Science.gov

Sample records for fluxes processing modifikatsiya

  1. High-flux solar photon processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lorents, D.C.; Narang, S.; Huestis, D.C.; Mooney, J.L.; Mill, T.; Song, H.K.; Ventura, S.

    1992-06-01

    This study was commissioned by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the purpose of identifying high-flux photoprocesses that would lead to beneficial national and commercial applications. The specific focus on high-flux photoprocesses is based on the recent development by NREL of solar concentrator technology capable of delivering record flux levels. We examined photolytic and photocatalytic chemical processes as well as photothermal processes in the search for processes where concentrated solar flux would offer a unique advantage. 37 refs.

  2. Relaxation Processes within Flux Ropes in Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telloni, D.; Carbone, V.; Perri, S.; Bruno, R.; Lepreti, F.; Veltri, P.

    2016-08-01

    Flux ropes are localized structures in space plasma whose tube-like organized magnetic configuration can be well approximated by a force-free field model. Both numerical simulations and simple models suggest that the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can relax toward a minimum energy state, where magnetic helicity is conserved, characterized by force-free magnetic fields (Taylor relaxation). In this paper, we evaluate MHD rugged invariants within more than 100 flux ropes identified in the solar wind at 1 AU, showing that the magnetic and cross-helicity content carried out by these structures tend to be “attracted” toward a particular subphase in the parameter plane. The final configuration of the MHD rugged invariants in the parameter plane suggests indeed that flux ropes represent well-organized structures coming from the dynamical evolution of MHD turbulent cascade. These observational results, along with a simple model based on a truncated set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for both the velocity and magnetic field Fourier coefficients, thus, support a scenario in which the flux ropes naturally come out from the ideal MHD decay to large-scale magnetic field in space plasmas, probably governed by relaxation processes similar to those observed in laboratory plasmas.

  3. High-flux solar photon processes: Opportunities for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, J.I.; Coy, S.L.; Herzog, H.; Shorter, J.A.; Schlamp, M.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A.

    1992-06-01

    The overall goal of this study was to identify new high-flux solar photon (HFSP) processes that show promise of being feasible and in the national interest. Electric power generation and hazardous waste destruction were excluded from this study at sponsor request. Our overall conclusion is that there is promise for new applications of concentrated solar photons, especially in certain aspects of materials processing and premium materials synthesis. Evaluation of the full potential of these and other possible applications, including opportunities for commercialization, requires further research and testing. 100 refs.

  4. CO2 Flux Estimation Errors Associated with Moist Atmospheric Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parazoo, N. C.; Denning, A. S.; Kawa, S. R.; Pawson, S.; Lokupitiya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical transport by moist sub-grid scale processes such as deep convection is a well-known source of uncertainty in CO2 source/sink inversion. However, a dynamical link between vertical transport, satellite based retrievals of column mole fractions of CO2, and source/sink inversion has not yet been established. By using the same offline transport model with meteorological fields from slightly different data assimilation systems, we examine sensitivity of frontal CO2 transport and retrieved fluxes to different parameterizations of sub-grid vertical transport. We find that frontal transport feeds off background vertical CO2 gradients, which are modulated by sub-grid vertical transport. The implication for source/sink estimation is two-fold. First, CO2 variations contained in moist poleward moving air masses are systematically different from variations in dry equatorward moving air. Moist poleward transport is hidden from orbital sensors on satellites, causing a sampling bias, which leads directly to small but systematic flux retrieval errors in northern mid-latitudes. Second, differences in the representation of moist sub-grid vertical transport in GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 meteorological fields cause differences in vertical gradients of CO2, which leads to systematic differences in moist poleward and dry equatorward CO2 transport and therefore the fraction of CO2 variations hidden in moist air from satellites. As a result, sampling biases are amplified and regional scale flux errors enhanced, most notably in Europe (0.43+/-0.35 PgC /yr). These results, cast from the perspective of moist frontal transport processes, support previous arguments that the vertical gradient of CO2 is a major source of uncertainty in source/sink inversion.

