasing distance from the impeller (source of gas injection). To gain further insight and add to our experimental findings, two computational models have been developed to simulate the complex two-phase fluid dynamics of a rotary gas injection system. The results of these two modeling approaches are presented and analyzed and compared to experimental bubble measurements gathered using the capacitance probe. Bubble size distributions and residence

  18. A Multiple Flux-tube Solar Wind Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Rui F.; Rouillard, Alexis P.

    2017-04-01

    We present a new model, MULTI-VP, which computes the three-dimensional structure of the solar wind and includes the chromosphere, the transition region, and the corona and low heliosphere. MULTI-VP calculates a large ensemble of wind profiles flowing along open magnetic field lines that sample the entire three-dimensional atmosphere or, alternatively, a given region of interest. The radial domain starts from the photosphere and typically extends to about 30 {R}ȯ . The elementary uni-dimensional wind solutions are based on a mature numerical scheme that was adapted in order to accept any flux-tube geometry. We discuss here the first results obtained with this model. We use Potential Field Source-surface extrapolations of magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory to determine the structure of the background magnetic field. Our results support the hypothesis that the geometry of the magnetic flux-tubes in the lower corona controls the distribution of slow and fast wind flows. The inverse correlation between density and speed far away from the Sun is a global effect resulting from small readjustments of the flux-tube cross-sections in the high corona (necessary to achieve global pressure balance and a uniform open flux distribution). In comparison to current global MHD models, MULTI-VP performs much faster and does not suffer from spurious cross-field diffusion effects. We show that MULTI-VP has the capability to predict correctly the dynamical and thermal properties of the background solar wind (wind speed, density, temperature, magnetic field amplitude, and other derived quantities) and to approach real-time operation requirements.

  19. Modeling the diurnal variability of respiratory fluxes in the Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Bakr; Arora, Vivek K.; Melton, Joe R.; Nassar, Ray

    2016-06-01

    The Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (CTEM) coupled to the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS) is a dynamic vegetation model that incorporates photosynthesis and respiration submodules among many other physiological processes of the terrestrial biosphere. While the photosynthesis and leaf respiration submodules of CTEM operate at a time step of 30 min, other respiratory fluxes are estimated at a daily time step using the daily-averaged values of canopy and soil temperature, and soil moisture content. Here we modify CTEM to be able to simulate the diurnal variation of ecosystem respiratory fluxes caused by the diurnal variation in the driving climate data. Simulating respiration at a 30 min time step changed the equilibrium states of primary carbon pools and fluxes. This required changes to some of the model's parameters in order to realistically simulate the equilibrium values of carbon pools and fluxes. The resulting estimated daily and annual carbon fluxes from the modified and original CTEM are similar with small relative differences. The similar annual cycles of daily values of primary CO2 fluxes confirm that modeling the respiratory fluxes at a subdaily time step does not affect the annual cycles of these fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modified version of the model is able to simulate the diurnal cycle of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 fluxes that are broadly comparable to observation-based estimates at two flux tower sites and exhibit realistic seasonal patterns. Limitations remain in the modeled diurnal patterns of primary land-atmosphere CO2 fluxes which will form the basis of further model improvements.

  20. Benchmarking carbon fluxes of the ISIMIP2a biome models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Asrar, Ghassem; Betts, Richard; Chevallier, Frédéric; Dury, Marie; François, Louis; Frieler, Katja; García Cantú Ros, Anselmo; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane; Hickler, Thomas; Ito, Akihiko; Morfopoulos, Catherine; Munhoven, Guy; Nishina, Kazuya; Ostberg, Sebastian; Pan, Shufen; Peng, Shushi; Rafique, Rashid; Reyer, Christopher; Rödenbeck, Christian; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Steinkamp, Jörg; Tian, Hanqin; Viovy, Nicolas; Yang, Jia; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the eight ISIMIP2a biome models against independent estimates of long-term net carbon fluxes (i.e. Net Biome Productivity, NBP) over terrestrial ecosystems for the recent four decades (1971-2010). We evaluate modeled global NBP against 1) the updated global residual land sink (RLS) plus land use emissions (E LUC) from the Global Carbon Project (GCP), presented as R + L in this study by Le Quéré et al (2015), and 2) the land CO2 fluxes from two atmospheric inversion systems: Jena CarboScope s81_v3.8 and CAMS v15r2, referred to as F Jena and F CAMS respectively. The model ensemble-mean NBP (that includes seven models with land-use change) is higher than but within the uncertainty of R + L, while the simulated positive NBP trend over the last 30 yr is lower than that from R + L and from the two inversion systems. ISIMIP2a biome models well capture the interannual variation of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes. Tropical NBP represents 31 ± 17% of global total NBP during the past decades, and the year-to-year variation of tropical NBP contributes most of the interannual variation of global NBP. According to the models, increasing Net Primary Productivity (NPP) was the main cause for the generally increasing NBP. Significant global NBP anomalies from the long-term mean between the two phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are simulated by all models (p < 0.05), which is consistent with the R + L estimate (p = 0.06), also mainly attributed to NPP anomalies, rather than to changes in heterotrophic respiration (Rh). The global NPP and NBP anomalies during ENSO events are dominated by their anomalies in tropical regions impacted by tropical climate variability. Multiple regressions between R + L, F Jena and F CAMS interannual variations and tropical climate variations reveal a significant negative response of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes to tropical mean annual temperature variation

  1. Benchmarking carbon fluxes of the ISIMIP2a biome models

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Xuhui; ...

    2017-03-28

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the eight ISIMIP2a biome models against independent estimates of long-term net carbon fluxes (i.e. Net Biome Productivity, NBP) over terrestrial ecosystems for the recent four decades (1971–2010). Here, we evaluate modeled global NBP against 1) the updated global residual land sink (RLS) plus land use emissions (ELUC) from the Global Carbon Project (GCP), presented as R + L in this study by Le Quéré et al (2015), and 2) the land CO2 fluxes from two atmospheric inversion systems: Jena CarboScope s81_v3.8 and CAMS v15r2, referred to as FJena and FCAMS respectively. Themore » model ensemble-mean NBP (that includes seven models with land-use change) is higher than but within the uncertainty of R + L, while the simulated positive NBP trend over the last 30 yr is lower than that from R + L and from the two inversion systems. ISIMIP2a biome models well capture the interannual variation of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes. Tropical NBP represents 31 ± 17% of global total NBP during the past decades, and the year-to-year variation of tropical NBP contributes most of the interannual variation of global NBP. According to the models, increasing Net Primary Productivity (NPP) was the main cause for the generally increasing NBP. Significant global NBP anomalies from the long-term mean between the two phases of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are simulated by all models (p < 0.05), which is consistent with the R + L estimate (p = 0.06), also mainly attributed to NPP anomalies, rather than to changes in heterotrophic respiration (Rh). The global NPP and NBP anomalies during ENSO events are dominated by their anomalies in tropical regions impacted by tropical climate variability. Multiple regressions between R + L, FJena and FCAMS interannual variations and tropical climate variations reveal a significant negative response of global net terrestrial ecosystem carbon fluxes to tropical mean annual temperature

  2. Analysis of metabolic flux using dynamic labelling and metabolic modelling.

    PubMed

    Fernie, A R; Morgan, J A

    2013-09-01

    Metabolic fluxes and the capacity to modulate them are a crucial component of the ability of the plant cell to react to environmental perturbations. Our ability to quantify them and to attain information concerning the regulatory mechanisms that control them is therefore essential to understand and influence metabolic networks. For all but the simplest of flux measurements labelling methods have proven to be the most informative. Both steady-state and dynamic labelling approaches have been adopted in the study of plant metabolism. Here the conceptual basis of these complementary approaches, as well as their historical application in microbial, mammalian and plant sciences, is reviewed, and an update on technical developments in label distribution analyses is provided. This is supported by illustrative cases studies involving the kinetic modelling of secondary metabolism. One issue that is particularly complex in the analysis of plant fluxes is the extensive compartmentation of the plant cell. This problem is discussed from both theoretical and experimental perspectives, and the current approaches used to address it are assessed. Finally, current limitations and future perspectives of kinetic modelling of plant metabolism are discussed.

  3. Modelling global anthropogenic sediment fluxes in the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof

    2017-04-01

    A large fraction of natural vegetation has been cleared to provide agricultural cropland, which accelerates erosion by one to two orders of magnitude. Quantification of the accelerated erosion flux is important in order to understand the role of human activities in ecosystem evolution given that soil erosion not only causes on site effects on soil degradation and soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling but also off site effects on the water quality. In this study, we first evaluated and constrained existing ALCC scenarios by comparing observed cumulative sediment fluxes with our model simulations. We further applied a spatially distributed erosion model under the optimized land use scenario at the global scale. Simulation shows that conversion from natural vegetation to cropland has caused a global cumulative agricultural sediment flux of 28000 Pg for the period of agriculture. This results in an average cumulative sediment mobilization of 1890 kg m-2 on the croplands, i.e. a soil truncation of ca. 1.3 m. Regions of early civilization and high cropland fractions such as South Asia, Southeast Asia and Central America have higher area-averaged anthropogenic erosion than other regions.

  4. Data Assimilation in the ADAPT Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    DOE PAGES

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Godinez, Humberto C.; Henney, Carl J.; ...

    2015-03-17

    Global maps of the solar photospheric magnetic flux are fundamental drivers for simulations of the corona and solar wind and therefore are important predictors of geoeffective events. However, observations of the solar photosphere are only made intermittently over approximately half of the solar surface. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric Flux Transport (ADAPT) model uses localized ensemble Kalman filtering techniques to adjust a set of photospheric simulations to agree with the available observations. At the same time, this information is propagated to areas of the simulation that have not been observed. ADAPT implements a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF)more » to accomplish data assimilation, allowing the covariance structure of the flux-transport model to influence assimilation of photosphere observations while eliminating spurious correlations between ensemble members arising from a limited ensemble size. We give a detailed account of the implementation of the LETKF into ADAPT. Advantages of the LETKF scheme over previously implemented assimilation methods are highlighted.« less

  5. Modeling epoxy foams exposed to fire-like heat fluxes.

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Michael L.

    2004-11-01

    A decomposition chemistry and heat transfer model to predict the response of removable epoxy foam (REF) exposed to fire-like heat fluxes is described. The epoxy foam was created using a perfluorohexane blowing agent with a surfactant. The model includes desorption of the blowing agent and surfactant, thermal degradation of the epoxy polymer, polymer fragment transport, and vapor-liquid equilibrium. An effective thermal conductivity model describes changes in thermal conductivity with reaction extent. Pressurization is modeled assuming: (1) no strain in the condensed-phase, (2) no resistance to gas-phase transport, (3) spatially uniform stress fields, and (4) no mass loss from the system due to venting. The model has been used to predict mass loss, pressure rise, and decomposition front locations for various small-scale and large-scale experiments performed by others. The framework of the model is suitable for polymeric foams with absorbed gases.

  6. A web-services approach to modeling global fluid flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, W. T.; Martin, K. M.; Sample, J.; Owens, R.; Jung, W.; Calantoni, J.; Boyd, T. J.; Coffin, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Regional and global estimates of fluid and solute accumulation and transport require aspects of physics, chemistry, and biology that manifest as geospatial data sets. Recent developments in computer sciences known as web-services allow a new approach to earth modeling that allows data and models from different sources and on different platforms to be linked - allowing continual updates as data are acquired or models upgraded. NRL has begun constructing a such a generic earth modeling system (GEMS) based on OGC and WD3 compliant web-services data exchange, and designed to take advantage of newly developing web-service based data repositories funded by NSF, NOAA, USGS and others. Specifically, global data sets such as those found in the World Ocean Atlas (2009), sediment thickness, crust age, and seafloor temperature that have been used previously to estimate methane hydrate content in the World's ocean can now be combined with models of sedimentary accretion to generate estimates of fluid flux along margins. The data are served up as independent web coverage services, so they can be independently updated as new data arrives. We anticipate the web services approach to will allow a more flexible, dynamic, and resilient global model of fluid and solute flux than was previously possible.

  7. How do changes to plate thickness, length, and face-connectivity affect femoral cancellous bone's density and surface area? An investigation using regular cellular models.

    PubMed

    Anderson, I A; Carman, J B

    2000-03-01

    Models of regular cellular-solids representing femoral head 'medial group' bone were used to (1) compare thickness data for plate-like and beam-like structures at realistic surface areas and densities; (2) test the validity of a standard formula for trabecular thickness (Tb.Th); and (3) study how systematic changes in cancellous bone thicknesses, spacing, and face-connectivity affect relative density and surface area. Models of different face-connectivities, produced by plate removal from the unit cell, were fitted to bone density and surface area data. The medial group bone was anisotropic: the supero-inferior (SI) direction was the principal direction for bone plate alignment and the plane normal to this had the largest number of bone/void intersections per unit line length (P(I)). A comparison of boundary perimeter per unit area data, in planes normal to SI, with surface area data placed the medial group bone between prismatic structures in which walls are parallel to one principal direction and isotropic structures. Selective removal of plates from a closed-cell model produced a similar result. For the same relative density and surface-area, plate-like models had significantly thinner cross-sections than beam-like models. The formula for Tb.Th produced overestimates of model plate thickness by up to 20% at realistic femoral cancellous densities. Trends in data on surface area to volume ratio and density observed on sampled medial group bone could be simulated by plate thickness changes on models of intermediate face-connectivity (approximately 1.5) or by plate removal from models with relatively thick and short (low aspect-ratio) plates. The latter mechanism is unrealistic for it resulted in beam-like structures at low 'medial group' densities, an architecture unlike the predominantly plate-like bone in the sample.

  8. The statistical cusp - A flux transfer event model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. F.; Lockwood, M.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we predict the precipitation signatures which are associated with transient magnetopause reconnection, following recent observations of the dependence of dayside ionospheric convection on the orientation of the IMF. We then employ a simple model of the longitudinal motion of flux-transfer-event signatures to show how such events can easily reproduce the local time distribution of cusp occurrence probabilities, as observed by low-altitude satellites. This is true even in the limit where the cusp is a series of discrete events. Furthermore, we investigate the existence of double cusp patches predicted by the simple model and show how these events may be identified in the data.

  9. Neutronics Modeling of the High Flux Isotope Reactor using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, David; Primm, Trent; Freels, James D; Maldonado, G Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a versatile 85 MWth research reactor with cold and thermal neutron scattering, materials irradiation, isotope production, and neutron activation analysis capabilities. HFIR staff members are currently in the process of updating the thermal hydraulic and reactor transient modeling methodologies. COMSOL Multiphysics has been adopted for the thermal hydraulic analyses and has proven to be a powerful finite-element-based simulation tool for solving multiple physics-based systems of partial and ordinary differential equations. Modeling reactor transients is a challenging task because of the coupling of neutronics, heat transfer, and hydrodynamics. This paper presents a preliminary COMSOL-based neutronics study performed by creating a two-dimensional, two-group, diffusion neutronics model of HFIR to study the spatially-dependent, beginning-of-cycle fast and thermal neutron fluxes. The 238-group ENDF/B-VII neutron cross section library and NEWT, a two-dimensional, discrete-ordinates neutron transport code within the SCALE 6 code package, were used to calculate the two-group neutron cross sections required to solve the diffusion equations. The two-group diffusion equations were implemented in the COMSOL coefficient form PDE application mode and were solved via eigenvalue analysis using a direct (PARDISO) linear system solver. A COMSOL-provided adaptive mesh refinement algorithm was used to increase the number of elements in areas of largest numerical error to increase the accuracy of the solution. The flux distributions calculated by means of COMSOL/SCALE compare well with those calculated with benchmarked three-dimensional MCNP and KENO models, a necessary first step along the path to implementing two- and three-dimensional models of HFIR in COMSOL for the purpose of studying the spatial dependence of transient-induced behavior in the reactor core.

  10. A Dynamic Flux Dissolution Model for Oxygen Steelmaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadrolkar, Ameya; Andersson, Nils Å. I.; Dogan, Neslihan

    2017-02-01

    A modified model for prediction of flux dissolution in oxygen steelmaking process is presented in this study. The aim of this paper is to introduce a procedure for simulating the amount of dissolved lime with respect to the saturation concentration of CaO by coupling the existing thermodynamic and kinetic models simultaneously. The procedure is developed to calculate the saturation concentrations/solubility of CaO in slag using thermodynamic models namely FactSage™, Cell Model, and Thermo-Calc™. Total amount of dissolved lime is evaluated by integrating solubility values in the rate equation of lime dissolution over time taking into account the effects of physical properties and temperature of slag and particle size of flux additions and validated against industrial data available in literature. Comparison between measured and calculated undissolved lime shows a good agreement between them using any thermodynamic models even though there are some differences in the predictions of saturation concentration of CaO in slag. It has been shown that two distinct control mechanisms for lime dissolution in BOF slags exist and consideration of the free lime-controlled mechanism is essential for accurate prediction of dissolution rate of lime in slag.

  11. Video Meteor Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.

    2011-01-01

    The flux of meteoroids, or number of meteoroids per unit area per unit time, is critical for calibrating models of meteoroid stream formation and for estimating the hazard to spacecraft from shower and sporadic meteors. Although observations of meteors in the millimetre to centimetre size range are common, flux measurements (particularly for sporadic meteors, which make up the majority of meteoroid flux) are less so. It is necessary to know the collecting area and collection time for a given set of observations, and to correct for observing biases and the sensitivity of the system. Previous measurements of sporadic fluxes are summarized in Figure 1; the values are given as a total number of meteoroids striking the earth in one year to a given limiting mass. The Gr n et al. (1985) flux model is included in the figure for reference. Fluxes for sporadic meteoroids impacting the Earth have been calculated for objects in the centimeter size range using Super-Schmidt observations (Hawkins & Upton, 1958); this study used about 300 meteors, and used only the physical area of overlap of the cameras at 90 km to calculate the flux, corrected for angular speed of meteors, since a large angular speed reduces the maximum brightness of the meteor on the film, and radiant elevation, which takes into account the geometric reduction in flux when the meteors are not perpendicular to the horizontal. They bring up corrections for both partial trails (which tends to increase the collecting area) and incomplete overlap at heights other than 90 km (which tends to decrease it) as effects that will affect the flux, but estimated that the two effects cancelled one another. Halliday et al. (1984) calculated the flux of meteorite-dropping fireballs with fragment masses greater than 50 g, over the physical area of sky accessible to the MORP fireball cameras, counting only observations in clear weather. In the micron size range, LDEF measurements of small craters on spacecraft have been used to

  12. Quantum theory of atoms in molecules/charge-charge flux-dipole flux models for fundamental vibrational intensity changes on H-bond formation of water and hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Arnaldo F.; Richter, Wagner E.; Bruns, Roy E.; Terrabuio, Luiz A.; Haiduke, Roberto L. A.

    2014-02-28

    The Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules/Charge-Charge Flux-Dipole Flux (QTAIM/CCFDF) model has been used to investigate the electronic structure variations associated with intensity changes on dimerization for the vibrations of the water and hydrogen fluoride dimers as well as in the water-hydrogen fluoride complex. QCISD/cc-pVTZ wave functions applied in the QTAIM/CCFDF model accurately provide the fundamental band intensities of water and its dimer predicting symmetric and antisymmetric stretching intensity increases for the donor unit of 159 and 47 km mol{sup −1} on H-bond formation compared with the experimental values of 141 and 53 km mol{sup −1}. The symmetric stretching of the proton donor water in the dimer has intensity contributions parallel and perpendicular to its C{sub 2v} axis. The largest calculated increase of 107 km mol{sup −1} is perpendicular to this axis and owes to equilibrium atomic charge displacements on vibration. Charge flux decreases occurring parallel and perpendicular to this axis result in 42 and 40 km mol{sup −1} total intensity increases for the symmetric and antisymmetric stretches, respectively. These decreases in charge flux result in intensity enhancements because of the interaction contributions to the intensities between charge flux and the other quantities. Even though dipole flux contributions are much smaller than the charge and charge flux ones in both monomer and dimer water they are important for calculating the total intensity values for their stretching vibrations since the charge-charge flux interaction term cancels the charge and charge flux contributions. The QTAIM/CCFDF hydrogen-bonded stretching intensity strengthening of 321 km mol{sup −1} on HF dimerization and 592 km mol{sup −1} on HF:H{sub 2}O complexation can essentially be explained by charge, charge flux and their interaction cross term. Atomic contributions to the intensities are also calculated. The bridge hydrogen atomic contributions alone

  13. Quantum Paramagnet in a π Flux Triangular Lattice Hubbard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachel, Stephan; Laubach, Manuel; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2015-04-01

    We propose the π flux triangular lattice Hubbard model (π THM) as a prototypical setup to stabilize magnetically disordered quantum states of matter in the presence of charge fluctuations. The quantum paramagnetic domain of the π THM that we identify for intermediate Hubbard U is framed by a Dirac semimetal for weak coupling and by 120° Néel order for strong coupling. Generalizing the Klein duality from spin Hamiltonians to tight-binding models, the π THM maps to a Hubbard model which corresponds to the (JH,JK)=(-1 ,2 ) Heisenberg-Kitaev model in its strong coupling limit. The π THM provides a promising microscopic testing ground for exotic finite-U spin liquid ground states amenable to numerical investigation.

  14. Modeling Neisseria meningitidis metabolism: from genome to metabolic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Baart, Gino J E; Zomer, Bert; de Haan, Alex; van der Pol, Leo A; Beuvery, E Coen; Tramper, Johannes; Martens, Dirk E

    2007-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that can infect diverse sites within the human host. The major diseases caused by N. meningitidis are responsible for death and disability, especially in young infants. In general, most of the recent work on N. meningitidis focuses on potential antigens and their functions, immunogenicity, and pathogenicity mechanisms. Very little work has been carried out on Neisseria primary metabolism over the past 25 years. Using the genomic database of N. meningitidis serogroup B together with biochemical and physiological information in the literature we constructed a genome-scale flux model for the primary metabolism of N. meningitidis. The validity of a simplified metabolic network derived from the genome-scale metabolic network was checked using flux-balance analysis in chemostat cultures. Several useful predictions were obtained from in silico experiments, including substrate preference. A minimal medium for growth of N. meningitidis was designed and tested successfully in batch and chemostat cultures. The verified metabolic model describes the primary metabolism of N. meningitidis in a chemostat in steady state. The genome-scale model is valuable because it offers a framework to study N. meningitidis metabolism as a whole, or certain aspects of it, and it can also be used for the purpose of vaccine process development (for example, the design of growth media). The flux distribution of the main metabolic pathways (that is, the pentose phosphate pathway and the Entner-Douderoff pathway) indicates that the major part of pyruvate (69%) is synthesized through the ED-cleavage, a finding that is in good agreement with literature.

  15. Modeling Neisseria meningitidis metabolism: from genome to metabolic fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Baart, Gino JE; Zomer, Bert; de Haan, Alex; van der Pol, Leo A; Beuvery, E Coen; Tramper, Johannes; Martens, Dirk E

    2007-01-01

    Background Neisseria meningitidis is a human pathogen that can infect diverse sites within the human host. The major diseases caused by N. meningitidis are responsible for death and disability, especially in young infants. In general, most of the recent work on N. meningitidis focuses on potential antigens and their functions, immunogenicity, and pathogenicity mechanisms. Very little work has been carried out on Neisseria primary metabolism over the past 25 years. Results Using the genomic database of N. meningitidis serogroup B together with biochemical and physiological information in the literature we constructed a genome-scale flux model for the primary metabolism of N. meningitidis. The validity of a simplified metabolic network derived from the genome-scale metabolic network was checked using flux-balance analysis in chemostat cultures. Several useful predictions were obtained from in silico experiments, including substrate preference. A minimal medium for growth of N. meningitidis was designed and tested succesfully in batch and chemostat cultures. Conclusion The verified metabolic model describes the primary metabolism of N. meningitidis in a chemostat in steady state. The genome-scale model is valuable because it offers a framework to study N. meningitidis metabolism as a whole, or certain aspects of it, and it can also be used for the purpose of vaccine process development (for example, the design of growth media). The flux distribution of the main metabolic pathways (that is, the pentose phosphate pathway and the Entner-Douderoff pathway) indicates that the major part of pyruvate (69%) is synthesized through the ED-cleavage, a finding that is in good agreement with literature. PMID:17617894

  16. The Empirical Low Energy Ion Flux Model for the Terrestrial Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, William C.; Minow, Joseph I.; Diekmann, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    This document includes a viewgraph presentation plus the full paper presented at the conference. The Living With a Star Ion Flux Model (IFM) is a radiation environment risk mitigation tool that provides magnetospheric ion flux values for varying geomagnetic disturbance levels in the geospace environment. IFM incorporates flux observations from the Polar and Geotail spacecraft in a single statistical flux model. IFM is an engineering environment model which predicts the proton flux not only in the magnetosphere, but also in the solar wind and magnetosheath phenomenological regions. This paper describes the ion flux databases that allows for IFM output to be correlated with the geomagnetic activity level, as represented by the Kp index.

  17. Postal cancellation from spaceport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The John F. Kennedy Space Center, in cooperation with the United States Postal Service, is offering a cancellation service to interested philatelists for the space flight programs at Kennedy.Philatelists who wish to avail themselves of this service may do so by following the procedures outlined below: Specify the event for which you wish this service. There is a limit of five covers per customer per event.

  18. Generating cancelable fingerprint templates.

    PubMed

    Ratha, Nalini K; Chikkerur, Sharat; Connell, Jonathan H; Bolle, Ruud M

    2007-04-01

    Biometrics-based authentication systems offer obvious usability advantages over traditional password and token-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns. A biometric is permanently associated with a user and cannot be changed. Hence, if a biometric identifier is compromised, it is lost forever and possibly for every application where the biometric is used. Moreover, if the same biometric is used in multiple applications, a user can potentially be tracked from one application to the next by cross-matching biometric databases. In this paper, we demonstrate several methods to generate multiple cancelable identifiers from fingerprint images to overcome these problems. In essence, a user can be given as many biometric identifiers as needed by issuing a new transformation "key." The identifiers can be cancelled and replaced when compromised. We empirically compare the performance of several algorithms such as Cartesian, polar, and surface folding transformations of the minutiae positions. It is demonstrated through multiple experiments that we can achieve revocability and prevent cross-matching of biometric databases. It is also shown that the transforms are noninvertible by demonstrating that it is computationally as hard to recover the original biometric identifier from a transformed version as by randomly guessing. Based on these empirical results and a theoretical analysis we conclude that feature-level cancelable biometric construction is practicable in large biometric deployments.

  19. Southern Ocean vertical iron fluxes; the ocean model effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schourup-Kristensen, V.; Haucke, J.; Losch, M. J.; Wolf-Gladrow, D.; Voelker, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a key role in the climate system, but commonly used large-scale ocean general circulation biogeochemical models give different estimates of current and future Southern Ocean net primary and export production. The representation of the Southern Ocean iron sources plays an important role for the modeled biogeochemistry. Studies of the iron supply to the surface mixed layer have traditionally focused on the aeolian and sediment contributions, but recent work has highlighted the importance of the vertical supply from below. We have performed a model study in which the biogeochemical model REcoM2 was coupled to two different ocean models, the Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) and the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) and analyzed the magnitude of the iron sources to the surface mixed layer from below in the two models. Our results revealed a remarkable difference in terms of mechanism and magnitude of transport. The mean iron supply from below in the Southern Ocean was on average four times higher in MITgcm than in FESOM and the dominant pathway was entrainment in MITgcm, whereas diffusion dominated in FESOM. Differences in the depth and seasonal amplitude of the mixed layer between the models affect on the vertical iron profile, the relative position of the base of the mixed layer and ferricline and thereby also on the iron fluxes. These differences contribute to differences in the phytoplankton composition in the two models, as well as in the timing of the onset of the spring bloom. The study shows that the choice of ocean model has a significant impact on the iron supply to the Southern Ocean mixed layer and thus on the modeled carbon cycle, with possible implications for model runs predicting the future carbon uptake in the region.

  20. Evaluation of a vital staining protocol with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride for cancellous bone in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, René; Bischoff, Sabine J; Matziolis, Georg; Schmidt, Martin

    2017-03-27

    Decision making on the optimal surgical treatment of fractures often is hampered by the lack of a method for direct assessment of bone vitality. In various contexts, for example to determine the extents of cerebral insults or of myocardial infarctions in experimental studies, tetrazolium based staining procedures of vital cells are widely used. Here, we set out to test the applicability of tetrazolium based staining on bone samples. 8 brains and 26 femoral heads from sheep were used to prepare tissue slices, which were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) at various times (1 to 12h) after explantation. Staining of tissue slices was quantified by densitometric image analysis. Spectrophotometry was used for quantification in cultured cells. TTC-staining of tissue slices indicated detectability of vital cells in slices from both tissues up to 4h after explantation. Staining intensity at later time-points was indistinguishable from the staining of untreated samples or sodium azide treated (necrotic cells) controls. We provide experimental evidence that the choice of the optimal surgical approach for the treatment of fractures involving cancellous bone could be aided by a simple staining procedure for vital bone. However, the described procedure depends on the availability of bone specimens (slices). Therefore, search for an improved stain directly applicable to the bone surface is needed.

  1. Modelling sediment fluxes in the Danube River Basin with SWAT.

    PubMed

    Vigiak, Olga; Malagó, Anna; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Obreja, Florin; Poesen, Jean; Habersack, Helmut; Fehér, János; Grošelj, Samo

    2017-12-01

    Sediment management is of prior concern in the Danube Basin for provision of economic and environmental services. This study aimed at assessing current (1995-2009) sediment fluxes of the Danube Basin with SWAT model and identifying sediment budget knowledge gaps. After hydrologic calibration, hillslope gross erosion and sediment yields were broadly calibrated using ancillary data (measurements in plots and small catchments, and national and European erosion maps). Mean annual sediment concentrations (SSC) from 269 gauging stations (2968 station-year entries; median 19mg/L, interquartile range IQR 10-36mg/L) were used for calibrating in-stream sediments. SSC residuals (simulations-observations) median was 2mg/L (IQR -14; +22mg/L). In the validation dataset (172 gauging stations; 1457 data-entries, median 17mg/L, IQR 10-28), median residual was 9mg/L (IQR -9; +39mg/L). Percent bias in an independent dataset of annual sediment yields (SSY; 689 data-entries in 95 stations; median 52t/km(2)/y, IQR 20-151t/km(2)/y) was -21.5%. Overall, basin-wide model performance was considered satisfactory. Sediment fluxes appeared overestimated in some regions (Sava and Velika Morava), and underestimated in others (Siret-Prut and Romanian Danube), but unbiased elsewhere. According to the model, most sediments were generated by hillslope erosion. Streambank degradation contributed about 5% of sediments, and appeared important in high stream power Alpine reaches. Sediment trapping in reservoirs and floodplain deposition was probably underestimated and counterbalanced by high stream deposition. Factor analysis showed that model underestimations were correlated to Alpine and karst areas, whereas underestimations occurred in high seismicity areas of the Lower Danube. Contemporary sediment fluxes were about one third of values reported for the 1980s for several tributaries of the Middle and Lower Danube. Knowledge gaps affecting the sediment budget were identified in the contributions of

  2. Noise cancellation of memristive neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shiping; Zeng, Zhigang; Huang, Tingwen; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates noise cancellation problem of memristive neural networks. Based on the reproducible gradual resistance tuning in bipolar mode, a first-order voltage-controlled memristive model is employed with asymmetric voltage thresholds. Since memristive devices are especially tiny to be densely packed in crossbar-like structures and possess long time memory needed by neuromorphic synapses, this paper shows how to approximate the behavior of synapses in neural networks using this memristive device. Also certain templates of memristive neural networks are established to implement the noise cancellation.

  3. Modeling fluxes and form in landslide-prone terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roering, J. J.; Booth, A. M.; Stock, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Landslides dramatically alter the Earth's surface over short timescales. The mass transfer associated with a limited number of slope failures can dominate the sediment budget of a region for decades or longer. The initiation, failure geometry, and runout of individual landslides depend on a range of factors and cannot be predicted from current models. Given these realities of landslide behavior over human timescales, it is challenging to reasonably represent these processes in landscape evolution models. Here, we evaluate the ability of two landslide models, both of which are formulated to apply at geomorphic timescales, to generate topographic patterns and sediment flux rates observed in natural landscapes. Episodic debris flow activity is ubiquitous in steep, low-order mountainous catchments and generates valley networks with low concavity. A physically-based model for debris flow incision (Stock and Dietrich, GSA Bull, 2006) proposes that incision rates depend on the frequency, volume, and velocity of debris flows as well as the density of trigger sites and the state of bedrock weathering in low-order valleys. Valley slope angles are predicted to decline with drainage area according to how these properties vary spatially. We calibrated the model for a well-studied small catchment in the Oregon Coast Range using cosmogenic radionuclide erosion rates and then analyzed the slope-area signature of low-order valleys across much of the Central Oregon Coast Range to explore spatial variations in baselevel lowering. This endeavor shows that baselevel lowering rates vary significantly due to patches of resistant bedrock, drainage reorganization, and tectonic forcing. In regions with weak sedimentary bedrock, earthflows can reduce hillslope gradients, promote gullying, and dominate sediment yield through their downslope translation. A one-dimensional, physically-based model for earthflow-prone hillslope evolution (Booth and Roering, JGR, in press) incorporates earthflow

  4. High Flux Isotope Reactor system RELAP5 input model

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic computational model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been developed using the RELAP5 program. The purpose of the model is to provide a state-of-the art thermal-hydraulic simulation tool for analyzing selected hypothetical accident scenarios for a revised HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The model includes (1) a detailed representation of the reactor core and other vessel components, (2) three heat exchanger/pump cells, (3) pressurizing pumps and letdown valves, and (4) secondary coolant system (with less detail than the primary system). Data from HFIR operation, component tests, tests in facility mockups and the HFIR, HFIR specific experiments, and other pertinent experiments performed independent of HFIR were used to construct the model and validate it to the extent permitted by the data. The detailed version of the model has been used to simulate loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), while the abbreviated version has been developed for the operational transients that allow use of a less detailed nodalization. Analysis of station blackout with core long-term decay heat removal via natural convection has been performed using the core and vessel portions of the detailed model.

  5. Electron flux models for different energies at geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, R. J.; Balikhin, M. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walker, S. N.; Billings, S. A.; Ganushkina, N.

    2016-10-01

    Forecast models were derived for energetic electrons at all energy ranges sampled by the third-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). These models were based on Multi-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous inputs methodologies. The model inputs include the solar wind velocity, density and pressure, the fraction of time that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the IMF contribution of a solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function proposed by Boynton et al. (2011b), and the Dst index. As such, this study has deduced five new 1 h resolution models for the low-energy electrons measured by GOES (30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV, 200-350 keV, and 350-600 keV) and extended the existing >800 keV and >2 MeV Geostationary Earth Orbit electron fluxes models to forecast at a 1 h resolution. All of these models were shown to provide accurate forecasts, with prediction efficiencies ranging between 66.9% and 82.3%.

  6. High Flux Isotope Reactor system RELAP5 input model

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G.; Wendel, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A thermal-hydraulic computational model of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has been developed using the RELAP5 program. The purpose of the model is to provide a state-of-the art thermal-hydraulic simulation tool for analyzing selected hypothetical accident scenarios for a revised HFIR Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The model includes (1) a detailed representation of the reactor core and other vessel components, (2) three heat exchanger/pump cells, (3) pressurizing pumps and letdown valves, and (4) secondary coolant system (with less detail than the primary system). Data from HFIR operation, component tests, tests in facility mockups and the HFIR, HFIR specific experiments, and other pertinent experiments performed independent of HFIR were used to construct the model and validate it to the extent permitted by the data. The detailed version of the model has been used to simulate loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), while the abbreviated version has been developed for the operational transients that allow use of a less detailed nodalization. Analysis of station blackout with core long-term decay heat removal via natural convection has been performed using the core and vessel portions of the detailed model.

  7. Electron Flux Models for Different Energies at Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boynton, R. J.; Balikhin, M. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Walker, S. N.; Billings, S. A.; Ganushkina, N.

    2016-01-01

    Forecast models were derived for energetic electrons at all energy ranges sampled by the third-generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). These models were based on Multi-Input Single-Output Nonlinear Autoregressive Moving Average with Exogenous inputs methodologies. The model inputs include the solar wind velocity, density and pressure, the fraction of time that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was southward, the IMF contribution of a solar wind-magnetosphere coupling function proposed by Boynton et al. (2011b), and the Dst index. As such, this study has deduced five new 1 h resolution models for the low-energy electrons measured by GOES (30-50 keV, 50-100 keV, 100-200 keV, 200-350 keV, and 350-600 keV) and extended the existing >800 keV and >2 MeV Geostationary Earth Orbit electron fluxes models to forecast at a 1 h resolution. All of these models were shown to provide accurate forecasts, with prediction efficiencies ranging between 66.9% and 82.3%.

  8. Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model.

    PubMed

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

    2010-03-01

    Short- and long-wave radiation flux densities absorbed by people have a significant influence on their energy balance. The heat effect of the absorbed radiation flux densities is parameterised by the mean radiant temperature. This paper presents the physical basis of the RayMan model, which simulates the short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the three-dimensional surroundings in simple and complex environments. RayMan has the character of a freely available radiation and human-bioclimate model. The aim of the RayMan model is to calculate radiation flux densities, sunshine duration, shadow spaces and thermo-physiologically relevant assessment indices using only a limited number of meteorological and other input data. A comparison between measured and simulated values for global radiation and mean radiant temperature shows that the simulated data closely resemble measured data.

  9. Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

    2010-03-01

    Short- and long-wave radiation flux densities absorbed by people have a significant influence on their energy balance. The heat effect of the absorbed radiation flux densities is parameterised by the mean radiant temperature. This paper presents the physical basis of the RayMan model, which simulates the short- and long-wave radiation flux densities from the three-dimensional surroundings in simple and complex environments. RayMan has the character of a freely available radiation and human-bioclimate model. The aim of the RayMan model is to calculate radiation flux densities, sunshine duration, shadow spaces and thermo-physiologically relevant assessment indices using only a limited number of meteorological and other input data. A comparison between measured and simulated values for global radiation and mean radiant temperature shows that the simulated data closely resemble measured data.

  10. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  11. GEM-CEDAR Challenge: Poynting Flux at DMSP and Modeled Joule Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; Wiltberger, Michael; Raeder, Joachim; Li, Wenhui; Toth, Gabor; Welling, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  12. GEM-CEDAR Challenge: Poynting Flux at DMSP and Modeled Joule Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; hide

    2016-01-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  13. GEM-CEDAR challenge: Poynting flux at DMSP and modeled Joule heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastätter, Lutz; Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Kilcommons, Liam M.; Knipp, Delores J.; Codrescu, Mihail; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Emery, Barbara; Weimer, Daniel R.; Cosgrove, Russell; Wiltberger, Michael; Raeder, Joachim; Li, Wenhui; Tóth, Gábor; Welling, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Poynting flux into the ionosphere measures the electromagnetic energy coming from the magnetosphere. This energy flux can vary greatly between quiet times and geomagnetic active times. As part of the Geospace Environment Modeling-coupling energetics and dynamics of atmospheric regions modeling challenge, physics-based models of the 3-D ionosphere and ionospheric electrodynamics solvers of magnetosphere models that specify Joule heat and empirical models specifying Poynting flux were run for six geomagnetic storm events of varying intensity. We compared model results with Poynting flux values along the DMSP-15 satellite track computed from ion drift meter and magnetic field observations. Although being a different quantity, Joule heat can in practice be correlated to incoming Poynting flux because the energy is dissipated primarily in high latitudes where Poynting flux is being deposited. Within the physics-based model group, we find mixed results with some models overestimating Joule heat and some models agreeing better with observed Poynting flux rates as integrated over auroral passes. In contrast, empirical models tend to underestimate integrated Poynting flux values. Modeled Joule heat or Poynting flux patterns often resemble the observed Poynting flux patterns on a large scale, but amplitudes can differ by a factor of 2 or larger due to the highly localized nature of observed Poynting flux deposition that is not captured by the models. In addition, the positioning of modeled patterns appear to be randomly shifted against the observed Poynting flux energy input. This study is the first to compare Poynting flux and Joule heat in a large variety of models of the ionosphere.

  14. Estimation of homogeneous nucleation flux via a kinetic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, C. F.; Bauer, S. H.

    1991-01-01

    The proposed kinetic model for condensation under homogeneous conditions, and the onset of unidirectional cluster growth in supersaturated gases, does not suffer from the conceptual flaws that characterize classical nucleation theory. When a full set of simultaneous rate equation is solved, a characteristic time emerges, for each cluster size, at which the production rate, and its rate of conversion to the next size (n + 1) are equal. Procedures for estimating the essential parameters are proposed; condensation fluxes J(kin) exp ss are evaluated. Since there are practical limits to the cluster size that can be incorporated in the set of simultaneous first-order differential equations, a code was developed for computing an approximate J(th) exp ss based on estimates of a 'constrained equilibrium' distribution, and identification of its minimum.

