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Sample records for flux quantization

  1. Flux quantization on quasicrystalline networks

    SciTech Connect

    Behrooz, A.; Burns, M.J.; Deckman, H.; Levine, D.; Whitehead, B.; Chaikin, P.M.

    1986-07-21

    We have measured the superconducting transition temperature T-italic/sub c-italic/(H) as a function of magnetic field for a network of thin aluminum wires arranged in two quasicrystalline arrays, a Fibonacci sequence and the eightfold-symmetric version of a Penrose tiling. The quasicrystals have two periods whose ratio sigma is irrational and are constructed of two tiles with irrationally related areas. We find a series of dips in deltaT-italic/sub c-italic/(H) corresponding to favorable arrangements of the flux lattice on the quasicrystalline substrate. The largest dips are found at sigma/sup n-italic/ and the dips approach the zero-field transition temperature as n-italic increases.

  2. Theory of the Knight Shift and Flux Quantization in Superconductors

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, L. N.; Lee, H. J.; Schwartz, B. B.; Silvert, W.

    1962-05-01

    Consequences of a generalization of the theory of superconductivity that yields a finite Knight shift are presented. In this theory, by introducing an electron-electron interaction that is not spatially invariant, the pairing of electrons with varying total momentum is made possible. An expression for Xs (the spin susceptibility in the superconducting state) is derived. In general Xs is smaller than Xn, but is not necessarily zero. The precise magnitude of Xs will vary from sample to sample and will depend on the nonuniformity of the samples. There should be no marked size dependence and no marked dependence on the strength of the magnetic field; this is in accord with observation. The basic superconducting properties are retained, but there are modifications in the various electromagnetic and thermal properties since the electrons paired are not time sequences of this generalized theory on flux quantization arguments are presented.(auth)

  3. Quantized Chiral Magnetic Current from Reconnections of Magnetic Flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, Yuji; Kharzeev, Dmitri E.; Yin, Yi

    2016-10-20

    We introduce a new mechanism for the chiral magnetic e ect that does not require an initial chirality imbalance. The chiral magnetic current is generated by reconnections of magnetic ux that change the magnetic helicity of the system. The resulting current is entirely determined by the change of magnetic helicity, and it is quantized.

  4. Sensitivity of Ultracold Atoms to Quantized Flux in a Superconducting Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, P.; Knufinke, M.; Bernon, S.; Bothner, D.; Sárkány, L.; Zimmermann, C.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Fortágh, J.; Hattermann, H.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the magnetic trapping of an ultracold ensemble of Rb 87 atoms close to a superconducting ring prepared in different states of quantized magnetic flux. The niobium ring of 10 μ m radius is prepared in a flux state n Φ0 , where Φ0=h /2 e is the flux quantum and n varying between ±6 . An atomic cloud of 250 nK temperature is positioned with a harmonic magnetic trapping potential at ˜18 μ m distance below the ring. The inhomogeneous magnetic field of the supercurrent in the ring contributes to the magnetic trapping potential of the cloud. The induced deformation of the magnetic trap impacts the shape of the cloud, the number of trapped atoms, as well as the center-of-mass oscillation frequency of Bose-Einstein condensates. When the field applied during cooldown of the chip is varied, the change of these properties shows discrete steps that quantitatively match flux quantization.

  5. SU(2) WZW D-Branes and Quantized World-Volume U(1) Flux on S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, Alexander; Kreuzer, Maximilian; Zhou, Jian-Ge

    We discuss possible D-brane configurations on SU(2) group manifolds in the sigma model approach. When we turn the boundary conditions of the space-time fields into the boundary gluing conditions of chiral currents, we find that for all D-branes except the spherical D2-branes, the gluing matrices Rab depend on the fields, so the chiral Kac-Moody symmetry is broken, but conformal symmetry is maintained. Matching the spherical D2-branes derived from the sigma model with those from the boundary state approach we obtain a U(1) field strength that is consistent with flux quantization.

  6. Vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    During the past ten years Vector Quantization (VQ) has developed from a theoretical possibility promised by Shannon's source coding theorems into a powerful and competitive technique for speech and image coding and compression at medium to low bit rates. In this survey, the basic ideas behind the design of vector quantizers are sketched and some comments made on the state-of-the-art and current research efforts.

  7. Loop quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolau, A.

    1988-10-01

    Loop unwinding is a known technique for reducing loop overhead, exposing parallelism, and increasing the efficiency of pipelining. Traditional loop unwinding is limited to the innermost loop in a group of nested loops and the amount of unwinding either is fixed or must be specified by the user, on a case by case basis. In this paper the authors present a general technique for automatically unwinding multiply nested loops, explain its advantages over other transformation techniques, and illustrate its practical effectiveness. Lopp Quantization could be beneficial by itself or coupled with other loop transformations.

  8. Quantized Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, M

    2003-11-19

    This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, one can quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion; one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We then discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta}{rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest that one can put an experimental bound on how far away a universe with a scale factor very different from our own must be, by looking at its effects on our CMB radiation.

  9. Third quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Seligman, Thomas H.; Prosen, Tomaz

    2010-12-23

    The basic ideas of second quantization and Fock space are extended to density operator states, used in treatments of open many-body systems. This can be done for fermions and bosons. While the former only requires the use of a non-orthogonal basis, the latter requires the introduction of a dual set of spaces. In both cases an operator algebra closely resembling the canonical one is developed and used to define the dual sets of bases. We here concentrated on the bosonic case where the unboundedness of the operators requires the definitions of dual spaces to support the pair of bases. Some applications, mainly to non-equilibrium steady states, will be mentioned.

  10. KP flows and quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Martin T.

    2016-12-01

    The quantization of a pair of commuting differential operators is a pair of non-commuting differential operators. Both at the classical and quantum levels, the flows of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy are defined and further one can consider switching, up to a sign, the ordering of the operators. We discuss the interaction of these operations with the quantization.

  11. Quantization of emergent gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hyun Seok

    2015-02-01

    Emergent gravity is based on a novel form of the equivalence principle known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma in symplectic geometry stating that the electromagnetic force can always be eliminated by a local coordinate transformation as far as space-time admits a symplectic structure, in other words, a microscopic space-time becomes noncommutative (NC). If gravity emerges from U(1) gauge theory on NC space-time, this picture of emergent gravity suggests a completely new quantization scheme where quantum gravity is defined by quantizing space-time itself, leading to a dynamical NC space-time. Therefore the quantization of emergent gravity is radically different from the conventional approach trying to quantize a phase space of metric fields. This approach for quantum gravity allows a background-independent formulation where space-time and matter fields are equally emergent from a universal vacuum of quantum gravity.

  12. Riemann surface and quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepelkin, E. E.; Sadovnikov, B. I.; Inozemtseva, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach of the unified consideration of classical and quantum mechanics from the standpoint of the complex analysis effects. It turns out that quantization can be interpreted in terms of the Riemann surface corresponding to the multivalent LnΨ function. A visual interpretation of "trajectories" of the quantum system and of the Feynman's path integral is presented. A magnetic dipole having a magnetic charge that satisfies the Dirac quantization rule was obtained.

  13. Action Quantization, Energy Quantization, and Time Parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2017-03-01

    The additional information within a Hamilton-Jacobi representation of quantum mechanics is extra, in general, to the Schrödinger representation. This additional information specifies the microstate of ψ that is incorporated into the quantum reduced action, W. Non-physical solutions of the quantum stationary Hamilton-Jacobi equation for energies that are not Hamiltonian eigenvalues are examined to establish Lipschitz continuity of the quantum reduced action and conjugate momentum. Milne quantization renders the eigenvalue J. Eigenvalues J and E mutually imply each other. Jacobi's theorem generates a microstate-dependent time parametrization t-τ =partial _E W even where energy, E, and action variable, J, are quantized eigenvalues. Substantiating examples are examined in a Hamilton-Jacobi representation including the linear harmonic oscillator numerically and the square well in closed form. Two byproducts are developed. First, the monotonic behavior of W is shown to ease numerical and analytic computations. Second, a Hamilton-Jacobi representation, quantum trajectories, is shown to develop the standard energy quantization formulas of wave mechanics.

  14. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev-Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  15. Quantization Effects on Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Lin; Yang, Wen; Wang, Xiaofan

    2016-01-01

    Weights of edges in many complex networks we constructed are quantized values of the real weights. To what extent does the quantization affect the properties of a network? In this work, quantization effects on network properties are investigated based on the spectrum of the corresponding Laplacian. In contrast to the intuition that larger quantization level always implies a better approximation of the quantized network to the original one, we find a ubiquitous periodic jumping phenomenon with peak-value decreasing in a power-law relationship in all the real-world weighted networks that we investigated. We supply theoretical analysis on the critical quantization level and the power laws. PMID:27226049

  16. Black hole entropy quantization.

    PubMed

    Corichi, Alejandro; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique

    2007-05-04

    Ever since the pioneering works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that the black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps, can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show consistency with the Bekenstein framework when an oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation is properly interpreted.

  17. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  18. Quantized Algebra I Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBuvitz, William

    2014-01-01

    I am a volunteer reader at the Princeton unit of "Learning Ally" (formerly "Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic") and I recently discovered that high school students are introduced to the concept of quantization well before they take chemistry and physics. For the past few months I have been reading onto computer files a…

  19. Quantized Algebra I Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBuvitz, William

    2014-01-01

    I am a volunteer reader at the Princeton unit of "Learning Ally" (formerly "Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic") and I recently discovered that high school students are introduced to the concept of quantization well before they take chemistry and physics. For the past few months I have been reading onto computer files a…

  20. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Şengör, Gizem

    2016-11-08

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  1. BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Şengör, Gizem

    2016-11-01

    BRST quantization is an elegant and powerful method to quantize theories with local symmetries. In this article we study the Hamiltonian BRST quantization of cosmological perturbations in a universe dominated by a scalar field, along with the closely related quantization method of Dirac. We describe how both formalisms apply to perturbations in a time-dependent background, and how expectation values of gauge-invariant operators can be calculated in the in-in formalism. Our analysis focuses mostly on the free theory. By appropriate canonical transformations we simplify and diagonalize the free Hamiltonian. BRST quantization in derivative gauges allows us to dramatically simplify the structure of the propagators, whereas Dirac quantization, which amounts to quantization in synchronous gauge, dispenses with the need to introduce ghosts and preserves the locality of the gauge-fixed action.

  2. Laughlin's argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Ryota; Ryu, Shinsei; Nomura, Kentaro

    2017-04-01

    We extend Laughlin's magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analog of Laughlin's adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.

  3. Cosmic Origin of Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calogero, Francesco

    An estimate is presented of the angular momentum associated with the stochastic cosmic tremor, which has been hypothesized to be caused by universal gravitation and by the granularity of matter, and to be itself the cause of quantization ("cosmic origin of quantization"). If that universal tremor has the spatial coherence which is instrumental in order that the estimated action associated with it have the order of magnitude of Planck's constant h, then the estimated order of magnitude of the angular momentum associated with it also has the same value. We moreover indicate how these findings (originally based on a simplified model of the Universe, as being made up only of particles having the nucleon mass) are affected (in fact, essentially unaffected) by the possible presence in the mass of the Universe of a large component made up of particles much lighter than nucleons ("dark", or "missing", mass).

  4. Uniform quantized electron gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Johan S.; Lomba, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    In this work we study the correlation energy of the quantized electron gas of uniform density at temperature T  =  0. To do so we utilize methods from classical statistical mechanics. The basis for this is the Feynman path integral for the partition function of quantized systems. With this representation the quantum mechanical problem can be interpreted as, and is equivalent to, a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where the fourth dimension is imaginary time. Thus methods, results, and properties obtained in the statistical mechanics of classical fluids can be utilized. From this viewpoint we recover the well known RPA (random phase approximation). Then to improve it we modify the RPA by requiring the corresponding correlation function to be such that electrons with equal spins can not be on the same position. Numerical evaluations are compared with well known results of a standard parameterization of Monte Carlo correlation energies.

  5. Resurgence matches quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couso-Santamaría, Ricardo; Mariño, Marcos; Schiappa, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    The quest to find a nonperturbative formulation of topological string theory has recently seen two unrelated developments. On the one hand, via quantization of the mirror curve associated to a toric Calabi–Yau background, it has been possible to give a nonperturbative definition of the topological-string partition function. On the other hand, using techniques of resurgence and transseries, it has been possible to extend the string (asymptotic) perturbative expansion into a transseries involving nonperturbative instanton sectors. Within the specific example of the local {{{P}}2} toric Calabi–Yau threefold, the present work shows how the Borel–Padé–Écalle resummation of this resurgent transseries, alongside occurrence of Stokes phenomenon, matches the string-theoretic partition function obtained via quantization of the mirror curve. This match is highly non-trivial, given the unrelated nature of both nonperturbative frameworks, signaling at the existence of a consistent underlying structure.

  6. Quantum Computing and Second Quantization

    DOE PAGES

    Makaruk, Hanna Ewa

    2017-02-10

    Quantum computers are by their nature many particle quantum systems. Both the many-particle arrangement and being quantum are necessary for the existence of the entangled states, which are responsible for the parallelism of the quantum computers. Second quantization is a very important approximate method of describing such systems. This lecture will present the general idea of the second quantization, and discuss shortly some of the most important formulations of second quantization.

  7. An adaptive vector quantization scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    1990-01-01

    Vector quantization is known to be an effective compression scheme to achieve a low bit rate so as to minimize communication channel bandwidth and also to reduce digital memory storage while maintaining the necessary fidelity of the data. However, the large number of computations required in vector quantizers has been a handicap in using vector quantization for low-rate source coding. An adaptive vector quantization algorithm is introduced that is inherently suitable for simple hardware implementation because it has a simple architecture. It allows fast encoding and decoding because it requires only addition and subtraction operations.

  8. Quantization of the Skyrmion

    SciTech Connect

    Cebula, D.P.

    1992-12-31

    The Skyrmion is a localized, persistent excitation of the Skyrme model, a field theory of three independent meson fields in three spatial dimensions that has proven to be useful for modeling the baryons (e.g. neutron, proton, delta, . . .). The standard approach to predicting values for physical observables within the Skyrme model consists of solving the classical field equations, quantizing the zero modes (such as rotation and translation) and fluctuations about the classical configuration, and projecting out states having the correct symmetries. With only three input parameters, this method has led to predictions for roughly three dozen quantities which differ from their corresponding experimental measurements by approximately 30%. In this thesis, the Herman-Klein method of quantization, an approach based on Heisenberg matrix mechanics, is applied to the Skyrme model. In this intrinsically quantum mechanical approach, the operator equations of motion are evaluated within an appropriately chosen Hilbert space, and the resulting set of c-number equations are solved to determine the values of matrix elements of the field operators. These values permit predictions for physical observables. In contrast with the usual approach of projecting symmetry-preserving states from configurations built around a symmetry-breaking mean-field solution, the Herman-Klein method allows symmetries to be maintained throughout the computation, a property shared with methods based on variation after projection techniques. This research focuses on quantization of the translational and rotational zero modes of a Skyrmion. The results indicate that (i) a symmetry-preserving treatment of the translational modes leads to a larger value for the mass of the hedgehog Skyrmion compared to that found in the previous treatments, and that (ii) the rotational modes cause a swelling of the delta states with respect to the nucleon states, and modify the predictions for physical observables.

  9. Quantization of interface currents

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Motoko; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann; Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  10. Exercises in exact quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voros, André

    2000-10-01

    The formalism of exact 1D quantization is reviewed in detail and applied to the spectral study of three concrete Schrödinger Hamiltonians [-d2/dq2 + V(q)]± on the half-line {q>0}, with a Dirichlet (-) or Neumann (+) condition at q = 0. Emphasis is put on the analytical investigation of the spectral determinants and spectral zeta-functions with respect to singular perturbation parameters. We first discuss the homogeneous potential V(q) = qN as N→ + ∞ versus its (solvable) N = ∞ limit (an infinite square well): useful distinctions are established between regular and singular behaviours of spectral quantities; various identities among the square-well spectral functions are unravelled as limits of finite-N properties. The second model is the quartic anharmonic oscillator: the zero-energy spectral determinants det (-d2/dq2 + q4 + vq2)± are explicitly analysed in detail, revealing many special values, algebraic identities between Taylor coefficients and functional equations of a quartic type coupled to asymptotic v→∞ properties of Airy type. The third study addresses the potentials V(q) = qN + vqN/2-1 of even degree: their zero-energy spectral determinants prove computable in closed form, and the generalized eigenvalue problems with v as spectral variable admit exact quantization formulae which are perfect extensions of the harmonic oscillator case (corresponding to N = 2); these results partly reflect the presence of quasi-exactly solvable potentials in the family above.

  11. Quantization Of Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Max Plank did not quantize temperature. I will show that the Plank temperature violates the Plank scale. Plank stated that the Plank scale was Natures scale and independent of human construct. Also stating that even aliens would derive the same values. He made a huge mistake, because temperature is based on the Kelvin scale, which is man-made just like the meter and kilogram. He did not discover natures scale for the quantization of temperature. His formula is flawed, and his value is incorrect. Plank's calculation is Tp = c2Mp/Kb. The general form of this equation is T = E/Kb Why is this wrong? The temperature for a fixed amount of energy is dependent upon the volume it occupies. Using the correct formula involves specifying the radius of the volume in the form of (RE). This leads to an inequality and a limit that is equivalent to the Bekenstein Bound, but using temperature instead of entropy. Rewriting this equation as a limit defines both the maximum temperature and Boltzmann's constant. This will saturate any space-time boundary with maximum temperature and information density, also the minimum radius and entropy. The general form of the equation then becomes a limit in BH thermodynamics T <= (RE)/(λKb) .

  12. Quantization on Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frønsdal, Christian; Kontsevich, Maxim

    2007-02-01

    Deformation quantization on varieties with singularities offers perspectives that are not found on manifolds. The Harrison component of Hochschild cohomology, vanishing on smooth manifolds, reflects information about singularities. The Harrison 2-cochains are symmetric and are interpreted in terms of abelian *-products. This paper begins a study of abelian quantization on plane curves over mathbb{C}, being algebraic varieties of the form {mathbb{C}}^2/R, where R is a polynomial in two variables; that is, abelian deformations of the coordinate algebra mathbb{C}[x,y]/(R). To understand the connection between the singularities of a variety and cohomology we determine the algebraic Hochschild (co)homology and its Barr Gerstenhaber Schack decomposition. Homology is the same for all plane curves mathbb{C}[x,y]/R, but the cohomology depends on the local algebra of the singularity of R at the origin. The Appendix, by Maxim Kontsevich, explains in modern mathematical language a way to calculate Hochschild and Harrison cohomology groups for algebras of functions on singular planar curves etc. based on Koszul resolutions.

  13. Coherent state quantization of quaternions

    SciTech Connect

    Muraleetharan, B. E-mail: santhar@gmail.com; Thirulogasanthar, K. E-mail: santhar@gmail.com

    2015-08-15

    Parallel to the quantization of the complex plane, using the canonical coherent states of a right quaternionic Hilbert space, quaternion field of quaternionic quantum mechanics is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols, and related quantities are analyzed. Quaternionic version of the harmonic oscillator and Weyl-Heisenberg algebra are also obtained.

  14. Divergence-based vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Villmann, Thomas; Haase, Sven

    2011-05-01

    Supervised and unsupervised vector quantization methods for classification and clustering traditionally use dissimilarities, frequently taken as Euclidean distances. In this article, we investigate the applicability of divergences instead, focusing on online learning. We deduce the mathematical fundamentals for its utilization in gradient-based online vector quantization algorithms. It bears on the generalized derivatives of the divergences known as Fréchet derivatives in functional analysis, which reduces in finite-dimensional problems to partial derivatives in a natural way. We demonstrate the application of this methodology for widely applied supervised and unsupervised online vector quantization schemes, including self-organizing maps, neural gas, and learning vector quantization. Additionally, principles for hyperparameter optimization and relevance learning for parameterized divergences in the case of supervised vector quantization are given to achieve improved classification accuracy.

  15. First quantized electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, A.F.

    2014-06-15

    The parametrized Dirac wave equation represents position and time as operators, and can be formulated for many particles. It thus provides, unlike field-theoretic Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), an elementary and unrestricted representation of electrons entangled in space or time. The parametrized formalism leads directly and without further conjecture to the Bethe–Salpeter equation for bound states. The formalism also yields the Uehling shift of the hydrogenic spectrum, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron to leading order in the fine structure constant, the Lamb shift and the axial anomaly of QED. -- Highlights: •First-quantized electrodynamics of the parametrized Dirac equation is developed. •Unrestricted entanglement in time is made explicit. •Bethe and Salpeter’s equation for relativistic bound states is derived without further conjecture. •One-loop scattering corrections and the axial anomaly are derived using a partial summation. •Wide utility of semi-classical Quantum Electrodynamics is argued.

  16. Quantized Casimir force.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wang-Kong; MacDonald, A H

    2012-12-07

    We investigate the Casimir effect between two-dimensional electron systems driven to the quantum Hall regime by a strong perpendicular magnetic field. In the large-separation (d) limit where retardation effects are essential, we find (i) that the Casimir force is quantized in units of 3ħcα(2)/8π(2)d(4) and (ii) that the force is repulsive for mirrors with the same type of carrier and attractive for mirrors with opposite types of carrier. The sign of the Casimir force is therefore electrically tunable in ambipolar materials such as graphene. The Casimir force is suppressed when one mirror is a charge-neutral graphene system in a filling factor ν=0 quantum Hall state.

  17. Quantized electric multipole insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benalcazar, Wladimir A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2017-07-01

    The Berry phase provides a modern formulation of electric polarization in crystals. We extend this concept to higher electric multipole moments and determine the necessary conditions and minimal models for which the quadrupole and octupole moments are topologically quantized electromagnetic observables. Such systems exhibit gapped boundaries that are themselves lower-dimensional topological phases. Furthermore, they host topologically protected corner states carrying fractional charge, exhibiting fractionalization at the boundary of the boundary. To characterize these insulating phases of matter, we introduce a paradigm in which “nested” Wilson loops give rise to topological invariants that have been overlooked. We propose three realistic experimental implementations of this topological behavior that can be immediately tested. Our work opens a venue for the expansion of the classification of topological phases of matter.

  18. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  19. Fine structure constant and quantized optical transparency of plasmonic nanoarrays.

    PubMed

    Kravets, V G; Schedin, F; Grigorenko, A N

    2012-01-24

    Optics is renowned for displaying quantum phenomena. Indeed, studies of emission and absorption lines, the photoelectric effect and blackbody radiation helped to build the foundations of quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, it came as a surprise that the visible transparency of suspended graphene is determined solely by the fine structure constant, as this kind of universality had been previously reserved only for quantized resistance and flux quanta in superconductors. Here we describe a plasmonic system in which relative optical transparency is determined solely by the fine structure constant. The system consists of a regular array of gold nanoparticles fabricated on a thin metallic sublayer. We show that its relative transparency can be quantized in the near-infrared, which we attribute to the quantized contact resistance between the nanoparticles and the metallic sublayer. Our results open new possibilities in the exploration of universal dynamic conductance in plasmonic nanooptics.

  20. Deformation quantization of fermi fields

    SciTech Connect

    Galaviz, I. Garcia-Compean, H. Przanowski, M. Turrubiates, F.J.

    2008-04-15

    Deformation quantization for any Grassmann scalar free field is described via the Weyl-Wigner-Moyal formalism. The Stratonovich-Weyl quantizer, the Moyal *-product and the Wigner functional are obtained by extending the formalism proposed recently in [I. Galaviz, H. Garcia-Compean, M. Przanowski, F.J. Turrubiates, Weyl-Wigner-Moyal Formalism for Fermi Classical Systems, arXiv:hep-th/0612245] to the fermionic systems of infinite number of degrees of freedom. In particular, this formalism is applied to quantize the Dirac free field. It is observed that the use of suitable oscillator variables facilitates considerably the procedure. The Stratonovich-Weyl quantizer, the Moyal *-product, the Wigner functional, the normal ordering operator, and finally, the Dirac propagator have been found with the use of these variables.

  1. Minimum distortion quantizers. [determined by max algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The well-known algorithm of Max is used to determine the minimum distortion quantizers for normal, two-sided exponential, and specialized two-sided gamma input distributions and for mean-square, magnitude, and relative magnitude error distortion criteria. The optimum equally-spaced and unequally-spaced quantizers are found, with the resulting quantizer distortion and entropy. The quantizers, and the quantizers with entropy coding, are compared to the rate distortion bounds for mean-square and magnitude error.

  2. Visibility of wavelet quantization noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Solomon, J. A.; Villasenor, J.

    1997-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that we call DWT uniform quantization noise; it is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2-lambda, where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and lambda is the wavelet level. Thresholds increase rapidly with wavelet spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from lowpass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We construct a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  3. Visibility of Wavelet Quantization Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Yang, Gloria Y.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Villasenor, John; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter, which we call DWT uniform quantization noise. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2(exp)-L , where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and L is the wavelet level. Amplitude thresholds increase rapidly with spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from low-pass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We describe a mathematical model to predict DWT noise detection thresholds as a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  4. Visibility of Wavelet Quantization Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Yang, Gloria Y.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Villasenor, John; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter, which we call DWT uniform quantization noise. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2(exp)-L , where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and L is the wavelet level. Amplitude thresholds increase rapidly with spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from low-pass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We describe a mathematical model to predict DWT noise detection thresholds as a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  5. Stochastic Quantization of Instantons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandati, Y.; Bérard, A.; Grangé, P.

    1996-03-01

    The method of Parisi and Wu to quantize classical fields is applied to instanton solutionsϕIof euclidian non-linear theory in one dimension. The solutionϕεof the corresponding Langevin equation is built through a singular perturbative expansion inε=ℏ1/2in the frame of the center of mass of the instanton, where the differenceϕε-ϕIcarries only fluctuations of the instanton form. The relevance of the method is shown for the stochasticK dVequation with uniform noise in space: the exact solution usually obtained by the inverse scattering method is retrieved easily by the singular expansion. A general diagrammatic representation of the solution is then established which makes a thorough use of regrouping properties of stochastic diagrams derived in scalar field theory. Averaging over the noise and in the limit of infinite stochastic time, we obtain explicit expressions for the first two orders inεof the perturbed instanton and of its Green function. Specializing to the Sine-Gordon andϕ4models, the first anharmonic correction is obtained analytically. The calculation is carried to second order for theϕ4model, showing good convergence.

  6. Quantized visual awareness

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:24319436

  7. Magnetic quantization over Riemannian manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasev, M. V.; Osborn, T. A.

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate that Weyl's pioneering idea (1918) to intertwine metric and magnetic fields into a single joint connection can be naturally realized, on the phase space level, by the gauge-invariant quantization of the cotangent bundle with magnetic symplectic form. Quantization, for systems over a noncompact Riemannian configuration manifold, may be achieved by the introduction of a magneto-metric analog of the Stratonovich quantizer - a family of invertible, selfadjoint operators representing quantum delta functions. Based on the quantizer, we construct a generalized Wigner transform that maps Hilbert-Schmidt operators into L-2 phase-space functions. The algebraic properties of the quantizer allow one to extract a family of symplectic reflections, which are then used to (i) derive a simple, explicit, and geometrically invariant formula for the noncommutative product of functions on phase space, and (ii) construct a magneto-metric connection on phase space. The classical limit of this product is given by the usual multiplication of functions (zeroth-order term), the magnetic Poisson bracket (first-order term), and by the magneto-metric connection (second-order term).

  8. Vector quantization and learning vector quantization for radar target classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Clayton V.; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Larson, Victor J.

    1993-10-01

    Radar target classification performance is greatly dependent on how the classifier represents the strongly angle dependent radar target signatures. This paper compares the performance of classifiers that represent radar target signatures using vector quantization (VQ) and learning vector quantization (LVQ). The classifier performance is evaluated with a set of high resolution millimeter-wave radar data from four ground vehicles (Camaro, van, pickup, and bulldozer). LVQ explicitly includes classification performance in its data representation criterion, whereas VQ only makes use of a distortion measure such as mean square distance. The classifier that uses LVQ to represent the radar data has a much higher probability of correct classification than VQ.

  9. Is Planck's quantization constant unique?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George

    2016-07-01

    A cornerstone of Quantum Mechanics is the existence of a non-zero least action, the Planck constant. However, the basic concepts and theoretical developments of Quantum Mechanics are independent of its specific numerical value. A different constant h _{*}, similar to the Planck constant h, but ˜12 orders of magnitude larger, characterizes plasmas. The study of >50 different geophysical, space, and laboratory plasmas, provided the first evidence for the universality and the quantum nature of h _{*}, revealing that it is a new quantization constant. The recent results show the diagnostics for determining whether plasmas are characterized by the Planck or the new quantization constant, compounding the challenge to reconcile both quantization constants in quantum mechanics.

  10. Dual approach to circuit quantization using loop charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Jascha; Hassler, Fabian

    2016-09-01

    The conventional approach to circuit quantization is based on node fluxes and traces the motion of node charges on the islands of the circuit. However, for some devices, the relevant physics can be best described by the motion of polarization charges over the branches of the circuit that are in general related to the node charges in a highly nonlocal way. Here, we present a method, dual to the conventional approach, for quantizing planar circuits in terms of loop charges. In this way, the polarization charges are directly obtained as the differences of the two loop charges on the neighboring loops. The loop charges trace the motion of fluxes through the circuit loops. We show that loop charges yield a simple description of the flux transport across phase-slip junctions. We outline a concrete construction of circuits based on phase-slip junctions that are electromagnetically dual to arbitrary planar Josephson junction circuits. We argue that loop charges also yield a simple description of the flux transport in conventional Josephson junctions shunted by large impedances. We show that a mixed circuit description in terms of node fluxes and loop charges yields an insight into the flux decompactification of a Josephson junction shunted by an inductor. As an application, we show that the fluxonium qubit is well approximated as a phase-slip junction for the experimentally relevant parameters. Moreover, we argue that the 0 -π qubit is effectively the dual of a Majorana Josephson junction.

  11. EZW coding using nonuniform quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Che-Yi; Derin, Haluk

    1999-10-01

    This paper presents an image coder that modifies the EZW coder and provides an improvement in its performance. The subband EZW image coder uses a uniform quantizer with a threshold (deadzone). Whereas, we know that the distribution/histogram of the wavelet tree subband coefficients, all except the lowest subband, tend to be Laplacian. To accommodate for this, we modify the refining procedure in EZW and use a non-uniform quantizer on the coefficients that better fits their distribution. The experimental results show that the new image coder performs better than EZW.

  12. Color Quantization by Multiresolution Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella, Giuliana; di Baja, Gabriella Sanniti

    A color quantization method is presented, which is based on the analysis of the histogram at different resolutions computed on a Gaussian pyramid of the input image. Criteria based on persistence and dominance of peaks and pits of the histograms are introduced to detect the modes in the histogram of the input image and to define the reduced colormap. Important features of the method are, besides its limited computational cost, the possibility to obtain quantized images with a variable number of colors, depending on the user’s need, and that the number of colors in the resulting image does not need to be a priori fixed.

  13. Motion vector quantization for video coding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y Y; Woods, J W

    1995-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for the vector quantization of motion vectors. This algorithm, called motion vector quantization (MVQ), simultaneously estimates and vector quantizes the motion vectors by reinterpreting the block matching algorithm as a type of vector quantization. An iterative design algorithm, based on this concept, is developed. In addition to reducing rate for fixed length encoding, the algorithm also reduces the computation considerably. We include coding simulation results on the Flower Garden sequence.

  14. Duality symmetric quantization of superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Kallosh, R.

    1995-11-15

    A general covariant quantization of a superparticle, Green-Schwarz superstring, and a supermembrane with manifest supersymmetry and duality symmetry is proposed. This quantization provides a natural quantum-mechanical description of curved BPS-type backgrounds related to the ultrashort supersymmetry multiplets. Half-size commuting and anticommuting Killing spinors admitted by such backgrounds in quantum theory become truncated {kappa}-symmetry ghosts. The symmetry of Killing spinors under dualities transfers to the symmetry of the spectrum of states. A GS superstring in the generalized semi-light-cone gauge can be quantized consistently in the background of ten-dimensional supersymmetric gravitational waves. Upon compactification they become supersymmetric electrically charged black holes, either massive or massless. However, the generalized light-cone gauge breaks {ital S} duality. We propose a new family of gauges, which we call black hole gauges. These gauges are suitable for quantization both in flat Minkowski space and in the black hole background, and they are duality symmetric. As an example, a manifestly {ital S}-duality symmetric black hole gauge is constructed in terms of the axion-dilaton-electric-magnetic black hole hair. We also suggest the {ital U}-duality covariant class of gauges for type II superstrings.

  15. Geometric Quantization and Foliation Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skerritt, Paul

    A standard question in the study of geometric quantization is whether symplectic reduction interacts nicely with the quantized theory, and in particular whether "quantization commutes with reduction." Guillemin and Sternberg first proposed this question, and answered it in the affirmative for the case of a free action of a compact Lie group on a compact Kahler manifold. Subsequent work has focused mainly on extending their proof to non-free actions and non-Kahler manifolds. For realistic physical examples, however, it is desirable to have a proof which also applies to non-compact symplectic manifolds. In this thesis we give a proof of the quantization-reduction problem for general symplectic manifolds. This is accomplished by working in a particular wavefunction representation, associated with a polarization that is in some sense compatible with reduction. While the polarized sections described by Guillemin and Sternberg are nonzero on a dense subset of the Kahler manifold, the ones considered here are distributional, having support only on regions of the phase space associated with certain quantized, or "admissible", values of momentum. We first propose a reduction procedure for the prequantum geometric structures that "covers" symplectic reduction, and demonstrate how both symplectic and prequantum reduction can be viewed as examples of foliation reduction. Consistency of prequantum reduction imposes the above-mentioned admissibility conditions on the quantized momenta, which can be seen as analogues of the Bohr-Wilson-Sommerfeld conditions for completely integrable systems. We then describe our reduction-compatible polarization, and demonstrate a one-to-one correspondence between polarized sections on the unreduced and reduced spaces. Finally, we describe a factorization of the reduced prequantum bundle, suggested by the structure of the underlying reduced symplectic manifold. This in turn induces a factorization of the space of polarized sections that agrees

  16. Deformation of second and third quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  17. Context quantization by kernel Fisher discriminant.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mantao; Wu, Xiaolin; Fränti, Pasi

    2006-01-01

    Optimal context quantizers for minimum conditional entropy can be constructed by dynamic programming in the probability simplex space. The main difficulty, operationally, is the resulting complex quantizer mapping function in the context space, in which the conditional entropy coding is conducted. To overcome this difficulty, we propose new algorithms for designing context quantizers in the context space based on the multiclass Fisher discriminant and the kernel Fisher discriminant (KFD). In particular, the KFD can describe linearly nonseparable quantizer cells by projecting input context vectors onto a high-dimensional curve, in which these cells become better separable. The new algorithms outperform the previous linear Fisher discriminant method for context quantization. They approach the minimum empirical conditional entropy context quantizer designed in the probability simplex space, but with a practical implementation that employs a simple scalar quantizer mapping function rather than a large lookup table.

  18. Quantized photonic spin Hall effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang; Liu, Mengxia; Chen, Shizhen; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun

    2017-01-01

    We examine the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) in a graphene-substrate system with the presence of an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime, we demonstrate that the in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splittings in the photonic SHE exhibit different quantized behaviors. The quantized SHE can be described as a consequence of a quantized geometric phase (Berry phase), which corresponds to the quantized spin-orbit interaction. Furthermore, an experimental scheme based on quantum weak value amplification is proposed to detect the quantized SHE in the terahertz frequency regime. By incorporating the quantum weak measurement techniques, the quantized photonic SHE holds great promise for detecting quantized Hall conductivity and the Berry phase. These results may bridge the gap between the electronic SHE and photonic SHE in graphene.

  19. Third Quantization and Quantum Cosmology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuigan, Michael Deturck

    My thesis consists of three separate parts. Part one consists of a study of CP violation in the Kaon decay: K to pi pi gamma . To study the short distance contribution to the matrix element we developed an operator expansion for the effective Hamiltonian. An effective s to dgamma vertex arises through operator mixing. We evaluated several two-loop graphs in order to obtain the coefficient of this operator. We studied the long distance contributions to the matrix element and demonstrated that this was the dominant contribution. This explained why the polarization of the emitted photon is primarily of the magnetic type. Part two of my thesis involves the treatment of string theory at finite temperature. We introduced finite temperature into string theory by compactifying time on a twisted torus of radius beta = 1/kT, the reciprical of the temperature. The twisted torus takes into account the different thermal properties of bosons and fermions. We computed the one-loop vacuum amplitude Lambda(beta) on a twisted torus which is manifestly modular invariant. We found that lnZ(beta) = -betaVLambda (beta) where Z(beta) is the partition function and V the volume of the system. We computed the function sigma(E) which counts the number of multi-string states of total energy E by taking the inverse Laplace transform of Z( beta). We also studied the effect of finite temperature on the effective potentials which determine a string theory's compactification. The third part of my thesis involved the Wheeler DeWitt equation and a new interpretation of quantum cosmology. We examined a proposal by DeWitt for the normalization of solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We avoided negative probability problems with this proposal by reinterpreting the Wheeler-DeWitt wave function as a second quantized field. As the arguments of the Wheeler-DeWitt wave functional are second quantized fields this represented a third quantization. We developed a mode decomposition for the third quantized

  20. Quantization of Multiply Connected Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Eli

    2005-04-01

    The standard (Berezin-Toeplitz) geometric quantization of a compact Kähler manifold is restricted by integrality conditions. These restrictions can be circumvented by passing to the universal covering space, provided that the lift of the symplectic form is exact. I relate this construction to the Baum-Connes assembly map and prove that it gives a strict quantization of the original manifold. I also propose a further generalization, classify the required structure, and provide a means of computing the resulting algebras. These constructions involve twisted group C*-algebras of the fundamental group which are determined by a group cocycle constructed from the cohomology class of the symplectic form. This provides an algebraic counterpart to the Morita equivalence of a symplectic manifold with its fundamental group.

  1. Vector Quantization With Emergent Codebook Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahalt, Stanley C.; Krishnamurthy, Ashok

    1993-01-01

    Proposed scheme under development for transmission of vector-quantized digital video images, vector quantizer codebook updated to adapt quantizer to changing signal statistics. Intended to be realized with electronic neural network. Codebook, which consists of patterns constituting video images, will undergo training during operation and scheme will develop codebooks ordered during training. System enables coding more compact, more immune to noise, and supports variable rate compression.

  2. Exact quantization conditions for cluster integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Sebastián; Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Mariño, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    We propose exact quantization conditions for the quantum integrable systems of Goncharov and Kenyon, based on the enumerative geometry of the corresponding toric Calabi-Yau manifolds. Our conjecture builds upon recent results on the quantization of mirror curves, and generalizes a previous proposal for the quantization of the relativistic Toda lattice. We present explicit tests of our conjecture for the integrable systems associated to the resolved {{{C}}3}/{{{Z}}5} and {{{C}}3}/{{{Z}}6} orbifolds.

  3. Quantized-"Gray-Scale" Electronic Synapses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed array of programmable synaptic connections for electronic neural network applications offers multiple quantized levels of connection strength using only simple, two-terminal, binary microswitch devices. Subgrids in fine grid of programmable resistive connections connected externally in parallel to form coarser synaptic grid. By selection of pattern of connections in each subgrid, connection strength of synaptic node represented by that subgrid set at quantized "gray level". Device structures promise implementations of quantized-"gray-scale" synaptic arrays with very high density.

  4. Quantized-"Gray-Scale" Electronic Synapses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed array of programmable synaptic connections for electronic neural network applications offers multiple quantized levels of connection strength using only simple, two-terminal, binary microswitch devices. Subgrids in fine grid of programmable resistive connections connected externally in parallel to form coarser synaptic grid. By selection of pattern of connections in each subgrid, connection strength of synaptic node represented by that subgrid set at quantized "gray level". Device structures promise implementations of quantized-"gray-scale" synaptic arrays with very high density.

  5. Berezin-Toeplitz Quantization and Berezin Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2001-04-01

    In this lecture results on the Berezin-Toeplitz quantization of arbitrary compact quantizable Kähler manifolds are presented. These results are obtained in joint work with M. Bordemann and E. Meinrenken. The existence of the Berezin-Toeplitz deformation quantization is also covered. Recent results obtained in joint work with A. Karabegov on the asymptotic expansion of the Berezin transform for arbitrary quantizable compact Kähler manifolds are explained. As an application the asymptotic expansion of the Fubini-Study fundamental form under the coherent state embedding is considered. Some comments on the dynamics of the quantum operators are given.

  6. Adaptive scalar quantization without side information.

    PubMed

    Ortega, A; Vetterli, M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel technique for adaptive scalar quantization. Adaptivity is useful in applications, including image compression, where the statistics of the source are either not known a priori or will change over time. Our algorithm uses previously quantized samples to estimate the distribution of the source, and does not require that side information be sent in order to adapt to changing source statistics. Our quantization scheme is thus backward adaptive. We propose that an adaptive quantizer can be separated into two building blocks, namely, model estimation and quantizer design. The model estimation produces an estimate of the changing source probability density function, which is then used to redesign the quantizer using standard techniques. We introduce nonparametric estimation techniques that only assume smoothness of the input distribution. We discuss the various sources of error in our estimation and argue that, for a wide class of sources with a smooth probability density function (pdf), we provide a good approximation to a "universal" quantizer, with the approximation becoming better as the rate increases. We study the performance of our scheme and show how the loss due to adaptivity is minimal in typical scenarios. In particular, we provide examples and show how our technique can achieve signal-to-noise ratios within 0.05 dB of the optimal Lloyd-Max quantizer for a memoryless source, while achieving over 1.5 dB gain over a fixed quantizer for a bimodal source.

  7. Quantization of general linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-03-15

    General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.

  8. Vector quantization for volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.

  9. Shape Invariance in Deformation Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasinariu, Constantin

    2013-03-01

    Shape invariance is a powerful solvability condition, that allows for complete knowledge of the energy spectrum, and eigenfunctions of a system. After a short introduction into the deformation quantization formalism, this work explores the implications of the supersymmetric quantum mechanics and shape invariance techniques to the phase space formalism. We show that shape invariance induces a new set of relations between the Wigner functions of the system, that allows for their direct calculation, once we know one of them. The simple harmonic oscillator and the Morse potential are presented as examples. I would like to acknowledge a sabbatical leave and grant from Columbia College Chicago that made this work possible.

  10. Electronic quantization in dielectric nanolaminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemsen, T.; Geerke, P.; Jupé, M.; Gallais, L.; Ristau, D.

    2016-12-01

    The scientific background in the field of the laser induced damage processes in optical coatings has been significantly extended during the last decades. Especially for the ultra-short pulse regime a clear correlation between the electronic material parameters and the laser damage threshold could be demonstrated. In the present study, the quantization in nanolaminates is investigated to gain a deeper insight into the behavior of the blue shift of the bandgap in specific coating materials as well as to find approximations for the effective mass of the electrons. The theoretical predictions are correlated to the measurements.

  11. Weyl quantization of fractional derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2008-10-15

    The quantum analogs of the derivatives with respect to coordinates q{sub k} and momenta p{sub k} are commutators with operators P{sub k} and Q{sub k}. We consider quantum analogs of fractional Riemann-Liouville and Liouville derivatives. To obtain the quantum analogs of fractional Riemann-Liouville derivatives, which are defined on a finite interval of the real axis, we use a representation of these derivatives for analytic functions. To define a quantum analog of the fractional Liouville derivative, which is defined on the real axis, we can use the representation of the Weyl quantization by the Fourier transformation.

  12. Breathers on quantized superfluid vortices.

    PubMed

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-18

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  13. Breathers on Quantized Superfluid Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, Hayder

    2013-10-01

    We consider the propagation of breathers along a quantized superfluid vortex. Using the correspondence between the local induction approximation (LIA) and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we identify a set of initial conditions corresponding to breather solutions of vortex motion governed by the LIA. These initial conditions, which give rise to a long-wavelength modulational instability, result in the emergence of large amplitude perturbations that are localized in both space and time. The emergent structures on the vortex filament are analogous to loop solitons but arise from the dual action of bending and twisting of the vortex. Although the breather solutions we study are exact solutions of the LIA equations, we demonstrate through full numerical simulations that their key emergent attributes carry over to vortex dynamics governed by the Biot-Savart law and to quantized vortices described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The breather excitations can lead to self-reconnections, a mechanism that can play an important role within the crossover range of scales in superfluid turbulence. Moreover, the observation of breather solutions on vortices in a field model suggests that these solutions are expected to arise in a wide range of other physical contexts from classical vortices to cosmological strings.