  5. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang Gao, Dong

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  6. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang; Gao, Dong

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  7. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  8. Flux Recovery of a Forward Osmosis Membrane After a Fouling Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero-Mangado, Jaione; Parodi, Jurek; Gamboa-Vazquez, Sonia; Stefanson, Ofir; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Flynn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment through forward osmosis (FO) membranes is a process that has been evaluated in the past years as an innovative technology for the Next Generation Life Support Systems. FO technologies are cost effective, and require very low energy consumption, but are subject to membrane fouling. Membrane fouling occurs when unwanted materials accumulate on the active side of the membrane during the wastewater treatment process, which leads to a decrease in membrane flux rate. The aim of this study is to identify the materials that cause flux rate reduction due to membrane fouling, as well as to evaluate the flux rate recovery after membrane treatment using commercially available antifoulants. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry results identified possible compounds that cause membrane fouling and FO testing results demonstrated flux rate recovery after membrane treatment using antifoulants.

  9. Macroscopic fluxes and local reciprocal relation in second-order stochastic processes far from equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic process is an essential tool for the investigation of the physical and life sciences at nanoscale. In the first-order stochastic processes widely used in chemistry and biology, only the flux of mass rather than that of heat can be well defined. Here we investigate the two macroscopic fluxes in second-order stochastic processes driven by position-dependent forces and temperature gradient. We prove that the thermodynamic equilibrium defined through the vanishing of macroscopic fluxes is equivalent to that defined via time reversibility at mesoscopic scale. In the small noise limit, we find that the entropy production rate, which has previously been defined by the mesoscopic irreversible fluxes on the phase space, matches the classic macroscopic expression as the sum of the products of macroscopic fluxes and their associated thermodynamic forces. Further we show that the two pairs of forces and fluxes in such a limit follow a linear phenomenonical relation and the associated scalar coefficients always satisfy the reciprocal relation for both transient and steady states. The scalar coefficient is proportional to the square of local temperature divided by the local frictional coefficient and originated from the second moment of velocity distribution along each dimension. This result suggests the very close connection between the Soret effect (thermal diffusion) and Dufour effect at nanoscale even far from equilibrium.

  10. Revealing the flux: Using processed Husimi maps to visualize dynamics of bound systems and mesoscopic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Douglas J.; Borunda, Mario F.; Heller, Eric J.

    2015-04-01

    We elaborate upon the "processed Husimi map" representation for visualizing quantum wave functions using coherent states as a measurement of the local phase space to produce a vector field related to the probability flux. Adapted from the Husimi projection, the processed Husimi map is mathematically related to the flux operator under certain limits but offers a robust and flexible alternative since it can operate away from these limits and in systems that exhibit zero flux. The processed Husimi map is further capable of revealing the full classical dynamics underlying a quantum wave function since it reverse engineers the wave function to yield the underlying classical ray structure. We demonstrate the capabilities of processed Husimi maps on bound systems with and without electromagnetic fields, as well as on open systems on and off resonance, to examine the relationship between closed system eigenstates and mesoscopic transport.

  11. Capturing and Processing Soil GHG Fluxes Using the LI-COR LI-8100A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liukang; McDermitt, Dayle; Hupp, Jason; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Rod

    2015-04-01

    The LI-COR LI-8100A Automated Soil CO2 Flux System is designed to measure soil CO2 efflux using automated chambers and a non-steady state measurement protocol. While CO2 is an important gas in many contexts, it is not the only gas of interest for many research applications. With some simple plumbing modifications, many third party analyzers capable of measuring other trace gases, e.g. N2O, CH4, or 13CO2 etc., can be interfaced with the LI-8100A System, and LI-COR's data processing software (SoilFluxPro™) can be used to compute fluxes for these additional gases. In this paper we describe considerations for selecting an appropriate third party analyzer to interface with the system, how to integrate data into the system, and the procedure used to compute fluxes of additional gases in SoilFluxPro™. A case study is presented to demonstrate methane flux measurements using an Ultra-Portable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (Ultra-Portable GGA, model 915-0011), manufactured by Los Gatos Research and integrated into the LI-8100A System. Laboratory and field test results show that the soil CO2 efflux based on the time series of CO2 data measured either with the LI-8100A System or with the Ultra-Portable GGA are essentially the same. This suggests that soil GHG fluxes measured with both systems are reliable.