  15. Staggered Flux State in Two-Dimensional Hubbard Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Hisatoshi; Tamura, Shun; Ogata, Masao

    2016-12-01

    The stability and other properties of a staggered flux (SF) state or a correlated d-density wave state are studied for the Hubbard (t-t'-U) model on extended square lattices, as a low-lying state that competes with the dx2 - y2-wave superconductivity (d-SC) and possibly causes the pseudogap phenomena in underdoped high-Tc cuprates and organic κ-BEDT-TTF salts. In calculations, a variational Monte Carlo method is used. In the trial wave function, a configuration-dependent phase factor, which is vital to treat a current-carrying state for a large U/t, is introduced in addition to ordinary correlation factors. Varying U/t, t'/t, and the doping rate (δ) systematically, we show that the SF state becomes more stable than the normal state (projected Fermi sea) for a strongly correlated (U/t ≳ 5) and underdoped (δ ≲ 0.16) area. The decrease in energy is sizable, particularly in the area where Mott physics prevails and the circular current (order parameter) is strongly suppressed. These features are consistent with those for the t-J model. The effect of the frustration t'/t plays a crucial role in preserving charge homogeneity and appropriately describing the behavior of hole- and electron-doped cuprates and κ-BEDT-TTF salts. We argue that the SF state does not coexist with d-SC and is not a "normal state" from which d-SC arises. We also show that a spin current (flux or nematic) state is never stabilized in the same regime.

  16. Quantifying Greenland freshwater flux underestimates in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Christopher M.; Piecuch, Christopher G.; Chaudhuri, Ayan H.

    2016-05-01

    Key processes regulating the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) are not represented in current-generation climate models. Here using output from 19 different climate models forced with a high-end business-as-usual emissions pathway, we compare modeled freshwater fluxes (FWF) to a parameterization based on midtropospheric temperature. By the mid 21st century, parameterized GIS FWF is 478 ± 215 km3 yr-1 larger than modeled—over 3 times the 1992-2011 rate of GIS mass loss. By the late 21st century, ensemble mean parameterized GIS FWF anomalies are comparable to FWF anomalies over the northern North Atlantic Ocean, equivalent to approximately 11 cm of global mean sea level rise. The magnitude and spread of these underestimates underscores the need for assessments of the coupled response of the ocean to increased FWF that recognize: (1) the widely varying freshwater budgets of each model and (2) uncertainty in the relationship between GIS FWF and atmospheric temperature.

  17. On LBNE neutrino flux systematic uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Paul L. G.; Hylen, James; Marchionni, Alberto; Fields, Laura; Bashyal, Amit; Park, Seongtae; Watson, Blake

    2015-10-15

    The systematic uncertainties in the neutrino flux of the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment, due to alignment uncertanties and tolerances of the neutrino beamline components, are estimated. In particular residual systematics are evaluated in the determination of the neutrino flux at the far detector, assuming that the experiment will be equipped with a near detector with the same target material of the far detector, thereby canceling most of the uncertainties from hadroproduction and neutrino cross sections. This calculation is based on a detailed Geant4-based model of the neutrino beam line that includes the target, two focusing horns, the decay pipe and ancillary items, such as shielding.

  18. A modified force-restore approach to modeling snow-surface heat fluxes

    Treesearch

    Charles H. Luce; David G. Tarboton

    2001-01-01

    Accurate modeling of the energy balance of a snowpack requires good estimates of the snow surface temperature. The snow surface temperature allows a balance between atmospheric heat fluxes and the conductive flux into the snowpack. While the dependency of atmospheric fluxes on surface temperature is reasonably well understood and parameterized, conduction of heat from...

  19. Developing a high-resolution CO2 flux inversion model for global and regional scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Janardanan Achari, R.; Oda, T.; Ito, A.; Saito, M.; W Kaiser, J.; Belikov, D.; Ganshin, A.; Valsala, V.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    We develop and test an iterative inversion framework that is designed for estimating surface CO2 fluxes at a high spatial resolution using a Lagrangian-Eulerian coupled tracer transport model and atmospheric CO2 data collected by the global in-situ network and satellite observations. In our inverse modeling system, we employ the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART that was coupled to the Eulerian atmospheric tracer transport model (NIES-TM). We also derived an adjoint of the coupled model. Weekly corrections to prior fluxes are calculated at a spatial resolution of the FLEXPART-simulated surface flux responses (0.1 degree). Fossil fuel (ODIAC) and biomass burning (GFAS) emissions are given at original model spatial resolutions (0.1 degree), while other fluxes are interpolated from a coarser resolution. The terrestrial biosphere fluxes are simulated with the VISIT model at 0.5 degree resolution. Ocean fluxes are calculated using a 4D-Var assimilation system (OTTM) of the surface pCO2 observations. The flux response functions simulated with FLEXPART are used in forward and adjoint runs of the coupled transport model. To obtain a best fit to the observations we tested a set of optimization algorithms, including quasi-Newtonian algorithms and implicitly restarted Lanczos method. The square root of covariance matrix for surface fluxes is implemented as implicit diffusion operator, while the adjoint of it is derived using automatic code differentiation tool. The prior and posterior flux uncertainties are evaluated using singular vectors of scaled tracer transport operator. The weekly flux uncertainties and flux uncertainty reduction due to assimilating GOSAT XCO2 data were estimated for a period of one year. The model was applied to assimilating one year of Obspack data, and produced satisfactory flux correction results. Regional version of the model was applied to inverse model analysis of the CO2 flux distrubution in West Siberia using continuous observation

  20. Exponential flux-controlled memristor model and its floating emulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Fa-Qiang; Ma, Xi-Kui

    2015-11-01

    As commercial memristors are still unavailable in the market, mathematic models and emulators which can imitate the features of the memristor are meaningful for further research. In this paper, based on the analyses of characteristics of the q-φ curve, an exponential flux-controlled model, which has the quality that its memductance (memristance) will keep monotonically increasing or decreasing unless the voltage’s polarity reverses (if not approach the boundaries), is constructed. A new approach to designing the floating emulator of the memristor is also proposed. This floating structure can flexibly meet various demands for the current through the memristor (especially the demand for a larger current). The simulations and experiments are presented to confirm the effectiveness of this model and its floating emulator. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51377124 and 51221005), the Foundation for the Author of National Excellent Doctoral Dissertation of China (Grant No. 201337), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0457), and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province of China (Grant No. 2012JQ7026).

  1. Modelling of recharge and pollutant fluxes to urban groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Abraham; Tellam, John

    2006-05-01

    Urban groundwater resources are of considerable importance to the long-term viability of many cities world-wide, yet prediction of the quantity and quality of recharge is only rarely attempted at anything other than a very basic level. This paper describes the development of UGIf, a simple model written within a GIS, designed to provide estimates of spatially distributed recharge and recharge water quality in unconfined but covered aquifers. The following processes (with their calculation method indicated) are included: runoff and interception (curve number method); evapotranspiration (Penman-Grindley); interflow (empirical index approach); volatilization (Henry's law); sorption (distribution coefficient); and degradation (first order decay). The input data required are: meteorological data, landuse/cover map with event mean concentration attributes, geological maps with hydraulic and geochemical attributes, and topographic and water table elevation data in grid form. Standard outputs include distributions of: surface runoff, infiltration, potential recharge, ground level slope, interflow, actual recharge, pollutant fluxes in surface runoff, travel times of each pollutant through the unsaturated zone, and the pollutant fluxes and concentrations at the water table. The process of validation has commenced with a study of the Triassic Sandstone aquifer underlying Birmingham, UK. UGIf predicts a similar average recharge rate for the aquifer as previous groundwater flow modelling studies, but with significantly more spatial detail: in particular the results indicate that recharge through paved areas may be more important than previously thought. The results also highlight the need for more knowledge/data on the following: runoff estimation; interflow (including the effects of lateral flow and channelling on flow times and therefore chemistry); evapotranspiration in paved areas; the nature of unsaturated zone flow below paved areas; and the role of the pipe network

  2. Stratification and energy fluxes in the anelastic convection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejda, Pavel; Reshetnyak, Maxim

    2013-04-01

    Convection in the planetary cores is usually connected with the geostrophic state. At the onset of convection, the ratio of horizontal scale to the scale along the axis of rotation is proportional to the cube root of the Ekman number, which characterises the ratio of the viscous forces to the Coriolis force. The Ekman number is extremely small in the liquid cores, which is a source of strong anisotropy. Even if further increase of the heat sources leads to decrease of anisotropy, the final state is still highly anisotropic. The influence of the rapid rotation on the structure of the flows in the physical space is also manifested by a substantial change of the spectral properties of the turbulence in the core (Reshetnyak and Hejda, 2008; Hejda and Reshetnyak, 2009). If for the non-rotating flow the kinetic energy in the wave space propagates from the large scales to the small dissipative scales (the so-called direct Richardson-Kolmogorov cascade), then in presence of rotation the turbulence degenerates to the quasi two-dimensional state and the inverse cascade of the kinetic energy is observed. Having in mind that Cartesian and spherical geometries exhibit similar results and reproduce the inverse cascades of the kinetic energy (Reshetnyak and Hejda, 2012), there is an open question how this cascade contributes to the more general energy balance, which includes the heat flux equation. As the heat energy definition in the Boussinesq model is quite questionable, we consider the anelastic model, where the heat fluxes can be compared with the kinetic energy fluxes in the adequate way. Here we consider the spherical geometry model in the shell that limits our study to the cascades in the azimuthal wave-number. As the self-consistent anelastic model includes new term, the adiabatic cooling, which produces "stratification" in the outer part of the core, we consider its influence on convection in the physical and wave spaces. We show that even small cooling can change the

  3. Forest floor methane flux modelled by soil water content and ground vegetation - comparison to above canopy flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Peltola, Olli; Haikarainen, Iikka; Ryhti, Kira; Rannik, Üllar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2017-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is an important and strong greenhouse gas of which atmospheric concentration is rising. While boreal forests are considered as an important sink of CH4 due to soil CH4 oxidation, the soils have also a capacity to emit CH4. Moreover, vegetation is shown to contribute to the ecosystem-atmosphere CH4 flux, and it has been estimated to be the least well known natural sources of CH4. In addition to well-known CH4 emissions from wetland plants, even boreal trees have been discovered to emit CH4. At the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) II station in Hyytiälä, southern Finland (61° 51' N, 24°17' E; 181 m asl), we have detected small CH4 emissions from above the canopy of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) dominated forest. To assess the origin of the observed emissions, we conducted forest floor CH4 flux measurements with 54 soil chambers at the footprint area of the above canopy flux measurements during two growing seasons. In addition, we measured the soil volumetric water content (VWC) every time next to the forest floor chamber measurements, and estimated vegetation coverages inside the chambers. In order to model the forest floor CH4 flux at the whole footprint area, we combined lidar (light detection and ranging) data with the field measurements. To predict the soil water content and thus the potential CH4 flux, we used local elevation, slope, and ground return intensity (GRI), calculated from the lidar data (National Land Survey of Finland). We categorized the soil chambers into four classes based on the VWC so that the class with the highest VWC values includes all the soil chambers with a potential to emit CH4. Based on a statistically significant correlation between the VWC and the forest floor CH4 flux (r = 0.30, p < 0.001), we modelled the potential forest floor CH4 flux of the whole area. The results of the soil chamber measurements show a few areas of the forest floor with significant CH4 emissions. The modelled map

  4. On the convergence of perturbative coupled cluster triples expansions: error cancellations in the CCSD(T) model and the importance of amplitude relaxation.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Janus J; Jørgensen, Poul; Gauss, Jürgen

    2015-01-07

    Recently, we proposed a novel Lagrangian-based perturbation series-the CCSD(T-n) series-which systematically corrects the coupled cluster singles and doubles (CCSD) energy in orders of the Møller-Plesset fluctuation potential for effects due to triple excitations. In the present study, we report numerical results for the CCSD(T-n) series up through fourth order which show the predicted convergence trend throughout the series towards the energy of its target, the coupled cluster singles, doubles, and triples (CCSDT) model. Since effects due to the relaxation of the CCSD singles and doubles amplitudes enter the CCSD(T-n) series at fourth order (the CCSD(T-4) model), we are able to separate these effects from the total energy correction and thereby emphasize their crucial importance. Furthermore, we illustrate how the ΛCCSD[T]/(T) and CCSD[T]/(T) models, which in slightly different manners augment the CCSD energy by the [T] and (T) corrections rationalized from many-body perturbation theory, may be viewed as approximations to the second-order CCSD(T-2) model. From numerical comparisons with the CCSD(T-n) models, we show that the extraordinary performance of the ΛCCSD[T]/(T) and CCSD[T]/(T) models relies on fortuitous, yet rather consistent, cancellations of errors. As a side product of our investigations, we are led to reconsider the asymmetric ΛCCSD[T] model due to both its rigorous theoretical foundation and its performance, which is shown to be similar to that of the CCSD(T) model for systems at equilibrium geometry and superior to it for distorted systems. In both the calculations at equilibrium and distorted geometries, however, the ΛCCSD[T] and CCSD(T) models are shown to be outperformed by the fourth-order CCSD(T-4) model.

  5. A systematic approach for comparing modeled biospheric carbon fluxes across regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntzinger, D. N.; Gourdji, S. M.; Mueller, K. L.; Michalak, A. M.

    2011-06-01

    Given the large differences between biospheric model estimates of regional carbon exchange, there is a need to understand and reconcile the predicted spatial variability of fluxes across models. This paper presents a set of quantitative tools that can be applied to systematically compare flux estimates despite the inherent differences in model formulation. The presented methods include variogram analysis, variable selection, and geostatistical regression. These methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to assess and identify differences in spatial variability in flux estimates across North America among a small subset of models, as well as differences in the environmental drivers that best explain the spatial variability of predicted fluxes. The examined models are the Simple Biosphere (SiB 3.0), Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA), and CASA coupled with the Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA GFEDv2), and the analyses are performed on model-predicted net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and ecosystem respiration. Variogram analysis reveals consistent seasonal differences in spatial variability among modeled fluxes at a 1° × 1° spatial resolution. However, significant differences are observed in the overall magnitude of the carbon flux spatial variability across models, in both net ecosystem exchange and component fluxes. Results of the variable selection and geostatistical regression analyses suggest fundamental differences between the models in terms of the factors that explain the spatial variability of predicted flux. For example, carbon flux is more strongly correlated with percent land cover in CASA GFEDv2 than in SiB or CASA. Some of the differences in spatial patterns of estimated flux can be linked back to differences in model formulation, and would have been difficult to identify simply by comparing net fluxes between models. Overall, the systematic approach presented here provides a set of tools for comparing predicted grid

  6. The role of plant phenology in stomatal ozone flux modeling.

    PubMed

    Anav, Alessandro; Liu, Qiang; De Marco, Alessandra; Proietti, Chiara; Savi, Flavia; Paoletti, Elena; Piao, Shilong

    2017-07-19

    Plant phenology plays a pivotal role in the climate system as it regulates the gas exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere. The uptake of ozone by forest is estimated through several meteorological variables and a specific function describing the beginning and the termination of plant growing season; actually, in many risk assessment studies, this function is based on a simple latitude and topography model. In this study, using two satellite datasets, we apply and compare six methods to estimate the start and the end dates of the growing season across a large region covering all Europe for the year 2011. Results show a large variability between the green-up and dormancy dates estimated using the six different methods, with differences greater than one month. However, interestingly, all the methods display a common spatial pattern in the uptake of ozone by forests with a marked change in the magnitude, up to 1.9 TgO3 /year, and corresponding to a difference of 25% in the amount of ozone that enters the leaves. Our results indicate that improved estimates of ozone fluxes require a better representation of plant phenology in the models used for O3 risk assessment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Soil carbonyl sulfide fluxes in a Mediterranean ecosystem: insights from model-data fusion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Seibt, U. H.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lett, C.

    2013-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is linked to biosphere components of the carbon cycle, due in large part to its hydrolysis by the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). Stomatal diffusion models and observations at leaf and ecosystem scales have demonstrated the potential of COS as a tracer for Gross Primary Production (GPP). Although considered small relative to canopy COS fluxes, accurate knowledge of soil COS fluxes is required for the use of net ecosystem COS fluxes in carbon flux partitioning. However, extensive field measurements of soil COS fluxes are rare and process-based modeling is limited. Here we report continuous chamber measurements of soil COS fluxes in a Mediterranean ecosystem in the Santa Monica Mountains, California during April and early May 2013. Both COS uptake and emissions were observed, but the soil acted as a net sink in most conditions and was a net source only when soil temperatures were above 22 C. COS sink fluxes were positively correlated with soil water content and CO2 fluxes. COS uptake had a maximum at a temperature around 15 C. However, no single environmental variable could be correlated to COS fluxes with an r-square > 0.6. COS fluxes from soil chambers ranged from -9 to 2.5 pmol m-2 s-1. Leaf litter appeared to increase soil COS metabolic activity. We observed huge bursts of soil COS uptake induced by a precipitation event, probably due to enhanced soil microbial activity resulting from alleviated water limitation and a decrease in soil temperature towards the optimum. We used a soil gas exchange model coupled with CA enzyme kinetics to simulate the soil COS fluxes. Micrometeorological and soil data were used to drive the soil flux model. Model simulations indicated that diurnal and synoptic variations of COS fluxes were driven by soil temperature and water content, controlling both CA activity and diffusion. We suggest that multiple parameters need to be optimized to reduce uncertainties in models of soil COS fluxes at larger scales.

  8. A MODEL OF CORONAL STREAMERS WITH UNDERLYING FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Cottaar, M.; Fan, Y.

    2009-10-10

    We present global two-dimensional axisymmetric isothermal MHD simulations of the dynamic evolution of a coronal helmet streamer, driven at the lower boundary by the emergence of a twisted flux rope. By varying both the detached toroidal and poloidal fluxes emerged into the corona, but fixing the normal flux distribution at the surface at the end of the emergence, we obtain solutions that either settle to a new steady state of a stable helmet streamer containing a flux rope, or result in a disruption of the helmet with the underlying flux rope being expelled in a coronal mass ejection (CME)-like eruption. In all of the cases studied, we find that the transition from a stable to an eruptive state takes place at a magnetic energy that is very close to the Aly open field energy. Furthermore, we find that the transition from a stable to an eruptive end state does not occur at a single critical value of the total relative magnetic helicity, but depends on the profile of the underlying flux rope. Cases where the detached flux rope contains a higher amount of self-helicity, i.e., higher internal twist or detached poloidal flux, are found to become eruptive at a significantly lower total helicity. For the eruptive cases, the detached flux rope after emergence first rises quasi-statically due to a gradual opening of the field lines at the edge of the streamer and a slow reconnection below the flux rope, which continues to slowly increase the amount of the detached flux. This decreases the downward magnetic tension on the flux rope. The dynamic eruption is initiated when the magnetic pressure gradient no longer decreases fast enough to balance the decrease in the magnetic tension. Later rapid reconnections below the flux rope are important for accelerating the flux rope. For the stable helmets, we find that no cavities are formed due to the simplifying assumption of isothermal energetics and the uniform density lower boundary condition. However during the eruption we see the

  9. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Verma, Shashi B.; Starks, Patrick; Norman, John M.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations to model fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation using routine weather data collected by automated weather stations was tested and the estimated fluxes were compared with fluxes measured over wheat. The model Cupid was used to model the fluxes. Two or more automated weather stations, interrogated by radio frequency and other means, were utilized to examine some of the climatic variability of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE) site, to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams from various locations at the site and to compare modeled latent and sensible heat fluxes with measured values. Some bidirectional reflected and emitted radiation data were collected from 23 locations throughout the FIFE site. Analysis of these data along with analysis of the measured sensible and latent heat fluxes is just beginning.

  10. The association of flares to cancelling magnetic features on the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livi, Silvia H. B.; Martin, Sara; Wang, Haimin; Ai, Guoxiang

    1989-01-01

    Previous work relating flares to evolutionary changes of photospheric solar magnetic fields are reviewed and reinterpreted in the light of recent observations of canceling magnetic fields. The results show that cancelation happens with fields spanning a wide range of magnetic field strengths. Flares of all magnitudes begin adjacent to cancelation sites, whether the associated active region as a whole is developing or decaying. Both small and big flares are initiated near canceling sites, from the microflares associated with ephemeral regions to the kernels of the great flares. Canceling magnetic flux is observed or deduced to be the common denominator among all observed associations of flares to changing magnetic fields. It is proposed that canceling magnetic fields are a necessary evolutionary condition for the initiation of solar flares.

  11. Scaling and memory in the non-Poisson process of limit order cancelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xiao-Hui; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Gu, Gao-Feng; Ren, Fei; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-07-01

    The order submission and cancelation processes are two crucial aspects in the price formation of stocks traded in order-driven markets. We investigate the dynamics of order cancelation by studying the statistical properties of inter-cancelation durations, defined as the waiting times between consecutive order cancelations of 22 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange of China in year 2003. Three types of cancelations are considered, including cancelation of any limit orders, of buy limit orders and of sell limit orders. We find that the distributions of the inter-cancelation durations of individual stocks can be well modeled by Weibulls for each type of cancelation, and the distributions of rescaled durations of each type of cancelations exhibit a scaling behavior for different stocks. Complex intra-day patterns are also unveiled in the inter-cancelation durations. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the multifractal DFA show that the inter-cancelation durations possess long-term memory and multifractal nature, which are not influenced by the intra-day patterns. No clear crossover phenomenon is observed in the detrended fluctuation functions with respect to the time scale. These findings indicate that the cancelation of limit orders is a non-Poisson process, which has potential worth in the construction of order-driven market models.

  12. Comparing air-sea turbulent fluxes in reanalyses and climate models - a new framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulev, S.; Tilinina, N.; Belyaev, K.

    2013-12-01

    Reanalyses fluxes and flux-related variables at high temporal resolution are widely used for forcing ocean general circulation models, case studies and estimation of regional energy budgets. We suggest a new approach for comparative assessment of fluxes in reanalyses and models based on application of modified Fisher-Tippett (MFT) distribution to turbulent heat fluxes. Two comparisons were performed - using direct surface turbulent flux output from different products (NCEP, NCEP-DOE, NCEP-CFSR, MERRA, JRA-25, ERA-Interim) and applying a single parameterization (COARE-3) to the reanalysis state variables. These allow for distinguishing between the impact of reanalysis surface parameterizations and variables onto surface turbulent fluxes. Statistical properties of surface turbulent fluxes were intercompared in terms of the MFT distribution parameters (scale and location) and extreme flux estimates derived from the distribution tails. In all reanalyses extreme turbulent heat fluxes amount to 1500-2000 W/m2 (for the 99th percentile) and can exceed 2000 W/m2 for higher percentiles in the western boundary current extension (WBCE) regions. Different reanalyses show significantly different shape of MFT distribution, implying considerable differences in the estimates of extreme fluxes. The highest extreme turbulent latent heat fluxes are diagnosed in NCEP-DOE, ERA-Interim and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses with the smallest being in MERRA. These differences may not necessarily reflect the differences in mean values. Analysis shows that differences in statistical properties of the state variables are the major source of differences in the shape of PDF of fluxes and in the estimates of extreme fluxes while the contribution of computational schemes used in different reanalyses is minor. The strongest differences in the characteristics of probability distributions of surface fluxes between different reanalyses are found in the Southern Ocean. Importantly, climate models considerably

  13. Dosimetry modeling of inhaled formaldehyde: binning nasal flux predictions for quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Overton, J H; Subramaniam, R P; Schlosser, P M; Morgan, K T; Conolly, R B; Miller, F J

    2001-11-01

    Interspecies extrapolations of tissue dose and tumor response have been a significant source of uncertainty in formaldehyde cancer risk assessment. The ability to account for species-specific variation of dose within the nasal passages would reduce this uncertainty. Three-dimensional, anatomically realistic, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of nasal airflow and formaldehyde gas transport in the F344 rat, rhesus monkey, and human were used to predict local patterns of wall mass flux (pmol/[mm(2)-h-ppm]). The nasal surface of each species was partitioned by flux into smaller regions (flux bins), each characterized by surface area and an average flux value. Rat and monkey flux bins were predicted for steady-state inspiratory airflow rates corresponding to the estimated minute volume for each species. Human flux bins were predicted for steady-state inspiratory airflow at 7.4, 15, 18, 25.8, 31.8, and 37 l/min and were extrapolated to 46 and 50 l/min. Flux values higher than half the maximum flux value (flux median) were predicted for nearly 20% of human nasal surfaces at 15 l/min, whereas only 5% of rat and less than 1% of monkey nasal surfaces were associated with fluxes higher than flux medians at 0.576 l/min and 4.8 l/min, respectively. Human nasal flux patterns shifted distally and uptake percentage decreased as inspiratory flow rate increased. Flux binning captures anatomical effects on flux and is thereby a basis for describing the effects of anatomy and airflow on local tissue disposition and distributions of tissue response. Formaldehyde risk models that incorporate flux binning derived from anatomically realistic CFD models will have significantly reduced uncertainty compared with risk estimates based on default methods.

  14. Heterogeneity of CH4 and net CO2 Fluxes Using Nested Chamber, Tower, Aircraft, Remote Sensing, and Modeling Approaches in Arctic Alaska for Regional Flux Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, W. C.; Moreaux, V.; Kalhori, A. A. M.; Murphy, P.; Wilkman, E.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Zhuang, Q.; Miller, C. E.; Dinardo, S. J.; Fisher, J. B.; Gioli, B.; Zona, D.

    2014-12-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. Here we evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on CH4 and CO2 fluxes over varying spatial scales. Data from the north slope of Alaska from chambers, up to a 16 year CO2 flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, eddy covariance CH4 fluxes over several years and sites, new year-around CO2 and CH4 flux installations, hundreds of hours of aircraft concentration and fluxes, and terrestrial biosphere and flux inverse modeling, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of eddy covariance tower flux, aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  15. Experimental Demonstration of Underwater Acoustic Scattering Cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Charles A.; Martin, Theodore P.; Guild, Matthew D.; Layman, Christopher N.; Naify, Christina J.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2015-08-01

    We explore an acoustic scattering cancellation shell for buoyant hollow cylinders submersed in a water background. A thin, low-shear, elastic coating is used to cancel the monopole scattering from an air-filled, neutrally buoyant steel shell for all frequencies where the wavelength is larger than the object diameter. By design, the uncoated shell also has an effective density close to the aqueous background, independently canceling its dipole scattering. Due to the significantly reduced monopole and dipole scattering, the compliant coating results in a hollow cylindrical inclusion that is simultaneously impedance and sound speed matched to the water background. We demonstrate the proposed cancellation method with a specific case, using an array of hollow steel cylinders coated with thin silicone rubber shells. These experimental results are matched to finite element modeling predictions, confirming the scattering reduction. Additional calculations explore the optimization of the silicone coating properties. Using this approach, it is found that scattering cross-sections can be reduced by 20 dB for all wavelengths up to k0a = 0.85.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of Underwater Acoustic Scattering Cancellation

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Charles A.; Martin, Theodore P.; Guild, Matthew D.; Layman, Christopher N.; Naify, Christina J.; Nicholas, Michael; Thangawng, Abel L.; Calvo, David C.; Orris, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    We explore an acoustic scattering cancellation shell for buoyant hollow cylinders submersed in a water background. A thin, low-shear, elastic coating is used to cancel the monopole scattering from an air-filled, neutrally buoyant steel shell for all frequencies where the wavelength is larger than the object diameter. By design, the uncoated shell also has an effective density close to the aqueous background, independently canceling its dipole scattering. Due to the significantly reduced monopole and dipole scattering, the compliant coating results in a hollow cylindrical inclusion that is simultaneously impedance and sound speed matched to the water background. We demonstrate the proposed cancellation method with a specific case, using an array of hollow steel cylinders coated with thin silicone rubber shells. These experimental results are matched to finite element modeling predictions, confirming the scattering reduction. Additional calculations explore the optimization of the silicone coating properties. Using this approach, it is found that scattering cross-sections can be reduced by 20 dB for all wavelengths up to k0a = 0.85. PMID:26282067

  17. Measurement of drag and its cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBra, D. B.; Conklin, J. W.

    2011-05-01

    The design of drag cancellation missions of the future will take advantage of the technology experience of the past. The importance of data for modeling of the atmosphere led to at least six types of measurement: (a) balloon flights, (b) missile-launched falling spheres, (c) the 'cannonball' satellites of Ken Champion with accelerometers for low-altitude drag measurement (late 1960s and early 1970s), (d) the Agena flight of LOGACS (1967), a Bell MESA accelerometer mounted on a rotating platform to spectrally shift low-frequency errors in the accelerometer, (e) a series of French low-level accelerometers (e.g. CACTUS, 1975), and (f) correction of differential accelerations for drag errors in measuring gravity gradient on a pair of satellites (GRACE, 2002). The independent invention of the drag-free satellite concept by Pugh and Lange (1964) to cancel external disturbance added implementation opportunities. Its first flight application was for ephemeris prediction improvement with the DISCOS flight (1972)—still the only extended free test mass flight. Then successful flights for reduced disturbance environment for science measurement with gyros on GP-B (2004) and for improved accuracy in geodesy and ocean studies (GOCE, 2009) each using accelerometer measurements to control the drag-canceling thrust. LISA, DECIGO, BBO and other gravity wave-measuring satellite systems will push the cancellation of drag to new levels.

  18. Passive magnetic field cancellation device by multiple high-Tc superconducting coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Zou, S.; Han, Z.; Qu, T.-M.

    2010-04-01

    A passive magnetic field cancellation device (PMFCD) is designed. The PMFCD could automatically cancel the field as an active cancellation system did; however it requires no power sources and feedback systems. The capability of the PMFCD is based on the principle that a closed loop can resist flux variation and keep the flux constant inside. The closed loop in the PMFCD is formed by connecting two pairs of high temperature superconductor Helmholtz coils with different radii in series. More important thing is that the ratio of the radius and the turn number between the coils has to satisfy a number of conditions, with which 100% cancellation can be reached. Theoretical methods to obtain the turn number ratio and radius ratio are the major part of the paper. Numerical simulation was followed, aiming to evaluate field distribution under a cancellation state and correct the theoretical values.

  19. Modeling the Relative Importance of Nutrient and Carbon Loads, Boundary Fluxes, and Sediment Fluxes on Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Feist, Timothy J; Pauer, James J; Melendez, Wilson; Lehrter, John C; DePetro, Phillip A; Rygwelski, Kenneth R; Ko, Dong S; Kreis, Russell G

    2016-08-16

    The Louisiana continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico experiences bottom water hypoxia in the summer. In this study, we applied a biogeochemical model that simulates dissolved oxygen concentrations on the shelf in response to varying riverine nutrient and organic carbon loads, boundary fluxes, and sediment fluxes. Five-year model simulations demonstrated that midsummer hypoxic areas were most sensitive to riverine nutrient loads and sediment oxygen demand from settled organic carbon. Hypoxic area predictions were also sensitive to nutrient and organic carbon fluxes from lateral boundaries. The predicted hypoxic area decreased with decreases in nutrient loads, but the extent of change was influenced by the method used to estimate model boundary concentrations. We demonstrated that modeling efforts to predict changes in hypoxic area on the continental shelf in relationship to changes in nutrients should include representative boundary nutrient and organic carbon concentrations and functions for estimating sediment oxygen demand that are linked to settled organic carbon derived from water-column primary production. On the basis of our model analyses using the most representative boundary concentrations, nutrient loads would need to be reduced by 69% to achieve the Gulf of Mexico Nutrient Task Force Action Plan target hypoxic area of 5000 km(2).

  20. Model sensitivity of ice flux over the grounding line to present-day climatic forcing and geothermal flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Thomas; Humbert, Angelika

    2016-04-01

    Large uncertainties remain in the current and future contribution to sea level change from Antarctica from observations and numerical flow modelling. Within the SeaRISE project atmospheric, oceanic, and subglacial forcing scenarios were applied to different ice-sheet models to assess Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity over a 500 year timescale. The scenario results have been compared to the individual state of each model at the end of its spin-up. It has been shown, that the model results highly depend on the chosen climate forcing and spin-up strategy. Here we use the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) to perform spin-up simulations across different data sets for present-day boundary conditions for the Antarctic Ice Sheet (surface temperature, surface mass balance and geothermal flux). The utilized spin-up methods include free evolving and geometry constrained simulations. Here we present our analysis of the ice flux over the grounding line for each set-up and compare the fluxes from large drainage basin units with estimates derived from remote sensing.

  1. Validation of transport models using additive flux minimization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hakim, A.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.

    2013-10-01

    A new additive flux minimization technique is proposed for carrying out the verification and validation (V&V) of anomalous transport models. In this approach, the plasma profiles are computed in time dependent predictive simulations in which an additional effective diffusivity is varied. The goal is to obtain an optimal match between the computed and experimental profile. This new technique has several advantages over traditional V&V methods for transport models in tokamaks and takes advantage of uncertainty quantification methods developed by the applied math community. As a demonstration of its efficiency, the technique is applied to the hypothesis that the paleoclassical density transport dominates in the plasma edge region in DIII-D tokamak discharges. A simplified version of the paleoclassical model that utilizes the Spitzer resistivity for the parallel neoclassical resistivity and neglects the trapped particle effects is tested in this paper. It is shown that a contribution to density transport, in addition to the paleoclassical density transport, is needed in order to describe the experimental profiles. It is found that more additional diffusivity is needed at the top of the H-mode pedestal, and almost no additional diffusivity is needed at the pedestal bottom. The implementation of this V&V technique uses the FACETS::Core transport solver and the DAKOTA toolkit for design optimization and uncertainty quantification. The FACETS::Core solver is used for advancing the plasma density profiles. The DAKOTA toolkit is used for the optimization of plasma profiles and the computation of the additional diffusivity that is required for the predicted density profile to match the experimental profile.

  2. Predicting Solar Cycle 25 using Surface Flux Transport Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Shinsuke; Iijima, Haruhisa; Hotta, Hideyuki; Shiota, Daiko; Kusano, Kanya

    2017-08-01

    It is thought that the longer-term variations of the solar activity may affect the Earth’s climate. Therefore, predicting the next solar cycle is crucial for the forecast of the “solar-terrestrial environment”. To build prediction schemes for the next solar cycle is a key for the long-term space weather study. Recently, the relationship between polar magnetic field at the solar minimum and next solar activity is intensively discussed. Because we can determine the polar magnetic field at the solar minimum roughly 3 years before the next solar maximum, we may discuss the next solar cycle 3years before. Further, the longer term (~5 years) prediction might be achieved by estimating the polar magnetic field with the Surface Flux Transport (SFT) model. Now, we are developing a prediction scheme by SFT model as a part of the PSTEP (Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction) and adapting to the Cycle 25 prediction. The predicted polar field strength of Cycle 24/25 minimum is several tens of percent smaller than Cycle 23/24 minimum. The result suggests that the amplitude of Cycle 25 is weaker than the current cycle. We also try to obtain the meridional flow, differential rotation, and turbulent diffusivity from recent modern observations (Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory). These parameters will be used in the SFT models to predict the polar magnetic fields strength at the solar minimum. In this presentation, we will explain the outline of our strategy to predict the next solar cycle and discuss the initial results for Cycle 25 prediction.

  3. Modeling of Land Surface Flux on the regional climate of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weiqiang; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong

    2016-04-01

    Land surface heat fluxes over the heterogeneous landscape of the Tibetan Plateau can serve as boundary conditions for modeling the regional climate and the Asian monsoon system. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric modeling system has enabled us to model the land surface heat flux through sensitivity experiments that utilize in-situ observation data and the regional land-atmosphere exchanges of water and heat fluxes that are foundational to understanding the water and energy cycles present during the Asian monsoon period. A series of sensitivity experiments based on the WRF model and field observations has been proposed and tested for deriving the land surface heat fluxes (surface net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) over a heterogeneous land surface. The sensitivity experiments were simulated over the field area of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period Asia-Australia Monsoon Project on the Tibetan Plateau (CEOP-CAMP/Tibet), located on the northern Tibetan Plateau of China. A WRF modeling period from July to August 2007 was selected for the summer monsoon conditions. To validate the modeling results, the ground-measured or calculated variables (e.g., net radiation flux, soil heat flux, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux) were compared to the simulated values. The modeling results show that the derived model land surface heat fluxes are in agreement with the land surface observations over the study area in summer. Therefore, the WRF model sensitivity experiments were successful in simulating the land surface heat fluxes over the study area. In this study, we designed cases for the WRF model, which lead to the following conclusions: 1) The WRF model successfully simulated the surface heat fluxes over the complex land surface of the Tibetan Plateau, including the diurnal variation. The modeling eigenvalues were similar to the observations. 2) When the initial fields of soil moisture and vegetation

  4. A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, XU; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Wood, Eric F.; Burges, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A generalization of the single soil layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface hydrological model previously implemented in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation model (GCM) is described. The new model is comprised of a two-layer characterization of the soil column, and uses an aerodynamic representation of the latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The infiltration algorithm for the upper layer is essentially the same as for the single layer VIC model, while the lower layer drainage formulation is of the form previously implemented in the Max-Planck-Institut GCM. The model partitions the area of interest (e.g., grid cell) into multiple land surface cover types; for each land cover type the fraction of roots in the upper and lower zone is specified. Evapotranspiration consists of three components: canopy evaporation, evaporation from bare soils, and transpiration, which is represented using a canopy and architectural resistance formulation. Once the latent heat flux has been computed, the surface energy balance is iterated to solve for the land surface temperature at each time step. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatological data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters, and surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) intensive field campaigns in the summer-fall of 1987 to validate the surface energy fluxes.

  5. A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, XU; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Wood, Eric F.; Burges, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A generalization of the single soil layer variable infiltration capacity (VIC) land surface hydrological model previously implemented in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) general circulation model (GCM) is described. The new model is comprised of a two-layer characterization of the soil column, and uses an aerodynamic representation of the latent and sensible heat fluxes at the land surface. The infiltration algorithm for the upper layer is essentially the same as for the single layer VIC model, while the lower layer drainage formulation is of the form previously implemented in the Max-Planck-Institut GCM. The model partitions the area of interest (e.g., grid cell) into multiple land surface cover types; for each land cover type the fraction of roots in the upper and lower zone is specified. Evapotranspiration consists of three components: canopy evaporation, evaporation from bare soils, and transpiration, which is represented using a canopy and architectural resistance formulation. Once the latent heat flux has been computed, the surface energy balance is iterated to solve for the land surface temperature at each time step. The model was tested using long-term hydrologic and climatological data for Kings Creek, Kansas to estimate and validate the hydrological parameters, and surface flux data from three First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) intensive field campaigns in the summer-fall of 1987 to validate the surface energy fluxes.

  6. Flavor mixings in flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    A multiplicity of quark-lepton families can naturally arise as zero modes in flux compactifications. The flavor structure of quark and lepton mass matrices is then determined by the wave function profiles of the zero modes. We consider a supersymmetric S O (10 )×U (1 ) model in six dimensions compactified on the orbifold T2/Z2 with Abelian magnetic flux. A bulk 16 -plet charged under the U (1 ) provides the quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. Bulk anomaly cancellation requires the presence of additional 16 - and 10 -plets. The corresponding zero modes form vectorlike split multiplets that are needed to obtain a successful flavor phenomenology. We analyze the pattern of flavor mixings for the two heaviest families of the Standard Model and discuss possible generalizations to three and more generations.

  7. MODELS OF NEPTUNE-MASS EXOPLANETS: EMERGENT FLUXES AND ALBEDOS

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam; Ibgui, Laurent; Hubeny, Ivan; Milsom, John A. E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.ed E-mail: hubeny@as.arizona.ed

    2010-01-20

    There are now many known exoplanets with Msin i within a factor of 2 of Neptune's, including the transiting planets GJ 436b and HAT-P-11b. Planets in this mass range are different from their more massive cousins in several ways that are relevant to their radiative properties and thermal structures. By analogy with Neptune and Uranus, they are likely to have metal abundances that are an order of magnitude or more greater than those of larger, more massive planets. This increases their opacity, decreases Rayleigh scattering, and changes their equation of state. Furthermore, their smaller radii mean that fluxes from these planets are roughly an order of magnitude lower than those of otherwise identical gas giant planets. Here, we compute a range of plausible radiative equilibrium models of GJ 436b and HAT-P-11b. In addition, we explore the dependence of generic Neptune-mass planets on a range of physical properties, including their distance from their host stars, their metallicity, the spectral type of their stars, the redistribution of heat in their atmospheres, and the possible presence of additional optical opacity in their upper atmospheres.