  14. Weighted Bergman Kernels and Quantization}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engliš, Miroslav

    Let Ω be a bounded pseudoconvex domain in CN, φ, ψ two positive functions on Ω such that - log ψ, - log φ are plurisubharmonic, and z∈Ω a point at which - log φ is smooth and strictly plurisubharmonic. We show that as k-->∞, the Bergman kernels with respect to the weights φkψ have an asymptotic expansion for x,y near z, where φ(x,y) is an almost-analytic extension of &\\phi(x)=φ(x,x) and similarly for ψ. Further, . If in addition Ω is of finite type, φ,ψ behave reasonably at the boundary, and - log φ, - log ψ are strictly plurisubharmonic on Ω, we obtain also an analogous asymptotic expansion for the Berezin transform and give applications to the Berezin quantization. Finally, for Ω smoothly bounded and strictly pseudoconvex and φ a smooth strictly plurisubharmonic defining function for Ω, we also obtain results on the Berezin-Toeplitz quantization.

  15. Quantization of higher spin fields

    SciTech Connect

    Wagenaar, J. W.; Rijken, T. A

    2009-11-15

    In this article we quantize (massive) higher spin (1{<=}j{<=}2) fields by means of Dirac's constrained Hamilton procedure both in the situation were they are totally free and were they are coupled to (an) auxiliary field(s). A full constraint analysis and quantization is presented by determining and discussing all constraints and Lagrange multipliers and by giving all equal times (anti)commutation relations. Also we construct the relevant propagators. In the free case we obtain the well-known propagators and show that they are not covariant, which is also well known. In the coupled case we do obtain covariant propagators (in the spin-3/2 case this requires b=0) and show that they have a smooth massless limit connecting perfectly to the massless case (with auxiliary fields). We notice that in our system of the spin-3/2 and spin-2 case the massive propagators coupled to conserved currents only have a smooth limit to the pure massless spin-propagator, when there are ghosts in the massive case.

  16. Integral quantizations with two basic examples

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, H.; Gazeau, J.P.

    2014-05-15

    The paper concerns integral quantization, a procedure based on operator-valued measure and resolution of the identity. We insist on covariance properties in the important case where group representation theory is involved. We also insist on the inherent probabilistic aspects of this classical–quantum map. The approach includes and generalizes coherent state quantization. Two applications based on group representation are carried out. The first one concerns the Weyl–Heisenberg group and the euclidean plane viewed as the corresponding phase space. We show that a world of quantizations exist, which yield the canonical commutation rule and the usual quantum spectrum of the harmonic oscillator. The second one concerns the affine group of the real line and gives rise to an interesting regularization of the dilation origin in the half-plane viewed as the corresponding phase space. -- Highlights: •Original approach to quantization based on (positive) operator-valued measures. •Includes Berezin–Klauder–Toeplitz and Weyl–Wigner quantizations. •Infinitely many such quantizations produce canonical commutation rule. •Set of objects to be quantized is enlarged in order to include singular functions or distributions. •Are given illuminating examples like quantum angle and affine or wavelet quantization.

  17. Quantization of gravitation with Weyl fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Schaposnik, F.A.; Vucetich, H.

    1987-12-01

    It is shown that quantization of gravitation consistent with the presence of Weyl fermions is possible, in spite of the existence of Lorentz anomalies; the group of local Lorentz transformations is quantized becoming a physical field and the anomaly is absorbed.

  18. Quantization of Electromagnetic Fields in Cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kakazu, Kiyotaka; Oshiro, Kazunori

    1996-01-01

    A quantization procedure for the electromagnetic field in a rectangular cavity with perfect conductor walls is presented, where a decomposition formula of the field plays an essential role. All vector mode functions are obtained by using the decomposition. After expanding the field in terms of the vector mode functions, we get the quantized electromagnetic Hamiltonian.

  19. The Necessity of Quantizing Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Jeremy

    2016-03-01

    The Eppley Hannah thought experiment is often cited as justification for attempts by theorists to develop a complete, consistent theory of quantum gravity. A modification of the earlier ``Heisenberg microscope'' argument for the necessity of quantized light, the Eppley-Hannah thought experiment purports to show that purely classical gravitational waves would either not conserve energy or else allow for violations of the uncertainty principle. However, several subsequent papers have cast doubt as to the validity of the Eppley-Hannah argument. In this talk, we will show how to resurrect the Eppley-Hannah thought experiment by modifying the original argument in a way that gets around the present criticisms levied against it. With support from the Department of Energy, Grant Number DE-FG02-91ER40674.

  20. Quantization of anomalous gauge theories

    SciTech Connect

    Wotzasek, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses the quantization of Anomalous Gauge Theories (AGT) both in the context of functional integration and canonical Hamiltonian approach. The Wess-Zumino term (WZT), which repairs gauge symmetry in the AGT is discussed and its derivation is presented in the canonical approach as a consequence of the restoration of the first-class nature of the gauge constraints. He applied this technique in a few quantum field theories like the chiral Schwinger model, chiral bosons and massive electrodynamics. This construction of the WZT is intended to contrast with the one derived by functional methods with the use of the Faddeev-Popov trick. To shed some light into the physical significance of the WZ field he discusses a simple quantum mechanical model, the amputated planar rotor.' In the context the WZ field presents itself as a topological charge for the model. Possible generalizations are discussed.

  1. Quantized ionic conductance in nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Zwolak, Michael; Lagerqvist, Johan; Di Ventra, Massimilliano

    2009-01-01

    Ionic transport in nanopores is a fundamentally and technologically important problem in view of its ubiquitous occurrence in biological processes and its impact on DNA sequencing applications. Using microscopic calculations, we show that ion transport may exhibit strong non-liDearities as a function of the pore radius reminiscent of the conductance quantization steps as a function of the transverse cross section of quantum point contacts. In the present case, however, conductance steps originate from the break up of the hydration layers that form around ions in aqueous solution. Once in the pore, the water molecules form wavelike structures due to multiple scattering at the surface of the pore walls and interference with the radial waves around the ion. We discuss these effects as well as the conditions under which the step-like features in the ionic conductance should be experimentally observable.

  2. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-12-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, ``conventional'' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature.

  3. BRST Quantization of Unimodular Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Oksanen, Markku; Bufalo, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    We study the quantization of two versions of unimodular gravity, namely fully diffeomorphism-invariant unimodular gravity and unimodular gravity with fixed metric determinant, utilizing standard path integral approach. We derive the BRST symmetry of effective actions corresponding to several relevant gauge conditions. We observe that for some gauge conditions, the restricted gauge structure may complicate the formulation and effective actions, in particular, if the chosen gauge conditions involve the canonical momentum conjugate to the induced metric on the spatial hypersurface. The BRST symmetry is extended further to the finite field-dependent BRST transformation, in order to establish the mapping between different gauge conditions in each of the two versions of unimodular gravity.

  4. Cutoff quantization and the Skyrmion

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, B.S.; Sanyuk, V.; Schechter, J.; Subbaraman, A. )

    1992-01-01

    The putative classical soliton in the minimal nonlinear {sigma} model (no Skyrme term) is known to be unstable to collapse. We note that the imposition of a short-distance cutoff (which is anyway physically reasonable for a nonrenormalizable model) yields a stable classical soliton. We further suggest that this cutoff, carrying as it does some implicit dynamical information, be treated as a quantized dynamical variable. The resulting one- (experimentally fixed) parameter model agrees with experiment roughly as well as the simple {sigma} model {ital with} the Skyrme term. We interpret this feature as an indication of the robustness of the description of the nucleon as being dominated by a hedgehog-type meson cloud. It is suggested that the same approach might be useful in some other situations where the long-distance description of the physics is more precisely known than is the short-distance description.

  5. Cosmology Quantized in Cosmic Time

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, M

    2004-06-03

    This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, to quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion and one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta} {rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation, and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. To clarify the general formalism and explicitly show why we choose to weaken the statement of the Wheeler-deWitt equation, we apply the general formalism to de Sitter space. After exactly solving the relevant Heisenberg equations of motion we give a detailed discussion of the subtleties associated with defining physical states and the emergence of the classical theory. This computation provides the striking result that quantum corrections to this long wavelength limit of gravity eliminate the problem of the big crunch. We also show that the same corrections lead to possibly measurable effects on the CMB radiation. For the sake of completeness, we discuss the special case, {lambda} = 0, and its relation to Minkowski space. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest one can put an experimental lower bound on the distance to a universe with a scale factor very different from our own, by looking at its effects on our CMB

  6. Quantized vortices around wavefront nodes, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschfelder, J. O.; Goebel, C. J.; Bruch, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    Quantized vortices can occur around nodal points in wavefunctions. The derivation depends only on the wavefunction being single valued, continuous, and having continuous first derivatives. Since the derivation does not depend upon the dynamical equations, the quantized vortices are expected to occur for many types of waves such as electromagnetic and acoustic. Such vortices have appeared in the calculations of the H + H2 molecular collisions and play a role in the chemical kinetics. In a companion paper, it is shown that quantized vortices occur when optical waves are internally reflected from the face of a prism or particle beams are reflected from potential energy barriers.

  7. Robust vector quantization for noisy channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarca, J. R. B.; Farvardin, N.; Jayant, N. S.; Shoham, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses techniques for making vector quantizers more tolerant to tranmsission errors. Two algorithms are presented for obtaining an efficient binary word assignment to the vector quantizer codewords without increasing the transmission rate. It is shown that about 4.5 dB gain over random assignment can be achieved with these algorithms. It is also proposed to reduce the effects of error propagation in vector-predictive quantizers by appropriately constraining the response of the predictive loop. The constrained system is shown to have about 4 dB of SNR gain over an unconstrained system in a noisy channel, with a small loss of clean-channel performance.

  8. Geometry of physical systems on quantized spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Vida; Mansourbeigi, Seyed M. H.; Clyde, Stephen W.

    We present a mathematical model for physical systems. A large class of functions is built through the functional quantization method and applied to the geometric study of the model. Quantized equations of motion along the Hamiltonian vector field are built up. It is seen that the procedure in higher dimension carries more physical information. The metric tensor appears to induce an electromagnetic field into the system and the dynamical nature of the electromagnetic field in curved space arises naturally. In the end, an explicit formula for the curvature tensor in the quantized space is given.

  9. Is there Unruh effect in polymer quantization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza Hossain, Golam; Sardar, Gopal

    2016-12-01

    Unruh effect is a landmark prediction of standard quantum field theory in which Fock vacuum state appears as a thermal state with respect to a uniformly accelerating observer. Given its dependence on trans-Planckian modes, Unruh effect is often considered as an arena for exploring a candidate theory of quantum gravity. Here we show that Unruh effect disappears if, instead of using Fock quantization, one uses polymer quantization or loop quantization, the quantization method used in loop quantum gravity. Secondly, the polymer vacuum state remains a vacuum state even for the accelerating observer in the sense that expectation value of number density operator in it remains zero. Finally, if experimental measurement of Unruh effect is ever possible then it may be used either to verify or rule out a theory of quantum gravity.

  10. Topologies on quantum topoi induced by quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Kunji

    2013-07-15

    In the present paper, we consider effects of quantization in a topos approach of quantum theory. A quantum system is assumed to be coded in a quantum topos, by which we mean the topos of presheaves on the context category of commutative subalgebras of a von Neumann algebra of bounded operators on a Hilbert space. A classical system is modeled by a Lie algebra of classical observables. It is shown that a quantization map from the classical observables to self-adjoint operators on the Hilbert space naturally induces geometric morphisms from presheaf topoi related to the classical system to the quantum topos. By means of the geometric morphisms, we give Lawvere-Tierney topologies on the quantum topos (and their equivalent Grothendieck topologies on the context category). We show that, among them, there exists a canonical one which we call a quantization topology. We furthermore give an explicit expression of a sheafification functor associated with the quantization topology.

  11. Loop quantization of Schwarzschild interior revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Parampreet; Corichi, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    Several studies of different inequivalent loop quantizations have shown, that there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for the Schwarzschild interior. Existing quantizations fail either on dependence on the fiducial structure or on the lack of the classical limit. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that overcomes all of the known problems of the existing quantizations. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein's equations is recovered on the ``other side'' of the bounce. We argue that such metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ``white-hole mass'' differs from the original black hole mass. We compare the differences in physical implications with other quantizations.

  12. Color quantization and processing by Fibonacci lattices.

    PubMed

    Mojsilovic, A; Soljanin, E

    2001-01-01

    Color quantization is sampling of three-dimensional (3-D) color spaces (such as RGB or Lab) which results in a discrete subset of colors known as a color codebook or palette. It is extensively used for display, transfer, and storage of natural images in Internet-based applications, computer graphics, and animation. We propose a sampling scheme which provides a uniform quantization of the Lab space. The idea is based on several results from number theory and phyllotaxy. The sampling algorithm is very much systematic and allows easy design of universal (image-independent) color codebooks for a given set of parameters. The codebook structure allows fast quantization and ordered dither of color images. The display quality of images quantized by the proposed color codebooks is comparable with that of image-dependent quantizers. Most importantly, the quantized images are more amenable to the type of processing used for grayscale ones. Methods for processing grayscale images cannot be simply extended to color images because they rely on the fact that each gray-level is described by a single number and the fact that a relation of full order can be easily established on the set of those numbers. Color spaces (such as RGB or Lab) are, on the other hand, 3-D. The proposed color quantization, i.e., color space sampling and numbering of sampled points, makes methods for processing grayscale images extendible to color images. We illustrate possible processing of color images by first introducing the basic average and difference operations and then implementing edge detection and compression of color quantized images.

  13. Spacetime rotation-induced Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Kohkichi; Takahashi, Rohta

    2012-03-01

    We investigate noninertial and gravitational effects on quantum states in electromagnetic fields and present the analytic solution for energy eigenstates for the Schrödinger equation including noninertial, gravitational, and electromagnetic effects. We find that in addition to the Landau quantization the rotation of spacetime itself leads to the additional quantization, and that the energy levels for an electron are different from those for a proton at the level of gravitational corrections.

  14. A recursive technique for adaptive vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Vector Quantization (VQ) is fast becoming an accepted, if not preferred method for image compression. The VQ performs well when compressing all types of imagery including Video, Electro-Optical (EO), Infrared (IR), Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Multi-Spectral (MS), and digital map data. The only requirement is to change the codebook to switch the compressor from one image sensor to another. There are several approaches for designing codebooks for a vector quantizer. Adaptive Vector Quantization is a procedure that simultaneously designs codebooks as the data is being encoded or quantized. This is done by computing the centroid as a recursive moving average where the centroids move after every vector is encoded. When computing the centroid of a fixed set of vectors the resultant centroid is identical to the previous centroid calculation. This method of centroid calculation can be easily combined with VQ encoding techniques. The defined quantizer changes after every encoded vector by recursively updating the centroid of minimum distance which is the selected by the encoder. Since the quantizer is changing definition or states after every encoded vector, the decoder must now receive updates to the codebook. This is done as side information by multiplexing bits into the compressed source data.

  15. Quantization by cochain twists and nonassociative differentials

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, E. J.; Majid, S.

    2010-05-15

    We show that several standard associative quantizations in mathematical physics can be expressed as cochain module-algebra twists in the spirit of Moyal products at least to O(({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 3}), but to achieve this we twist not by a 2-cocycle but by a 2-cochain. This implies a hidden nonassociativity not visible in the algebra itself but present in its deeper noncommutative differential geometry, a phenomenon first seen in our previous work on semiclassicalization of differential structures. The quantizations are induced by a classical group covariance and include enveloping algebras U(g) as quantizations of g*, a Fedosov-type quantization of the sphere S{sup 2} under a Lorentz group covariance, the Mackey quantization of homogeneous spaces, and the standard quantum groups C{sub q}[G]. We also consider the differential quantization of R{sup n} for a given symplectic connection as part of our semiclassical analysis and we outline a proposal for the Dirac operator.

  16. Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezouin, S.; Iftikhar, Z.; Anthore, A.; Parmentier, F. D.; Gennser, U.; Cavanna, A.; Ouerghi, A.; Levkivskyi, I. P.; Idrisov, E.; Sukhorukov, E. V.; Glazman, L. I.; Pierre, F.

    2016-08-01

    In 1909, Millikan showed that the charge of electrically isolated systems is quantized in units of the elementary electron charge e. Today, the persistence of charge quantization in small, weakly connected conductors allows for circuits in which single electrons are manipulated, with applications in, for example, metrology, detectors and thermometry. However, as the connection strength is increased, the discreteness of charge is progressively reduced by quantum fluctuations. Here we report the full quantum control and characterization of charge quantization. By using semiconductor-based tunable elemental conduction channels to connect a micrometre-scale metallic island to a circuit, we explore the complete evolution of charge quantization while scanning the entire range of connection strengths, from a very weak (tunnel) to a perfect (ballistic) contact. We observe, when approaching the ballistic limit, that charge quantization is destroyed by quantum fluctuations, and scales as the square root of the residual probability for an electron to be reflected across the quantum channel; this scaling also applies beyond the different regimes of connection strength currently accessible to theory. At increased temperatures, the thermal fluctuations result in an exponential suppression of charge quantization and in a universal square-root scaling, valid for all connection strengths, in agreement with expectations. Besides being pertinent for the improvement of single-electron circuits and their applications, and for the metal-semiconductor hybrids relevant to topological quantum computing, knowledge of the quantum laws of electricity will be essential for the quantum engineering of future nanoelectronic devices.

  17. Controlling charge quantization with quantum fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Jezouin, S; Iftikhar, Z; Anthore, A; Parmentier, F D; Gennser, U; Cavanna, A; Ouerghi, A; Levkivskyi, I P; Idrisov, E; Sukhorukov, E V; Glazman, L I; Pierre, F

    2016-08-04

    In 1909, Millikan showed that the charge of electrically isolated systems is quantized in units of the elementary electron charge e. Today, the persistence of charge quantization in small, weakly connected conductors allows for circuits in which single electrons are manipulated, with applications in, for example, metrology, detectors and thermometry. However, as the connection strength is increased, the discreteness of charge is progressively reduced by quantum fluctuations. Here we report the full quantum control and characterization of charge quantization. By using semiconductor-based tunable elemental conduction channels to connect a micrometre-scale metallic island to a circuit, we explore the complete evolution of charge quantization while scanning the entire range of connection strengths, from a very weak (tunnel) to a perfect (ballistic) contact. We observe, when approaching the ballistic limit, that charge quantization is destroyed by quantum fluctuations, and scales as the square root of the residual probability for an electron to be reflected across the quantum channel; this scaling also applies beyond the different regimes of connection strength currently accessible to theory. At increased temperatures, the thermal fluctuations result in an exponential suppression of charge quantization and in a universal square-root scaling, valid for all connection strengths, in agreement with expectations. Besides being pertinent for the improvement of single-electron circuits and their applications, and for the metal-semiconductor hybrids relevant to topological quantum computing, knowledge of the quantum laws of electricity will be essential for the quantum engineering of future nanoelectronic devices.

  18. Path integral representation for polymer quantized scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajuri, Nirmalya

    2015-12-01

    According to loop quantum gravity, matter fields must be quantized in a background-independent manner. For scalar fields, such a background-independent quantization is called polymer quantization and is inequivalent to the standard Schrödinger quantization. It is therefore important to obtain predictions from the polymer quantized scalar field theory and compare with the standard results. As a step towards this, we develop a path integral representation for the polymer quantized scalar field. We notice several crucial differences from the path integral for the Schrödinger quantized scalar field. One important difference is the appearance of an extra summation at each point in the path integral for the polymer quantized theory. A second crucial difference is the loss of manifest Lorentz symmetry for a polymer quantized theory on Minkowski space.

  19. Tribology of the lubricant quantized sliding state.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Santoro, Giuseppe E; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2009-11-07

    In the framework of Langevin dynamics, we demonstrate clear evidence of the peculiar quantized sliding state, previously found in a simple one-dimensional boundary lubricated model [A. Vanossi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 056101 (2006)], for a substantially less idealized two-dimensional description of a confined multilayer solid lubricant under shear. This dynamical state, marked by a nontrivial "quantized" ratio of the averaged lubricant center-of-mass velocity to the externally imposed sliding speed, is recovered, and shown to be robust against the effects of thermal fluctuations, quenched disorder in the confining substrates, and over a wide range of loading forces. The lubricant softness, setting the width of the propagating solitonic structures, is found to play a major role in promoting in-registry commensurate regions beneficial to this quantized sliding. By evaluating the force instantaneously exerted on the top plate, we find that this quantized sliding represents a dynamical "pinned" state, characterized by significantly low values of the kinetic friction. While the quantized sliding occurs due to solitons being driven gently, the transition to ordinary unpinned sliding regimes can involve lubricant melting due to large shear-induced Joule heating, for example at large speed.

  20. Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits.

    PubMed

    Golod, T; Iovan, A; Krasnov, V M

    2015-10-12

    Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex.

  1. Hybrid quantization of an inflationary universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier

    2012-07-01

    We quantize to completion an inflationary universe with small inhomogeneities in the framework of loop quantum cosmology. The homogeneous setting consists of a massive scalar field propagating in a closed, homogeneous scenario. We provide a complete quantum description of the system employing loop quantization techniques. After introducing small inhomogeneities as scalar perturbations, we identify the true physical degrees of freedom by means of a partial gauge fixing, removing all the local degrees of freedom except the matter perturbations. We finally combine a Fock description for the inhomogeneities with the polymeric quantization of the homogeneous background, providing the quantum Hamiltonian constraint of the composed system. Its solutions are then completely characterized, owing to the suitable choice of quantum constraint, and the physical Hilbert space is constructed. Finally, we consider the analog description for an alternate gauge and, moreover, in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. In the deparametrized model, all these descriptions are unitarily equivalent at the quantum level.

  2. Gravitational surface Hamiltonian and entropy quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, Ashish; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2017-02-01

    The surface Hamiltonian corresponding to the surface part of a gravitational action has xp structure where p is conjugate momentum of x. Moreover, it leads to TS on the horizon of a black hole. Here T and S are temperature and entropy of the horizon. Imposing the hermiticity condition we quantize this Hamiltonian. This leads to an equidistant spectrum of its eigenvalues. Using this we show that the entropy of the horizon is quantized. This analysis holds for any order of Lanczos-Lovelock gravity. For general relativity, the area spectrum is consistent with Bekenstein's observation. This provides a more robust confirmation of this earlier result as the calculation is based on the direct quantization of the Hamiltonian in the sense of usual quantum mechanics.

  3. Virtual topological insulators with real quantized physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2015-06-01

    A concrete strategy is presented for generating strong topological insulators in d +d' dimensions which have quantized physics in d dimensions. Here, d counts the physical and d' the virtual dimensions. It consists of seeking d -dimensional representations of operator algebras which are usually defined in d +d' dimensions where topological elements display strong topological invariants. The invariants are shown, however, to be fully determined by the physical dimensions, in the sense that their measurement can be done at fixed virtual coordinates. We solve the bulk-boundary correspondence and show that the boundary invariants are also fully determined by the physical coordinates. We analyze the virtual Chern insulator in 1 +1 dimensions realized in Y. E. Kraus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 106402 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.106402 and predict quantized forces at the edges. We generate a topological system in (3 +1 ) dimensions, which is predicted to have quantized magnetoelectric response.

  4. The totally constrained model: three quantization approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Olmedo, Javier

    2014-08-01

    We provide a detailed comparison of the different approaches available for the quantization of a totally constrained system with a constraint algebra generating the non-compact group. In particular, we consider three schemes: the Refined Algebraic Quantization, the Master Constraint Programme and the Uniform Discretizations approach. For the latter, we provide a quantum description where we identify semiclassical sectors of the kinematical Hilbert space. We study the quantum dynamics of the system in order to show that it is compatible with the classical continuum evolution. Among these quantization approaches, the Uniform Discretizations provides the simpler description in agreement with the classical theory of this particular model, and it is expected to give new insights about the quantum dynamics of more realistic totally constrained models such as canonical general relativity.

  5. Non-quantized penetration of magnetic field in the vortex state of superconductors

    PubMed

    Geim; Dubonos; Grigorieva; Novoselov; Peeters; Schweigert

    2000-09-07

    As first pointed out by Bardeen and Ginzburg in the early sixties, the amount of magnetic flux carried by vortices in superconducting materials depends on their distance from the sample edge, and can be smaller than one flux quantum, phi0 = h/2e (where h is Planck's constant and e is the electronic charge). In bulk superconductors, this reduction of flux becomes negligible at submicrometre distances from the edge, but in thin films the effect may survive much farther into the material. But the effect has not been observed experimentally, and it is often assumed that magnetic field enters type II superconductors in units of phi0. Here we measure the amount of flux introduced by individual vortices in a superconducting film, finding that the flux always differs substantially from phi0. We have observed vortices that carry as little as 0.001phi0, as well as 'negative vortices', whose penetration leads to the expulsion of magnetic field. We distinguish two phenomena responsible for non-quantized flux penetration: the finite-size effect and a nonlinear screening of the magnetic field due to the presence of a surface barrier. The latter effect has not been considered previously, but is likely to cause non-quantized penetration in most cases.

  6. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed Central

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-01-01

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple. PMID:11607478

  7. Subband Image Coding with Jointly Optimized Quantizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kossentini, Faouzi; Chung, Wilson C.; Smith Mark J. T.

    1995-01-01

    An iterative design algorithm for the joint design of complexity- and entropy-constrained subband quantizers and associated entropy coders is proposed. Unlike conventional subband design algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not require the use of various bit allocation algorithms. Multistage residual quantizers are employed here because they provide greater control of the complexity-performance tradeoffs, and also because they allow efficient and effective high-order statistical modeling. The resulting subband coder exploits statistical dependencies within subbands, across subbands, and across stages, mainly through complexity-constrained high-order entropy coding. Experimental results demonstrate that the complexity-rate-distortion performance of the new subband coder is exceptional.

  8. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  9. Minimal representations, geometric quantization, and unitarity.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, R; Kostant, B

    1994-06-21

    In the framework of geometric quantization we explicitly construct, in a uniform fashion, a unitary minimal representation pio of every simply-connected real Lie group Go such that the maximal compact subgroup of Go has finite center and Go admits some minimal representation. We obtain algebraic and analytic results about pio. We give several results on the algebraic and symplectic geometry of the minimal nilpotent orbits and then "quantize" these results to obtain the corresponding representations. We assume (Lie Go)C is simple.

  10. Constraints on operator ordering from third quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkuwa, Yoshiaki; Faizal, Mir; Ezawa, Yasuo

    2016-02-15

    In this paper, we analyse the Wheeler–DeWitt equation in the third quantized formalism. We will demonstrate that for certain operator ordering, the early stages of the universe are dominated by quantum fluctuations, and the universe becomes classical at later stages during the cosmic expansion. This is physically expected, if the universe is formed from quantum fluctuations in the third quantized formalism. So, we will argue that this physical requirement can be used to constrain the form of the operator ordering chosen. We will explicitly demonstrate this to be the case for two different cosmological models.

  11. Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Faizal

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation.

  12. Bolometric Device Based on Fluxoid Quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonetti, Joseph A.; Kenyon, Matthew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fluxoid quantization in a superconducting loop. The sensitivity of the device is expected to surpass that of other superconducting- based bolometric devices, such as superconducting transition-edge sensors and superconducting nanowire devices. Just as important, the proposed device has advantages in sample fabrication.

  13. Visual data mining for quantized spatial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Kahn, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In previous papers we've shown how a well known data compression algorithm called Entropy-constrained Vector Quantization ( can be modified to reduce the size and complexity of very large, satellite data sets. In this paper, we descuss how to visualize and understand the content of such reduced data sets.

  14. Visual data mining for quantized spatial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Kahn, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In previous papers we've shown how a well known data compression algorithm called Entropy-constrained Vector Quantization ( can be modified to reduce the size and complexity of very large, satellite data sets. In this paper, we descuss how to visualize and understand the content of such reduced data sets.

  15. Effects of quantization on detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Song-Sheng; Xu, Ze-Xi; Yin, Kui-Xi; Xu, Yin-Lin

    2011-05-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is a method foro estimating the long-range power-law correlation exponent in noisy signals. It has been used successfully in many different fields, especially in the research of physiological signals. As an inherent part of these studies, quantization of continuous signals is inevitable. In addition, coarse-graining, to transfer original signals into symbol series in symbolic dynamic analysis, can also be considered as a quantization-like operation. Therefore, it is worth considering whether the quantization of signal has any effect on the result of DFA and if so, how large the effect will be. In this paper we study how the quantized degrees for three types of noise series (anti-correlated, uncorrelated and long-range power-law correlated signals) affect the results of DFA and find that their effects are completely different. The conclusion has an essential value in choosing the resolution of data acquisition instrument and in the processing of coarse-graining of signals.

  16. Deformation quantization and boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarkhanov, Nikolai

    2016-11-01

    We describe a natural construction of deformation quantization on a compact symplectic manifold with boundary. On the algebra of quantum observables a trace functional is defined which as usual annihilates the commutators. This gives rise to an index as the trace of the unity element. We formulate the index theorem as a conjecture and examine it by the classical harmonic oscillator.

  17. Deterministic Quantization by Dynamical Boundary Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Dolce, Donatello

    2010-06-15

    We propose an unexplored quantization method. It is based on the assumption of dynamical space-time intrinsic periodicities for relativistic fields, which in turn can be regarded as dual to extra-dimensional fields. As a consequence we obtain a unified and consistent interpretation of Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics in terms of Deterministic Geometrodynamics.

  18. On Quantization of Quadratic Poisson Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchon, D.; Masmoudi, M.; Roux, A.

    Any classical r-matrix on the Lie algebra of linear operators on a real vector space V gives rise to a quadratic Poisson structure on V which admits a deformation quantization stemming from the construction of V. Drinfel'd [Dr], [Gr]. We exhibit in this article an example of quadratic Poisson structure which does not arise this way.

  19. Combining Vector Quantization and Histogram Equalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Pamela C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of contrast enhancement techniques focuses on the use of histogram equalization with a data compression technique, i.e., tree-structured vector quantization. The enhancement technique of intensity windowing is described, and the use of enhancement techniques for medical images is explained, including adaptive histogram equalization.…

  20. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid 'atomtronic' circuit.

    PubMed

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W; Lobb, Christopher J; Phillips, William D; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K

    2014-02-13

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits-it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  1. Hysteresis in a quantized superfluid `atomtronic' circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckel, Stephen; Lee, Jeffrey G.; Jendrzejewski, Fred; Murray, Noel; Clark, Charles W.; Lobb, Christopher J.; Phillips, William D.; Edwards, Mark; Campbell, Gretchen K.

    2014-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that seeks to develop new functional methods by creating devices and circuits where ultracold atoms, often superfluids, have a role analogous to that of electrons in electronics. Hysteresis is widely used in electronic circuits--it is routinely observed in superconducting circuits and is essential in radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices. Furthermore, it is as fundamental to superfluidity (and superconductivity) as quantized persistent currents, critical velocity and Josephson effects. Nevertheless, despite multiple theoretical predictions, hysteresis has not been previously observed in any superfluid, atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate. Here we directly detect hysteresis between quantized circulation states in an atomtronic circuit formed from a ring of superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate obstructed by a rotating weak link (a region of low atomic density). This contrasts with previous experiments on superfluid liquid helium where hysteresis was observed directly in systems in which the quantization of flow could not be observed, and indirectly in systems that showed quantized flow. Our techniques allow us to tune the size of the hysteresis loop and to consider the fundamental excitations that accompany hysteresis. The results suggest that the relevant excitations involved in hysteresis are vortices, and indicate that dissipation has an important role in the dynamics. Controlled hysteresis in atomtronic circuits may prove to be a crucial feature for the development of practical devices, just as it has in electronic circuits such as memories, digital noise filters (for example Schmitt triggers) and magnetometers (for example superconducting quantum interference devices).

  2. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  3. Quantization of non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2001-09-01

    A generalization of canonical quantization which maps a dynamical operator to a dynamical superoperator is suggested. Weyl quantization of dynamical operator, which cannot be represented as Poisson bracket with some function, is considered. The usual Weyl quantization of observables is a specific case of suggested quantization. This approach allows to define consistent quantization procedure for non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems. Examples of the harmonic oscillator with friction (generalized Lorenz-Rossler-Leipnik-Newton equation), the Fokker-Planck-type system and Lorenz-type system are considered.

  4. Video data compression using artificial neural network differential vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ashok K.; Bibyk, Steven B.; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    1991-01-01

    An artificial neural network vector quantizer is developed for use in data compression applications such as Digital Video. Differential Vector Quantization is used to preserve edge features, and a new adaptive algorithm, known as Frequency-Sensitive Competitive Learning, is used to develop the vector quantizer codebook. To develop real time performance, a custom Very Large Scale Integration Application Specific Integrated Circuit (VLSI ASIC) is being developed to realize the associative memory functions needed in the vector quantization algorithm. By using vector quantization, the need for Huffman coding can be eliminated, resulting in superior performance against channel bit errors than methods that use variable length codes.

  5. The Angular Momentum Dilemma and Born-Jordan Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gosson, Maurice A.

    2017-01-01

    The rigorous equivalence of the Schrödinger and Heisenberg pictures requires that one uses Born-Jordan quantization in place of Weyl quantization. We confirm this by showing that the much discussed " angular momentum dilemma" disappears if one uses Born-Jordan quantization. We argue that the latter is the only physically correct quantization procedure. We also briefly discuss a possible redefinition of phase space quantum mechanics, where the usual Wigner distribution has to be replaced with a new quasi-distribution associated with Born-Jordan quantization, and which has proven to be successful in time-frequency analysis.

  6. Exact quantization of a superparticle in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Horigane, Tetsuo; Kazama, Yoichi

    2010-02-15

    As a step toward deeper understanding of the AdS/CFT correspondence, exact quantization of a Brink-Schwarz superparticle in the AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} background with Ramond-Ramond flux is performed from the first principle in the phase space formulation. It includes the construction of the quantum Noether charges for the psu(2,2|4) superconformal symmetry and by solving the superconformal primary conditions we obtain the complete physical spectrum of the system with the explicit wave functions. The spectrum agrees precisely with the supergravity results, including all the Kaluza-Klein excitations. Our method and the result are expected to shed light on the eventual quantization of a superstring in this important background.

  7. Second quantization in bit-string physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1993-01-01

    Using a new fundamental theory based on bit-strings, a finite and discrete version of the solutions of the free one particle Dirac equation as segmented trajectories with steps of length h/mc along the forward and backward light cones executed at velocity +/- c are derived. Interpreting the statistical fluctuations which cause the bends in these segmented trajectories as emission and absorption of radiation, these solutions are analogous to a fermion propagator in a second quantized theory. This allows us to interpret the mass parameter in the step length as the physical mass of the free particle. The radiation in interaction with it has the usual harmonic oscillator structure of a second quantized theory. How these free particle masses can be generated gravitationally using the combinatorial hierarchy sequence (3,10,137,2(sup 127) + 136), and some of the predictive consequences are sketched.

  8. Quantized circular photogalvanic effect in Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    de Juan, Fernando; Grushin, Adolfo G; Morimoto, Takahiro; Moore, Joel E

    2017-07-06

    The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) is the part of a photocurrent that switches depending on the sense of circular polarization of the incident light. It has been consistently observed in systems without inversion symmetry and depends on non-universal material details. Here we find that in a class of Weyl semimetals (for example, SrSi2) and three-dimensional Rashba materials (for example, doped Te) without inversion and mirror symmetries, the injection contribution to the CPGE trace is effectively quantized in terms of the fundamental constants e, h, c and with no material-dependent parameters. This is so because the CPGE directly measures the topological charge of Weyl points, and non-quantized corrections from disorder and additional bands can be small over a significant range of incident frequencies. Moreover, the magnitude of the CPGE induced by a Weyl node is relatively large, which enables the direct detection of the monopole charge with current techniques.

  9. Quantized circular photogalvanic effect in Weyl semimetals

    PubMed Central

    de Juan, Fernando; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Morimoto, Takahiro; Moore, Joel E

    2017-01-01

    The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) is the part of a photocurrent that switches depending on the sense of circular polarization of the incident light. It has been consistently observed in systems without inversion symmetry and depends on non-universal material details. Here we find that in a class of Weyl semimetals (for example, SrSi2) and three-dimensional Rashba materials (for example, doped Te) without inversion and mirror symmetries, the injection contribution to the CPGE trace is effectively quantized in terms of the fundamental constants e, h, c and with no material-dependent parameters. This is so because the CPGE directly measures the topological charge of Weyl points, and non-quantized corrections from disorder and additional bands can be small over a significant range of incident frequencies. Moreover, the magnitude of the CPGE induced by a Weyl node is relatively large, which enables the direct detection of the monopole charge with current techniques. PMID:28681840

  10. Spin foam model from canonical quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Sergei

    2008-01-15

    We suggest a modification of the Barrett-Crane spin foam model of four-dimensional Lorentzian general relativity motivated by the canonical quantization. The starting point is Lorentz covariant loop quantum gravity. Its kinematical Hilbert space is found as a space of the so-called projected spin networks. These spin networks are identified with the boundary states of a spin foam model and provide a generalization of the unique Barrett-Crane intertwiner. We propose a way to modify the Barrett-Crane quantization procedure to arrive at this generalization: the B field (bivectors) should be promoted not to generators of the gauge algebra, but to their certain projection. The modification is also justified by the canonical analysis of the Plebanski formulation. Finally, we compare our construction with other proposals to modify the Barrett-Crane model.

  11. Quantized Vortices in Superfluids and Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouless, D. J.; Ao, Ping; Niu, Qian; Geller, M. R.; Wexler, C.

    We give a general review of recent developments in the theory of vortices in superfluids and superconductors, discussing why the dynamics of vortices is important, and why some key results are still controversial. We discuss work that we have done on the dynamics of quantized vortices in a superfluid. Despite the fact that this problem has been recognized as important for forty years, there is still a lot of controversy about the forces on and masses of quantized vortices. We think that one can get unambiguous answers by considering a broken symmetry state that consists of one vortex in an infinite ideal system. We argue for a Magnus force that is proportional to the superfluid density, and we find that the effective mass density of a vortex in a neutral superfluid is divergent at low frequencies. We have generalized some of the results for a neutral superfluid to a charged system.

  12. Quantized charge pump of massive Dirac electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Jun-Feng

    2017-05-01

    We study a new scheme to realize a quantized two-parameter charge pump based on massive Dirac electrons. It is shown that the two time-dependent and out-of-phase staggered potentials introduced in graphene can pump out an integer number of electrons in a pumping cycle as long as the Fermi energy resides in the effective energy gap opened by pumping potentials. The dependence of the pumped charge per mode on the pumping phase or the dynamic phase exhibits a binary alternation from +e to -e . This quantization has a topological origin and can be accounted for by adiabatic evolution of the topologically protected interfacial state forming between the two pumping sources.

  13. Precise Quantization of Anomalous Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestwick, Andrew

    In the quantum anomalous Hall effect, electron transport in a magnetically-doped topological insulator takes place through chiral, dissipationless edge channels. In this talk, we discuss the behavior of a nearly ideal implementations of the effect in which the Hall resistance is within a part per 10,000 of its quantized value and the longitudinal resistivity can reach below 1 Ω per square. Nearly all Cr-doped topological insulator samples demonstrate extreme temperature dependence that is well-modeled by a small effective gap, allowing control over quantization with an unexpected magnetocaloric effect. We also discuss measurements of new device geometries and non-local resistances that identify the sources of dissipation that limit the effect. (Now at Rigetti Computing).

  14. Block adaptive quantization of Magellan SAR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Ronald; Johnson, William T. K.

    1989-01-01

    A report is presented on a data compression scheme that will be used to reduce the SAR data rate on the NASA Magellan mission to Venus. The spacecraft has only one scientific instrument, a radar system for imaging the surface, for altimetric profiling of the planet topography, and for measuring radiation from the planet surface. A straightforward implementation of the scientific requirements of the mission results in a data rate higher than can be accommodated by the available system bandwidth. A data-rate-reduction scheme which includes operation of the radar in burst mode and block-adaptive quantization of the SAR data is selected to satisfy the scientific requirements. Descriptions of the quantization scheme and its hardware implementation are given. Burst-mode SAR operation is also briefly discussed.

  15. Neural net approach to predictive vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsenian, Nader; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1992-11-01

    A new predictive vector quantization (PVQ) technique, capable of exploring the nonlinear dependencies in addition to the linear dependencies that exist between adjacent blocks of pixels, is introduced. Two different classes of neural nets form the components of the PVQ scheme. A multi-layer perceptron is embedded in the predictive component of the compression system. This neural network, using the non-linearity condition associated with its processing units, can perform as a non-linear vector predictor. The second component of the PVQ scheme vector quantizes (VQ) the residual vector that is formed by subtracting the output of the perceptron from the original wave-pattern. Kohonen Self-Organizing Feature Map (KSOFM) was utilized as a neural network clustering algorithm to design the codebook for the VQ technique. Coding results are presented for monochrome 'still' images.

  16. Quantized circular photogalvanic effect in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Juan, Fernando; Grushin, Adolfo G.; Morimoto, Takahiro; Moore, Joel E.

    2017-07-01

    The circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE) is the part of a photocurrent that switches depending on the sense of circular polarization of the incident light. It has been consistently observed in systems without inversion symmetry and depends on non-universal material details. Here we find that in a class of Weyl semimetals (for example, SrSi2) and three-dimensional Rashba materials (for example, doped Te) without inversion and mirror symmetries, the injection contribution to the CPGE trace is effectively quantized in terms of the fundamental constants e, h, c and with no material-dependent parameters. This is so because the CPGE directly measures the topological charge of Weyl points, and non-quantized corrections from disorder and additional bands can be small over a significant range of incident frequencies. Moreover, the magnitude of the CPGE induced by a Weyl node is relatively large, which enables the direct detection of the monopole charge with current techniques.

  17. Covariant quantization of the CBS superparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassi, P. A.; Policastro, G.; Porrati, M.

    2001-07-01

    The quantization of the Casalbuoni-Brink-Schwarz superparticle is performed in an explicitly covariant way using the antibracket formalism. Since an infinite number of ghost fields are required, within a suitable off-shell twistor-like formalism, we are able to fix the gauge of each ghost sector without modifying the physical content of the theory. The computation reveals that the antibracket cohomology contains only the physical degrees of freedom.

  18. Canonical quantization of gravitation with higher derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Dukhbinder, I.L.; Lyakhovich, S.L.

    1986-06-01

    The authors construct a Hamiltonian formulation, canonically quantize it, and find the local measure for a theory of gravitation with Langrangian. The approach is based on the general method of ''Hamiltonianization'' of theories with higher derivatives containing coupling, in a form specially suited for work with gauge theories. An expression is obtained for the generating functional for Green's functions in the form of a continuum over the metric, with a nontrivial measure different from that of Einsteinian gravitation.

  19. Quantization, group contraction and zero point energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasone, M.; Celeghini, E.; Jizba, P.; Vitiello, G.

    2003-04-01

    We study algebraic structures underlying 't Hooft's construction relating classical systems with the quantum harmonic oscillator. The role of group contraction is discussed. We propose the use of SU(1,1) for two reasons: because of the isomorphism between its representation Hilbert space and that of the harmonic oscillator and because zero point energy is implied by the representation structure. Finally, we also comment on the relation between dissipation and quantization.

  20. Conductance Quantization in Resistive Random Access Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Long, Shibing; Liu, Yang; Hu, Chen; Teng, Jiao; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Suñé, Jordi; Liu, Ming

    2015-10-01

    The intrinsic scaling-down ability, simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) sandwich structure, excellent performances, and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology-compatible fabrication processes make resistive random access memory (RRAM) one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation memory. The RRAM device also exhibits rich electrical, thermal, magnetic, and optical effects, in close correlation with the abundant resistive switching (RS) materials, metal-oxide interface, and multiple RS mechanisms including the formation/rupture of nanoscale to atomic-sized conductive filament (CF) incorporated in RS layer. Conductance quantization effect has been observed in the atomic-sized CF in RRAM, which provides a good opportunity to deeply investigate the RS mechanism in mesoscopic dimension. In this review paper, the operating principles of RRAM are introduced first, followed by the summarization of the basic conductance quantization phenomenon in RRAM and the related RS mechanisms, device structures, and material system. Then, we discuss the theory and modeling of quantum transport in RRAM. Finally, we present the opportunities and challenges in quantized RRAM devices and our views on the future prospects.

  1. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    SciTech Connect

    Brodskey, Stanley

    2002-12-01

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  2. Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits

    PubMed Central

    Golod, T.; Iovan, A.; Krasnov, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex. PMID:26456592

  3. Generalized Bergman kernels and geometric quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuynman, G. M.

    1987-03-01

    In geometric quantization it is well known that, if f is an observable and F a polarization on a symplectic manifold (M,ω), then the condition ``Xf leaves F invariant'' (where Xf denotes the Hamiltonian vector field associated to f ) is sufficient to guarantee that one does not have to compute the BKS kernel explicitly in order to know the corresponding quantum operator. It is shown in this paper that this condition on f can be weakened to ``Xf leaves F+F° invariant''and the corresponding quantum operator is then given implicitly by formula (4.8); in particular when F is a (positive) Kähler polarization, all observables can be quantized ``directly'' and moreover, an ``explicit'' formula for the corresponding quantum operator is derived (Theorem 5.8). Applying this to the phase space R2n one obtains a quantization prescription which ressembles the normal ordering of operators in quantum field theory. When we translate this prescription to the usual position representation of quantum mechanics, the result is (a.o) that the operator associated to a classical potential is multiplication by a function which is essentially the convolution of the potential function with a Gaussian function of width ℏ, instead of multiplication by the potential itself.