  12. Process for reducing series resistance of solar cell metal contact systems with a soldering flux etchant

    DOEpatents

    Coyle, R. T.; Barrett, Joy M.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for substantially reducing the series resistance of a solar cell having a thick film metal contact assembly thereon while simultaneously removing oxide coatings from the surface of the assembly prior to applying solder therewith. The process includes applying a flux to the contact assembly and heating the cell for a period of time sufficient to substantially remove the series resistance associated with the assembly by etching the assembly with the flux while simultaneously removing metal oxides from said surface of said assembly.

  13. Physical and biogeochemical processes controlling particle fluxes variability and carbon export in the Southern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetto, M.; Boldrin, A.; Langone, L.; Miserocchi, S.

    2012-08-01

    In the framework of the Vector Project downward particle fluxes have been measured in a station located in the centre of the South Adriatic Pit from November 2006 to August 2008. Sediment trap samples were collected at two different depths, below the photic layer (168 m) and near the bottom (1174 m), and analysed for total mass flux, for total and organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbonate, stable isotope of organic carbon (δ13Corg) and biogenic silica contents. The results have been integrated and compared with data obtained from previous research projects, carried out in the Southern Adriatic area in 1994-1995 and 1997-1998. Fluxes of particulate matter showed high seasonal and interannual variability, with maximum values in late winter-spring season. The organic carbon flux, followed the same seasonal trend, with higher values below the photic zone, and peaks in spring, related to blooms of silica and/or carbonates phytoplankton organisms (e.g., diatoms, coccolithophorids). The organic carbon export from the photic layer was of 5.2 and 2.1 g C m-2 y-1 reached the bottom. Climatological cycles and, in particular, the maximum depth of the convective vertical mixing determined the high fluxes measured in 1998 and in 2008 springs. Total mass fluxes measured at the bottom trap were twofold those measured below the photic layer, and showed a high lithogenic fraction, highlighting the presence of advective processes that appear particularly active in the area. These processes can be correlated with the spreading of dense waters coming from the north and central Adriatic, generally observed in spring. The elemental and isotopic composition of bottom trap samples, resulted similar to that of samples collected in the south-western Adriatic slope, corroborating the assumption that lateral advection other than vertical input were contributing to bottom particle fluxes.

  14. Effects of Flux Precoating and Process Parameter on Welding Performance of Inconel 718 Alloy TIG Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsuan-Liang; Wu, Tong-Min; Cheng, Ching-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of activating flux on the depth-to-width ratio (DWR) and hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds. The Taguchi method is employed to investigate the welding parameters that affect the DWR of weld bead and to achieve optimal conditions in the TIG welds that are coated with activating flux in TIG (A-TIG) process. There are eight single-component fluxes used in the initial experiment to evaluate the penetration capability of A-TIG welds. The experimental results show that the Inconel 718 alloy welds precoated with 50% SiO2 and 50% MoO3 flux were provided with better welding performance such as DWR and hot cracking susceptibility. The experimental procedure of TIG welding process using mixed-component flux and optimal conditions not only produces a significant increase in DWR of weld bead, but also decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy welds.

  15. BENTHIC AND WATER COLUMN PROCESSES IN A SUBTROPICAL ESTUARY: EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON OXYGEN FLUXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murrell, M.C., J.D. Hagy, J.G. Campbell and J.M. Caffrey. In press. Benthic and Water Column Processes in a Subtropical Estuary: Effects of Light on Oxygen Fluxes (Abstract). To be presented at the ASLO 2004 Summer Meeting: The Changing Landscapes of Oceans and Freshwater, 13-18 ...