  8. Multi-property modeling of ocean basin carbon fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volk, Tyler

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to elucidate the causal mechanisms in some of the most important features of the global ocean/atomsphere carbon system. These included the interaction of physical and biological processes in the seasonal cycle of surface water pCo2, and links between productivity, surface chlorophyll, and the carbon cycle that would aid global modeling efforts. In addition, several other areas of critical scientific interest involving links between the marine biosphere and the global carbon cycle were successfully pursued; specifically, a possible relation between phytoplankton emitted DMS and climate, and a relation between the location of calcium carbonate burial in the ocean and metamorphic source fluxes of CO2 to the atmosphere. Six published papers covering the following topics are summarized: (1) Mass extinctions, atmospheric sulphur and climatic warming at the K/T boundary; (2) Sensitivity of climate and atmospheric CO2 to deep-ocean and shallow-ocean carbonate burial; (3) Controls on CO2 sources and sinks in the earthscale surface ocean; (4) pre-anthropogenic, earthscale patterns of delta pCO2 between ocean and atmosphere; (5) Effect on atmospheric CO2 from seasonal variations in the high latitude ocean; and (6) Limitations or relating ocean surface chlorophyll to productivity.

  9. Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.

  10. Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.

  11. Equilibrium model of thin magnetic flux tubes. [solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Kalkofen, W.; Rosner, R.

    1984-01-01

    The existence of a physically realizable domain in which approximations that lead to a self consistent solution for flux tube stratification in the solar atmosphere, without ad hoc hypotheses, is proved. The transfer equation is solved assuming that no energy transport other than radiative is present. Convective motions inside the tube are assumed to be suppressed by magnetic forces. Only one parameter, the plasma beta at tau = 0, must be specified, and this can be estimated from observations of spatially resolved flux tubes.

  12. The effect of in situ/in vitro three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography image voxel size on the finite element model of human vertebral cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongtao; Engelke, Klaus; Glueer, Claus-C; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative computed tomography-based finite element modeling technique is a promising clinical tool for the prediction of bone strength. However, quantitative computed tomography-based finite element models were created from image datasets with different image voxel sizes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an influence of image voxel size on the finite element models. In all 12 thoracolumbar vertebrae were scanned prior to autopsy (in situ) using two different quantitative computed tomography scan protocols, which resulted in image datasets with two different voxel sizes (0.29 × 0.29 × 1.3 mm(3) vs 0.18 × 0.18 × 0.6 mm(3)). Eight of them were scanned after autopsy (in vitro) and the datasets were reconstructed with two voxel sizes (0.32 × 0.32 × 0.6 mm(3) vs. 0.18 × 0.18 × 0.3 mm(3)). Finite element models with cuboid volume of interest extracted from the vertebral cancellous part were created and inhomogeneous bilinear bone properties were defined. Axial compression was simulated. No effect of voxel size was detected on the apparent bone mineral density for both the in situ and in vitro cases. However, the apparent modulus and yield strength showed significant differences in the two voxel size group pairs (in situ and in vitro). In conclusion, the image voxel size may have to be considered when the finite element voxel modeling technique is used in clinical applications.

  13. Cancellous Screws Are Biomechanically Superior to Cortical Screws in Metaphyseal Bone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tim; Boone, Christopher; Behn, Anthony W; Ledesma, Justin B; Bishop, Julius A

    2016-09-01

    Cancellous screws are designed to optimize fixation in metaphyseal bone environments; however, certain clinical situations may require the substitution of cortical screws for use in cancellous bone, such as anatomic constraints, fragment size, or available instrumentation. This study compares the biomechanical properties of commercially available cortical and cancellous screw designs in a synthetic model representing various bone densities. Commercially available, fully threaded, 4.0-mm outer-diameter cortical and cancellous screws were tested in terms of pullout strength and maximum insertion torque in standard-density and osteoporotic cancellous bone models. Pullout strength and maximum insertion torque were both found to be greater for cancellous screws than cortical screws in all synthetic densities tested. The magnitude of difference in pullout strength between cortical and cancellous screws increased with decreasing synthetic bone density. Screw displacement prior to failure and total energy absorbed during pullout strength testing were also significantly greater for cancellous screws in osteoporotic models. Stiffness was greater for cancellous screws in standard and osteoporotic models. Cancellous screws have biomechanical advantages over cortical screws when used in metaphyseal bone, implying the ability to both achieve greater compression and resist displacement at the screw-plate interface. Surgeons should preferentially use cancellous over cortical screws in metaphyseal environments where cortical bone is insufficient for fixation. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e828-e832.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Scientific Visualization to Study Flux Transfer Events at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastatter, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Sibeck, David G.; Berrios, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present results of modeling of reconnection at the dayside magnetopause with subsequent development of flux transfer event signatures. The tools used include new methods that have been added to the suite of visualization methods that are used at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). Flux transfer events result from localized reconnection that connect magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma with magnetospheric fields and plasma and results in flux rope structures that span the dayside magnetopause. The onset of flux rope formation and the three-dimensional structure of flux ropes are studied as they have been modeled by high-resolution magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the dayside magnetosphere of the Earth. We show that flux transfer events are complex three-dimensional structures that require modern visualization and analysis techniques. Two suites of visualization methods are presented and we demonstrate the usefulness of those methods through the CCMC web site to the general science user.

  15. Adaptive cancellation of motion artifact in wearable biosensors.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Rasoul; Nourani, Mehrdad; Panahi, Issa

    2012-01-01

    The performance of wearable biosensors is highly influenced by motion artifact. In this paper, a model is proposed for analysis of motion artifact in wearable photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors. Using this model, we proposed a robust real-time technique to estimate fundamental frequency and generate a noise reference signal. A Least Mean Square (LMS) adaptive noise canceler is then designed and validated using our synthetic noise generator. The analysis and results on proposed technique for noise cancellation shows promising performance.

  16. Metabolic flux model for an anchorage-dependent MDCK cell line: characteristic growth phases and minimum substrate consumption flux distribution.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Aljoscha; Sidorenko, Yury; Dauner, Michael; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2008-09-01

    Up to now cell-culture based vaccine production processes only reach low productivities. The reasons are: (i) slow cell growth and (ii) low cell concentrations. To address these shortcomings, a quantitative analysis of the process conditions, especially the cell growth and the metabolic capabilities of the host cell line is required. For this purpose a MDCK cell based influenza vaccine production process was investigated. With a segregated growth model four distinct cell growth phases are distinguished in the batch process. In the first phase the cells attach to the surface of the microcarriers and show low metabolic activity. The second phase is characterized by exponential cell growth. In the third phase, preceded by a change in oxygen consumption, contact inhibition leads to a decrease in cell growth. Finally, the last phase before infection shows no further increase in cell numbers. To gain insight into the metabolic activity during these phases, a detailed metabolic model of MDCK cell was developed based on genome information and experimental analysis. The MDCK model was also used to calculate a theoretical flux distribution representing an optimized cell that only consumes a minimum of carbon sources. Comparing this minimum substrate consumption flux distribution to the fluxes estimated from experiments unveiled high overflow metabolism under the applied process conditions.

  17. Incorporation of a Generalized Data Assimilation Module within a Global Photospheric Flux Transport Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    represent the instantaneous state of the global solar photospheric magnetic field distribution by incorporating advanced data assimilation techniques...helioseismically detected active region data so that truly instantaneous global solar photospheric magnetic field maps are generated. The photospheric flux...magnetic flux transport model selected for this effort was the Worden and Harvey (WH) model originally developed at the National Solar Observatory

  18. Seasonality of Overstory and Understory Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Oak Savanna: What can be Learned from Comparing Measured and Modeled Fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Chen, J. M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid climates experience large seasonal and inter-annual variability in radiation and precipitation, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. Especially, savanna ecosystems, that combine tree and below-canopy components, create a unique environment in which phenology dramatically changes between seasons. We used a 10-year flux database in order to define seasonal and interannual variability of climatic inputs and fluxes, and evaluate model capability to reproduce observed variability. This is based on the perception that model capability to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site is a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid savanna, located at Tonzi Ranch, Northern California. In this system, trees are active during the warm season (Mar - Oct), and grasses are active during the wet season (Dec - May). Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Fluxes were simulated using bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Models were partly capable of reproducing fluxes on daily scales (R2=0.66). We then compared model outputs for different ecosystem components and seasons, and found distinct seasons with high correlations while other seasons were purely represented. Comparison was much higher for ET than for GPP. The understory was better simulated than the overstory. CANOAK overestimated spring understory fluxes, probably due to the capability to directly calculated 3D radiative transfer. BEPS underestimated spring understory fluxes, following the pre-description of grass die-off. Both models underestimated peak spring overstory fluxes. During winter tree dormant, modeled fluxes were null, but occasional high fluxes of both ET and GPP were measured following

  19. Flux tube train model for local turbulence simulation of toroidal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.; Ishizawa, A.; Nunami, M.

    2015-02-15

    A new simulation method for local turbulence in toroidal plasmas is developed by extending the conventional idea of the flux tube model. In the new approach, a train of flux tubes is employed, where flux tube simulation boxes are serially connected at each end along a field line so as to preserve a symmetry of the local gyrokinetic equations for image modes in an axisymmetric torus. Validity of the flux tube train model is confirmed against the toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence for a case with a long parallel correlation of fluctuations, demonstrating numerical advantages over the conventional method in the time step size and the symmetry-preserving property.

  20. The Surface Heat Flux as a Function of Ground Cover for Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vukovich, Fred M.; Wayland, Robert; Toll, David

    1997-01-01

    Surface heat fluxes were examined as a function of surface properties and meteorological conditions in a 100 km x 100 km grid square at 1-km spatial resolution centered at the location of the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment (FIFE), the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics site in central Maine, and a semiarid rangeland site around Walnut Gulch, Arizona. This investigation treats the surface heat flux variability within a GCM grid box to provide insight into methods for treating that variability in climate models. The heat fluxes were calculated using NOAA AVHRR and available meteorological data. The average heat fluxes that were estimated using the various area ground-cover representations were compared with the ensemble average heat fluxes for the entire area, which were assumed to be the best representation of the heat fluxes for the areas. Average beat fluxes were estimated for the entire 100 km x 100 km area based on a single ground-cover representation, and the mean error for the area sensible heat flux was about 10% and for the area latent heat flux, 21%. The estimation error was reduced, and in some cases significantly reduced, when the area heat fluxes were estimated by partitioning the area according to significant ground cover. The most significant effect of the partitioning was on the latent heat flux estimates.

  1. Measurements and Phenomenological Modeling of Magnetic FluxBuildup in Spheromak Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Romero-Talamas, C A; Hooper, E B; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S; Wood, R D; Moller, J M

    2007-12-14

    Internal magnetic field measurements and high-speed imaging at the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)] are used to study spheromak formation and field buildup. The measurements are analyzed in the context of a phenomenological model of magnetic helicity based on the topological constraint of minimum helicity in the open flux before reconnecting and linking closed flux. Two stages are analyzed: (1) the initial spheromak formation, i. e. when all flux surfaces are initially open and reconnect to form open and closed flux surfaces, and (2) the stepwise increase of closed flux when operating the gun on a new mode that can apply a train of high-current pulses to the plasma. In the first stage, large kinks in the open flux surfaces are observed in the high-speed images taken shortly after plasma breakdown, and coincide with large magnetic asymmetries recorded in a fixed insertable magnetic probe that spans the flux conserver radius. Closed flux (in the toroidal average sense) appears shortly after this. This stage is also investigated using resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In the second stage, a time lag in response between open and closed flux surfaces after each current pulse is interpreted as the time for the open flux to build helicity, before transferring it through reconnection to the closed flux. Large asymmetries are seen during these events, which then relax to a slowly decaying spheromak before the next pulse.

  2. A conceptual model of ocean freshwater flux derived from sea surface salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves, V.; Wang, J.; Willis, J. K.

    2014-09-01

    A conceptual model is proposed to express freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) as a function of sea surface salinity (and vice versa). The model is formulated using an idealized one-dimensional diffusion equation for the ocean surface layer. It is shown to provide good agreement with existing freshwater flux estimates and salinity observations. It also has the potential to enhance our capability of monitoring and modeling global freshwater fluxes and salinity as a data retrieval algorithm for remote sensing. The model may improve physical parameterization in coupled ocean-atmosphere models to study the global water cycle.

  3. Bioenergy Ecosystem Land-Use Modelling and Field Flux Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Niall; Bottoms, Emily; Donnison, Iain; Dondini, Marta; Farrar, Kerrie; Finch, Jon; Harris, Zoe; Ineson, Phil; Keane, Ben; Massey, Alice; McCalmont, Jon; Morison, James; Perks, Mike; Pogson, Mark; Rowe, Rebecca; Smith, Pete; Sohi, Saran; Tallis, Mat; Taylor, Gail; Yamulki, Sirwan

    2013-04-01

    loss after land use change at 100 fieldsites which encapsulate a range of UK climates and soil types. Our overall objective is to use our measured data to parameterise and validate the models that we will use to predict the implications of bioenergy crop deployment in the UK up to 2050. The resultant output will be a meta-model which will help facilitate decision making on the sustainable development of bioenergy in the UK, with potential deployment in other temperate climates around the world. Here we report on the outcome of the first of three years of work. This work is based on the Ecosystem Land Use Modelling & Soil Carbon GHG Flux Trial (ELUM) project, which was commissioned and funded by the Energy Technologies Institute (ETI). Don et al. (2012) Land-use change to bioenergy production in Europe: implications for the greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon. GCB Bioenergy 4, 372-379.

  4. Particle fluxes in the ocean: comparison of sediment trap data with results from inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usbeck, R.; Schlitzer, R.; Fischer, G.; Wefer, G.

    2003-03-01

    Biological production lowers the CO 2 concentrations in the surface layer of the ocean, and sinking detritus "pumps" nutrients and CO 2 into the deep ocean. Quantifying the efficiency of the biological pump is a prerequisite for global CO 2 budgets. Sediment traps are commonly used to directly measure the vertical particle flux; however, for logistical and financial reasons, traps cannot provide area-wide data sets. Moreover, it has been shown that sediment traps can under- or overestimate particle fluxes considerably. In this paper, we present a new technique to estimate the downward flux of particulate matter with an adjoint model. Hydrographic and nutrient data are used to calculate the mean ocean circulation together with parameters for particle fluxes using the AWI Adjoint Model for Oceanic Carbon Cycling (AAMOCC). The model is fitted to the property concentrations by systematically varying circulation, air-sea fluxes, export production and remineralization rates of particulate biogenic matter simultaneously. The deviations of model fluxes based on nutrient budgets from direct measurements with sediment traps yield an independent estimate of apparent trapping efficiencies. While consistent with hydrographic and nutrient data, model particle fluxes rarely agree with sediment trap data: (1) At shallow water depth (≤1000 m), sediment trap fluxes are at the average 50% lower than model fluxes, which confirms flux calibrations using radionuclides; (2) in the very deep traps, model fluxes tend to be lower compared to data, which might be explained by lateral inputs into the traps. According to these model results, particle fluxes from the euphotic zone (EP) into mid water depth are considerably higher and the shallow loop of nutrient is more vigorous than would be derived from sediment trap data. Our results imply that fluxes as collected with sediment traps are inconsistent with model derived long-term mean particle fluxes based on nutrient budgets in the water

  5. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined.

  6. Unexpected Cancellations in Gravity Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Bern, Z.; Carrasco, J.J.; Forde, D.; Ita, H.; Johansson, H.; /UCLA

    2007-07-13

    Recent computations of scattering amplitudes show that N = 8 supergravity is surprisingly well behaved in the ultraviolet and may even be ultraviolet finite in perturbation theory. The novel cancellations necessary for ultraviolet finiteness first appear at one loop in the guise of the ''no-triangle hypothesis''. We study one-loop amplitudes in pure Einstein gravity and point out the existence of cancellations similar to those found previously in N = 8 supergravity. These cancellations go beyond those found in the one-loop effective action. Using unitarity, this suggests that generic theories of quantum gravity based on the Einstein-Hilbert action may be better behaved in the ultraviolet at higher loops than suggested by naive power counting, though without additional (supersymmetric) cancellations they diverge. We comment on future studies that should be performed to support this proposal.

  7. A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.; Zhou, Tiehan

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.

  8. Development and evaluation of an ammonia bidirectional flux parameterization for air quality models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleim, Jonathan E.; Bash, Jesse O.; Walker, John T.; Cooter, Ellen J.

    2013-05-01

    is an important contributor to particulate matter in the atmosphere and can significantly impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Surface exchange between the atmosphere and biosphere is a key part of the ammonia cycle. New modeling techniques are being developed for use in air quality models that replace current ammonia emissions from fertilized crops and ammonia dry deposition with a bidirectional surface flux model including linkage to a detailed biogeochemical and farm management model. Recent field studies involving surface flux measurements over crops that predominate in North America have been crucial for extending earlier bidirectional flux models toward more realistic treatment of NH3 fluxes for croplands. Comparisons of the ammonia bidirection flux algorithm to both lightly fertilized soybeans and heavily fertilized corn demonstrate that the model can capture the magnitude and dynamics of observed ammonia fluxes, both net deposition and evasion, over a range of conditions with overall biases on the order of the uncertainty of the measurements. However, successful application to the field experiment in heavily fertilized corn required substantial modification of the model to include new parameterizations for in-soil diffusion resistance, ground quasi-laminar boundary layer resistance, and revised cuticular resistance that is dependent on in-canopy NH3 concentration and RH at the leaf surface. This new bidirectional flux algorithm has been incorporated in an air quality modeling system, which also includes an implementation of a soil nitrification model.

  9. Numerical model of porewater fluxes in a hypothetical mud island

    SciTech Connect

    Langevin, C.D.; Vacher, H.L.; Stewart, M.T. . Geology Dept.)

    1994-03-01

    The barely emergent circular islands of Florida Bay consist of a low-permeability aragonite mud overlying a high-permeability limestone that is hydraulically connected with the bay. An ephemeral pond, which forms when tides are above a low-lying berm that surrounds the island, increases in density because of intense evaporation. As a result, porewater in the island can be expected to flow downward through the sediments in response to a topographic drive, which results from the elevated level of the pond, and a variable-density drive due to the higher densities of the pond water. Porewater fluxes for an infinite-strip version of a Florida Bay mud island re obtained by numerical simulation using MODFLOW and MOCDENSE. Eight variables describe porewater flow through such an island: porewater flux (Q), cross-sectional width (w), pond length ([ell]), island length (L), depth to limestone (b), hydraulic conductivity of the mud and limestone layers (K[sub 1] and K[sub 2], respectively), and total head drive. These eight variables are reduced to five dimensionless variables; dimensionless flux (Q/K[sub 1]wL), hydraulic conductivity ratio (K[sub 2]/K[sub 1]), dimensionless head drive (T[sub D]/b), relative pond size ([ell]/L), and aspect ratio (L/b; which is held constant in this study with a value of 56). The results of the dimensionless relationships can be used to assess the porewater flux in islands resembling those of Florida Bay.

  10. Modeling energy and mass fluxes from prairie canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The main emphasis of this research project is on partitioning of mass and energy fluxes between vegetation and soil at the FIFE site, preparation of data from the FIFE Information System for an international thermal data set comparison, and studying the relation between surface temperatures observed from satellites and in situ measurements of surface temperature.

  11. HyFlux - Part I: Regional Modeling of Methane Flux From Near-Seafloor Gas Hydrate Deposits on Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, I. R.; Asper, V.; Garcia, O. P.; Kastner, M.; Leifer, I.; Naehr, T.; Solomon, E.; Yvon-Lewis, S.; Zimmer, B.

    2008-12-01

    HyFlux - Part I: Regional modeling of methane flux from near-seafloor gas hydrate deposits on continental margins MacDonald, I.R., Asper, V., Garcia, O., Kastner, M., Leifer, I., Naehr, T.H., Solomon, E., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Zimmer, B. The Dept. of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) has recently awarded a project entitled HyFlux: "Remote sensing and sea-truth measurements of methane flux to the atmosphere." The project will address this problem with a combined effort of satellite remote sensing and data collection at proven sites in the Gulf of Mexico where gas hydrate releases gas to the water column. Submarine gas hydrate is a large pool of greenhouse gas that may interact with the atmosphere over geologic time to affect climate cycles. In the near term, the magnitude of methane reaching the atmosphere from gas hydrate on continental margins is poorly known because 1) gas hydrate is exposed to metastable oceanic conditions in shallow, dispersed deposits that are poorly imaged by standard geophysical techniques and 2) the consumption of methane in marine sediments and in the water column is subject to uncertainty. The northern GOM is a prolific hydrocarbon province where rapid migration of oil, gases, and brines from deep subsurface petroleum reservoirs occurs through faults generated by salt tectonics. Focused expulsion of hydrocarbons is manifested at the seafloor by gas vents, gas hydrates, oil seeps, chemosynthetic biological communities, and mud volcanoes. Where hydrocarbon seeps occur in depths below the hydrate stability zone (~500m), rapid flux of gas will feed shallow deposits of gas hydrate that potentially interact with water column temperature changes; oil released from seeps forms sea-surface features that can be detected in remote-sensing images. The regional phase of the project will quantify verifiable sources of methane (and oil) the Gulf of Mexico continental margin and selected margins (e.g. Pakistan Margin, South China Sea

  12. Inverse modeling of Asian (222)Rn flux using surface air (222)Rn concentration.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Shigekazu; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun

    2010-11-01

    When used with an atmospheric transport model, the (222)Rn flux distribution estimated in our previous study using soil transport theory caused underestimation of atmospheric (222)Rn concentrations as compared with measurements in East Asia. In this study, we applied a Bayesian synthesis inverse method to produce revised estimates of the annual (222)Rn flux density in Asia by using atmospheric (222)Rn concentrations measured at seven sites in East Asia. The Bayesian synthesis inverse method requires a prior estimate of the flux distribution and its uncertainties. The atmospheric transport model MM5/HIRAT and our previous estimate of the (222)Rn flux distribution as the prior value were used to generate new flux estimates for the eastern half of the Eurasian continent dividing into 10 regions. The (222)Rn flux densities estimated using the Bayesian inversion technique were generally higher than the prior flux densities. The area-weighted average (222)Rn flux density for Asia was estimated to be 33.0 mBq m(-2) s(-1), which is substantially higher than the prior value (16.7 mBq m(-2) s(-1)). The estimated (222)Rn flux densities decrease with increasing latitude as follows: Southeast Asia (36.7 mBq m(-2) s(-1)); East Asia (28.6 mBq m(-2) s(-1)) including China, Korean Peninsula and Japan; and Siberia (14.1 mBq m(-2) s(-1)). Increase of the newly estimated fluxes in Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and the southern part of Eastern Siberia from the prior ones contributed most significantly to improved agreement of the model-calculated concentrations with the atmospheric measurements. The sensitivity analysis of prior flux errors and effects of locally exhaled (222)Rn showed that the estimated fluxes in Northern and Central China, Korea, Japan, and the southern part of Eastern Siberia were robust, but that in Central Asia had a large uncertainty.

  13. A modeling study of benthic detritus flux's impacts on heterotrophic processes in Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Wang, Lixia; Qi, Jianhua; Liu, Hedong; Budd, Judith Wells; Schwab, David J.; Beletsky, Dmitry; Vanderploeg, Henry; Eadie, Brian; Johengen, Thomas; Cotner, James; Lavrentyev, Peter J.

    2004-10-01

    Effects of sediment resuspension-induced benthic detrital flux on the heterotrophic part of the microbial food web in Lake Michigan were examined using a three-dimensional (3-D) coupled biological and physical model. The model was driven by the realistic meteorological forcing observed in March 1999. Wind-induced surface wave dynamics were incorporated into the physical model to generate the bottom flux. The model-generated benthic detrital flux was assumed to be proportional to the difference between model-calculated and critical stresses at the bottom. The model results indicate that detrital flux at the bottom was a key factor causing a significant increase of phosphorus and detritus concentrations in the nearshore region of the springtime plume. Inside the plume the sediment-resuspended bottom detritus flux could directly enhance heterotrophic production, while outside the plume, detrital flux from river discharge might have a direct contribution to the high abundance of bacteria and microzooplankton in the nearshore region. Model-data comparison on cross-shore transects near Chicago, Gary, St. Joseph, and Racine suggests that other physical and biological processes may play a comparative role as the bottom detritus flux in terms of the spatial distribution of bacteria and microzoplankton. A more complete microbial food web model needs to be developed to simulate the heterotrophic process in southern Lake Michigan.

  14. Estimating postprandial glucose fluxes using hierarchical Bayes modelling.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Ahmad; Potocka, Elizabeth; Boulet, Benoit; Umpleby, A Margot; Hovorka, Roman

    2012-10-01

    A new stochastic computational method was developed to estimate the endogenous glucose production, the meal-related glucose appearance rate (R(a meal)), and the glucose disposal (R(d)) during the meal tolerance test. A prior probability distribution was adopted which assumes smooth glucose fluxes with individualized smoothness level within the context of a Bayes hierarchical model. The new method was contrasted with the maximum likelihood method using data collected in 18 subjects with type 2 diabetes who ingested a mixed meal containing [U-¹³C]glucose. Primed [6,6-²H₂]glucose was infused in a manner that mimicked the expected endogenous glucose production. The mean endogenous glucose production, R(a meal), and R(d) calculated by the new method and maximum likelihood method were nearly identical. However, the maximum likelihood gave constant, nonphysiological postprandial endogenous glucose production in two subjects whilst the new method gave plausible estimates of endogenous glucose production in all subjects. Additionally, the two methods were compared using a simulated triple-tracer experiment in 12 virtual subjects. The accuracy of the estimates of the endogenous glucose production and R(a meal) profiles was similar [root mean square error (RMSE) 1.0±0.3 vs. 1.4±0.7 μmol/kg/min for EGP and 2.6±1.0 vs. 2.9±0.9 μmol/kg/min for R(a meal); new method vs. maximum likelihood method; P=NS, paired t-test]. The accuracy of R(d) estimates was significantly increased by the new method (RMSE 5.3±1.9 vs. 4.2±1.3; new method vs. ML method; P<0.01, paired t-test). We conclude that the new method increases plausibility of the endogenous glucose production and improves accuracy of glucose disposal compared to the maximum likelihood method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modelling bidirectional fluxes of methanol and acetaldehyde with the FORCAsT canopy exchange model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Chung, Serena H.; McKinney, Karena A.; Liu, Ying; Munger, J. William; Martin, Scot T.; Steiner, Allison L.

    2016-12-01

    The FORCAsT canopy exchange model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms governing foliage emissions of methanol and acetaldehyde, two short chain oxygenated volatile organic compounds ubiquitous in the troposphere and known to have strong biogenic sources, at a northern mid-latitude forest site. The explicit representation of the vegetation canopy within the model allowed us to test the hypothesis that stomatal conductance regulates emissions of these compounds to an extent that its influence is observable at the ecosystem scale, a process not currently considered in regional- or global-scale atmospheric chemistry models.We found that FORCAsT could only reproduce the magnitude and diurnal profiles of methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes measured at the top of the forest canopy at Harvard Forest if light-dependent emissions were introduced to the model. With the inclusion of such emissions, FORCAsT was able to successfully simulate the observed bidirectional exchange of methanol and acetaldehyde. Although we found evidence that stomatal conductance influences methanol fluxes and concentrations at scales beyond the leaf level, particularly at dawn and dusk, we were able to adequately capture ecosystem exchange without the addition of stomatal control to the standard parameterisations of foliage emissions, suggesting that ecosystem fluxes can be well enough represented by the emissions models currently used.

  16. Modelling bidirectional fluxes of methanol and acetaldehyde with the FORCAsT canopy exchange model

    SciTech Connect

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Chung, Serena H.; McKinney, Karena A.; Liu, Ying; Munger, J. William; Martin, Scot T.; Steiner, Allison L.

    2016-12-15

    Here, the FORCAsT canopy exchange model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms governing foliage emissions of methanol and acetaldehyde, two short chain oxygenated volatile organic compounds ubiquitous in the troposphere and known to have strong biogenic sources, at a northern mid-latitude forest site. The explicit representation of the vegetation canopy within the model allowed us to test the hypothesis that stomatal conductance regulates emissions of these compounds to an extent that its influence is observable at the ecosystem scale, a process not currently considered in regional- or global-scale atmospheric chemistry models. Here, we found that FORCAsT could only reproduce the magnitude and diurnal profiles of methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes measured at the top of the forest canopy at Harvard Forest if light-dependent emissions were introduced to the model. With the inclusion of such emissions, FORCAsT was able to successfully simulate the observed bidirectional exchange of methanol and acetaldehyde. Although we found evidence that stomatal conductance influences methanol fluxes and concentrations at scales beyond the leaf level, particularly at dawn and dusk, we were able to adequately capture ecosystem exchange without the addition of stomatal control to the standard parameterisations of foliage emissions, suggesting that ecosystem fluxes can be well enough represented by the emissions models currently used.

  17. Modelling bidirectional fluxes of methanol and acetaldehyde with the FORCAsT canopy exchange model

    DOE PAGES

    Ashworth, Kirsti; Chung, Serena H.; McKinney, Karena A.; ...

    2016-12-15

    Here, the FORCAsT canopy exchange model was used to investigate the underlying mechanisms governing foliage emissions of methanol and acetaldehyde, two short chain oxygenated volatile organic compounds ubiquitous in the troposphere and known to have strong biogenic sources, at a northern mid-latitude forest site. The explicit representation of the vegetation canopy within the model allowed us to test the hypothesis that stomatal conductance regulates emissions of these compounds to an extent that its influence is observable at the ecosystem scale, a process not currently considered in regional- or global-scale atmospheric chemistry models. Here, we found that FORCAsT could only reproducemore » the magnitude and diurnal profiles of methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes measured at the top of the forest canopy at Harvard Forest if light-dependent emissions were introduced to the model. With the inclusion of such emissions, FORCAsT was able to successfully simulate the observed bidirectional exchange of methanol and acetaldehyde. Although we found evidence that stomatal conductance influences methanol fluxes and concentrations at scales beyond the leaf level, particularly at dawn and dusk, we were able to adequately capture ecosystem exchange without the addition of stomatal control to the standard parameterisations of foliage emissions, suggesting that ecosystem fluxes can be well enough represented by the emissions models currently used.« less

  18. Mechanisms of bottom boundary fluxes in a numerical model of the Shetland shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, Arjav; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Across-slope bottom boundary layer (BBL) fluxes on the shelf-edge connect this region to deeper waters. Two proposed ways in which across-slope BBL fluxes can occur, in regions that have a slope current aligned to the bathymetry, are the frictional veering of bottom currents termed the `Ekman drain' and through local wind-forced downwelling (wind-driven surface Ekman flow with an associated bottom flow). We investigate the variability, magnitude and spatial scale of BBL fluxes on the Shetland shelf, which has a prominent slope current, using a high-resolution (˜2 km) configuration of the MITgcm model. Fluxes are analysed in the BBL at the shelf break near the 200 m isobath and are found to have a seasonal variability with high/low volume transport in winter/summer respectively. By using a multivariate regression approach, we find that the locally wind-driven Ekman transport plays no explicit role in explaining daily bottom fluxes. We can better explain the variability of the across-slope BBL flux as a linear function of the speed and across-slope component of the interior flow, corresponding to an Ekman plus mean-flow flux. We estimate that the mean-flow is a greater contributor than the Ekman flux to the BBL flux. The spatial heterogeneity of the BBL fluxes can be attributed to the mean-flow, which has a much shorter decorrelation length compared to the Ekman flux. We conclude that both the speed and direction of the interior current determines the daily BBL flux. The wind does not explicitly contribute through local downwelling, but may influence the interior current and therefore implicitly the BBL fluxes on longer timescales.

  19. Large scale, regional, CH4 and net CO2 fluxes using nested chamber, tower, aircraft flux, remote sensing, and modeling approaches in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oechel, Walter; Moreaux, Virginie; Kalhori, Aram; Losacco, Salvatore; Murphy, Patrick; Wilkman, Eric; Zona, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    The topographic, environmental, biotic, and metabolic heterogeneity of terrestrial ecosystems and landscapes can be large even despite a seemingly homogeneous landscape. The error of estimating and simulating fluxes due to extant heterogeneity is commonly overlooked in regional and global estimates. We evaluate the pattern and controls on spatial heterogeneity on GHG fluxes over varying spatial scales and compare to standard estimates of NEE and other greenhouse gas fluxes. Data from the north slope of Alaska from up to a 16 year flux record from up to 7 permanent towers, over 20 portable tower locations, and hundreds of hours of aircraft fluxes, are used to evaluate the spatial variability of fluxes and to better estimate regional fluxes. Significant heterogeneity of fluxes is identified at varying scales from sub-meter scale to >100km. A careful consideration of the effect that heterogeneity causes when estimating ecosystem fluxes is critical to reliable regional and global estimates. The combination of tower, flux aircraft, remote sensing, and modeling can be used to provide reliable, accurate, regional assessments of CH4and CO2 fluxes or large areas of heterogeneous landscape.

  20. Permeability study of cancellous bone and its idealised structures.

    PubMed

    Syahrom, Ardiyansyah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Harun, Muhamad Nor; Öchsner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Artificial bone is a suitable alternative to autografts and allografts, however their use is still limited. Though there were numerous reports on their structural properties, permeability studies of artificial bones were comparably scarce. This study focused on the development of idealised, structured models of artificial cancellous bone and compared their permeability values with bone surface area and porosity. Cancellous bones from fresh bovine femur were extracted and cleaned following an established protocol. The samples were scanned using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and three-dimensional models of the cancellous bones were reconstructed for morphology study. Seven idealised and structured cancellous bone models were then developed and fabricated via rapid prototyping technique. A test-rig was developed and permeability tests were performed on the artificial and real cancellous bones. The results showed a linear correlation between the permeability and the porosity as well as the bone surface area. The plate-like idealised structure showed a similar value of permeability to the real cancellous bones.

  1. Inverse Modeling of Hydrologic Parameters Using Surface Flux and Runoff Observations in the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yu; Hou, Zhangshuan; Huang, Maoyi; Tian, Fuqiang; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-12-10

    This study demonstrates the possibility of inverting hydrologic parameters using surface flux and runoff observations in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Previous studies showed that surface flux and runoff calculations are sensitive to major hydrologic parameters in CLM4 over different watersheds, and illustrated the necessity and possibility of parameter calibration. Two inversion strategies, the deterministic least-square fitting and stochastic Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) - Bayesian inversion approaches, are evaluated by applying them to CLM4 at selected sites. The unknowns to be estimated include surface and subsurface runoff generation parameters and vadose zone soil water parameters. We find that using model parameters calibrated by the least-square fitting provides little improvements in the model simulations but the sampling-based stochastic inversion approaches are consistent - as more information comes in, the predictive intervals of the calibrated parameters become narrower and the misfits between the calculated and observed responses decrease. In general, parameters that are identified to be significant through sensitivity analyses and statistical tests are better calibrated than those with weak or nonlinear impacts on flux or runoff observations. Temporal resolution of observations has larger impacts on the results of inverse modeling using heat flux data than runoff data. Soil and vegetation cover have important impacts on parameter sensitivities, leading to the different patterns of posterior distributions of parameters at different sites. Overall, the MCMC-Bayesian inversion approach effectively and reliably improves the simulation of CLM under different climates and environmental conditions. Bayesian model averaging of the posterior estimates with different reference acceptance probabilities can smooth the posterior distribution and provide more reliable parameter estimates, but at the expense of wider uncertainty bounds.

  2. Using "snapshot" measurements of CH4 fluxes from peatlands to estimate annual budgets: interpolation vs. modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Sophie M.; Baird, Andy J.

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in estimating annual budgets of peatland-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) exchanges. Such budgeting is required for calculating peatland carbon balance and the radiative forcing impact of peatlands on climate. There have been multiple approaches used to estimate CO2 budgets; however, there is a limited literature regarding the modelling of annual CH4 budgets. Using data collected from flux chamber tests in an area of blanket peatland in North Wales, we compared annual estimates of peatland-atmosphere CH4 emissions using an interpolation approach and an additive and multiplicative modelling approach. Flux-chamber measurements represent a snapshot of the conditions on a particular site. In contrast to CO2, most studies that have estimated the time-integrated flux of CH4 have not used models. Typically, linear interpolation is used to estimate CH4 fluxes during the time periods between flux-chamber measurements. It is unclear how much error is involved with such a simple integration method. CH4 fluxes generally show a rise followed by a fall through the growing season that may be captured reasonably well by interpolation, provided there are sufficiently frequent measurements. However, day-to-day and week-to-week variability is also often evident in CH4 flux data, and will not necessarily be properly represented by interpolation. Our fits of the CH4 flux models yielded r2 > 0.5 in 38 of the 48 models constructed, with 55% of these having a weighted rw2 > 0.4. Comparison of annualised CH4 fluxes estimated by interpolation and modelling reveals no correlation between the two data sets; indeed, in some cases even the sign of the flux differs. The difference between the methods seems also to be related to the size of the flux - for modest annual fluxes there is a fairly even scatter of points around the 1:1 line, whereas when the modelled fluxes are high, the corresponding interpolated fluxes tend to be low. We consider the

  3. Electron and proton flux models for Jupiter's radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klopp, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of the energetic particle distribution in Jupiter's radiation belts are presented and are compared with previous estimates. Mathematical expressions are developed for the equatorial electron and proton fluxes, shielded electron and proton dose rates, and radiation lifetimes of electronic circuits. It is calculated that a 1 g/sq cm aluminum shield will screen out all protons of energy less than 27.5 MeV, and a 2 g/sq cm shield will screen out protons less than 40.6 MeV. The radiation lifetimes are based on a maximum permissible dose value of 10 million rads, a value 1/2 to 1/3 of the flux at which electronic circuits begin to fail. Estimated increases in lifetimes by using a 3 x 50 orbit instead of a 3 x 3 orbit, and going from 1 to 2 g/sq cm are given.

  4. Modeling the Subsurface Evolution of Active-Region Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.

    2009-12-01

    I present results from a set of 3-D spherical-shell MHD simulations of the buoyant rise of active region flux tubes in the solar interior that put new constraints on the initial twist of the subsurface tubes in order for them to emerge with tilt angles consistent with the observed Joy's law for the mean tilt of solar active regions. Due to asymmetric stretching of the Ω-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, a field strength asymmetry develops with the leading side having a greater field strength and thus being more cohesive compared to the following side. Furthermore, the magnetic flux in the leading leg shows more coherent values of local twist α ≡ JB / B2, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed signs.

  5. Modelling the mechanical response of an idealized ice stream to variations in geothermal heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Johnsen, Silje; de Fleurian, Basile; Hestnes Nisancioglu, Kerim

    2017-04-01

    The spatial distribution of geothermal heat flux beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet is largely unknown partly due to difficulties in accessing the bed, and bore hole data providing point measurements only. Studies using tectonic, seismic and magnetic models to retrieve the geothermal heat flux show very different results indicating large uncertainties. However, modelling studies point to a geothermal heat flux anomaly that may influence the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). Previous studies have investigated the impact of the uncertainty in geothermal heatflux on ice dynamics. These studies are mainly focusing on the impact on the ice rheology as the basal condition are derived from inverse modelling methods (including the geothermal heat flux variability in the variability of the friction coefficient). Another important feedback is the increase in subglacial meltwater production which may affect the sliding velocities of an ice stream, and has not been taken into account in preceding studies. In this study we investigate the impact of variations in geothermal heat flux on ice dynamics by analysing the mechanical response of a synthetic ice stream simulating NEGIS using the Ice Sheet System Model (Larour et al. 2012). We present results from model experiments using different heat flux configurations, friction laws and a hydrology model, showing the importance of geothermal heat flux on basal conditions of fast flowing ice.

  6. Empirical model of long-time variations of galactic cosmic ray particle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, N. V.; Popova, H.; Panasyuk, M. I.

    2017-02-01

    The galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particle flux model has been developed by using the experimental data obtained during the solar cycles 21-24. The model calculates fluxes of GCR particles (with charge z from 1 to 28 and energy E from 80 up to 105 MeV/nucleon) in the interplanetary space (ecliptic plane) as a function of solar activity (sunspot number) and the heliocentric distance. GCR proton fluxes computed by the model for the case of a possible decrease in solar activity during solar cycles 25 and 26 are discussed.

  7. Numerical description and experimental validation of a rheology model for non-Newtonian fluid flow in cancellous bone.