  4. Quantizing and sampling considerations in digital phased-locked loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, G. T.; Gupta, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    The quantizer problem is first considered. The conditions under which the uniform white sequence model for the quantizer error is valid are established independent of the sampling rate. An equivalent spectral density is defined for the quantizer error resulting in an effective SNR value. This effective SNR may be used to determine quantized performance from infinitely fine quantized results. Attention is given to sampling rate considerations. Sampling rate characteristics of the digital phase-locked loop (DPLL) structure are investigated for the infinitely fine quantized system. The predicted phase error variance equation is examined as a function of the sampling rate. Simulation results are presented and a method is described which enables the minimum required sampling rate to be determined from the predicted phase error variance equations.

  5. Analysis and Design of Logarithmic-type Dynamic Quantizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugie, Toshiharu; Okamoto, Tetsuro

    This paper is concerned with quantized feedback control in the case where logarithmic-type dynamic quantizers are adopted instead of conventional static (memoryless) ones. First, when the plant and the state feedback controller are given, the admissible coarsest quantization density which guarantees quadratic stability of the closed loop system is given in a closed form, which does not depend on the choice of controller in contrast to the static quantizer case. Second, when the plant, the state feedback controller and the coarseness of the quantization density are given, we provide a design method of the dynamic quantizers via convex optimization. Third, these results are extended to the case of output feedback control systems. Finally, some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. A visual detection model for DCT coefficient quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Peterson, Heidi A.

    1993-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is widely used in image compression, and is part of the JPEG and MPEG compression standards. The degree of compression, and the amount of distortion in the decompressed image are determined by the quantization of the transform coefficients. The standards do not specify how the DCT coefficients should be quantized. Our approach is to set the quantization level for each coefficient so that the quantization error is at the threshold of visibility. Here we combine results from our previous work to form our current best detection model for DCT coefficient quantization noise. This model predicts sensitivity as a function of display parameters, enabling quantization matrices to be designed for display situations varying in luminance, veiling light, and spatial frequency related conditions (pixel size, viewing distance, and aspect ratio). It also allows arbitrary color space directions for the representation of color.

  7. Quantized Nambu-Poisson manifolds and n-Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    DeBellis, Joshua; Saemann, Christian; Szabo, Richard J.

    2010-12-15

    We investigate the geometric interpretation of quantized Nambu-Poisson structures in terms of noncommutative geometries. We describe an extension of the usual axioms of quantization in which classical Nambu-Poisson structures are translated to n-Lie algebras at quantum level. We demonstrate that this generalized procedure matches an extension of Berezin-Toeplitz quantization yielding quantized spheres, hyperboloids, and superspheres. The extended Berezin quantization of spheres is closely related to a deformation quantization of n-Lie algebras as well as the approach based on harmonic analysis. We find an interpretation of Nambu-Heisenberg n-Lie algebras in terms of foliations of R{sup n} by fuzzy spheres, fuzzy hyperboloids, and noncommutative hyperplanes. Some applications to the quantum geometry of branes in M-theory are also briefly discussed.

  8. A visual detection model for DCT coefficient quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Peterson, Heidi A.

    1993-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is widely used in image compression, and is part of the JPEG and MPEG compression standards. The degree of compression, and the amount of distortion in the decompressed image are determined by the quantization of the transform coefficients. The standards do not specify how the DCT coefficients should be quantized. Our approach is to set the quantization level for each coefficient so that the quantization error is at the threshold of visibility. Here we combine results from our previous work to form our current best detection model for DCT coefficient quantization noise. This model predicts sensitivity as a function of display parameters, enabling quantization matrices to be designed for display situations varying in luminance, veiling light, and spatial frequency related conditions (pixel size, viewing distance, and aspect ratio). It also allows arbitrary color space directions for the representation of color.

  9. Quantizing dilatonic black holes. Towards nonperturbative canonical quantization of the CGHS model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadarajan, M.

    Motivated by the search for a nonperturbative quantization, the author casts the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) model of dilatonic black holes into a Hamiltonian framework. By making transformations to new "embedding" variables, he maps the model into that of a parametrized scalar field propagating on a fixed flat 1+1 background spacetime. The description in terms of the new variables is thus more amenable to quantization. Issues of asymptotics and boundary terms are dealt with systematically. This work has been done in collaboration with K. Kuchař (Univ of Utah) and J. Romano (Univ of Wisconsin-Milwaukee).

  10. Large-scale quantization from local correlations in space plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livadiotis, George; McComas, David J.

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the large-scale quantization that can characterize the phase space of certain physical systems. Plasmas are such systems where large-scale quantization, ħ*, is caused by Debye shielding that structures correlations between particles. The value of ħ* is constant—some 12 orders of magnitude larger than the Planck constant—across a wide range of space plasmas, from the solar wind in the inner heliosphere to the distant plasma in the inner heliosheath and the local interstellar medium. This paper develops the foundation and advances the understanding of the concept of plasma quantization; in particular, we (i) show the analogy of plasma to Planck quantization, (ii) show the key points of plasma quantization, (iii) construct some basic quantum mechanical concepts for the large-scale plasma quantization, (iv) investigate the correlation between plasma parameters that implies plasma quantization, when it is approximated by a relation between the magnetosonic energy and the plasma frequency, (v) analyze typical space plasmas throughout the heliosphere and show the constancy of plasma quantization over many orders of magnitude in plasma parameters, (vi) analyze Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) solar wind measurements to develop another measurement of the value of ħ*, and (vii) apply plasma quantization to derive unknown plasma parameters when some key observable is missing.

  11. Topological Quantization in Units of the Fine Structure Constant

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejko, Joseph; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Drew, H.Dennis; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-11-11

    Fundamental topological phenomena in condensed matter physics are associated with a quantized electromagnetic response in units of fundamental constants. Recently, it has been predicted theoretically that the time-reversal invariant topological insulator in three dimensions exhibits a topological magnetoelectric effect quantized in units of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/{h_bar}c. In this Letter, we propose an optical experiment to directly measure this topological quantization phenomenon, independent of material details. Our proposal also provides a way to measure the half-quantized Hall conductances on the two surfaces of the topological insulator independently of each other.

  12. Semiclassical quantization of nonadiabatic systems with hopping periodic orbits

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Mikiya Yamashita, Koichi

    2015-02-21

    We present a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum–classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems consisting of fast and slow degrees of freedom (DOFs) by extending Gutzwiller’s trace formula to a nonadiabatic form. The quantum–classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow DOF, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels. In addition to the semiclassical quantization condition, we also discuss chaotic dynamics involved in the classical limit of nonadiabatic dynamics.

  13. Perceptually optimized quantization tables for H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng; Braeckman, Geert; Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-08-01

    The H.264/AVC video coding standard currently represents the state-of-the-art in video compression technology. The initial version of the standard only supported a single quantization step size for all the coefficients in a transformed block. Later, support for custom quantization tables was added, which allows to independently specify the quantization step size for each coefficient in a transformed block. In this way, different quantization can be applied to the highfrequency and low-frequency coefficients, reflecting the human visual system's different sensitivity to high-frequency and low-frequency spatial variations in the signal. In this paper, we design custom quantization tables taking into account the properties of the human visual system as well as the viewing conditions. Our proposed design is based on a model for the human visual system's contrast sensitivity function, which specifies the contrast sensitivity in function of the spatial frequency of the signal. By calculating the spatial frequencies corresponding to each of the transform's basis functions, taking into account viewing distance and dot pitch of the screen, the sensitivity of the human visual system to variations in the transform coefficient corresponding to each basis function can be determined and used to define the corresponding quantization step size. Experimental results, whereby the video quality is measured using VQM, show that the designed quantization tables yield improved performance compared to uniform quantization and to the default quantization tables provided as a part of the reference encoder.

  14. Separable quantizations of Stäckel systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszak, Maciej; Marciniak, Krzysztof; Domański, Ziemowit

    2016-08-01

    In this article we prove that many Hamiltonian systems that cannot be separably quantized in the classical approach of Robertson and Eisenhart can be separably quantized if we extend the class of admissible quantizations through a suitable choice of Riemann space adapted to the Poisson geometry of the system. Actually, in this article we prove that for every quadratic in momenta Stäckel system (defined on 2 n dimensional Poisson manifold) for which Stäckel matrix consists of monomials in position coordinates there exist infinitely many quantizations-parametrized by n arbitrary functions-that turn this system into a quantum separable Stäckel system.

  15. Observed quantization of anyonic heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Mitali; Heiblum, Moty; Rosenblatt, Amir; Oreg, Yuval; Feldman, Dima E.; Stern, Ady; Umansky, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The quantum of thermal conductance of ballistic (collisionless) one-dimensional channels is a unique fundamental constant. Although the quantization of the electrical conductance of one-dimensional ballistic conductors has long been experimentally established, demonstrating the quantization of thermal conductance has been challenging as it necessitated an accurate measurement of very small temperature increase. It has been accomplished for weakly interacting systems of phonons, photons and electronic Fermi liquids; however, it should theoretically also hold in strongly interacting systems, such as those in which the fractional quantum Hall effect is observed. This effect describes the fractionalization of electrons into anyons and chargeless quasiparticles, which in some cases can be Majorana fermions. Because the bulk is incompressible in the fractional quantum Hall regime, it is not expected to contribute substantially to the thermal conductance, which is instead determined by chiral, one-dimensional edge modes. The thermal conductance thus reflects the topological properties of the fractional quantum Hall electronic system, to which measurements of the electrical conductance give no access. Here we report measurements of thermal conductance in particle-like (Laughlin-Jain series) states and the more complex (and less studied) hole-like states in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures. Hole-like states, which have fractional Landau-level fillings of 1/2 to 1, support downstream charged modes as well as upstream neutral modes, and are expected to have a thermal conductance that is determined by the net chirality of all of their downstream and upstream edge modes. Our results establish the universality of the quantization of thermal conductance for fractionally charged and neutral modes. Measurements of anyonic heat flow provide access to information that is not easily accessible from measurements of conductance.

  16. Fréchet-algebraic deformation quantizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this review I present some recent results on the convergence properties of formal star products. Based on a general construction of a Fréchet topology for an algebra with countable vector space basis I discuss several examples from deformation quantization: the Wick star product on the flat phase space m2n gives a first example of a Fréchet algebraic framework for the canonical commutation relations. More interesting, the star product on the Poincare disk can be treated along the same lines, leading to a non-trivial example of a convergent star product on a curved Kahler manifold.

  17. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac's methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green's functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  18. Size quantization in Cu2Se nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindraju, S.; Kalenga, M. P.; Airo, M.; Moloto, M. J.; Sikhwivhilu, L. M.; Moloto, N.

    2014-12-01

    Herein we report on the synthesis of size quantized copper selenide nanocrystals via the colloidal method. Different colours of the sample were obtained at different time intervals indicative of the sizes of the nanocrystals. The absorption band edges were blue-shifted from bulk indicative of quantum confinement. This was corroborated by the TEM results that showed very small particles ranging from 2 nm to 7 nm. This work therefore shows a phenomenon readily observed in cadmium chalcogenide nanocrystals but has never been reported for copper based chalcogenides.

  19. Quantization of inductively shunted superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. C.; Kou, A.; Vool, U.; Pop, I. M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a method for calculating the energy levels of superconducting circuits that contain highly anharmonic, inductively shunted modes with arbitrarily strong coupling. Our method starts by calculating the normal modes of the linearized circuit and proceeds with numerical diagonalization in this basis. As an example, we analyze the Hamiltonian of a fluxonium qubit inductively coupled to a readout resonator. While elementary, this simple example is nontrivial because it cannot be efficiently treated by the method known as "black-box quantization," numerical diagonalization in the bare harmonic oscillator basis, or perturbation theory. Calculated spectra are compared to measured spectroscopy data, demonstrating excellent quantitative agreement between theory and experiment.

  20. Quantization of conductance minimum and index theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegaya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Shu-Ichiro; Tanaka, Yukio; Asano, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the minimum value of the zero-bias differential conductance Gmin in a junction consisting of a normal metal and a nodal superconductor preserving time-reversal symmetry. Using the quasiclassical Green function method, we show that Gmin is quantized at (4 e2/h ) NZES in the limit of strong impurity scatterings in the normal metal at the zero temperature. The integer NZES represents the number of perfect transmission channels through the junction. An analysis of the chiral symmetry of the Hamiltonian indicates that NZES corresponds to the Atiyah-Singer index in mathematics.

  1. Semiclassical Quantization of the Bogoliubov Spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Kolovsky, Andrey R.

    2007-07-13

    We analyze the Bogoliubov spectrum of the three-site Bose-Hubbard model with a finite number of Bose particles by using a semiclassical approach. The Bogoliubov spectrum is shown to be associated with the low-energy regular component of the classical Hubbard model. We identify the full set of the integrals of motion of this regular component and, quantizing them, obtain the energy levels of the quantum system. The critical values of the energy, above which the regular Bogoliubov spectrum evolves into a chaotic spectrum, is indicated as well.

  2. Quantized adiabatic transport in momentum space.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek Y H; Gong, Jiangbin

    2012-07-06

    Though topological aspects of energy bands are known to play a key role in quantum transport in solid-state systems, the implications of Floquet band topology for transport in momentum space (i.e., acceleration) have not been explored so far. Using a ratchet accelerator model inspired by existing cold-atom experiments, here we characterize a class of extended Floquet bands of one-dimensional driven quantum systems by Chern numbers, reveal topological phase transitions therein, and theoretically predict the quantization of adiabatic transport in momentum space. Numerical results confirm our theory and indicate the feasibility of experimental studies.

  3. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    SciTech Connect

    Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.

    2014-12-15

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.

  4. Quantum mechanics, gravity and modified quantization relations.

    PubMed

    Calmet, Xavier

    2015-08-06

    In this paper, we investigate a possible energy scale dependence of the quantization rules and, in particular, from a phenomenological point of view, an energy scale dependence of an effective [Formula: see text] (reduced Planck's constant). We set a bound on the deviation of the value of [Formula: see text] at the muon scale from its usual value using measurements of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Assuming that inflation has taken place, we can conclude that nature is described by a quantum theory at least up to an energy scale of about 10(16) GeV.

  5. EEG classification by learning vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Flotzinger, D; Kalcher, J; Pfurtscheller, G

    1992-12-01

    EEG classification using Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is introduced on the basis of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) built in Graz, where a subject controlled a cursor in one dimension on a monitor using potentials recorded from the intact scalp. The method of classification with LVQ is described in detail along with first results on a subject who participated in four on-line cursor control sessions. Using this data, extensive off-line experiments were performed to show the influence of the various parameters of the classifier and the extracted features of the EEG on the classification results.

  6. Integrability, Quantization and Moduli Spaces of Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    This paper has the purpose of presenting in an organic way a new approach to integrable (1+1)-dimensional field systems and their systematic quantization emerging from intersection theory of the moduli space of stable algebraic curves and, in particular, cohomological field theories, Hodge classes and double ramification cycles. This methods are alternative to the traditional Witten-Kontsevich framework and its generalizations by Dubrovin and Zhang and, among other advantages, have the merit of encompassing quantum integrable systems. Most of this material originates from an ongoing collaboration with A. Buryak, B. Dubrovin and J. Guéré.

  7. Path integral quantization of generalized quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalo, R.; Pimentel, B. M.; Zambrano, G. E. R.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a complete covariant quantization of generalized electrodynamics is shown through the path integral approach. To this goal, we first studied the Hamiltonian structure of the system following Dirac’s methodology and, then, we followed the Faddeev-Senjanovic procedure to obtain the transition amplitude. The complete propagators (Schwinger-Dyson-Fradkin equations) of the correct gauge fixation and the generalized Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities are also obtained. Afterwards, an explicit calculation of one-loop approximations of all Green’s functions and a discussion about the obtained results are presented.

  8. Quantization of compact Riemannian symmetric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szőke, Róbert

    2017-09-01

    The phase space of a compact, irreducible, simply connected, Riemannian symmetric space admits a natural family of Kähler polarizations parametrized by the upper half plane S. Using this family, geometric quantization, including the half-form correction, produces the field Hcorr → S of quantum Hilbert spaces. We show that projective flatness of Hcorr implies, that the symmetric space must be isometric to a compact Lie group equipped with a biinvariant metric. In the latter case the flatness of Hcorr was previously established.

  9. Conductance quantization in strongly disordered graphene ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihnatsenka, S.; Kirczenow, G.

    2009-11-01

    We present numerical studies of conduction in graphene nanoribbons with different types of disorder. We find that even when defect scattering depresses the conductance to values two orders of magnitude lower than 2e2/h , equally spaced conductance plateaus occur at moderately low temperatures due to enhanced electron backscattering near subband edge energies if bulk vacancies are present in the ribbon. This work accounts quantitatively for the surprising conductance quantization observed by Lin [Phys. Rev. B 78, 161409(R) (2008)] in ribbons with such low conductances.

  10. Automatic threshold selection using histogram quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yue; Adali, Tulay; Lo, Shih-Chung B.

    1997-04-01

    An automatic threshold selection method is proposed for biomedical image analysis based on a histogram coding scheme. The threshold values can be determined based on the well-known Lloyd-Max scalar quantization rule, which is optimal in the sense of achieving minimum mean-square-error distortion. An iterative self-organizing learning rule is derived to determine the threshold levels. The rule does not require any prior information about the histogram, hence is fully automatic. Experimental results show that this new approach is easy to implement yet is highly efficient, robust with respect to noise, and yields reliable estimates of the threshold levels.

  11. Black-box superconducting circuit quantization.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Simon E; Paik, Hanhee; Vlastakis, Brian; Kirchmair, Gerhard; Shankar, S; Frunzio, Luigi; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J; Girvin, S M

    2012-06-15

    We present a semiclassical method for determining the effective low-energy quantum Hamiltonian of weakly anharmonic superconducting circuits containing mesoscopic Josephson junctions coupled to electromagnetic environments made of an arbitrary combination of distributed and lumped elements. A convenient basis, capturing the multimode physics, is given by the quantized eigenmodes of the linearized circuit and is fully determined by a classical linear response function. The method is used to calculate numerically the low-energy spectrum of a 3D transmon system, and quantitative agreement with measurements is found.

  12. Toward loop quantization of plane gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterleitner, Franz; Major, Seth

    2012-03-01

    The polarized Gowdy model in terms of Ashtekar-Barbero variables is reduced with an additional constraint derived from the Killing equations for plane gravitational waves with parallel rays. The new constraint is formulated in a diffeomorphism invariant manner and, when it is included in the model, the resulting constraint algebra is first class, in contrast to the prior work done in special coordinates. Using an earlier work by Banerjee and Date, the constraints are expressed in terms of classical quantities that have an operator equivalent in loop quantum gravity, making these plane gravitational wave spacetimes accessible to loop quantization techniques.

  13. Phase-space quantization of field theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.

    1999-04-20

    In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999.

  14. A visual detection model for DCT coefficient quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Watson, Andrew B.

    1994-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is widely used in image compression and is part of the JPEG and MPEG compression standards. The degree of compression and the amount of distortion in the decompressed image are controlled by the quantization of the transform coefficients. The standards do not specify how the DCT coefficients should be quantized. One approach is to set the quantization level for each coefficient so that the quantization error is near the threshold of visibility. Results from previous work are combined to form the current best detection model for DCT coefficient quantization noise. This model predicts sensitivity as a function of display parameters, enabling quantization matrices to be designed for display situations varying in luminance, veiling light, and spatial frequency related conditions (pixel size, viewing distance, and aspect ratio). It also allows arbitrary color space directions for the representation of color. A model-based method of optimizing the quantization matrix for an individual image was developed. The model described above provides visual thresholds for each DCT frequency. These thresholds are adjusted within each block for visual light adaptation and contrast masking. For given quantization matrix, the DCT quantization errors are scaled by the adjusted thresholds to yield perceptual errors. These errors are pooled nonlinearly over the image to yield total perceptual error. With this model one may estimate the quantization matrix for a particular image that yields minimum bit rate for a given total perceptual error, or minimum perceptual error for a given bit rate. Custom matrices for a number of images show clear improvement over image-independent matrices. Custom matrices are compatible with the JPEG standard, which requires transmission of the quantization matrix.

  15. Quantizations on the circle and coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadzitaskos, G.; Luft, P.; Tolar, J.

    2012-06-01

    We present a possible construction of coherent states on the unit circle as configuration space. Our approach is based on Borel quantizations on S1 including the Aharonov-Bohm-type quantum description. Coherent states are constructed by Perelomov’s method as group-related coherent states generated by Weyl operators on the quantum phase space {Z} \\times S^{1}. Because of the duality of canonical coordinates and momenta, i.e. the angular variable and the integers, this formulation can also be interpreted as coherent states over an infinite periodic chain. For the construction, we use the analogy with our quantization and coherent states over a finite periodic chain where the quantum phase space was {Z}_{M} \\times {Z}_{M}. The coherent states constructed in this work are shown to satisfy the resolution of unity. To compare them with canonical coherent states, some of their further properties are also studied demonstrating similarities as well as substantial differences. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  16. Von Neumann's quantization of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbuzov, A. B.; Cherny, A. Yu.; Cirilo-Lombardo, D. J.; Nazmitdinov, R. G.; Han, Nguyen Suan; Pavlov, A. E.; Pervushin, V. N.; Zakharov, A. F.

    2017-05-01

    Von Neumann's procedure is applied to quantizing general relativity. Initial data for dynamical variables in the Planck epoch, where the Hubble parameter value coincided with the Planck mass are quantized. These initial data are defined in terms of the Fock orthogonal simplex in the tangent Minkowski spacetime and the Dirac conformal interval. The Einstein cosmological principle is used to average the logarithm of the determinant of the spatial metric over the spatial volume of the visible Universe. The splitting of general coordinate transformations into diffeomorphisms and transformations of the initial data is introduced. In accordance with von Neumann's procedure, the vacuum state is treated is a quantum ensemble that is degenerate in quantum numbers of nonvacuum states. The distribution of the vacuum state leads to the Casimir effect in gravidynamics in just the same way as in electrodynamics. The generating functional for perturbation theory in gravidynamics is found by solving the quantum energy constraint. The applicability range of gravidynamics is discussed along with the possibility of employing this theory to interpret modern observational data.

  17. Second-quantized formulation of geometric phases

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, Shinichi; Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2005-07-15

    The level crossing problem and associated geometric terms are neatly formulated by the second-quantized formulation. This formulation exhibits a hidden local gauge symmetry related to the arbitrariness of the phase choice of the complete orthonormal basis set. By using this second-quantized formulation, which does not assume adiabatic approximation, a convenient exact formula for the geometric terms including off-diagonal geometric terms is derived. The analysis of geometric phases is then reduced to a simple diagonalization of the Hamiltonian, and it is analyzed both in the operator and path-integral formulations. If one diagonalizes the geometric terms in the infinitesimal neighborhood of level crossing, the geometric phases become trivial (and thus no monopole singularity) for arbitrarily large but finite time interval T. The integrability of Schroedinger equation and the appearance of the seemingly nonintegrable phases are thus consistent. The topological proof of the Longuet-Higgins' phase-change rule, for example, fails in the practical Born-Oppenheimer approximation where a large but finite ratio of two time scales is involved and T is identified with the period of the slower system. The difference and similarity between the geometric phases associated with level crossing and the exact topological object such as the Aharonov-Bohm phase become clear in the present formulation. A crucial difference between the quantum anomaly and the geometric phases is also noted.

  18. Finite-state residual vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Syed A.; Wang, Lin-Cheng; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a new FSVQ scheme called Finite-State Residual Vector Quantization (FSRVQ) in which each state uses a Residual Vector Quantizer (RVQ) to encode the input vector. Furthermore, a novel tree- structured competitive neural network is proposed to jointly design the next-state and the state-RVQ codebooks for the proposed FSRVQ. Joint optimization of the next-state function and the state-RVQ codebooks eliminates a large number of redundant states in the conventional FSVQ design; consequently, the memory requirements are substantially reduced in the proposed FSRVQ scheme. The proposed FSRVQ can be designed for high bit rates due to its very low memory requirements and low search complexity of the state-RVQs. Simulation results show that the proposed FSRVQ scheme outperforms the conventional FSVQ schemes both in terms of memory requirements and perceptual quality of the reconstructed image. The proposed FSRVQ scheme also outperforms JPEG (current standard for still image compression) at low bit rates.

  19. Light-cone quantization of quantum chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J. ); Pauli, H.C. )

    1991-06-01

    We discuss the light-cone quantization of gauge theories from two perspectives: as a calculational tool for representing hadrons as QCD bound-states of relativistic quarks and gluons, and also as a novel method for simulating quantum field theory on a computer. The light-cone Fock state expansion of wavefunctions at fixed light cone time provides a precise definition of the parton model and a general calculus for hadronic matrix elements. We present several new applications of light-cone Fock methods, including calculations of exclusive weak decays of heavy hadrons, and intrinsic heavy-quark contributions to structure functions. A general nonperturbative method for numerically solving quantum field theories, discretized light-cone quantization,'' is outlined and applied to several gauge theories, including QCD in one space and one time dimension, and quantum electrodynamics in physical space-time at large coupling strength. The DLCQ method is invariant under the large class of light-cone Lorentz transformations, and it can be formulated such at ultraviolet regularization is independent of the momentum space discretization. Both the bound-state spectrum and the corresponding relativistic light-cone wavefunctions can be obtained by matrix diagonalization and related techniques. We also discuss the construction of the light-cone Fock basis, the structure of the light-cone vacuum, and outline the renormalization techniques required for solving gauge theories within the light-cone Hamiltonian formalism.

  20. Loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corichi, Alejandro; Singh, Parampreet

    2016-03-01

    The loop quantization of the Schwarzschild interior region, as described by a homogeneous anisotropic Kantowski-Sachs model, is re-examined. As several studies of different—inequivalent—loop quantizations have shown, to date there exists no fully satisfactory quantum theory for this model. This fact poses challenges to the validity of some scenarios to address the black hole information problem. Here we put forward a novel viewpoint to construct the quantum theory that builds from some of the models available in the literature. The final picture is a quantum theory that is both independent of any auxiliary structure and possesses a correct low curvature limit. It represents a subtle but non-trivial modification of the original prescription given by Ashtekar and Bojowald. It is shown that the quantum gravitational constraint is well defined past the singularity and that its effective dynamics possesses a bounce into an expanding regime. The classical singularity is avoided, and a semiclassical spacetime satisfying vacuum Einstein’s equations is recovered on the ‘other side’ of the bounce. We argue that such a metric represents the interior region of a white-hole spacetime, but for which the corresponding ‘white hole mass’ differs from the original black hole mass. Furthermore, we find that the value of the white hole mass is proportional to the third power of the starting black hole mass.

  1. The origin of quantum fluctuations in microcanonical quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanenaga, Masahiko

    2004-04-01

    For the harmonic oscillator, we show that the important postulate of microcanonical quantization which yields quantum fluctuations can be derived from the random dynamics of stochastic electrodynamics, here chosen to be the ( D+1)-dimensional classical dynamics in the microcanonical quantization formalism.

  2. On the quantization of the charge-mass ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulhoa, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of describing fundamental particles. The Einstein-Rosen approach was revisited to explain the charge-mass ratio quantization. Such a result is obtained once a quantization prescription is applied to the expression of gravitational energy defined in the realm of teleparallel gravity.

  3. Image Compression on a VLSI Neural-Based Vector Quantizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Oscal T.-C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a modified frequency-sensitive self-organization (FSO) algorithm for image data compression and the associated VLSI architecture. Topics discussed include vector quantization; VLSI neural processor architecture; detailed circuit implementation; and a neural network vector quantization prototype chip. Examples of images using the FSO…

  4. Image Compression on a VLSI Neural-Based Vector Quantizer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Oscal T.-C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a modified frequency-sensitive self-organization (FSO) algorithm for image data compression and the associated VLSI architecture. Topics discussed include vector quantization; VLSI neural processor architecture; detailed circuit implementation; and a neural network vector quantization prototype chip. Examples of images using the FSO…

  5. Instabilities caused by floating-point arithmetic quantization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that an otherwise stable digital control system can be made unstable by signal quantization when the controller operates on floating-point arithmetic. Sufficient conditions of instability are determined, and an example of loss of stability is treated when only one quantizer is operated.

  6. Instabilities caused by floating-point arithmetic quantization.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that an otherwise stable digital control system can be made unstable by signal quantization when the controller operates on floating-point arithmetic. Sufficient conditions of instability are determined, and an example of loss of stability is treated when only one quantizer is operated.

  7. Alternate Light Front Quantization Procedure for Scalar Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przeszowski, Jerzy A.

    2017-03-01

    The novel procedure for the light-front (LF) quantization is formulated and applied for models of free scalar fields. The expected well-known results are rediscovered for a single field and new results are obtained for the two fields model. We use fields smeared with a test function on the LF hypersurface as the basic ingredient of our novel quantization procedure.

  8. Weighted MinMax Algorithm for Color Image Quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reitan, Paula J.

    1999-01-01

    The maximum intercluster distance and the maximum quantization error that are minimized by the MinMax algorithm are shown to be inappropriate error measures for color image quantization. A fast and effective (improves image quality) method for generalizing activity weighting to any histogram-based color quantization algorithm is presented. A new non-hierarchical color quantization technique called weighted MinMax that is a hybrid between the MinMax and Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithms is also described. The weighted MinMax algorithm incorporates activity weighting and seeks to minimize WRMSE, whereby obtaining high quality quantized images with significantly less visual distortion than the MinMax algorithm.

  9. Fractional quantization of charge and spin in topological quantum pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Pasquale; Citro, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Topological quantum pumps are topologically equivalent to the quantum Hall state: In these systems, the charge pumped during each pumping cycle is quantized and coincides with the Chern invariant. However, differently from quantum Hall insulators, quantum pumps can exhibit novel phenomena such as the fractional quantization of the charge transport, as a consequence of their distinctive symmetries in parameter space. Here, we report the analogous fractional quantization of the spin transport in a topological spin pump realized in a one-dimensional lattice via a periodically modulated Zeeman field. In the proposed model, which is a spinfull generalization of the Harper-Hofstadter model, the amount of spin current pumped during well-defined fractions of the pumping cycle is quantized as fractions of the spin Chern number. This fractional quantization of spin is topological, and is a direct consequence of the additional symmetries ensuing from the commensuration of the periodic field with the underlying lattice.

  10. Modeling quantization matrices for perceptual image / video encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huipin; Cote, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Quantization matrix is an important encoding tool for discrete cosine transform (DCT) based perceptual image / video encoding in that DCT coefficients can be quantized according to the sensitivity of the human visual system to the coefficients' corresponding spatial frequencies. A quadratic model is introduced to parameterize the quantization matrices. This model is then used to optimize quantization matrices for a specific bitrate or bitrate range by maximizing the expected encoding quality via a trial based multidimensional numerical search method. The model is simple yet it characterizes the slope and the convexity of the quantization matrices along the horizontal, the vertical and the diagonal directions. The advantage of the model for improving perceptual video encoding quality is demonstrated with simulations using H.264 / AVC video encoding.

  11. Quantization of the black hole area as quantization of the angular momentum component

    SciTech Connect

    Ropotenko, Kostyantyn

    2009-08-15

    In transforming from Schwarzschild to Euclidean Rindler coordinates the Schwarzschild time transforms to a periodic angle. As is well-known, this allows one to introduce the Hawking temperature and is an origin of black hole thermodynamics. On the other hand, according to quantum mechanics this angle is conjugate to the z component of the angular momentum. From the commutation relation and quantization condition for the angular momentum component it is found that the area of the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized with the quantum {delta}A=8{pi}l{sub P}{sup 2}. It is shown that this conclusion is also valid for a generic Kerr-Newman black hole.

  12. Lattice radial quantization: 3D Ising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brower, R. C.; Fleming, G. T.; Neuberger, H.

    2013-04-01

    Lattice radial quantization is introduced as a nonperturbative method intended to numerically solve Euclidean conformal field theories that can be realized as fixed points of known Lagrangians. As an example, we employ a lattice shaped as a cylinder with a 2D Icosahedral cross-section to discretize dilatations in the 3D Ising model. Using the integer spacing of the anomalous dimensions of the first two descendants (l = 1, 2), we obtain an estimate for η = 0.034 (10). We also observed small deviations from integer spacing for the 3rd descendant, which suggests that a further improvement of our radial lattice action will be required to guarantee conformal symmetry at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in the continuum limit.

  13. Quantization of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, K.; Sklyanin, E. K.; Torrielli, A.

    2017-08-01

    We propose a quantization of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation on a cylinder equivalent to an infinite system of nonrelativistic one-dimensional bosons with the masses m = 1, 2,.... The Hamiltonian is Galilei-invariant and includes the split and merge terms Ψ _{{m_1}}^\\dag Ψ _{{m_2}}^\\dag {Ψ _{{m_1} + {m_2}}} and Ψ _{{m_1} + {m_2}}^\\dag {Ψ _{{m_1}}}{Ψ _{{m_2}}} for all combinations of particles with masses m 1, m 2, and m 1 + m 2 for a special choice of coupling constants. We construct the Bethe eigenfunctions for the model and verify the consistency of the coordinate Bethe ansatz and hence the quantum integrability of the model up to the mass M=8 sector.

  14. Quantized mode of a leaky cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, S. M.; Nienhuis, G.

    2000-12-01

    We use Thomson's classical concept of mode of a leaky cavity to develop a quantum theory of cavity damping. This theory generalizes the conventional system-reservoir theory of high-Q cavity damping to arbitrary Q. The small system now consists of damped oscillators corresponding to the natural modes of the leaky cavity rather than undamped oscillators associated with the normal modes of a fictitious perfect cavity. The formalism unifies semiclassical Fox-Li modes and the normal modes traditionally used for quantization. It also lays the foundations for a full quantum description of excess noise. The connection with Siegman's semiclassical work is straightforward. In a wider context, this theory constitutes a radical departure from present models of dissipation in quantum mechanics: unlike conventional models, system and reservoir operators no longer commute with each other. This noncommutability is an unavoidable consequence of having to use natural cavity modes rather than normal modes of a fictitious perfect cavity.

  15. Quantizing polaritons in inhomogeneous dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezet, Aurélien

    2017-02-01

    In this article we provide a general analysis of canonical quantization for polaritons in dispersive and dissipative electromagnetic inhomogeneous media. We compare several approaches based either on the Huttner-Barnett model [B. Huttner and S. M. Barnett, Phys. Rev. A 46, 4306 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevA.46.4306] or the Green function, Langevin-noise method [T. Gruner and D.-G. Welsch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 1818 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevA.53.1818] which includes only material oscillators as fundamental variables. We show that in order to preserve unitarity, causality, and time symmetry, one must necessarily include with an equal footing both electromagnetic modes and material fluctuations in the evolution equations. This becomes particularly relevant for all nanophotonics and plasmonics problems involving spatially localized antennas or devices.

  16. Quaternionic quantization principle in general relativity and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kober, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A generalized quantization principle is considered, which incorporates nontrivial commutation relations of the components of the variables of the quantized theory with the components of the corresponding canonical conjugated momenta referring to other space-time directions. The corresponding commutation relations are formulated by using quaternions. At the beginning, this extended quantization concept is applied to the variables of quantum mechanics. The resulting Dirac equation and the corresponding generalized expression for plane waves are formulated and some consequences for quantum field theory are considered. Later, the quaternionic quantization principle is transferred to canonical quantum gravity. Within quantum geometrodynamics as well as the Ashtekar formalism, the generalized algebraic properties of the operators describing the gravitational observables and the corresponding quantum constraints implied by the generalized representations of these operators are determined. The generalized algebra also induces commutation relations of the several components of the quantized variables with each other. Finally, the quaternionic quantization procedure is also transferred to 𝒩 = 1 supergravity. Accordingly, the quantization principle has to be generalized to be compatible with Dirac brackets, which appear in canonical quantum supergravity.

  17. DCT quantization matrices visually optimized for individual images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes how a vision model incorporating contrast sensitivity, contrast masking, and light adaptation is used to design visually optimal quantization matrices for Discrete Cosine Transform image compression. The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) underlies several image compression standards (JPEG, MPEG, H.261). The DCT is applied to 8x8 pixel blocks, and the resulting coefficients are quantized by division and rounding. The 8x8 'quantization matrix' of divisors determines the visual quality of the reconstructed image; the design of this matrix is left to the user. Since each DCT coefficient corresponds to a particular spatial frequency in a particular image region, each quantization error consists of a local increment or decrement in a particular frequency. After adjustments for contrast sensitivity, local light adaptation, and local contrast masking, this coefficient error can be converted to a just-noticeable-difference (jnd). The jnd's for different frequencies and image blocks can be pooled to yield a global perceptual error metric. With this metric, we can compute for each image the quantization matrix that minimizes the bit-rate for a given perceptual error, or perceptual error for a given bit-rate. Implementation of this system demonstrates its advantages over existing techniques. A unique feature of this scheme is that the quantization matrix is optimized for each individual image. This is compatible with the JPEG standard, which requires transmission of the quantization matrix.

  18. Implementation of digital filters for minimum quantization errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, C. L.; Vallely, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper a technique is developed for choosing programing forms and bit configurations for digital filters that minimize the quantization errors. The technique applies to digital filters operating in fixed-point arithmetic in either open-loop or closed-loop systems, and is implemented by a digital computer program that is based on a digital simulation of the system. As an output the program gives the programing form required for minimum quantization errors, the total bit configuration required in the filter, and the location of the binary decimal point at each quantizer within the filter.

  19. Direct observation of Kelvin waves excited by quantized vortex reconnection

    PubMed Central

    Fonda, Enrico; Meichle, David P.; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Hormoz, Sahand; Lathrop, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Quantized vortices are key features of quantum fluids such as superfluid helium and Bose–Einstein condensates. The reconnection of quantized vortices and subsequent emission of Kelvin waves along the vortices are thought to be central to dissipation in such systems. By visualizing the motion of submicron particles dispersed in superfluid 4He, we have directly observed the emission of Kelvin waves from quantized vortex reconnection. We characterize one event in detail, using dimensionless similarity coordinates, and compare it with several theories. Finally, we give evidence for other examples of wavelike behavior in our system. PMID:24704878

  20. Modified 8×8 quantization table and Huffman encoding steganography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongning; Sun, Shuliang

    2014-10-01

    A new secure steganography, which is based on Huffman encoding and modified quantized discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients, is provided in this paper. Firstly, the cover image is segmented into 8×8 blocks and modified DCT transformation is applied on each block. Huffman encoding is applied to code the secret image before embedding. DCT coefficients are quantized by modified quantization table. Inverse DCT(IDCT) is conducted on each block. All the blocks are combined together and the steg image is finally achieved. The experiment shows that the proposed method is better than DCT and Mahender Singh's in PSNR and Capacity.

  1. Dynamical aspects in the quantizer-dequantizer formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciaglia, F. M.; Di Cosmo, F.; Ibort, A.; Marmo, G.

    2017-10-01

    The use of the quantizer-dequantizer formalism to describe the evolution of a quantum system is reconsidered. We show that it is possible to embed a manifold in the space of quantum states of a given auxiliary system by means of an appropriate quantizer-dequantizer system. If this manifold of states is invariant with respect to some unitary evolution, the quantizer-dequantizer system provides a classical-like realization of such dynamics, which in general is non linear. Integrability properties are also discussed. Weyl systems and generalized coherent states are used as a simple illustration of these ideas.

  2. Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.

  3. Video coding scheme using DCT-pyramid vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Dalessandro, P; Lancini, R

    1995-01-01

    A new and effective video coding scheme for contribution quality is proposed. The CMTT/2, a joint committee of CCIR and CCITT, has proposed a video coding scheme (already approved at European level by ETS) working at 34-45 Mbit/s. Basically this proposal includes a DCT transform for spatial correlation removal and motion compensation for temporal correlation removal. The individual transform coefficients are then scalar quantized with a non uniform bit assignment. Starting from the CMTT/2 proposal, the study presents a new video coding scheme designed using a vector quantizer solution instead of the scalar one. Specifically, the pyramid vector quantization (PVQ) has been chosen as the vector quantization method as it is able to reduce the DCT coefficients Laplacian distribution. Simulation results show that the proposed video coding scheme gives the same contribution quality at 22 Mbit/s as the one obtained with the CMTT/2 proposal at 45 Mbit/s.

  4. Spin wave quantization in continuous film with stripe domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Seung-Seok; Yoon, Jungbum; Lee, Sukmock; You, Chun-Yeol; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Young Keun

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the spin wave dynamics of CoFeSiB film, which has a stripe domain structure at a low magnetic field region (<1 kOe). We measured the spin wave excitation spectra by employing Brillouin light scattering. Abnormal field dependence and dispersion relations were observed, and they are similar to spin wave quantization in laterally confined magnetic structures such as arrays of magnetic nanowires. The observed spin wave excitation spectra must be interpreted with spin wave quantization such as Damon-Eshbach mode separation. It was found that the spin wave quantization is related to the stripe magnetic domain structure in continuous film. The physical origin of the quantization is the partial reflection of the propagating spin wave at the periodic stripe domain boundaries.

  5. Identification of bitmap compression history: JPEG detection and quantizer estimation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhigang; de Queiroz, Ricardo L

    2003-01-01

    Sometimes image processing units inherit images in raster bitmap format only, so that processing is to be carried without knowledge of past operations that may compromise image quality (e.g., compression). To carry further processing, it is useful to not only know whether the image has been previously JPEG compressed, but to learn what quantization table was used. This is the case, for example, if one wants to remove JPEG artifacts or for JPEG re-compression. In this paper, a fast and efficient method is provided to determine whether an image has been previously JPEG compressed. After detecting a compression signature, we estimate compression parameters. Specifically, we developed a method for the maximum likelihood estimation of JPEG quantization steps. The quantizer estimation method is very robust so that only sporadically an estimated quantizer step size is off, and when so, it is by one value.

  6. Inelastic scattering of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichnyuk, I. A.; Berloff, N. G.

    2016-11-01

    We study inelastic interactions of particles with quantized vortices in superfluids by using a semiclassical matter wave theory that is analogous to the Landau two-fluid equations, but allows for the vortex dynamics. The research is motivated by recent experiments on xenon-doped helium nanodroplets that show clustering of the impurities along the vortex cores. We numerically simulate the dynamics of trapping and interactions of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluid helium and the obtained results can be extended to scattering of other impurities by quantized vortices. Different energies and impact parameters of incident particles are considered. We show that inelastic scattering is closely linked to the generation of Kelvin waves along a quantized vortex during the interaction even if there is no capture. The capture criterion of an impurity is formulated in terms of the binding energy.

  7. Relational symplectic groupoid quantization for constant poisson structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Alberto S.; Moshayedi, Nima; Wernli, Konstantin

    2017-09-01

    As a detailed application of the BV-BFV formalism for the quantization of field theories on manifolds with boundary, this note describes a quantization of the relational symplectic groupoid for a constant Poisson structure. The presence of mixed boundary conditions and the globalization of results are also addressed. In particular, the paper includes an extension to space-times with boundary of some formal geometry considerations in the BV-BFV formalism, and specifically introduces into the BV-BFV framework a "differential" version of the classical and quantum master equations. The quantization constructed in this paper induces Kontsevich's deformation quantization on the underlying Poisson manifold, i.e., the Moyal product, which is known in full details. This allows focussing on the BV-BFV technology and testing it. For the inexperienced reader, this is also a practical and reasonably simple way to learn it.

  8. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestwick, Andrew; Fox, Eli; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2015-03-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been of great interest due to its recent experimental realization in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3, a ferromagnetic 3D topological insulator. The presence of ferromagnetic exchange breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening a gap in the surface states, but gives rise to dissipationless chiral conduction at the edge of a magnetized film. Ideally, this leads to vanishing longitudinal resistance and Hall resistance quantized to h /e2 , where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, but perfect quantization has so far proved elusive. Here, we study the QAHE in the limit of zero applied magnetic field, and measure Hall resistance quantized to within one part per 10,000. Deviation from quantization is due primarily to thermally activated carriers, which can be nearly eliminated through adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This result demonstrates an important step toward dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions.

  9. Fill-in binary loop pulse-torque quantizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lory, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    Fill-in binary (FIB) loop provides constant heating of torque generator, an advantage of binary current switching. At the same time, it avoids mode-related dead zone and data delay of binary, an advantage of ternary quantization.

  10. Rate-of-change limiter for quantized signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streuding, G. C.

    1977-01-01

    Analog circuit is employed to smooth change between levels of quantized voltage signal without adversely affecting its fidelity. Circuit is applicable to units requiring interface between digital and analog systems such as automated manufacturing systems or industrial robots.