  16. Use of boundary fluxes when simulating solute transport with the MODFLOW ground-water transport process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.; Hornberger, G.Z.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes modifications to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) threedimensional solute-transport model (MODFLOWGWT), which is incorporated into the USGS MODFLOW ground-water model as the Ground- Water Transport (GWT) Process. The modifications improve the capability of MODFLOW-GWT to accurately simulate solute transport in simulations that represent a nonzero flux across an aquifer boundary. In such situations, the new Boundary Flux Package (BFLX) will allow the user flexibility to assign the flux to specific cell faces, although that flexibility is limited for certain types of fluxes (such as recharge and evapotranspiration, which can only be assigned to the top face if either is to be represented as a boundary flux). The approach is consistent with that used in the MODPATH model. The application of the BFLX Package was illustrated using a test case in which the Lake Package was active. The results using the BFLX Package showed noticeably higher magnitudes of velocity in the cells adjacent to the lake than previous results without the BFLX Package. Consequently, solute was transported slightly faster through the lake-aquifer system when the BFLX Package is active. However, the overall solute distributions did not differ greatly from simulations made without using the BFLX Package.

  17. An overview of AmeriFlux data products and methods for data acquisition, processing, and publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Poindexter, C.; Agarwal, D.; Papale, D.; van Ingen, C.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The AmeriFlux network encompasses independently managed field sites measuring ecosystem carbon, water, and energy fluxes across the Americas. In close coordination with ICOS in Europe, a new set of fluxes data and metadata products is being produced and released at the FLUXNET level, including all AmeriFlux sites. This will enable continued releases of global standardized set of flux data products. In this release, new formats, structures, and ancillary information are being proposed and adopted. This presentation discusses these aspects, detailing current and future solutions. One of the major revisions was to the BADM (Biological, Ancillary, and Disturbance Metadata) protocols. The updates include structure and variable changes to address new developments in data collection related to flux towers and facilitate two-way data sharing. In particular, a new organization of templates is now in place, including changes in templates for biomass, disturbances, instrumentation, soils, and others. New variables and an extensive addition to the vocabularies used to describe BADM templates allow for a more flexible and comprehensible coverage of field sites and the data collection methods and results. Another extensive revision is in the data formats, levels, and versions for fluxes and micrometeorological data. A new selection and revision of data variables and an integrated new definition for data processing levels allow for a more intuitive and flexible notation for the variety of data products. For instance, all variables now include positional information that is tied to BADM instrumentation descriptions. This allows for a better characterization of spatial representativeness of data points, e.g., individual sensors or the tower footprint. Additionally, a new definition for data levels better characterizes the types of processing and transformations applied to the data across different dimensions (e.g., spatial representativeness of a data point, data quality checks

  18. Heavy and Superheavy Elements Production in High Intensive Neutron Fluxes of Explosive Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Lyashuk, V. I.; Panov, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    Mathematical model of heavy and superheavy nuclei production in intensive pulsed neutron fluxes of explosive process is developed. The pulse character of the process allows dividing it in time into two stages: very short rapid process of multiple neutron captures with higher temperature and very intensive neutron fluxes, and relatively slower process with lesser temperature and neutron fluxes. The model was also extended for calculation of the transuranium yields in nuclear explosions takes into account the adiabatic character of the process, the probabilities of delayed fission, and the emission of delayed neutrons. Also the binary starting target isotopes compositions were included. Calculations of heavy transuranium and transfermium nuclei production were made for "Mike", "Par" and "Barbel" experiments, performed in USA. It is shown that the production of transfermium neutron-rich nuclei and superheavy elements with A ~ 295 is only possible when using binary mixture of starting isotopes with the significant addition of heavy components, such as long-lived isotopes of curium, or californium.

  19. Development of a new flux map processing code for moveable detector system in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Lu, H.; Li, J.; Dang, Z.; Zhang, X.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the development of the flux map processing code MAPLE developed by China Nuclear Power Technology Research Institute (CNPPJ), China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGN). The method to get the three-dimensional 'measured' power distribution according to measurement signal has also been described. Three methods, namely, Weight Coefficient Method (WCM), Polynomial Expand Method (PEM) and Thin Plane Spline (TPS) method, have been applied to fit the deviation between measured and predicted results for two-dimensional radial plane. The measured flux map data of the LINGAO nuclear power plant (NPP) is processed using MAPLE as a test case to compare the effectiveness of the three methods, combined with a 3D neutronics code COCO. Assembly power distribution results show that MAPLE results are reasonable and satisfied. More verification and validation of the MAPLE code will be carried out in future. (authors)