    PubMed

    Widmer Soyka, René P; López, Alejandro; Persson, Cecilia; Cristofolini, Luca; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2013-11-01

    Fluids present or used in biology, medicine and (biomedical) engineering are often significantly non-Newtonian. Furthermore, they are chemically complex and can interact with the porous matrix through which they flow. The porous structures themselves display complex morphological inhomogeneities on a wide range of length scales. In vertebroplasty, a shear-thinning fluid, e.g. poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), is injected into the cavities of vertebral trabecular bone for the stabilization of fractures and metastatic lesions. The main objective of this study was therefore to provide a protocol for numerically investigating the rheological properties of PMMA-based bone cements to predict its spreading behavior while flowing through vertebral trabecular bone. A numerical upscaling scheme based on a dimensionless formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation is proposed in order to relate the pore-scale rheological properties of the PMMA that were experimentally estimated using a plate rheometer, to the continuum-scale. On the pore length scale, a viscosity change on the order of one magnitude was observed whilst the shear-thinning properties caused a viscosity change on the order of only 10% on the continuum length scale and in a flow regime that is relevant for vertebroplasty. An experimental validation, performed on human cadaveric vertebrae (n=9), showed a significant improvement of the cement spreading prediction accuracy with a non-Newtonian formulation. A root mean square cement surface prediction error of 1.53mm (assuming a Newtonian fluid) and 1.37mm (assuming a shear-thinning fluid) was found. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating the non-Newtonian fluids properties in computational models of porous media at the appropriate length scale.

  8. Magnetic Flux Rope Identification and Characterization from Observationally Driven Solar Coronal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowder, Chris; Yeates, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    Formed through magnetic field shearing and reconnection in the solar corona, magnetic flux ropes are structures of twisted magnetic field, threaded along an axis. Their evolution and potential eruption are of great importance for space weather. Here we describe a new methodology for the automated detection of flux ropes in simulated magnetic fields, utilizing field-line helicity. Our Flux Rope Detection and Organization (FRoDO) code, which measures the magnetic flux and helicity content of pre-erupting flux ropes over time, as well as detecting eruptions, is publicly available. As a first demonstration, the code is applied to the output from a time-dependent magnetofrictional model, spanning 1996 June 15–2014 February 10. Over this period, 1561 erupting and 2099 non-erupting magnetic flux ropes are detected, tracked, and characterized. For this particular model data, erupting flux ropes have a mean net helicity magnitude of 2.66× {10}43 Mx2, while non-erupting flux ropes have a significantly lower mean of 4.04× {10}42 Mx2, although there is overlap between the two distributions. Similarly, the mean unsigned magnetic flux for erupting flux ropes is 4.04× {10}21 Mx, significantly higher than the mean value of 7.05× {10}20 Mx for non-erupting ropes. These values for erupting flux ropes are within the broad range expected from observational and theoretical estimates, although the eruption rate in this particular model is lower than that of observed coronal mass ejections. In the future, the FRoDO code will prove to be a valuable tool for assessing the performance of different non-potential coronal simulations and comparing them with observations.

  9. Modeling Shock Propagation to the Outer Heliosphere Including Heat Flux and Pickup Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detman, T. R.; Intriligator, D. S.; Dryer, M.; Sun, W.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.

    2012-12-01

    We compare different models of solar wind heat flux in the distant heliosphere in the context of simulating the propagation of the strong Halloween 2003 solar events to ACE, Ulysses, Cassini, and Voyager 2. We will modify our time-dependent, 3D MHD Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System with Pickup Ions, HHMS-PI (Detman, et al.,JGR, 2011; Intriligator, et al., JGR, 2012) by installing an approximation of the Hollweg Collisionless Electron Heat Flux model (Hollweg, JGR, 1976). We evaluate each simulation against observations at ACE, Ulysses, and Voyager 2. We will compare results from HHMS-PI with heat flux against our previous results. We then plan to make similar comparisons with other heat flux models, e.g. the model based on field magnitude by Scime, et al., (JGR, 1995).

  10. Evaluation of the Community Land Model simulated carbon and water fluxes against observations over ChinaFLUX sites

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Li; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; ...

    2016-07-15

    The Community Land Model (CLM) is an advanced process-based land surface model that simulates carbon, nitrogen, water vapor and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. We use observed carbon and water fluxes from five representative Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystem Flux Research Network (ChinaFLUX) eddy covariance tower sites to systematically evaluate the new version CLM4.5 and old version CLM4.0, and to generate insights that may inform future model developments. CLM4.5 underestimates the annual carbon sink at three forest sites and one alpine grassland site but overestimates the carbon sink of a semi-arid grassland site.more » The annual carbon sink underestimation for the deciduous-dominated forest site results from underestimated daytime carbon sequestration during summer and overestimated nighttime carbon emission during spring and autumn. Compared to CLM4.0, the bias of annual gross primary production (GPP) is reduced by 24% and 28% in CLM4.5 at two subtropical forest sites. However, CLM4.5 still presents a large positive bias in annual GPP. The improvement in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is limited, although soil respiration bias decreases by 16%–43% at three forest sites. CLM4.5 simulates lower soil water content in the dry season than CLM4.0 at two grassland sites. Drier soils produce a significant drop in the leaf area index and in GPP and an increase in respiration for CLM4.5. The new fire parameterization approach in CLM4.5 causes excessive burning at the Changbaishan forest site, resulting in an unexpected underestimation of NEE, vegetation carbon, and soil organic carbon by 46%, 95%, and 87%, respectively. Altogether, our study reveals significant improvements achieved by CLM4.5 compared to CLM4.0, and suggests further developments on the parameterization of seasonal GPP and respiration, which will require a more effective representation of seasonal water conditions and the

  11. Evaluation of the Community Land Model simulated carbon and water fluxes against observations over ChinaFLUX sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Li; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; He, Honglin; Thornton, Peter E.; Yu, Guirui; Li, Pan; Liu, Min; Ren, Xiaoli; Han, Shijie; Li, Yingnian; Yan, Junhua; Hao, Yanbin; Wang, Huimin

    2016-07-15

    The Community Land Model (CLM) is an advanced process-based land surface model that simulates carbon, nitrogen, water vapor and energy exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at various spatial and temporal scales. We use observed carbon and water fluxes from five representative Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystem Flux Research Network (ChinaFLUX) eddy covariance tower sites to systematically evaluate the new version CLM4.5 and old version CLM4.0, and to generate insights that may inform future model developments. CLM4.5 underestimates the annual carbon sink at three forest sites and one alpine grassland site but overestimates the carbon sink of a semi-arid grassland site. The annual carbon sink underestimation for the deciduous-dominated forest site results from underestimated daytime carbon sequestration during summer and overestimated nighttime carbon emission during spring and autumn. Compared to CLM4.0, the bias of annual gross primary production (GPP) is reduced by 24% and 28% in CLM4.5 at two subtropical forest sites. However, CLM4.5 still presents a large positive bias in annual GPP. The improvement in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is limited, although soil respiration bias decreases by 16%–43% at three forest sites. CLM4.5 simulates lower soil water content in the dry season than CLM4.0 at two grassland sites. Drier soils produce a significant drop in the leaf area index and in GPP and an increase in respiration for CLM4.5. The new fire parameterization approach in CLM4.5 causes excessive burning at the Changbaishan forest site, resulting in an unexpected underestimation of NEE, vegetation carbon, and soil organic carbon by 46%, 95%, and 87%, respectively. Altogether, our study reveals significant improvements achieved by CLM4.5 compared to CLM4.0, and suggests further developments on the parameterization of seasonal GPP and respiration, which will require a more effective representation of seasonal water conditions and the partitioning of

  12. Estimating Deep Flux at a Humid Site in South Carolina Using Deterministic and Monte Carlo Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. H.; Pohlmann, K. F.; Nichols, R. L.; Dixon, K. L.; Holmes-Burns, H.

    2002-05-01

    Estimates of deep flux of precipitation were needed for performance assessment calculations for a disposal site at the Savannah River Site, SC. The overall goal of the project was to estimate deep flux using laboratory analysis of soil texture and hydraulic properties, and field data from cone penetrometer tests and a vadose zone monitoring system installed at the site. The approach involved the following tasks: converting laboratory soil hydraulic property data into functional relationships; assigning these functional relationships to soil layers identified using CPT data; calibrating the models using observed meteorological conditions and subsurface instrument responses; and conducting deterministic and Monte Carlo modeling to estimate the range of potential flux values for short-term (207 day) and long-term (10 yr) simulations. Short-term Monte Carlo results indicate a median water flux rate of between 23 and 31 cm/yr, depending on how layer properties in the model were assigned; flux rates were highly sensitive to the hydraulic conductivity. Deterministic results for 10-yr simulations showed that fluxes were approximately 23 cm and 25 cm for the 1977-87 and 1987-97 simulations, respectively. Monte Carlo results (10-yr) indicated annualized flux rates between 21-25 cm/yr at the 90 percent confidence level for the 1987-1997 period. Modeling results were consistent with field observations. The results can be useful for guiding further site monitoring and modeling efforts as part of the SRS performance assessment.

  13. Assessing FPAR Source and Parameter Optimization Scheme in Application of a Diagnostic Carbon Flux Model

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D P; Ritts, W D; Wharton, S; Thomas, C; Monson, R; Black, T A

    2009-02-26

    The combination of satellite remote sensing and carbon cycle models provides an opportunity for regional to global scale monitoring of terrestrial gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production. FPAR (the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the plant canopy) is a critical input to diagnostic models, however little is known about the relative effectiveness of FPAR products from different satellite sensors nor about the sensitivity of flux estimates to different parameterization approaches. In this study, we used multiyear observations of carbon flux at four eddy covariance flux tower sites within the conifer biome to evaluate these factors. FPAR products from the MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, and the effects of single site vs. cross-site parameter optimization were tested with the CFLUX model. The SeaWiFs FPAR product showed greater dynamic range across sites and resulted in slightly reduced flux estimation errors relative to the MODIS product when using cross-site optimization. With site-specific parameter optimization, the flux model was effective in capturing seasonal and interannual variation in the carbon fluxes at these sites. The cross-site prediction errors were lower when using parameters from a cross-site optimization compared to parameter sets from optimization at single sites. These results support the practice of multisite optimization within a biome for parameterization of diagnostic carbon flux models.

  14. Inverse modeling analysis of regional methane fluxes using GOSAT retrievals in 2010-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, H. S.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Belikov, D.; Ito, A.; Morino, I.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, T.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.

    2015-12-01

    Our inverse modeling system estimated monthly regional CH4 fluxes during the period 2010-2012, based on ground-based observations and GOSAT retrievals (called Inv.GG). With adding GOSAT retrievals to the flux estimation, we found enhanced fluxes in tropical Africa (17% from a priori and 10% from flux estimates using ground-based observations only, called Inv.GB), tropical and subtropical South America (12% and 9% respectively), and East Asia (21% and 6% respectively), but lowered fluxes in South and Southeast Asia (12% and 14% respectively). Overall, a larger year-to-year variation of estimated fluxes was found in Inv.GG. In 2010, raging fires occurred in Brazil and Bolivia under severe drought, and the highest biomass burning fluxes in central part of South America were estimated in 2010 during the simulation period 2010-2012. The intensity of the 2010 biomass burning flux was enhanced in Inv.GG compared with a priori of GFED v3.1 and Inv.GB. In Russia, two fire events occurred in 2010 and 2012 under very hot and relatively dry condition. The 2010 fires occurred over European Russia, and a large departure from the GFED estimates was not shown in both Inv.GB and Inv.GG. For the 2012 fires in eastern and central Russia, the severity was explained by the 2012 highest biomass burning fluxes over Siberia during the simulation period 2010-2012. The biomass burning fluxes in Inv.GG were similar to a priori, but lower than Inv.GB (particularly in the eastern part of Siberia). In Inv.GG, the Jun-Aug biomass burning fluxes account for ~14% of the annual mean Siberian total flux in 2010-2012.

  15. Revisit of the Global Surface Energy Balance Using the MEP Model of Surface Heat Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Y.; Wang, J.; Park, T. W.; Ming, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The recently proposed model of surface heat fluxes, based on the theory of maximum entropy production (MEP), was used to estimate the global evapotranspiration (ET) and heat fluxes. Compared to bulk transfer models, the MEP model has several remote-sensing-friendly features including fewer input variables, automatic closure of surface energy budget, being independent of bulk gradients of temperature and water vapor, not using wind speed and surface roughness as model parameters, and being less sensitive to uncertainties of input variables and model parameters. The MEP model is formulated for the entire range of soil moisture from dryness to saturation over the land surfaces and has even more advantages over water-snow-ice surfaces compared to traditional methods due to its independence of surface humidity data. The MEP model provides the first global maps of water heat fluxes at ocean surfaces as well as conductive heat fluxes at snow/ice covered polar regions. Ten years of Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) earth surface radiation fluxes, surface temperature data products supplemented (when needed) by the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) surface specific humidity data are used to test the MEP model by comparing the MEP based global annual ET and heat fluxes with existing products. The MEP based fluxes over land surfaces agree closely with previous studies. Over the oceans, the MEP modeled ET tends to be lower than previous estimates while those of sensible heat fluxes are in close agreement with previous studies. A counterpart, "off-line" analysis is also carried out using the NOAA GFDL climate model output from a control experiment and a "warming" experiment. Substantial differences in the warming-related changes of ET and Bowen ratio are found over regions such as North Africa and the southwestern U.S. The implications of these differences for understanding trends and variability in regional energy and

  16. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic water flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.; Mehta, Ashish J.; Dean, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater tidal prism is defined as the volume of water that inundates a porous medium, forced by one tidal oscillation in surface water. The pressure gradient that generates the prism acts on the subterranean estuary. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic flux are presented. The prism and flux are shown to be directly proportional to porosity, tidal amplitude, and the length of the groundwater wave; flux is inversely proportional to tidal period. The duration of discharge flux exceeds the duration of recharge flux over one tidal period; and discharge flux continues for some time following low tide. Models compare favorably with laboratory observations and are applied to a South Atlantic Bight study area, where tide generates an 11-m3 groundwater tidal prism per m of shoreline, and drives 81 m3 s −1 to the study area, which describes 23% of an observational estimate. In a marine water body, the discharge component of any oscillatory benthic water flux is submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux transports constituents between groundwater and surface water, and is a process by which pollutant loading and saltwater intrusion may occur in coastal areas.

  17. The truth is out there: measured, calculated and modelled benthic fluxes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomova, Svetlana; Protsenko, Elizaveta

    2016-04-01

    In a modern Earth science there is a great importance of understanding the processes, forming the benthic fluxes as one of element sources or sinks to or from the water body, which affects the elements balance in the water system. There are several ways to assess benthic fluxes and here we try to compare the results obtained by chamber experiments, calculated from porewater distributions and simulated with model. Benthic fluxes of dissolved elements (oxygen, nitrogen species, phosphate, silicate, alkalinity, iron and manganese species) were studied in the Baltic and Black Seas from 2000 to 2005. Fluxes were measured in situ using chamber incubations (Jch) and at the same time sediment cores were collected to assess the porewater distribution at different depths to calculate diffusive fluxes (Jpw). Model study was carried out with benthic-pelagic biogeochemical model BROM (O-N-P-Si-C-S-Mn-Fe redox model). It was applied to simulate biogeochemical structure of the water column and upper sediment and to assess the vertical fluxes (Jmd). By the behaviour at the water-sediment interface all studied elements can be divided into three groups: (1) elements which benthic fluxes are determined by the concentrations gradient only (Si, Mn), (2) elements which fluxes depend on redox conditions in the bottom water (Fe, PO4, NH4), and (3) elements which fluxes are strongly connected with organic matter fate (O2, Alk, NH4). For the first group it was found that measured fluxes are always higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (1.5flux. In this case bioturbation, bioirrigation and advection should be taken into account. For the second group measured fluxes can be both much lower (practically absent) and much higher than calculated diffusive fluxes (0.01

  18. Evaluation of the Community Land Model simulated carbon and water fluxes against observations over ChinaFLUX sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Mao, J.; Shi, X.; Ricciuto, D. M.; He, H.; Thornton, P. E.; Yu, G.; Han, S.; Li, Y.; Yan, J.; Hao, Y.; Wang, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) is an advanced process-based land surface model that simulates the complicated carbon, water vapor and energy exchanges between the terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere at various spatial-temporal scales. We for the first time use eddy-covariance observations of CO2 and water vapor exchange and soil respiration measurements at five representative Chinese Terrestrial Ecosystem Flux Observational Network (ChinaFLUX) tower sites to systematically evaluate the latest versions of CLM, the CLM4.0 and CLM4.5, and comprehensively examine the similarities and differences between the observational and simulated results. The CLM4.5 underestimates annual carbon sink at three forest sites and one alpine grassland site but overestimates the carbon sink at a semi-arid grassland site. The underestimation in annual carbon sink at a deciduous dominated forest site is resulted from underestimated daytime carbon sequestration in summer and overestimated nighttime carbon emission in spring and autumn. Compared with the CLM4.0, the bias of annual Gross Primary Production (GPP) is reduced by 24% and 28% in CLM4.5 at two subtropical forest sites. However, CLM4.5 still has a large positive bias in annual GPP. The improvement in NEE is limited, although the bias of soil respiration decreases by 16%-43% at three forest sites. The CLM4.5 has lower soil water content in dry season than this simulated by the CLM4.0 at two grassland sites. These lead to the significant drop in leaf area index and GPP, and the increase in respiration for the CLM4.5. The new fire parameterization in CLM4.5 causes incorrect fire estimation at Changbaishan forest site, which results in unexpected underestimation of NEE, vegetation carbon, and soil organic carbon by 46%, 95%, and 87%, respectively. Our study with the ChinaFLUX sites indicates a significant improvement of the CLM4.5 than the CLM4, and suggests further developments on the parameterization of seasonal GPP and

  19. Comparison of measured and modeled radiation, heat and water vapor fluxes: FIFE pilot study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blad, Blaine L.; Verma, Shashi B.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.; Starks, Patrick; Hays, Cynthia; Norman, John M.; Waltershea, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    The primary objectives of the 1985 study were to test the feasibility of using radio frequency receivers to collect data from automated weather stations and to evaluate the use of the data collected by the automated weather stations for modeling the fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat, and radiation over wheat. The model Cupid was used to calculate these fluxes which were compared with fluxes of these entities measured using micrometeorological techniques. The primary objectives of the 1986 study were to measure and model reflected and emitted radiation streams at a few locations within the First International Satellite Land-Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) site and to compare modeled and measured latent heat and sensible heat fluxes from the prairie vegetation.

  20. Electron content modeling - The significance of protonospheric contents and apparent fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, E. M.; Hargreaves, J. K.; Bailey, G. J.; Moffett, R. J.

    A time-dependent model of the plasmasphere and the separation of TEC obtained from group delay measurements are studied. Temporal variations of the protonospheric content are interpreted as equivalent fluxes, and the physical validity of the deduced quantities are investigated using a generalized model in which integration of the time dependent continuity and momentum equations along selected L-shells yields the ion densities and fluxes. The shape parameters simulated by the equinox model agree by day, although night model values show discrepancies. Residual content is interpreted as the slant H(+) content beyond 2500 km, with the validity depending on the location of the receiving station and the state of the plasmasphere. The rate of change of residual content may be interpreted as a proton flux, although the method is not valid for sudden perturbations, and the recovery of Np approaches that for flux tubes with L values slightly greater than the minimum crossed for the three ray paths considered.

  1. A Satellite Based Modeling Framework for Estimating Seasonal Carbon Fluxes Over Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, V.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Sahajpal, R.; Houborg, R.; Milla, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Croplands are typically characterized by fine-scale heterogeneity, which makes it difficult to accurately estimate cropland carbon fluxes over large regions given the fairly coarse spatial resolution of high-frequency satellite observations. It is, however, important that we improve our ability to estimate spatially and temporally resolved carbon fluxes because croplands constitute a large land area and have a large impact on global carbon cycle. A Satellite based Dynamic Cropland Carbon (SDCC) modeling framework was developed to estimate spatially resolved crop specific daily carbon fluxes over large regions. This modeling framework uses the REGularized canopy reFLECtance (REGFLEC) model to estimate crop specific leaf area index (LAI) using downscaled MODIS reflectance data, and subsequently LAI estimates are integrated into the Environmental Policy Integrated Model (EPIC) model to determine daily net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Firstly, we evaluate the performance of this modeling framework over three eddy covariance flux tower sites (Bondville, IL; Fermi Agricultural Site, IL; and Rosemount site, MN). Daily NPP and NEP of corn and soybean crops are estimated (based on REGFLEC LAI) for year 2007 and 2008 over the flux tower sites and compared against flux tower observations and model estimates based on in-situ LAI. Secondly, we apply the SDCC framework for estimating regional NPP and NEP for corn, soybean and sorghum crops in Nebraska during year 2007 and 2008. The methods and results will be presented.

  2. A Satellite Based Modeling Framework for Estimating Seasonal Carbon Fluxes Over Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandaru, V.; Houborg, R.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Croplands are typically characterized by fine-scale heterogeneity, which makes it difficult to accurately estimate cropland carbon fluxes over large regions given the fairly coarse spatial resolution of high-frequency satellite observations. It is, however, important that we improve our ability to estimate spatially and temporally resolved carbon fluxes because croplands constitute a large land area and have a large impact on global carbon cycle. A Satellite based Dynamic Cropland Carbon (SDCC) modeling framework was developed to estimate spatially resolved crop specific daily carbon fluxes over large regions. This modeling framework uses the REGularized canopy reFLECtance (REGFLEC) model to estimate crop specific leaf area index (LAI) using downscaled MODIS reflectance data, and subsequently LAI estimates are integrated into the Environmental Policy Integrated Model (EPIC) model to determine daily net primary productivity (NPP) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Firstly, we evaluate the performance of this modeling framework over three eddy covariance flux tower sites (Bondville, IL; Fermi Agricultural Site, IL; and Rosemount site, MN). Daily NPP and NEP of corn and soybean crops are estimated (based on REGFLEC LAI) for year 2007 and 2008 over the flux tower sites and compared against flux tower observations and model estimates based on in-situ LAI. Secondly, we apply the SDCC framework for estimating regional NPP and NEP for corn, soybean and sorghum crops in Nebraska during year 2007 and 2008. The methods and results will be presented.

  3. Modeling scalar flux and the energy and dissipation equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshizawa, A.

    1987-01-01

    Closure models derived from the Two-Scale Direct-Interaction Approximation were compared with data from direct simulations of turbulence. Attention was restricted to anisotropic scalar diffusion models, models for the energy dissipation equation, and models for energy diffusion.

  4. Influence of landscape disturbance patterns on modeled carbon fluxes and associated uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithwick, E. A.; Kennedy, R. E.; Naithani, K.; Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Parker, L. R.; Bianchetti, R. A.; MacEachren, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Disturbances influence terrestrial carbon (C) fluxes directly through C emissions (e.g., fires) and indirectly by modifying successional pathways. However, patterns of forest disturbances are complex at landscape scales, resulting in temporally and spatially heterogeneous patterns of C stocks and fluxes. As a result, the contribution of disturbances to observed CO2 fluxes from eddy flux towers is unclear and the resulting uncertainty in estimation of regional C stocks complicates decision-making for landscape-scale, forest C management. We assessed stand-replacing and partial disturbance patterns in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest using Landsat remotely sensed imagery and LandTrendr algorithms. Resulting stand age information was used with eddy covariance data to inform a hierarchical modeling approach (HBLUE) that estimated CO2 fluxes from 2000 - 2010. Results indicated extensive disturbance patterns in the region including tornados, insects, fire, and harvesting activities that modified stand age structure; the complexity of the disturbance patterns required site-level validation that was informed by scientist-manager communication, and regional-level validation with existing databases of forest harvest activity. Our results indicated that uncertainty in CO2 fluxes varied with stand age, with higher uncertainty during mid-succession. In addition to stand age, a careful consideration of uncertainty in CO2 fluxes should consider attribution of type, timing and magnitude of disturbance events as well as accuracy assessment of the remote sensing workflow (e.g., preprocessing, temporal segmentation) and model parameters (e.g., representativeness of flux towers). The resultant complexity of mean CO2 fluxes and their uncertainty should be considered as related both to the inherent ecosystem dynamics as well as their representation by models over space and time. We conclude that interpretation, analysis, and visual representation of mean CO2 fluxes and associated

  5. Modelling sub-daily latent heat fluxes from a small reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGloin, Ryan; McGowan, Hamish; McJannet, David; Burn, Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Accurate methods of latent heat flux quantification are essential for water management and for use in hydrological and meteorological models. Currently the effect of small lakes in most numerical weather prediction modelling systems is either entirely ignored or crudely parameterized. In order to test methods for modelling hourly latent heat flux from small water bodies, this study compares results from several modelling approaches to values measured by the eddy covariance method at an agricultural reservoir in southeast Queensland, Australia. Mass transfer estimates of LE calculated using the theoretical mass transfer model and using the Tanny et al. (2008) and Sacks et al. (1994) bulk transfer coefficients showed the best relationship with measured values under a range of meteorological conditions. The theoretical model showed the strongest correlation with measured values, while the Tanny et al. (2008) and Sacks et al. (1994) models had regression equation slopes with the closest proximity to 1. Latent heat fluxes estimated using the Granger and Hedstrom (2011) evaporation model, that was specifically developed for use at small reservoirs, showed a poor relationship with measured values, particularly in stable atmospheric conditions. The 1-dimensional hydrodynamics model, DYRESM, was used to obtain predictions of hourly latent heat flux without the use of water surface temperature measurements. DYRESM estimates of latent heat flux showed a slightly worse relationship with measured values than those predicted using the traditional mass transfer models (which used measurements of water surface temperature). However, DYRESM performed considerably better than the Granger and Hedstrom (2011) model.

  6. POLAR FIELD PUZZLE: SOLUTIONS FROM FLUX-TRANSPORT DYNAMO AND SURFACE-TRANSPORT MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dikpati, Mausumi

    2011-06-01

    Polar fields in solar cycle 23 were about 50% weaker than those in cycle 22. The only theoretical models which have addressed this puzzle are surface-transport models and flux-transport dynamo models. Comparing polar fields obtained from numerical simulations using surface-flux-transport models and flux-transport dynamo models, we show that both classes of models can explain the polar field features within the scope of the physics included in the respective models. In both models, how polar fields change as a result of changes in meridional circulation depends on the details of meridional circulation profile used. Using physical reasoning and schematics as well as numerical solutions from a flux-transport dynamo model, we demonstrate that polar fields are determined mostly by the strength of a surface poloidal source provided by the decay of tilted, bipolar active regions. The profile of a meridional flow with the latitude and its changes with time have much less effect in flux-transport dynamo models than in surface-transport models.

  7. Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments--application of the RayMan model.

    PubMed

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Rutz, Frank; Mayer, Helmut

    2007-03-01

    The most important meteorological parameter affecting the human energy balance during sunny weather conditions is the mean radiant temperature T(mrt). It considers the uniform temperature of a surrounding surface giving off blackbody radiation, which results in the same energy gain of a human body given the prevailing radiation fluxes. This energy gain usually varies considerably in open space conditions. In this paper, the model 'RayMan', used for the calculation of short- and long-wave radiation fluxes on the human body, is presented. The model, which takes complex urban structures into account, is suitable for several applications in urban areas such as urban planning and street design. The final output of the model is, however, the calculated T(mrt), which is required in the human energy balance model, and thus also for the assessment of the urban bioclimate, with the use of thermal indices such as predicted mean vote (PMV), physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and standard effective temperature (SET*). The model has been developed based on the German VDI-Guidelines 3789, Part II (environmental meteorology, interactions between atmosphere and surfaces; calculation of short- and long-wave radiation) and VDI-3787 (environmental meteorology, methods for the human-biometeorological evaluation of climate and air quality for urban and regional planning. Part I: climate). The validation of the results of the RayMan model agrees with similar results obtained from experimental studies.

  8. Computer model simulation of null-flux magnetic suspension and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic force computations in a null-flux suspension system using dynamic circuit theory. A computer simulation model that can be used to compute magnetic forces and predict the system performance is developed on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the model. The performance of the null-flux suspension system is simulated and discussed. 8 refs.

  9. Air-Sea Fluxes in Hurricanes From GPS Dropsondes and a Fully Coupled Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desflots, M.; Chen, S.; Zhao, W.; Bao, J.

    2006-12-01

    The importance of the surface fluxes for tropical cyclone (TC) intensity has long been recognized. However, accurate surface fluxes under extreme high-wind conditions are difficult to determine due to the lack of direct observations. The physical processes controlling the air-sea fluxes and the exchange coefficients for the enthalpy and momentum fluxes are not well understood. Furthermore, a large amount of sea spray produced by the breaking waves in high winds further complicates the processes at the air-sea interface. To understand the behaviour of the surface fluxes and the atmospheric and upper ocean boundary layers in a hurricane, we use a high-resolution (1-2 km grid spacing), fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model. The components of the coupled model system are the 5th generation Pennsylvania State University/ National Center for Atmospheric Research non-hydrostatic Mesoscale Model (MM5), WAVEWATCH III (WW3), and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution three-dimensional upper ocean model (WHOI 3DPWP). The coupled model used in this study includes the CBLAST wind-wave coupling parameterization and a sea spray parameterization that include the effects of the surface waves. The sea spray parameterization was initially developed by Fairall et al. (1994) and modified by Bao et al. (2000). The model simulated air-sea fluxes and atmospheric profiles from several numerical experiments of a 5-day simulation of Hurricane Frances (2004) are compared with the Global Positioning System (GPS) dropsonde data. The coupled model simulations of Frances reproduce the observed storm track and intensity quite well. The observed cold wake at the ocean surface and the asymmetry in the air-sea fluxes are also evident in the model simulations. More detailed analysis is currently underway to better understand the physical processes affecting air-sea fluxes in hurricanes as well as their contribution to the storm structure and intensity.

  10. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    DOE PAGES

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; ...

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. In order to provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraftmore » were used as the predictors. Furthermore, we selected model explanatory parameters from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L≥4.8 and L ≥5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≤ L ≤ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the KP index is better than Dst. Finally, a test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.« less

  11. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.

    2015-12-01

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. To provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraft were used as the predictors. Model explanatory parameters were selected from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L ≧ 4.8 and L ≧ 5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≦ L ≦ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the KP index is better than Dst. A test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.

  12. Prediction of MeV electron fluxes throughout the outer radiation belt using multivariate autoregressive models

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Kaori; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Spence, Harlan E.

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth are filled with MeV-energy electrons. This region poses ionizing radiation risks for spacecraft that operate within it, including those in geostationary orbit (GEO) and medium Earth orbit. In order to provide alerts of electron flux enhancements, 16 prediction models of the electron log-flux variation throughout the equatorial outer radiation belt as a function of the McIlwain L parameter were developed using the multivariate autoregressive model and Kalman filter. Measurements of omnidirectional 2.3 MeV electron flux from the Van Allen Probes mission as well as >2 MeV electrons from the GOES 15 spacecraft were used as the predictors. Furthermore, we selected model explanatory parameters from solar wind parameters, the electron log-flux at GEO, and geomagnetic indices. For the innermost region of the outer radiation belt, the electron flux is best predicted by using the Dst index as the sole input parameter. For the central to outermost regions, at L≥4.8 and L ≥5.6, the electron flux is predicted most accurately by including also the solar wind velocity and then the dynamic pressure, respectively. The Dst index is the best overall single parameter for predicting at 3 ≤ L ≤ 6, while for the GEO flux prediction, the KP index is better than Dst. Finally, a test calculation demonstrates that the model successfully predicts the timing and location of the flux maximum as much as 2 days in advance and that the electron flux decreases faster with time at higher L values, both model features consistent with the actually observed behavior.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of the Land Surface Model NOAH-MP for Different Model Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thober, S.; Mai, J.; Samaniego, L. E.; Clark, M. P.; Mendoza, P. A.; Wulfmeyer, V. G.; Branch, O.; Attinger, S.; Kumar, R.; Cuntz, M.

    2014-12-01

    The land-atmosphere fluxes of water, energy and carbon, as computed by the Land Surface Model (LSM), are a critical component of Earth System Models and Numerical Weather Prediction models. Processes and parameters of LSMs are validated mostly against point measurements, for example from Eddy-covariance towers, with much attention given to biophysical processes and vegetation parameters. River discharge on the other hand is not considered very often although it provides an integrated signal of the hydrologic cycle over a catchment. Sensitivity analyses of hydrologic models have shown that soil parameters have then the largest impact on modeled river discharge. In this study, we quantify parametric sensitivities of the land surface model NOAH-MP simultaneously for model outputs at different spatial resolutions. NOAH-MP is a state-of-the-art LSM, which is used at regional scale as the land surface scheme of the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF). NOAH-MP contains multiple process parameterizations (hence MP), yielding a considerable amount of parameters (> 500). Standard methods for sensitivity analysis such as Sobol indexes require too many model evaluations in case of many parameters. We therefore use first a recently developed inexpensive screening method based on Elementary Effects that has proven to identify the same informative parameters as the Sobol method but requires only 1% of model evaluations. This reduces the number of parameters to a feasible amount for a thorough sensitivity analysis. The study is conducted on twelve Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) catchments. This allows investigation of parametric sensitivities for distinct hydro-climatic characteristics, emphasizing different land-surface processes. The river basins range in size from 1020 to 4421 km^2, allowing fast model evaluation. The screening and sensitivity analysis identifies the most informative parameters of NOAH-MP for different model output variables

  14. MicrobesFlux: a web platform for drafting metabolic models from the KEGG database.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xueyang; Xu, You; Chen, Yixin; Tang, Yinjie J

    2012-08-02

    Concurrent with the efforts currently underway in mapping microbial genomes using high-throughput sequencing methods, systems biologists are building metabolic models to characterize and predict cell metabolisms. One of the key steps in building a metabolic model is using multiple databases to collect and assemble essential information about genome-annotations and the architecture of the metabolic network for a specific organism. To speed up metabolic model development for a large number of microorganisms, we need a user-friendly platform to construct metabolic networks and to perform constraint-based flux balance analysis based on genome databases and experimental results. We have developed a semi-automatic, web-based platform (MicrobesFlux) for generating and reconstructing metabolic models for annotated microorganisms. MicrobesFlux is able to automatically download the metabolic network (including enzymatic reactions and metabolites) of ~1,200 species from the KEGG database (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and then convert it to a metabolic model draft. The platform also provides diverse customized tools, such as gene knockouts and the introduction of heterologous pathways, for users to reconstruct the model network. The reconstructed metabolic network can be formulated to a constraint-based flux model to predict and analyze the carbon fluxes in microbial metabolisms. The simulation results can be exported in the SBML format (The Systems Biology Markup Language). Furthermore, we also demonstrated the platform functionalities by developing an FBA model (including 229 reactions) for a recent annotated bioethanol producer, Thermoanaerobacter sp. strain X514, to predict its biomass growth and ethanol production. MicrobesFlux is an installation-free and open-source platform that enables biologists without prior programming knowledge to develop metabolic models for annotated microorganisms in the KEGG database. Our system facilitates users to reconstruct

  15. Comparison of different stomatal conductance algorithms for ozone flux modelling [Proceedings

    Treesearch

    P. Buker; L. D. Emberson; M. R. Ashmore; G. Gerosa; C. Jacobs; W. J. Massman; J. Muller; N. Nikolov; K. Novak; E. Oksanen; D. De La Torre; J. -P. Tuovinen

    2006-01-01

    The ozone deposition model (D03SE) that has been developed and applied within the EMEP photooxidant model (Emberson et al., 2000, Simpson et al. 2003) currently estimates stomatal ozone flux using a stomatal conductance (gs) model based on the multiplicative algorithm initially developed by Jarvis (1976). This model links gs to environmental and phenological parameters...

  16. An improved model for interplanetary dust grain fluxes to the outer planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present an improved model for interplanetary dust grain fluxes in the outer solar system constrained by in-situ dust density observations. A dynamical dust grain tracing code is used to establish relative dust grain densities and three-dimensional velocity distributions in the outer solar system for four main sources of dust grains: Jupiter-family comets, Halley-type comets, Oort-Cloud comets, and Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects. Model densities are constrained by in-situ dust measurements by the New Horizons Student Dust Counter, the Pioneer 10 meteoroid detector, and the Galileo Dust Detection System (DDS). The model predicts that Jupiter-family comet grains dominate the interplanetary dust grain mass flux inside approximately 10 AU, Oort-Cloud cometary grains may dominate between 10 and 25 AU, and Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt grains are dominant outside 25 AU. The model also predicts that while the total interplanetary mass flux at Jupiter roughly matches that inferred by the analysis of the Galileo DDS measurements, mass fluxes to Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are at least one order-of-magnitude lower than that predicted by extrapolations of dust grain flux models from 1 AU. We present modeled mass fluxes to various moons, atmospheres, and ring systems of the outer planets.

  17. Analytical Modeling of a Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Direct Drive Wind Turbine Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, IIftekhar; Husain, Tausif; Uddin, Md Wasi; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain; Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-08-24

    This paper presents a nonlinear analytical model of a novel double-sided flux concentrating Transverse Flux Machine (TFM) based on the Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) model. The analytical model uses a series-parallel combination of flux tubes to predict the flux paths through different parts of the machine including air gaps, permanent magnets, stator, and rotor. The two-dimensional MEC model approximates the complex three-dimensional flux paths of the TFM and includes the effects of magnetic saturation. The model is capable of adapting to any geometry that makes it a good alternative for evaluating prospective designs of TFM compared to finite element solvers that are numerically intensive and require more computation time. A single-phase, 1-kW, 400-rpm machine is analytically modeled, and its resulting flux distribution, no-load EMF, and torque are verified with finite element analysis. The results are found to be in agreement, with less than 5% error, while reducing the computation time by 25 times.

  18. Analytical Modeling of a Novel Transverse Flux Machine for Direct Drive Wind Turbine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, IIftekhar; Husain, Tausif; Uddin, Md Wasi; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents a nonlinear analytical model of a novel double sided flux concentrating Transverse Flux Machine (TFM) based on the Magnetic Equivalent Circuit (MEC) model. The analytical model uses a series-parallel combination of flux tubes to predict the flux paths through different parts of the machine including air gaps, permanent magnets (PM), stator, and rotor. The two-dimensional MEC model approximates the complex three-dimensional flux paths of the TFM and includes the effects of magnetic saturation. The model is capable of adapting to any geometry which makes it a good alternative for evaluating prospective designs of TFM as compared to finite element solvers which are numerically intensive and require more computation time. A single phase, 1 kW, 400 rpm machine is analytically modeled and its resulting flux distribution, no-load EMF and torque, verified with Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The results are found to be in agreement with less than 5% error, while reducing the computation time by 25 times.

  19. Modeling of Ionospheric Responses to the Solar Flux Change Based on Millstone Hill Incoherent Scatter Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Holt, J. M.

    2002-12-01

    In order to develop ionospheric empirical models of electron density Ne, plasma temperatures (Te and Ti) and ion drifts based on Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar observations, we investigate an important issue of ionospheric responses to the solar flux changes that have to be quantitatively represented. The representation is associated with selecting a mathematical function where a suitable solar flux index at a proper time ahead the observing time has to be determined. Traditionally, the solar 10.7 cm flux F107 for the previous day is applied, and a linear function is used. However, the non-linear feature of Ne responses to the solar flux was discovered previously. This paper shows the development of the non-linear feature with altitude, season and local time, and also indicates the non-linear feature for the Te and Ti responses. A mathematical function is proposed. We also discuss the use of other solar flux indices, in addition to F107.

  20. Modelling of heat flux received by a bubble pump of absorption-diffusion refrigeration cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhmidene, Ali; Chaouachi, Béchir; Gabsi, Slimane; Bourouis, Mahmoud

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the heat flux received by a bubble pump, which was simulated to a vertical tube 1 m long and with a variable diameter, was optimized. A numerical study was carried out in order to solve balance equations concerning the water-ammonia mixture in the up flow. The two-fluid model was used to derive the equations. A numerical study was carried out on a heat flux between 1 and 70 kW m-2 and the liquid velocity was determined. The optimum flux was determined for a tube diameter equal to 4, 6, 8 and 10 mm and a mass flow rate ranging from 10 to 90 kg m-2 s-1. The optimum heat flux was correlated as a function of the tube diameter and mass flow rate, while the minimum heat flux required for pumping was correlated as a function of the tube diameter.

  1. Using Airborne Microwave Remotely Sensed Root-Zone Soil Moisture and Flux Measurements to Improve Regional Predictions of Carbon Fluxes in a Terrestrial Biosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Antonarakis, A. S.; Medvigy, D.; Burgin, M. S.; Crow, W. T.; Milak, S.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Truong-Loi, M.; Moghaddam, M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Cuenca, R. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    North American ecosystems are critical components of the global carbon cycle, exchanging large amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases with the atmosphere. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between atmosphere and ecosystems quantifies these carbon fluxes, but current continental-scale estimates contain high levels of uncertainty. Root-zone soil moisture (RZSM) and its spatial and temporal heterogeneity influences NEE and improved estimates can help reduce uncertainty in NEE estimates. We used the RZSM measurements from the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission, and the carbon, water and energy fluxes observed by the eddy-covariance flux towers to constrain the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.2 (ED2.2) to improve its predictions of carbon fluxes. The parameters of the ED2.2 model were first optimized at seven flux tower sites in North America, which represent six different biomes, by constraining the model against a suite of flux measurements and forest inventory measurements through a Bayesian Markov-Chain Monte Carlo framework. We further applied the AirMOSS RZSM products to constrain the ED2.2 model to achieve better estimates of regional NEE. Evaluation against flux tower measurements and forest dynamics measurements shows that the constrained ED2.2 model produces improved predictions of monthly to annual carbon fluxes. The remote sensing based RZSM can further help improve the spatial patterns and temporal variations of model NEE. The results demonstrate that model-data fusion can substantially improve model performance and highlight the important role of RZSM in regulating the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of carbon fluxes.