  11. Perturbative quantization of the breathing mode in the Skyrme model

    SciTech Connect

    Kostyuk, A.P.; Kobushkin, A.P.; Chepilko, N.M.

    1995-08-01

    A detailed analysis of the quantization of the breathing mode in the Skyrme model is presented. It is shown that breathing strongly affects the behavior of the chiral angle of the hedgehog-like soliton. 7 refs.

  12. Relational symplectic groupoid quantization for constant poisson structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Alberto S.; Moshayedi, Nima; Wernli, Konstantin

    2017-04-01

    As a detailed application of the BV-BFV formalism for the quantization of field theories on manifolds with boundary, this note describes a quantization of the relational symplectic groupoid for a constant Poisson structure. The presence of mixed boundary conditions and the globalization of results are also addressed. In particular, the paper includes an extension to space-times with boundary of some formal geometry considerations in the BV-BFV formalism, and specifically introduces into the BV-BFV framework a "differential" version of the classical and quantum master equations. The quantization constructed in this paper induces Kontsevich's deformation quantization on the underlying Poisson manifold, i.e., the Moyal product, which is known in full details. This allows focussing on the BV-BFV technology and testing it. For the inexperienced reader, this is also a practical and reasonably simple way to learn it.

  13. Remarks on the geometric quantization of Landau levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galasso, Andrea; Spera, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    In this note, we resume the geometric quantization approach to the motion of a charged particle on a plane, subject to a constant magnetic field perpendicular to the latter, by showing directly that it gives rise to a completely integrable system to which we may apply holomorphic geometric quantization. In addition, we present a variant employing a suitable vertical polarization and we also make contact with Bott’s quantization, enforcing the property “quantization commutes with reduction”, which is known to hold under quite general conditions. We also provide an interpretation of translational symmetry breaking in terms of coherent states and index theory. Finally, we give a representation theoretic description of the lowest Landau level via the use of an S1-equivariant Dirac operator.

  14. Wigner quantization of some one-dimensional Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Regniers, G.; Van der Jeugt, J.

    2010-12-15

    Recently, several papers have been dedicated to the Wigner quantization of different Hamiltonians. In these examples, many interesting mathematical and physical properties have been shown. Among those we have the ubiquitous relation with Lie superalgebras and their representations. In this paper, we study two one-dimensional Hamiltonians for which the Wigner quantization is related with the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1|2). One of them, the Hamiltonian H=xp, is popular due to its connection with the Riemann zeros, discovered by Berry and Keating on the one hand and Connes on the other. The Hamiltonian of the free particle, H{sub f}=p{sup 2}/2, is the second Hamiltonian we will examine. Wigner quantization introduces an extra representation parameter for both of these Hamiltonians. Canonical quantization is recovered by restricting to a specific representation of the Lie superalgebra osp(1|2).

  15. Predictive vector quantization using a neural network approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsenian, Nader; Rizvi, Syed A.; Nasrabadi, Nasser M.

    1993-07-01

    A new predictive vector quantization (PVQ) technique capable of exploring the nonlinear dependencies in addition to the linear dependencies that exist between adjacent blocks (vectors) of pixels is introduced. The two components of the PVQ scheme, the vector predictor and the vector quantizer, are implemented by two different classes of neural networks. A multilayer perceptron is used for the predictive component and Kohonen self- organizing feature maps are used to design the codebook for the vector quantizer. The multilayer perceptron uses the nonlinearity condition associated with its processing units to perform a nonlinear vector prediction. The second component of the PVQ scheme vector quantizers the residual vector that is formed by subtracting the output of the perceptron from the original input vector. The joint-optimization task of designing the two components of the PVQ scheme is also achieved. Simulation results are presented for still images with high visual quality.

  16. Polymer-Fourier quantization of the scalar field revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Chung, Angel; Vergara, J. David

    2016-10-01

    The polymer quantization of the Fourier modes of the real scalar field is studied within algebraic scheme. We replace the positive linear functional of the standard Poincaré invariant quantization by a singular one. This singular positive linear functional is constructed as mimicking the singular limit of the complex structure of the Poincaré invariant Fock quantization. The resulting symmetry group of such polymer quantization is the subgroup SDiff(ℝ4) which is a subgroup of Diff(ℝ4) formed by spatial volume preserving diffeomorphisms. In consequence, this yields an entirely different irreducible representation of the canonical commutation relations, nonunitary equivalent to the standard Fock representation. We also compared the Poincaré invariant Fock vacuum with the polymer Fourier vacuum.

  17. Graphical Design Software for Dynamic Quantizers in Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Ryosuke; Azuma, Shun-Ichi; Minami, Yuki; Sugie, Toshiharu

    This paper presents a software tool, entitled ODQLab, to design dynamic quantizers for discrete-valued input control. ODQLab is a Matlab-based graphical tool, which enables us to obtain and verify dynamic quantizers without the knowledge of any sophisticated design theory. In this paper, we introduce the software tool with the underlying theory. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by design examples and experimental evaluations.

  18. Poincare invariant algebra from instant to light-front quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Mitchell, Chad

    2001-10-15

    We present the Poincare algebra interpolating between instant and light-front time quantizations. The angular momentum operators satisfying SU(2) algebra are constructed in an arbitrary interpolation angle and shown to be identical to the ordinary angular momentum and Leutwyler-Stern angular momentum in the instant and light-front quantization limits, respectively. The exchange of the dynamical role between the transverse angular mometum and the boost operators is manifest in our newly constructed algebra.

  19. Theoretical Development and Application of Discrete Time Quantized Data Controllers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    No. 13132 Theoretical Development and Application of Discrete Time Quantized Data Controllers ( Phase I) Contract Number DAAE07-84-C-R055 January 1986...Quantized Data Controllers ( Phase I) r. N . A R P. L. McIntosh ,ina TY)’E OF REPORT 13b. TIMFrnVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 115. PAGE...method, usually reserved for converting existing continuous controllers to digital controllers , the designer tries to emulate a continuous controller by

  20. Error-resilient pyramid vector quantization for image compression.

    PubMed

    Hung, A C; Tsern, E K; Meng, T H

    1998-01-01

    Pyramid vector quantization (PVQ) uses the lattice points of a pyramidal shape in multidimensional space as the quantizer codebook. It is a fixed-rate quantization technique that can be used for the compression of Laplacian-like sources arising from transform and subband image coding, where its performance approaches the optimal entropy-coded scalar quantizer without the necessity of variable length codes. In this paper, we investigate the use of PVQ for compressed image transmission over noisy channels, where the fixed-rate quantization reduces the susceptibility to bit-error corruption. We propose a new method of deriving the indices of the lattice points of the multidimensional pyramid and describe how these techniques can also improve the channel noise immunity of general symmetric lattice quantizers. Our new indexing scheme improves channel robustness by up to 3 dB over previous indexing methods, and can be performed with similar computational cost. The final fixed-rate coding algorithm surpasses the performance of typical Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) implementations and exhibits much greater error resilience.

  1. Visual optimization of DCT quantization matrices for individual images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1993-01-01

    Many image compression standards (JPEG, MPEG, H.261) are based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). However, these standards do not specify the actual DCT quantization matrix. We have previously provided mathematical formulae to compute a perceptually lossless quantization matrix. Here I show how to compute a matrix that is optimized for a particular image. The method treats each DCT coefficient as an approximation to the local response of a visual 'channel'. For a given quantization matrix, the DCT quantization errors are adjusted by contrast sensitivity, light adaptation, and contrast masking, and are pooled non-linearly over the blocks of the image. This yields an 8x8 'perceptual error matrix'. A second non-linear pooling over the perceptual error matrix yields total perceptual error. With this model we may estimate the quantization matrix for a particular image that yields minimum bit rate for a given total perceptual error, or minimum perceptual error for a given bit rate. Custom matrices for a number of images show clear improvement over image-independent matrices. Custom matrices are compatible with the JPEG standard, which requires transmission of the quantization matrix.

  2. Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Ohberg, Patrik

    2015-05-01

    We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new type of current non-linearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate on the physical conditions that make the nucleation of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non rotating solution. Two different physical interpretations can be given to this new non linearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. We analyze the physical conditions that make a single vortex state energetically favourable. In the Thomas-Fermi limit, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating depends on the density of the cloud. The authors acknowledge support from CM-DTC and EPSRC.

  3. Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser-matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle zeroth-order vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new exotic type of current nonlinearity in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate the rotational properties of this system in the Thomas-Fermi limit, focusing in particular on the physical conditions that make the existence of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non-rotating solution. We point out that two different physical interpretations can be given to this new nonlinearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. Looking at the problem from both of these viewpoints, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating states depends on the density of the cloud.

  4. Dynamics of Quantized Vortices Before Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryushchenko, V. A.; Kondaurova, L. P.; Nemirovskii, S. K.

    2016-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to investigate numerically the dynamics of quantized vortex loops, just before the reconnection at finite temperature, when mutual friction essentially changes the evolution of lines. Modeling is performed on the base of vortex filament method using the full Biot-Savart equation. It was discovered that the initial position of vortices and the temperature strongly affect the dependence on time of the minimum distance δ (t) between tips of two vortex loops. In particular, in some cases, the shrinking and collapse of vortex loops due to mutual friction occur earlier than the reconnection, thereby canceling the latter. However, this relationship takes a universal square-root form δ ( t) =√{( κ /2π ) ( t_{*}-t) } at distances smaller than the distances, satisfying the Schwarz reconnection criterion, when the nonlocal contribution to the Biot-Savart equation becomes about equal to the local contribution. In the "universal" stage, the nearest parts of vortices form a pyramid-like structure with angles which neither depend on the initial configuration nor on temperature.

  5. Wheeler-DeWitt quantization and singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falciano, F. T.; Pinto-Neto, N.; Struyve, W.

    2015-02-01

    We consider a Bohmian approach to the Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model and investigate the question of whether or not there are singularities, in the sense that the Universe reaches zero volume. We find that for generic wave functions (i.e., nonclassical wave functions), there is a nonzero probability for a trajectory to be nonsingular. This should be contrasted to the consistent histories approach for which it was recently shown by Craig and Singh that there is always a singularity. This result illustrates that the question of singularities depends much on which version of quantum theory one adopts. This was already pointed out by Pinto-Neto et al., albeit with a different Bohmian approach. Our current Bohmian approach agrees with the consistent histories approach by Craig and Singh for single-time histories, unlike the one studied earlier by Pinto-Neto et al. Although the trajectories are usually different in the two Bohmian approaches, their qualitative behavior is the same for generic wave functions.

  6. Observation of quantized conductance in neutral matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husmann, Dominik; Krinner, Sebastian; Lebrat, Martin; Grenier, Charles; Nakajima, Shuta; Häusler, Samuel; Brantut, Jean-Philippe; Esslinger, Tilman

    2015-05-01

    In transport experiments, the quantum nature of matter becomes directly evident when changes in conductance occur only in discrete steps, with a size determined solely by Planck's constant h. Here we report the observation of quantized conductance in the transport of neutral atoms driven by a chemical potential bias. We use high-resolution lithography to shape light potentials that realize either a quantum point contact or a quantum wire for atoms. These constrictions are imprinted on a quasi-two-dimensional ballistic channel connecting the reservoirs. By varying either a gate potential or the transverse confinement of the constrictions, we observe distinct plateaux in the atom conductance. The conductance in the first plateau is found to be equal to the universal conductance quantum, 1/h. We use Landauer's formula to model our results and find good agreement for low gate potentials, with all parameters determined a priori. We eventually explore the behavior of a strongly interacting Fermi gas in the same configuration, and the consequences of the emergence of superfluidity.

  7. Field quantization for open optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viviescas, Carlos; Hackenbroich, Gregor

    2003-01-01

    We study the quantum properties of the electromagnetic field in optical cavities coupled to an arbitrary number of escape channels. We consider both inhomogeneous dielectric resonators with a scalar dielectric constant ɛ(r) and cavities defined by mirrors of arbitrary shape. Using the Feshbach projector technique we quantize the field in terms of a set of resonator and bath modes. We rigorously show that the field Hamiltonian reduces to the system-and-bath Hamiltonian of quantum optics. The field dynamics is investigated using the input-output theory of Gardiner and Collet. In the case of strong coupling to the external radiation field we find spectrally overlapping resonator modes. The mode dynamics is coupled due to the damping and noise inflicted by the external field. For wave chaotic resonators the mode dynamics is determined by a non-Hermitean random matrix. Upon including an amplifying medium, our dynamics of open-resonator modes may serve as a starting point for a quantum theory of random lasing.

  8. Light-cone quantization and hadron structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. In this talk, the author will discuss light-cone quantization and the light-cone Fock expansion as a tractable and consistent representation of relativistic many-body systems and bound states in quantum field theory. The Fock state representation in QCD includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including fax off-shell configurations such as intrinsic strangeness and charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer. In other applications, such as the calculation of the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of light nuclei, the QCD relativistic Fock state description provides new insights which go well beyond the usual assumptions of traditional hadronic and nuclear physics.

  9. Semiclassical quantization of highly excited scar states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergini, Eduardo G.

    2017-04-01

    The semiclassical quantization of Hamiltonian systems with classically chaotic dynamics is restricted to low excited states, close to the ground state, because the number of required periodic orbits grows exponentially with energy. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate that it is possible to find eigenenergies of highly excited states scarred by a short periodic orbit. Specifically, by using 18146 homoclinic orbits (HO)s of the shortest periodic orbit of the hyperbola billiard, we find eigenenergies of the strongest scars over a range which includes 630 even eigenfunctions. The analysis of data reveals that the used semiclassical formula presents two regimes. First, when all HOs with excursion time smaller than the Heisenberg time t H are included, the error is around 3.3% of the mean level spacing. Second, in the energy region defined by \\tilde{t}/ tH > 0.13 , where \\tilde{t} is the maximum excursion time included in the calculation, the error is around 15% of the mean level spacing.

  10. Topics in the semiclassical quantization of gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ratra, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Three problems are discussed in which general coordinate covariance and quantum mechanics play fundamental roles. A functional approach to scalar quantum field theory in n + 1 dimensional de Sitter spacetime is formulated, and the functional Schroedinger equation is solved for the conformally and minimally coupled scalar fields in both the k = 0 and k = 1 gauges. It is shown that there is a natural initial condition, the requirement that the field energy remain finite as the scale factor a becomes small, which specifies a unique, time-dependent, de Sitter vacuum state. It is argued that spontaneously broken continuous symmetries are always dynamically restored in de Sitter spacetime. Second, the author discusses the canonical quantization of gravitation in the vielbein formalism and derives the Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum by perturbatively solving the Wheeler-DeWitt equations for an inflating universe coupled to a scalar field in 2 + 1 and 3 + 1 dimensions. Finally, he presents a gauge invariant action that describes the propagation of the superstring in curves superspace in the presence of background super Yang-Mills fields. It is shown that this action possesses the local fermionic world sheet symmetry needed for a consistent coupling of the string to background fields. Some other aspects of the superspace nonlinear sigma-model described by this action are also discussed.

  11. Causal Poisson bracket via deformation quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra-Montiel, Jasel; Molgado, Alberto; Palacios-García, César D.

    2016-06-01

    Starting with the well-defined product of quantum fields at two spacetime points, we explore an associated Poisson structure for classical field theories within the deformation quantization formalism. We realize that the induced star-product is naturally related to the standard Moyal product through an appropriate causal Green’s functions connecting points in the space of classical solutions to the equations of motion. Our results resemble the Peierls-DeWitt bracket that has been analyzed in the multisymplectic context. Once our star-product is defined, we are able to apply the Wigner-Weyl map in order to introduce a generalized version of Wick’s theorem. Finally, we include some examples to explicitly test our method: the real scalar field, the bosonic string and a physically motivated nonlinear particle model. For the field theoretic models, we have encountered causal generalizations of the creation/annihilation relations, and also a causal generalization of the Virasoro algebra for the bosonic string. For the nonlinear particle case, we use the approximate solution in terms of the Green’s function, in order to construct a well-behaved causal bracket.

  12. Dynamic Quantizer Design for MIMO Systems Based on Communication Rate Constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Hiroshi; Sawada, Kenji; Matsunaga, Nobutomo; Minami, Yuki

    This paper proposes a design method of dynamic quantizers for MIMO networked control systems. It is well known that feedback type dynamic quantizers are effective for quantization of the data series in the meaning of noise shaping. The dynamic quantizers include a set of a dynamic filter and a static quantizer. When it is required to use the quantizer under the network communication, the data size of signal should be minimized appropriately by the quantizers. The authors have proposed a design method of the dynamic quantizers for SISO systems based on the communication rate constraint. In this paper, the design method is extended to MIMO systems. By this extension, we can handle the communication rate constraint for a kind of concentrated systems. In the setting of the quantizer for MIMO system, bit assignment is important matter for appropriate design of information flow. The effectiveness of proposed design method is shown by numerical examples.

  13. Hierarchically clustered adaptive quantization CMAC and its learning convergence.

    PubMed

    Teddy, S D; Lai, E M K; Quek, C

    2007-11-01

    The cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) neural network (NN) is a well-established computational model of the human cerebellum. Nevertheless, there are two major drawbacks associated with the uniform quantization scheme of the CMAC network. They are the following: (1) a constant output resolution associated with the entire input space and (2) the generalization-accuracy dilemma. Moreover, the size of the CMAC network is an exponential function of the number of inputs. Depending on the characteristics of the training data, only a small percentage of the entire set of CMAC memory cells is utilized. Therefore, the efficient utilization of the CMAC memory is a crucial issue. One approach is to quantize the input space nonuniformly. For existing nonuniformly quantized CMAC systems, there is a tradeoff between memory efficiency and computational complexity. Inspired by the underlying organizational mechanism of the human brain, this paper presents a novel CMAC architecture named hierarchically clustered adaptive quantization CMAC (HCAQ-CMAC). HCAQ-CMAC employs hierarchical clustering for the nonuniform quantization of the input space to identify significant input segments and subsequently allocating more memory cells to these regions. The stability of the HCAQ-CMAC network is theoretically guaranteed by the proof of its learning convergence. The performance of the proposed network is subsequently benchmarked against the original CMAC network, as well as two other existing CMAC variants on two real-life applications, namely, automated control of car maneuver and modeling of the human blood glucose dynamics. The experimental results have demonstrated that the HCAQ-CMAC network offers an efficient memory allocation scheme and improves the generalization and accuracy of the network output to achieve better or comparable performances with smaller memory usages. Index Terms-Cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC), hierarchical clustering, hierarchically

  14. Remote Sensing and Quantization of Analog Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    This method enables sensing and quantization of analog strain gauges. By manufacturing a piezoelectric sensor stack in parallel (physical) with a piezoelectric actuator stack, the capacitance of the sensor stack varies in exact proportion to the exertion applied by the actuator stack. This, in turn, varies the output frequency of the local sensor oscillator. The output, F(sub out), is fed to a phase detector, which is driven by a stable reference, F(sub ref). The output of the phase detector is a square waveform, D(sub out), whose duty cycle, t(sub W), varies in exact proportion according to whether F(sub out) is higher or lower than F(sub ref). In this design, should F(sub out) be precisely equal to F(sub ref), then the waveform has an exact 50/50 duty cycle. The waveform, D(sub out), is of generally very low frequency suitable for safe transmission over long distances without corruption. The active portion of the waveform, t(sub W), gates a remotely located counter, which is driven by a stable oscillator (source) of such frequency as to give sufficient digitization of t(sub W) to the resolution required by the application. The advantage to this scheme is that it negates the most-common, present method of sending either very low level signals (viz. direct output from the sensors) across great distances (anything over one-half meter) or the need to transmit widely varying higher frequencies over significant distances thereby eliminating interference [both in terms of beat frequency generation and in-situ EMI (electromagnetic interference)] caused by ineffective shielding. It also results in a significant reduction in shielding mass.

  15. Quantized Concentration Gradient in Picoliter Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jong Wook

    2010-10-01

    Generation of concentration gradient is of paramount importance in the success of reactions for cell biology, molecular biology, biochemistry, drug-discovery, chemotaxis, cell culture, biomaterials synthesis, and tissue engineering. In conventional method of conducting reactions, the concentration gradients is achieved by using pipettes, test tubes, 96-well assay plates, and robotic systems. Conventional methods require milliliter or microliter volumes of samples for typical experiments with multiple and sequential reactions. It is a challenge to carry out experiments with precious samples that have strict limitations with the amount of samples or the price to pay for the amount. In order to overcome this challenge faced by the conventional methods, fluidic devices with micrometer scale channels have been developed. These devices, however, cause restrictions on changing the concentration due to the fixed gradient set based on fixed fluidic channels.ootnotetextJambovane, S.; Duin, E. C.; Kim, S-K.; Hong, J. W., Determination of Kinetic Parameters, KM and kcat, with a Single Experiment on a Chip. textitAnalytical Chemistry, 81, (9), 3239-3245, 2009.^,ootnotetextJambovane, S.; Hong, J. W., Lorenz-like Chatotic System on a Chip In The 14th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS), The Netherlands, October, 2010. Here, we present a unique microfluidic system that can generate quantized concentration gradient by using series of droplets generated by a mechanical valve based injection method.ootnotetextJambovane, S.; Rho, H.; Hong, J., Fluidic Circuit based Predictive Model of Microdroplet Generation through Mechanical Cutting. In ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA, October, 2009.^,ootnotetextLee, W.; Jambovane, S.; Kim, D.; Hong, J., Predictive Model on Micro Droplet Generation through Mechanical Cutting. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, 7, (3), 431-438, 2009

  16. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Langnau, A.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  17. Perturbation theory in light-cone quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Langnau, A.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough investigation of light-cone properties which are characteristic for higher dimensions is very important. The easiest way of addressing these issues is by analyzing the perturbative structure of light-cone field theories first. Perturbative studies cannot be substituted for an analysis of problems related to a nonperturbative approach. However, in order to lay down groundwork for upcoming nonperturbative studies, it is indispensable to validate the renormalization methods at the perturbative level, i.e., to gain control over the perturbative treatment first. A clear understanding of divergences in perturbation theory, as well as their numerical treatment, is a necessary first step towards formulating such a program. The first objective of this dissertation is to clarify this issue, at least in second and fourth-order in perturbation theory. The work in this dissertation can provide guidance for the choice of counterterms in Discrete Light-Cone Quantization or the Tamm-Dancoff approach. A second objective of this work is the study of light-cone perturbation theory as a competitive tool for conducting perturbative Feynman diagram calculations. Feynman perturbation theory has become the most practical tool for computing cross sections in high energy physics and other physical properties of field theory. Although this standard covariant method has been applied to a great range of problems, computations beyond one-loop corrections are very difficult. Because of the algebraic complexity of the Feynman calculations in higher-order perturbation theory, it is desirable to automatize Feynman diagram calculations so that algebraic manipulation programs can carry out almost the entire calculation. This thesis presents a step in this direction. The technique we are elaborating on here is known as light-cone perturbation theory.

  18. G 2-structures and quantization of non-geometric M-theory backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, Vladislav G.; Szabo, Richard J.

    2017-02-01

    We describe the quantization of a four-dimensional locally non-geometric M-theory background dual to a twisted three-torus by deriving a phase space star product for deformation quantization of quasi-Poisson brackets related to the nonassociative algebra of octonions. The construction is based on a choice of G 2-structure which defines a nonassociative deformation of the addition law on the seven-dimensional vector space of Fourier momenta. We demonstrate explicitly that this star product reduces to that of the three-dimensional parabolic constant R-flux model in the contraction of M-theory to string theory, and use it to derive quantum phase space uncertainty relations as well as triproducts for the nonassociative geometry of the four-dimensional configuration space. By extending the G 2-structure to a Spin(7)-structure, we propose a 3-algebra structure on the full eight-dimensional M2-brane phase space which reduces to the quasi-Poisson algebra after imposing a particular gauge constraint, and whose deformation quantisation simultaneously encompasses both the phase space star products and the configuration space triproducts. We demonstrate how these structures naturally fit in with previous occurences of 3-algebras in M-theory.

  19. Some effects of quantization on a noiseless phase-locked loop. [sampling phase errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    If the VCO of a phase-locked receiver is to be replaced by a digitally programmed synthesizer, the phase error signal must be sampled and quantized. Effects of quantizing after the loop filter (frequency quantization) or before (phase error quantization) are investigated. Constant Doppler or Doppler rate noiseless inputs are assumed. The main result gives the phase jitter due to frequency quantization for a Doppler-rate input. By itself, however, frequency quantization is impractical because it makes the loop dynamic range too small.

  20. Probabilistic distance-based quantizer design for distributed estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon Hak

    2016-12-01

    We consider an iterative design of independently operating local quantizers at nodes that should cooperate without interaction to achieve application objectives for distributed estimation systems. We suggest as a new cost function a probabilistic distance between the posterior distribution and its quantized one expressed as the Kullback Leibler (KL) divergence. We first present the analysis that minimizing the KL divergence in the cyclic generalized Lloyd design framework is equivalent to maximizing the logarithmic quantized posterior distribution on the average which can be further computationally reduced in our iterative design. We propose an iterative design algorithm that seeks to maximize the simplified version of the posterior quantized distribution and discuss that our algorithm converges to a global optimum due to the convexity of the cost function and generates the most informative quantized measurements. We also provide an independent encoding technique that enables minimization of the cost function and can be efficiently simplified for a practical use of power-constrained nodes. We finally demonstrate through extensive experiments an obvious advantage of improved estimation performance as compared with the typical designs and the novel design techniques previously published.

  1. Deformation Quantization and the Baum-Connes Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, N. P.

    Alternative titles of this paper would have been `Index theory without index' or `The Baum-Connes conjecture without Baum.' In 1989, Rieffel introduced an analytic version of deformation quantization based on the use of continuous fields of C*-algebras. We review how a wide variety of examples of such quantizations can be understood on the basis of a single lemma involving amenable groupoids. These include Weyl-Moyal quantization on manifolds, C*-algebras of Lie groups and Lie groupoids, and the E-theoretic version of the Baum-Connes conjecture for smooth groupoids as described by Connes in his book Noncommutative Geometry. Concerning the latter, we use a different semidirect product construction from Connes. This enables one to formulate the Baum-Connes conjecture in terms of twisted Weyl-Moyal quantization. The underlying mechanical system is a noncommutative desingularization of a stratified Poisson space, and the Baum-Connes conjecture actually suggests a strategy for quantizing such singular spaces.

  2. Selection of small color palette for color image quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Wing K.; Wong, S. K. M.; Yang, Xuedong; Wan, Shijie J.

    1992-05-01

    Two issues are involved in color image quantization: color palette selection and color mapping. A common practice for color palette selection is to minimize the color distortion for each pixel (the median-cut, the variance-based and the k-means algorithms). After the color palette has been chosen, a quantized image may be generated by mapping the original color of each pixel onto its nearest color in the color palette. Such an approach can usually produce quantized images of high quality with 128 or more colors. For 32 - 64 colors, the quality of the quantized images is often acceptable with the aid of dithering techniques in the color mapping process. For 8 - 16 color, however, the above statistical method for color selection becomes no longer suitable because of the great reduction of color gamut. In order to preserve the color gamut of the original image, one may want to select the colors in such a way that the convex hull formed by these colors in the RGB color space encloses most colors of the original image. Quantized images generated in such a geometrical way usually preserve a lot of image details, but may contain too much high frequency noises. This paper presents an effective algorithm for the selection of very small color palette by combining the strengths of the above statistical and geometrical approaches. We demonstrate that with the new method images of high quality can be produced by using only 4 to 8 colors.

  3. Direct comparison of fractional and integer quantized Hall resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, Franz J.; Götz, Martin; Pierz, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    We present precision measurements of the fractional quantized Hall effect, where the quantized resistance {{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]} in the fractional quantum Hall state at filling factor 1/3 was compared with a quantized resistance {{R}[2]} , represented by an integer quantum Hall state at filling factor 2. A cryogenic current comparator bridge capable of currents down to the nanoampere range was used to directly compare two resistance values of two GaAs-based devices located in two cryostats. A value of 1-(5.3  ±  6.3) 10-8 (95% confidence level) was obtained for the ratio ({{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]}/6{{R}[2]} ). This constitutes the most precise comparison of integer resistance quantization (in terms of h/e 2) in single-particle systems and of fractional quantization in fractionally charged quasi-particle systems. While not relevant for practical metrology, such a test of the validity of the underlying physics is of significance in the context of the upcoming revision of the SI.

  4. Canonical quantization of theories with higher derivatives. Quantization of R/sup 2/ gravitation

    SciTech Connect

    Bukhbinder, I.L.; Lyakhovich, S.L.

    1988-02-01

    Ostrogradskii's method for reducing theories with higher derivatives to Hamiltonian form is generalized to make it suitable for application to gauge field theories. A Hamiltonian formalism is constructed for the theory with the Lagrangian L-g(anti ..lambda.. - (1/x/sup 2/)R+aR/sub ..mu..v/R/sup ..mu..v/+bR/sup 2/). The structure of the constraints of this theory is investigated, and it is shown that, depending on the relationship between the parameters anti ..lambda.., x, a, b, five different variants of the theory are possible. In each of them, canonical quantization is performed and a local measure in the functional integral is found. The general form of local measure for an arbitrary boson theory interacting with gravity is established.

  5. Anomalous currents on closed surfaces: extended proximity, partial quantization and qubits.

    PubMed

    Selem, Alexander

    2013-01-30

    Motivated by the surfaces of topological insulators, the Dirac anomaly's discontinuous dependence on the sign of the mass, m/|m|, is investigated on closed topologies when the mass terms are weak or only partially cover the surface. It is found that, unlike the massive Dirac theory on an infinite plane, there is a smoothly decreasing current when the mass region is not infinite; also, a massive finite region fails to exhibit a Hall current edge-exerting an extended proximity effect, which can, however, be uniformly small-and oppositely orientated Hall phases are fully quantized while accompanied by diffuse chiral modes. Examples are computed using Dirac energy eigenstates on a flat torus (genus one topology) and a closed cap cylinder (genus zero topology) for various mass-term geometries. Finally, from the resulting properties of the surface spectra, a potential application for a flux-charge qubit is presented.

  6. Quantization, coherent states and geometric phases of a generalized nonstationary mesoscopic RLC circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa, Inácio A.; Melo, Jilvan L.; Salatiel, Sadoque

    2014-11-01

    We present an alternative quantum treatment for a generalized mesoscopic RLC circuit with time-dependent resistance, inductance and capacitance. Taking advantage of the Lewis and Riesenfeld quantum invariant method and using quadratic invariants we obtain exact nonstationary Schrödinger states for this electromagnetic oscillation system. Afterwards, we construct coherent and squeezed states for the quantized RLC circuit and employ them to investigate some of the system's quantum properties, such as quantum fluctuations of the charge and the magnetic flux and the corresponding uncertainty product. In addition, we derive the geometric, dynamical and Berry phases for this nonstationary mesoscopic circuit. Finally we evaluate the dynamical and Berry phases for three special circuits. Surprisingly, we find identical expressions for the dynamical phase and the same formulae for the Berry's phase.

  7. Landau quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene and its multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Bai, Ke-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Yu; He, Lin

    2017-08-01

    When electrons are confined in a two-dimensional (2D) system, typical quantum-mechanical phenomena such as Landau quantization can be detected. Graphene systems, including the single atomic layer and few-layer stacked crystals, are ideal 2D materials for studying a variety of quantum-mechanical problems. In this article, we review the experimental progress in the unusual Landau quantized behaviors of Dirac fermions in monolayer and multilayer graphene by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Through STS measurement of the strong magnetic fields, distinct Landau-level spectra and rich level-splitting phenomena are observed in different graphene layers. These unique properties provide an effective method for identifying the number of layers, as well as the stacking orders, and investigating the fundamentally physical phenomena of graphene. Moreover, in the presence of a strain and charged defects, the Landau quantization of graphene can be significantly modified, leading to unusual spectroscopic and electronic properties.

  8. Inhomogeneous loop quantum cosmology: Hybrid quantization of the Gowdy model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garay, L. J.; Martín-Benito, M.; Mena Marugán, G. A.

    2010-08-01

    The Gowdy cosmologies provide a suitable arena to further develop loop quantum cosmology, allowing the presence of inhomogeneities. For the particular case of Gowdy spacetimes with the spatial topology of a three-torus and a content of linearly polarized gravitational waves, we detail a hybrid quantum theory in which we combine a loop quantization of the degrees of freedom that parametrize the subfamily of homogeneous solutions, which represent Bianchi I spacetimes, and a Fock quantization of the inhomogeneities. Two different theories are constructed and compared, corresponding to two different schemes for the quantization of the Bianchi I model within the improved dynamics formalism of loop quantum cosmology. One of these schemes has been recently put forward by Ashtekar and Wilson-Ewing. We address several issues, including the quantum resolution of the cosmological singularity, the structure of the superselection sectors in the quantum system, or the construction of the Hilbert space of physical states.

  9. Application of heterogeneous pulse coupled neural network in image quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Ma, Yide; Li, Shouliang; Zhan, Kun

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of the different strengths of synaptic connections between actual neurons, this paper proposes a heterogeneous pulse coupled neural network (HPCNN) algorithm to perform quantization on images. HPCNNs are developed from traditional pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) models, which have different parameters corresponding to different image regions. This allows pixels of different gray levels to be classified broadly into two categories: background regional and object regional. Moreover, an HPCNN also satisfies human visual characteristics. The parameters of the HPCNN model are calculated automatically according to these categories, and quantized results will be optimal and more suitable for humans to observe. At the same time, the experimental results of natural images from the standard image library show the validity and efficiency of our proposed quantization method.

  10. Effects of quantization in phase-shifting digital holography.

    PubMed

    Mills, Godfrey A; Yamaguchi, Ichirou

    2005-03-01

    We discuss quantization effects of hologram recording on the quality of reconstructed images in phase-shifting digital holography. We vary bit depths of phase-shifted holograms in both numerical simulation and experiments and then derived the complex amplitude, which is subjected to Fresnel transformation for the image reconstruction. The influence of bit-depth limitation in quantization has been demonstrated in a numerical simulation for spot-array patterns with linearly varying intensities and a continuous intensity object. The objects are provided with uniform and random phase modulation. In experiments, digital holograms are originally recorded at 8 bits and the bit depths are changed to deliver holograms at bit depths of 1 to 8 bits for the image reconstruction. The quality of the reconstructed images has been evaluated for the different quantization levels.

  11. Quantization of gauge fields, graph polynomials and graph homology

    SciTech Connect

    Kreimer, Dirk; Sars, Matthias; Suijlekom, Walter D. van

    2013-09-15

    We review quantization of gauge fields using algebraic properties of 3-regular graphs. We derive the Feynman integrand at n loops for a non-abelian gauge theory quantized in a covariant gauge from scalar integrands for connected 3-regular graphs, obtained from the two Symanzik polynomials. The transition to the full gauge theory amplitude is obtained by the use of a third, new, graph polynomial, the corolla polynomial. This implies effectively a covariant quantization without ghosts, where all the relevant signs of the ghost sector are incorporated in a double complex furnished by the corolla polynomial–we call it cycle homology–and by graph homology. -- Highlights: •We derive gauge theory Feynman from scalar field theory with 3-valent vertices. •We clarify the role of graph homology and cycle homology. •We use parametric renormalization and the new corolla polynomial.

  12. Faddeev-Jackiw quantization and the path integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toms, David J.

    2015-11-01

    The method for quantization of constrained theories that was suggested originally by Faddeev and Jackiw along with later modifications is discussed. The particular emphasis of this paper is to show how it is simple to implement their method within the path integral framework using the natural geometric structure that their method utilizes. The procedure is exemplified with the analysis of two models: a quantum mechanical particle constrained to a surface (of which the hypersphere is a special case), and a quantized Schrödinger field interacting with a quantized vector field for both the massive and the massless cases. The results are shown to agree with what is found using the Dirac method for constrained path integrals. We comment on a previous path integral analysis of the Faddeev-Jackiw method. We also discuss why a previous criticism of the Faddeev-Jackiw method is unfounded and why suggested modifications of their method are unnecessary.

  13. Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Ming-Huwi

    The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

  14. Locally adaptive vector quantization: Data compression with feature preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K. M.; Sayano, M.

    1992-01-01

    A study of a locally adaptive vector quantization (LAVQ) algorithm for data compression is presented. This algorithm provides high-speed one-pass compression and is fully adaptable to any data source and does not require a priori knowledge of the source statistics. Therefore, LAVQ is a universal data compression algorithm. The basic algorithm and several modifications to improve performance are discussed. These modifications are nonlinear quantization, coarse quantization of the codebook, and lossless compression of the output. Performance of LAVQ on various images using irreversible (lossy) coding is comparable to that of the Linde-Buzo-Gray algorithm, but LAVQ has a much higher speed; thus this algorithm has potential for real-time video compression. Unlike most other image compression algorithms, LAVQ preserves fine detail in images. LAVQ's performance as a lossless data compression algorithm is comparable to that of Lempel-Ziv-based algorithms, but LAVQ uses far less memory during the coding process.

  15. A Second Quantized Approach to the Rabi Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldiotti, M. C.; Molina, C.

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, the Rabi Problem, involving the response of a spin 1/2 particle subjected to a magnetic field, is considered in a second quantized approach. In this concrete physical scenario, we show that the second quantization procedure can be applied directly in a non-covariant theory. The proposed development explicits not only the relation between the full quantum treatment of the problem and the semiclassical Rabi model, but also the connection of these approaches with the Jaynes-Cummings model. The consistency of the method is checked in the semiclassical limit. The treatment is then extended to the matter component of the Rabi problem so that the Schrödinger equation is directly quantized. Considering the spinorial field, the appearance of a negative energy sector implies a specific identification between Schrödinger's and Maxwell's theories. The generalized theory is consistent, strictly quantum and non-relativistic.

  16. Performance of customized DCT quantization tables on scientific data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakar, Viresh; Livny, Miron

    1994-01-01

    We show that it is desirable to use data-specific or customized quantization tables for scaling the spatial frequency coefficients obtained using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). DCT is widely used for image and video compression (MP89, PM93) but applications typically use default quantization matrices. Using actual scientific data gathered from divers sources such as spacecrafts and electron-microscopes, we show that the default compression/quality tradeoffs can be significantly improved upon by using customized tables. We also show that significant improvements are possible for the standard test images Lena and Baboon. This work is part of an effort to develop a practical scheme for optimizing quantization matrices for any given image or video stream, under any given quality or compression constraints.

  17. Topological states and quantized current in helical organic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2017-04-01

    We report a theoretical study of electron transport along helical organic molecules subject to an external electric field which is perpendicular to molecular helix axis. Our results reveal that topological states can appear in single-helical molecules as well as double-stranded DNA under the perpendicular electric field. In particular, a topological charge pumping can be realized by rotating the electric field in the transverse plane, where during each pumping cycle, an integer number of electrons can transport across the helical molecules at zero bias voltage, with pumped current being quantized. The quantized current constitutes multiple plateaus by scanning the Fermi energy as well as the bias voltage, and holds for various model parameters, since the edge states are topologically protected. These results could pave the way to explore topological states and quantized current in the biological systems and the helical molecules, and help in designing stable molecular devices.

  18. Optimal sampling and quantization of synthetic aperture radar signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Some theoretical and experimental results on optimal sampling and quantization of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) signals are presented. It includes a description of a derived theoretical relationship between the pixel signal to noise ratio of processed SAR images and the number of quantization bits per sampled signal, assuming homogeneous extended targets. With this relationship known, a solution may be realized for the problem of optimal allocation of a fixed data bit-volume (for specified surface area and resolution criterion) between the number of samples and the number of bits per sample. The results indicate that to achieve the best possible image quality for a fixed bit rate and a given resolution criterion, one should quantize individual samples coarsely and thereby maximize the number of multiple looks. The theoretical results are then compared with simulation results obtained by processing aircraft SAR data.

  19. Topological transconductance quantization in a four-terminal Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Erik; Riwar, Roman-Pascal; Houzet, Manuel; Meyer, Julia S.; Nazarov, Yuli V.

    2017-02-01

    Recently we predicted that the Andreev bound-state spectrum of four-terminal Josephson junctions may possess topologically protected zero-energy Weyl singularities, which manifest themselves in a quantized transconductance in units of 4 e2/h when two of the terminals are voltage biased [R.-P. Riwar, M. Houzet, J. S. Meyer, and Y. V. Nazarov, Nature Commun. 7, 11167 (2016), 10.1038/ncomms11167]. Here, using the Landauer-Büttiker scattering theory, we compute numerically the currents flowing through such a structure in order to assess the conditions for observing this effect. We show that the voltage below which the transconductance becomes quantized is determined by the interplay of nonadiabatic transitions between Andreev bound states and inelastic relaxation processes. We demonstrate that the topological quantization of the transconductance can be observed at voltages of the order of 10-2Δ /e ,Δ being the the superconducting gap in the leads.

  20. Rotational symmetry of classical orbits, arbitrary quantization of angular momentum and the role of the gauge field in two-dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Jun-Li; Liang, Jiu-Qing

    2012-04-01

    We study quantum—classical correspondence in terms of the coherent wave functions of a charged particle in two-dimensional central-scalar potentials as well as the gauge field of a magnetic flux in the sense that the probability clouds of wave functions are well localized on classical orbits. For both closed and open classical orbits, the non-integer angular-momentum quantization with the level space of angular momentum being greater or less than ħ is determined uniquely by the same rotational symmetry of classical orbits and probability clouds of coherent wave functions, which is not necessarily 2π-periodic. The gauge potential of a magnetic flux impenetrable to the particle cannot change the quantization rule but is able to shift the spectrum of canonical angular momentum by a flux-dependent value, which results in a common topological phase for all wave functions in the given model. The well-known quantum mechanical anyon model becomes a special case of the arbitrary quantization, where the classical orbits are 2π-periodic.

  1. Error-Correcting Output Codes Guided Quantization for Biometric Hashing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Erdogan, Hakan

    In this paper, we present a new biometric verification system. The proposed system employs a novel biometric hashing scheme that uses our proposed quantization method. The proposed quantization method is based on error-correcting output codes which are used for classification problems in the literature. We improve the performance of the random projection based biometric hashing scheme proposed by Ngo et al. in the literature [5]. We evaluate the performance of the novel biometric hashing scheme with two use case scenarios including the case where an attacker steals the secret key of a legitimate user. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed scheme.

  2. Potential scattering of electrons in a quantized radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergou, J.; Ehlotzky, F.

    1986-05-01

    Potential scattering of electrons in a strong laser field is reconsidered. The laser beam is described by a quantized single-mode plane-wave field with a finite number of quanta in the mode. The scattering amplitude is expanded in powers of the potential, and the first two Born terms are considered. It is shown that in the limit of an infinite number of field quanta, the Kroll-Watson approximation is recovered. Additional insight is gained into the validity of this low-frequency theorem. The approach rests on the introduction of electron-dressed quantized-field states. Relations to earlier work are indicated.

  3. Electromagnetic Field Quantization in Time-Dependent Linear Media

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, I. A.; Rosas, Alexandre

    2009-07-03

    We present a quantization scheme for the electromagnetic field in time-dependent homogeneous nondispersive conducting and nonconducting linear media without sources. Using the Coulomb gauge, we demonstrate this quantization can be mapped into a damped (attenuated) time-dependent quantum harmonic oscillator. Remarkably, we find that the time dependence of the permittivity, for epsilon>0, gives rise to an attenuation of the radiation field. Afterwards, we obtain the exact wave functions for this problem and consider an exponential time accretion of the permittivity as a particular case.

  4. Luminance-model-based DCT quantization for color image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.; Peterson, Heidi A.

    1992-01-01

    A model is developed to approximate visibility thresholds for discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient quantization error based on the peak-to-peak luminance of the error image. Experimentally measured visibility thresholds for R, G, and B DCT basis functions can be predicted by a simple luminance-based detection model. This model allows DCT coefficient quantization matrices to be designed for display conditions other than those of the experimental measurements: other display luminances, other veiling luminances, and other spatial frequencies (different pixel spacings, viewing distances, and aspect ratios).

  5. Quarter-Filled Honeycomb Lattice with a Quantized Hall Conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimshoni, Efrat; Murthy, Ganpathy; Shankar, Ramamurti; Fertig, Herbert

    2012-02-01

    We study a generic two-dimensional hopping model on a honeycomb lattice with strong spin-orbit coupling, without the requirement that the half-filled lattice be a Topological Insulator. For quarter-(or three-quarter) filling, we show that a state with a quantized Hall conductance generically arises in the presence of a Zeeman field of sufficient strength. We discuss the influence of Hubbard interactions and argue that spontaneous ferromagnetism (which breaks time-reversal) will occur, leading to a quantized anomalous Hall effect. G. Murthy, E. Shimshoni, R. Shankar, and H. A. Fertig, arxiv:1108.2010[cond-mat.mes-hall

  6. On precanonical quantization of gravity in spin connection variables

    SciTech Connect

    Kanatchikov, I. V.