  20. Post processing of CO2 flux measurements from an urban landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzer, O.; Meiring, W.; Kyriakidis, P. C.; McFadden, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Tower based measurements of CO2 fluxes by the eddy covariance method are subject to random error, systematic error, and missing data (gaps). In homogeneous ecosystems such as forests and grasslands, the post processing methods to address these problems are relatively well established. In the urban environment, however, the assumptions of most such methods are violated due to spatial heterogeneity in the tower footprint and localized CO2 sources such as traffic emission. For this reason, work is needed to develop and test methods appropriate to the urban setting. Here, we report comparisons of post processing methods for >3 years of flux measurements from the KUOM tall tower in a suburban neighborhood of Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Machine learning regression approaches including Artificial Neural Networks and Gaussian Processes were used to integrate observations from remote sensing, traffic and weather stations, and to extract complex underlying functional relationships, in order to improve gap-filling and minimize uncertainties. Specifically, we tested the sensitivity of the measurements to vehicle emissions by incorporating traffic counts from nearby roads and highways. Also, the selection of the friction velocity (u*) threshold was found to be sensitive to the wind direction but consistent between years. We calculated carbon flux sums for both residential and recreational land use types in the tower footprint, and assessed the random and systematic uncertainties caused by gap-filling and u*-filtering. While these post processing methods are essential for interpreting CO2 flux measurements in urban environments, they may also be useful for other inhomogeneous sites such as logged forests or ecosystems under disturbance from fire or pests.

  1. An investigation into underwater wet welding using the flux cored arc welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Brydon, A.M.; Nixon, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    For the last two years, Cranfield has been carrying out a program of process investigations into wet underwater welding (Graham and Nixon 1993, Nixon and Webb 1994), and has demonstrated that it is possible to markedly improve the stability and consistency of the process by using control techniques developed for hyperbaric welding. In the project reported below, an initial evaluation of wet flux cored arc welding was undertaken. Although there continues to be considerable resistance to the use of wet welding on structures in the North Sea, continued pressure to reduce repair and maintenance costs is causing the industry to re-examine techniques previously discounted, such as wet welding (Anon 1993).

  2. Effect of jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio on mixing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Alka; Ibrahim, Mohamed Saeed; Amano, R. S.

    2016-03-01

    Temperature uniformity after a mixing process plays a very important role in many applications. Non-uniform temperature at the entrance of the turbine in gas turbine systems has an adverse effect on the life of the blades. These temperature non-uniformities cause thermal stresses in the blades leading to higher maintenance costs. This paper presents experimental and numerical results for mixing process in coaxial ducts. The effect of increased jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratio on the temperature uniformity of the exit flow was analyzed. It was found that better mixing of primary (or hot) stream and dilution (or cold) stream was achieved at higher flux ratio. Almost 85 % of the equilibrium mixture fraction was achieved at flux ratio of 0.85 after which no significant improvement was achieved while the exergy destruction kept on increasing. A new parameter, `Cooling Rate Number', was defined to identify the potential sites for presence of cold zones within the mixing section. Parametric study reveals that the cooling rate numbers were higher near the dilution holes which may result in rapid cooling of the gases.

  3. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  4. In-situ monitoring the realkalisation process by neutron diffraction: Electroosmotic flux and portlandite formation

    SciTech Connect

    Castellote, Marta . E-mail: martaca@ietcc.csic.es; Llorente, Irene; Andrade, Carmen; Turrillas, Xavier; Alonso, Cruz; Campo, Javier

    2006-05-15

    Even though the electroosmotic flux through hardened cementitious materials during laboratory realkalisation trials had been previously noticed, it has never been in-situ monitored, analysing at the same time the establishment of the electroosmotic flux and the microstructure changes in the surroundings of the rebar. In this paper, two series of cement pastes, cast with CEM I and CEM I substituted in a 35% by fly ash, previously carbonated at 100% CO{sub 2}, were submitted to realkalisation treatments followed on line by simultaneous acquisition of neutron diffraction data. As a result, it has been possible to confirm the electroosmosis as the driving force of carbonates towards the rebar and to determine the range of pH in the anolyte in which most of the relevant electroosmotic phenomena takes place. On the other hand, the behaviour of the main crystalline phases involved in the process has been monitored during the treatment, with the precipitation of portlandite as main result.