  2. Sensitivity of a climatologically-driven sea ice model to the ocean heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Good, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    Ocean heat flux sensitivity was studied on a numerical model of sea ice covering the Weddell Sea region of the southern ocean. The model is driven by mean monthly climatological atmospheric variables. For each model run, the ocean heat flux is uniform in both space and time. Ocean heat fluxes below 20 W m to the minus 2 power do not provide sufficient energy to allow the ice to melt to its summertime thicknesses and concentrations by the end of the 14 month simulation, whereas ocean heat fluxes of 30 W m to the minus 2 power and above result in too much ice melt, producing the almost total disappearance of ice in the Weddell Sea by the end of the 14 months. These results are dependent on the atmospheric forcing fields.

  3. Development of Daily Solar Maximum Flare Flux Forecast Models for Strong Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Chu, Hyoungseok

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a set of daily solar maximum flare flux forecast models for strong flares using Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methods. We consider input parameters as solar activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray maximum flare flux and weighted total flux of the previous day, and mean flare rates of McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc) and Mount Wilson magnetic classification. For a training data set, we use the same number of 61 events for each C-, M-, and X-class from Jan. 1996 to Dec. 2004, while other previous models use all flares. For a testing data set, we use all flares from Jan. 2005 to Nov. 2013. The statistical parameters from contingency tables show that the ANN models are better for maximum flare flux forecasting than the MLR models. A comparison between our maximum flare flux models and the previous ones based on Heidke Skill Score (HSS) shows that our all models for X-class flare are much better than the other models. According to the Hitting Fraction (HF), which is defined as a fraction of events satisfying that the absolute differences of predicted and observed flare flux in logarithm scale are less than equal to 0.5, our models successfully forecast the maximum flare flux of about two-third events for strong flares. Since all input parameters for our models are easily available, the models can be operated steadily and automatically on daily basis for space weather service.

  4. Model-dependent high-energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-03-22

    The IceCube Collaboration recently reported a stringent upper limit on the high energy neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which provides a meaningful constraint on the standard internal shock model. Recent broadband electromagnetic observations of GRBs also challenge the internal shock paradigm for GRBs, and some competing models for γ-ray prompt emission have been proposed. We describe a general scheme for calculating the GRB neutrino flux, and compare the predicted neutrino flux levels for different models. We point out that the current neutrino flux upper limit starts to constrain the standard internal shock model. The dissipative photosphere models are also challenged if the cosmic ray luminosity from GRBs is at least 10 times larger than the γ-ray luminosity. If the neutrino flux upper limit continues to go down in the next few years, then it would suggest the following possibilities: (i) the photon-to-proton luminosity ratio in GRBs is anomalously high for shocks, which may be achieved in some dissipative photosphere models and magnetic dissipation models; or (ii) the GRB emission site is at a larger radius than the internal shock radius, as expected in some magnetic dissipation models such as the internal collision-induced magnetic reconnection and turbulence model.

  5. Extension of virtual flux decomposition model to the case of two vegetation layers: FDM-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallel, Abdelaziz

    2012-04-01

    As an approximation, the forest could be assumed a discrete media composed of three main components: trees, understory vegetation and soil background. To describe the reflectance of such a canopy in the optical wavelength domain, it is necessary to develop a radiative transfer model which considers two vegetation layers (understory and trees). In this article, we propose a new model, FDM-2, an extension of the flux decomposition model (FDM), to take into account such a canopy architecture. Like FDM, FDM-2 models the diffuse flux anisotropy and takes into account the hot spot effect as well as conserves energy. The hot spot which corresponds to an increase of the probability of photon escape after first collision close to the backscattering direction is modeled as a decrease of “the effective vegetation density” encountered by the diffuse flux (E+1) and the radiance both created by first order scattering of the direct sun radiation. Compared to the turbid case (for which our model is equivalent to SAIL++ and therefore accurately conserving energy), such a density variation redistributes energy but does not affect the budget. Energy remains well conserved in the discrete case as well. To solve the RT problem, FDM-2 separates E+1 from the high order diffuse flux. As E+1 corresponding effective density is not constant function of the altitude (when traveling along the canopy) therefore it is decomposed into sub-fluxes of constant densities. The sub-flux RT problems are linear and simply solved based on SAIL++ formalism. The global RT solution is obtained summing the contribution of the sub-fluxes. Simulation tests confirm that FDM-2 conserves energy (i.e., radiative budget closes to zero in the purist corner case with an error due to the discretization less than 0.5%). Compared to the Rayspread model (among the best 3-D models of the RAMI Exercise third phase), our model provides similar performance.

  6. Comparison of heat flux estimations from two turbulent exchange models based on thermal UAV data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Helene; Nieto, Hector; Jensen, Rasmus; Friborg, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Advantages of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) data-collection, compared to more traditional data-collections are numerous and already well-discussed (Berni et al., 2009; Laliberte et al., 2011; Turner et al., 2012). However studies investigating the quality and applications of UAV-data are crucial if advantages are to be beneficial for scientific purposes. In this study, thermal data collected over an agricultural site in Denmark have been obtained using a fixed-wing UAV and investigated for the estimation of heat fluxes. Estimation of heat fluxes requires high precision data and careful data processing. Latent, sensible and soil heat fluxes are estimates through two models of the two source energy modelling scheme driven by remotely sensed observations of land surface temperature; the original TSEB (Norman et al., 1995) and the DTD (Norman et al., 2000) which builds on the TSEB. The DTD model accounts for errors arising when deriving radiometric temperatures and can to some extent compensate for the fact that thermal cameras rarely are accurate. The DTD model requires an additional set of remotely sensed data during morning hours of the day at which heat fluxes are to be determined. This makes the DTD model ideal to use when combined with UAV data, because acquisition of data is not limited by fixed time by-passing tracks like satellite images (Guzinski et al., 2013). Based on these data, heat fluxes are computed from the two models and compared with fluxes from an eddy covariance station situated within the same designated agricultural site. This over-all procedure potentially enables an assessment of both the collected thermal UAV-data and of the two turbulent exchange models. Results reveal that both TSEB and DTD models compute heat fluxes from thermal UAV data that is within a very reasonable range and also that estimates from the DTD model is in best agreement with the eddy covariance system.

  7. Modeling of the recycling particle flux and electron particle transport in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Maingi, R.; Owen, L.W.; Porter, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    One of the most difficult aspects of performing an equilibrium particle transport analysis in a diverted tokamak is the determination of the particle flux which enters the plasma after recycling from the divertor plasma, the divertor target plates or the vessel wall. An approach which has been utilized in the past is to model the edge, scrape-off layer (SOL), and divertor plasma to match measured plasma parameters and then use a neutral transport code to obtain an edge recycling flux while trying to match the measured divertor D(x emissivity. Previous simulations were constrained by electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}), ion temperature (T{sub i}) data at the outer midplane, divertor heat flux from infrared television cameras, and n{sub e}, T{sub e} and particle flux at the target from fixed Langmuir probes, along with the divertor D{sub {alpha}} emissivity. In this paper, we present results of core fueling calculations from the 2-D modeling for ELM-free discharges, constrained by data from the new divertor diagnostics. In addition, we present a simple technique for estimating the recycling flux just after the L-H transition and demonstrate how this technique is supported by the detailed modeling. We will show the effect which inaccuracies in the recycling flux have on the calculated particle flux in the plasma core. For some specific density profiles, it is possible to separate the convective flux from the conductive flux. The diffusion coefficients obtained show a sharp decrease near a normalized radius of 0.9 indicating the presence of a transport barrier.

  8. Development of Daily Maximum Flare-Flux Forecast Models for Strong Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seulki; Lee, Jin-Yi; Moon, Yong-Jae; Chu, Hyoungseok; Park, Jongyeob

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a set of daily maximum flare-flux forecast models for strong flares (M- and X-class) using multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods. Our input parameters are solar-activity data from January 1996 to December 2013 such as sunspot area, X-ray maximum, and weighted total flare flux of the previous day, as well as mean flare rates of McIntosh sunspot group (Zpc) and Mount Wilson magnetic classifications. For a training dataset, we used 61 events each of C-, M-, and X-class from January 1996 to December 2004. For a testing dataset, we used all events from January 2005 to November 2013. A comparison between our maximum flare-flux models and NOAA model based on true skill statistics (TSS) shows that the MLR model for X-class and the average of all flares (M{+}X-class) are much better than the NOAA model. According to the hitting fraction (HF), which is defined as a fraction of events satisfying the condition that the absolute differences of predicted and observed flare flux on a logarithm scale are smaller than or equal to 0.5, our models successfully forecast the maximum flare flux of about two-thirds of the events for strong flares. Since all input parameters for our models are easily available, the models can be operated steadily and automatically on a daily basis for space-weather services.

  9. 34 CFR 674.52 - Cancellation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accelerated— (i) May qualify for a loan cancellation for services performed before the date of acceleration; and (ii) Cannot qualify for a cancellation for services performed on or after the date of acceleration...

  10. Scaling from Flux Towers to Ecosystem Models: Regional Constraints on GPP from Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Naser, M.; Campbell, J.; Berry, J. A.; Seibt, U.; Maseyk, K. S.; Torn, M. S.; Biraud, S. C.; Fischer, M. L.; Billesbach, D. P.; Baker, I. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Chen, H.; Montzka, S. A.; Sweeney, C.

    2012-12-01

    Process-level information on terrestrial carbon fluxes are typically observed at small spatial scales (e.g. eddy flux towers) but critical applications exist at much larger spatial scales (e.g. global ecosystem models). New methodologies are needed to fill this spatial gap. Recent work suggests that analysis of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) could fill this gap by providing constraints on GPP fluxes at large scales. This proposal is based on evidence that COS plant uptake is quantitatively related to photosynthesis and that COS plant uptake is the dominant COS budget flux influencing atmospheric concentrations over northern extratropical continents. Previous atmospheric analysis of COS has focused on continental or larger scales and only one ecosystem model. Here we explore the spatial and temporal COS variation within North America and their relationship to a range of ecosystem models using regional and global atmospheric transport models. Airborne COS observations are examined from the NOAA-ESRL network including 13 North American airborne sites and a total of 1,447 vertical profiles from years 2004 to 2012. In addition to COS plant uptake, we examined the influence of atmospheric transport treatments, boundary conditions, soil fluxes (mechanistic and empirical), and anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric COS simulations were consistent with the primary observed spatial and temporal variations in the US mid-continent. This consistency is supportive of ecosystem models because the dominant input for these atmospheric COS simulations is ecosystem model GPP data. However, only the COS simulations driven by a subset of the ecosystem models were able to reproduce the observed COS seasonality in a semiarid cultivated region (ARM/SGP). This subset of ecosystem models produced GPP seasonality that was similar to eddy flux estimates, suggesting a role for COS observations in extending flux tower data to regional spatial scales.

  11. Analytical model of particle and heat flux collection by dust immersed in dense magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignitchouk, L.; Ratynskaia, S.; Tolias, P.

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive analytical description is presented for the particle and heat fluxes collected by dust in dense magnetized plasmas. Compared to the widely used orbital motion limited theory, the suppression of cross-field transport leads to a strong reduction of the electron fluxes, while ion collection is inhibited by thin-sheath effects and the formation of a potential overshoot along the field lines. As a result, the incoming heat flux loses its sensitivity to the floating potential, thereby diminishing the importance of electron emission processes in dust survivability. Numerical simulations implementing the new model for ITER-like detached divertor plasmas predict a drastic enhancement of the dust lifetime.

  12. An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jordanova, V. K.; Henderson, M. G.; Borovsky, J. E.; Denton, J. S.; Pitchford, D.; Hartley, D. P.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite-years of observations from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local-times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bi-linear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ion flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local-time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3-hour Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied by the daily F10.7 index). Initial comparison of the electron flux from the model with data from a Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II (CEASE-II), also located at geosynchronous orbit, indicate a good match during both quiet and disturbed periods. The model is available for distribution as a FORTRAN code that can be modified to suit user-requirements.

  13. An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit

    DOE PAGES

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jordanova, V. K.; ...

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite-years of observations from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local-times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bi-linear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ionmore » flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local-time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3-hour Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied by the daily F10.7 index). Initial comparison of the electron flux from the model with data from a Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II (CEASE-II), also located at geosynchronous orbit, indicate a good match during both quiet and disturbed periods. The model is available for distribution as a FORTRAN code that can be modified to suit user-requirements.« less

  14. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-10-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  15. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2017-09-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  16. Bias in modeled bi-directional NH3 fluxes associated with temporal averaging of atmospheric NH3 concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct flux measurements of NH3 are expensive, time consuming, and require detailed supporting measurements of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric chemistry for interpretation and model parameterization. It is therefore often necessary to infer fluxes by combining measurements of...

  17. Bias in modeled bi-directional NH3 fluxes associated with temporal averaging of atmospheric NH3 concentrations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Direct flux measurements of NH3 are expensive, time consuming, and require detailed supporting measurements of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric chemistry for interpretation and model parameterization. It is therefore often necessary to infer fluxes by combining measurements of...

  18. 77 FR 19747 - Proposed Cancelation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Proposed Cancelation of the Air Taxi Authority Of VIH Cougar Helicopters, Inc... cause why it should not issue an order finding that VIH Cougar Helicopters, Inc. is not a U.S. citizen...

  19. Serials Cancellation Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ruth C.; Bruntjen, Scott

    A serials cancellation pilot project was conducted by the Pittsburgh Regional Library Center (PRLC) from August 1981 to December 1983 in order to demonstrate the utility of using a large online union list of serials for making and reporting collection management decisions. A total of 21 academic libraries and one public library from Pennsylvania,…

  20. Improved analytical flux surface representation and calculation models for poloidal asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collart, T. G.; Stacey, W. M.

    2016-05-01

    An orthogonalized flux-surface aligned curvilinear coordinate system has been developed from an up-down asymmetric variation of the "Miller" flux-surface equilibrium model. It is found that the new orthogonalized "asymmetric Miller" model representation of equilibrium flux surfaces provides a more accurate match than various other representations of DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614-633 (2002)] discharges to flux surfaces calculated using the DIII-D Equilibrium Fitting tokamak equilibrium reconstruction code. The continuity and momentum balance equations were used to develop a system of equations relating asymmetries in plasma velocities, densities, and electrostatic potential in this curvilinear system, and detailed calculations of poloidal asymmetries were performed for a DIII-D discharge.

  1. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.

    2011-06-15

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  2. Improved analytical flux surface representation and calculation models for poloidal asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Collart, T. G. Stacey, W. M.

    2016-05-15

    An orthogonalized flux-surface aligned curvilinear coordinate system has been developed from an up-down asymmetric variation of the “Miller” flux-surface equilibrium model. It is found that the new orthogonalized “asymmetric Miller” model representation of equilibrium flux surfaces provides a more accurate match than various other representations of DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614–633 (2002)] discharges to flux surfaces calculated using the DIII-D Equilibrium Fitting tokamak equilibrium reconstruction code. The continuity and momentum balance equations were used to develop a system of equations relating asymmetries in plasma velocities, densities, and electrostatic potential in this curvilinear system, and detailed calculations of poloidal asymmetries were performed for a DIII-D discharge.

  3. Consistency of internal fluxes in a hydrological model running at multiple time steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficchi, Andrea; Perrin, Charles; Andréassian, Vazken

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological models remains a difficult task and many ways can be explored, among which one can find the improvement of spatial representation, the search for more robust parametrization, the better formulation of some processes or the modification of model structures by trial-and-error procedure. Several past works indicate that model parameters and structure can be dependent on the modelling time step, and there is thus some rationale in investigating how a model behaves across various modelling time steps, to find solutions for improvements. Here we analyse the impact of data time step on the consistency of the internal fluxes of a rainfall-runoff model run at various time steps, by using a large data set of 240 catchments. To this end, fine time step hydro-climatic information at sub-hourly resolution is used as input of a parsimonious rainfall-runoff model (GR) that is run at eight different model time steps (from 6 minutes to one day). The initial structure of the tested model (i.e. the baseline) corresponds to the daily model GR4J (Perrin et al., 2003), adapted to be run at variable sub-daily time steps. The modelled fluxes considered are interception, actual evapotranspiration and intercatchment groundwater flows. Observations of these fluxes are not available, but the comparison of modelled fluxes at multiple time steps gives additional information for model identification. The joint analysis of flow simulation performance and consistency of internal fluxes at different time steps provides guidance to the identification of the model components that should be improved. Our analysis indicates that the baseline model structure is to be modified at sub-daily time steps to warrant the consistency and realism of the modelled fluxes. For the baseline model improvement, particular attention is devoted to the interception model component, whose output flux showed the strongest sensitivity to modelling time step. The dependency of the optimal model

  4. ANALYSIS OF WATER AND ENERGY FLUXES USING SATELLITE, ENERGY BALANCE MODELING AND OBSERVATIONS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmak, A.

    2009-12-01

    Surface energy fluxes, including net radiation (Rn), sensible heat (H), latent heat (LE), and soil heat flux (G) are critical in surface energy balance of any terrain or landscapes. Estimation or measurement of these energy fluxes is important for completing the water balance in terrestrial ecosystems, and therefore accurately predicting the effects of global climate and land use change. The objectives of this study were to (1) use METRICtm (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution using Internalized Calibration) model for estimating land surface energy fluxes in Nebraska (NE) by utilizing satellite remote sensing data, (2) identify model bias in energy balance components compared with measurements from Bowen Ratio Energy Balance System (BREBS) in a subsurface drip-irrigated maize field in South-central Nebraska, and (3) understand the partitioning of available energy into latent heat for corn and soybean cropping systems at large scale. A total of 15 Landsat images were processed to estimate instantaneous surface energy fluxes at Landsat overpasses with METRIC model. Results showed that the model predictions of the surface energy fluxes and daily evapotranspiration were correlated well with the BREBS measurements. There is a need, however, to test the performance of the model with in-situ observations in other locations with different dataset before utilizing it for crucial water regulatory and policy decisions. The METRICtm approach illustrated how an ‘off-the-shelf’ model can be applied operationally over a significant time period and how that model behaves. The findings makes considerable contribution to our understanding of estimating land surface energy fluxes using remote sensing approach and experimentally describes the operational characteristics of METRICtm and presents its limitations.

  5. Scales and multimodal flux distributions in stationary metabolic network models via thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martino, Daniele

    2017-06-01

    In this work it is shown that scale-free tails in metabolic flux distributions inferred in stationary models are an artifact due to reactions involved in thermodynamically unfeasible cycles, unbounded by physical constraints and in principle able to perform work without expenditure of free energy. After implementing thermodynamic constraints by removing such loops, metabolic flux distributions scale meaningfully with the physical limiting factors, acquiring in turn a richer multimodal structure potentially leading to symmetry breaking while optimizing for objective functions.

  6. Flux Balance Analysis of Plant Metabolism: The Effect of Biomass Composition and Model Structure on Model Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Huili; Cheung, C. Y. Maurice; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; van Riel, Natal A. W.

    2016-01-01

    The biomass composition represented in constraint-based metabolic models is a key component for predicting cellular metabolism using flux balance analysis (FBA). Despite major advances in analytical technologies, it is often challenging to obtain a detailed composition of all major biomass components experimentally. Studies examining the influence of the biomass composition on the predictions of metabolic models have so far mostly been done on models of microorganisms. Little is known about the impact of varying biomass composition on flux prediction in FBA models of plants, whose metabolism is very versatile and complex because of the presence of multiple subcellular compartments. Also, the published metabolic models of plants differ in size and complexity. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the predicted fluxes of plant metabolic models to biomass composition and model structure. These questions were addressed by evaluating the sensitivity of predictions of growth rates and central carbon metabolic fluxes to varying biomass compositions in three different genome-/large-scale metabolic models of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results showed that fluxes through the central carbon metabolism were robust to changes in biomass composition. Nevertheless, comparisons between the predictions from three models using identical modeling constraints and objective function showed that model predictions were sensitive to the structure of the models, highlighting large discrepancies between the published models. PMID:27200014

  7. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a) Attachments...

  8. 7 CFR 1942.12 - Loan cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be cancelled. The borrower's attorney and engineer/architect, if any, should be notified of the cancellation. The Rural Development Manager may provide the borrower's attorney and engineer/architect with a... Affairs and Public Information by telephone or electronic mail and give the reasons for such cancellation....

  9. 7 CFR 1942.12 - Loan cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be cancelled. The borrower's attorney and engineer/architect, if any, should be notified of the cancellation. The Rural Development Manager may provide the borrower's attorney and engineer/architect with a... Affairs and Public Information by telephone or electronic mail and give the reasons for such cancellation....

  10. 7 CFR 1942.12 - Loan cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be cancelled. The borrower's attorney and engineer/architect, if any, should be notified of the cancellation. The Rural Development Manager may provide the borrower's attorney and engineer/architect with a... Affairs and Public Information by telephone or electronic mail and give the reasons for such cancellation....

  11. 7 CFR 1942.12 - Loan cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... be cancelled. The borrower's attorney and engineer/architect, if any, should be notified of the cancellation. The Rural Development Manager may provide the borrower's attorney and engineer/architect with a... Affairs and Public Information by telephone or electronic mail and give the reasons for such cancellation....

  12. 7 CFR 1942.12 - Loan cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be cancelled. The borrower's attorney and engineer/architect, if any, should be notified of the cancellation. The Rural Development Manager may provide the borrower's attorney and engineer/architect with a... Affairs and Public Information by telephone or electronic mail and give the reasons for such cancellation....

  13. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  14. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  16. 47 CFR 213.3 - Cancellation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cancellation. 213.3 Section 213.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.3 Cancellation. This circular cancels: (a)...

  17. 34 CFR 674.52 - Cancellation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cancellation procedures. 674.52 Section 674.52... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL PERKINS LOAN PROGRAM Loan Cancellation § 674.52 Cancellation... borrower, or, if the borrower is the spouse of an eligible public servant as defined in § 674.64(a)(1),...

  18. Operation cancellation at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

    PubMed

    Sung, Wei-Che; Chou, An-Hsun; Liao, Chia-Chih; Yang, Min-Wen; Chang, Chee-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Roughly 60,000 operations are performed at our medical center every year, so making efficient use of operating rooms (OR) is an important issue. Decreasing the cancellation rate of surgery is one method that could increase efficiency. We reviewed all OR cancellations in 2007 to survey the cancellation rates and causes. The present study was retrospective. Data were collected from the Department of Anesthesiology Quality Assurance Database of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. We analyzed medical records for cancellations from January 1 to December 31, 2007. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0, employing descriptive measures and logistic regression. There were 61855 operations scheduled during this period; 229 were cancelled (0.37%). The mean age of patients in the cancelled group was significantly higher than that in the the non-cancelled group. We found a positive correlation between the cancellation rate and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status. Cancellations for outpatient surgery were most frequent, as were those in the ophthalmology department. Forty-seven cases were cancelled because of cardiovascular problems; 136 operations were done later after the original cancellation issues were addressed while 11 were done under local anesthesia. Of all causes of cancellation of surgery, 54.1% were avoidable. Medical teams must communicate better with patients and relatives, identify and treat relevant comorbidities, and make adequate preparations for surgery.

  19. Statistical modelling of variability in sediment-water nutrient and oxygen fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpetti, Natalia; Witte, Ursula; Heath, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Organic detritus entering, or produced, in the marine environment is re-mineralised to inorganic nutrient in the seafloor sediments. The flux of dissolved inorganic nutrient between the sediment and overlying water column is a key process in the marine ecosystem, which binds the biogeochemical sub-system to the living food web. These fluxes are potentially affected by a wide range of physical and biological factors and disentangling these is a significant challenge. Here we develop a set of General Additive Models (GAM) of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, phosphate, silicate and oxygen fluxes, based on a year-long campaign of field measurements off the north-east coast of Scotland. We show that sediment grain size, turbidity due to sediment re-suspension, temperature, and biogenic matter content were the key factors affecting oxygen consumption, ammonia and silicate fluxes. However, phosphate fluxes were only related to suspended sediment concentrations, whilst nitrate fluxes showed no clear relationship to any of the expected drivers of change, probably due to the effects of denitrification. Our analyses show that the stoichiometry of nutrient regeneration in the ecosystem is not necessarily constant and may be affected by combinations of processes. We anticipate that our statistical modelling results will form the basis for testing the functionality of process-based mathematical models of whole-sediment biogeochemistry.

  20. Assimilation of remotely sensed latent heat flux in a distributed hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuurmans, J. M.; Troch, P. A.; Veldhuizen, A. A.; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    This paper addresses the question of whether remotely sensed latent heat flux estimates over a catchment can be used to improve distributed hydrological model water balance computations by the process of data assimilation. The data used is a series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite images for the Drentse Aa catchment in the Netherlands for the year 1995. These 1×1 km resolution images are converted into latent heat flux estimates using SEBAL ( Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land [J Hydrol 2000;229:87]). The physically-based distributed model SIMGRO ( SIMulation of GROundwater flow and surface water levels [J Hydrol 1997;192:158]) is used to compute the water balance of the Drentse Aa catchment for that same year. Comparison between model-derived and remotely sensed area-averaged evapotranspiration estimates show good agreement, but spatial analysis of the model latent heat flux estimates indicate systematic underestimation in areas with higher elevation. A constant gain Kalman filter data assimilation algorithm is used to correct the internal state variables of the distributed model whenever remotely sensed latent heat flux estimates are available. It was found that the spatial distribution of model latent heat flux estimates in areas with higher elevation were improved through data assimilation.

  1. An improved model for interplanetary dust fluxes in the outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    We present an improved model for interplanetary dust grain fluxes in the outer Solar System constrained by in situ dust density observations. A dynamical dust grain tracing code is used to establish relative dust grain densities and three-dimensional velocity distributions in the outer Solar System for four main sources of dust grains: Jupiter-family comets, Halley-type comets, Oort-Cloud comets, and Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt objects. Model densities are constrained by in situ dust measurements by the New Horizons Student Dust Counter, the Pioneer 10 meteoroid detector, and the Galileo Dust Detection System (DDS). The model predicts that Jupiter-family comet grains dominate the interplanetary dust grain mass flux inside approximately 10 AU, Oort-Cloud cometary grains may dominate between 10 and 25 AU, and Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt grains are dominant outside 25 AU. The model also predicts that while the total interplanetary mass flux at Jupiter roughly matches that inferred by the analysis of the Galileo DDS measurements, mass fluxes to Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are at least one order-of-magnitude lower than that predicted by extrapolations of dust grain flux models from 1 AU. Finally, we compare the model predictions of interplanetary dust oxygen influx to the giant planet atmospheres with various observational and photochemical constraints and generally find good agreement, with the exception of Jupiter, which suggests the possibility of additional chemical pathways for exogenous oxygen in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  2. NACOB presentation to ASB Young Scientist Award: Postdoctoral. The impact of boundary conditions and mesh size on the accuracy of cancellous bone tissue modulus determination using large-scale finite-element modeling. North American Congress on Biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, C R; Davis, B R; Rieger, C J; Francis, J J; Saad, M; Fyhrie, D P

    1999-11-01

    The apparent properties of cancellous bone are determined by a combination of both hard tissue properties and microstructural organization. A method is desired to extract the underlying hard tissue properties from simple mechanical tests, free from the complications of microstructure. It has been suggested that microCT voxel-based large-scale finite element models could be employed to accomplish this goal (van Rietbergen et al., 1995, Journal of Biomechanics, 28, 69-81). This approach has recently been implemented and it is becoming increasingly popular as finite element models increase in size and sophistication (Fyhrie et al., 1997, Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA, p. 815; van Rietbergen et al., 1997, Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, San Francisco, CA, p. 62). However, no direct quantitative measurements of the accuracy of this method applied to porous structures such as cancellous bone have been made. This project demonstrates the feasibility of this approach by quantifying its best-case accuracy in determining the trabecular hard tissue modulus of analogues fabricated of a material with known material properties determined independently by direct testing. In addition we were able to assess the impact of mesh size and boundary conditions on accuracy. We found that the assumption of a frictionless boundary condition in the parallel plate compression loading configuration was a significant source of error that could be overcome with the use of rigid end-caps similar to those used by Keaveny et al. (1997 Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 15(1), 101-110). In conclusion, we found that this approach is an effective method for determining the average trabecular hard tissue properties of human cancellous bone with an expected practical accuracy level better than 5%.

  3. Polar-Region Distributions of Poynting Flux: Global Models Compared With Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanson, P. D.; Lotko, W.; Murr, D.; Gagne, J. R.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Low-altitude distributions of electric potential, field-aligned current and Poynting flux derived from the Lyon- Fedder-Mobarry global simulation model of the magnetosphere are compared with distributions derived from SuperDARN, the Iridium satellite constellation, and the Weimer 2005 empirical model for a one-hour interval (1400-1500 UT) on 23 November 1999 during which the interplanetary magnetic field was steady and southward. Synthetic measurements along a pseudo-satellite track are also obtained from each distribution and compared with measurements from the DMSP F13 satellite. Previous studies of the event are supplemented here with updated simulation results for the electric potential and field-aligned currents, new simulation diagnostics for the Poynting flux incident on the ionosphere, and comparisons of observational and simulation results with the Weimer empirical model. The location and extent of the simulated Poynting fluxes that occur in the afternoon sector, between the Region-1 and 2 currents, are consistent with the observed and empirically modeled locations, but the magnitudes exhibit significant differences (locally up to ~100% both higher and lower). Elsewhere, the distribution of simulated fluxes more closely resembles the empirically modeled values than the observed ones and in general is greater in magnitude by about 100%. Additionally, the fraction of simulated Poynting flux that flow into the polar cap region (above 75 deg) is about one third of the total flowing into the ionosphere above 60 deg; a similar value is found for both the observed and the empirically modeled fluxes. The effect of including the parallel potential drop in the self-consistent mapping of electric potential between the ionosphere and inner boundary of the simulation domain is also examined. Globally the effect is small (< 5%); however, in regions where the field-aligned potential drop is appreciable, local changes of 100% or more are found in the magnitude of the

  4. ENERGY AND MASS FLUX SIMULATIONS IN URBAN AREA USING THE ACASA MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Pyles, R. D.; Falk, M.; Sirca, C.; Miglietta, F.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2009-12-01

    Urban metabolism considers a city as a system and usually distinguishes between energy and material flows as its components. Population who lives in urban areas is increasing and the exchanges of water, energy and carbon into and out of cities are key to the sustainable design of cities. In this context, it is important to provide quantitative estimate of the urban metabolism components using both observations and modeling of physical flows. Today, Eddy Covariance technique and accurate models are available to simulate the energy and mass flux exchanges in urban environment with a good spatial resolution. The Advanced Canopy-Atmosphere-Soil Algorithm (ACASA) model, developed by University of California, Davis (UCD), is one of the most sophisticated models for estimating energy and mass fluxes between surface and the atmosphere. ACASA was recently modified to simulate energy and mass fluxes in urban environment. ACASA treats the surface and associated fluxes as an interconnected system The atmosphere, the urban surface and the soil are represented as a multilayer system. ACASA incorporates higher-order closure principles for turbulent statistics to predict the effects that higher-order turbulent kinetic and thermodynamic processes have on the surface microenvironment and associated fluxes of heat, moisture, momentum, and carbon. It allows counter-gradient transport that simpler models are unable to describe. Using a set of governing equations, ACASA creates vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, mean wind, and CO2 concentration. ACASA was run for the city of Florence (Italy), which is a case study of the European project “Bridge”. The simulations were compared with in situ measurements taken continuously from 2006 using an eddy covariance system located in the city centre. Different measurement periods were used to parameterize and validate the model. From the preliminary results, good agreement was obtained between simulated and observed fluxes with small

  5. An integrated model for dune morphology and sand fluxes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, K. D.; Bridges, N. T.; Ayoub, F.; Newman, C. E.; Quade, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    The transport and deposition of sand is the most prevalent agent of landscape modification on Mars today, with fluxes comparable to some sand dunes on Earth. Until now, the relationship between sand flux and dune field morphology has been poorly constrained. By tracking dune movement over ∼10 km-long dune fields in Herschel Crater and Nili Patera, representative of many dune fields on Mars, we find a downwind flux decrease that correlates with a sequence of changing morphology from barchans to barchanoids and seifs (longitudinal dunes) to isolated dome dunes and ending with sand sheets. We show empirical consistency with atmospheric Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) theory which can describe these broad flux and morphology changes in Martian dune fields. Deviations from IBL flux predictions are from wind streamline compressions up slopes, leading to a speedup effect. By establishing a dune field morphology type example and correlating it with measured and predicted flux changes, we provide an integrated morphology and flux model that can be applied to other areas of Mars and be used to infer paleo-environmental conditions from preserved sandstone.

  6. A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model for investigating atmospheric radiation entropy flux

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Liu, Yangang

    2010-01-01

    A new one-dimensional radiative equilibrium model is built to analytically evaluate the vertical profile of the Earth's atmospheric radiation entropy flux under the assumption that atmospheric longwave radiation emission behaves as a greybody and shortwave radiation as a diluted blackbody. Results show that both the atmospheric shortwave and net longwave radiation entropy fluxes increase with altitude, and the latter is about one order in magnitude greater than the former. The vertical profile of the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux follows approximately that of the atmospheric net longwave radiation entropy flux. Sensitivity study further reveals that a ‘darker’ atmosphere with a larger overall atmospheric longwave optical depth exhibits a smaller net radiation entropy flux at all altitudes, suggesting an intrinsic connection between the atmospheric net radiation entropy flux and the overall atmospheric longwave optical depth. These results indicate that the overall strength of the atmospheric irreversible processes at all altitudes as determined by the corresponding atmospheric net entropy flux is closely related to the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. PMID:20368255

  7. Catastrophic Evolution of a Force-free Flux Rope: A Model for Eruptive Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, P. A.; Forbes, T. G.; Demoulin, P.

    1993-11-01

    We present a self-consistent, two-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic model of an eruptive flare based on an ideal-MHD coronal magnetic field configuration which is line-tied at the photosphere and contains a forcefree flux rope. If the flux rope is not too large, the gradual disappearance of the photospheric field causes the flux rope to lose equilibrium catastrophically and jump to a higher altitude, releasing magnetic energy in the process. During the jump, an extended current sheet forms below the flux rope, and subsequent reconnection of this current sheet allows the flux rope to escape into the outer corona. A critical flux-rope radius, which depends on the form of the photospheric field, divides configurations which undergo a catastrophic loss of equilibrium from those which do not. For a photospheric field equivalent to that produced by a submerged, two-dimensional magnetic quadrupole, the critical radius is 0.23 times the length scale of the photospheric field. This result shows that catastrophic eruptions can occur for flux ropes having plausible solar values. We identify the catastrophic loss of equilibrium with the impulsive phase of eruptive flares and the subsequent reconnection of the current sheet with the gradual phase.

  8. Parallel labeling experiments validate Clostridium acetobutylicum metabolic network model for (13)C metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Au, Jennifer; Choi, Jungik; Jones, Shawn W; Venkataramanan, Keerthi P; Antoniewicz, Maciek R

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we provide new insights into the metabolism of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 obtained using a systematic approach for quantifying fluxes based on parallel labeling experiments and (13)C-metabolic flux analysis ((13)C-MFA). Here, cells were grown in parallel cultures with [1-(13)C]glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose as tracers and (13)C-MFA was used to quantify intracellular metabolic fluxes. Several metabolic network models were compared: an initial model based on current knowledge, and extended network models that included additional reactions that improved the fits of experimental data. While the initial network model did not produce a statistically acceptable fit of (13)C-labeling data, an extended network model with five additional reactions was able to fit all data with 292 redundant measurements. The model was subsequently trimmed to produce a minimal network model of C. acetobutylicum for (13)C-MFA, which could still reproduce all of the experimental data. The flux results provided valuable new insights into the metabolism of C. acetobutylicum. First, we found that TCA cycle was effectively incomplete, as there was no measurable flux between α-ketoglutarate and succinyl-CoA, succinate and fumarate, and malate and oxaloacetate. Second, an active pathway was identified from pyruvate to fumarate via aspartate. Third, we found that isoleucine was produced exclusively through the citramalate synthase pathway in C. acetobutylicum and that CAC3174 was likely responsible for citramalate synthase activity. These model predictions were confirmed in several follow-up tracer experiments. The validated metabolic network model established in this study can be used in future investigations for unbiased (13)C-flux measurements in C. acetobutylicum. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ensemble modeling of carbon and water fluxes for NACP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, A.; Wang, W.; Ichii, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Votava, P.; Dungan, J.; Milesi, C.; Nemani, R.

    2007-12-01

    We began the process of conducting a VEMAP-style modeling exercise over North America in support of NACP. Public-domain versions of the following ecosystem models: BGC, TOPS, SIMCYCLE, BEAMS, CASA, PnET, LPJ will be used in the proposed experiment to evaluate uncertainties associated with model logic. A standard set of model inputs a la VEMAP is prepared using the TOPS modeling framework. The input data consists of satellite- derived LAI/FPAR(MODIS, AVHRR), climate data (station networks and gridded data), soils data (ECOCLIMAP), terrain data (SRTM) and other data over the North American region. Upon the projects completion, all inputs and ensemble outputs will be made available to the community as is for further analysis.

  10. Comparison of Solar Energetic Particle Flux Mapping Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, S. L.; Roth, C. M.; Brodowski, C. M.; Kress, B. T.; Johnston, W. R.; Huston, S. L.; McCollough, J. P., II; Wilson, G.; Selesnick, R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous work using the Tsyganenko-Sitnov 2005 (TS05) magnetic field model combined withthe Dartmouth-CISM (DC) cutoff code to map GOES-7 SEM observations to CRRES locationshas demonstrated that, for reasonably static magnetospheric conditions, solar energetic particleobservations at GOES-7 can be mapped relatively accurately to locations inside of geosynchronouswhere L > 4.5. Also a good correlation with observations continues to approximately L = 3.5. Aprevious comparison of the TS05-DC combination with two other cutoff models found it to be themost accurate of the set when compared to SAMPEX observations in a LEO orbit. However, theTS05-DC combination requires significant computational resources compared to other models soit is important to quantify the difference in accuracy for operational purposes. In this study wecharacterize the Smart and Shea (SS) cutoff code and the Selesnick-Neal-Ogliore (SNO) model andcompare them to the TS05-DC cutoff model.

  11. The Role of Thermal Stratification in Modeling Biosphere-Atmosphere Scalar Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juang, J.; Katul, G.; Siqueira, M.

    2002-05-01

    The state-of-the-art biosphere-atmosphere models used to compute heat, water vapor, and CO2 fluxes from canopies do not explicitly resolve local atmospheric stability. However, efforts to measure and model nighttime CO2 fluxes from ecosystems suggest that local atmospheric stability within the deeper canopy layers may be crucial towards accurate representation of nighttime CO2 fluxes. In order to assess the relative importance of atmospheric stability, a comprehensive micrometeorological model is developed to compute vertical profiles of the kinematic turbulent fluxes of momentum, heat, and moisture within and above a forest canopy. This model is based on coupling higher-order closure approximations with a biophysical description of scalar sources and sinks but retaining the density stratification terms in the scalar budget terms. Both second-order and third-order closure approximations are developed and compared. The measured fluxes in a Pinus taeda stand at Duke Forest are used to assess the model performance. To further investigate the relative effects of atmospheric stability on scalar concentration and source-sink distribution within the canopy volume, a set of simulations are conducted in which atmospheric stability effects are considered and neglected. The results focus on the interplay between leaf area density variation and incident radiation that promote large local atmospheric stability effects within the canopy volume.

  12. Improving North American terrestrial CO2 flux diagnosis using spatial structure in land surface model residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, T. W.; Davis, K. J.; Keller, K.; Urban, N. M.

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate spatial structure in North American CO2 flux observations using a simple diagnostic land surface model. The vegetation photosynthesis respiration model (VPRM) calculates net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using locally observed temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) along with satellite-derived phenology and moisture. We use observed NEE from a group of 65 North American eddy covariance tower sites spanning North America to estimate VPRM parameters for these sites. We investigate spatial coherence in regional CO2 fluxes at several different time scales by using geostatistical methods to examine the spatial structure of model-data residuals. We find that persistent spatial structure does exist in the model-data residuals at a length scale of approximately 400 km (median 402 km, mean 712 km, standard deviation 931 km). This spatial structure defines a flux-tower-based VPRM residual covariance matrix. The residual covariance matrix is useful in constructing prior fluxes for atmospheric CO2 concentration inversion calculations, as well as for constructing a VPRM North American CO2 flux map optimized to eddy covariance observations. Finally (and secondarily), the estimated VPRM parameter values do not separate clearly by plant functional type (PFT). This calls into question whether PFTs can successfully partition ecosystems' fundamental ecological drivers when the viewing lens is a simple model.