    2013-02-21

    The basics of precanonical quantization and its relation to the functional Schroedinger picture in QFT are briefly outlined. The approach is then applied to quantization of Einstein's gravity in vielbein and spin connection variables and leads to a quantum dynamics described by the covariant Schroedinger equation for the transition amplitudes on the bundle of spin connection coefficients over space-time, that yields a novel quantum description of space-time geometry. A toy model of precanonical quantum cosmology based on the example of flat FLRW universe is considered.

  7. Virtual black holes in a third quantized formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkuwa, Yoshiaki; Faizal, Mir; Ezawa, Yasuo

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we will analyse virtual black holes using the third quantization formalism. As the virtual black hole model depends critically on the assumption that the quantum fluctuations dominate the geometry of spacetime at Planck scale, we will analyse the quantum fluctuations for a black hole using third quantization. We will demonstrate that these quantum fluctuations depend on the factor ordering chosen. So, we will show that only certain values of the factor ordering parameter are consistent with virtual black holes model of spacetime foam.

  8. Linking loop quantum gravity quantization ambiguities with phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahma, Suddhasattwa; Ronco, Michele; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Marcianò, Antonino

    2017-02-01

    It is well known that extracting viable testable predictions out of fundamental quantum gravity theories is notoriously difficult. In this paper, we aim to incorporate putative quantum corrections coming from loop quantum gravity in deriving modified dispersion relations for particles in a deformed Minkowski spacetime. We show how different choices of the Immirzi parameter can, in some cases, serendipitously lead to different outcomes for such modifications, depending on the quantization scheme chosen. This allows one to differentiate between these quantization choices via testable phenomenological predictions.

  9. Divergent Integrals of QED in Krein Space Quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Payandeh, F.

    2010-06-15

    The usual quantum field theory leads to an ultraviolet divergence in the vacuum energies and an infrared divergence in the two-point functions. It has been shown that the presence of unphysical negative-frequency states (Krein space quantization) plays the role of an automatic renormalization tool for the theory of quantized fields. In the standard QED, the divergent quantities are found in the self-energy, vacuum polarization, and vertex graphs. It seems as if evaluating divergent integrals of QED in Krein space leads to convergent values.

  10. Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, Michael; Nayak, Chetan; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.

  11. Quantization selection in the high-throughput H.264/AVC encoder based on the RD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastuszak, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In the hardware video encoder, the quantization is responsible for quality losses. On the other hand, it allows the reduction of bit rates to the target one. If the mode selection is based on the rate-distortion criterion, the quantization can also be adjusted to obtain better compression efficiency. Particularly, the use of Lagrangian function with a given multiplier enables the encoder to select the most suitable quantization step determined by the quantization parameter QP. Moreover, the quantization offset added before discarding the fraction value after quantization can be adjusted. In order to select the best quantization parameter and offset in real time, the HD/SD encoder should be implemented in the hardware. In particular, the hardware architecture should embed the transformation and quantization modules able to process the same residuals many times. In this work, such an architecture is used. Experimental results show what improvements in terms of compression efficiency are achievable for Intra coding.

  12. General N=1 supersymmetric flux vacua of massive type IIA string theory.

    PubMed

    Behrndt, Klaus; Cvetic, Mirjam

    2005-07-08

    We derive conditions for the existence of four-dimensional N=1 supersymmetric flux vacua of massive type IIA string theory with general supergravity fluxes turned on. For an SU(3) singlet Killing spinor, we show that such flux vacua exist when the internal geometry is nearly Kähler. The geometry is not warped, all the allowed fluxes are proportional to the mass parameter, and the dilaton is fixed by a ratio of (quantized) fluxes. The four-dimensional cosmological constant, while negative, becomes small in the vacuum with the weak string coupling.

  13. A quantum-drive-time (QDT) quantization of the Taub cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.; Kheyfets, A.

    1994-10-01

    We present here an application of a new quantization scheme. We quantize the Taub cosmology by quantizing only the anisotropy parameter {beta} and imposing the super-Hamiltonian constraint as an expectation-value equation to recover the relationship between the scale factor {Omega} and time t. This approach appears to avoid the problem of time.

  14. Consistent quantization of massive chiral electrodynamics in four dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, A. ); Bassetto, A.; Soldati, R.

    1989-10-09

    We discuss the quantization of a four-dimensional model in which a massive Abelian vector field interacts with chiral massless fermions. We show that, by introducing extra scalar fields, a renormalizable unitary {ital S} matrix can be obtained in a suitably defined Hilbert space of physical states.

  15. Equivalent Electrical Circuit Representations of AC Quantized Hall Resistance Standards

    PubMed Central

    Cage, M. E.; Jeffery, A.; Matthews, J.

    1999-01-01

    We use equivalent electrical circuits to analyze the effects of large parasitic impedances existing in all sample probes on four-terminal-pair measurements of the ac quantized Hall resistance RH. The circuit components include the externally measurable parasitic capacitances, inductances, lead resistances, and leakage resistances of ac quantized Hall resistance standards, as well as components that represent the electrical characteristics of the quantum Hall effect device (QHE). Two kinds of electrical circuit connections to the QHE are described and considered: single-series “offset” and quadruple-series. (We eliminated other connections in earlier analyses because they did not provide the desired accuracy with all sample probe leads attached at the device.) Exact, but complicated, algebraic equations are derived for the currents and measured quantized Hall voltages for these two circuits. Only the quadruple-series connection circuit meets our desired goal of measuring RH for both ac and dc currents with a one-standard-deviation uncertainty of 10−8 RH or less during the same cool-down with all leads attached at the device. The single-series “offset” connection circuit meets our other desired goal of also measuring the longitudinal resistance Rx for both ac and dc currents during that same cool-down. We will use these predictions to apply small measurable corrections, and uncertainties of the corrections, to ac measurements of RH in order to realize an intrinsic ac quantized Hall resistance standard of 10−8 RH uncertainty or less.

  16. Local mesh quantized extrema patterns for image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Koteswara Rao, L; Venkata Rao, D; Reddy, L Pratap

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new feature descriptor, named local mesh quantized extrema patterns (LMeQEP) for image indexing and retrieval. The standard local quantized patterns collect the spatial relationship in the form of larger or deeper texture pattern based on the relative variations in the gray values of center pixel and its neighbors. Directional local extrema patterns explore the directional information in 0°, 90°, 45° and 135° for a pixel positioned at the center. A mesh structure is created from a quantized extrema to derive significant textural information. Initially, the directional quantized data from the mesh structure is extracted to form LMeQEP of given image. Then, RGB color histogram is built and integrated with the LMeQEP to enhance the performance of the system. In order to test the impact of proposed method, experimentation is done with bench mark image repositories such as MIT VisTex and Corel-1k. Avg. retrieval rate and avg. retrieval precision are considered as the evaluation metrics to record the performance level. The results from experiments show a considerable improvement when compared to other recent techniques in the image retrieval.

  17. Optimal Pruning for Tree-Structured Vector Quantization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jianhua; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the computational complexity of optimal binary tree pruning for tree-structured vector quantization. Topics discussed include the combinatorial nature of the optimization problem; the complexity of optimal tree pruning; and finding a minimal size pruned tree. (11 references) (LRW)

  18. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  19. Second quantization techniques in the scattering of nonidentical composite bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Deutchman, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    Second quantization techniques for describing elastic and inelastic interactions between nonidentical composite bodies are presented and are applied to nucleus-nucleus collisions involving ground-state and one-particle-one-hole excitations. Evaluations of the resultant collision matrix elements are made through use of Wick's theorem.

  20. Online Adaptive Vector Quantization with Variable Size Codebook Entries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinescu, Cornel; Storer, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a new image compression algorithm that employs some of the most successful approaches to adaptive lossless compression to perform adaptive online (single pass) vector quantization with variable size codebook entries. Results of tests of the algorithm's effectiveness on standard test images are given. (12 references) (KRN)

  1. Semiclassical Quantization of the Electron-Dipole System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a derivation of the number given by Fermi in 1925, in his semiclassical treatment of the motion of an electron in the field of two stationary positive charges, for Bohr quantization of the electron orbits when the stationary charges are positive, and applies it to an electron moving in the field of a stationary dipole.…

  2. Prediction-guided quantization for video tone mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Dauphin, Agnès.; Boitard, Ronan; Thoreau, Dominique; Olivier, Yannick; Francois, Edouard; LeLéannec, Fabrice

    2014-09-01

    Tone Mapping Operators (TMOs) compress High Dynamic Range (HDR) content to address Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays. However, before reaching the end-user, this tone mapped content is usually compressed for broadcasting or storage purposes. Any TMO includes a quantization step to convert floating point values to integer ones. In this work, we propose to adapt this quantization, in the loop of an encoder, to reduce the entropy of the tone mapped video content. Our technique provides an appropriate quantization for each mode of both the Intra and Inter-prediction that is performed in the loop of a block-based encoder. The mode that minimizes a rate-distortion criterion uses its associated quantization to provide integer values for the rest of the encoding process. The method has been implemented in HEVC and was tested over two different scenarios: the compression of tone mapped LDR video content (using the HM10.0) and the compression of perceptually encoded HDR content (HM14.0). Results show an average bit-rate reduction under the same PSNR for all the sequences and TMO considered of 20.3% and 27.3% for tone mapped content and 2.4% and 2.7% for HDR content.

  3. Floating-point system quantization errors in digital control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, C. L.; Vallely, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    This paper considers digital controllers (filters) operating in floating-point arithmetic in either open-loop or closed-loop systems. A quantization error analysis technique is developed, and is implemented by a digital computer program that is based on a digital simulation of the system. The program can be integrated into existing digital simulations of a system.

  4. Can one ADM quantize relativistic bosonicstrings and membranes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncrief, Vincent

    2006-04-01

    The standard methods for quantizing relativistic strings diverge significantly from the Dirac-Wheeler-DeWitt program for quantization of generally covariant systems and one wonders whether the latter could be successfully implemented as an alternative to the former. As a first step in this direction, we consider the possibility of quantizing strings (and also relativistic membranes) via a partially gauge-fixed ADM (Arnowitt, Deser and Misner) formulation of the reduced field equations for these systems. By exploiting some (Euclidean signature) Hamilton-Jacobi techniques that Mike Ryan and I had developed previously for the quantization of Bianchi IX cosmological models, I show how to construct Diff( S 1)-invariant (or Diff(Σ)-invariant in the case of membranes) ground state wave functionals for the cases of co-dimension one strings and membranes embedded in Minkowski spacetime. I also show that the reduced Hamiltonian density operators for these systems weakly commute when applied to physical (i.e. Diff( S 1) or Diff(Σ)-invariant) states. While many open questions remain, these preliminary results seem to encourage further research along the same lines.

  5. Light-Front Quantized Chiral Model and its Vacuum Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1998-11-30

    The bosonized Chiral Schwinger model (CSM) is quantized on the light-front (LF). The physical Hilbert space of CSM is obtained directly once the constraints on the LF phase space are eliminated. The discussion of the degenerate vacua and the absence in the CSM of the theta-vacua, as found in the Schwinger model (SM), becomes straightforward. The differences in the structures of the mass excitations and the vacua in these gauge theories are displayed transparently. The procedure followed is the one used successfully in the previous works for describing the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) and the SM on the LF. The physical contents following from the LF quantized theory agree with those known in the conventional treatment. The LF hyperplane is argued to be equally appropriate as the conventional equal-time one for the canonical quantization. Some comments on the irrelevance, in quantized field theory, of the fact that the hyperplanes x{sup {+-}} = 0 constitute characteristic surfaces of hyperbolic partial differential equation are also made.

  6. The cosmological 'constant' and quantization in five dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    2011-11-01

    Campbell's theorem ensures that all vacuum space-times in general relativity can be embedded in five dimensions, with the 4D scalar curvature expressed as an effective cosmological 'constant' Λ which depends on the extra coordinate. This Λ-landscape can be used to give insight to certain physical phenomena, such as the big bang and quantized particles.

  7. The Quantization of Classical Fields Equations and the Cyclic Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhu Ho

    2011-03-01

    Basically nothing is known definitely about the early universe. Einstein gravity field equation, based on general relativity and the grand unified field theories, has been employed for the study of the early universe but has not provided definitive answers. As detailed in this article, for understanding the enormous energy of the early universe, classical field equations, including general relativity, must be quantized. The quantization of general relativity by using Feynman's formulation has also faced difficulties. Unified Field theory also needs quantization of Einstein equation for studying the universe. New interpretations of the uncertainty principles indicates that physical quantities should have both lower and upper limits. Physical quantities form pairs, couple and complement to each other performing cyclic process. Their limits should overcome the limits of coupling formulae. In this article, cyclic universe theories are reviewed and limits coupling formulae are derived for pairs of physical quantities. By means of these limits coupling formulae, most of the classical field equations, including Einstein equation, are quantized. The equations derived are used successfully to describe quantitatively the whole development of our cyclic universe. Some long-standing questions in cosmology may be answered with this approach, such as the origin of quasar and the existence of other universes.

  8. Mean-shape vector quantizer for ECG signal compression.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Barrera, J L; Lorenzo-Ginori, J V

    1999-01-01

    A direct waveform mean-shape vector quantization (MSVQ) is proposed here as an alternative for electrocardiographic (ECG) signal compression. In this method, the mean values for short ECG signal segments are quantized as scalars and compression of the single-lead ECG by average beat substraction and residual differencing their waveshapes coded through a vector quantizer. An entropy encoder is applied to both, mean and vector codes, to further increase compression without degrading the quality of the reconstructed signals. In this paper, the fundamentals of MSVQ are discussed, along with various parameters specifications such as duration of signal segments, the wordlength of the mean-value quantization and the size of the vector codebook. The method is assessed through percent-residual-difference measures on reconstructed signals, whereas its computational complexity is analyzed considering its real-time implementation. As a result, MSVQ has been found to be an efficient compression method, leading to high compression ratios (CR's) while maintaining a low level of waveform distortion and, consequently, preserving the main clinically interesting features of the ECG signals. CR's in excess of 39 have been achieved, yielding low data rates of about 140 bps. This compression factor makes this technique especially attractive in the area of ambulatory monitoring.

  9. Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka; Oksanen, Jani

    2017-03-01

    The quantization of optical fields in vacuum has been known for decades, but extending the field quantization to lossy and dispersive media in nonequilibrium conditions has proven to be complicated due to the position-dependent electric and magnetic responses of the media. In fact, consistent position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization to describe the photon number also in the presence of magnetic field-matter interactions. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuations provide an additional degree of freedom in media where the magnetic coupling to the field is prominent. Therefore, the field quantization requires an additional independent noise operator that is commuting with the conventional bosonic noise operator describing the polarization current fluctuations in dielectric media. In addition to allowing the detailed description of field fluctuations, our methods provide practical tools for modeling optical energy transfer and the formation of thermal balance in general dielectric and magnetic nanodevices. We use QFED to investigate the magnetic properties of microcavity systems to demonstrate an example geometry in which it is possible to probe fields arising from the electric and magnetic source terms. We show that, as a consequence of the magnetic Purcell effect, the tuning of the position of an emitter layer placed inside a vacuum cavity can make the emissivity of a magnetic emitter to exceed the emissivity of a corresponding electric emitter.

  10. Quantization and Quantum-Like Phenomena: A Number Amplitude Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T. R.; Haven, E.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, quantization has meant turning the dynamical variables of classical mechanics that are represented by numbers into their corresponding operators. Thus the relationships between classical variables determine the relationships between the corresponding quantum mechanical operators. Here, we take a radically different approach to this conventional quantization procedure. Our approach does not rely on any relations based on classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian mechanics nor on any canonical quantization relations, nor even on any preconceptions of particle trajectories in space and time. Instead we examine the symmetry properties of certain Hermitian operators with respect to phase changes. This introduces harmonic operators that can be identified with a variety of cyclic systems, from clocks to quantum fields. These operators are shown to have the characteristics of creation and annihilation operators that constitute the primitive fields of quantum field theory. Such an approach not only allows us to recover the Hamiltonian equations of classical mechanics and the Schrödinger wave equation from the fundamental quantization relations, but also, by freeing the quantum formalism from any physical connotation, makes it more directly applicable to non-physical, so-called quantum-like systems. Over the past decade or so, there has been a rapid growth of interest in such applications. These include, the use of the Schrödinger equation in finance, second quantization and the number operator in social interactions, population dynamics and financial trading, and quantum probability models in cognitive processes and decision-making. In this paper we try to look beyond physical analogies to provide a foundational underpinning of such applications.

  11. Frame quantization or exploring the world in the manner of a starfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeau, Jean Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Starting with the example of a five-fold frame for the plane (e.g. sea star), we explain the powerful role that coherent states (CS) or frames can play in quantizing any set equipped with a measure. This CS quantization is illustrated with the standard case involving Glauber CS and yielding the canonical quantization, and with CS on the circle, leading in particular to quantization of action and angle variables. We then describe the general method of quantization with action-angle coherent states.

  12. Quantization of electromagnetic field and analysis of Purcell effect based on formalism of scattering matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaliteevski, M. A.; Gubaydullin, A. R.; Ivanov, K. A.; Mazlin, V. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a rigorous self-consistent approach for the quantization of electromagnetic field in inhomogeneous structures. The approach is based on utilization of the scattering matrix of the system. Instead of the use of standard periodic Born-Karman boundary conditions, we use the quantization condition implying equating eigenvalues of the scattering matrix (S-matrix) of the system to unity (S-quantization). In the trivial case of uniform medium boundary condition for S-quantization is nothing but periodic boundary condition. S-quantization allows calculating modification of the spontaneous emission rate for arbitrary inhomogeneous structure and direction of the emitted radiation. S-quantization solves the long-standing problem coupled to normalization of the quasi-stationary electromagnetic modes. Examples of application of S-quantization for the calculation of spontaneous emission rate for the cases of Bragg reflector and microcavity are demonstrated.

  13. An Effective Color Quantization Method Using Octree-Based Self-Organizing Maps

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Kwang Baek; Cha, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Color quantization is an essential technique in color image processing, which has been continuously researched. It is often used, in particular, as preprocessing for many applications. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) color quantization is one of the most effective methods. However, it is inefficient for obtaining accurate results when it performs quantization with too few colors. In this paper, we present a more effective color quantization algorithm that reduces the number of colors to a small number by using octree quantization. This generates more natural results with less difference from the original image. The proposed method is evaluated by comparing it with well-known quantization methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more effective than other methods when using a small number of colors to quantize the colors. Also, it takes only 71.73% of the processing time of the conventional SOM method. PMID:26884748

  14. An Effective Color Quantization Method Using Octree-Based Self-Organizing Maps.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Kwang Baek; Cha, Eui-Young

    2016-01-01

    Color quantization is an essential technique in color image processing, which has been continuously researched. It is often used, in particular, as preprocessing for many applications. Self-Organizing Map (SOM) color quantization is one of the most effective methods. However, it is inefficient for obtaining accurate results when it performs quantization with too few colors. In this paper, we present a more effective color quantization algorithm that reduces the number of colors to a small number by using octree quantization. This generates more natural results with less difference from the original image. The proposed method is evaluated by comparing it with well-known quantization methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more effective than other methods when using a small number of colors to quantize the colors. Also, it takes only 71.73% of the processing time of the conventional SOM method.

  15. Anomalous Defects and Their Quantized Transverse Conductivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, A. P.; John, Varghese; Momen, Arshad; Moraes, Fernando

    Using a description of defects in solids in terms of three-dimensional gravity, we study the propagation of electrons in the background of disclinations and screw dislocations. We study the situations where there are bound states that are effectively localized on the defect and hence can be described in terms of an effective (1+1)-dimensional field theory for the low energy excitations. In the case of screw dislocations, we find that these excitations are chiral and can be described by an effective field theory of chiral fermions. Fermions of both chirality occur even for a given direction of the magnetic field. The "net" chirality of the system however is not always the same for a given direction of the magnetic field, but changes from one sign of the chirality through zero to the other sign as the Fermi momentum or the magnitude of the magnetic flux is varied. On coupling to an external electromagnetic field, the latter becomes anomalous and predicts novels conduction properties for these material.

  16. Magnetic flux inversion in charged BPS vortices in a Lorentz-violating Maxwell-Higgs framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casana, R.; Ferreira, M. M.; da Hora, E.; Miller, C.

    2012-12-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the existence of electrically charged BPS vortices in a Maxwell-Higgs model supplemented with a parity-odd Lorentz-violating (LV) structure belonging to the CPT-even gauge sector of the standard model extension and a fourth order potential (in the absence of the Chern-Simons term). The modified first order BPS equations provide charged vortex configurations endowed with some interesting features: localized and controllable spatial thickness, integer flux quantization, electric field inversion and localized magnetic flux reversion. This model could possibly be applied on condensed matter systems which support charged vortices carrying integer quantized magnetic flux, endowed with localized flipping of the magnetic flux.

  17. 50 Years of Fluxoid Quantization: 2e or Not 2e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einzel, Dietrich

    2011-06-01

    The year 2011 is quite remarkable because it allows us to celebrate not only the centennial of the discovery of superconductivity by Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes (The superconductivity of Mercury, Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, vols. 122, 124, 1911), but also the half-centennial of the discovery of what is referred to as fluxoid quantization in superconductors by Robert Doll and Martin Näbauer (Phys. Rev. Lett. 7:51, 1961; Z. Phys. 169:526, 1962), and, independently, by Bascom S. Deaver Jr. and William Fairbank (Phys. Rev. Lett. 7:43, 1961; Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, 1962). The experimental proof of the quantization of magnetic flux (or more accurately fluxoid) in hollow superconducting cylinders actually supports two important theoretical concepts. The form of the fluxoid quantum, on the one hand, which contains twice the elementary charge, allows for the conclusion, that the superconducting ground state can be viewed as a condensate of electron pairs, as predicted by the BCS theory of superconductivity (Bardeen et al. in Phys. Rev. 106:162, 1957; Phys. Rev. 108:1175, 1957). It can be viewed, on the other hand, as a quantum phenomenon seen on macroscopic scales and thus supports the concept of the bosonic macroscopic wave function, here applied to the description of (quasi-bosonic) fermion pair condensates. This review is devoted to a discussion of the physics behind the Doll-Näbauer, Deaver-Fairbank discoveries and is intended to review historically the chain of events which motivated these talented experimentalists and which led to their independent discoveries at quite remote points of the earth.

  18. Conformal Loop quantization of gravity coupled to the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullin, Jorge; Gambini, Rodolfo

    2016-03-01

    We consider a local conformal invariant coupling of the standard model to gravity free of any dimensional parameter. The theory is formulated in order to have a quantized version that admits a spin network description at the kinematical level like that of loop quantum gravity. The Gauss constraint, the diffeomorphism constraint and the conformal constraint are automatically satisfied and the standard inner product of the spin-network basis still holds. The resulting theory has resemblances with the Bars-Steinhardt-Turok local conformal theory, except it admits a canonical quantization in terms of loops. By considering a gauge fixed version of the theory we show that the Standard model coupled to gravity is recovered and the Higgs boson acquires mass. This in turn induces via the standard mechanism masses for massive bosons, baryons and leptons.

  19. Polymer quantization of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Louko, Jorma; Peltola, Ari

    2010-01-01

    We present a polymer quantization of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity in which the polymerized variable is the area of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat. In the classical polymer theory, the singularity is replaced by a bounce at a radius that depends on the polymerization scale. In the polymer quantum theory, we show numerically that the area spectrum is evenly spaced and in agreement with a Bohr-Sommerfeld semiclassical estimate, and this spectrum is not qualitatively sensitive to issues of factor ordering or boundary conditions except in the lowest few eigenvalues. In the limit of small polymerization scale we recover, within the numerical accuracy, the area spectrum obtained from a Schrödinger quantization of the wormhole throat dynamics. The prospects of recovering from the polymer throat theory a full quantum-corrected spacetime are discussed.

  20. Wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for fingerprint images

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, C.M.

    1996-06-12

    US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently formulated a national standard for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. Fingerprints are scanned at a spatial resolution of 500 dots per inch, with 8 bits of gray-scale resolution. The compression algorithm for the resulting digital images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition (wavelet/scalar quantization method). The FBI standard produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. The compression standard specifies a class of potential encoders and a universal decoder with sufficient generality to reconstruct compressed images produced by any compliant encoder, allowing flexibility for future improvements in encoder technology. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  1. Floating-point system quantization errors in digital control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of research into the effects on system operation of signal quantization in a digital control system. The investigation considered digital controllers (filters) operating in floating-point arithmetic in either open-loop or closed-loop systems. An error analysis technique is developed, and is implemented by a digital computer program that is based on a digital simulation of the system. As an output the program gives the programing form required for minimum system quantization errors (either maximum of rms errors), and the maximum and rms errors that appear in the system output for a given bit configuration. The program can be integrated into existing digital simulations of a system.

  2. Subband directional vector quantization in radiological image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrout, Nabil M.; Diab, Chaouki; Prost, Remy; Goutte, Robert; Amiel, Michel

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new scheme for image compression. The method is very efficient for images which have directional edges such as the tree-like structure of the coronary vessels in digital angiograms. This method involves two steps. First, the original image is decomposed at different resolution levels using a pyramidal subband decomposition scheme. For decomposition/reconstruction of the image, free of aliasing and boundary errors, we use an ideal band-pass filter bank implemented in the Discrete Cosine Transform domain (DCT). Second, the high-frequency subbands are vector quantized using a multiresolution codebook with vertical and horizontal codewords which take into account the edge orientation of each subband. The proposed method reduces the blocking effect encountered at low bit rates in conventional vector quantization.

  3. Generalized Weyl quantization on the cylinder and the quantum phase

    SciTech Connect

    Przanowski, Maciej Brzykcy, Przemysław

    2013-10-15

    Generalized Weyl quantization formalism for the cylindrical phase space S{sup 1}×R{sup 1} is developed. It is shown that the quantum observables relevant to the phase of the linear harmonic oscillator or electromagnetic field can be represented within this formalism by the self-adjoint operators on the Hilbert space L{sup 2}(S{sup 1}). -- Highlights: •The generalized Weyl quantization on the cylindrical phase space is formulated. •A self-adjoint phase operator on the Hilbert space of the square integrable functions on the circle is given. •A new uncertainty relation between the quantum phase and the number operator is found.

  4. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  5. Self-referenced single-electron quantized current source.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Lukas; Wulf, Michael; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Mirovsky, Philipp; Mackrodt, Brigitte; Dolata, Ralf; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Siegner, Uwe; Schumacher, Hans W

    2014-06-06

    The future redefinition of the international system of units in terms of natural constants requires a robust, high-precision quantum standard for the electrical base unit ampere. However, the reliability of any single-electron current source generating a nominally quantized output current I=ef by delivering single electrons with charge e at a frequency f is eventually limited by the stochastic nature of the underlying quantum mechanical tunneling process. We experimentally explore a path to overcome this fundamental limitation by serially connecting clocked single-electron emitters with multiple in situ single-electron detectors. Correlation analysis of the detector signatures during current generation reveals erroneous pumping events and enables us to determine the deviation of the output current from the nominal quantized value ef. This demonstrates the concept of a self-referenced single-electron source for electrical quantum metrology.

  6. Quantized supercurrent decay in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulder, Stuart; Beattie, Scott; Smith, Robert P.; Tammuz, Naaman; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2012-07-01

    We study the metastability and decay of multiply charged superflow in a ring-shaped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. Supercurrent corresponding to a giant vortex with topological charge up to q=10 is phase imprinted optically and detected both interferometrically and kinematically. We observe q=3 superflow persisting for up to a minute and clearly resolve a cascade of quantized steps in its decay. These stochastic decay events, associated with vortex-induced 2π phase slips, correspond to collective jumps of atoms between discrete q values. We demonstrate the ability to detect quantized rotational states with >99% fidelity, which allows a detailed quantitative study of time-resolved phase-slip dynamics. We find that the supercurrent decays rapidly if the superflow speed exceeds a critical velocity in good agreement with numerical simulations, and we also observe rare stochastic phase slips for superflow speeds below the critical velocity.

  7. Compression of Ultrasonic NDT Image by Wavelet Based Local Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.; Li, L. Q.; Tsukada, K.; Hanasaki, K.

    2004-02-01

    Compression on ultrasonic image that is always corrupted by noise will cause `over-smoothness' or much distortion. To solve this problem to meet the need of real time inspection and tele-inspection, a compression method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) that can also suppress the noise without losing much flaw-relevant information, is presented in this work. Exploiting the multi-resolution and interscale correlation property of DWT, a simple way named DWCs classification, is introduced first to classify detail wavelet coefficients (DWCs) as dominated by noise, signal or bi-effected. A better denoising can be realized by selective thresholding DWCs. While in `Local quantization', different quantization strategies are applied to the DWCs according to their classification and the local image property. It allocates the bit rate more efficiently to the DWCs thus achieve a higher compression rate. Meanwhile, the decompressed image shows the effects of noise suppressed and flaw characters preserved.

  8. Novel properties of the q-analogue quantized radiation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    The 'classical limit' of the q-analog quantized radiation field is studied paralleling conventional quantum optics analyses. The q-generalizations of the phase operator of Susskind and Glogower and that of Pegg and Barnett are constructed. Both generalizations and their associated number-phase uncertainty relations are manifestly q-independent in the n greater than g number basis. However, in the q-coherent state z greater than q basis, the variance of the generic electric field, (delta(E))(sup 2) is found to be increased by a factor lambda(z) where lambda(z) greater than 1 if q not equal to 1. At large amplitudes, the amplitude itself would be quantized if the available resolution of unity for the q-analog coherent states is accepted in the formulation. These consequences are remarkable versus the conventional q = 1 limit.

  9. Unwinding of a single quantized vortex from a wire

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, K.W. )

    1993-05-01

    The dynamical behavior of a quantized vortex partially attached to a wire is studied theoretically, with the aim of interpreting recent experiments on quantized circulation in superfluid [sup 3]He-B. The geometry considered consists of a thin wire running parallel to the axis of a circular cylinder enclosing the wire. The circulation is assumed to run part way up the wire, and then to enter the fluid as a free vortex which eventually terminates on the outer wall. It is found that such a vortex achieves a state of steady precession around the wire, accompanied by a steady unwinding motion down the wire due to frictional effects. For an off-center wire, both the precession rate and the unwinding rate develop oscillatory components. Various particulars, such as the effects of friction, of moving the wire off center, and of pinning, are investigated. Excellent agreement is obtained between experiment, analytical theory, and numerical calculations.

  10. Features of multiphoton-stimulated bremsstrahlung in a quantized field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Ivan A.; Tikhonova, Olga V.

    2010-12-01

    The process of absorption and emission of external field quanta by a free electron during the scattering on a potential centre is investigated in the case of interaction with a quantized electromagnetic field. The analytical expression for differential cross-sections and probabilities of different multiphoton channels are obtained. We demonstrate that in the case of a non-classical 'squeezed vacuum' initial field state the probability for the electron to absorb a large number of photons appears to be larger by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the classical field and leads to the formation of the high-energy plateau in the electron energy spectrum. The generalization of the Marcuse effect to the case of the quantized field is worked out. The total probability of energy absorption by electron from the non-classical light is analysed.

  11. New approach of color image quantization based on multidimensional directory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chin-Chen; Su, Yuan-Yuan

    2003-04-01

    Color image quantization is a strategy in which a smaller number of colors are used to represent the image. The objective is to make the quality approximate as closely to the original true-color image. The technology is widely used in non-true-color displays and in color printers that cannot reproduce a large number of different colors. However, the main problem the quantization of color image has to face is how to use less colors to show the color image. Therefore, it is very important to choose one suitable palette for an index color image. In this paper, we shall propose a new approach which employs the concept of Multi-Dimensional Directory (MDD) together with the one cycle LBG algorithm to create a high-quality index color image. Compared with the approaches such as VQ, ISQ, and Photoshop v.5, our approach can not only acquire high quality image but also shorten the operation time.

  12. Polymer quantization of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat

    SciTech Connect

    Kunstatter, Gabor; Peltola, Ari; Louko, Jorma

    2010-01-15

    We present a polymer quantization of spherically symmetric Einstein gravity in which the polymerized variable is the area of the Einstein-Rosen wormhole throat. In the classical polymer theory, the singularity is replaced by a bounce at a radius that depends on the polymerization scale. In the polymer quantum theory, we show numerically that the area spectrum is evenly spaced and in agreement with a Bohr-Sommerfeld semiclassical estimate, and this spectrum is not qualitatively sensitive to issues of factor ordering or boundary conditions except in the lowest few eigenvalues. In the limit of small polymerization scale we recover, within the numerical accuracy, the area spectrum obtained from a Schroedinger quantization of the wormhole throat dynamics. The prospects of recovering from the polymer throat theory a full quantum-corrected spacetime are discussed.

  13. Polymer quantization, stability and higher-order time derivative terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumsille, Patricio; Reyes, Carlos M.; Ossandon, Sebastian; Reyes, Camilo

    2016-03-01

    The possibility that fundamental discreteness implicit in a quantum gravity theory may act as a natural regulator for ultraviolet singularities arising in quantum field theory has been intensively studied. Here, along the same expectations, we investigate whether a nonstandard representation called polymer representation can smooth away the large amount of negative energy that afflicts the Hamiltonians of higher-order time derivative theories, rendering the theory unstable when interactions come into play. We focus on the fourth-order Pais-Uhlenbeck model which can be reexpressed as the sum of two decoupled harmonic oscillators one producing positive energy and the other negative energy. As expected, the Schrödinger quantization of such model leads to the stability problem or to negative norm states called ghosts. Within the framework of polymer quantization we show the existence of new regions where the Hamiltonian can be defined well bounded from below.

  14. Experimental evidence for a two-dimensional quantized Hall insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilke, M.; Shahar, D.; Song, S. H.; Tsui, D. C.; Xie, Y. H.; Monroe, Don

    1998-10-01

    The general theoretical definition of an insulator is a material in which the conductivity vanishes at the absolute zero of temperature. In classical insulators, such as materials with a band gap, vanishing conductivities lead to diverging resistivities. But other insulators can show more complex behaviour, particularly in the presence of a high magnetic field, where different components of the resistivity tensor can display different behaviours: the magnetoresistance diverges as the temperature approaches absolute zero, but the transverse (Hall) resistance remains finite. Such a system is known as a Hall insulator. Here we report experimental evidence for a quantized Hall insulator in a two-dimensional electron system-confined in a semiconductor quantum well. The Hall resistance is quantized in the quantum unit of resistance h/e2, where h is Planck's constant and e the electronic charge. At low fields, the sample reverts to being a normal Hall insulator.

  15. Magnetic Oscillations and Landau Quantization in Decoupled Epitaxial Graphene Multilayers*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroscio, Joseph A.

    2009-03-01

    A fundamental challenge to the development of a new electronics based on single atomic sheets of carbon, known as graphene, is to realize a large-area production platform that can produce a carbon system with the same intrinsic properties as a single sheet of graphene. Multi-layer epitaxial graphene (MEG) grown on SiC substrates has been proposed as a possible platform to this end [1]. The central question is, Can MEG behave as single layer graphene with the same intrinsic electrical characteristics? In this talk we show that MEG graphene on SiC exhibits single layer graphene properties through new tunneling magnetic measurements. The circular motion of electrons in a magnetic field has historically been a powerful probe of the Fermi surface properties of materials. Oscillations in many measureable properties, such as magnetization, thermal conductivity, and resistance, all reflect the Landau quantization of the electron energy levels. In this talk we show the ability to observe tunneling magneto-conductance oscillations (TMCOs) in the tunneling differential conductance as a function of both magnetic field and electron energy. The TMCO arise from intense Dirac quantization of the 2-dimensional Dirac electron and hole quasiparticles in MEG grown on SiC substrates. Spatial profiles of the Landau quantization demonstrate the high quality of MEG on SiC with carrier concentrations that vary less than 10% over hundreds of nm. The single layer quantization observed in these multi-layer samples is attributed to observed rotational stacking domains that effectively decouple the carbon layers in MEG on SiC, thereby yielding single layer graphene properties in a large area carbon production method. *In collaboration with Lee Miller, Kevin Kubista, Gregory M. Rutter, Ming Ruan, Mike Sprinkle, Claire Berger, Walt A. de Heer, and Phillip N. First, Georgia Institute of Technology [1] W.A. de Heer et. al., Solid State Comm. 143, 92 (2007).

  16. Polymer quantization and the saddle point approximation of partition functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Técotl, Hugo A.; Orozco-Borunda, Daniel H.; Rastgoo, Saeed

    2015-11-01

    The saddle point approximation of the path integral partition functions is an important way of deriving the thermodynamical properties of black holes. However, there are certain black hole models and some mathematically analog mechanical models for which this method cannot be applied directly. This is due to the fact that their action evaluated on a classical solution is not finite and its first variation does not vanish for all consistent boundary conditions. These problems can be dealt with by adding a counterterm to the classical action, which is a solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation. In this work we study the effects of polymer quantization on a mechanical model presenting the aforementioned difficulties and contrast it with the above counterterm method. This type of quantization for mechanical models is motivated by the loop quantization of gravity, which is known to play a role in the thermodynamics of black hole systems. The model we consider is a nonrelativistic particle in an inverse square potential, and we analyze two polarizations of the polymer quantization in which either the position or the momentum is discrete. In the former case, Thiemann's regularization is applied to represent the inverse power potential, but we still need to incorporate the Hamilton-Jacobi counterterm, which is now modified by polymer corrections. In the latter, momentum discrete case, however, such regularization could not be implemented. Yet, remarkably, owing to the fact that the position is bounded, we do not need a Hamilton-Jacobi counterterm in order to have a well-defined saddle point approximation. Further developments and extensions are commented upon in the discussion.

  17. Background independent noncommutative gravity from Fedosov quantization of endomorphism bundle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrski, Michał

    2017-04-01

    A model of noncommutative gravity is constructed by means of Fedosov deformation quantization of an endomorphism bundle. The fields describing noncommutativity—symplectic form and symplectic connection—are dynamical, and the resulting theory is coordinate covariant and background independent. Its interpretation in terms of a Seiberg–Witten map is provided. Also, a new action for ordinary (commutative) general relativity is given, which in the present context appears as a commutative limit of noncommutative theory.

  18. Torus as phase space: Weyl quantization, dequantization, and Wigner formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Ligabò, Marilena

    2016-08-15

    The Weyl quantization of classical observables on the torus (as phase space) without regularity assumptions is explicitly computed. The equivalence class of symbols yielding the same Weyl operator is characterized. The Heisenberg equation for the dynamics of general quantum observables is written through the Moyal brackets on the torus and the support of the Wigner transform is characterized. Finally, a dequantization procedure is introduced that applies, for instance, to the Pauli matrices. As a result we obtain the corresponding classical symbols.

  19. Superfield Hamiltonian quantization in terms of quantum antibrackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalin, Igor A.; Lavrov, Peter M.

    2016-04-01

    We develop a new version of the superfield Hamiltonian quantization. The main new feature is that the BRST-BFV charge and the gauge fixing Fermion are introduced on equal footing within the sigma model approach, which provides for the actual use of the quantum/derived antibrackets. We study in detail the generating equations for the quantum antibrackets and their primed counterparts. We discuss the finite quantum anticanonical transformations generated by the quantum antibracket.

  20. Quantized charge pumping through a carbon nanotube double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorley, S. J.; Frake, J.; Smith, C. G.; Jones, G. A. C.; Buitelaar, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate single-electron pumping in a gate-defined carbon nanotube double quantum dot. By periodic modulation of the potentials of the two quantum dots, we move the system around charge triple points and transport exactly one electron or hole per cycle. We investigate the pumping as a function of the modulation frequency and amplitude and observe good current quantization up to frequencies of 18 MHz where rectification effects cause the mechanism to break down.

  1. Automatic Target Recognition Using Wavelet-Based Vector Quantization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    uses a set of dedicated vector quantizers (VQs) in the wavelet domain. The background pixels in each input image are properly clipped out by a set of...a target chip . . . . . . 8 5 Background clipping of several input images . . . . . . . . . . 8 6 Wavelet decomposition of a truck into four subbands...dedicated VQ for each subband within each aspect window. In the first stage, an aspect window is a background- clipping rectangle whose size is determined

  2. Corrected Hawking Temperature in Snyder's Quantized Space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ren

    2015-06-01

    In the quantized space-time of Snyder, generalized uncertainty relation and commutativity are both included. In this paper we analyze the possible form for the corrected Hawking temperature and derive it from the both effects. It is shown that the corrected Hawking temperature has a form similar to the one of noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole, however with an requirement for the noncommutative parameter 𝜃 and the minimal length a.

  3. Progressive image data compression with adaptive scale-space quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przelaskowski, Artur

    1999-12-01

    Some improvements of embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm are considere. Compression methods tested here are based on dyadic wavelet image decomposition, scalar quantization and coding in progressive fashion. Profitable coders with embedded form of code and rate fixing abilities like Shapiro EZW and Said nad Pearlman SPIHT are modified to improve compression efficiency. We explore the modifications of the initial threshold value, reconstruction levels and quantization scheme in SPIHT algorithm. Additionally, we present the result of the best filter bank selection. The most efficient biorthogonal filter banks are tested. Significant efficiency improvement of SPIHT coder was finally noticed even up to 0.9dB of PSNR in some cases. Because of the problems with optimization of quantization scheme in embedded coder we propose another solution: adaptive threshold selection of wavelet coefficients in progressive coding scheme. Two versions of this coder are tested: progressive in quality and resolution. As a result, improved compression effectiveness is achieved - close to 1.3 dB in comparison to SPIHT for image Barbara. All proposed algorithms are optimized automatically and are not time-consuming. But sometimes the most efficient solution must be found in iterative way. Final results are competitive across the most efficient wavelet coders.

  4. Covariant quantization of C P T -violating photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, D.; McDonald, P.; Noordmans, J. P.; Potting, R.

    2017-01-01

    We perform the covariant canonical quantization of the C P T - and Lorentz-symmetry-violating photon sector of the minimal Standard-Model Extension, which contains a general (timelike, lightlike, or spacelike) fixed background tensor kAF μ. Well-known stability issues, arising from complex-valued energy states, are solved by introducing a small photon mass, orders of magnitude below current experimental bounds. We explicitly construct a covariant basis of polarization vectors, in which the photon field can be expanded. We proceed to derive the Feynman propagator and show that the theory is microcausal. Despite the occurrence of negative energies and vacuum-Cherenkov radiation, we do not find any runaway stability issues, because the energy remains bounded from below. An important observation is that the ordering of the roots of the dispersion relations is the same in any observer frame, which allows for a frame-independent condition that selects the correct branch of the dispersion relation. This turns out to be critical for the consistency of the quantization. To our knowledge, this is the first system for which quantization has consistently been performed, in spite of the fact that the theory contains negative energies in some observer frames.

  5. Combinatorial quantization of the Hamiltonian Chern-Simons theory II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Anton Yu.; Grosse, Harald; Schomerus, Volker

    1996-01-01

    This paper further develops the combinatorial approach to quantization of the Hamiltonian Chern Simons theory advertised in [1]. Using the theory of quantum Wilson lines, we show how the Verlinde algebra appears within the context of quantum group gauge theory. This allows to discuss flatness of quantum connections so that we can give a mathematically rigorous definition of the algebra of observables A CS of the Chern Simons model. It is a *-algebra of “functions on the quantum moduli space of flat connections” and comes equipped with a positive functional ω (“integration”). We prove that this data does not depend on the particular choices which have been made in the construction. Following ideas of Fock and Rosly [2], the algebra A CS provides a deformation quantization of the algebra of functions on the moduli space along the natural Poisson bracket induced by the Chern Simons action. We evaluate a volume of the quantized moduli space and prove that it coincides with the Verlinde number. This answer is also interpreted as a partition partition function of the lattice Yang-Mills theory corresponding to a quantum gauge group.

  6. Light-front-quantized QCD in Covariant Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1999-06-17

    The light-front (LF) canonical quantization of quantum chromodynamics in covariant gauge is discussed. The Dirac procedure is used to eliminate the constraints in the gauge-fixed front form theory quantum action and to construct the LF Hamiltonian formulation. The physical degrees of freedom emerge naturally. The propagator of the dynamical {psi}{sub +} part of the free fermionic propagator in the LF quantized field theory is shown to be causal and not to contain instantaneous terms. Since the relevant propagators in the covariant gauge formulation are causal, rotational invariance--including the Coulomb potential in the static limit--can be recovered, avoiding the difficulties encountered in light-cone gauge. The Wick rotation may also be performed allowing the conversion of momentum space integrals into Euclidean space forms. Some explicit computations are done in quantum electrodynamics to illustrate the equivalence of front form theory with the conventional covariant formulation. LF quantization thus provides a consistent formulation of gauge theory, despite the fact that the hyperplanes x{sup {+-}} = 0 used to impose boundary conditions constitute characteristic surfaces of a hyperbolic partial differential equation.

  7. Image compression system and method having optimized quantization tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakar, Viresh (Inventor); Livny, Miron (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A digital image compression preprocessor for use in a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression device is provided. The preprocessor includes a gathering mechanism for determining discrete cosine transform statistics from input digital image data. A computing mechanism is operatively coupled to the gathering mechanism to calculate a image distortion array and a rate of image compression array based upon the discrete cosine transform statistics for each possible quantization value. A dynamic programming mechanism is operatively coupled to the computing mechanism to optimize the rate of image compression array against the image distortion array such that a rate-distortion-optimal quantization table is derived. In addition, a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression device and a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression and decompression system are provided. Also, a method for generating a rate-distortion-optimal quantization table, using discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression, and operating a discrete cosine transform-based digital image compression and decompression system are provided.

  8. Design of Dynamic Quantizers in Two Degree of Freedom IMC for Input-delay Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Hiroshi; Umemoto, Tatsuya; Matsunaga, Nobutomo; Kawaji, Shigeyasu

    It is well known that plants with time delay are hard to be controlled by using traditional method. For this, controller with delay, such as Internal Model Control (IMC), Smith-method, have been proposed for input-delay systems. However, it would be difficult to realize the delay of controller because of memory limit of micro control unit(MCU). Also, the sampling time might be large in case of the application to the plant with large time delay, because of the limitation of the memory in MCU. Hence, the trade-off exists between sampling time and maximum quantizing error, and the assignment of the quantizer affects the quantization error. In this paper, dynamic quantizers are designed for achieving small quantizing error for input-delay control systems in MCU system. Also, the attainable performance caused by assignment of the quantizer is discussed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical example.

  9. The Hamiltonian structure of Dirac's equation in tensor form and its Fermi quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reifler, Frank; Morris, Randall

    1992-01-01

    Currently, there is some interest in studying the tensor forms of the Dirac equation to elucidate the possibility of the constrained tensor fields admitting Fermi quantization. We demonstrate that the bispinor and tensor Hamiltonian systems have equivalent Fermi quantizations. Although the tensor Hamiltonian system is noncanonical, representing the tensor Poisson brackets as commutators for the Heisenberg operators directly leads to Fermi quantization without the use of bispinors.

  10. Quantized Feedback Stabilization of Linear Discrete-Time Systems with Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanma, Tadanao; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ishida, Muneaki

    This paper addresses quantization of control systems. The state of the system is quantized via a quantizer. In addition, constraints on input and/or state are considered explicitly. For a linear system with no constraint, some quantized feedback control methods have been proposed. In this paper, a control methodology for the constrained system is proposed. Specifically, an idea of a positively invariant set is introduced so that the performance is improved while the constraints are satisfied. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through both simulation and experiment.

  11. Length quantization of DNA partially expelled from heads of a bacteriophage T3 mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T.; Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Wen

    2014-05-15

    DNA packaging of phages phi29, T3 and T7 sometimes produces incompletely packaged DNA with quantized lengths, based on gel electrophoretic band formation. We discover here a packaging ATPase-free, in vitro model for packaged DNA length quantization. We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads). Three tail gene mutations, but no head gene mutations, are present. A variable-length DNA segment leaks from some mutant heads, based on DNase I-protection assay and electron microscopy. The protected DNA segment has quantized lengths, based on restriction endonuclease analysis: six sharp bands of DNA missing 3.7–12.3% of the last end packaged. Native gel electrophoresis confirms quantized DNA expulsion and, after removal of external DNA, provides evidence that capsid radius is the quantization-ruler. Capsid-based DNA length quantization possibly evolved via selection for stalling that provides time for feedback control during DNA packaging and injection. - Graphical abstract: Highlights: • We implement directed evolution- and DNA-sequencing-based phage assembly genetics. • We purify stable, mutant phage heads with a partially leaked mature DNA molecule. • Native gels and DNase-protection show leaked DNA segments to have quantized lengths. • Native gels after DNase I-removal of leaked DNA reveal the capsids to vary in radius. • Thus, we hypothesize leaked DNA quantization via variably quantized capsid radius.

  12. Simultaneous fault detection and control design for switched systems with two quantized signals.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Park, Ju H; Ye, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of simultaneous fault detection and control design for switched systems with two quantized signals is presented in this paper. Dynamic quantizers are employed, respectively, before the output is passed to fault detector, and before the control input is transmitted to the switched system. Taking the quantized errors into account, the robust performance for this kind of system is given. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for the existence of fault detector/controller are presented in the framework of linear matrix inequalities, and fault detector/controller gains and the supremum of quantizer range are derived by a convex optimized method. Finally, two illustrative examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Image-adapted visually weighted quantization matrices for digital image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for performing image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components is presented. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The present invention adapts or customizes the quantization matrix to the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast techniques and by an error pooling technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

  14. Flux-Vortex Pinning and Neutron Star Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpar, M. Ali

    2017-09-01

    G. Srinivasan et al. (1990) proposed a simple and elegant explanation for the reduction of the neutron star magnetic dipole moment during binary evolution leading to low mass X-ray binaries and eventually to millisecond pulsars: Quantized vortex lines in the neutron star core superfluid will pin against the quantized flux lines of the proton superconductor. As the neutron star spins down in the wind accretion phase of binary evolution, outward motion of vortex lines will reduce the dipole magnetic moment in proportion to the rotation rate. The presence of a toroidal array of flux lines makes this mechanism inevitable and independent of the angle between the rotation and magnetic axes. The incompressibility of the flux-line array (Abrikosov lattice) determines the epoch when the mechanism will be effective throughout the neutron star. Flux vortex pinning will not be effective during the initial young radio pulsar phase. It will, however, be effective and reduce the dipole moment in proportion with the rotation rate during the epoch of spindown by wind accretion as proposed by Srinivasan et al. The mechanism operates also in the presence of vortex creep.

  15. Light-Front-Quantized QCD in Light-Cone Gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2000-11-30

    The light-front (LF) quantization of QCD in light-cone gauge has a number of remarkable advantages, including explicit unitarity, a physical Fock expansion, the absence of ghost degrees of freedom, and the decoupling properties needed to prove factorization theorems in high momentum transfer inclusive and exclusive reactions. We present a systematic study of LF-quantized gauge theory following the Dirac method and construct the Dyson-Wick S-matrix expansion based on LF-time-ordered products. The gauge field is shown to satisfy the Lorentz condition as an operator equation as well as the light-cone gauge condition. Its propagator is found to be transverse with respect to both its four-momentum and the gauge direction. The propagator of the dynamical + part of the free fermionic field is shown to be causal and to not contain instantaneous terms. The interaction Hamiltonian of QCD can be expressed in a form resembling that of covariant theory, except for additional instantaneous interactions which can be treated systematically. The renormalization factors are shown to be scalars and we find Z1 = Z3 at one loop order. The running coupling constant and QCD {beta} function are also computed in the noncovariant light-cone gauge. Some comments on the relationship of our LF framework to the analytic effective charge and renormalization scheme defined by the pinch technique are made. LF quantization thus provides a consistent formulation of gauge theory, despite the fact that the hyperplanes x{sup {+-}} = 0 used to impose boundary conditions constitute characteristic surfaces of a hyperbolic partial differential equation.

  16. Quantum algebras as quantizations of dual Poisson-Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros, Ángel; Musso, Fabio

    2013-05-01

    A systematic computational approach for the explicit construction of any quantum Hopf algebra (Uz(g), Δz) starting from the Lie bialgebra (g, δ) that gives the first-order deformation of the coproduct map Δz is presented. The procedure is based on the well-known ‘quantum duality principle’, namely the fact that any quantum algebra can be viewed as the quantization of the unique Poisson-Lie structure (G*, Λg) on the dual group G*, which is obtained by exponentiating the Lie algebra g* defined by the dual map δ*. From this perspective, the coproduct for Uz(g) is just the pull-back of the group law for G*, and the Poisson analogues of the quantum commutation rules for Uz(g) are given by the unique Poisson-Lie structure Λg on G* whose linearization is the Poisson analogue of the initial Lie algebra g. This approach is shown to be a very useful technical tool in order to solve the Lie bialgebra quantization problem explicitly since, once a Lie bialgebra (g, δ) is given, the full dual Poisson-Lie group (G*, Λ) can be obtained either by applying standard Poisson-Lie group techniques or by implementing the algorithm presented here with the aid of symbolic manipulation programs. As a consequence, the quantization of (G*, Λ) will give rise to the full Uz(g) quantum algebra, provided that ordering problems are appropriately fixed through the choice of certain local coordinates on G* whose coproduct fulfils a precise ‘quantum symmetry’ property. The applicability of this approach is explicitly demonstrated by reviewing the construction of several instances of quantum deformations of physically relevant Lie algebras such as sl(2, {R}), the (2+1) anti-de Sitter algebra so(2, 2) and the Poincaré algebra in (3+1) dimensions.

  17. Direct Images, Fields of Hilbert Spaces, and Geometric Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, László; Szőke, Róbert

    2014-04-01

    Geometric quantization often produces not one Hilbert space to represent the quantum states of a classical system but a whole family H s of Hilbert spaces, and the question arises if the spaces H s are canonically isomorphic. Axelrod et al. (J. Diff. Geo. 33:787-902, 1991) and Hitchin (Commun. Math. Phys. 131:347-380, 1990) suggest viewing H s as fibers of a Hilbert bundle H, introduce a connection on H, and use parallel transport to identify different fibers. Here we explore to what extent this can be done. First we introduce the notion of smooth and analytic fields of Hilbert spaces, and prove that if an analytic field over a simply connected base is flat, then it corresponds to a Hermitian Hilbert bundle with a flat connection and path independent parallel transport. Second we address a general direct image problem in complex geometry: pushing forward a Hermitian holomorphic vector bundle along a non-proper map . We give criteria for the direct image to be a smooth field of Hilbert spaces. Third we consider quantizing an analytic Riemannian manifold M by endowing TM with the family of adapted Kähler structures from Lempert and Szőke (Bull. Lond. Math. Soc. 44:367-374, 2012). This leads to a direct image problem. When M is homogeneous, we prove the direct image is an analytic field of Hilbert spaces. For certain such M—but not all—the direct image is even flat; which means that in those cases quantization is unique.

  18. Electron g-2 in Light-front Quantization

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Xingbo; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; ...

    2014-08-13

    In this study, basis Light-front Quantization has been proposed as a nonperturbative framework for solving quantum field theory. We apply this approach to Quantum Electrodynamics and explicitly solve for the light-front wave function of a physical electron. Based on the resulting light-front wave function, we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. Nonperturbative mass renormalization is performed. Upon extrapolation to the infinite basis limit our numerical results agree with the Schwinger result obtained in perturbation theory to an accuracy of 0.06%.

  19. Pisot q-coherent states quantization of the harmonic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazeau, J. P.; del Olmo, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    We revisit the quantized version of the harmonic oscillator obtained through a q-dependent family of coherent states. For each q, 0

  20. Nucleation of Quantized Vortices from Rotating Superfluid Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    The long-term goal of this project is to study the nucleation of quantized vortices in helium II by investigating the behavior of rotating droplets of helium II in a reduced gravity environment. The objective of this ground-based research grant was to develop new experimental techniques to aid in accomplishing that goal. The development of an electrostatic levitator for superfluid helium, described below, and the successful suspension of charged superfluid drops in modest electric fields was the primary focus of this work. Other key technologies of general low temperature use were developed and are also discussed.

  1. Transverse force on a quantized vortex in a superfluid

    SciTech Connect

    Thouless, D.J.; Ao, P.; Niu, Q. ||

    1996-05-01

    We have derived an exact expression for the total nondissipative transverse force acting on a quantized vortex moving in a uniform background. The derivation is valid for neutral boson or fermion superfluids, provided the order parameter is a complex scalar quantity. This force is determined by the one-particle density matrix far away from the vortex core, and is found to be the Magnus force proportional to the superfluid density. We conclude that contributions of the localized core states do not change this force. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Canonical Functional Quantization of Pseudo-Photons in Planar Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, P. Castelo

    2008-06-25

    Extended U{sub e}(1)xU{sub g}(1) electromagnetism containing both a photon and a pseudo-photon is introduced at the variational level and is justified by the violation of the Bianchi identities in conceptual systems, either in the presence of magnetic monopoles or non-regular external fields, not being accounted for by the standard Maxwell Lagrangian. A dimensional reduction is carried out that yields a U{sub e}(1)xU{sub g}(1) Maxwell-BF type theory and a canonical functional quantization in planar systems is considered which may be relevant in Hall systems.

  3. Photophysics and photochemistry of quantized ZnO colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat, P.V.; Patrick, B.

    1992-08-06

    The photophysical and photochemical behavior of quantized ZnO colloids in ethanol has been investigated by time-resolved transient absorption and emission measurements. Trapping of electrons at the ZnO surface resulted in broad absorption in the red region. The green emission of ZnO colloids was readily quenched by hole scavengers such as SCN{sup -} and I{sup -}. The photoinduced charge transfer to these hole scavengers was studied by laser flash photolysis. The yield of oxidized product increased considerably when ZnO colloids were coupled with ZnSe. 36 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Quantization of spin waves in oval-shaped nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. G.; Lim, H. S.; Wang, Z. K.; Ng, S. C.; Kuok, M. H.; Goolaup, S.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Singh, N.

    Regular arrays of oval-shaped permalloy nanorings have been fabricated using deep ultraviolet lithography and their spin dynamics measured by Brillouin light scattering with the magnetic field applied along long (easy) axes of the rings. The dispersionless behavior of the spin wave modes observed reveals their standing wave nature. Two-dimensional simulations and analytical calculations have been performed for a single isolated nanoring. Results reveal that the observed modes can be interpreted in terms of quantized Damon-Eshbach modes due to lateral confinement in the finite size rings.

  5. Temporal evolutional absorption behaviors of graphene under Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the evolutional absorption behaviors of Landau-quantized graphene structure based on the transient solution to the density matrix equations of the motion. The impact of various system parameters on temporal evolution of probe absorption is studied. In addition, the required times for switching the high-absorption case to the zero-absorption (transparency) of a probe field is discussed. Due to unusual optical and electronic characteristics of graphene resulting from linear, massless dispersion of electrons near the Dirac point and the chiral character of electron states, our study may have potential applications in telecommunication, biomedicine, and optical information processing and may cause significant impact on technological applications.

  6. Canonical quantization of general relativity in discrete space-times.

    PubMed

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2003-01-17

    It has long been recognized that lattice gauge theory formulations, when applied to general relativity, conflict with the invariance of the theory under diffeomorphisms. We analyze discrete lattice general relativity and develop a canonical formalism that allows one to treat constrained theories in Lorentzian signature space-times. The presence of the lattice introduces a "dynamical gauge" fixing that makes the quantization of the theories conceptually clear, albeit computationally involved. The problem of a consistent algebra of constraints is automatically solved in our approach. The approach works successfully in other field theories as well, including topological theories. A simple cosmological application exhibits quantum elimination of the singularity at the big bang.

  7. Image compression with embedded wavelet coding via vector quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1995-09-01

    In this research, we improve Shapiro's EZW algorithm by performing the vector quantization (VQ) of the wavelet transform coefficients. The proposed VQ scheme uses different vector dimensions for different wavelet subbands and also different codebook sizes so that more bits are assigned to those subbands that have more energy. Another feature is that the vector codebooks used are tree-structured to maintain the embedding property. Finally, the energy of these vectors is used as a prediction parameter between different scales to improve the performance. We investigate the performance of the proposed method together with the 7 - 9 tap bi-orthogonal wavelet basis, and look into ways to incorporate loseless compression techniques.

  8. Quantization of fields in a Fabry-Perot cavity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezawa, H.

    A Fabry-Perot cavity, which consists of two highly reflective but slightly transmissive mirrors facing each other, is used as an interferometer in the gravitational wave detectors now being developed in Tokyo and elsewhere. The sensitive mirrors are suspended freely in order to respond to the weak, incoming waves; the quantum fluctuations of the radiation pressure can be a source of noise to the mirrors. This paper examines the orthogonality and the completeness of the eigenmodes of the radiation field in the cavity as constructed by Ley and Loundon (1987) for the purpose of field quantization.

  9. Basis light-front quantization approach to positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiecki, Paul; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xingbo; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.

    2015-05-01

    We present the first application of the recently developed basis light-front quantization (BLFQ) method to self-bound systems in quantum field theory, using the positronium system as a test case. Within the BLFQ framework, we develop a two-body effective interaction, operating only in the lowest Fock sector, that implements photon exchange, neglecting fermion self-energy effects. We then solve for the mass spectrum of this interaction at the unphysical coupling α =0.3 . The resulting spectrum is in good agreement with the expected Bohr spectrum of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. We examine in detail the dependence of the results on the regulators of the theory.

  10. Quantized Vortices and Four-Component Superfluidity of Semiconductor Excitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anankine, Romain; Beian, Mussie; Dang, Suzanne; Alloing, Mathieu; Cambril, Edmond; Merghem, Kamel; Carbonell, Carmen Gomez; Lemaître, Aristide; Dubin, François

    2017-03-01

    We study spatially indirect excitons of GaAs quantum wells, confined in a 10 μ m electrostatic trap. Below a critical temperature of about 1 K, we detect macroscopic spatial coherence and quantized vortices in the weak photoluminescence emitted from the trap. These quantum signatures are restricted to a narrow range of density, in a dilute regime. They manifest the formation of a four-component superfluid, made by a low population of optically bright excitons coherently coupled to a dominant fraction of optically dark excitons.

  11. Area theorem and energy quantization for dissipative optical solitons

    PubMed Central

    Renninger, William H.; Chong, Andy; Wise, Frank W.

    2011-01-01

    Soliton area theorems express the pulse energy as a function of the pulse shape and the system parameters. From an analytical solution to the cubic-quintic Ginzbug-Landau equation, we derive an area theorem for dissipative optical solitons. In contrast to area theorems for conservative optical solitons, the energy does not scale inversely with the pulse duration, and in addition there is an upper limit to the energy. Energy quantization explains the existence of, and conditions for, multiple-pulse solutions. The theoretical predictions are confirmed with numerical simulations and experiments in the context of dissipative soliton fiber lasers. PMID:21765589

  12. Gravity quantized: Loop quantum gravity with a scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Domagala, Marcin; Kaminski, Wojciech; Giesel, Kristina; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2010-11-15

    ...''but we do not have quantum gravity.'' This phrase is often used when analysis of a physical problem enters the regime in which quantum gravity effects should be taken into account. In fact, there are several models of the gravitational field coupled to (scalar) fields for which the quantization procedure can be completed using loop quantum gravity techniques. The model we present in this paper consists of the gravitational field coupled to a scalar field. The result has similar structure to the loop quantum cosmology models, except that it involves all the local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field because no symmetry reduction has been performed at the classical level.

  13. Quantization of Kerr-Newman Black Hole Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guang-Hui; Li, Chuan-An

    2017-08-01

    Kerr-Newman black hole entropy in phase space is systematically investigated by constructing the six-dimensional phase space within gauge transformation. Then considering the corresponding mechanical quantities as operators and making them quantized, entropy spectrum of Kerr-Newman black hole is obtained. Our results demonstrate that Kerr-Newman black hole has an equal-interval entropy spectrum, which coincides with the view of Bekenstein. It also shows that Kerr-Newman black hole entropy is not zero, but exists a ground-state entropy, which still retains some basic information.

  14. Work extraction from heat-powered quantized optomechanical setups

    PubMed Central

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D.; Kurizki, G.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze work extraction from an autonomous (self-contained) heat-powered optomechanical setup. The initial state of the quantized mechanical oscillator plays a key role. As the initial mean amplitude of the oscillator decreases, the resulting efficiency increases. In contrast to laser-powered self-induced oscillations, work extraction from a broadband heat bath does not require coherence or phase-locking: an initial phase-averaged coherent state of the oscillator still yields work, as opposed to an initial Fock-state. PMID:25589170

  15. Progress on the three-particle quantization condition

    SciTech Connect

    Briceno, Raul; Hansen, Mawell T.; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2016-10-01

    We report progress on extending the relativistic model-independent quantization condition for three particles, derived previously by two of us, to a broader class of theories, as well as progress on checking the formalism. In particular, we discuss the extension to include the possibility of 2->3 and 3->2 transitions and the calculation of the finite-volume energy shift of an Efimov-like three-particle bound state. The latter agrees with the results obtained previously using non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  16. Spin-resolved conductance quantization in InAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, H.; Benter, T.; von Ahnen, I.; Jacob, J.; Matsuyama, T.; Merkt, U.; Kunze, U.; Wieck, A. D.; Reuter, D.; Heyn, C.; Hansen, W.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the quantized conductance through side- and top-gated InAs quantum point contacts and discuss its dependence on the temperature and on a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the sample plane. Even in the absence of a magnetic field we observe besides the integer steps in units of 2e2/h spin-resolved steps in units of e2/h up to the highest occupied mode. A conductance anomaly at 0.7 × 2e2/h is found as well.

  17. The lattice and quantized Yang–Mills theory

    DOE PAGES

    Creutz, Michael

    2015-11-30

    Quantized Yang–Mills fields lie at the heart of our understanding of the strong nuclear force. To understand the theory at low energies, we must work in the strong coupling regime. The primary technique for this is the lattice. While basically an ultraviolet regulator, the lattice avoids the use of a perturbative expansion. In this paper, I discuss the historical circumstances that drove us to this approach, which has had immense success, convincingly demonstrating quark confinement and obtaining crucial properties of the strong interactions from first principles.

  18. Phonocardiogram signal compression using sound repetition and vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong; Zhang, Jinhui; Sun, Jian; Qiu, Tianshuang; Park, Yongwan

    2016-04-01

    A phonocardiogram (PCG) signal can be recorded for long-term heart monitoring. A huge amount of data is produced if the time of a recording is as long as days or weeks. It is necessary to compress the PCG signal to reduce storage space in a record and play system. In another situation, the PCG signal is transmitted to a remote health care center for automatic analysis in telemedicine. Compression of the PCG signal in that situation is necessary as a means for reducing the amount of data to be transmitted. Since heart beats are of a cyclical nature, compression can make use of the similarities in adjacent cycles by eliminating repetitive elements as redundant. This study proposes a new compression method that takes advantage of these repetitions. Data compression proceeds in two stages, a training stage followed by the compression as such. In the training stage, a section of the PCG signal is selected and its sounds and murmurs (if any) decomposed into time-frequency components. Basic components are extracted from these by clustering and collected to form a dictionary that allows the generative reconstruction and retrieval of any heart sound or murmur. In the compression stage, the heart sounds and murmurs are reconstructed from the basic components stored in the dictionary. Compression is made possible because only the times of occurrence and the dictionary indices of the basic components need to be stored, which greatly reduces the number of bits required to represent heart sounds and murmurs. The residual that cannot be reconstructed in this manner appears as a random sequence and is further compressed by vector quantization. What we propose are quick search parameters for this vector quantization. For normal PCG signals the compression ratio ranges from 20 to 149, for signals with median murmurs it ranges from 14 to 35, and for those with heavy murmurs, from 8 to 20, subject to a degree of distortion of ~5% (in percent root-mean-square difference) and a sampling

  19. BRST quantization of Polyakov's two-dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Katsumi

    1990-10-01

    Two-dimensional gravity coupled to minimal models is quantized in the chiral gauge by the BRST method. By using the Wakimoto construction for the gravity sector, we show how the quartet mechanism of Kugo and Ojima works and solve the physical state condition. As a result the positive semi-definiteness of the physical subspace is shown. The formula of Knizhnik et al. for gravitational scaling dimensions is rederived from the physical state condition. We also observe a relation between the chiral gauge and the conformal gauge.

  20. Quantized Vortices and Four-Component Superfluidity of Semiconductor Excitons.

    PubMed

    Anankine, Romain; Beian, Mussie; Dang, Suzanne; Alloing, Mathieu; Cambril, Edmond; Merghem, Kamel; Carbonell, Carmen Gomez; Lemaître, Aristide; Dubin, François

    2017-03-24

    We study spatially indirect excitons of GaAs quantum wells, confined in a 10  μm electrostatic trap. Below a critical temperature of about 1 K, we detect macroscopic spatial coherence and quantized vortices in the weak photoluminescence emitted from the trap. These quantum signatures are restricted to a narrow range of density, in a dilute regime. They manifest the formation of a four-component superfluid, made by a low population of optically bright excitons coherently coupled to a dominant fraction of optically dark excitons.

  1. Motion on constant curvature spaces and quantization using Noether symmetries.

    PubMed

    Bracken, Paul

    2014-12-01

    A general approach is presented for quantizing a metric nonlinear system on a manifold of constant curvature. It makes use of a curvature dependent procedure which relies on determining Noether symmetries from the metric. The curvature of the space functions as a constant parameter. For a specific metric which defines the manifold, Lie differentiation of the metric gives these symmetries. A metric is used such that the resulting Schrödinger equation can be solved in terms of hypergeometric functions. This permits the investigation of both the energy spectrum and wave functions exactly for this system.

  2. Quantization of a theory of 2D dilaton gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alwis, S. P.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the quantization of the 2D gravity theory of Callan, Giddings, Harvey, and Strominger (CGHS), following the procedure of David, and of Distler and Kawai. We find that the physics depends crucially on whether the number of matter fields is greater than or less than 24. In the latter case the singularity pointed out by several authors is absent but the physical interpretation is unclear. In the former case (the one studied by CGHS) the quantum theory which gives CGHS in the linear dilaton semi-classical limit, is different from that which gives CGHS in the extreme Liouville regime.

  3. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  4. Noncommutative Dirac quantization condition using the Seiberg-Witten map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceda, Marco; Martínez-Carbajal, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    The Dirac quantization condition (DQC) for magnetic monopoles in noncommutative space-time is analyzed. For this a noncommutative generalization of the method introduced by Wu and Yang is considered; the effects of noncommutativity are analyzed using the Seiberg-Witten map and the corresponding deformed Maxwell's equations are discussed. By using a perturbation expansion in the noncommutativity parameter θ , we show first that the DQC remains unmodified up to the first and second order. This result is then generalized to all orders in the expansion parameter for a class of noncommutative electric currents induced by the Seiberg-Witten map; these currents reduce to the Dirac delta function in the commutative limit.

  5. Charge retention in quantized energy levels of nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dâna, Aykutlu; Akça, İmran; Ergun, Orçun; Aydınlı, Atilla; Turan, Raşit; Finstad, Terje G.

    2007-04-01

    Understanding charging mechanisms and charge retention dynamics of nanocrystal (NC) memory devices is important in optimization of device design. Capacitance spectroscopy on PECVD grown germanium NCs embedded in a silicon oxide matrix was performed. Dynamic measurements of discharge dynamics are carried out. Charge decay is modelled by assuming storage of carriers in the ground states of NCs and that the decay is dominated by direct tunnelling. Discharge rates are calculated using the theoretical model for different NC sizes and densities and are compared with experimental data. Experimental results agree well with the proposed model and suggest that charge is indeed stored in the quantized energy levels of the NCs.

  6. Synthetic aperture radar signal data compression using block adaptive quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuduvalli, Gopinath; Dutkiewicz, Melanie; Cumming, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an on-board SAR signal data compression algorithm for ESA's ENVISAT satellite. The Block Adaptive Quantization (BAQ) algorithm was selected, and optimized for the various operational modes of the ASAR instrument. A flexible BAQ scheme was developed which allows a selection of compression ratio/image quality trade-offs. Test results show the high quality of the SAR images processed from the reconstructed signal data, and the feasibility of on-board implementation using a single ASIC.

  7. Quantization of the Sobolev space of half-differentiable functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, A. G.

    2016-10-01

    A quantization of the Sobolev space V=H_01/2(S^1, R) of half- differentiable functions on the circle, which is closely connected with string theory, is constructed. The group {QS}(S^1) of quasisymmetric circle homeomorphisms acts on V by reparametrizations, but this action is not smooth. Nevertheless, a quantum infinitesimal action of {QS}(S^1) on V can be defined, which enables one to construct a quantum algebra of observables which is associated with the system (V,{QS}(S^1)). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  8. q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Charles A.

    1995-01-01

    The q-analogue coherent states are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a 1-analogue quantized radiation field in the q-CS classical limits where the absolute value of z is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/absolute value of z) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H(sub N) = h(omega)(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that (Delta N)(exp 2)/ (N) approaches 0 as the absolute value of z approaches infinity. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, phi(sub q), still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, Delta(N) Delta phi(sub q) = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, (N, phi(sub q)) = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and phi(sub q) are almost canonically conjugate operators in the q-CS classical limit. The q-analogue CS's minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate (absolute value of z)(exp 2).

  9. Unified framework for quasispecies evolution and stochastic quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we provide a unified framework for quasispecies evolution and stochastic quantization. We map the biological evolution described by the quasispecies equation to the stochastic dynamics of an ensemble of particles undergoing a creation-annihilation process. We show that this mapping identifies a natural decomposition of the probability that an individual has a certain genotype into eigenfunctions of the evolutionary operator. This alternative approach to study the quasispecies equation allows for a generalization of the Fisher theorem equivalent to the Price equation. According to this relation the average fitness of an asexual population increases with time proportional to the variance of the eigenvalues of the evolutionary operator. Moreover, from the present alternative formulation of stochastic quantization a novel scenario emerges to be compared with existing approaches. The evolution of an ensemble of particles undergoing diffusion and a creation-annihilation process is parametrized by a variable β that we call the inverse temperature of the stochastic dynamics. We find that the evolution equation at high temperatures is simply related to the Schrödinger equation, but at low temperature it strongly deviates from it. In the presence of additional noise in scattering processes between the particles, the evolution reaches a steady state described by the Bose-Einstein statistics.

  10. Size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene constrictions.

    PubMed

    Terrés, B; Chizhova, L A; Libisch, F; Peiro, J; Jörger, D; Engels, S; Girschik, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Rotkin, S V; Burgdörfer, J; Stampfer, C

    2016-05-20

    Quantum point contacts are cornerstones of mesoscopic physics and central building blocks for quantum electronics. Although the Fermi wavelength in high-quality bulk graphene can be tuned up to hundreds of nanometres, the observation of quantum confinement of Dirac electrons in nanostructured graphene has proven surprisingly challenging. Here we show ballistic transport and quantized conductance of size-confined Dirac fermions in lithographically defined graphene constrictions. At high carrier densities, the observed conductance agrees excellently with the Landauer theory of ballistic transport without any adjustable parameter. Experimental data and simulations for the evolution of the conductance with magnetic field unambiguously confirm the identification of size quantization in the constriction. Close to the charge neutrality point, bias voltage spectroscopy reveals a renormalized Fermi velocity of ∼1.5 × 10(6) m s(-1) in our constrictions. Moreover, at low carrier density transport measurements allow probing the density of localized states at edges, thus offering a unique handle on edge physics in graphene devices.

  11. Minimally destructive Doppler measurement of a quantized, superfluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Neil; Kumar, Avinash; Eckel, Stephen; Stringari, Sandro; Campbell, Gretchen

    2016-05-01

    Ring shaped Bose-Einstein condensates are of interest because they support the existence of quantized, persistent currents. These currents arise because in a ring trap, the wavefunction of the condensate must be single valued, and thus the azimuthal velocity is quantized. Previously, these persistent current states have only been measured in a destructive fashion via either interference with a phase reference or using the size of a central vortex-like structure that appears in time of flight. Here, we demonstrate a minimally destructive, in-situ measurement of the winding number of a ring shaped BEC. We excite a standing wave of phonon modes in the ring BEC using a perturbation. If the condensate is in a nonzero circulation state, then the frequency of these phonon modes are Doppler shifted, causing the standing wave to precess about the ring. From the direction and velocity of this precession, we can infer the winding number of the flow. For certain parameters, this technique can detect individual winding numbers with approximately 90% fidelity.

  12. Imaging of quantized magnetostatic modes using spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaru, S.; Bain, J. A.; van de Veerdonk, R. J. M.; Crawford, T. M.; Covington, M.; Kryder, M. H.

    2002-05-01

    We present a measurement technique for performing spatially resolved ferromagnetic resonance and directly imaging quantized magnetostatic modes in magnetic samples that undergo high frequency magnetic drive fields (up to 8 GHz). The dynamic response of a 50×50 μm2 permalloy structure (100 nm thick) under a 7.04 GHz highly nonuniform drive field was measured as a function of the dc bias field using this technique. The magnetization variation observed indicates that quantized magnetostatic mode waves appear at certain bias fields, with the number of nodes decreasing with an increase in the bias field. We tentatively assign the indices of each mode using the Damon-Eshbach (DE) model. Similar modes have been observed for a similar sample geometry using an inductive measurement and they showed good agreement with the DE model. However, the result measured using this technique showed some discrepancy with the DE model and the spatial patterns observed are more complicated than simple one-dimensional standing waves. This complexity suggests that analysis beyond that of the DE model is required to explain the observations.

  13. Deformation Quantization and Superconformal Symmetry in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, Christopher; Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the structure of certain protected operator algebras that arise in three-dimensional {\\mathcal{N}=4} superconformal field theories. We find that these algebras can be understood as a quantization of (either of) the half-BPS chiral ring(s). An important feature of this quantization is that it has a preferred basis in which the structure constants of the quantum algebra are equal to the OPE coefficients of the underlying superconformal theory. We identify several nontrivial conditions that the quantum algebra must satisfy in this basis. We consider examples of theories for which the moduli space of vacua is either the minimal nilpotent orbit of a simple Lie algebra or a Kleinian singularity. For minimal nilpotent orbits, the quantum algebras (and their preferred bases) can be uniquely determined. These algebras are related to higher spin algebras. For Kleinian singularities the algebras can be characterized abstractly—they are spherical subalgebras of symplectic reflection algebras—but the preferred basis is not easily determined. We find evidence in these examples that for a given choice of quantum algebra (defined up to a certain gauge equivalence), there is at most one choice of canonical basis. We conjecture that this is the case for general {\\mathcal{N}=4} SCFTs.

  14. Pisot q-coherent states quantization of the harmonic oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Gazeau, J.P.; Olmo, M.A. del

    2013-03-15

    We revisit the quantized version of the harmonic oscillator obtained through a q-dependent family of coherent states. For each q, 0Quantized version of the harmonic oscillator (HO) through a q-family of coherent states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For q,0

  15. Quantization and harmonic analysis on nilpotent Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wildberger, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Weyl Quantization is a procedure for associating a function on which the canonical commutation relations are realized. If G is a simply-connected, connected nilpotent Lie group with Lie algebra g and dual g/sup */, it is shown how to inductively construct symplectic isomorphisms between every co-adjoint orbit O and the bundle in Hilbert Space for some m. Weyl Quantization can then be used to associate to each orbit O a unitary representation rho/sub 0/ of G, recovering the classification of the unitary dual by Kirillov. It is used to define a geometric Fourier transform, F : L/sup 1/(G) ..-->.. functions on g/sup */, and it is shown that the usual operator-valued Fourier transform can be recovered from F, characters are inverse Fourier transforms of invariant measures on orbits, and matrix coefficients are inverse Fourier transforms of non-invariant measures supported on orbits. Realizations of the representations rho/sub 0/ in subspaces of L/sup 2/(O) are obtained.. Finally, the kernel function is computed for the upper triangular unipotent group and one other example.

  16. Deformation Quantization and Superconformal Symmetry in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beem, Christopher; Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the structure of certain protected operator algebras that arise in three-dimensional N=4 superconformal field theories. We find that these algebras can be understood as a quantization of (either of) the half-BPS chiral ring(s). An important feature of this quantization is that it has a preferred basis in which the structure constants of the quantum algebra are equal to the OPE coefficients of the underlying superconformal theory. We identify several nontrivial conditions that the quantum algebra must satisfy in this basis. We consider examples of theories for which the moduli space of vacua is either the minimal nilpotent orbit of a simple Lie algebra or a Kleinian singularity. For minimal nilpotent orbits, the quantum algebras (and their preferred bases) can be uniquely determined. These algebras are related to higher spin algebras. For Kleinian singularities the algebras can be characterized abstractly—they are spherical subalgebras of symplectic reflection algebras—but the preferred basis is not easily determined. We find evidence in these examples that for a given choice of quantum algebra (defined up to a certain gauge equivalence), there is at most one choice of canonical basis. We conjecture that this is the case for general N=4 SCFTs.

  17. Adaptive Quantization Parameter Cascading in HEVC Hierarchical Coding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiesong; Wang, Zhou; Chen, Chang Wen

    2016-04-20

    The state-of-the-art High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard adopts a hierarchical coding structure to improve its coding efficiency. This allows for the Quantization Parameter Cascading (QPC) scheme that assigns Quantization Parameters (Qps) to different hierarchical layers in order to further improve the Rate-Distortion (RD) performance. However, only static QPC schemes have been suggested in HEVC test model (HM), which are unable to fully explore the potentials of QPC. In this paper, we propose an adaptive QPC scheme for HEVC hierarchical structure to code natural video sequences characterized by diversified textures, motions and encoder configurations. We formulate the adaptive QPC scheme as a non-linear programming problem and solve it in a scientifically sound way with a manageable low computational overhead. The proposed model addresses a generic Qp assignment problem of video coding. Therefore, it also applies to Group-Of-Picture (GOP)- level, frame-level and Coding Unit (CU)-level Qp assignments. Comprehensive experiments have demonstrated the proposed QPC scheme is able to adapt quickly to different video contents and coding configurations while achieving noticeable RD performance enhancement over all static and adaptive QPC schemes under comparison as well as HEVC default frame-level rate control. We have also made valuable observations on the distributions of adaptive QPC sets in videos of different types of contents, which provide useful insights on how to further improve static QPC schemes.

  18. Adaptive Quantization Parameter Cascading in HEVC Hierarchical Coding.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiesong; Wang, Zhou; Chen, Chang Wen

    2016-07-01

    The state-of-the-art High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard adopts a hierarchical coding structure to improve its coding efficiency. This allows for the quantization parameter cascading (QPC) scheme that assigns quantization parameters (Qps) to different hierarchical layers in order to further improve the rate-distortion (RD) performance. However, only static QPC schemes have been suggested in HEVC test model, which are unable to fully explore the potentials of QPC. In this paper, we propose an adaptive QPC scheme for an HEVC hierarchical structure to code natural video sequences characterized by diversified textures, motions, and encoder configurations. We formulate the adaptive QPC scheme as a non-linear programming problem and solve it in a scientifically sound way with a manageable low computational overhead. The proposed model addresses a generic Qp assignment problem of video coding. Therefore, it also applies to group-of-picture-level, frame-level and coding unit-level Qp assignments. Comprehensive experiments have demonstrated that the proposed QPC scheme is able to adapt quickly to different video contents and coding configurations while achieving noticeable RD performance enhancement over all static and adaptive QPC schemes under comparison as well as HEVC default frame-level rate control. We have also made valuable observations on the distributions of adaptive QPC sets in the videos of different types of contents, which provide useful insights on how to further improve static QPC schemes.

  19. Universality and quantized response in bosonic mesoscopic tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shaoyu; Béri, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    We show that tunneling involving bosonic wires and/or boson integer quantum Hall (bIQH) edges is characterized by features that are far more universal than those in their fermionic counterpart. Considering a pair of minimal geometries, we examine the tunneling conductance as a function of energy (e.g., chemical potential bias) at high and low energy limits, finding a low energy enhancement and a universal high versus zero energy relation that hold for all wire/bIQH edge combinations. Beyond this universality present in all the different topological (bIQH-edge) and nontopological (wire) setups, we also discover a number of features distinguishing the topological bIQH edges, which include a current imbalance to chemical potential bias ratio that is quantized despite the lack of conductance quantization in the bIQH edges themselves. The predicted phenomena require only initial states to be thermal and thus are well suited for tests with ultracold bosons forming wires and bIQH states. For the latter, we highlight a potential realization based on single component bosons in the recently observed Harper-Hofstadter band structure.

  20. Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Barbarien, Joeri; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

  1. Quantization of Space in the Presence of a Minimal Length

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lun-Zhou; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we apply the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP), which is consistent with quantum gravity theories to an elementary particle in a finite potential well, and study the quantum behavior in this system. The generalized Hamiltonian contains two additional terms, which are proportional to ap3 (the result of the maximum momentum assumption) and α2p4 (the result of the minimum length assumption), where α ∼ 1/MPIc is the GUP parameter. On the basis of the work by Ali et al., we solve the generalized Schrödinger equation which is extended to include the α2 correction term, and find that the length L of the finite potential well must be quantized. Then a generalization to the double-square-well potential is discussed. The result shows that all the measurable lengths especially the distance between the two potential wells are quantized in units of α0lPI in GUP scenario. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 10865003 and 11464005

  2. Analysis of the quantum bouncer using polymer quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Ruiz, A.; Frank, A.; Urrutia, L. F.

    2015-08-01

    Polymer quantization (PQ) is a background independent quantization scheme that arises in loop quantum gravity. This framework leads to a new short-distance (discretized) structure characterized by a fundamental length. In this paper we use PQ to analyze the problem of a particle bouncing on a perfectly reflecting surface under the influence of Earth's gravitational field. In this scenario, deviations from the usual quantum effects are induced by the spatial discreteness, but not by a new short-range gravitational interaction. We solve the polymer Schrödinger equation in an analytical fashion, and we evaluate numerically the corresponding energy levels. We find that the polymer energy spectrum exhibits a negative shift compared to the one obtained for the quantum bouncer. The comparison of our results with those obtained in the GRANIT experiment leads to an upper bound for the fundamental length scale, namely λ ≪0.6 Å . We find polymer corrections to the transition probability between levels, induced by small vibrations, together with the probability of spontaneous emission in the quadrupole approximation.

  3. Minimizing embedding impact in steganography using trellis-coded quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filler, Tomáš; Judas, Jan; Fridrich, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a practical approach to minimizing embedding impact in steganography based on syndrome coding and trellis-coded quantization and contrast its performance with bounds derived from appropriate rate-distortion bounds. We assume that each cover element can be assigned a positive scalar expressing the impact of making an embedding change at that element (single-letter distortion). The problem is to embed a given payload with minimal possible average embedding impact. This task, which can be viewed as a generalization of matrix embedding or writing on wet paper, has been approached using heuristic and suboptimal tools in the past. Here, we propose a fast and very versatile solution to this problem that can theoretically achieve performance arbitrarily close to the bound. It is based on syndrome coding using linear convolutional codes with the optimal binary quantizer implemented using the Viterbi algorithm run in the dual domain. The complexity and memory requirements of the embedding algorithm are linear w.r.t. the number of cover elements. For practitioners, we include detailed algorithms for finding good codes and their implementation. Finally, we report extensive experimental results for a large set of relative payloads and for different distortion profiles, including the wet paper channel.

  4. Phase Structure of a Quantized Chiral Soliton on S3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, A.; Sawada, S.

    1993-11-01

    A quantization of a breathing motion of a rotating chiral soliton on S3 is performed in terms of a family of trial functions for a profile function of the hedgehog ansatz. We determine eigenenergies of the quantized S3 skyrmion by solving the Schrödinger equation of the breathing mode for several lower spin and isospin states varying the Skyrme term constants e. When S3 radius is smaller than 2/efπ, where fπ is the pion decay constant, we always obtain a conformal map solution as the lowest eigenenergy state. In the conformal map case, allowed states are either symmetric or anti-symmetric under the inversion of a dynamical variable describing the breathing mode. As the S3 radius increases the energy splitting between the symmetric and anti-symmetric states rapidly decreases and two states degenerate completely. When the S3 radius is larger than 3/efπ, for the small Skyrme term constant e, the lowest eigenenergy states are obtained with the profile function given by an arccosine form which is almost the same to those of usual R3 skyrmion. When the effects of the Skyrme term are weak, i.e., large e, the lowest energy states are obtained by the profile function of conformal map, which correspond to the ``frozen states'' for the R3 skyrmion as the limit of S3 radius --> ∞.

  5. A short course on quantum mechanics and methods of quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercolessi, Elisa

    2015-07-01

    These notes collect the lectures given by the author to the "XXIII International Workshop on Geometry and Physics" held in Granada (Spain) in September 2014. The first part of this paper aims at introducing a mathematical oriented reader to the realm of Quantum Mechanics (QM) and then to present the geometric structures that underline the mathematical formalism of QM which, contrary to what is usually done in Classical Mechanics (CM), are usually not taught in introductory courses. The mathematics related to Hilbert spaces and Differential Geometry are assumed to be known by the reader. In the second part, we concentrate on some quantization procedures, that are founded on the geometric structures of QM — as we have described them in the first part — and represent the ones that are more operatively used in modern theoretical physics. We will discuss first the so-called Coherent State Approach which, mainly complemented by "Feynman Path Integral Technique", is the method which is most widely used in quantum field theory. Finally, we will describe the "Weyl Quantization Approach" which is at the origin of modern tomographic techniques, originally used in optics and now in quantum information theory.

  6. Topos quantum theory on quantization-induced sheaves

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Kunji

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we construct a sheaf-based topos quantum theory. It is well known that a topos quantum theory can be constructed on the topos of presheaves on the category of commutative von Neumann algebras of bounded operators on a Hilbert space. Also, it is already known that quantization naturally induces a Lawvere-Tierney topology on the presheaf topos. We show that a topos quantum theory akin to the presheaf-based one can be constructed on sheaves defined by the quantization-induced Lawvere-Tierney topology. That is, starting from the spectral sheaf as a state space of a given quantum system, we construct sheaf-based expressions of physical propositions and truth objects, and thereby give a method of truth-value assignment to the propositions. Furthermore, we clarify the relationship to the presheaf-based quantum theory. We give translation rules between the sheaf-based ingredients and the corresponding presheaf-based ones. The translation rules have “coarse-graining” effects on the spaces of the presheaf-based ingredients; a lot of different proposition presheaves, truth presheaves, and presheaf-based truth-values are translated to a proposition sheaf, a truth sheaf, and a sheaf-based truth-value, respectively. We examine the extent of the coarse-graining made by translation.