  13. A relaxation model of coronal heating in multiple interacting flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, A. S.; Browning, P. K.; Hood, A. W.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Heating the solar corona requires dissipation of stored magnetic energy, which may occur in twisted magnetic fields. Recently published numerical simulations show that the ideal kink instability in a twisted magnetic thread may trigger energy release in stable twisted neighbours, and demonstrate an avalanche of heating events. Aims: We aim to construct a Taylor relaxation model for the energy release from two flux ropes and compare this with the outcomes of the simulations. We then aim to extend the model to large numbers of flux ropes, allowing the possibility of modelling a heating avalanche, and calculation of the energy release for ensembles of twisted threads with varying twist profiles. Methods: The final state is calculated by assuming a helicity-conserving relaxation to a minimum energy state. Multiple scenarios are examined, which include kink-unstable flux ropes relaxing on their own, as well as stable and unstable flux ropes merging into a single rope as a result of magnetic reconnection. We consider alternative constraints that determine the spatial extent of the final relaxed state. Results: Good agreement is found between the relaxation model and the magnetohydrodynamic simulations, both for interactions of two twisted threads and for a multi-thread avalanche. The model can predict the energy release for flux ropes of varying degrees of twist, which relax individually or which merge through reconnection into a single flux rope. It is found that the energy output of merging flux ropes is dominated by the energy of the most strongly twisted rope. Conclusions: The relaxation approach provides a very good estimate of the energy release in an ensemble of twisted threads of which one is kink-unstable.

  14. Mathematical modeling of living cell metabolism using the method of steady-state stoichiometric flux balance.

    PubMed

    Drozdov-Tikhomirov, L N; Scurida, G I; Davidov, A V; Alexandrov, A A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2006-08-01

    This approach uses a set of algebraic linear equations for reaction rates (the method of steady-state stoichiometric flux balance) to model the purposeful metabolism of the living self-reproducing biochemical system (i.e. cell), which persists in steady-state growth. Linear programming (SIMPLEX method) is used to derive the solution for the model equations set (determining reaction rates which provide flux balance at given conditions). Here, we demonstrate the approach through the mathematical modeling of steady-state metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

  15. Benchmarking the seasonal cycle of CO2 fluxes simulated by terrestrial ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shushi; Ciais, Philippe; Chevallier, Frédéric; Peylin, Philippe; Cadule, Patricia; Sitch, Stephen; Piao, Shilong; Ahlström, Anders; Huntingford, Chris; Levy, Peter; Li, Xiran; Liu, Yongwen; Lomas, Mark; Poulter, Benjamin; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xuhui; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning; Zhao, Fang; Zhao, Hongfang

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the seasonality of CO2 fluxes simulated by nine terrestrial ecosystem models of the TRENDY project against (1) the seasonal cycle of gross primary production (GPP) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) measured at flux tower sites over different biomes, (2) gridded monthly Model Tree Ensembles-estimated GPP (MTE-GPP) and MTE-NEE obtained by interpolating many flux tower measurements with a machine-learning algorithm, (3) atmospheric CO2 mole fraction measurements at surface sites, and (4) CO2 total columns (XCO2) measurements from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). For comparison with atmospheric CO2 measurements, the LMDZ4 transport model was run with time-varying CO2 fluxes of each model as surface boundary conditions. Seven out of the nine models overestimate the seasonal amplitude of GPP and produce a too early start in spring at most flux sites. Despite their positive bias for GPP, the nine models underestimate NEE at most flux sites and in the Northern Hemisphere compared with MTE-NEE. Comparison with surface atmospheric CO2 measurements confirms that most models underestimate the seasonal amplitude of NEE in the Northern Hemisphere (except CLM4C and SDGVM). Comparison with TCCON data also shows that the seasonal amplitude of XCO2 is underestimated by more than 10% for seven out of the nine models (except for CLM4C and SDGVM) and that the MTE-NEE product is closer to the TCCON data using LMDZ4. From CO2 columns measured routinely at 10 TCCON sites, the constrained amplitude of NEE over the Northern Hemisphere is of 1.6 ± 0.4 gC m-2 d-1, which translates into a net CO2 uptake during the carbon uptake period in the Northern Hemisphere of 7.9 ± 2.0 PgC yr-1.

  16. User-Friendly Predictive Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes and Carbon Storage in Tidal Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishtiaq, K. S.; Abdul-Aziz, O. I.

    2015-12-01

    We developed user-friendly empirical models to predict instantaneous fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from coastal wetlands based on a small set of dominant hydro-climatic and environmental drivers (e.g., photosynthetically active radiation, soil temperature, water depth, and soil salinity). The dominant predictor variables were systematically identified by applying a robust data-analytics framework on a wide range of possible environmental variables driving wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The method comprised of a multi-layered data-analytics framework, including Pearson correlation analysis, explanatory principal component and factor analyses, and partial least squares regression modeling. The identified dominant predictors were finally utilized to develop power-law based non-linear regression models to predict CO2 and CH4 fluxes under different climatic, land use (nitrogen gradient), tidal hydrology and salinity conditions. Four different tidal wetlands of Waquoit Bay, MA were considered as the case study sites to identify the dominant drivers and evaluate model performance. The study sites were dominated by native Spartina Alterniflora and characterized by frequent flooding and high saline conditions. The model estimated the potential net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) both in gC/m2 and metric tonC/hectare by up-scaling the instantaneous predicted fluxes to the growing season and accounting for the lateral C flux exchanges between the wetlands and estuary. The entire model was presented in a single Excel spreadsheet as a user-friendly ecological engineering tool. The model can aid the development of appropriate GHG offset protocols for setting monitoring plans for tidal wetland restoration and maintenance projects. The model can also be used to estimate wetland GHG fluxes and potential carbon storage under various IPCC climate change and sea level rise scenarios; facilitating an appropriate management of carbon stocks in tidal wetlands and their incorporation into a

  17. Inferring methane fluxes at a larch forest using Lagrangian, Eulerian, and hybrid inverse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, Masahito; Takanashi, Satoru; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2014-10-01

    Measuring methane (CH4) flux at upland forests is challenging due to high levels of heterogeneity in upscaling chamber measurements and the detection limits of currently available micrometeorological methods. We estimated CH4 fluxes in an upland forest from vertical concentration profiles using three different inverse multilayer models: the Lagrangian localized near field theory, Eulerian, and hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian models. The approach could estimate spatially representative fluxes, and use of higher gradients within canopies than above them could minimize uncertainties associated with sensor noises. Comparing fluxes by the models and measurements by the micrometeorological hyperbolic relaxed eddy accumulation and chamber methods, daytime fluxes were reasonably reproduced, but nighttime fluxes were overestimated most likely due to an underestimation of stable conditions and storage effects. The models and measurements show that the forest acted as a CH4 sink during the study period, and the soil acted as the dominant sink. The estimated sink increased with increasing soil temperatures and decreasing soil water content. The CH4 sink estimated during the study period were 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol m-2 s-1 by the micrometeorological method, 2.4 ± 0.5 nmol m-2 s-1 by chambers, 2.8 ± 1.1 nmol m-2 s-1 by the Lagrangian model, 2.7 ± 1.0 nmol m-2 s-1 by the Eulerian model, and 3.7 ± 2.8 nmol m-2 s-1 by the hybrid model. The performance of the Lagrangian and hybrid models increased when the CH4 sink/source was assumed to only exist in the soil.

  18. Modeling Studies of the Effects of Winds and Heat Flux on the Tropical Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, R.

    1999-01-01

    Over a decade ago, funding from this NASA grant supported the development of the Cane-Zebiak ENSO prediction model which remains in use to this day. It also supported our work developing schemes for modeling the air-sea heat flux in ocean models used for studying climate variability. We introduced a succession of simple boundary layer models that allow the fluxes to be computed internally in the model and avoid the need to specify the atmospheric thermodynamic state. These models have now reached a level of generality that allows modeling of the global, rather than just tropical, ocean, including sea ice cover. The most recent versions of these boundary layer models have been widely distributed around the world and are in use by many ocean modeling groups.

  19. Efficient Modeling of MS/MS Data for Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tepper, Naama; Shlomi, Tomer

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is a widely used method for quantifying intracellular metabolic fluxes. It works by feeding cells with isotopic labeled nutrients, measuring metabolite isotopic labeling, and computationally interpreting the measured labeling data to estimate flux. Tandem mass-spectrometry (MS/MS) has been shown to be useful for MFA, providing positional isotopic labeling data. Specifically, MS/MS enables the measurement of a metabolite tandem mass-isotopomer distribution, representing the abundance in which certain parent and product fragments of a metabolite have different number of labeled atoms. However, a major limitation in using MFA with MS/MS data is the lack of a computationally efficient method for simulating such isotopic labeling data. Here, we describe the tandemer approach for efficiently computing metabolite tandem mass-isotopomer distributions in a metabolic network, given an estimation of metabolic fluxes. This approach can be used by MFA to find optimal metabolic fluxes, whose induced metabolite labeling patterns match tandem mass-isotopomer distributions measured by MS/MS. The tandemer approach is applied to simulate MS/MS data in a small-scale metabolic network model of mammalian methionine metabolism and in a large-scale metabolic network model of E. coli. It is shown to significantly improve the running time by between two to three orders of magnitude compared to the state-of-the-art, cumomers approach. We expect the tandemer approach to promote broader usage of MS/MS technology in metabolic flux analysis.

  20. Data-Model Comparisons of Photoelectron Flux Intensities on the Strong Crustal Field Lines at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael; Trantham, Matthew; Mitchell, David

    2010-05-01

    This study quantifies the factors controlling photoelectron fluxes on strong crustal field lines in the Martian ionosphere. Using data from Mars Global Surveyor's Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer instruments, dayside electron populations near the strong crustal fields in the southern hemisphere are analyzed versus various controlling parameters. These parameters include a Mars F10.7 proxy, a solar wind pressure proxy, local solar zenith angle, magnetic elevation angle, magnetic field strength. It was found that solar EUV radiation (corrected for solar zenith angle and the Mars-Sun distance) has the strongest influence on the photoelectron fluxes, and during different time periods this radiation has a stronger influence than at others times. Second, fluxes show a slight enhancement when the magnetic elevation angle is near zero degrees (horizontal field lines). Finally, other parameters, such as pressure and magnetic field strength, seem to have no major influence. These measurement-based results are then compared against numerical modeling flux intensities to quantify the physical mechanisms behind the observed relationships. The numerical code used for this study is our superthermal electron transport model, which solves for the electric distribution function along a magnetic field line. The code includes the influence of a variable magnetic field strength, pitch angle scattering and mirror trapping, and collisional energy cascading. The influence of solar EUV flux, atmospheric composition, solar wind dynamic pressure, and the local magnetic field are systematically investigated with this code to understand why some of these parameters have a strong influence on photoelectron flux intensity while others do not.

  1. Radiative fluxes over the oceans and their representation in CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Radiative fluxes at the ocean surfaces play a key role in the atmosphere-ocean energy exchanges. Radiative fluxes also state the dominant energy sources for the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, the latter being the energy equivalent of surface evaporation. Since 85% of the global precipitation stems from evaporation over oceans, the amount of radiative energy at the ocean surfaces critically determines the magnitude of the global water cycle. To better constrain the latent heat flux and with it the intensity of the global water cycle, knowledge of surface radiation over oceans is therefore particularly relevant. This even more so, as the link between radiation and latent heat fluxes/evaporation is more tight over oceans than over land, due to the unlimited availability of water. However, the magnitudes of these fluxes, which cannot be directly measured from space, are only known with considerable uncertainties. Surface radiative fluxes over oceans inferred from satellite products therefore require careful validation. Similarly, state-of-the-art climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) used in the last IPCC report (AR5), still show large spreads in their surface radiative fluxes, even when averaged over the entire oceans. This calls for an urgent expansion of surface radiation networks to include more anchor sites over the notoriously underrepresented ocean areas. An extension of well-calibrated measurement sites on small islands, ocean platforms or buoys with a careful quality assessment is required. Due to the spatially comparatively homogeneous maritime environments already a limited number of sites of adequate quality can be most valuable to effectively constrain the fluxes of satellite-derived and modeling products. We demonstrate how direct radiation observations in combination with modeling approaches can be used to quantify the energy budget averaged over the global oceans. Related references: Wild, M

  2. Evaluation of Surface Fluxes in the WRF Model: Case Study for Irrigated Farmland in Rolling Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Osibanjo, O.; Holmes, H.; Sun, Y.; Xiao, H.; Yuan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Surface fluxes, serving as sinks or sources of energy, moisture, momentum, and atmospheric pollutants, are crucial parameters in numerical weather prediction models for simulating convective mixing, boundary layer growth, and atmospheric transport. To get the optimal numerical weather prediction (NWP) model options with satisfactory evaluation performance, the sensitivity of NWP results deploying different schemes to simulate surface fluxes needs to be assessed. The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF 3.7.1) is used here to simulate surface fluxes near Echo, Oregon, from September 22 to 28 in 2014. The WRF results are evaluated using observation data from a flux tower with eddy covariance measurements. Six WRF scenarios are conducted with 45 vertical layers and four two-way nested domains (grid resolution: 13.5, 4.5, 1.5 and 0.5 km). The simulations are based on different combinations of large- scale datasets for boundary conditions, land-use datasets, land surface models (LSM), and planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes. Results indicate that the friction velocity is over predicted in all WRF scenarios by 0.05 m/s on average, with the largest overestimate being 40% on average (YSU PBL scheme). The temporal pattern of sensible heat flux is similar in all WRF scenarios and observational data, except that the value computed from WRF is 0.64 times larger on average than observations. Latent heat flux is underestimated by 28.1 W m-2 in runs with the Noah LSM. Additionally, the Noah LSM results are less consistent with the observed diurnal pattern of the latent heat flux than those with PX LSM. Spatial variation analysis indicates that the spatial distribution of latent heat flux is impacted by the land use category distribution, with higher values present over the areas dominated by forest cover, owing to the increased surface energy partitioned into the processes of evaporation and transpiration. The variation in the vertical profiles of moisture is larger

  3. Enhanced Cancelable Biometrics for Online Signature Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Daigo; Inuma, Manabu; Shikata, Junji; Otsuka, Akira

    Cancelable approaches for biometric person authentication have been studied to protect enrolled biometric data, and several algorithms have been proposed. One drawback of cancelable approaches is that the performance is inferior to that of non-cancelable approaches. In this paper, we propose a scheme to improve the performance of a cancelable approach for online signature verification. Our scheme generates two cancelable dataset from one raw dataset and uses them for verification. Preliminary experiments were performed using a distance-based online signature verification algorithm. The experimental results show that our proposed scheme is promising.

  4. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2010-01-01

    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model's ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  5. How Well Can the Observed Flux Ropes in the Solar Wind be Fitted by a Uniform-twist Flux Rope Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the solar wind, flux ropes, e.g., magnetic clouds (MCs), are a frequently observational phenomenon. Their magnetic field configuration or the way that the field lines wind around the flux rope axis is one of the most important information to understand the formation and evolution of the observed flux ropes. Most MCs are believed to be in the force-free state, and widely modeled by the Lundquist force-free solution, in which the twist of the field line increases from zero at the axis to infinity at the boundary. However, Lundquist solution is not the only form of a force-free magnetic field. Some studies based on suprathermal electron observations and models have shown that MCs may carry magnetic field lines more likely to be uniformly twisted. The nonlinear force-free field extrapolation of solar magnetic field also suggests that the field lines of a flux rope twist limitedly. In this study, we have developed a velocity-modified uniform-twist force-free flux rope model, and fit observed MCs with this model. By using this approach, we test how well the observed MCs can be fitted into a uniform-twist flux rope. Some interesting results will be given in this presentation.

  6. Continuous analysis of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and mercury flux in two freshwater lakes in Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia: evaluating mercury flux models with quantitative data.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Nelson J; Beauchamp, Stephen; Siciliano, Steven D; Rencz, Andy N; Lean, David R S

    2003-05-15

    Diurnal patterns for dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration, mercury flux, several water variables (pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), water temperature), and meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, % relative humidity, solar radiation) were measured in two lakes with contrasting dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in Kejimkujik Park, Nova Scotia. A continuous analysis system made it possible to measure quick changes in DGM over time. Consistently higher DGM concentrations were found in the high DOC lake as compared to the low DOC lake. An examination of current mercury flux models using this quantitative data indicated some good correlations between the date and predicted flux (r ranging from 0.27 to 0.83) but generally poor fit (standard deviation of residuals ranging from 0.97 to 3.39). Cross-correlation analysis indicated that DGM dynamics changed in response to solar radiation with lag-times of 65 and 90 min. This relationship with solar radiation was used to develop new predictive models of DGM and mercury flux dynamics for each lake. We suggest that a generalized approach using time-shifted solar radiation date to predict DGM can be incorporated into existing mercury flux models. It is clear from the work presented that DOC and wind speed may also play important roles in DGM and mercury flux dynamics, and these roles have not been adequately accounted for in current predictive models.

  7. Modelling methane fluxes from managed and restored peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, F.; Rasche, L.; Hermans, R.; Subke, J. A.; Schneider, U. A.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-12-01

    European peatlands have been extensively managed over past centuries. Typical management activities consisted of drainage and afforestation, which lead to considerable damage to the peat and potentially significant carbon loss. Recent efforts to restore previously managed peatlands have been carried out throughout Europe. These restoration efforts have direct implications for water table depth and greenhouse gas emissions, thus impacting on the ecosystem services provided by peatland areas. In order to quantify the impact of peatland restoration on water table depth and greenhouse gas budget, We coupled the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model to a process-based model for methane emissions (Walter and Heimann, 2000). The new model (EPIC-M) can potentially be applied at the European and even at the global scale, but it is yet to be tested and evaluated. We present results of this new tool from different peatlands in the Flow Country, Scotland. Large parts of the peatlands of the region have been drained and afforested during the 1980s, but since the late 1990s, programs to restore peatlands in the Flow Country have been enforced. This region offers therefore a range of peatlands, from near pristine, to afforested and drained, with different resoration ages in between, where we can apply the EPIC-M model and validate it against experimental data from all land stages of restoration. Goals of this study are to evaluate the EPIC-M model and its performances against in situ measurements of methane emissions and water table changes in drained peatlands and in restored ones. Secondly, our purpose is to study the environmental impact of peatland restoration, including methane emissions, due to the rewetting of drained surfaces. To do so, we forced the EPIC-M model with local meteorological and soil data, and simulated soil temperatures, water table dynamics, and greenhouse gas emissions. This is the first step towards a European-wide application of the EPIC

  8. Models of Eucalypt phenology predict bat population flux.

    PubMed

    Giles, John R; Plowright, Raina K; Eby, Peggy; Peel, Alison J; McCallum, Hamish

    2016-10-01

    Fruit bats (Pteropodidae) have received increased attention after the recent emergence of notable viral pathogens of bat origin. Their vagility hinders data collection on abundance and distribution, which constrains modeling efforts and our understanding of bat ecology, viral dynamics, and spillover. We addressed this knowledge gap with models and data on the occurrence and abundance of nectarivorous fruit bat populations at 3 day roosts in southeast Queensland. We used environmental drivers of nectar production as predictors and explored relationships between bat abundance and virus spillover. Specifically, we developed several novel modeling tools motivated by complexities of fruit bat foraging ecology, including: (1) a dataset of spatial variables comprising Eucalypt-focused vegetation indices, cumulative precipitation, and temperature anomaly; (2) an algorithm that associated bat population response with spatial covariates in a spatially and temporally relevant way given our current understanding of bat foraging behavior; and (3) a thorough statistical learning approach to finding optimal covariate combinations. We identified covariates that classify fruit bat occupancy at each of our three study roosts with 86-93% accuracy. Negative binomial models explained 43-53% of the variation in observed abundance across roosts. Our models suggest that spatiotemporal heterogeneity in Eucalypt-based food resources could drive at least 50% of bat population behavior at the landscape scale. We found that 13 spillover events were observed within the foraging range of our study roosts, and they occurred during times when models predicted low population abundance. Our results suggest that, in southeast Queensland, spillover may not be driven by large aggregations of fruit bats attracted by nectar-based resources, but rather by behavior of smaller resident subpopulations. Our models and data integrated remote sensing and statistical learning to make inferences on bat ecology

  9. Two-field and drift-flux models with applications to nuclear reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The ideas of the two-field (6 equation model) and drift-flux (4 equation model) description of two-phase flows are presented. Several example calculations relating to reactor safety are discussed and comparisons of the numerical results and experimental data are shown to be in good agreement.

  10. DO3SE modelling of soil moisture to determine ozone flux to forest trees

    Treesearch

    P. Büker; T. Morrissey; A. Briolat; R. Falk; D. Simpson; J.-P. Tuovinen; R. Alonso; S. Barth; M. Baumgarten; N. Grulke; P.E. Karlsson; J. King; F. Lagergren; R. Matyssek; A. Nunn; R. Ogaya; J. Peñuelas; L. Rhea; M. Schaub; J. Uddling; W. Werner; L.D. Emberson

    2012-01-01

    The DO3SE (Deposition of O3 for Stomatal Exchange) model is an established tool for estimating ozone (O3) deposition, stomatal flux and impacts to a variety of vegetation types across Europe. It has been embedded within the EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) photochemical model to...

  11. Mapping drought and soil moisture with a thermal two-source surface flux model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Two-Source (Soil+Canopy) Surface Energy Balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) has proven to be a versatile and robust framework for mapping surface fluxes at multiple spatial scales using thermal remote sensing data. The TSEB has been coupled with an atmospheric boundary layer model in a...

  12. Adaptive data-driven models for estimating carbon fluxes in the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, B.K.; Fosnight, E.A.; Gilmanov, T.G.; Frank, A.B.; Morgan, J.A.; Haferkamp, Marshall R.; Meyers, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    Rangeland carbon fluxes are highly variable in both space and time. Given the expansive areas of rangelands, how rangelands respond to climatic variation, management, and soil potential is important to understanding carbon dynamics. Rangeland carbon fluxes associated with Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) were measured from multiple year data sets at five flux tower locations in the Northern Great Plains. These flux tower measurements were combined with 1-km2 spatial data sets of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), temperature, precipitation, seasonal NDVI metrics, and soil characteristics. Flux tower measurements were used to train and select variables for a rule-based piece-wise regression model. The accuracy and stability of the model were assessed through random cross-validation and cross-validation by site and year. Estimates of NEE were produced for each 10-day period during each growing season from 1998 to 2001. Growing season carbon flux estimates were combined with winter flux estimates to derive and map annual estimates of NEE. The rule-based piece-wise regression model is a dynamic, adaptive model that captures the relationships of the spatial data to NEE as conditions evolve throughout the growing season. The carbon dynamics in the Northern Great Plains proved to be in near equilibrium, serving as a small carbon sink in 1999 and as a small carbon source in 1998, 2000, and 2001. Patterns of carbon sinks and sources are very complex, with the carbon dynamics tilting toward sources in the drier west and toward sinks in the east and near the mountains in the extreme west. Significant local variability exists, which initial investigations suggest are likely related to local climate variability, soil properties, and management.

  13. Two Improvements of an Operational Two-Layer Model for Terrestrial Surface Heat Flux Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renhua; Tian, Jing; Su, Hongbo; Sun, Xiaomin; Chen, Shaohui; Xia, Jun

    2008-10-01

    In order to make the prediction of land surface heat fluxes more robust, two improvements were made to an operational two-layer model proposed previously by Zhang. These improvements are: 1) a surface energy balance method is used to determine the theoretical boundary lines (namely 'true wet/cool edge' and 'true dry/warm edge' in the trapezoid) in the scatter plot for the surface temperature versus the fractional vegetation cover in mixed pixels; 2) a new assumption that the slope of the Tm - f curves is mainly controlled by soil water content is introduced. The variables required by the improved method include near surface vapor pressure, air temperature, surface resistance, aerodynamic resistance, fractional vegetation cover, surface temperature and net radiation. The model predictions from the improved model were assessed in this study by in situ measurements, which show that the total latent heat flux from the soil and vegetation are in close agreement with the in situ measurement with an RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) ranging from 30 w/m²~50 w/m²,which is consistent with the site scale measurement of latent heat flux. Because soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration are not measured separately from the field site, in situ measured CO₂ flux is used to examine the modeled λEveg. Similar trends of seasonal variations of vegetation were found for the canopy transpiration retrievals and in situ CO₂ flux measurements. The above differences are mainly caused by 1) the scale disparity between the field measurement and the MODIS observation; 2) the non-closure problem of the surface energy balance from the surface fluxes observations themselves. The improved method was successfully used to predict the component surface heat fluxes from the soil and vegetation and it provides a promising approach to study the canopy transpiration and the soil evaporation quantitatively during the rapid growing season of winter wheat in northern China.

  14. Plant functional diversity increases grassland productivity-related water vapor fluxes: an Ecotron and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Milcu, Alexandru; Eugster, Werner; Bachmann, Dörte; Guderle, Marcus; Roscher, Christiane; Gockele, Annette; Landais, Damien; Ravel, Olivier; Gessler, Arthur; Lange, Markus; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Roy, Jacques; Hildebrandt, Anke; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-08-01

    The impact of species richness and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem water vapor fluxes has been little investigated. To address this knowledge gap, we combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment) and a modeling approach. Our goals were (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (four vs. 16 species) on day- and nighttime ecosystem water vapor fluxes; (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model; and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor fluxes using plant functional-trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. Daytime measured and modeled evapotranspiration were significantly higher in the higher plant diversity treatment, suggesting increased water acquisition. The SW model suggests that, at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while, at higher species richness, the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a productivity-related water flux) increased. While it is well established that LAI controls ecosystem transpiration, here we also identified that the diversity of leaf nitrogen concentration among species in a community is a consistent predictor of ecosystem water vapor fluxes during daytime. The results provide evidence that, at the peak of the growing season, higher leaf area index (LAI) and lower percentage of bare ground at high plant diversity diverts more of the available water to transpiration, a flux closely coupled with photosynthesis and productivity. Higher rates of transpiration presumably contribute to the positive effect of diversity on productivity.

  15. Modeling Coronal Response in Decaying Active Regions with Magnetic Flux Transport and Steady Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.; Upton, Lisa A.; Young, Peter R.

    2017-09-01

    We present new measurements of the dependence of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiance on the total magnetic flux in active regions as obtained from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Using observations of nine active regions tracked along different stages of evolution, we extend the known radiance—magnetic flux power-law relationship (I\\propto {{{Φ }}}α ) to the AIA 335 Å passband, and the Fe xviii 93.93 Å spectral line in the 94 Å passband. We find that the total unsigned magnetic flux divided by the polarity separation ({{Φ }}/D) is a better indicator of radiance for the Fe xviii line with a slope of α =3.22+/- 0.03. We then use these results to test our current understanding of magnetic flux evolution and coronal heating. We use magnetograms from the simulated decay of these active regions produced by the Advective Flux Transport model as boundary conditions for potential extrapolations of the magnetic field in the corona. We then model the hydrodynamics of each individual field line with the Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops model with steady heating scaled as the ratio of the average field strength and the length (\\bar{B}/L) and render the Fe xviii and 335 Å emission. We find that steady heating is able to partially reproduce the magnitudes and slopes of the EUV radiance—magnetic flux relationships and discuss how impulsive heating can help reconcile the discrepancies. This study demonstrates that combined models of magnetic flux transport, magnetic topology, and heating can yield realistic estimates for the decay of active region radiances with time.

  16. Application of Non-Arrhenius Models to the Viscosity of Mold Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin

    2016-06-01

    The mold flux in continuous casting mold experiences a significant temperature gradient ranging from more than 1773 K (1500 °C) to room temperature, and the viscosity of the mold flux would therefore have a non-Arrhenius temperature dependency in such a wide temperature region. Three non-Arrhenius models, including Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT), Adam and Gibbs (AG), and Avramov (AV), were conducted to describe the relationship between the viscosity and temperature of mold flux in the temperature gradient existing in the casting mold. It found that the results predicted by the VFT and AG models are closer to the measured ones than those by the AV model and that they are much better than the Arrhenius model in characterizing the variation of viscosity of mold flux vs temperature. In addition, the VFT temperature and AG temperature can be considered to be key benchmarks in characterizing the lubrication ability of mold flux beyond the break temperature and glass transition temperature.

  17. Comparing Global Atmospheric CO2 Flux and Transport Models with Remote Sensing (and Other) Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Collatz, G. J.; Pawson, S.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Andrews, A. E.

    2010-12-01

    We report recent progress derived from comparison of global CO2 flux and transport models with new remote sensing and other sources of CO2 data including those from satellite. The overall objective of this activity is to improve the process models that represent our understanding of the workings of the atmospheric carbon cycle. Model estimates of CO2 surface flux and atmospheric transport processes are required for initial constraints on inverse analyses, to connect atmospheric observations to the location of surface sources and sinks, to provide the basic framework for carbon data assimilation, and ultimately for future projections of carbon-climate interactions. Models can also be used to test consistency within and between CO2 data sets under varying geophysical states. Here we focus on simulated CO2 fluxes from terrestrial vegetation and atmospheric transport mutually constrained by analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office for the period 2000 through 2009. Use of assimilated meteorological data enables direct model comparison to observations across a wide range of scales of variability. The biospheric fluxes are produced by the CASA model at 1x1 degrees on a monthly mean basis, modulated hourly with analyzed temperature and sunlight. Both physiological and biomass burning fluxes are derived using satellite observations of vegetation, burned area (as in GFED-3), and analyzed meteorology. For the purposes of comparison to CO2 data, fossil fuel and ocean fluxes are also included in the transport simulations. In this presentation we evaluate the model’s ability to simulate CO2 flux and mixing ratio variability in comparison to remote sensing observations from TCCON, GOSAT, and AIRS as well as relevant in situ observations. Examples of the influence of key process representations are shown from both forward and inverse model comparisons. We find that the model can resolve much of the synoptic, seasonal, and interannual

  18. Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees

    Treesearch

    Aaron B. Berdanier; Chelcy F. Miniat; James S. Clark; Nathan Phillips

    2016-01-01

    Accurately scaling sap flux observations to tree or stand levels requires accounting for variation in sap flux between wood types and by depth into the tree. However, existing models for radial variation in axial sap flux are rarely used because they are difficult to implement, there is uncertainty about their predictive ability and calibration measurements...

  19. Two-flux transfer matrix model for predicting the reflectance and transmittance of duplex halftone prints.

    PubMed

    Mazauric, Serge; Hébert, Mathieu; Simonot, Lionel; Fournel, Thierry

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a model allowing convenient calculation of the spectral reflectance and transmittance of duplex prints. It is based on flux transfer matrices and enables retrieving classical Kubelka-Munk formulas, as well as extended formulas for nonsymmetric layers. By making different assumptions on the flux transfers, we obtain two predictive models for the duplex halftone prints: the "duplex Clapper-Yule model," which is an extension of the classical Clapper-Yule model, and the "duplex primary reflectance-transmittance model." The two models can be calibrated from either reflectance or transmittance measurements; only the second model can be calibrated from both measurements, thus giving optimal accuracy for both reflectance and transmittance predictions. The conceptual differences between the two models are deeply analyzed, as well as their advantages and drawbacks in terms of calibration. According to the test carried out in this study with paper printed in inkjet, their predictive performances are good provided appropriate calibration options are selected.

  20. Modeling of Fluctuating Mass Flux in Variable Density Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, R. M. C.; Mongia, H. C.; Nikjooy, M.

    1983-01-01

    The approach solves for both Reynolds and Favre averaged quantities and calculates the scalar pdf. Turbulent models used to close the governing equations are formulated to account for complex mixing and variable density effects. In addition, turbulent mass diffusivities are not assumed to be in constant proportion to turbulent momentum diffusivities. The governing equations are solved by a combination of finite-difference technique and Monte-Carlo simulation. Some preliminary results on simple variable density shear flows are presented. The differences between these results and those obtained using conventional models are discussed.

  1. Flux extrapolation models used in the DOT IV discrete ordinates neutron transport code

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, E.T.; Rhoades, W.A.; Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The DOT IV code solves the Boltzmann transport equation in two dimensions using the method of discrete ordinates. Special techniques have been incorporated in this code to mitigate the effects of flux extrapolation error in space meshes of practical size. This report presents the flux extrapolation models as they appear in DOT IV. A sample problem is also presented to illustrate the effects of the various models on the resultant flux. Convergence of the various models to a single result as the mesh is refined is also examined. A detailed comparison with the widely used TWOTRAN II code is reported. The features which cause DOT and TWOTRAN to differ in the converged results are completely observed and explained.

  2. Dynamical fragmentation of flux tubes in the Friedberg-Lee model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, S.; Greiner, C.; Mosel, U.; Thoma, M. H.

    1997-02-01

    We present two novel dynamical features of flux tubes in the Friedberg-Lee model. First the fusion of two (anti-)parallel flux tubes, where we extract a string-string interaction potential which has a qualitative similarity to the nucleon-nucleon potential in the Friedberg-Lee model obtained by Koepf et al. Furthermore we show the dynamical breakup of flux tubes via q overlineq- particle production and the disintegration into mesons. We find, as a shortcoming of the present realization of the model, that the full dynamical transport approach presented in a previous publication fails to provide the disintegration mechanism in the semiclassical limit. Therefore, in addition, we present here a molecular dynamical approach for the motion of the quarks and show, as a first application, the space-time development of the wuarks and their mean-fields for Lund-type string fragmentation processes.

  3. A model of the Starfish flux in the inner radiation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    A model of the Starfish electrons injected into the radiation belt in July 1962 was determined for epoch September 1964. This model distinguishes between artificial and natural electrons and provides the artificial unidirectional electron flux as a function of equatorial pitch angle, energy, and L value. The model is based primarily upon data from the OGO-1, OGO-3, OGO-5, 1963-38C, and the OV3-3 satellites. Decay times for the Starfish electrons are given as a function of energy and L value. These decay times represent the best compromise between a number of independently determined values. The times at which the artificial Starfish flux component had become insignificant in comparison to the natural flux component are determined as functions of energy and L value. These times are determined by two separate methods, and averaged values are presented. It is shown that Starfish electrons, by the present time, have become insignificant for all energies and L values.

  4. A review of micrometeoroid flux measurements and models for low orbital altitudes of the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, M.

    1984-01-01

    A review of meteoroid flux measurements and models for low orbital altitudes of the Space Station has been made in order to provide information that may be useful in design studies and laboratory hypervelocity impact tests which simulate micrometeoroids in space for design of the main wall of the Space Station. This report deals with the meteoroid flux mass model, the defocusing and shielding factors that affect the model, the probability of meteoroid penetration of the main wall of a Space Station. Whipple (1947) suggested a meteoroid bumper, a thin shield around the spacecraft at some distance from the wall, as an effective device for reducing penetration, which has been discussed in this report. The equations of the probability of meteoroid penetration, the average annual cumulative total flux, and the equations for the thickness of the main wall and the bumper are presented in this report.

  5. A Three Component Model to Estimate Sensible Heat Flux Over Sparse Shrubs in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chehbouni, A.; Nichols, W.D.; Njoku, E.G.; Qi, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Cabot, F.

    1997-01-01

    It is now recognized that accurate partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat flux is crucial to understanding surface-atmosphere interactions. This issue is more complicated in arid and semi-arid regions where the relative contribution to surface fluxes from the soil and vegetation may vary significantly throughout the day and throughout the season. The objective of this paper is to present a three-component model to estimate sensible heat flux over heterogeneous surfaces. The surface was represented with two adjacent compartments. The first compartment is made up of two components, shrubs and shaded soil; the second compartment consists of bare, unshaded soil. Data collected at two different sites in Nevada during the summers of 1991 and 1992 were used to evaluate model performance. The results show that the present model is sufficiently general to yield satisfactory results for both sites.

  6. Use of a simple simulation model to develop a spatial model of methane flux in the Florida Everglades

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.T. )

    1990-01-09

    A simple simulation model was created to aid a spatial analysis of methane flux in the Florida Everglades. The model simulated competition between sulfate reducing bacteria and methane producing bacteria in wetland sediments. Acetate was the sole source of energy for these bacteria. Acetate production was constant with depth. Standing stocks of acetate, sulfate, bacterial biomass, and methane flux were followed over time on a per hectare basis. Sediment depth as a model parameter was used to convert volumes to areas, and to calculate sulfate and methane flux rates. Sensitivity analysis determined which model parameters had the greatest influence on methane flux. The analysis calculated differences in methane flux between a nominal parameter set and a changes parameter set over a 400 day simulation run. The changed set was the nomial set with one parameter doubled or halved. The order from most to least sensitive parameter was depth, acetate production, sulfate concentration, sulfate diffusion, sulfate bacteria parameters, and methane bacteria parameters. The most sensitive parameters varied spatially and could be derived form spatial scale data (e.g. desiment type). This analysis indicated types of information needed to develop a spatial model of methane flux in the Florida Everglades.

  7. Comparing computational models of slug rise at Stromboli with UV camera measurements of SO2 flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pering, Tom D.; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; James, Mike R.; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Strombolian eruptions, particularly those at the archetypal Stromboli Volcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy) are generally accepted to be caused by the burst of gas slugs. Using computational fluid dynamic models implemented in Ansys Fluent®, with a range of conduit, magma and gas properties appropriate for current observations at Stromboli volcano, we simulate the rise of such gas slugs and demonstrate that during their ascent there is the potential for daughter bubble production from the slug base. These are bubbles which can detach from the influence of a slug to rise and burst at the surface independently. Within the models we can then estimate the amount and temporal pattern of gas released during and following individual slug burst events. This is achieved by integrating gas released near the magma surface. After correcting for atmospheric entrainment and diffusion we can then compare our modelled gas flux to our ultra-violet (UV) camera measurements of SO2 flux at Stromboli (i.e. UV measurement of gas flux is performed at least ≈ 50 m above point of slug rupture at the magma surface). The UV camera measurements identify a broad range of degassing patterns following bursts, typifying the dynamic nature and the complexities of the system at Stromboli, including a previously identified coda in gas flux spanning tens of seconds to minutes (e.g. Tamburello et al. 2012). Whilst our models only analyse a narrow range of events at Stromboli, they highlight the possibility that the production of daughter bubbles could contribute to the gas flux observed at Stromboli. In some instances, the gas flux created by bursting daughter bubbles following a burst event is of a similar time span and could explain the observed gas flux coda. It is also possible that well documented puffing events could be explained by the bursting of daughter bubbles. Indeed, the larger modelled daughter bubbles, which are apparent as well-defined peaks in gas flux within both the UV camera record

  8. Application of the flux noise reducing filter for CO2 inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Yaremchuk, Alexey

    2010-05-01

    Recent atmospheric remote sensing products from AIRS and GOSAT provide large volume of the observations but with larger errors and variance as compared to in-situ measurements, so efficient noise reduction techniques are required for inverse modeling of the surface fluxes. Inverse models of the atmospheric transport optimize regional or grid resolving surface CO2 fluxes to fit transport model simulation optimally to the observations. The optimization problem appears to be ill-posed so it is usually solved by applying regularization techniques. Most widely used regularization methods apply constraints on flux deviation from prior and/or from adjacent regions of same surface type (land-ocean, vegetation type), and from adjacent time periods. Convenient method for solving the problem of limited dimension is based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of the transport matrix, because it can decompose the solution space into a combination of the independent singular vectors. Introducing a simple constraint on fluxes limits amplitude of the corresponding singular vectors with larger reduction for smaller singular values. However this amplitude reduction is not sufficient in practice for inverse modeling of the regional CO2 fluxes, when we have large underconstrained regions in tropics. Alternatively other means of the amplitude reduction are also used, such as truncation, when all amplitudes below threshold singular value are set to zero. We apply a filter which is less abrupt is less abrupt compared to truncation but still suppressing strongly small singular value related vectors. Setting strength of a constraint is often done empirically. To decide a proper value of the cut-off singular value we suggest analyzing a dependence of the singular vector amplitude vs the singular value and set the cut-off value aiming at retaining most of useful information from observation. A graphical tool based on a plot of amplitude spectra is proposed. Advantage of the technique is

  9. Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds measured and modelled above a Norway spruce forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Savi, Flavia; Alivernini, Alessandro; Calfapietra, Carlo; Večeřová, Kristýna; Křůmal, Kamil; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Cudlín, Pavel; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were investigated at Norway spruce forest at Bílý Kříž in Beskydy Mountains of the Czech Republic during the summer 2014. A proton-transfer-reaction-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) has been coupled with eddy-covariance system. Additionally, Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model has been used to derive fluxes from concentration gradient of various monoterpenes previously absorbed into n-heptane by wet effluent diffusion denuder with consequent quantification by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Modelled data cover each one day of three years with different climatic conditions and previous precipitation patterns. Model MEGAN was run to cover all dataset with monoterpene fluxes and measured basal emission factor. Highest fluxes measured by eddy-covariance were recorded during the noon hours, represented particularly by monoterpenes and isoprene. Inverse Lagrangian Transport Model suggests most abundant monoterpene fluxes being α- and β-pinene. Principal component analysis revealed dependencies of individual monoterpene fluxes on air temperature and particularly global radiation; however, these dependencies were monoterpene specific. Relationships of monoterpene fluxes with CO2 flux and relative air humidity were found to be negative. MEGAN model correlated to eddy-covariance PTR-TOF-MS measurement evince particular differences, which will be shown and discussed. Bi-directional fluxes of oxygenated short-chain volatiles (methanol, formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde, formic acid, acetic acid, methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and methyl ethyl ketone) were recorded by PTR-TOF-MS. Volatiles of anthropogenic origin as benzene and toluene were likely transported from the most benzene polluted region in Europe - Ostrava city and adjacent part of Poland around Katowice, where metallurgical and coal mining industries are located. Those were accumulated during

  10. Observing Formation of Flux Rope by Tether-cutting Reconnection in the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhike; Yan, Xiaoli; Yang, Liheng; Wang, Jincheng; Zhao, Li

    2017-05-01

    Tether-cutting reconnection is considered as one mechanism for the formation of a flux rope. It has been proposed for more than 30 years; however, so far, direct observations of it are very rare. In this Letter, we present observations of the formation of a flux rope via tether-cutting reconnection in NOAA AR 11967 on 2014 February 2 by combining observations with the New Vacuum Solar Telescope and the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The tether-cutting reconnection occurs between two sets of highly sheared magnetic arcades. Comprehensive observational evidence of the reconnection is as follows: changes of the connections between the arcades, brightenings at the reconnection site, hot outflows, formation of a flux rope, slow-rise motion of the flux rope, and flux cancelation. The outflows are along three directions from the reconnection site to the footpoints with the velocities from 24 ± 1 km s-1 to 69 ± 5 km s-1. Additionally, it is found that the newly formed flux rope connects far footpoints and has a left-handed twisted structure with many fine threads and a concave-up-shape structure in the middle. All the observations are in agreement with the tether-cutting model and provide evidence that tether-cutting reconnection leads to the formation of the flux rope associated with flux shear flow and cancelation.

  11. Comparison of different stomatal conductance algorithms for ozone flux modelling

    Treesearch

    P. Buker; L.D. Emberson; M. R. Ashmore; H. M. Cambridge; C. M. Jacobs; W. J. Massman; J. Muller; N. Nikolov; K. Novak; E. Oksanen; M. Schaub; D. de la Torre

    2007-01-01

    A multiplicative and a semi-mechanistic, BWB-type [Ball, J.T., Woodrow, I.E., Berry, J.A., 1987. A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions. In: Biggens, J. (Ed.), Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol. IV. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp. 221-224.] algorithm for calculating...

  12. Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, I. D.; Lam, P. J.; Doney, S. C.

    2014-02-01

    The sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC) is a key component of the ocean carbon cycle and plays an important role in the global climate system. However, the processes controlling the fraction of primary production that is exported from the euphotic zone (export ratio) and how much of it survives respiration in the mesopelagic to be sequestered in the deep ocean (transfer efficiency) are not well understood. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, coupled physical-biogeochemical model (CCSM-BEC; Community Climate System Model-ocean Biogeochemical Elemental Cycle) to investigate the processes controlling the export of particulate organic matter from the euphotic zone and its flux to depth. We also compare model results with sediment trap data and other parameterizations of POC flux to depth to evaluate model skill and gain further insight into the causes of error and uncertainty in POC flux estimates. In the model, export ratios are mainly a function of diatom relative abundance and temperature while absolute fluxes and transfer efficiency are driven by mineral ballast composition of sinking material. The temperature dependence of the POC remineralization length scale is modulated by denitrification under low O2 concentrations and lithogenic (dust) fluxes. Lithogenic material is an important control of transfer efficiency in the model, but its effect is restricted to regions of strong atmospheric dust deposition. In the remaining regions, CaCO3 content of exported material is the main factor affecting transfer efficiency. The fact that mineral ballast composition is inextricably linked to plankton community structure results in correlations between export ratios and ballast minerals fluxes (opal and CaCO3), and transfer efficiency and diatom relative abundance that do not necessarily reflect ballast or direct ecosystem effects, respectively. This suggests that it might be difficult to differentiate between ecosystem and ballast effects in observations. The

  13. Reconstructed Metabolic Network Models Predict Flux-Level Metabolic Reprogramming in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Emrah; Çakır, Tunahan

    2016-01-01

    Developments in genome scale metabolic modeling techniques and omics technologies have enabled the reconstruction of context-specific metabolic models. In this study, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), one of the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumors, is investigated by mapping GBM gene expression data on the growth-implemented brain specific genome-scale metabolic network, and GBM-specific models are generated. The models are used to calculate metabolic flux distributions in the tumor cells. Metabolic phenotypes predicted by the GBM-specific metabolic models reconstructed in this work reflect the general metabolic reprogramming of GBM, reported both in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. The computed flux profiles quantitatively predict that major sources of the acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetic acid pool used in TCA cycle are pyruvate dehydrogenase from glycolysis and anaplerotic flux from glutaminolysis, respectively. Also, our results, in accordance with recent studies, predict a contribution of oxidative phosphorylation to ATP pool via a slightly active TCA cycle in addition to the major contributor aerobic glycolysis. We verified our results by using different computational methods that incorporate transcriptome data with genome-scale models and by using different transcriptome datasets. Correct predictions of flux distributions in glycolysis, glutaminolysis, TCA cycle and lipid precursor metabolism validate the reconstructed models for further use in future to simulate more specific metabolic patterns for GBM. PMID:27147948

  14. Empirical properties of inter-cancellation durations in the Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Xiong, Xiong; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2014-03-01

    Order cancellation process plays a crucial role in the dynamics of price formation in order-driven stock markets and is important in the construction and validation of computational finance models. Based on the order flow data of 23 liquid stocks traded on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in 2003, we investigate the empirical statistical properties of inter-cancellation durations in units of events defined as the waiting times between two consecutive cancellations. The inter-cancellation durations for both buy and sell orders of all the stocks favor a q-exponential distribution when the maximum likelihood estimation method is adopted; In contrast, both cancelled buy orders of 9 stocks and cancelled sell orders of 4 stocks prefer Weibull distribution when the nonlinear least-square estimation is used. Applying detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), centered detrending moving average (CDMA) and multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) methods, we unveil that the inter-cancellation duration time series process long memory and multifractal nature for both buy and sell cancellations of all the stocks. Our findings show that order cancellation processes exhibit long-range correlated bursty behaviors and are thus not Poissonian.

  15. Physically Damped Noise Canceling Hydrophone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-24

    Description of the Prior Art [0004] An acoustic hydrophone can transfer underwater pressure waves to electrical energy. As a result, an output charge...frequencies in the range of the generated noise. [0006] In the prior art, the design of a noise cancelling hydrophone was originally developed by Kahn...includes two types of piezoelectric transducers coupled together. One transducer maintains voids and is sensitive to hydrostatic acoustic signals. The

  16. Soil-water fluxes modelling in a green roof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamera, Carlotta; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Becciu, Gianfranco; Rosso, Renzo

    2014-05-01

    Green roofs differ from a natural environment as they are on top of a building and are not connected to the natural ground; therefore it is critical that soils can drain and retain water simultaneously and that they work even in very shallow systems. The soil or growing medium used for green roofs is specifically engineered to provide the vegetation with nutrients, discharging any excess water into the drainage layer, and releasing stored water back into the substrate. In this way, medium depth and porosity plays an important role in stormwater retention and plant growth in a green roof. Due to the lack of a good understanding about the hydraulic efficiency of each green roof's layer in rainwater management, a detailed analysis of the hydrological dynamics, connected with the green roof technical design is essential in order to obtain a full characterization of the hydrologic behavior of a green roof system and its effects on the urban water cycle components. The purpose of this research is analyzing the soil-water dynamics through the different components of a green roof and modeling these processes though a detailed but clear subsurface hydrology module, based on green roof vertical soil water movement reproduction, in relation to climate forcing, basic technology components and geometric characteristics of green roof systems (thickness of the stratigraphy, soil layers and materials, vegetation typology and density). A multi-layer bucket model has been applied to examine the hydrological response of the green roof system under a temperate maritime climate, by varying the physical and geometric parameters that characterize the different components of the vegetated cover. Following a stage of validation and calibration, results confirm the suitability of the model to describe the hydrologic response of the green roof during the observed rainfall events: the discharge hydrograph profile, volume and timing, predicted by the model, matched experimental measurements

  17. Evaluate the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of carbon fluxes and the associated uncertainties using modeled and observed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, F.; Collatz, G. J.; Ivanoff, A.

    2013-12-01

    We assessed the performance of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach - Global Fire Emissions Database (CASA-GFED3) terrestrial carbon cycle model in simulating seasonal cycle and interannual variability (IAV) of global and regional carbon fluxes and uncertainties associated with model parameterization. Key model parameters were identified from sensitivity analyses and their uncertainties were propagated through model processes using the Monte Carlo approach to estimate the uncertainties in carbon fluxes and pool sizes. Three independent flux data sets, the global gross primary productivity (GPP) upscaled from eddy covariance flux measurements by Jung et al. (2011), the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimated by CarbonTracker, and the eddy covariance flux observations, were used to evaluate modeled fluxes and the uncertainties. Modeled fluxes agree well with both Jung's GPP and CarbonTracker NEE in the amplitude and phase of seasonal cycle, except in the case of GPP in tropical regions where Jung et al. (2011) showed larger fluxes and seasonal amplitude. Modeled GPP IAV is positively correlated (p < 0.1) with Jung's GPP IAV except in the tropics and temperate South America. The correlations between modeled NEE IAV and CarbonTracker NEE IAV are weak at regional to continental scales but stronger when fluxes are aggregated to >40°N latitude. At regional to continental scales flux uncertainties were larger than the IAV in the fluxes for both Jung's GPP and CarbonTracker NEE. Comparisons with eddy covariance flux observations are focused on sites within regions and years of recorded large-scale climate anomalies. We also evaluated modeled biomass using other independent continental biomass estimates and found good agreement. From the comparisons we identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model to capture the seasonal cycle and IAV of carbon fluxes and highlight ways to improve model performance.

  18. Modeling nitrogen fluxes in Germany - where does the nitrogen go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klement, Laura; Bach, Martin; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    According to the latest inventory of the EU Water Framework Directive, 26.3% of German groundwater bodies are in a poor chemical state regarding nitrate. Additionally, the EU initiated infringement proceedings against Germany for not meeting the quality standards of the EU Nitrate Directive. Agriculture has been determined as the main source of nitrate pollution due to over-fertilization and regionally high density of livestock farming. The nitrogen balance surplus is commonly used as an indicator characterizing the potential of nitrate leaching into groundwater bodies and thus also serves as a foundation to introduce legislative restrictions or to monitor the success of mitigation measures. Currently, there is an ongoing discussion which measures are suitable for reducing the risk of nitrate leaching and also to what extent. However, there is still uncertainty about just how much the nitrogen surplus has to be reduced to meet the groundwater quality standards nationwide. Therefore, the aims of our study were firstly to determine the level of the nitrogen surplus that would be acceptable at the utmost and secondly whether the currently discussed target value of 30 kg N per hectare agricultural land for the soil surface nitrogen balance would be sufficient. The models MONERIS (Modeling Nutrient Emissions in River System) and MoRE (Modelling of Regionalized Emissions), the latter based on the first, are commonly used for estimating nitrogen loads into the river system in Germany at the mesoscale, as well as the effect of mitigation measures in the context of the EU directive 2008/105/EC (Environmental quality standards applicable to surface water). We used MoRE to calculate nitrate concentration for 2759 analytical units in Germany. Main factors are the surplus of the soil surface nitrogen balance, the percolation rate and an exponent representing the denitrification in the vadose zone. The modeled groundwater nitrate concentrations did not correspond to the regional

  19. CarbonTracker-Lagrange: A model-data assimilation system for North American carbon flux estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Chen, Huilin; van der Velde, Ivar; Andrews, Arlyn; Sweeney, Colm; Baker, Ian; Ju, Weimin; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid; Tans, Pieter; Peters, Wouter

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the regional carbon fluxes is of great importance for climate-related studies. To derive these carbon fluxes, atmospheric inverse modeling methods are often used. Different from global inverse modeling, regional studies need to deal with lateral boundary conditions (BCs) at the outer atmospheric domain studied. Also, regional inverse modeling systems typically use a higher spatial resolution and can be more computation-intensive. In this study, we implement a regional inverse modeling system for atmospheric CO₂ based on the CarbonTracker framework. We combine it with a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model driven by the Weather Forecast and Research meteorological fields (WRF-STILT). The new system uses independent information from aircraft CO₂ profiles to optimize lateral BCs, while simultaneously optimizing biosphere fluxes with near-surface CO₂ observations from tall towers. This Lagrangian transport model with precalculated footprints is computational more efficient than using an Eulerian model. We take SiBCASA biosphere model results as prior NEE from the terrestrial biosphere. Three different lateral BCs, derived from CarbonTracker North America mole fraction fields, CarbonTracker Europe mole fraction fields and an empirical BC from NOAA aircraft profiles, are employed to investigate the influence of BCs. To estimate the uncertainties of the optimized fluxes from the system and to determine the impacts of system setup on biosphere flux covariances, BC uncertainties and model-data mismatches, we tested various prior biosphere fluxes and BCs. To estimate the transport uncertainties, we also tested an alternative Lagrangian transport model Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model driven by the North American Mesoscale Forecast System meteorological fields (HYSPLIT-NAM12). Based on the above tests, we achieved an ensemble of inverse estimates from our system

  20. Fluxnet and Satellite data to optimize carbon and water fluxes simulated by ORCHIDEE biosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santaren, D.; Peylin, P.; Kuppel, S.; Bacour, C.; Granier, A.; Rayner, P. J.; Ciais, P.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem models are used to predict the response of energy water and carbon balances of Earth's ecosystems to environmental changes. However, the estimated fluxes remain subject to large uncertainties, partly because of unknown or poorly calibrated parameters. Assimilation of in situ data should help constraining these parameter to improve simulations of the carbon balance and climate predictions. Using a state of the art mechanistic vegetation model ORCHIDEE, involved in the next AR5-IPCC report, we investigated the benefit of Fluxnet data (net CO2 flux (NEE) and latent heat flux (LE)) as well as remotely sensed fAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) to improve the model. ORCHIDEE computes the energy, carbon and water balances on a half-hourly basis, depending on the meteorological forcing and the biome composition of the ecosystem. The phenology of the model is also fully prognostic allowing the derivation of leaf area index time course. A four dimensional variational data (4D-var) assimilation system has been developed, using the tangent linear model, to assimilate synergistically different observations (daily means) and optimize critical parameters of the model (on the order of 20). The study makes uses of available data from few sites in Europe and investigates three major points. We first analyze the ability of the model to capture the fluxes during particular extreme climate conditions (i.e. summer 2003 in Europe) using parameters optimized during “normal weather” conditions at a beach forest in France (Hesse site). The model-data fit for NEE and LE is analyzed in terms of annual mean, seasonal cycles and synoptic variations. We then performed an optimization using multiple sites of the same Plant Functional Type (PFT) at the same time. This optimization allows assessing the potential of the model to simulate with a mean set of parameters the carbon and water fluxes of several sites under different climate regimes

  1. Including dislocation flux in a continuum crystal plasticity model to produce size scale effects

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, R; Arsenlis, A; Bulatov, V V; Parks, D M

    2004-02-13

    A novel model has been developed to capture size scale and gradient effects within the context of continuum crystal plasticity by explicitly incorporating details of dislocation transport, coupling dislocation transport to slip, evolving spatial distributions of dislocations consistent with the flux, and capturing the interactions among various dislocation populations. Dislocation flux and density are treated as nodal degrees of freedom in the finite element model, and they are determined as part of the global system of equations. The creation, annihilation and flux of dislocations between elements are related by transport equations. Crystallographic slip is coupled to the dislocation flux and the stress state. The resultant gradients in dislocation density and local lattice rotations are analyzed for geometrically necessary and statistically stored dislocation contents that contribute to strength and hardening. Grain boundaries are treated as surfaces where dislocation flux is restricted depending on the relative orientations of the neighboring grains. Numerical results show different behavior near free surfaces and non-deforming surfaces resulting from differing levels of dislocation transmission. Simulations also show development of dislocation pile-ups at grain boundaries and an increase in flow strength reminiscent of the Hall-Petch model. The dislocation patterns have a characteristic size independent of the numerical discretization.

  2. Analysis of Atmosphere-Ocean Surface Flux Feedbacks in Recent Satellite and Model Reanalysis Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, F. R.; Clayson, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent investigations have examined observations in an attempt to determine when and how the ocean forces the atmosphere, and vice versa. These studies focus primarily on relationships between sea surface temperature anomalies and the turbulent and radiative surface heat fluxes. It has been found that both positive and negative feedbacks, which enhance or reduce sea surface temperature anomaly amplitudes, can be generated through changes in the surface boundary layer. Consequent changes in sea surface temperature act to change boundary layer characteristics through changes in static stability or turbulent fluxes. Previous studies over the global oceans have used coarse-resolution observational and model products such as ICOADS and the NCEP Reanalysis. This study focuses on documenting the atmosphere ocean feedbacks that exist in recently produced higher resolution products, namely the SeaFlux v1.0 product and the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). It has been noted in recent studies that evidence of oceanic forcing of the atmosphere exists on smaller scales than the usually more dominant atmospheric forcing of the ocean, particularly in higher latitudes. It is expected that use of these higher resolution products will allow for a more comprehensive description of these small-scale ocean-atmosphere feedbacks. The SeaFlux intercomparisons have revealed large scatter between various surface flux climatologies. This study also investigates the uncertainty in surface flux feedbacks based on several of these recent satellite based climatologies

  3. Comparison of measured and modeled surface fluxes at two experimental sites in Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artinyan, Eram; Bachvarova, Ekaterina; Nedkov, Nikolay; Shopova, Nadezhda; Tsarev, Petko

    2017-04-01

    The poster presents the results of eddy flux measurements at the sites of Chirpan (172 m. a.s.l.) and Rozhen (1759 m. a.s.l.) in Bulgaria compared to flux series computed by SURFEX modeling platform forced with measured meteorological data. The aim of the project is to validate the use of SURFEX modules to simulate local water and energy budget of typical Bulgarian landscapes in order to achieve better representation of evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff at larger scales. More than 2 years of micrometeorological measures of the first site and 1 year of the second site are completed with ground flux and radiation balance measures with half hour time step. That permits to compare measured and simulated terms of the energy balance equation: net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes and ground flux, as well as measured and simulated soil moisture and snow cover properties. Comparison shows higher simulated than measured evapotranspiration in spring for the both sites. For the plain it may be explained with the Vertisol soil type, which high clay content conserves moisture - a feature that has to be maintained in the simulation. For the mountain site snow water content variability shows much faster response of the simulation than the measures during both snow accumulation and snow melt period. Different results are obtained with the introduction of multi-energy-balance option in SURFEX. Keywords: energy balance, water budget, surface fluxes, micro-meteorological method, SURFEX

  4. Dynamics of particulate organic carbon flux in a global ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, I. D.; Lam, P. J.; Doney, S. C.

    2013-09-01

    The sinking of particulate organic carbon (POC) is a key component of the ocean carbon cycle and plays an important role in the global climate system. However, the processes controlling the fraction of primary production that is exported from the euphotic zone (export ratio) and how much of it survives respiration in the mesopelagic to be sequestered in the deep ocean (transfer efficiency) are not well understood. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, coupled physical-biogeochemical model (CCSM-BEC) to investigate the processes controlling the export of particulate organic matter from the euphotic zone and its flux to depth. We also compare model results with sediment trap data and other parameterizations of POC flux to depth to evaluate model skill and gain further insight into the causes of error and uncertainty in POC flux estimates. In the model, export ratios are mainly a function of diatom relative abundance and temperature while absolute fluxes and transfer efficiency are driven by mineral ballast composition of sinking material. The temperature dependence of the POC remineralization length scale is modulated by denitrification under low O2 concentrations and lithogenic (dust) fluxes. Lithogenic material is an important control of transfer efficiency in the model, but its effect is restricted to regions of strong atmospheric dust deposition. In the remaining regions, CaCO3 content of exported material is the main factor affecting transfer efficiency. The fact that mineral ballast composition is inextricably linked to plankton community structure results in correlations between export ratios and ballast minerals fluxes (opal and CaCO3), and transfer efficiency and diatom relative abundance that do not necessarily reflect ballast or direct ecosystem effects, respectively. This suggests that it might be difficult to differentiate between ecosystem and ballast effects in observations. The model's skill at reproducing sediment trap observations is equal to

  5. A steady state model of particulate organic carbon flux below the mixed layer and application to the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Alexandria B.; Grant, Stanley B.

    2001-12-01

    The downward flux of particulate organic carbon (POC) through the ocean is controlled by a complex coupling of physical and biological processes. Here we analyze the equation that describes steady state coagulation, fragmentation, sedimentation, and grazing of POC below the mixed layer. The analysis yields a set of conditions under which vertical flux of POC is uncoupled from coagulation and fragmentation. When these conditions are satisfied, the model predicts that the flux of POC decays exponentially with depth down to 200-500 m, below which the flux is constant. From the magnitude of the terminal flux an estimate for the in situ clearance rate (volume swept clear of prey per grazer per unit time) for the grazer community can be obtained. This in situ clearance rate is estimated for five oceanic field sites using data collected during the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and the resulting values compare favorably to previously published laboratory estimates. These results suggest that, in some cases, bacterial mineralization may not be needed to explain the decline in POC flux in the mesopelagic zone of the ocean.

  6. Site-specific seasonal models of carbon fluxes in terrestrial biomes

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    A set of site-specific computer simulation models of seasonal terrestrial carbon exchange has been assembled from open-literature sources. This collection is designed to facilitate the development of biome-level models for each of the principal terrestrial vegetation biomes on earth, for their integration into a global model of seasonal CO/sub 2/ variation in the atmosphere. The models are described in sufficient detail that their underlying assumptions can be compared. Descriptions include the following aspects of each model: (1) the compartments; (2) the carbon fluxes between compartments; and (3) the climatic variables that drive the carbon fluxes. In particular, the functional forms of the dependencies of respiration and photosynthesis on the driving variables are described. The methods by which these models will be extrapolated to biome-level models are also discussed.

  7. Development of a Scale Model for High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle 400

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan

    2012-03-01

    The development of a comprehensive SCALE computational model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is documented and discussed in this report. The SCALE model has equivalent features and functionality as the reference MCNP model for Cycle 400 that has been used extensively for HFIR safety analyses and for HFIR experiment design and analyses. Numerical comparisons of the SCALE and MCNP models for the multiplication constant, power density distribution in the fuel, and neutron fluxes at several locations in HFIR indicate excellent agreement between the results predicted with the two models. The SCALE HFIR model is presented in sufficient detail to provide the users of the model with a tool that can be easily customized for various safety analysis or experiment design requirements.

  8. Modelling surface energy fluxes over a Dehesa ecosystem using a two-source energy balance model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Ana; Kustas, William. P.; Anderson, Martha C.; Carrara, Arnaud; Patrocinio Gonzalez-Dugo, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Dehesa is the most widespread agroforestry land-use system in Europe, covering more than 3 million hectares in the Iberian Peninsula and Greece (Grove and Rackham, 2001; Papanastasis, 2004). It is an agro-silvo-pastural ecosystem consisting of widely-spaced oak trees (mostly Quercus ilex L.), combined with crops, pasture and Mediterranean shrubs, and it is recognized as an example of sustainable land use and for his importance in the rural economy (Diaz et al., 1997; Plieninger and Wilbrand, 2001). The ecosystem is influenced by a Mediterranean climate, with recurrent and severe droughts. Over the last decades the Dehesa has faced multiple environmental threats, derived from intensive agricultural use and socio-economic changes, which have caused environmental degradation of the area, namely reduction in tree density and stocking rates, changes in soil properties and hydrological processes and an increase of soil erosion (Coelho et al. 2004; Schnabel and Ferreira, 2004; Montoya 1998; Pulido and Díaz, 2005). Understanding the hydrological, atmospheric and physiological processes that affect the functioning of the ecosystem will improve the management and conservation of the Dehesa. One of the key metrics in assessing ecosystem health, particularly in this water-limited environment, is the capability of monitoring evaporation (ET). To make large area assessments requires the use of remote sensing. Thermal-based energy balance techniques that distinguish soil/substrate and vegetation contributions to the radiative temperature and radiation/turbulent fluxes have proven to be reliable in such semi-arid sparse canopy-cover landscapes. In particular, the two-source energy balance (TSEB) model of Norman et al. (1995) and Kustas and Norman (1999) has shown to be robust for a wide range of partially-vegetated landscapes. The TSEB formulation is evaluated at a flux tower site located in center Spain (Majadas del Tietar, Caceres). Its application in this environment is

  9. Modeling surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics of a seasonally ice-covered hydroelectric reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weifeng; Roulet, Nigel T; Strachan, Ian B; Tremblay, Alain

    2016-04-15

    The thermal dynamics of human created northern reservoirs (e.g., water temperatures and ice cover dynamics) influence carbon processing and air-water gas exchange. Here, we developed a process-based one-dimensional model (Snow, Ice, WAater, and Sediment: SIWAS) to simulate a full year's surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for a moderately large (>500km(2)) boreal hydroelectric reservoir in northern Quebec, Canada. There is a lack of climate and weather data for most of the Canadian boreal so we designed SIWAS with a minimum of inputs and with a daily time step. The modeled surface energy fluxes were consistent with six years of observations from eddy covariance measurements taken in the middle of the reservoir. The simulated water temperature profiles agreed well with observations from over 100 sites across the reservoir. The model successfully captured the observed annual trend of ice cover timing, although the model overestimated the length of ice cover period (15days). Sensitivity analysis revealed that air temperature significantly affects the ice cover duration, water and sediment temperatures, but that dissolved organic carbon concentrations have little effect on the heat fluxes, and water and sediment temperatures. We conclude that the SIWAS model is capable of simulating surface energy fluxes and thermal dynamics for boreal reservoirs in regions where high temporal resolution climate data are not available. SIWAS is suitable for integration into biogeochemical models for simulating a reservoir's carbon cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gamma-ray constraints on maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes and UHECR source evolution models

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V. E-mail: kalashev@ms2.inr.ac.ru

    2012-01-01

    The dip model assumes that the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 10{sup 18} eV consist exclusively of protons and is consistent with the spectrum and composition measure by HiRes. Here we present the range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the dip-model which are compatible with a recent determination of the extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray diffuse background derived from 2.5 years of Fermi/LAT data. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 10{sup 19} eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger. Any fraction of heavier nuclei in the UHECR at these energies would reduce the maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We also consider here special evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background.

  11. Gamma-ray constraints on maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes and UHECR source evolution models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V.

    2012-01-01

    The dip model assumes that the ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) above 1018 eV consist exclusively of protons and is consistent with the spectrum and composition measure by HiRes. Here we present the range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes in the dip-model which are compatible with a recent determination of the extragalactic very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray diffuse background derived from 2.5 years of Fermi/LAT data. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 1019 eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger. Any fraction of heavier nuclei in the UHECR at these energies would reduce the maximum cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We also consider here special evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background.

  12. Robust Modeling of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes from Coastal Wetland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, O. I.; Ishtiaq, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Many critical wetland biogeochemical processes are still largely unknown or poorly understood at best. Yet, available models for predicting wetland greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) are generally mechanistic in nature. This knowledge gap leads to inappropriate process descriptions or over-parameterizations in existing mechanistic models, which often fail to provide accurate and robust predictions across time and space. We developed a systematic data-analytics and informatics method to identify the dominant controls and quantify the relative linkages of wetland GHG fluxes in relation to various hydro-climatic, sea level, biogeochemical and ecological drivers. The method was applied to data collected from 2012-14 through an extensive field campaign from different blue carbon sites of Waquoit Bay, MA. Multivariate pattern recognition techniques of principal component and factor analyses were employed to identify the dominant controls of wetland GHG fluxes; classifying and grouping process variables based on their similarity and interrelation patterns. Power-law based partial least squares regression models were developed to quantify the relative linkages of major GHGs with different process drivers and stressors, as well as to achieve site-specific predictions of GHG fluxes. Wetland biogeochemical similitude and scaling laws were also investigated to unravel emergent patterns and organizing principles of wetland GHG fluxes. The research findings will guide the development of parsimonious empirical to appropriate mechanistic models for spatio-temporally robust predictions of GHGs fluxes and carbon sequestration from coastal wetland ecosystems. The research is part of two current projects funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the National Science Foundation; focusing on wetland data collections, knowledge formation, formulation of robust GHGs prediction models, and development of ecological engineering tools.

  13. Interplanetary flux enhancements - Comparison with cometary models and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Phillips, J. L.; Luhmann, J. G.; Fedder, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Interplanetary field enhancements (IFE's) are unusual nearly symmetric increases in the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field lasting tens of minutes to hours. Examples of interplanetary field enhancements are compared with MHD models and with the data obtained by the ICE spacecraft at Giacobini-Zinner. These comparisons suggest that the varying properties of IFE's are due to the fact that some events are due to passages in front of the nucleus, others in the near tail and yet others in the distant tail.

  14. 14 CFR 47.47 - Cancellation of Certificate for export purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cancellation of Certificate for export purpose. 47.47 Section 47.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Registry— (1) A written request for cancellation of the Certificate describing the aircraft by make, model...

  15. A metabolite-centric view on flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-scale metabolic models are important tools in systems biology. They permit the in-silico prediction of cellular phenotypes via mathematical optimisation procedures, most importantly flux balance analysis. Current studies on metabolic models mostly consider reaction fluxes in isolation. Based on a recently proposed metabolite-centric approach, we here describe a set of methods that enable the analysis and interpretation of flux distributions in an integrated metabolite-centric view. We demonstrate how this framework can be used for the refinement of genome-scale metabolic models. Results We applied the metabolite-centric view developed here to the most recent metabolic reconstruction of Escherichia coli. By compiling the balance sheets of a small number of currency metabolites, we were able to fully characterise the energy metabolism as predicted by the model and to identify a possibility for model refinement in NADPH metabolism. Selected branch points were examined in detail in order to demonstrate how a metabolite-centric view allows identifying functional roles of metabolites. Fructose 6-phosphate aldolase and the sedoheptulose bisphosphate bypass were identified as enzymatic reactions that can carry high fluxes in the model but are unlikely to exhibit significant activity in vivo. Performing a metabolite essentiality analysis, unconstrained import and export of iron ions could be identified as potentially problematic for the quality of model predictions. Conclusions The system-wide analysis of split ratios and branch points allows a much deeper insight into the metabolic network than reaction-centric analyses. Extending an earlier metabolite-centric approach, the methods introduced here establish an integrated metabolite-centric framework for the interpretation of flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic networks that can complement the classical reaction-centric framework. Analysing fluxes and their metabolic context simultaneously opens

  16. A metabolite-centric view on flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic models.

    PubMed

    Riemer, S Alexander; Rex, René; Schomburg, Dietmar

    2013-04-12

    Genome-scale metabolic models are important tools in systems biology. They permit the in-silico prediction of cellular phenotypes via mathematical optimisation procedures, most importantly flux balance analysis. Current studies on metabolic models mostly consider reaction fluxes in isolation. Based on a recently proposed metabolite-centric approach, we here describe a set of methods that enable the analysis and interpretation of flux distributions in an integrated metabolite-centric view. We demonstrate how this framework can be used for the refinement of genome-scale metabolic models. We applied the metabolite-centric view developed here to the most recent metabolic reconstruction of Escherichia coli. By compiling the balance sheets of a small number of currency metabolites, we were able to fully characterise the energy metabolism as predicted by the model and to identify a possibility for model refinement in NADPH metabolism. Selected branch points were examined in detail in order to demonstrate how a metabolite-centric view allows identifying functional roles of metabolites. Fructose 6-phosphate aldolase and the sedoheptulose bisphosphate bypass were identified as enzymatic reactions that can carry high fluxes in the model but are unlikely to exhibit significant activity in vivo. Performing a metabolite essentiality analysis, unconstrained import and export of iron ions could be identified as potentially problematic for the quality of model predictions. The system-wide analysis of split ratios and branch points allows a much deeper insight into the metabolic network than reaction-centric analyses. Extending an earlier metabolite-centric approach, the methods introduced here establish an integrated metabolite-centric framework for the interpretation of flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic networks that can complement the classical reaction-centric framework. Analysing fluxes and their metabolic context simultaneously opens the door to systems biological

  17. Inverse modeling of the regional CO2 fluxes in 2009-2010 with GOSAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S.; Takagi, H.; Oda, T.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Saeki, T.; Belikov, D.; Saito, R.; Andres, R. J.; Oshchepkov, S.; Bril, A.; Morino, I.; Uchino, O.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, T.

    2011-12-01

    We present a system for inverse estimation of surface CO2 fluxes using atmospheric transport model and GOSAT observations together with the results of processing the observational GOSAT data. The CO2 column mixing ratio observed by GOSAT satellite is used together with ground-based observations present in Globalview CO2 database. The NIES-retrieved TANSO-FTS SWIR L2 product data are combined with Globalview (GV) observations. Monthly mean CO2 fluxes for 64 regions are estimated together with a global mean offset between GOSAT data and Globalview. We used the fixed-lag Kalman Smoother (Bruhwiler et al., 2005), to infer monthly fluxes for 42 sub-continental terrestrial regions and 22 oceanic basins. The surface fluxes are estimated by making corrections to the a priori fluxes such that the mismatches between the model predictions and observations are minimized. As the input we prepared monthly-mean GV observations and bias-corrected GOSAT XCO2 retrievals aggregated to monthly mean values for each 5x5 degree grids. The column averaged CO2 mixing ratio (XCO2) and column averaging kernel are provided by GOSAT Level 2 product and PPDF-DOAS method. For forward simulations, we used NIES atmospheric transport model specifically designed to reproduce the stratospheric air age using isentropic vertical coordinates and validated against observations of CO2 and CH4. The a priori flux dataset was comprised of four components. Daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is predicted by the Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT), a terrestrial biosphere process model with the model parameters adjusted to match seasonal cycle of the atmospheric CO2. Monthly ocean-atmosphere CO2 fluxes are generated with an ocean pCO2 data assimilation system driven by reanalyzed GODAS currents, which used the LDEO surface pCO2 database as constraint. Monthly CO2 emissions due to biomass burning were provided by the Global Fire Emissions Database; and monthly fossil fuel CO2 emissions are

  18. Measuring and modeling disturbance-induced changes to flux dynamics in increasingly heterogeneous canopy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, K.; Bohrer, G.; He, L.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Vogel, C.; Curtis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent eddies control the flux of carbon, water and other gases between forested environments and the atmosphere. Inside the canopy, eddy correlation length is very small and surface heterogeneity due to tree-crown structures occurs at these scales. Computer simulations, particularly Large-Eddy Simulations (LES), provide the foundation to test the sensitivity of flux exchange and turbulent mixing to small scale processes, such as successional- or disturbance-driven changes to canopy structure. At the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), we disturbed 39 ha of forest by girdling all canopy-dominant early-successional aspen and birch trees, leading to a large mortality event, followed by a shift in forest structure that is typical of a more mature successional stage. Over the course of the study, we have found a divergence from pre-treatment biosphere-atmosphere gas-exchange trends between the control and disturbance sites due to changes in canopy structure and, as a consequence, biological response. We use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS)-based Forest Large-Eddy Simulation (RAFLES), and the more dynamic RAFLES-Ecosystem Demography (ED2) model, to investigate the consequences of increasingly heterogeneous forest environments to canopy-atmosphere exchange. RAFLES-ED2 resolves multi-layered light attenuation and vegetation and surface heat, vapor and CO2 fluxes and includes a multi-layered soil column under each atmosphere-vegetation column, as opposed to the single-layered soil-vegetation model in RAFLES. The model environment was determined by remote sensing of the actual forested area of interest using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) measurements and eddy-flux gas exchange measurements at two neighboring AmeriFlux eddy-flux towers, the manipulated site (US-UMd) and its undisturbed control (US-UMB) both at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) cluster site. We find more accurate surface roughness estimates and

  19. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-05-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle - ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001-2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within the

  20. Spatially Distributed, Coupled Modeling of Plant Growth, Nitrogen and Water Fluxes in an Alpine Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, K.

    2001-12-01

    Carbon, water and nitrogen fluxes are closely coupled. They interact and have many feedbacks. Human interference, in particular through land use management and global change strongly modifies these fluxes. Increasing demands and conflicting interests result in an increasing need for regulation targeting different aspects of the system. Without being their main target, many of these measures directly affect water quantity, quality and availability. Improved management and planning of our water resources requires the development of integrated tools, in particular since interactions of the involved environmental and social systems often lead to unexpected or adverse results. To investigate the effect of plant growth, land use management and global change on water fluxes and quality, the PROcess oriented Modular EnvironmenT and Vegetation Model (PROMET-V) was developed. PROMET-V models the spatial patterns and temporal course of water, carbon and nitrogen fluxes using process oriented and mechanistic model components. The hydrological model is based on the Penman-Monteith approach, it uses a plant-physiological model to calculate the canopy conductance, and a multi-layer soil water model. Plant growth for different vegetation is modelled by calculating canopy photosynthesis, respiration, phenology and allocation. Plant growth and water fluxes are coupled directly through photosynthesis and transpiration. Many indirect feedbacks and interactions occur due to their mutual dependency upon leaf area, root distribution, water and nutrient availability for instance. PROMET-V calculates nitrogen fluxes and transformations. The time step used depends upon the modelled process and varies from 1 hour to 1 day. The kernel model is integrated in a raster GIS system for spatially distributed modelling. PROMET-V was tested in a pre-alpine landscape (Ammer river, 709 km**2, located in Southern Germany) which is characterized by small scale spatial heterogeneities of climate, soil and

  1. Uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model at multiple flux tower sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Mingshi; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the water cycle – ET from the land surface returns approximately 60% of the global precipitation back to the atmosphere. ET also plays an important role in energy transport among the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. Current regional to global and daily to annual ET estimation relies mainly on surface energy balance (SEB) ET models or statistical and empirical methods driven by remote sensing data and various climatological databases. These models have uncertainties due to inevitable input errors, poorly defined parameters, and inadequate model structures. The eddy covariance measurements on water, energy, and carbon fluxes at the AmeriFlux tower sites provide an opportunity to assess the ET modeling uncertainties. In this study, we focused on uncertainty analysis of the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model for ET estimation at multiple AmeriFlux tower sites with diverse land cover characteristics and climatic conditions. The 8-day composite 1-km MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) was used as input land surface temperature for the SSEBop algorithms. The other input data were taken from the AmeriFlux database. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the SSEBop model performed well in estimating ET with an R2 of 0.86 between estimated ET and eddy covariance measurements at 42 AmeriFlux tower sites during 2001–2007. It was encouraging to see that the best performance was observed for croplands, where R2 was 0.92 with a root mean square error of 13 mm/month. The uncertainties or random errors from input variables and parameters of the SSEBop model led to monthly ET estimates with relative errors less than 20% across multiple flux tower sites distributed across different biomes. This uncertainty of the SSEBop model lies within the error range of other SEB models, suggesting systematic error or bias of the SSEBop model is within

  2. Sensitivity of a global climate model to the specification of convective updraft and downdraft mass fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Genio, Anthony D.; Yao, Mao-Sung

    1988-01-01

    The response of the GISS global climate model to different parameterizations of moist convective mass flux is studied. A control run with arbitrarily specified updraft mass flux is compared to experiments predicting cumulus mass fulx on the basis of low-level convergence, convergence plus surface evaporation, or convergence and evaporation modified by varying boundary layer height. Also, an experiment that includes a simple parameterization of saturated convective-scale downdrafts is discussed. It is found that the model correctly simulates the correlation between deep convection strength and tropical sea surface temperature in each experiment with the parameterization of cumulus mass flux having little effect. The implications of the experiments for cloud effects on climate sensitivity are examined.