  7. Charge quantization in the CP(1) nonlinear σ-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellerman, Simeon; Kehayias, John; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the consistency conditions for matter fields coupled to the four-dimensional (N=1 supersymmetric) CP(1) nonlinear sigma model (the coset space SU(2/U(1). We find that consistency requires that the U(1 charge of the matter be quantized, in units of half of the U(1 charge of the Nambu-Goldstone (NG) boson, if the matter has a nonsingular kinetic term and the dynamics respect the full group SU(2. We can then take the linearly realized group U(1 to comprise the weak hypercharge group U(1 of the Standard Model. Thus we have charge quantization without a Grand Unified Theory (GUT), completely avoiding problems like proton decay, doublet-triplet splitting, and magnetic monopoles. We briefly investigate the phenomenological implications of this model-building framework. The NG boson is fractionally charged and completely stable. It can be naturally light, avoiding constraints while being a component of dark matter or having applications in nuclear physics. We also comment on the extension to other NLSMs on coset spaces, which will be explored more fully in a followup paper.

  8. Size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene constrictions

    PubMed Central

    Terrés, B.; Chizhova, L. A.; Libisch, F.; Peiro, J.; Jörger, D.; Engels, S.; Girschik, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Rotkin, S. V.; Burgdörfer, J.; Stampfer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum point contacts are cornerstones of mesoscopic physics and central building blocks for quantum electronics. Although the Fermi wavelength in high-quality bulk graphene can be tuned up to hundreds of nanometres, the observation of quantum confinement of Dirac electrons in nanostructured graphene has proven surprisingly challenging. Here we show ballistic transport and quantized conductance of size-confined Dirac fermions in lithographically defined graphene constrictions. At high carrier densities, the observed conductance agrees excellently with the Landauer theory of ballistic transport without any adjustable parameter. Experimental data and simulations for the evolution of the conductance with magnetic field unambiguously confirm the identification of size quantization in the constriction. Close to the charge neutrality point, bias voltage spectroscopy reveals a renormalized Fermi velocity of ∼1.5 × 106 m s−1 in our constrictions. Moreover, at low carrier density transport measurements allow probing the density of localized states at edges, thus offering a unique handle on edge physics in graphene devices. PMID:27198961

  9. Collective quantization of three-flavored Skyrmions reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Cherman, Aleksey; Cohen, Thomas D.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Lynch, Erin M.

    2005-11-01

    A self-consistent large N{sub c} approach is developed for the collective quantization of SU(3) flavor hedgehog solitons, such as the Skyrmion. The key to this analysis is the determination of all of the zero-modes associated with small fluctuations around the hedgehog. These are used in the conventional way to construct collective coordinates. This approach differs from previous work in that it does not implicitly assume that each static zero-mode is associated with a dynamical zero-mode. It is demonstrated explicitly in the context of the Skyrmion that there are fewer dynamical zero-modes than static ones due to the Witten-Wess-Zumino term in the action. Group-theoretic methods are employed to identify the physical states resulting from canonical quantization of the collectively rotating soliton. The collective states fall into representations of SU(3) flavor labeled by (p,q) and are given by (2J,(Nc/2)-J) where J=(1/2),(3/2),{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot} is the spin of the collective state. States with strangeness S>0 do not arise as collective states from this procedure; thus the {theta}{sup +} (pentaquark) resonance does not arise as a collective excitation in models of this type.

  10. Path-memory induced quantization of classical orbits

    PubMed Central

    Fort, Emmanuel; Eddi, Antonin; Boudaoud, Arezki; Moukhtar, Julien; Couder, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A droplet bouncing on a liquid bath can self-propel due to its interaction with the waves it generates. The resulting “walker” is a dynamical association where, at a macroscopic scale, a particle (the droplet) is driven by a pilot-wave field. A specificity of this system is that the wave field itself results from the superposition of the waves generated at the points of space recently visited by the particle. It thus contains a memory of the past trajectory of the particle. Here, we investigate the response of this object to forces orthogonal to its motion. We find that the resulting closed orbits present a spontaneous quantization. This is observed only when the memory of the system is long enough for the particle to interact with the wave sources distributed along the whole orbit. An additional force then limits the possible orbits to a discrete set. The wave-sustained path memory is thus demonstrated to generate a quantization of angular momentum. Because a quantum-like uncertainty was also observed recently in these systems, the nonlocality generated by path memory opens new perspectives.

  11. Study on macroblock level distortion-quantization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Longsheng; Yin, Haibing; Wang, Jia; Xu, Ning; Tan, Jingjing

    2012-04-01

    In H.264/AVC, rate distortion (R-D) model plays an important role in rate control and mode decision for efficient video compression. In general, R-D model includes rate quantization (R-Q) model and distortion quantization (D-Q) model. We have already had a study on frame-level D-Q model in the past, it is meaningful for frame level rate control optimization. However, basic unit level R-D model is crucial for precise rate control and efficient mode decision. Therefore, it is necessary to make in-depth analysis on D-Q model at MB level. In this paper, we test several existing D-Q models and give fair comparison on these models, and have an in-depth study on D-Q modeling from accuracy, complexity and applications. Finally, we have shown advantages and disadvantages of these models. This work is meaningful for efficient video coding algorithm optimization in the future.

  12. Optical evidence for quantization in transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Katsumi; Nomura, Kenji; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2012-08-01

    We fabricated transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor superlattices composed of In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) well layers and Ga2O3 (a-Ga2O3) barrier layers, and investigated their optical absorption properties to examine energy quantization in the a-IGZO well layer. The Tauc gap of a-IGZO well layers monotonically increases with decreasing well thickness at ≤5 nm. The thickness dependence of the Tauc gap is quantitatively explained by a Krönig-Penny model employing a conduction band offset of 1.2 eV between the a-IGZO and the a-Ga2O3, and the effective masses of 0.35m0 for the a-IGZO well layer and 0.5m0 for the a-Ga2O3 barrier layer, where m0 is the electron rest mass. This result demonstrates the quantization in the a-IGZO well layer. The phase relaxation length of the a-IGZO is estimated to be larger than 3.5 nm.

  13. Exact quantization conditions, toric Calabi-Yau and non-perturbative topological string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kaiwen; Wang, Xin; Huang, Min-xin

    2017-01-01

    We establish the precise relation between the Nekrasov-Shatashvili (NS) quantization scheme and Grassi-Hatsuda-Mariño conjecture for the mirror curve of arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau threefold. For a mirror curve of genus g, the NS quantization scheme leads to g quantization conditions for the corresponding integrable system. The exact NS quantization conditions enjoy a self S-duality with respect to Planck constant h and can be derived from the Lockhart-Vafa partition function of non-perturbative topological string. Based on a recent observation on the correspondence between spectral theory and topological string, another quantization scheme was proposed by Grassi-Hatsuda-Mariño, in which there is a single quantization condition and the spectra are encoded in the vanishing of a quantum Riemann theta function. We demonstrate that there actually exist at least g nonequivalent quantum Riemann theta functions and the intersections of their theta divisors coincide with the spectra determined by the exact NS quantization conditions. This highly nontrivial coincidence between the two quantization schemes requires infinite constraints among the refined Gopakumar-Vafa invariants. The equivalence for mirror curves of genus one has been verified for some local del Pezzo surfaces. In this paper, we generalize the correspondence to higher genus, and analyze in detail the resolved C^3/Z_5 orbifold and several SU( N ) geometries. We also give a proof for some models at ħ = 2π /k.

  14. Fuzzy Adaptive Quantized Control for a Class of Stochastic Nonlinear Uncertain Systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy adaptive approach for stochastic strict-feedback nonlinear systems with quantized input signal is developed. Compared with the existing research on quantized input problem, the existing works focus on quantized stabilization, while this paper considers the quantized tracking problem, which recovers stabilization as a special case. In addition, uncertain nonlinearity and the unknown stochastic disturbances are simultaneously considered in the quantized feedback control systems. By putting forward a new nonlinear decomposition of the quantized input, the relationship between the control signal and the quantized signal is established, as a result, the major technique difficulty arising from the piece-wise quantized input is overcome. Based on fuzzy logic systems' universal approximation capability, a novel fuzzy adaptive tracking controller is constructed via backstepping technique. The proposed controller guarantees that the tracking error converges to a neighborhood of the origin in the sense of probability and all the signals in the closed-loop system remain bounded in probability. Finally, an example illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  15. Educational Information Quantization for Improving Content Quality in Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybanov, Alexander Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    The article offers the educational information quantization method for improving content quality in Learning Management Systems. The paper considers questions concerning analysis of quality of quantized presentation of educational information, based on quantitative text parameters: average frequencies of parts of speech, used in the text; formal…

  16. Geometric quantization of curvature energy in equipotential surfaces of ionic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandy, Paul J. F.; Klinowski, Jacek

    2002-06-01

    The curvature energies of triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS) and zero equipotential surfaces (ZEPS) of ionic crystals are both quantized with the Euler-Poincaré characteristic as the "quantum number," and the curvature energy of the TPMS larger than that of the corresponding ZEPS. Quantization is imposed by the charge-defined metric.

  17. Correlation Loss of a Gaussian Signal Passed Through an Odd Quantizer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The correlation coefficient of input signal component and quantizer output is shown to...be a weighted version of the corresponding input correlation coefficient . Furthermore, intervals of input rms voltage exist over which a given linear quantizer should be operated to minimize correlation loss. (Author)

  18. Central extension of mapping class group via Chekhov-Fock quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Binbin

    2016-12-01

    The central extension of mapping class groups of punctured surfaces of finite type that arises in Chekhov-Fock quantization is 12 times of the Meyer class plus the Euler classes of the punctures, which agree with the one arising in the Kashaev quantization.

  19. Quantization techniques for the compression of chest images by JPEG-type algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Walter F.; Gur, David

    1992-06-01

    The Joint Photographic Expert Group (JPEG) compression standard specifies a quantization procedure but does not specify a particular quantization table. In addition, there are quantization procedures which are effectively compatible with the standard but do not adhere to the simple quantization scheme described therein. These are important considerations, since it is the quantization procedure that primarily determines the compression ratio as well as the kind of information lost or artifacts introduced. A study has been conducted of issues related to the design of quantization techniques tailored for the compression of 12-bit chest images in radiology. Psycho-physical based quantization alone may not be optimal for images that are to be compressed and then used for primary diagnosis. Two specific examples of auxiliary techniques which can be used in conjunction with JPEG compression are presented here. In particular, preprocessing of the source image is shown to be advantageous under certain circumstances. In contrast, a proposed quantization technique in which isolated nonzero coefficients are removed has been shown to be generally detrimental. Image quality here is primarily measured by mean square error (MSE), although this study is in anticipation of more relevant reader performance studies of compression.

  20. On the Stochastic Quantization Method: Characteristics and Applications to Singular Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanenaga, Masahiko; Namiki, Mikio

    1996-01-01

    Introducing the generalized Langevin equation, we extend the stochastic quantization method so as to deal with singular dynamical systems beyond the ordinary territory of quantum mechanics. We also show how the uncertainty relation is built up to the quantum mechanical limit with respect to fictitious time, irrespective of its initial value, within the framework of the usual stochastic quantization method.

  1. Dynamic State Estimation of Power Systems With Quantization Effects: A Recursive Filter Approach.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Wang, Zidong; Liu, Xiaohui

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a recursive filter algorithm is developed to deal with the state estimation problem for power systems with quantized nonlinear measurements. The measurements from both the remote terminal units and the phasor measurement unit are subject to quantizations described by a logarithmic quantizer. Attention is focused on the design of a recursive filter such that, in the simultaneous presence of nonlinear measurements and quantization effects, an upper bound for the estimation error covariance is guaranteed and subsequently minimized. Instead of using the traditional approximation methods in nonlinear estimation that simply ignore the linearization errors, we treat both the linearization and quantization errors as norm-bounded uncertainties in the algorithm development so as to improve the performance of the estimator. For the power system with such kind of introduced uncertainties, a filter is designed in the framework of robust recursive estimation, and the developed filter algorithm is tested on the IEEE benchmark power system to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  2. Distortion-rate models for entropy-coded lattice vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Raffy, P; Antonini, M; Barlaud, M

    2000-01-01

    The increasing demand for real-time applications requires the use of variable-rate quantizers having good performance in the low bit rate domain. In order to minimize the complexity of quantization, as well as maintaining a reasonably high PSNR ratio, we propose to use an entropy-coded lattice vector quantizer (ECLVQ). These quantizers have proven to outperform the well-known EZW algorithm's performance in terms of rate-distortion tradeoff. In this paper, we focus our attention on the modeling of the mean squared error (MSE) distortion and the prefix code rate for ECLVQ. First, we generalize the distortion model of Jeong and Gibson (1993) on fixed-rate cubic quantizers to lattices under a high rate assumption. Second, we derive new rate models for ECLVQ, efficient at low bit rates without any high rate assumptions. Simulation results prove the precision of our models.

  3. Performance of peaky template matching under additive white Gaussian noise and uniform quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Matthew S.; Rigling, Brian D.

    2015-05-01

    Peaky template matching (PTM) is a special case of a general algorithm known as multinomial pattern matching originally developed for automatic target recognition of synthetic aperture radar data. The algorithm is a model- based approach that first quantizes pixel values into Nq = 2 discrete values yielding generative Beta-Bernoulli models as class-conditional templates. Here, we consider the case of classification of target chips in AWGN and develop approximations to image-to-template classification performance as a function of the noise power. We focus specifically on the case of a uniform quantization" scheme, where a fixed number of the largest pixels are quantized high as opposed to using a fixed threshold. This quantization method reduces sensitivity to the scaling of pixel intensities and quantization in general reduces sensitivity to various nuisance parameters difficult to account for a priori. Our performance expressions are verified using forward-looking infrared imagery from the Army Research Laboratory Comanche dataset.

  4. Modeling of quantization noise in linear analog-to-digital converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švihlík, Jan; Fliegel, Karel

    2013-09-01

    Quantization noise is present in all the current digital imaging systems, therefore its understanding and modeling is crucial for optimization of image reconstruction techniques. Hence, this paper deals with modeling of the quantization noise. We exploit the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT) for signal representation. We assume that the quantization noise in the spatial domain can be seen as additive, white and uniformly distributed. Hence, the UWT causes the transform of noise distribution due to weighted sum of noise samples and filter coefficients. From the known quantization step we are able to estimate suitable moments of noise uniform probability density function (PDF). These moments then could be directly evaluated in the undecimated wavelet domain using the derived equations. The presented algorithm gives the a priori information about the quantization noise and can be used for the suppression of it.

  5. On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Andrew G.

    2016-05-01

    In this letter we investigate the phenomenon of macroscopic quantization and consider particle on the ring interacting with the dissipative bath as an example. We demonstrate that even in presence of environment, there is macroscopically quantized observable which can take only integer values in the zero temperature limit. This fact follows from the total angular momentum conservation combined with momentum quantization for bare particle on the ring. The nontrivial thing is that the model under consideration, including the notion of quantized observable, can be mapped onto the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schon model of the single-electron box (SEB). We evaluate SEB observable, originating after mapping, and reveal new physics, which follows from the macroscopic quantization phenomenon and the existence of additional conservation law. Some generalizations of the obtained results are also presented.

  6. Polymer quantization of a self-gravitating thin shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziprick, Jonathan; Gegenberg, Jack; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2016-11-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of self-gravitating thin shell collapse by solving the polymerized Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We obtain the energy spectrum and solve the time-dependent equation using numerics. In contradistinction to the continuum theory, we are able to consistently quantize the theory for super-Planckian black holes, and find two choices of boundary conditions which conserve energy and probability, as opposed to one in the continuum theory. Another feature unique to the polymer theory is the existence of negative energy stationary states that disappear from the spectrum as the polymer scale goes to 0. In both theories the probability density is positive semidefinite only for the space of positive energy stationary states. Dynamically, we find that an initial Gaussian probability density develops regions of negative probability as the wave packet approaches R =0 and bounces. This implies that the bouncing state is a sum of both positive and negative eigenstates.

  7. Fractional Dirac bracket and quantization for constrained systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Everton M. C.; Godinho, Cresus F. L.

    2011-08-01

    So far, it is not well known how to deal with dissipative systems. There are many paths of investigation in the literature and none of them present a systematic and general procedure to tackle the problem. On the other hand, it is well known that the fractional formalism is a powerful alternative when treating dissipative problems. In this paper, we propose a detailed way of attacking the issue using fractional calculus to construct an extension of the Dirac brackets in order to carry out the quantization of nonconservative theories through the standard canonical way. We believe that, by using the extended Dirac bracket definition, it will be possible to analyze more deeply gauge theories starting with second-class systems.

  8. Magnetic anisotropy and quantized spin waves in hematite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Klausen, S.N.; Lefmann, K.; Lindgaard, P.-A.; Kuhn, L. Theil; Bahl, C.R.H.; Frandsen, C.; Moerup, S.; Roessli, B.; Cavadini, N.; Niedermayer, C.

    2004-12-01

    We report on the observation of high-frequency collective magnetic excitations ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}{approx_equal}1.1 meV, in hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. The neutron scattering experiments include measurements at temperatures in the range 6-300 K and applied fields up to 7.5 T as well as polarization analysis. We give an explanation for the field- and temperature dependence of the excitations, which are found to have strongly elliptical out-of-plane precession. The frequency of the excitations gives information on the magnetic anisotropy constants in the system. We have in this way determined the temperature dependence of the magnetic anisotropy, which is strongly related to the suppression of the Morin transition in nanoparticles of hematite. Further, the localization of the signal in both energy and momentum transfer brings evidence for finite-size quantization of spin waves in the system.

  9. Master equation for collective spontaneous emission with quantized atomic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damanet, François; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John

    2016-02-01

    We derive a Markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the consequences of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics, and applies equally well to distinguishable and indistinguishable atoms. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, and we find closed-form formulas for a number of relevant states (Gaussian states, Fock states, and thermal states). In particular, we show that dipole-dipole interactions and cooperative photon emission can be modulated through the external state of motion.

  10. Coexistence of Quantized, Time Dependent, Clusters in Globally Coupled Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Hongjie; Hu, Xin; Boccaletti, S.; Wang, Xingang; Zou, Yong; Liu, Zonghua; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-11-01

    We report on a novel collective state, occurring in globally coupled nonidentical oscillators in the proximity of the point where the transition from the system's incoherent to coherent phase converts from explosive to continuous. In such a state, the oscillators form quantized clusters, where neither their phases nor their instantaneous frequencies are locked. The oscillators' instantaneous speeds are different within the clusters, but they form a characteristic cusped pattern and, more importantly, they behave periodically in time so that their average values are the same. Given its intrinsic specular nature with respect to the recently introduced Chimera states, the phase is termed the Bellerophon state. We provide an analytical and numerical description of Bellerophon states, and furnish practical hints on how to seek them in a variety of experimental and natural systems.

  11. On a Quantization of the Classical theta-Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezhnev, Yurii V.

    2015-04-01

    The Jacobi theta-functions admit a definition through the autonomous differential equations (dynamical system); not only through the famous Fourier theta-series. We study this system in the framework of Hamiltonian dynamics and find corresponding Poisson brackets. Availability of these ingredients allows us to state the problem of a canonical quantization to these equations and disclose some important problems. In a particular case the problem is completely solvable in the sense that spectrum of the Hamiltonian can be found. The spectrum is continuous, has a band structure with infinite number of lacunae, and is determined by the Mathieu equation: the Schrödinger equation with a periodic cos-type potential.

  12. Observation of Conductance Quantization in InSb Nanowire Networks.

    PubMed

    Fadaly, Elham M T; Zhang, Hao; Conesa-Boj, Sonia; Car, Diana; Gül, Önder; Plissard, Sébastien R; Op Het Veld, Roy L M; Kölling, Sebastian; Kouwenhoven, Leo P; Bakkers, Erik P A M

    2017-07-14

    Majorana zero modes (MZMs) are prime candidates for robust topological quantum bits, holding a great promise for quantum computing. Semiconducting nanowires with strong spin orbit coupling offer a promising platform to harness one-dimensional electron transport for Majorana physics. Demonstrating the topological nature of MZMs relies on braiding, accomplished by moving MZMs around each other in a certain sequence. Most of the proposed Majorana braiding circuits require nanowire networks with minimal disorder. Here, the electronic transport across a junction between two merged InSb nanowires is studied to investigate how disordered these nanowire networks are. Conductance quantization plateaus are observed in most of the contact pairs of the epitaxial InSb nanowire networks: the hallmark of ballistic transport behavior.

  13. A deformation quantization theory for noncommutative quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Costa Dias, Nuno; Prata, Joao Nuno; Gosson, Maurice de; Luef, Franz

    2010-07-15

    We show that the deformation quantization of noncommutative quantum mechanics previously considered by Dias and Prata ['Weyl-Wigner formulation of noncommutative quantum mechanics', J. Math. Phys. 49, 072101 (2008)] and Bastos, Dias, and Prata ['Wigner measures in non-commutative quantum mechanics', e-print arXiv:math-ph/0907.4438v1; Commun. Math. Phys. (to appear)] can be expressed as a Weyl calculus on a double phase space. We study the properties of the star-product thus defined and prove a spectral theorem for the star-genvalue equation using an extension of the methods recently initiated by de Gosson and Luef ['A new approach to the *-genvalue equation', Lett. Math. Phys. 85, 173-183 (2008)].

  14. Quantized levitation states of superconducting multiple-ring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, S.B.; Fink, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    The quantized levitation, trapped, and suspension states of a magnetic microsphere held in equilibrium by two fixed superconducting (SC) microrings are calculated by minimizing the free energy of the system. Each state is a discrete function of two independent fluxoid quantum numbers of the rings. When the radii of the SC rings are of the same order as the Ginzburg-Landau coherence length {xi}({ital T}), the system exhibits a small set of gravity and temperature-dependent levels. The levels of a weakly magnetized particle are sensitive functions of the gravitational field, indicating potential application as an accelerometer, and for trapping small magnetic particles in outer space or on Earth. The equilibrium states of a SC ring levitated by another SC ring are also calculated. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. Casimir effect for a scalar field via Krein quantization

    SciTech Connect

    Pejhan, H.; Tanhayi, M.R.; Takook, M.V.

    2014-02-15

    In this work, we present a rather simple method to study the Casimir effect on a spherical shell for a massless scalar field with Dirichlet boundary condition by applying the indefinite metric field (Krein) quantization technique. In this technique, the field operators are constructed from both negative and positive norm states. Having understood that negative norm states are un-physical, they are only used as a mathematical tool for renormalizing the theory and then one can get rid of them by imposing some proper physical conditions. -- Highlights: • A modification of QFT is considered to address the vacuum energy divergence problem. • Casimir energy of a spherical shell is calculated, through this approach. • In this technique, it is shown, the theory is automatically regularized.

  16. Quantized Water Transport: Ideal Desalination through Graphyne-4 Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, E. G.; Meng, Sheng

    2013-11-01

    Graphyne sheet exhibits promising potential for nanoscale desalination to achieve both high water permeability and salt rejection rate. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations on pore-size effects suggest that γ-graphyne-4, with 4 acetylene bonds between two adjacent phenyl rings, has the best performance with 100% salt rejection and an unprecedented water permeability, to our knowledge, of ~13 L/cm2/day/MPa, 3 orders of magnitude higher than prevailing commercial membranes based on reverse osmosis, and ~10 times higher than the state-of-the-art nanoporous graphene. Strikingly, water permeability across graphyne exhibits unexpected nonlinear dependence on the pore size. This counter-intuitive behavior is attributed to the quantized nature of water flow at the nanoscale, which has wide implications in controlling nanoscale water transport and designing highly effective membranes.

  17. Oscillating magnetocaloric effect in size-quantized diamagnetic film

    SciTech Connect

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.

    2014-03-21

    We investigate the oscillating magnetocaloric effect on a size-quantized diamagnetic film in a transverse magnetic field. We obtain the analytical expression for the thermodynamic potential in case of the arbitrary spectrum of carriers. The entropy change is shown to be the oscillating function of the magnetic field and the film thickness. The nature of this effect is the same as for the de Haas–van Alphen effect. The magnetic part of entropy has a maximal value at some temperature. Such behavior of the entropy is not observed in magneto-ordered materials. We discuss the nature of unusual behavior of the magnetic entropy. We compare our results with the data obtained for 2D and 3D cases.

  18. Quantized Water Transport: Ideal Desalination through Graphyne-4 Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, E. G.; Meng, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Graphyne sheet exhibits promising potential for nanoscale desalination to achieve both high water permeability and salt rejection rate. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations on pore-size effects suggest that γ-graphyne-4, with 4 acetylene bonds between two adjacent phenyl rings, has the best performance with 100% salt rejection and an unprecedented water permeability, to our knowledge, of ~13 L/cm2/day/MPa, 3 orders of magnitude higher than prevailing commercial membranes based on reverse osmosis, and ~10 times higher than the state-of-the-art nanoporous graphene. Strikingly, water permeability across graphyne exhibits unexpected nonlinear dependence on the pore size. This counter-intuitive behavior is attributed to the quantized nature of water flow at the nanoscale, which has wide implications in controlling nanoscale water transport and designing highly effective membranes. PMID:24196437

  19. On the Covariant Quantization of Type II Superstrings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttenberg, Sebastian; Knapp, Johanna; Kreuzer, Maximilian

    2004-06-01

    In a series of papers Grassi, Policastro, Porrati and van Nieuwenhuizen have introduced a new method to covariantly quantize the GS-superstring by constructing a resolution of the pure spinor constraint of Berkovits' approach. Their latest version is based on a gauged WZNW model and a definition of physical states in terms of relative cohomology groups. We first put the off-shell formulation of the type-II version of their ideas into a chirally split form and directly construct the free action of the gauged WZNW model, thus circumventing some complications of the super group manifold approach to type-II. Then we discuss the BRST charges that define the relative cohomology and the N=2 superconformal algebra. A surprising result is that nilpotency of the BRST charge requires the introduction of another quartet of ghosts.

  20. Paul Weiss and the genesis of canonical quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickles, Dean; Blum, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the life and work of a figure who, we argue, was of primary importance during the early years of field quantisation and (albeit more indirectly) quantum gravity. A student of Dirac and Born, he was interned in Canada during the second world war as an enemy alien and after his release never seemed to regain a good foothold in physics, identifying thereafter as a mathematician. He developed a general method of quantizing (linear and non-linear) field theories based on the parameters labelling an arbitrary hypersurface. This method (the `parameter formalism' often attributed to Dirac), though later discarded, was employed (and viewed at the time as an extremely important tool) by the leading figures associated with canonical quantum gravity: Dirac, Pirani and Schild, Bergmann, DeWitt, and others. We argue that he deserves wider recognition for this and other innovations.

  1. Quantized orbits in weakly coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S.; Deegan, R. D.

    2015-06-01

    Using numerical and experimental tools, we study the motion of two coupled spiral cores in a light-sensitive variant of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Each core resides on a separate two-dimensional domain, and is coupled to the other by light. When both spirals have the same sense of rotation, the cores are attracted to a circular trajectory with a diameter quantized in integer units of the spiral wavelength λ. When the spirals have opposite senses of rotation, the cores are attracted towards different but parallel straight trajectories, separated by an integer multiple of λ/2. We present a model that explains this behavior as the result of a spiral wavefront-core interaction that produces a deterministic displacement of the core and a retardation of its phase.

  2. Loop quantum cosmology: confronting the hybrid quantization approach with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Javier; Martin de Blas, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In loop quantum cosmology there are several approaches for the confrontation of the theory with observations. Here, we focus on the hybrid quantization approach. We provide an exhaustive analysis including scalar and tensor perturbations on effective (quantum-mechanically corrected) homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies coupled to a massive scalar field. We compute the primordial power spectrum of the perturbations at the end of inflation for a set of initial vacuum states defined at the deep quantum regime of the cosmological model. We then analyze the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the consistency relation between this quantity and the spectral index of the tensor power spectrum. Eventually, we compute the temperature-temperature, electric-electric, temperature-electric and magnetic-magnetic correlation functions predicted by this approach and compare them with present observations.

  3. Stability of quantized chiral soliton with the Skyrme term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Shoji; Yang, Keyan

    1991-09-01

    Stability of the chiral soliton with the Skyrme term that is quantized by taking account of breathing modes in addition to the spin-isospin rotation is examined on the basis of a family of trial functions for the profile function of the hedgehog ansatz. It is shown that when the effects of the Skyrme term are sufficiently strong (small Skyrme term constant e), the eigenstates of lower spin-isospin are stable, having finite contributions both from the rotational and breathing modes. On the other hand when the effects of the Skyrme term are weak (e>5), the spin-isospin rotational and the breathing modes are completely frozen and all states tend to infinitely degenerate states labeled by the constant SU(2) matrices.

  4. Vacuum Energy in Two Dimensional Box Through the Krein Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Ali; Karimaghaee, Sanaz; Tanhayi, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    In this work we reexamine the Casimir effect in which the vacuum expectation value of quantum fields is calculated over a so-called Krein space. This method has already been successfully applied to study Casimir effect on non-trivial topologies and also the covariance problem in the massless minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space-time. It is shown that within this method, no infinite term appears in the computation of the vacuum expectation value of energy-momentum tensor. We investigate the behavior of the Krein quantization for a scalar field in a box satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition. We show that one can recover the usual theory with the exception that the vacuum energy of the free theory is zero.

  5. Vacuum Energy in Two Dimensional Box Through the Krein Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Ali; Karimaghaee, Sanaz; Tanhayi, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we reexamine the Casimir effect in which the vacuum expectation value of quantum fields is calculated over a so-called Krein space. This method has already been successfully applied to study Casimir effect on non-trivial topologies and also the covariance problem in the massless minimally coupled scalar field in de Sitter space-time. It is shown that within this method, no infinite term appears in the computation of the vacuum expectation value of energy-momentum tensor. We investigate the behavior of the Krein quantization for a scalar field in a box satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition. We show that one can recover the usual theory with the exception that the vacuum energy of the free theory is zero.

  6. A Method for Weight Multiplicity Computation Based on Berezin Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Moshe, David

    2009-09-01

    Let G be a compact semisimple Lie group and T be a maximal torus of G. We describe a method for weight multiplicity computation in unitary irreducible representations of G, based on the theory of Berezin quantization on G/T. Let Γhol(Lλ) be the reproducing kernel Hilbert space of holomorphic sections of the homogeneous line bundle Lλ over G/T associated with the highest weight λ of the irreducible representation πλ of G. The multiplicity of a weight m in πλ is computed from functional analytical structure of the Berezin symbol of the projector in Γhol(Lλ) onto subspace of weight m. We describe a method of the construction of this symbol and the evaluation of the weight multiplicity as a rank of a Hermitian form. The application of this method is described in a number of examples.

  7. A quantized mechanism for activation of pannexin channels

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Jin, Xueyao; Medina, Christopher B.; Leonhardt, Susan A.; Kiessling, Volker; Bennett, Brad C.; Shu, Shaofang; Tamm, Lukas K.; Yeager, Mark; Ravichandran, Kodi S.; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Pannexin 1 (PANX1) subunits form oligomeric plasma membrane channels that mediate nucleotide release for purinergic signalling, which is involved in diverse physiological processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, blood pressure regulation, and cancer progression and metastasis. Here we explore the mechanistic basis for PANX1 activation by using wild type and engineered concatemeric channels. We find that PANX1 activation involves sequential stepwise sojourns through multiple discrete open states, each with unique channel gating and conductance properties that reflect contributions of the individual subunits of the hexamer. Progressive PANX1 channel opening is directly linked to permeation of ions and large molecules (ATP and fluorescent dyes) and occurs during both irreversible (caspase cleavage-mediated) and reversible (α1 adrenoceptor-mediated) forms of channel activation. This unique, quantized activation process enables fine tuning of PANX1 channel activity and may be a generalized regulatory mechanism for other related multimeric channels. PMID:28134257

  8. Recursive optimal pruning with applications to tree structured vector quantizers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Shei-Zein; Baker, Richard L.; Sullivan, Gary J.; Chiu, Chung-Yen

    1992-01-01

    A pruning algorithm of Chou et al. (1989) for designing optimal tree structures identifies only those codebooks which lie on the convex hull of the original codebook's operational distortion rate function. The authors introduce a modified version of the original algorithm, which identifies a large number of codebooks having minimum average distortion, under the constraint that, in each step, only modes having no descendents are removed from the tree. All codebooks generated by the original algorithm are also generated by this algorithm. The new algorithm generates a much larger number of codebooks in the middle- and low-rate regions. The additional codebooks permit operation near the codebook's operational distortion rate function without time sharing by choosing from the increased number of available bit rates. Despite the statistical mismatch which occurs when coding data outside the training sequence, these pruned codebooks retain their performance advantage over full search vector quantizers (VQs) for a large range of rates.

  9. Face Recognition Using Local Quantized Patterns and Gabor Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khryashchev, V.; Priorov, A.; Stepanova, O.; Nikitin, A.

    2015-05-01

    The problem of face recognition in a natural or artificial environment has received a great deal of researchers' attention over the last few years. A lot of methods for accurate face recognition have been proposed. Nevertheless, these methods often fail to accurately recognize the person in difficult scenarios, e.g. low resolution, low contrast, pose variations, etc. We therefore propose an approach for accurate and robust face recognition by using local quantized patterns and Gabor filters. The estimation of the eye centers is used as a preprocessing stage. The evaluation of our algorithm on different samples from a standardized FERET database shows that our method is invariant to the general variations of lighting, expression, occlusion and aging. The proposed approach allows about 20% correct recognition accuracy increase compared with the known face recognition algorithms from the OpenCV library. The additional use of Gabor filters can significantly improve the robustness to changes in lighting conditions.

  10. Quantized fluctuational electrodynamics for three-dimensional plasmonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka; Oksanen, Jani

    2017-01-01

    We recently introduced a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that provides a physically insightful definition of an effective position-dependent photon-number operator and the associated ladder operators. However, this far the formalism has been applicable only for the normal incidence of the electromagnetic field in planar structures. In this work, we overcome the main limitation of the one-dimensional QFED formalism by extending the model to three dimensions, allowing us to use the QFED method to study, e.g., plasmonic structures. To demonstrate the benefits of the developed formalism, we apply it to study the local steady-state photon numbers and field temperatures in a light-emitting near-surface InGaN quantum-well structure with a metallic coating supporting surface plasmons.

  11. Four-Wave Mixing in Landau-Quantized Graphene.

    PubMed

    König-Otto, Jacob C; Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey; Berger, Claire; de Heer, Walter A; Orlita, Milan; Pashkin, Alexej; Schneider, Harald; Helm, Manfred; Winnerl, Stephan

    2017-04-12

    For Landau-quantized graphene, featuring an energy spectrum consisting of nonequidistant Landau levels, theory predicts a giant resonantly enhanced optical nonlinearity. We verify the nonlinearity in a time-integrated degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) experiment in the mid-infrared spectral range, involving the Landau levels LL-1, LL0 and LL1. A rapid dephasing of the optically induced microscopic polarization on a time scale shorter than the pulse duration (∼4 ps) is observed, while a complementary pump-probe experiment under the same experimental conditions reveals a much longer lifetime of the induced population. The FWM signal shows the expected field dependence with respect to lowest order perturbation theory for low fields. Saturation sets in for fields above ∼6 kV/cm. Furthermore, the resonant behavior and the order of magnitude of the third-order susceptibility are in agreement with our theoretical calculations.

  12. D-Pseudo-Bosons, Complex Hermite Polynomials, and Integral Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, S. Twareque; Bagarello, Fabio; Gazeau, Jean Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The D-pseudo-boson formalism is illustrated with two examples. The first one involves deformed complex Hermite polynomials built using finite-dimensional irreducible representations of the group GL(2,C) of invertible 2 × 2 matrices with complex entries. It reveals interesting aspects of these representations. The second example is based on a pseudo-bosonic generalization of operator-valued functions of a complex variable which resolves the identity. We show that such a generalization allows one to obtain a quantum pseudo-bosonic version of the complex plane viewed as the canonical phase space and to understand functions of the pseudo-bosonic operators as the quantized versions of functions of a complex variable.

  13. Stability of quantized chiral soliton with the Skyrme term

    SciTech Connect

    Sawada, S.; Yang, K. )

    1991-09-01

    Stability of the chiral soliton with the Skyrme term that is quantized by taking account of breathing modes in addition to the spin-isospin rotation is examined on the basis of a family of trial functions for the profile function of the hedgehog ansatz. It is shown that when the effects of the Skyrme term are sufficiently strong (small Skyrme term constant {ital e}), the eigenstates of lower spin-isospin are stable, having finite contributions both from the rotational and breathing modes. On the other hand when the effects of the Skyrme term are weak ({ital e}{gt}5), the spin-isospin rotational and the breathing modes are completely frozen and all states tend to infinitely degenerate states labeled by the constant SU(2) matrices.

  14. Image coding using entropy-constrained residual vector quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kossentini, Faouzi; Smith, Mark J. T.; Barnes, Christopher F.

    1993-01-01

    The residual vector quantization (RVQ) structure is exploited to produce a variable length codeword RVQ. Necessary conditions for the optimality of this RVQ are presented, and a new entropy-constrained RVQ (ECRVQ) design algorithm is shown to be very effective in designing RVQ codebooks over a wide range of bit rates and vector sizes. The new EC-RVQ has several important advantages. It can outperform entropy-constrained VQ (ECVQ) in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), memory, and computation requirements. It can also be used to design high rate codebooks and codebooks with relatively large vector sizes. Experimental results indicate that when the new EC-RVQ is applied to image coding, very high quality is achieved at relatively low bit rates.

  15. Operadic quantization as a tool for discrete geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paal, E.; Virkepu, J.

    2014-09-01

    The operadic Lax representations of the harmonic oscillator are used to construct the quantum counterparts of 3d real Lie algebras in the Bianchi classification. The Jacobi operators of these quantum algebras are studied. It is shown how the energy conservation is related to the Jacobi identity and how the quantization leads to an anomaly - the quantum violation of the Jacobi relations. By using the nonvanishing quantum Jacobi operators, the derivative quantum algebra for a triple of 3d real Lie algebras is defined. It is proposed that the derivative algebra is the 3d real Heisenberg algebra. From this it follows that in this model only the discrete values of the spatial coordinates are physically allowed.

  16. Phase space quantization, noncommutativity, and the gravitational field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we study the structure of the phase space in noncommutative geometry in the presence of a nontrivial frame. Our basic assumptions are that the underlying space is a symplectic and parallelizable manifold. Furthermore, we assume the validity of the Leibniz rule and the Jacobi identities. We consider noncommutative spaces due to the quantization of the symplectic structure and determine the momentum operators that guarantee a set of canonical commutation relations, appropriately extended to include the nontrivial frame. We stress the important role of left vs right acting operators and of symplectic duality. This enables us to write down the form of the full phase space algebra on these noncommutative spaces, both in the noncompact and in the compact case. We test our results against the class of four-dimensional and six-dimensional symplectic nilmanifolds, thus presenting a large set of nontrivial examples that realizes the general formalism.

  17. Preferentially quantized linker DNA lengths in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Ping; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne; Xi, Liqun; Tsai, Guei-Feng; Segal, Eran; Widom, Jonathan

    2008-09-12

    The exact lengths of linker DNAs connecting adjacent nucleosomes specify the intrinsic three-dimensional structures of eukaryotic chromatin fibers. Some studies suggest that linker DNA lengths preferentially occur at certain quantized values, differing one from another by integral multiples of the DNA helical repeat, approximately 10 bp; however, studies in the literature are inconsistent. Here, we investigate linker DNA length distributions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, using two novel methods: a Fourier analysis of genomic dinucleotide periodicities adjacent to experimentally mapped nucleosomes and a duration hidden Markov model applied to experimentally defined dinucleosomes. Both methods reveal that linker DNA lengths in yeast are preferentially periodic at the DNA helical repeat ( approximately 10 bp), obeying the forms 10n+5 bp (integer n). This 10 bp periodicity implies an ordered superhelical intrinsic structure for the average chromatin fiber in yeast.

  18. Second-quantized Landau-Zener theory for dynamical instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Anglin, J.R.

    2003-05-01

    State engineering in nonlinear quantum dynamics sometimes may demand driving the system through a sequence of dynamically unstable intermediate states. This very general scenario is especially relevant to the dilute Bose-Einstein condensates, for which ambitious control schemes have been based on the powerful Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field theory. Since this theory breaks down on logarithmically short time scales in the presence of dynamical instabilities, an interval of instabilities introduces quantum corrections, which may possibly derail a control scheme. To provide a widely applicable theory for such quantum corrections, this paper solves a general problem of time-dependent quantum-mechanical dynamical instability, by modeling it as a second-quantized analog of a Landau-Zener avoided crossing: a 'twisted crossing'.

  19. Semiclassical Quantization of Spinning Quasiparticles in Ballistic Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konschelle, François; Bergeret, F. Sebastián; Tokatly, Ilya V.

    2016-06-01

    A Josephson junction made of a generic magnetic material sandwiched between two conventional superconductors is studied in the ballistic semiclassic limit. The spectrum of Andreev bound states is obtained from the single valuedness of a particle-hole spinor over closed orbits generated by electron-hole reflections at the interfaces between superconducting and normal materials. The semiclassical quantization condition is shown to depend only on the angle mismatch between initial and final spin directions along such closed trajectories. For the demonstration, an Andreev-Wilson loop in the composite position-particle-hole-spin space is constructed and shown to depend on only two parameters, namely, a magnetic phase shift and a local precession axis for the spin. The details of the Andreev-Wilson loop can be extracted via measuring the spin-resolved density of states. A Josephson junction can thus be viewed as an analog computer of closed-path-ordered exponentials.

  20. Reducing and filtering point clouds with enhanced vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Stefano; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Piuri, Vincenzo; Borghese, N Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Modern scanners are able to deliver huge quantities of three-dimensional (3-D) data points sampled on an object's surface, in a short time. These data have to be filtered and their cardinality reduced to come up with a mesh manageable at interactive rates. We introduce here a novel procedure to accomplish these two tasks, which is based on an optimized version of soft vector quantization (VQ). The resulting technique has been termed enhanced vector quantization (EVQ) since it introduces several improvements with respect to the classical soft VQ approaches. These are based on computationally expensive iterative optimization; local computation is introduced here, by means of an adequate partitioning of the data space called hyperbox (HB), to reduce the computational time so as to be linear in the number of data points N, saving more than 80% of time in real applications. Moreover, the algorithm can be fully parallelized, thus leading to an implementation that is sublinear in N. The voxel side and the other parameters are automatically determined from data distribution on the basis of the Zador's criterion. This makes the algorithm completely automatic. Because the only parameter to be specified is the compression rate, the procedure is suitable even for nontrained users. Results obtained in reconstructing faces of both humans and puppets as well as artifacts from point clouds publicly available on the web are reported and discussed, in comparison with other methods available in the literature. EVQ has been conceived as a general procedure, suited for VQ applications with large data sets whose data space has relatively low dimensionality.

  1. q-bosons and the q-analogue quantized field

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The q-analogue coherent states {vert_bar}z >{sub q} are used to identify physical signatures for the presence of a q-analogue quantized radiation field in the {vert_bar} >{sub q} classical limit where {vert_bar}z{vert_bar} is large. In this quantum-optics-like limit, the fractional uncertainties of most physical quantities (momentum, position, amplitude, phase) which characterize the quantum field are O(1). They only vanish as O(1/{vert_bar}z{vert_bar}) when q = 1. However, for the number operator, N, and the N-Hamiltonian for a free q-boson gas, H{sub N} = {Dirac_h}{omega}(N + 1/2), the fractional uncertainties do still approach zero. A signature for q-boson counting statistics is that ({Delta}N){sup 2}/ {yields} 0 as {vert_bar}z{vert_bar} {yields} {infinity}. Except for its O(1) fractional uncertainty, the q-generalization of the Hermitian phase operator of Pegg and Barnett, {phi}{sub q}, still exhibits normal classical behavior. The standard number-phase uncertainty-relation, {Delta}N {Delta}{phi}{sub q} = 1/2, and the approximate commutation relation, [N,{phi}{sub q}] = i, still hold for the single-mode q-analogue quantized field. So, N and {phi}{sub q} are almost canonically conjugate operators in the {vert_bar}z >{sub q} classical limit. The {vert_bar}z >{sub q} CS`s minimize this uncertainty relation for moderate {vert_bar}z{vert_bar}{sup 2}.