  3. Modelling and simulation of voltage inverter fed induction motor with stator flux orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Rafajlovski, G.; Ratz, E.; Manov, D.; Mircevski, S.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with the application of a non-linear control technique in a three phase inverter-fed induction motor. Also mathematical model for dynamic analysis of an induction motor and voltage controlled inverter in stator coordinate system is described. Digital simulation has been utilized to prove the performance and simplicity of the induction motor mathematical formulation. These models can be easily transformed for freely chosen rotating frame of reference. In this control system of stator flux controlled induction motor the instantaneous values of the flux and torque are calculated from only the primary current variables. By using instantaneous voltage space vectors with selection of optimum inverter switching modes employing vector modulation technique, the direct control of torque and stator flux is achieved.

  4. Partial SUSY breaking for asymmetric Gepner models and non-geometric flux vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Fuchs, Michael; Plauschinn, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Using the method of simple current extensions, asymmetric Gepner models of Type IIB with N = 1 space-time supersymmetry are constructed. The combinatorics of the massless vector fields suggests that these classical Minkowski string vacua provide fully backreacted solutions corresponding to N = 1 minima of N = 2 gauged supergravity. The latter contain abelian gaugings along the axionic isometries in the hypermultiplet moduli space, and can be considered as Type IIB flux compactifications on Calabi-Yau manifolds equipped with (non-)geometric fluxes. For a particular class of asymmetric Gepner models, we are able to explicitly specify the underlying CICYs and to check necessary conditions for a GSUGRA interpretation. If this conjecture is correct, there exists a large class of exactly solvable non-geometric flux compactifications on CY threefolds.

  5. Numerical modeling of cold magmatic CO2 flux measurements for the exploration of hidden geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, Loïc.; Wanner, Christoph; Pan, Lehua

    2015-10-01

    The most accepted conceptual model to explain surface degassing of cold magmatic CO2 in volcanic-geothermal systems involves the presence of a gas reservoir. In this study, numerical simulations using the TOUGH2-ECO2N V2.0 package are performed to get quantitative insights into how cold CO2 soil flux measurements are related to reservoir and fluid properties. Although the modeling is based on flux data measured at a specific geothermal site, the Acoculco caldera (Mexico), some general insights have been gained. Both the CO2 fluxes at the surface and the depth at which CO2 exsolves are highly sensitive to the dissolved CO2 content of the deep fluid. If CO2 mainly exsolves above the reservoir within a fracture zone, the surface CO2 fluxes are not sensitive to the reservoir size but depend on the CO2 dissolved content and the rock permeability. For gas exsolution below the top of the reservoir, surface CO2 fluxes also depend on the gas saturation of the deep fluid as well as the reservoir size. The absence of thermal anomalies at the surface is mainly a consequence of the low enthalpy of CO2. The heat carried by CO2 is efficiently cooled down by heat conduction and to a certain extent by isoenthalpic volume expansion depending on the temperature gradient. Thermal anomalies occur at higher CO2 fluxes (>37,000 g m-2 d-1) when the heat flux of the rising CO2 is not balanced anymore. Finally, specific results are obtained for the Acoculco area (reservoir depth, CO2 dissolved content, and gas saturation state).

  6. Modelling variability in radiative fluxes on snow surfaces beneath coniferous canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essery, R.; Hardy, J.; Link, T.; Marks, D.; Pomeroy, J.; Rowlands, A.; Rutter, N.

    2005-12-01

    Absorption, scattering and emission of solar and thermal radiation by coniferous canopies can have a large influence on the surface energy balance of snow in forests. The high variability of radiative fluxes in sparse or discontinuous forests cannot be captured by simple two-stream canopy radiation models, and sophisticated ray-tracing models are too computationally and data intensive for practical applications. An efficient spatial model representing individual trees as simple geometric primitives with a stochastic component for smaller scales is presented, and model results are compared with measurements from radiometer arrays. Forest structure information for the model can be obtained from manual mapping, hemispherical photography, aerial photography or airborne laser scanning. The model is used to investigate spatial and temporal scaling of radiative fluxes at the snow surface.

  7. Micro-scale modelling of energy fluxes over a small Fluxnet forest site in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sogachev, A.; Dellwik, E.; Boegh, E.

    2012-12-01

    Most forests, especially in Europe, are too small to fulfil strict fetch requirements associated with idealized flux observations in undisturbed, homogeneous flow. As a consequence of limited fetch, the flux measured above the canopy will often deviate from the source strength underlying the measurements. Since representative measurements focused on heterogeneous effects are scarce because of demanding experimental arrangements the numerical modelling are often recruited for analysis of these deviations. During the last years the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model SCADIS (scalar distribution model; Sogachev et al., 2002, Tellus 54B, 784-819) has been successfully applied especially in the region adjacent to a forest edge in order to improve flux data interpretation. Most of the analyses were done for the neutral case and in two-dimensional mode. When analyzing the effect of a forest edge on both flow and passive scalar properties, numerical studies showed that sources located on a soil surface are major contributors to wave-like flux behavior downwind of the leading edge, and that it is important to distinguish the effects of ground sources from those of the foliage. In the present work, we apply the SCADIS model with enhanced turbulence closure including buoyancy for investigation of the daily course of energy fluxes over patchy forested terrain in Denmark, where the model is used in three-dimensional mode. The modelling results (with 50 m horizontal resolution) are in good qualitative agreement with high-resolution (60 m and 120 m) remote-sensing data of the effective surface temperature of the area near the site in focus: the forested areas are colder in daytime and warmer in night time than surrounding open areas. In contrast to the remote sensing approach, SCADIS provides the information about spatial distribution of latent and sensible heat vertical fluxes in the whole ABL. Topography and forest edge effects result in vertical turbulent fluxes that

  8. Sources of Uncertainty in Predicting Land Surface Fluxes Using Diverse Data and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dungan, Jennifer L.; Wang, Weile; Michaelis, Andrew; Votava, Petr; Nemani, Ramakrishma

    2010-01-01

    In the domain of predicting land surface fluxes, models are used to bring data from large observation networks and satellite remote sensing together to make predictions about present and future states of the Earth. Characterizing the uncertainty about such predictions is a complex process and one that is not yet fully understood. Uncertainty exists about initialization, measurement and interpolation of input variables; model parameters; model structure; and mixed spatial and temporal supports. Multiple models or structures often exist to describe the same processes. Uncertainty about structure is currently addressed by running an ensemble of different models and examining the distribution of model outputs. To illustrate structural uncertainty, a multi-model ensemble experiment we have been conducting using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) will be discussed. TOPS uses public versions of process-based ecosystem models that use satellite-derived inputs along with surface climate data and land surface characterization to produce predictions of ecosystem fluxes including gross and net primary production and net ecosystem exchange. Using the TOPS framework, we have explored the uncertainty arising from the application of models with different assumptions, structures, parameters, and variable definitions. With a small number of models, this only begins to capture the range of possible spatial fields of ecosystem fluxes. Few attempts have been made to systematically address the components of uncertainty in such a framework. We discuss the characterization of uncertainty for this approach including both quantifiable and poorly known aspects.

  9. Evaluation of the RAMS model for estimating turbulent fluxes over the Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQueen, J. T.; Valigura, R. A.; Stunder, B. J. B.

    This study has examined the ability of a mesoscale model to compute pollutant deposition velocity and surface fluxes over water with the accuracy needed for air pollution studies. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was evaluated against buoy data over the Chesapeake Bay. Turbulence and surface layer variables (e.g., surface fluxes, friction velocity) and ultimately deposition velocities were primarily examined against the buoy data for 23 cases in 1994. Sensible heat fluxes and temperatures compared well with observations when the model horizontal resolution was reduced to 5 km or less and the first model level were 12 m. Other turbulent variables compared poorly especially under stable stratifications. Overall, latent heat fluxes and deposition velocities were significantly under predicted even with these finer resolutions. Results degraded when the effects of clouds on short- and long-wave radiation were incorporated. Results were also insensitive to increase in the initial sea surface temperature (SST) over the observed daytime range (1°C), and to the use of an improved roughness length parameterization over water. Errors were much larger during stably stratified conditions, therefore, substantial under prediction of pollutants to the bay would be expected by RAMS during stable periods. However, RAMS would be a reliable predictor of fluxes and deposition velocity during unstable conditions. Further experiments were done to help explain the poor predictions during the daytime for stable conditions. Fluxes over water were strongly sensitive to the soil moisture content of the surrounding land masses for stable atmospheric conditions and improved when geostrophic forcing terms were added to the momentum equations. However, the improved results given with geostrophic forcing were either representative of synoptic forcing or a decoupled layer from the surface that could not be resolved.

  10. Heat fluxes of the Indian Ocean from a global eddy-resolving model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garternicht, U.; Schott, F.

    1997-09-01

    The output of the global eddy-resolving ¼° ocean model of Semtner/Chervin (run by the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California) has been used to study the oceanic temperature and heat flux in the Indian Ocean. The meridional heat flux in the northern Indian Ocean is at the low end of the observed values. A vertical overturning cell in the upper 500 m is the main contributor to the annual mean meridional heat flux across 5°S, whereas the horizontal gyre circulation, confined to the upper 500 m, dominates north of the equator. The change of monsoon winds is manifested in a reversal of the meridional circulation throughout the whole water column. The most notable result is a strong linear relationship of the meridional temperature flux and the zonal wind stress component north of 20°S. The model's Pacific-Indian Ocean throughflow across the section at 120°E accounts for -8.8±5.1 Sv (1 Sv≡106 m3 s-1). A strong interannual variability during the model run of 3 years shows a maximum range of 12 Sv in January/February and a minimum during March through June. The inflow from the Pacific into the Indian Ocean results in a total annual mean temperature flux of -0.9 PW (1 PW≡1015 W). In the model the temperature flux from the Pacific through the Indian Ocean to the south dominates in comparison with the input of solar heat from the northern Indian Ocean.

  11. Non-Uniqueness of the Geometry of Interplanetary Magnetic Flux Ropes Obtained from Model-Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marubashi, K.; Cho, K.-S.

    2015-12-01

    Since the early recognition of the important role of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (IPFRs) to carry the southward magnetic fields to the Earth, many attempts have been made to determine the structure of the IPFRs by model-fitting analyses to the interplanetary magnetic field variations. This paper describes the results of fitting analyses for three selected solar wind structures in the latter half of 2014. In the fitting analysis a special attention was paid to identification of all the possible models or geometries that can reproduce the observed magnetic field variation. As a result, three or four geometries have been found for each of the three cases. The non-uniqueness of the fitted results include (1) the different geometries naturally stemming from the difference in the models used for fitting, and (2) an unexpected result that either of magnetic field chirality, left-handed and right-handed, can reproduce the observation in some cases. Thus we conclude that the model-fitting cannot always give us a unique geometry of the observed magnetic flux rope. In addition, we have found that the magnetic field chirality of a flux rope cannot be uniquely inferred from the sense of field vector rotation observed in the plane normal to the Earth-Sun line; the sense of rotation changes depending on the direction of the flux rope axis. These findings exert an important impact on the studies aimed at the geometrical relationships between the flux ropes and the magnetic field structures in the solar corona where the flux ropes were produced, such studies being an important step toward predicting geomagnetic storms based on observations of solar eruption phenomena.

  12. A hierarchical framework for coupling surface fluxes to atompsheric general circulation models: The homogeneity test

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    The atmosphere and the biosphere are inherently coupled to one another. Atmospheric surface state variables such as temperature, winds, water vapor, precipitation, and radiation control biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes at the surface and subsurface. At the same time, surface fluxes of momentum, moisture, heat, and trace gases act as time-dependent boundary conditions providing feedback on atmospheric processes. To understand such phenomena, a coupled set of interactive models is required. Costs are still prohibitive for computing surface/subsurface fluxes directly for medium-resolution atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), but a technique has been developed for testing large-scale homogeneity and accessing surface parameterizations and models to reduce this computational cost and maintain accuracy. This modeling system potentially bridges the observed spatial and temporal ranges yet allows the incorporation of necessary details about individual ecological community types or biomes and simulates the net momentum, heat, moisture, and trace gas fluxes. This suite of coupled models is defined here as the hierarchical systems flux scheme (HSFS).

  13. A hierarchical framework for coupling surface fluxes to atompsheric general circulation models: The homogeneity test

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.

    1993-12-31

    The atmosphere and the biosphere are inherently coupled to one another. Atmospheric surface state variables such as temperature, winds, water vapor, precipitation, and radiation control biophysical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes at the surface and subsurface. At the same time, surface fluxes of momentum, moisture, heat, and trace gases act as time-dependent boundary conditions providing feedback on atmospheric processes. To understand such phenomena, a coupled set of interactive models is required. Costs are still prohibitive for computing surface/subsurface fluxes directly for medium-resolution atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), but a technique has been developed for testing large-scale homogeneity and accessing surface parameterizations and models to reduce this computational cost and maintain accuracy. This modeling system potentially bridges the observed spatial and temporal ranges yet allows the incorporation of necessary details about individual ecological community types or biomes and simulates the net momentum, heat, moisture, and trace gas fluxes. This suite of coupled models is defined here as the hierarchical systems flux scheme (HSFS).

  14. Experimental validation of CFD model of thermal fluxes through a multilayer wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, N.; Musto, M.; Rotondo, G.

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of thermal losses through building envelope is complex due to the presence of different components such as geometrical and structural thermal bridges, multilayer walls, windows and shadow areas. In particular, in presence of material and/or shape discontinuities, the heat flux becomes two-dimensional or three-dimensional and loses its one-dimensionality. Thermal bridges are weak points of the building envelope; the measurement of heat losses through the walls is quite complicated and in particular the detection of bi-tridimensional thermal flux. The integration between the cfd analysis and the experimental study aims the improvement of the measurement technique and the assessment of the dispersion of heat fluxes through multi-layer walls both in the steady and unsteady measurement conditions. The numerical study has been directed for modelling, by means of the commercial numerical code Fluent, of the experimental test section consisting of a multi-layer wall, in which a structural thermal bridge has been inserted in order to make accurate measurements of the three-dimensional heat flux in steady state condition. The study has been developed to validate the CFD model by the experimental set-up, with the aim to investigate possible measurement methodologies of heat fluxes.

  15. Improved modeling of cloudy-sky actinic flux using satellite cloud retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Young-Hee; Hodzic, Alma; Descombes, Gael; Hall, Samuel; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas; Ullmann, Kirk; Madronich, Sasha

    2017-02-01

    Clouds play a critical role in modulating tropospheric radiation and thus photochemistry. We develop a methodology for calculating the vertical distribution of tropospheric ultraviolet (300-420 nm) actinic fluxes using satellite cloud retrievals and a radiative transfer model. We demonstrate that our approach can accurately reproduce airborne-measured actinic fluxes from the 2013 Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign as a case study. The results show that the actinic flux is reduced below moderately thick clouds with increasing cloud optical depth and can be enhanced by a factor of 2 above clouds. Inside clouds, the actinic flux can be enhanced by up to 2.4 times in the upper part of clouds or reduced up to 10 times in the lower parts of clouds. Our study suggests that the use of satellite-derived actinic fluxes as input to chemistry-transport models can improve the accuracy of photochemistry calculations.

  16. Deriving metabolic engineering strategies from genome-scale modeling with flux ratio constraints.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jiun Y; Nazem-Bokaee, Hadi; Freedman, Benjamin G; Athamneh, Ahmad I M; Senger, Ryan S

    2013-05-01

    Optimized production of bio-based fuels and chemicals from microbial cell factories is a central goal of systems metabolic engineering. To achieve this goal, a new computational method of using flux balance analysis with flux ratios (FBrAtio) was further developed in this research and applied to five case studies to evaluate and design metabolic engineering strategies. The approach was implemented using publicly available genome-scale metabolic flux models. Synthetic pathways were added to these models along with flux ratio constraints by FBrAtio to achieve increased (i) cellulose production from Arabidopsis thaliana; (ii) isobutanol production from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (iii) acetone production from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803; (iv) H2 production from Escherichia coli MG1655; and (v) isopropanol, butanol, and ethanol (IBE) production from engineered Clostridium acetobutylicum. The FBrAtio approach was applied to each case to simulate a metabolic engineering strategy already implemented experimentally, and flux ratios were continually adjusted to find (i) the end-limit of increased production using the existing strategy, (ii) new potential strategies to increase production, and (iii) the impact of these metabolic engineering strategies on product yield and culture growth. The FBrAtio approach has the potential to design "fine-tuned" metabolic engineering strategies in silico that can be implemented directly with available genomic tools. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A DOUBLE-RING ALGORITHM FOR MODELING SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: UNIFYING KINEMATIC DYNAMO MODELS AND SURFACE FLUX-TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Yeates, Anthony R. E-mail: dnandi@iiserkol.ac.i E-mail: anthony@maths.dundee.ac.u

    2010-09-01

    The emergence of tilted bipolar active regions (ARs) and the dispersal of their flux, mediated via processes such as diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional circulation, is believed to be responsible for the reversal of the Sun's polar field. This process (commonly known as the Babcock-Leighton mechanism) is usually modeled as a near-surface, spatially distributed {alpha}-effect in kinematic mean-field dynamo models. However, this formulation leads to a relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed which is opposite to that suggested by physical insight and predicted by surface flux-transport simulations. With this in mind, we present an improved double-ring algorithm for modeling the Babcock-Leighton mechanism based on AR eruption, within the framework of an axisymmetric dynamo model. Using surface flux-transport simulations, we first show that an axisymmetric formulation-which is usually invoked in kinematic dynamo models-can reasonably approximate the surface flux dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate that our treatment of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism through double-ring eruption leads to an inverse relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed as expected, reconciling the discrepancy between surface flux-transport simulations and kinematic dynamo models.

  18. NASA Workmanship Hot Topics: Water Soluble Flux and ESD Charge Device Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette F.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews two topics of interest to NASA Workmanship: (1) Water Soluble Flux (WSF) and Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) safety. In the first topic, WSF, the presentation reviews voiding and the importance of cleanliness in using WSF for welding and soldering operations. The second topic reviews the NASA-HDBK-8739.21 for Human Body Model, and Machine Model safety methods, and challenges associated with the Charged Device Model (CDM)

  19. Contribution of Soil Surface CO2 Efflux to Boreal Forest Net Ecosystem Flux: Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinisto, S. M.; Kellomaki, S.

    2001-05-01

    The aims of the study are to assess the contribution of measured soil surface CO2 efflux to boreal forest net ecosystem flux and to test whether modeled component fluxes such as leaf and surface soil fluxes are consistent with the net flux measured from a tower over a forest stand. Net ecosystem flux was measured continuously in a boreal Scots pine forest in eastern Finland (62° 52'N, 30° 49'E) during the growing period in 2000. Height and diameter of trees in this 50-year-old stand ranged from 10 to 13 m and from 9 to 12 cm, respectively, for 80 % of trees. Eddy-flux measurements were made at the top of a 32-m tower, about 20 m above the canopy. Wind velocity and virtual temperature were measured with a three-axis sonic anemometer. CO2 fluctuations at 32 m were continuously monitored with a CO2 analyzer. Raw data were sampled at 10 Hz and 1/2 hr fluxes calculated. Soil surface CO2 efflux was measured on the top of a feather moss or lichen cover with an IRGA and four automated open dynamic chambers, each equipped with a PAR sensor and air temperature probe. Chambers of 19 cm diameter were made of transparent PMMA. Measurements were made twice per hr, lasting 1 min each. Periods considered in this study included both early and late season conditions, since data from the automated soil surface efflux measurements were available from May to June as well as from August to September. In this study, we aim to compare the measured soil surface CO2 efflux with simultaneously measured net ecosystem flux. The performance of the automated chambers will be tested by comparing with simultaneous measurements from a dark closed static chamber at the same site. A simple regression model, using soil surface temperature as an independent variable, will be built using the static dark chamber data from the previous years. A rough correction for the carbon uptake of moss will be made. This model could be validated later with automated measurements. To investigate further the

  20. Axial vector Z‧ and anomaly cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Keung, Wai-Yee; Tsao, Kuo-Hsing; Unwin, James

    2017-05-01

    Whilst the prospect of new Z‧ gauge bosons with only axial couplings to the Standard Model (SM) fermions is widely discussed, examples of anomaly-free renormalisable models are lacking in the literature. We look to remedy this by constructing several motivated examples. Specifically, we consider axial vectors which couple universally to all SM fermions, as well as those which are generation-specific, leptophilic, and leptophobic. Anomaly cancellation typically requires the presence of new coloured and charged chiral fermions, and we argue that in a large class of models masses of these new states are expected to be comparable to that of the axial vector. Finally, an axial vector mediator could provide a portal between SM and hidden sector states, and we also consider the possibility that the axial vector couples to dark matter. If the dark matter relic density is set due to freeze-out via the axial vector, this strongly constrains the parameter space.

  1. Documentation of intra-meander flux intensification with river table dye tracking and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Endreny, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Observation of the planimetric evolution of a meandering river confirms the narrowing of the point bar throat across time, but the science community is lacking in observations of concurrent changes of intra-meander hyporheic flux. Theory predicts the intra-meander hyporheic flux should intensify as the throat narrows. This research presents a laboratory river table experiment to document spatial and temporal intensification of intra-meander hyporheic flux rates in two meander bends at two evolution ages, each 1:500 scaled from river evolution model planimetry. The younger meander bend, M1, had a sinuosity of 2.3, a river neck width of 0.39m, and 0.6% river slope, and the older meander bend, M3, had a sinuosity of 5.2, a river neck width of 0.12m, and 0.5% river slope. Flux was analyzed for spatial patterns, moving from the point bar apex to neck for a single meander age, and for temporal patterns, moving between M1 and M3 for the same point bar zone. Two methods to estimate flux were dye tracking and head loss monitoring. Between the meander centroid and neck we documented a 60% spatial intensification for M1 and a 90% spatial intensification for M3. Between M1 and M3 we documented a 135% temporal intensification at the neck and a 100% intensification at the centroid. Our empirical spatial and temporal intensification rates involving the M1 and the M3 scenario were 1 to 3 times lower than theoretical rates based on a river evolution model with equivalent M1 and M3 planimetry. Our experimental data supports the trend in theoretical predictions but provides important insights on the control of valley groundwater intra-meander rates of intensification. This study also demonstrated how the MODFLOW groundwater model can simulate intra-meander hyporheic flux intensification to assist river managers identify and protect hyporheic hot spots and moments.

  2. Daily evapotranspiration estimates by scaling instantaneous latent heat flux derived from a two-source model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radiometric brightness temperature can be used in energy balance models that estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes of the land surface. However, brightness temperature is usually available only at one time of day when acquired from aircraft, fine-scale satellite platforms, or infrared thermometer...

  3. DOSIMETRY MODELING OF INHALED FORMALDEHYDE: BINNING NASAL FLUX PREDICTIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry Modeling of Inhaled Formaldehyde: Binning Nasal Flux Predictions for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Kimbell, J.S., Overton, J.H., Subramaniam, R.P., Schlosser, P.M., Morgan, K.T., Conolly, R.B., and Miller, F.J. (2001). Toxicol. Sci. 000, 000:000.

    Interspecies e...

  4. Comparing simple respiration models for eddy flux and dynamic chamber data

    Treesearch

    Andrew D. Richardson; Bobby H. Braswell; David Y. Hollinger; Prabir Burman; Eric A. Davidson; Robert S. Evans; Lawrence B. Flanagan; J. William Munger; Kathleen Savage; Shawn P. Urbanski; Steven C. Wofsy

    2006-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate model for respiration (R) is important for accurate gap-filling of CO2 flux data, and for partitioning measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) to respiration and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE). Using cross-validation methods and a version of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), we evaluate a wide range of...

  5. DOSIMETRY MODELING OF INHALED FORMALDEHYDE: BINNING NASAL FLUX PREDICTIONS FOR QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dosimetry Modeling of Inhaled Formaldehyde: Binning Nasal Flux Predictions for Quantitative Risk Assessment. Kimbell, J.S., Overton, J.H., Subramaniam, R.P., Schlosser, P.M., Morgan, K.T., Conolly, R.B., and Miller, F.J. (2001). Toxicol. Sci. 000, 000:000.

    Interspecies e...

  6. EFFECT OF MODEL COMPLEXITY OF THE PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT MASS FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    When is a soil vapor extraction project complete? Regulatory entities are beginning to define site closure based on predicted contaminant mass flux degradation to the underlying aquifer. However, the regulatory entities do not give guidance on how to perform the modeling. This...

  7. EFFECT OF MODEL COMPLEXITY ON THE PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT MASS FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    When is a soil vapor extraction (SVE) project complete? Regulatory entities are beginning to define site closure based on predicted contaminant mass flux degradation to the underlying aquifer. However, regulatory entities do not give guidance on how to perform the modeling. Th...

  8. Discussion about modeling the effects of neutron flux exposure for nuclear reactor core analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    Methods used to calculate the effects of exposure to a neutron flux are described. The modeling of the nuclear-reactor core history presents an analysis challenge. The nuclide chain equations must be solved, and some of the methods in use for this are described. Techniques for treating reactor-core histories are discussed and evaluated.

  9. Bayesian flux balance analysis applied to a skeletal muscle metabolic model

    PubMed Central

    Heino, Jenni; Tunyan, Knarik; Calvetti, Daniela; Somersalo, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the steady state condition for the multi-compartment models for cellular metabolism is considered. The problem is to estimate the reaction and transport fluxes, as well as the concentrations in venous blood when the stoichiometry and bound constraints for the fluxes and the concentrations are given. The problem has been addressed previously by a number of authors, and optimization based approaches as well as extreme pathway analysis have been proposed. These approaches are briefly discussed here. The main emphasis of this work is a Bayesian statistical approach to the flux balance analysis (FBA). We show how the bound constraints and optimality conditions such as maximizing the oxidative phosphorylation flux can be incorporated into the model in the Bayesian framework by proper construction of the prior densities. We propose an effective Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) scheme to explore the posterior densities, and compare the results with those obtained via the previously studied Linear Programming (LP) approach. The proposed methodology, which is applied here to a two-compartment model for skeletal muscle metabolism, can be extended to more complex models. PMID:17568615

  10. EFFECT OF MODEL COMPLEXITY ON THE PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT MASS FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    When is a soil vapor extraction (SVE) project complete? Regulatory entities are beginning to define site closure based on predicted contaminant mass flux degradation to the underlying aquifer. However, regulatory entities do not give guidance on how to perform the modeling. Th...

  11. EFFECT OF MODEL COMPLEXITY OF THE PREDICTION OF CONTAMINANT MASS FLUX

    EPA Science Inventory

    When is a soil vapor extraction project complete? Regulatory entities are beginning to define site closure based on predicted contaminant mass flux degradation to the underlying aquifer. However, the regulatory entities do not give guidance on how to perform the modeling. This...

  12. Narrowing the spread in CMIP5 model projections of air-sea CO2 fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Jianbin; Luo, Yong; Zhao, Zongci

    2016-01-01

    Large spread appears in the projection of air-sea CO2 fluxes using the latest simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Here, two methods are applied to narrow this spread in 13 CMIP5 models. One method involves model selection based on the ability of models to reproduce the observed air-sea CO2 fluxes from 1980 to 2005. The other method involves constrained estimation based on the strong relationship between the historical and future air-sea CO2 fluxes. The estimated spread of the projected air-sea CO2 fluxes is effectively reduced by using these two approaches. These two approaches also show great agreement in the global ocean and three regional oceans of the equatorial Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, including the average state and evolution characteristics. Based on the projections of the two approaches, the global ocean carbon uptake will increase in the first half of the 21st century then remain relatively stable and is projected to be 3.68–4.57 PgC/yr at the end of 21st century. The projections indicate that the increase in the CO2 uptake by the oceans will cease at the year of approximately 2070. PMID:27892473

  13. Modeling downward particulate organic nitrogen flux from zooplankton ammonium regeneration in the northern Benguela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Gómez, M.; Pollehne, F.; Postel, L.; Packard, T. T.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter play a crucial role in the distribution of nutrients throughout the oceans. Although they have been the focus of intensive research, little effort has been made to explore alternative approaches that quantify the particle export at a high spatial resolution. In this study, we assess the minimum nitrogen flux (FN) required to sustain the heterotrophic metabolism in the water column from ocean depth profiles of zooplankton NH4+ excretion (RNH4+). The reduction of RNH4+ as a function of depth was described by a power law fit, RNH4+ = (RNH4+)m (z /zm)b , whereby the b-value determines the net particulate nitrogen loss with increasing depth. Integrating these excretory functions from the base of the euphotic zone to the ocean bottom, we calculated FN at two stations located over the Namibian outer shelf. Estimates of FN (ranging between 0.52 and 1.14 mmol N m-2 d-1) were compared with the sinking fluxes of particles collected in sediment traps (0.15-1.01 mmol N m-2 d-1) 50 m over the seafloor. We found a reasonable agreement between the two approaches when fast-sinking particles dominated the ecosystem, but the FN was somewhat at odds with the measured gravitational flux during a low-sedimentation regime. Applying our conceptual model to the mesozooplankton RNH4+ we further constructed a section of FN along a cross-shelf transect at 20° S, and estimated the efficiency of the epipelagic ecosystem to retain nutrients. Finally, we address the impact of the active flux driven by the migrant mesozooplankton to the total nitrogen export. Depending on the sedimentation regime, the downward active flux (0.86 mmol N m-2 d-1 at 150 m) accounted for between 50 and 307% of the gravitational flux.

  14. Magnetic flux transport and the sun's dipole moment - New twists to the Babcock-Leighton model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanisms that give rise to the sun's large-scale poloidal magnetic field are explored in the framework of the Babcock-Leighton (BL) model. It is shown that there are in general two quite distinct contributions to the generation of the 'alpha effect': the first is associated with the axial tilts of the bipolar magnetic regions as they erupt at the surface, while the second arises through the interaction between diffusion and flow as the magnetic flux is dispersed over the surface. The general relationship between flux transport and the BL dynamo is discussed.

  15. Simple model for plastic dynamics of a disordered flux-line lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassler, Kevin E.; Paczuski, Maya; Altshuler, Ernesto

    2001-12-01

    We use a coarse-grained model of superconducting vortices driven through a random pinning potential to study the nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of flux flow in type-II superconductors with pinning. In experiments, the I-V relation measures flux flow down a flux density gradient. The work presented here treats this key feature explicitly. As the vortex repulsion weakens, the vortex pile maintains a globally steeper slope, corresponding to a larger critical current, for the same pinning potential. In addition, the magnitude of the peak in the differential resistance falls as the resistance peak shifts to higher currents. The model also exhibits so-called ``I-V fingerprints'' and crossover to Ohmic (linear) behavior at high currents. Thus, many of the experimentally observed characteristics associated with the plastic flow of soft flux-line systems are reproduced in numerical simulations of the zero-temperature model. This model describes a two-dimensional slice of the flux-line system at the scale of the London length (λ). It does not include any degrees of freedom at scales much smaller than λ, which are required to specify the degree of disorder in a flux-line lattice. Instead, the nonlinear transport behaviors are related to the self-organized, large-scale morphologies of the vortex river flow down the slope of the vortex pile. These morphologies include isolated filamentary channels, which can merge at higher flow rates to make a braided river and eventually give uniform flow at even higher flow rates. The filamentary structure is associated with an I-V characteristic that has concave, or positive, curvature. The braided river is associated with the peak in the differential resistance, where the curvature of the I-V relation changes to convex. The transition to Ohmic behavior comes about as the braided river floods when it cannot absorb a higher level of flow. We propose that these self-organized morphologies of flux flow down a flux gradient

  16. Effective temperature in nonequilibrium state with heat flux using discrete variable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, S. L.

    2017-09-01

    The effective temperature, which acts as a criterion for thermalization in systems with heat flux, has been introduced on the bases of a relatively simple discrete variable model (DVM). The DVM is inherently nonlocal and can be used to describe multi-length and -time scale heat conduction including low-dimensional and sub-continuum regimes. Under far from equilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature and the corresponding nonequilibrium entropy go to zero, which points to a possible generalization of the third law in nonequilibrium situations.

  17. Uncertainty and Sensitivity of Alternative Rn-222 Flux Density Models Used in Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Greg J. Shott, Vefa Yucel, Lloyd Desotell Non-Nstec Authors: G. Pyles and Jon Carilli

    2007-06-01

    Performance assessments for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site have used three different mathematical models to estimate Rn-222 flux density. This study describes the performance, uncertainty, and sensitivity of the three models which include the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 3.64 analytical method and two numerical methods. The uncertainty of each model was determined by Monte Carlo simulation using Latin hypercube sampling. The global sensitivity was investigated using Morris one-at-time screening method, sample-based correlation and regression methods, the variance-based extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test, and Sobol's sensitivity indices. The models were found to produce similar estimates of the mean and median flux density, but to have different uncertainties and sensitivities. When the Rn-222 effective diffusion coefficient was estimated using five different published predictive models, the radon flux density models were found to be most sensitive to the effective diffusion coefficient model selected, the emanation coefficient, and the radionuclide inventory. Using a site-specific measured effective diffusion coefficient significantly reduced the output uncertainty. When a site-specific effective-diffusion coefficient was used, the models were most sensitive to the emanation coefficient and the radionuclide inventory.

  18. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  19. A Lousy Reason for Surgery Cancellations.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christian; Sebastian, Roby; Krishna, Senthil; Tobias, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Cancellation of surgery has significant adverse impact on patients, health care providers, and their associated facilities. Although head lice infestation has not been shown to be associated with adverse surgical outcomes, it often prompts case cancellation by surgical and anesthesia personnel. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the extent and impact of surgery cancellations due to head lice infestation. In our study, a total of 9 patients were cancelled over a 3-year period. Although there is no direct evidence to show that head lice infestation poses a risk to surgical outcomes, the possibility of underlying secondary bacterial infection at the skin excoriation site is often the concern in these patients. This study offers the first investigation into the impact of head lice infections on operating room cancellations, which may prove to be a potential source of intervention to prevent cancellations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Predictive models for radial sap flux variation in coniferous, diffuse-porous and ring-porous temperate trees.

    PubMed

    Berdanier, Aaron B; Miniat, Chelcy F; Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Accurately scaling sap flux observations to tree or stand levels requires accounting for variation in sap flux between wood types and by depth into the tree. However, existing models for radial variation in axial sap flux are rarely used because they are difficult to implement, there is uncertainty about their predictive ability and calibration measurements are often unavailable. Here we compare different models with a diverse sap flux data set to test the hypotheses that radial profiles differ by wood type and tree size. We show that radial variation in sap flux is dependent on wood type but independent of tree size for a range of temperate trees. The best-fitting model predicted out-of-sample sap flux observations and independent estimates of sapwood area with small errors, suggesting robustness in the new settings. We develop a method for predicting whole-tree water use with this model and include computer code for simple implementation in other studies.

  1. Scaling water and energy fluxes in climate systems - Three land-atmospheric modeling experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Lakshmi, Venkataraman

    1993-01-01

    Three numerical experiments that investigate the scaling of land-surface processes - either of the inputs or parameters - are reported, and the aggregated processes are compared to the spatially variable case. The first is the aggregation of the hydrologic response in a catchment due to rainfall during a storm event and due to evaporative demands during interstorm periods. The second is the spatial and temporal aggregation of latent heat fluxes, as calculated from SiB. The third is the aggregation of remotely sensed land vegetation and latent and sensible heat fluxes using TM data from the FIFE experiment of 1987 in Kansas. In all three experiments it was found that the surface fluxes and land characteristics can be scaled, and that macroscale models based on effective parameters are sufficient to account for the small-scale heterogeneities investigated.

  2. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  3. Scaling water and energy fluxes in climate systems - Three land-atmospheric modeling experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Eric F.; Lakshmi, Venkataraman

    1993-01-01

    Three numerical experiments that investigate the scaling of land-surface processes - either of the inputs or parameters - are reported, and the aggregated processes are compared to the spatially variable case. The first is the aggregation of the hydrologic response in a catchment due to rainfall during a storm event and due to evaporative demands during interstorm periods. The second is the spatial and temporal aggregation of latent heat fluxes, as calculated from SiB. The third is the aggregation of remotely sensed land vegetation and latent and sensible heat fluxes using TM data from the FIFE experiment of 1987 in Kansas. In all three experiments it was found that the surface fluxes and land characteristics can be scaled, and that macroscale models based on effective parameters are sufficient to account for the small-scale heterogeneities investigated.

  4. Modelling the flux distribution function of the extragalactic gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyereisen, Michael R.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Lee, Samuel K.

    2015-09-01

    The one-point function (i.e., the isotropic flux distribution) is a complementary method to (anisotropic) two-point correlations in searches for a gamma-ray dark matter annihilation signature. Using analytical models of structure formation and dark matter halo properties, we compute the gamma-ray flux distribution due to annihilations in extragalactic dark matter halos, as it would be observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Combining the central limit theorem and Monte Carlo sampling, we show that the flux distribution takes the form of a narrow Gaussian of `diffuse' light, with an `unresolved point source' power-law tail as a result of bright halos. We argue that this background due to dark matter constitutes an irreducible and significant background component for point-source annihilation searches with galaxy clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies, modifying the predicted signal-to-noise ratio. A study of astrophysical backgrounds to this signal reveals that the shape of the total gamma-ray flux distribution is very sensitive to the contribution of a dark matter component, allowing us to forecast promising one-point upper limits on the annihilation cross-section. We show that by using the flux distribution at only one energy bin, one can probe the canonical cross-section required for explaining the relic density, for dark matter of masses around tens of GeV.

  5. Modelling the flux distribution function of the extragalactic gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Feyereisen, Michael R.; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Lee, Samuel K. E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl

    2015-09-01

    The one-point function (i.e., the isotropic flux distribution) is a complementary method to (anisotropic) two-point correlations in searches for a gamma-ray dark matter annihilation signature. Using analytical models of structure formation and dark matter halo properties, we compute the gamma-ray flux distribution due to annihilations in extragalactic dark matter halos, as it would be observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Combining the central limit theorem and Monte Carlo sampling, we show that the flux distribution takes the form of a narrow Gaussian of 'diffuse' light, with an 'unresolved point source' power-law tail as a result of bright halos. We argue that this background due to dark matter constitutes an irreducible and significant background component for point-source annihilation searches with galaxy clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies, modifying the predicted signal-to-noise ratio. A study of astrophysical backgrounds to this signal reveals that the shape of the total gamma-ray flux distribution is very sensitive to the contribution of a dark matter component, allowing us to forecast promising one-point upper limits on the annihilation cross-section. We show that by using the flux distribution at only one energy bin, one can probe the canonical cross-section required for explaining the relic density, for dark matter of masses around tens of GeV.

  6. OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRIES USING A FLUX TRANSPORT DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Shetye, Juie; Tripathi, Durgesh; Dikpati, Mausumi

    2015-02-01

    The peculiar behavior of solar cycle 23 and its prolonged minima has been one of the most studied problems over the past few years. In the present paper, we study the asymmetries in active region magnetic flux in the northern and southern hemispheres during the complete solar cycle 23 and the rising phase of solar cycle 24. During the declining phase of solar cycle 23, we find that the magnetic flux in the southern hemisphere is about 10 times stronger than that in the northern hemisphere; however, during the rising phase of cycle 24, this trend is reversed. The magnetic flux becomes about a factor of four stronger in the northern hemisphere than in the southern hemisphere. Additionally, we find that there was a significant delay (about five months) in change of the polarity in the southern hemisphere in comparison with the northern hemisphere. These results provide us with hints of how the toroidal fluxes have contributed to the solar dynamo during the prolonged minima in solar cycle 23 and in the rising phase of solar cycle 24. Using a solar flux-transport dynamo model, we demonstrate that persistently stronger sunspot cycles in one hemisphere could be caused by the effect of greater inflows into active region belts in that hemisphere. Observations indicate that greater inflows are associated with stronger activity. Some other change or difference in meridional circulation between hemispheres could cause the weaker hemisphere to become the stronger one.

  7. A simplified model for average kinetic energy flux within large wind turbine arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markfort, Corey; Zhang, Wei; Porte-Agel, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the kinetic energy distribution within an array of wind turbines using a 1-D model for the interactions between large-scale wind farms and the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Obstructed shear flow scaling is used to predict the development length of the wind farm flow as well as vertical momentum flux. Within the region of flow development, momentum and energy is advected into the wind farm and wake turbulence draws excess momentum in from between turbines. This is characterized by large dispersive fluxes. Once the flow within the farm is developed, the area - averaged velocity profile exhibits an inflection point, characteristic of obstructed shear flows. The inflected velocity profile is responsible for a characteristic turbulence eddy scale, which may be responsible for a significant amount of the vertical momentum and energy flux. Prediction of this scale is useful for determining the amount of available power for harvesting. The model result for kinetic energy flux is compared to wind tunnel measurements. The model is useful for optimizing wind turbine spacing and layout, and for assessing the impacts of wind farms on nearby wind resources and the environment.

  8. A model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    1985-02-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions and energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g/cm (2). Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurments of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth.

  9. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The