  2. Fast flux locked loop

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  3. Scalable Feature Matching by Dual Cascaded Scalar Quantization for Image Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wengang; Yang, Ming; Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Houqiang; Lin, Yuanqing; Tian, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of scalable visual feature matching in large-scale image search and propose a novel cascaded scalar quantization scheme in dual resolution. We formulate the visual feature matching as a range-based neighbor search problem and approach it by identifying hyper-cubes with a dual-resolution scalar quantization strategy. Specifically, for each dimension of the PCA-transformed feature, scalar quantization is performed at both coarse and fine resolutions. The scalar quantization results at the coarse resolution are cascaded over multiple dimensions to index an image database. The scalar quantization results over multiple dimensions at the fine resolution are concatenated into a binary super-vector and stored into the index list for efficient verification. The proposed cascaded scalar quantization (CSQ) method is free of the costly visual codebook training and thus is independent of any image descriptor training set. The index structure of the CSQ is flexible enough to accommodate new image features and scalable to index large-scale image database. We evaluate our approach on the public benchmark datasets for large-scale image retrieval. Experimental results demonstrate the competitive retrieval performance of the proposed method compared with several recent retrieval algorithms on feature quantization.

  4. Density-Dependent Quantized Least Squares Support Vector Machine for Large Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Nan, Shengyu; Sun, Lei; Chen, Badong; Lin, Zhiping; Toh, Kar-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Based on the knowledge that input data distribution is important for learning, a data density-dependent quantization scheme (DQS) is proposed for sparse input data representation. The usefulness of the representation scheme is demonstrated by using it as a data preprocessing unit attached to the well-known least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) for application on big data sets. Essentially, the proposed DQS adopts a single shrinkage threshold to obtain a simple quantization scheme, which adapts its outputs to input data density. With this quantization scheme, a large data set is quantized to a small subset where considerable sample size reduction is generally obtained. In particular, the sample size reduction can save significant computational cost when using the quantized subset for feature approximation via the Nyström method. Based on the quantized subset, the approximated features are incorporated into LS-SVM to develop a data density-dependent quantized LS-SVM (DQLS-SVM), where an analytic solution is obtained in the primal solution space. The developed DQLS-SVM is evaluated on synthetic and benchmark data with particular emphasis on large data sets. Extensive experimental results show that the learning machine incorporating DQS attains not only high computational efficiency but also good generalization performance.

  5. Quantized Iterative Learning Consensus Tracking of Digital Networks With Limited Information Communication.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Wenjun; Yu, Xinghuo; Chen, Yao; Gao, Jie

    2016-03-03

    This brief investigates the quantized iterative learning problem for digital networks with time-varying topologies. The information is first encoded as symbolic data and then transmitted. After the data are received, a decoder is used by the receiver to get an estimate of the sender's state. Iterative learning quantized communication is considered in the process of encoding and decoding. A sufficient condition is then presented to achieve the consensus tracking problem in a finite interval using the quantized iterative learning controllers. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the usefulness of the developed criterion.

  6. Uniform semiclassical quantization of regular and chaotic classical dynamics on the Henon-Heiles surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, C.; Reinhardt, W. P.

    1982-01-01

    Qualitative arguments are adduced which indicate that the apparently chaotic dynamics on the Henon-Heiles (1964) surface display sufficient regularity on a short to intermediate (but not long) time scale to allow the use of standard EBK quantization techniques. This takes advantage of the remnants of manifold structure implied. A complete uniform semiclassical quantization is performed using the time independent technique of the Birkhoff-Gustavson normal form, which was recently introduced in the context of semiclassical quantization by Swimm and Delos (1977, 1979).

  7. Optimization of the Sampling Periods and the Quantization Bit Lengths for Networked Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young Soo; Ro, Young Sik; Kang, Hee Jun

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with networked estimation, where sensor data are transmitted over a network of limited transmission rate. The transmission rate depends on the sampling periods and the quantization bit lengths. To investigate how the sampling periods and the quantization bit lengths affect the estimation performance, an equation to compute the estimation performance is provided. An algorithm is proposed to find sampling periods and quantization bit lengths combination, which gives good estimation performance while satisfying the transmission rate constraint. Through the numerical example, the proposed algorithm is verified. PMID:22163557

  8. Multiobjective Image Color Quantization Algorithm Based on Self-Adaptive Hybrid Differential Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xuewen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers considered image color quantization as a single-objective problem and applied heuristic algorithms to solve it. This paper establishes a multiobjective image color quantization model with intracluster distance and intercluster separation as its objectives. Inspired by a multipopulation idea, a multiobjective image color quantization algorithm based on self-adaptive hybrid differential evolution (MoDE-CIQ) is then proposed to solve this model. Two numerical experiments on four common test images are conducted to analyze the effectiveness and competitiveness of the multiobjective model and the proposed algorithm. PMID:27738423

  9. Unconventional Correlation between Quantum Hall Transport Quantization and Bulk State Filling in Gated Graphene Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yong-Tao; Wen, Bo; Ma, Eric Y.; Diankov, Georgi; Han, Zheng; Amet, Francois; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Dean, Cory R.; Shen, Zhi-Xun

    2016-10-01

    We report simultaneous transport and scanning microwave impedance microscopy to examine the correlation between transport quantization and filling of the bulk Landau levels in the quantum Hall regime in gated graphene devices. Surprisingly, a comparison of these measurements reveals that quantized transport typically occurs below the complete filling of bulk Landau levels, when the bulk is still conductive. This result points to a revised understanding of transport quantization when carriers are accumulated by gating. We discuss the implications on transport study of the quantum Hall effect in graphene and related topological states in other two-dimensional electron systems.

  10. Splitting Times of Doubly Quantized Vortices in Dilute Bose-Einstein Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Huhtamaeki, J. A. M.; Pietilae, V.; Virtanen, S. M. M.; Moettoenen, M.; Isoshima, T.

    2006-09-15

    Recently, the splitting of a topologically created doubly quantized vortex into two singly quantized vortices was experimentally investigated in dilute atomic cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates [Y. Shin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 160406 (2004)]. In particular, the dependency of the splitting time on the peak particle density was studied. We present results of theoretical simulations which closely mimic the experimental setup. We show that the combination of gravitational sag and time dependency of the trapping potential alone suffices to split the doubly quantized vortex in time scales which are in good agreement with the experiments.

  11. Uniform semiclassical quantization of regular and chaotic classical dynamics on the Henon-Heiles surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, C.; Reinhardt, W. P.

    1982-01-01

    Qualitative arguments are adduced which indicate that the apparently chaotic dynamics on the Henon-Heiles (1964) surface display sufficient regularity on a short to intermediate (but not long) time scale to allow the use of standard EBK quantization techniques. This takes advantage of the remnants of manifold structure implied. A complete uniform semiclassical quantization is performed using the time independent technique of the Birkhoff-Gustavson normal form, which was recently introduced in the context of semiclassical quantization by Swimm and Delos (1977, 1979).

  12. Multivalued functionals and geometrical approach for quantization of relativistic particles and strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegmann, P. B.

    1989-09-01

    The application of the coherent state method combined with the method of orbits to the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum problems with a dynamical symmetry group is presented and used for the quantization of relativistic spinning particles and strings. The action of a spinning string considered as a quantization of the Kac-Moody group based on the Poincaré group is expressed in terms of the extrinsic geometry of the embedding of the surface into the flat space-time. The geometrical quantization and Feynman path integral formulation of some models known in condensed matter physics is also presented.

  13. Stochastic dynamics of extended objects in driven systems II: Current quantization in the low-temperature limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzaro, Michael J.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Klein, John R.

    2016-12-01

    Driven Langevin processes have appeared in a variety of fields due to the relevance of natural phenomena having both deterministic and stochastic effects. The stochastic currents and fluxes in these systems provide a convenient set of observables to describe their non-equilibrium steady states. Here we consider stochastic motion of a (k - 1) -dimensional object, which sweeps out a k-dimensional trajectory, and gives rise to a higher k-dimensional current. By employing the low-temperature (low-noise) limit, we reduce the problem to a discrete Markov chain model on a CW complex, a topological construction which generalizes the notion of a graph. This reduction allows the mean fluxes and currents of the process to be expressed in terms of solutions to the discrete Supersymmetric Fokker-Planck (SFP) equation. Taking the adiabatic limit, we show that generic driving leads to rational quantization of the generated higher dimensional current. The latter is achieved by implementing the recently developed tools, coined the higher-dimensional Kirchhoff tree and co-tree theorems. This extends the study of motion of extended objects in the continuous setting performed in the prequel (Catanzaro et al.) to this manuscript.

  14. Magnetic-flux pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  15. Event-triggered H∞ filter design for delayed neural network with quantization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Tang, Jia; Fei, Shumin

    2016-10-01

    This paper is concerned with H∞ filter design for a class of neural network systems with event-triggered communication scheme and quantization. Firstly, a new event-triggered communication scheme is introduced to determine whether or not the current sampled sensor data should be broadcasted and transmitted to quantizer, which can save the limited communication resource. Secondly, a logarithmic quantizer is used to quantify the sampled data, which can reduce the data transmission rate in the network. Thirdly, considering the influence of the constrained network resource, we investigate the problem of H∞ filter design for a class of event-triggered neural network systems with quantization. By using Lyapunov functional and linear matrix inequality (LMI) techniques, some delay-dependent stability conditions for the existence of the desired filter are obtained. Furthermore, the explicit expression is given for the designed filter parameters in terms of LMIs. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the usefulness of the obtained theoretical results.

  16. Integral Sliding Mode Fault-Tolerant Control for Uncertain Linear Systems Over Networks With Signals Quantization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Ying; Park, Ju H; Ye, Dan

    2016-06-13

    In this paper, a new robust fault-tolerant compensation control method for uncertain linear systems over networks is proposed, where only quantized signals are assumed to be available. This approach is based on the integral sliding mode (ISM) method where two kinds of integral sliding surfaces are constructed. One is the continuous-state-dependent surface with the aim of sliding mode stability analysis and the other is the quantization-state-dependent surface, which is used for ISM controller design. A scheme that combines the adaptive ISM controller and quantization parameter adjustment strategy is then proposed. Through utilizing H∞ control analytical technique, once the system is in the sliding mode, the nature of performing disturbance attenuation and fault tolerance from the initial time can be found without requiring any fault information. Finally, the effectiveness of our proposed ISM control fault-tolerant schemes against quantization errors is demonstrated in the simulation.

  17. Quantized Step-up Model for Evaluation of Internship in Teaching of Prospective Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindhu, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the quantized step-up model developed for the evaluation purposes of internship in teaching which is an analogous model of the atomic structure. Assesses prospective teachers' abilities in lesson delivery. (YDS)

  18. Brillouin light scattering from quantized spin waves in micron-size magnetic wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorzick, J.; Demokritov, S. O.; Mathieu, C.; Hillebrands, B.; Bartenlian, B.; Chappert, C.; Rousseaux, F.; Slavin, A. N.

    1999-12-01

    An experimental study of spin-wave quantization in arrays of micron-size magnetic Ni80Fe20 wires by means of Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is reported. Dipolar-dominated Damon-Eshbach spin-wave modes laterally quantized in a single wire with quantized wave vector values determined by the width of the wire are studied. The frequency splitting between quantized modes, which decreases with increasing mode number, depends on the wire sizes and is up to 1.5 GHz. The transferred wave vector interval, where each mode is observed, is calculated using a light-scattering theory for confined geometries. The frequencies of the modes are calculated, taking into account finite-size effects. The results of the calculations are in a good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Quantized Step-up Model for Evaluation of Internship in Teaching of Prospective Science Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindhu, R. S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the quantized step-up model developed for the evaluation purposes of internship in teaching which is an analogous model of the atomic structure. Assesses prospective teachers' abilities in lesson delivery. (YDS)

  20. Fractional quantization of the topological charge pumping in a one-dimensional superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Pasquale; Citro, Roberta; Ortix, Carmine

    2015-03-01

    A one-dimensional quantum charge pump transfers a quantized charge in each pumping cycle. This quantization is topologically robust, being analogous to the quantum Hall effect. The charge transferred in a fraction of the pumping period is instead generally unquantized. We show, however, that with specific symmetries in parameter space the charge transferred at well-defined fractions of the pumping period is quantized as integer fractions of the Chern number. We illustrate this in a one-dimensional Harper-Hofstadter model and show that the fractional quantization of the topological charge pumping is independent of the specific boundary conditions taken into account. We further discuss the relevance of this phenomenon for cold atomic gases in optical superlattices.

  1. Application of the Max-Lloyd quantizer for ECG compression in diving mammals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M; Ayala, A; Rodríguez, S; Rosa, F; Díaz-González, Mario

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of an ECG compression algorithm using a Max-Lloyd quantizer, to optimize the low resources of an ECG acquisition and transmission system (telemetry system) for dolphins and human divers. The algorithm scheme is based on a first-order differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) and uses a Max-Lloyd quantizer to code the difference between the current and predicted samples. The use of the non-uniform quantizer instead of a uniform quantizer improves the percent root mean-square difference (PRD), thereby producing a low distortion in the reconstructed signals. Due to its low computational complexity, the compression process can be accomplished on-line during the ECG acquisition process.

  2. Statistical model of JPEG noises and its application in quantization step estimation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Ng, Tian-Tsong; Li, Xiaolong; Tan, Shunquan; Huang, Jiwu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical analysis of JPEG noises, including the quantization noise and the rounding noise during a JPEG compression cycle. The JPEG noises in the first compression cycle have been well studied; however, so far less attention has been paid on the statistical model of JPEG noises in higher compression cycles. Our analysis reveals that the noise distributions in higher compression cycles are different from those in the first compression cycle, and they are dependent on the quantization parameters used between two successive cycles. To demonstrate the benefits from the analysis, we apply the statistical model in JPEG quantization step estimation. We construct a sufficient statistic by exploiting the derived noise distributions, and justify that the statistic has several special properties to reveal the ground-truth quantization step. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed estimator can uncover JPEG compression history with a satisfactory performance.

  3. A joint JPEG2000 compression and watermarking system using a TCQ-based quantization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudia, D.; Chaumont, M.; Puech, W.; Hadj Said, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a Trellis Coded Quantization (TCQ)-based quantization and watermarking technique in the framework of JPEG2000 still image compression. Furthermore, we investigate the design of a novel joint compression and watermarking scheme based on a hybrid TCQ module which can perform at the same time quantization and watermark embedding. The watermark extraction process can be achieved both during and after image decompression. Another advantage is the lower complexity of the system because the quantization stage is used for both compression and watermarking purposes. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed joint scheme successfully survives JPEG2000 compression with minimal degradation of the image quality. We also studied the robustness of the scheme against gaussian filtering attack, gaussian noise attack, valumetric attack and jpeg attack.

  4. Impact Analysis of Baseband Quantizer on Coding Efficiency for HDR Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chau-Wai; Su, Guan-Ming; Wu, Min

    2016-10-01

    Digitally acquired high dynamic range (HDR) video baseband signal can take 10 to 12 bits per color channel. It is economically important to be able to reuse the legacy 8 or 10-bit video codecs to efficiently compress the HDR video. Linear or nonlinear mapping on the intensity can be applied to the baseband signal to reduce the dynamic range before the signal is sent to the codec, and we refer to this range reduction step as a baseband quantization. We show analytically and verify using test sequences that the use of the baseband quantizer lowers the coding efficiency. Experiments show that as the baseband quantizer is strengthened by 1.6 bits, the drop of PSNR at a high bitrate is up to 1.60dB. Our result suggests that in order to achieve high coding efficiency, information reduction of videos in terms of quantization error should be introduced in the video codec instead of on the baseband signal.

  5. Anatomy of a deformed symmetry: Field quantization on curved momentum space

    SciTech Connect

    Arzano, Michele

    2011-01-15

    In certain scenarios of deformed relativistic symmetries relevant for noncommutative field theories particles exhibit a momentum space described by a non-Abelian group manifold. Starting with a formulation of phase space for such particles which allows for a generalization to include group-valued momenta we discuss quantization of the corresponding field theory. Focusing on the particular case of {kappa}-deformed phase space we construct the one-particle Hilbert space and show how curvature in momentum space leads to an ambiguity in the quantization procedure reminiscent of the ambiguities one finds when quantizing fields in curved space-times. The tools gathered in the discussion on quantization allow for a clear definition of the basic deformed field mode operators and two-point function for {kappa}-quantum fields.

  6. Adiabatically tuning quantized supercurrents in an annular Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Junpeng; Luo, Xi-Wang; Sun, Kuei; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2017-07-01

    The ability to generate and tune quantized persistent supercurrents is crucial for building superconducting or atomtronic devices with novel functionalities. In ultracold atoms, previous methods for generating quantized supercurrents are generally based on dynamical processes to prepare atoms in metastable excited states. Here, we show that arbitrary quantized circulation states can be adiabatically prepared and tuned as the ground state of a ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate by utilizing spin-orbital-angular-momentum (SOAM) coupling and an external potential. There exists superfluid hysteresis for tuning supercurrents between different quantization values with nonlinear atomic interactions, which is explained by developing a nonlinear Landau-Zener theory. Our work will provide a powerful platform for studying SOAM-coupled ultracold atomic gases and building atomtronic circuits.

  7. Near-threshold quantization for potentials with inverse-cube tails

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Tim-Oliver; Friedrich, Harald

    2011-02-15

    For potential wells with long-range attractive tails proportional to -1/r{sup 3}, as occur in the resonant dipole-dipole interaction in homonuclear alkali-metal dimers, we present a highly accurate analytical expression for the tail contribution to the quantization function F(E). This quantization function determines the near-threshold bound-state energies via the quantization rule n{sub th}-n=F(E{sub n}). The performance of the quantization function derived in this paper is demonstrated by applying it to a model Lennard-Jones potential and to vibrational bound-state spectra of sodium dimers (Na{sub 2}). These results are compared with those obtained via the semiclassical LeRoy-Bernstein formula which neglects quantum effects that are important in the near-threshold regime.

  8. Gauge symmetries in spin-foam gravity: the case for "cellular quantization".

    PubMed

    Bonzom, Valentin; Smerlak, Matteo

    2012-06-15

    The spin-foam approach to quantum gravity rests on a quantization of BF theory using 2-complexes and group representations. We explain why, in dimension three and higher, this spin-foam quantization must be amended to be made consistent with the gauge symmetries of discrete BF theory. We discuss a suitable generalization, called "cellular quantization," which (1) is finite, (2) produces a topological invariant, (3) matches with the properties of the continuum BF theory, and (4) corresponds to its loop quantization. These results significantly clarify the foundations--and limitations--of the spin-foam formalism and open the path to understanding, in a discrete setting, the symmetry-breaking which reduces BF theory to gravity.

  9. Color image quantization algorithm based on self-adaptive differential evolution.

    PubMed

    Su, Qinghua; Hu, Zhongbo

    2013-01-01

    Differential evolution algorithm (DE) is one of the novel stochastic optimization methods. It has a better performance in the problem of the color image quantization, but it is difficult to set the parameters of DE for users. This paper proposes a color image quantization algorithm based on self-adaptive DE. In the proposed algorithm, a self-adaptive mechanic is used to automatically adjust the parameters of DE during the evolution, and a mixed mechanic of DE and K-means is applied to strengthen the local search. The numerical experimental results, on a set of commonly used test images, show that the proposed algorithm is a practicable quantization method and is more competitive than K-means and particle swarm algorithm (PSO) for the color image quantization.

  10. Magnetic-flux quanta in superconducting thin films observed by electron holography and digital phase analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, S.; Matsuda, T.; Endo, J.; Osakabe, N.; Igarashi, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Naito, M.; Tonomura, A. ); Aoki, R. )

    1991-04-01

    Singly quantized magnetic fluxes in superconducting lead films have been directly observed in the form of magnetic-flux-line distributions by using an electron-holography technique. Combining this with the digital-phase-analysis method, we were able to determine the flux quantum {ital h}/2{ital e} for individual fluxes with a precision of {similar to}{ital h}/100{ital e}, and analyze the distributions of field-vector components around the fluxon centers. The internal-field distributions obtained were compared with those calculated from the Ginzburg-Landau equations with use of some models, and an overall agreement was found between them. We also observed the changes of the magnetic-flux structures of lead thin films as a function of their thickness. Fluxon pairs were observed in 0.2-{mu}m-thick films, which may correspond to those suggested by Kosterlitz-Thouless theory.

  11. Pulse flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Riggan, William C.

    1985-01-01

    A device for measuring particle flux comprises first and second photodiode detectors for receiving flux from a source and first and second outputs for producing first and second signals representing the flux incident to the detectors. The device is capable of reducing the first output signal by a portion of the second output signal, thereby enhancing the accuracy of the device. Devices in accordance with the invention may measure distinct components of flux from a single source or fluxes from several sources.

  12. Threshold expansion of the three-particle quantization condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Maxwell T.; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2016-05-01

    We recently derived a quantization condition for the energy of three relativistic particles in a cubic box [M. T. Hansen and S. R. Sharpe, Phys. Rev. D 90, 116003 (2014); M. T. Hansen and S. R. Sharpe, Phys. Rev. D 92, 114509 (2015)]. Here we use this condition to study the energy level closest to the three-particle threshold when the total three-momentum vanishes. We expand this energy in powers of 1 /L , where L is the linear extent of the finite volume. The expansion begins at O (1 /L3), and we determine the coefficients of the terms through O (1 /L6). As is also the case for the two-particle threshold energy, the 1 /L3, 1 /L4 and 1 /L5 coefficients depend only on the two-particle scattering length a . These can be compared to previous results obtained using nonrelativistic quantum mechanics [K. Huang and C. N. Yang, Phys. Rev. 105, 767 (1957); S. R. Beane, W. Detmold, and M. J. Savage, Phys. Rev. D 76, 074507 (2007); S. Tan, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013636 (2008)], and we find complete agreement. The 1 /L6 coefficients depend additionally on the two-particle effective range r (just as in the two-particle case) and on a suitably defined threshold three-particle scattering amplitude (a new feature for three particles). A second new feature in the three-particle case is that logarithmic dependence on L appears at O (1 /L6). Relativistic effects enter at this order, and the only comparison possible with the nonrelativistic result is for the coefficient of the logarithm, where we again find agreement. For a more thorough check of the 1 /L6 result, and thus of the quantization condition, we also compare to a perturbative calculation of the threshold energy in relativistic λ ϕ4 theory, which we have recently presented in [M. T. Hansen and S. R. Sharpe, Phys. Rev. D 93, 014506 (2016)]. Here, all terms can be compared, and we find full agreement.

  13. Quantized Vortex State in hcp Solid 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Minoru

    2012-11-01

    The quantized vortex state appearing in the recently discovered new states in hcp 4He since their discovery (Kim and Chan, Nature, 427:225-227, 2004; Science, 305:1941, 2004) is discussed. Special attention is given to evidence for the vortex state as the vortex fluid (VF) state (Anderson, Nat. Phys., 3:160-162, 2007; Phys. Rev. Lett., 100:215301, 2008; Penzev et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 101:065301, 2008; Nemirovskii et al., arXiv:0907.0330, 2009) and its transition into the supersolid (SS) state (Shimizu et al., arXiv:0903.1326, 2009; Kubota et al., J. Low Temp. Phys., 158:572-577, 2010; J. Low Temp. Phys., 162:483-491, 2011). Its features are described. The historical explanations (Reatto and Chester, Phys. Rev., 155(1):88-100, 1967; Chester, Phys. Rev. A, 2(1):256-258, 1970; Andreev and Lifshitz, JETP Lett., 29:1107-1113, 1969; Leggett, Phys. Rev. Lett., 25(22), 1543-1546, 1970; Matsuda and Tsuneto, Prog. Theor. Phys., 46:411-436, 1970) for the SS state in quantum solids such as solid 4He were based on the idea of Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) of the imperfections such as vacancies, interstitials and other possible excitations in the quantum solids which are expected because of the large zero-point motions. The SS state was proposed as a new state of matter in which real space ordering of the lattice structure of the solid coexists with the momentum space ordering of superfluidity. A new type of superconductors, since the discovery of the cuprate high T c superconductors, HTSCs (Bednorz and Mueller, Z. Phys., 64:189, 1986), has been shown to share a feature with the vortex state, involving the VF and vortex solid states. The high T c s of these materials are being discussed in connection to the large fluctuations associated with some other phase transitions like the antiferromagnetic transition in addition to that of the low dimensionality. The supersolidity in the hcp solid 4He, in contrast to the new superconductors which have multiple degrees of freedom of

  14. The wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for digital fingerprint images

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    A new digital image compression standard has been adopted by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation for use on digitized gray-scale fingerprint images. The algorithm is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform image decomposition and is referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization standard. The standard produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20:1 and will allow the FBI to replace their current database of paper fingerprint cards with digital imagery.

  15. A K-homological approach to the quantization commutes with reduction problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanli

    2017-02-01

    Kasparov (1988) defined a distinguished K-homology fundamental class, so called the Dirac element. We prove a localization formula for the Dirac element in K-homology of crossed product of C∗-algebras. Then we define the quantization of Hamiltonian G-spaces as a push-forward of the Dirac element. With this, we develop a K-homological approach to the quantization commutes with reduction theorem.

  16. `Third' Quantization of Vacuum Einstein Gravity and Free Yang-Mills Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raptis, Ioannis

    2007-05-01

    Certain pivotal results from various applications of Abstract Differential Geometry (ADG) to gravity and gauge theories are presently collected and used to argue that we already possess a geometrically (pre)quantized, second quantized and manifestly background spacetime manifold independent vacuum Einstein gravitational field dynamics. The arguments carry also mutatis mutandis to the case of free Yang-Mills theories, since from the ADG-theoretic perspective gravity is regarded as another gauge field theory. The powerful algebraico-categorical, sheaf cohomological conceptual and technical machinery of ADG is then employed, based on the fundamental ADG-theoretic conception of a field as a pair ({mathcal{E}},{mathcal{D}}) consisting of a vector sheaf {mathcal{E}} and an algebraic connection {mathcal{D}} acting categorically as a sheaf morphism on {mathcal{E}}'s local sections, to introduce a ‘universal’, because expressly functorial, field quantization scenario coined third quantization. Although third quantization is fully covariant, on intuitive and heuristic grounds alone it formally appears to follow a canonical route; albeit, in a purely algebraic and, in contradistinction to geometric (pre)quantization and (canonical) second quantization, manifestly background geometrical spacetime manifold independent fashion, as befits ADG. All in all, from the ADG-theoretic vantage, vacuum Einstein gravity and free Yang-Mills theories are regarded as external spacetime manifold unconstrained, third quantized, pure gauge field theories. The paper abounds with philosophical smatterings and speculative remarks about the potential import and significance of our results to current and future Quantum Gravity research. A postscript gives a brief account of this author's personal encounters with Rafael Sorkin and his work.

  17. Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, I. C.; Bakke, K.

    2016-01-07

    Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.

  18. Minisuperspace quantization of bubbling AdS2×S2 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qinglin

    2017-01-01

    We quantize the moduli space of supersymmetric microstates describing four-dimensional black holes with AdS2×S2 asymptotics. To acquire the commutation relations of quantization, we find the symplectic form that is imposed in the Type IIB supergravity and defined in the space of solutions parametrized by one complex harmonic function in R3 with sources distributed along closed curves.

  19. Rotating effects on the Landau quantization for an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, I C; Bakke, K

    2016-01-07

    Based on the single particle approximation [Dmitriev et al., Phys. Rev. C 50, 2358 (1994) and C.-C. Chen, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2611 (1995)], the Landau quantization associated with an atom with a magnetic quadrupole moment is introduced, and then, rotating effects on this analogue of the Landau quantization is investigated. It is shown that rotating effects can modify the cyclotron frequency and breaks the degeneracy of the analogue of the Landau levels.

  20. The Quantization of the E ⊗ e Jahn-Teller Hamiltonian.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidis, Athanasios G; Vandaele, Eva R J; Szopa, Marek; Ceulemans, Arnout

    2017-09-18

    The E ⊗ e Jahn-Teller Hamiltonian in the Bargmann-Fock representation gives rise to a system of two coupled first-order differential equations in the complex field, which may be rewritten in the Birkhoff standard form. General leapfrog recurrence relations are derived, from which the quantized solutions of these equations can be obtained. The results are compared to the analogous quantization scheme for the Rabi Hamiltonian.

  1. An analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Matassa, Marco E-mail: mmatassa@math.uio.no

    2015-09-15

    We prove an analogue of Weyl’s law for quantized irreducible generalized flag manifolds. This is formulated in terms of a zeta function which, similarly to the classical setting, satisfies the following two properties: as a functional on the quantized algebra it is proportional to the Haar state and its first singularity coincides with the classical dimension. The relevant formulas are given for the more general case of compact quantum groups.

  2. The method of Ostrogradsky, quantization, and a move toward a ghost-free future

    SciTech Connect

    Nucci, M C; Leach, P G L

    2009-11-15

    The method of Ostrogradsky has been used to construct a first-order Lagrangian, hence Hamiltonian, for the fourth-order field-theoretical model of Pais-Uhlenbeck with unfortunate results when quantization is undertaken since states with negative norm, commonly called ''ghosts,'' appear. We propose an alternative route based on the preservation of symmetry and this leads to a ghost-free quantization.

  3. Length Quantization of DNA Partially Expelled from Heads of a Bacteriophage T3 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Serwer, Philip; Wright, Elena T.; Liu, Zheng; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    DNA packaging of phages phi29, T3 and T7 sometimes produces incompletely packaged DNA with quantized lengths, based on gel electrophoretic band formation. We discover here a packaging ATPase-free, in vitro model for packaged DNA length quantization. We use directed evolution to isolate a five-site T3 point mutant that hyper-produces tail-free capsids with mature DNA (heads). Three tail gene mutations, but no head gene mutations, are present. A variable-length DNA segment leaks from some mutant heads, based on DNase I-protection assay and electron microscopy. The protected DNA segment has quantized lengths, based on restriction endonuclease analysis: six sharp bands of DNA missing 3.7–12.3% of the last end packaged. Native gel electrophoresis confirms quantized DNA expulsion and, after removal of external DNA, provides evidence that capsid radius is the quantization-ruler. Capsid-based DNA length quantization possibly evolved via selection for stalling that provides time for feedback control during DNA packaging and injection. PMID:24889235

  4. Can Dirac quantization of constrained systems be fulfilled within the intrinsic geometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Xun, D.M.; Liu, Q.H.

    2014-02-15

    For particles constrained on a curved surface, how to perform quantization within Dirac’s canonical quantization scheme is a long-standing problem. On one hand, Dirac stressed that the Cartesian coordinate system has fundamental importance in passing from the classical Hamiltonian to its quantum mechanical form while preserving the classical algebraic structure between positions, momenta and Hamiltonian to the extent possible. On the other, on the curved surface, we have no exact Cartesian coordinate system within intrinsic geometry. These two facts imply that the three-dimensional Euclidean space in which the curved surface is embedded must be invoked otherwise no proper canonical quantization is attainable. In this paper, we take a minimum surface, helicoid, on which the motion is constrained, to explore whether the intrinsic geometry offers a proper framework in which the quantum theory can be established in a self-consistent way. Results show that not only an inconsistency within Dirac theory occurs, but also an incompatibility with Schrödinger theory happens. In contrast, in three-dimensional Euclidean space, the Dirac quantization turns out to be satisfactory all around, and the resultant geometric momentum and potential are then in agreement with those given by the Schrödinger theory. -- Highlights: • Quantum motion on a minimum surface, helicoid, is examined within canonical quantization. • Both geometric momentum and geometric potential are embedding quantities. • No canonical quantization can be fulfilled within the intrinsic geometry.

  5. Robust fault tolerant control based on sliding mode method for uncertain linear systems with quantization.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Ying; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2013-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of robust fault-tolerant compensation control problem for uncertain linear systems subject to both state and input signal quantization. By incorporating novel matrix full-rank factorization technique with sliding surface design successfully, the total failure of certain actuators can be coped with, under a special actuator redundancy assumption. In order to compensate for quantization errors, an adjustment range of quantization sensitivity for a dynamic uniform quantizer is given through the flexible choices of design parameters. Comparing with the existing results, the derived inequality condition leads to the fault tolerance ability stronger and much wider scope of applicability. With a static adjustment policy of quantization sensitivity, an adaptive sliding mode controller is then designed to maintain the sliding mode, where the gain of the nonlinear unit vector term is updated automatically to compensate for the effects of actuator faults, quantization errors, exogenous disturbances and parameter uncertainties without the need for a fault detection and isolation (FDI) mechanism. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed design method is illustrated via a model of a rocket fairing structural-acoustic.

  6. High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range

    PubMed Central

    Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement. PMID:27388587

  7. Born-Jordan Quantization and the Equivalence of the Schrödinger and Heisenberg Pictures.

    PubMed

    de Gosson, Maurice A

    The aim of the famous Born and Jordan 1925 paper was to put Heisenberg's matrix mechanics on a firm mathematical basis. Born and Jordan showed that if one wants to ensure energy conservation in Heisenberg's theory it is necessary and sufficient to quantize observables following a certain ordering rule. One apparently unnoticed consequence of this fact is that Schrödinger's wave mechanics cannot be equivalent to Heisenberg's more physically motivated matrix mechanics unless its observables are quantized using this rule, and not the more symmetric prescription proposed by Weyl in 1926, which has become the standard procedure in quantum mechanics. This observation confirms the superiority of Born-Jordan quantization, as already suggested by Kauffmann. We also show how to explicitly determine the Born-Jordan quantization of arbitrary classical variables, and discuss the conceptual advantages in using this quantization scheme. We finally suggest that it might be possible to determine the correct quantization scheme by using the results of weak measurement experiments.

  8. High-Resolution Group Quantization Phase Processing Method in Radio Frequency Measurement Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Baoqing; Feng, Dazheng; Tang, Yaohua; Geng, Xin; Zhang, Duo; Cai, Chaofeng; Wan, Maoquan; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    Aiming at the more complex frequency translation, the longer response time and the limited measurement precision in the traditional phase processing, a high-resolution phase processing method by group quantization higher than 100 fs level is proposed in radio frequency measurement range. First, the phase quantization is used as a step value to quantize every phase difference in a group by using the fixed phase relationships between different frequencies signals. The group quantization is formed by the results of the quantized phase difference. In the light of frequency drift mainly caused by phase noise of measurement device, a regular phase shift of the group quantization is produced, which results in the phase coincidence of two comparing signals which obtain high-resolution measurement. Second, in order to achieve the best coincidences pulse, a subtle delay is initiatively used to reduce the width of the coincidences fuzzy area according to the transmission characteristics of the coincidences in the specific medium. Third, a series of feature coincidences pulses of fuzzy area can be captured by logic gate to achieve the best phase coincidences information for the improvement of the measurement precision. The method provides a novel way to precise time and frequency measurement.

  9. Quantization of spacetime based on a spacetime interval operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsu-Wen; Hu, Yao-Chieh; Chen, Pisin

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by both concepts of Adler's recent work on utilizing Clifford algebra as the linear line element d s =⟨γμ⟩ d Xμ and the fermionization of the cylindrical worldsheet Polyakov action, we introduce a new type of spacetime quantization that is fully covariant. The theory is based on the reinterpretation of Adler's linear line element as d s =γμ⟨λ γμ⟩ , where λ is the characteristic length of the theory. We name this new operator the "spacetime interval operator" and argue that it can be regarded as a natural extension to the one-forms in the U (s u (2 )) noncommutative geometry. By treating Fourier momentum as the particle momentum, the generalized uncertainty principle of the U (s u (2 )) noncommutative geometry, as an approximation to the generalized uncertainty principle of our theory, is derived and is shown to have a lowest order correction term of the order p2 similar to that of Snyder's. The holography nature of the theory is demonstrated and the predicted fuzziness of the geodesic is shown to be much smaller than conceivable astrophysical bounds.

  10. Spectrum of Quantized Energy for a Lengthening Pendulum

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jeong Ryeol; Song, Ji Nny; Hong, Seong Ju

    2010-09-30

    We considered a quantum system of simple pendulum whose length of string is increasing at a steady rate. Since the string length is represented as a time function, this system is described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The invariant operator method is very useful in solving the quantum solutions of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems like this. The invariant operator of the system is represented in terms of the lowering operator a(t) and the raising operator a{sup {dagger}}(t). The Schroedinger solutions {psi}{sub n}({theta}, t) whose spectrum is discrete are obtained by means of the invariant operator. The expectation value of the Hamiltonian in the {psi}{sub n}({theta}, t) state is the same as the quantum energy. At first, we considered only {theta}{sup 2} term in the Hamiltonian in order to evaluate the quantized energy. The numerical study for quantum energy correction is also made by considering the angle variable not only up to {theta}{sup 4} term but also up to {theta}{sup 6} term in the Hamiltonian, using the perturbation theory.

  11. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units—which we call metamaterial bricks—each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators. PMID:28240283

  12. Image Classification of Ribbed Smoked Sheet using Learning Vector Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Pulungan, A. F.; Faza, S.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-01-01

    Natural rubber is an important export commodity in Indonesia, which can be a major contributor to national economic development. One type of rubber used as rubber material exports is Ribbed Smoked Sheet (RSS). The quantity of RSS exports depends on the quality of RSS. RSS rubber quality has been assigned in SNI 06-001-1987 and the International Standards of Quality and Packing for Natural Rubber Grades (The Green Book). The determination of RSS quality is also known as the sorting process. In the rubber factones, the sorting process is still done manually by looking and detecting at the levels of air bubbles on the surface of the rubber sheet by naked eyes so that the result is subjective and not so good. Therefore, a method is required to classify RSS rubber automatically and precisely. We propose some image processing techniques for the pre-processing, zoning method for feature extraction and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) method for classifying RSS rubber into two grades, namely RSS1 and RSS3. We used 120 RSS images as training dataset and 60 RSS images as testing dataset. The result shows that our proposed method can give 89% of accuracy and the best perform epoch is in the fifteenth epoch.

  13. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces.

    PubMed

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R; Drinkwater, Bruce W; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-27

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units-which we call metamaterial bricks-each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  14. Applications of Basis Light-Front Quantization to QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vary, James P.; Zhao, Xingbo; Ilderton, Anton; Honkanen, Heli; Maris, Pieter; Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2014-06-01

    Hamiltonian light-front quantum field theory provides a framework for calculating both static and dynamic properties of strongly interacting relativistic systems. Invariant masses, correlated parton amplitudes and time-dependent scattering amplitudes, possibly with strong external time-dependent fields, represent a few of the important applications. By choosing the light-front gauge and adopting an orthonormal basis function representation, we obtain a large, sparse, Hamiltonian matrix eigenvalue problem for mass eigenstates that we solve by adapting ab initio no-core methods of nuclear many-body theory. In the continuum limit, the infinite matrix limit, we recover full covariance. Guided by the symmetries of light-front quantized theory, we adopt a two-dimensional harmonic oscillator basis for transverse modes that corresponds with eigensolutions of the soft-wall anti-de Sitter/quantum chromodynamics (AdS/QCD) model obtained from light-front holography. We outline our approach and present results for non-linear Compton scattering, evaluated non-perturbatively, where a strong and time-dependent laser field accelerates the electron and produces states of higher invariant mass i.e. final states with photon emission.

  15. Cotangent bundle quantization: entangling of metric and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasev, M. V.; Osborn, T. A.

    2005-10-01

    For manifolds \\mathcal{M} of noncompact type endowed with an affine connection (for example, the Levi-Civita connection) and a closed 2-form (magnetic field), we define a Hilbert algebra structure in the space L^2(T^*\\!{\\mathcal{M}}) and construct an irreducible representation of this algebra in L^2(\\mathcal{M}) . This algebra is automatically extended to polynomial in momenta functions and distributions. Under some natural conditions, this algebra is unique. The non-commutative product over T^*\\!{\\mathcal{M}} is given by an explicit integral formula. This product is exact (not formal) and is expressed in invariant geometrical terms. Our analysis reveals that this product has a front, which is described in terms of geodesic triangles in \\mathcal{M} . The quantization of δ-functions induces a family of symplectic reflections in T^*\\!{\\mathcal{M}} and generates a magneto-geodesic connection Γ on T^*\\mathcal{M} . This symplectic connection entangles, on the phase space level, the original affine structure on \\mathcal{M} and the magnetic field. In the classical approximation, the planck2-part of the quantum product contains the Ricci curvature of Γ and a magneto-geodesic coupling tensor.

  16. Quantized Water Transport: Ideal Desalination through Graphyne-4 Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Wang, E. G.; Meng, Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The shortage of clean and fresh water is one of most pervasive problems afflicting human being's life in the world. Desalination is one viable solution to produce clean water, since 98% of the available water in the form of salty water. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that graphyne sheet exhibits promising potential for nanoscale desalination to achieve both high water permeability and salt rejection rate. In addition, Graphyne sheets also are mechanically robust with high tolerance to deformation. Especially, γ-graphyne-4 has the best performance with 100% slat rejection and an unprecedented water permeability of ~ 13L/cm2/day/MPa. 3 orders of magnitude higher than prevailing commercial membranes based on reverse osmosis, and ~ 10 times higher than the state-of-the-art nanoporous graphene. Strikingly, water permeability across graphyne exhibits unexpected nonlinear dependence on the pore area. This counter-intuitive behavior is attributed to the quantized nature of water flow at the nanoscale, which has wide implications in controlling nanoscale water transport and designing highly effective membrane.

  17. Optomechanical Analogy for Toy Cosmology with Quantized Scale Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiga, Joseph; Taylor, Jacob

    2017-09-01

    The simplest cosmology --- the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker-Lema\\^{i}tre (FRW) model --- describes a spatially homogeneous and isotropic universe where the scale factor is the only dynamical parameter. Here we consider how quantized electromagnetic fields become entangled with the scale factor in a toy version of the FRW model. A system consisting of a photon, source, and detector is described in such a universe, and we find that the detection of a redshifted photon by the detector system constrains possible scale factor superpositions. Thus, measuring the redshift of the photon is equivalent to a weak measurement of the underlying cosmology. We also consider a potential optomechanical analogy system that would enable experimental exploration of these concepts. The analogy focuses on the effects of photon redshift measurement as a quantum back-action on metric variables, where the position of a movable mirror plays the role of the scale factor. By working in the rotating frame, an effective Hubble equation can be simulated with a simple free moving mirror.

  18. Quantization of closed mini-superspace models as bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    The Wheeler-DeWitt equation is applied to closedk>0 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric with various combination of cosmological constant and matter (e.g., radiation or pressureless gas). It is shown that if the universe ends in the matter dominated era (e.g., radiation or pressureless gas) with zero cosmological constant, then the resulting Wheeler-DeWitt equation describes a bound state problem. As solutions of a nondegenerate bound state system, the eigen-wave functions are real (Hartle-Hawking). Furthermore, as a bound state problem, there exists a quantization condition that relates the curvature of the three space with the various energy densities of the universe. If we assume that our universe is closed, then the quantum number of our universe isN˜(Gk)-1˜10122. The largeness of this quantum number is naturally explained by an early inflationary phase which resulted in a flat universe we observe today. It is also shown that if there is a cosmological constant Λ>0 in our universe that persists for all time, then the resulting Wheeler-DeWitt equation describes a non-bound state system, regardless of the magnitude of the cosmological constant. As a consequence, the wave functions are in general complex (Vilenkin).

  19. Fiber-bundle formalism for quantization in curved spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrozumski, Tomasz

    1990-08-01

    We set up a geometrical formulation of the canonical quantization of a free Klein-Gordon field on a gravitational background. We introduce the notion of the Bogolubov bundle as the principal fiber bundle over the space of all Cauchy surfaces belonging to some fixed foliation of space-time, with the Bogolubov group as the structure group, as a tool in considering local Bogolubov transformations. Sections of the associated complex structure bundle have the meaning of attaching Hilbert spaces to Cauchy surfaces. We single out, as physical, sections defined by the equation of parallel transport on the Bogolubov bundle. The connection is then subjected to a certain nonlinear differential equation. We find a particular solution, which happens to coincide with a formula given by Parker for Robertson-Walker space-times. Finally, we adopt the adiabatic hypothesis as the physical input to the formalism and fix in this way a free parameter in the connection. Concluding, we comment on a possible geometrical interpretation of the regularization of the stress-energy tensor and on generalizations of the formalism toward quantum gravity.

  20. Fluxoid Quantization in Superconducting Al Nano-Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Stephen; Goldman, Allen

    2011-03-01

    The Little-Parks experiment on superconducting cylinders is an important demonstration of fluxoid quantization in superconductors. The transition temperature oscillations in magnetic field have a period of h / 2 e for the micro cylinders in their studies, which was further evidence for Cooper paring at the time {[}W. A. Little, R. D. Parks, PRL 1964, 9, 9{]}. However recent theoretical works have suggested that in superconducting loops smaller than the coherence length this period changes from h / 2 e to h / e , for details see {[}F. Loder, et al. PRB, 2008, 78, 174526{]} and references therein. We present experimental work in an effort to achieve this limit with Al nano-rings prepared by electron beam lithography. The rings presented here are smaller than others reported in the literature by as much as a factor of two or three {[}H. Wang, et al. PRB, 2007, 75, 064509{]}. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-02ER46004.