  5. Disentangling fluxes of energy and matter in plasma-surface interactions: Effect of process parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, M.; Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.; Kersten, H.; Kumar, S.

    2010-09-15

    The possibility to discriminate between the relative importance of the fluxes of energy and matter in plasma-surface interaction is demonstrated by the energy flux measurements in low-temperature plasmas ignited by the radio frequency discharge (power and pressure ranges 50-250 W and 8-11.5 Pa) in Ar, Ar+H{sub 2}, and Ar+H{sub 2}+CH{sub 4} gas mixtures typically used in nanoscale synthesis and processing of silicon- and carbon-based nanostructures. It is shown that by varying the gas composition and pressure, the discharge power, and the surface bias one can effectively control the surface temperature and the matter supply rates. The experimental findings are explained in terms of the plasma-specific reactions in the plasma bulk and on the surface.

  6. Membrane flux dynamics in the submerged ultrafiltration hybrid treatment process during particle and natural organic matter removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojian; Li, Yonghong; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao

    2011-01-01

    Particles and natural organic matter (NOM) are two major concerns in surface water, which greatly influence the membrane filtration process. The objective of this article is to investigate the effect of particles, NOM and their interaction on the submerged ultrafiltration (UF) membrane flux under conditions of solo UF and coagulation and PAC adsorption as the pretreatment of UF. Particles, NOM and their mixture were spiked in tap water to simulate raw water. Exponential relationship, (J(P)/J(P0) = a x exp{-k[t-(n-1)T]}), was developed to quantify the normalized membrane flux dynamics during the filtration period and fitted the results well. In this equation, coefficient a was determined by the value of J(P)/J(P0) at the beginning of a filtration cycle, reflecting the flux recovery after backwashing, that is, the irreversible fouling. The coefficient k reflected the trend of flux dynamics. Integrated total permeability (SigmaJ(P)) in one filtration period could be used as a quantified indicator for comparison of different hybrid membrane processes or under different scenarios. According to the results, there was an additive effect on membrane flux by NOM and particles during solo UF process. This additive fouling could be alleviated by coagulation pretreatment since particles helped the formation of flocs with coagulant, which further delayed the decrease of membrane flux and benefited flux recovery by backwashing. The addition of PAC also increased membrane flux by adsorbing NOM and improved flux recovery through backwashing. PMID:22432326

  7. Study on heat flux from resin to mold in injection molding process

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiwaki, Nobuhiko; Hori, Sankei

    1999-07-01

    Recently, an injection molding of thermoplastic is widely used in many industries, because this manufacturing method is very suitable for mass production. For injection molding processes, a number of software packages for simulating an injection molding process have been developed. It is assumed in these software packages that the heat transfer coefficient between the resin and the mold surface is constant at the filling or cooling stages. In general, when melted resin flows into the mold, heat is generated in the flowing resin because of the high viscosity at the filling stage. Moreover at the cooling stage, a separation of the molded part from the mold surface generally occurs because of shrinkage of the molded material. Therefore, the heat transfer coefficient has not been accurately obtained yet at these stages. In this paper, the temperature near the surface of the mold cavity has been experimentally measured, so the heat flux that flows from the resin to the mold has been able to be analytically estimated by an inverse conduction method. On the other hand, the separating behavior of the resin from the mold surface has been measured using an ultrasonic transducer attached to the outer surface of the stationary mold. The heat flux that flows from the resin to the mold has been analytically estimated. The apparent heat transfer coefficient can be obtained from the heat flux and the representative temperature difference, which is measured by an ultrasonic technique. It was discovered that the heat flux and the apparent heat transfer coefficient are hardly influenced by the separation.

  8. Quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes associated with adiabatic intramolecular processes.

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Timm; Diestler, Dennis J; Li, Si-Dian; Manz, Jörn; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Tian, Wen-Juan; Wu, Yan-Bo; Yang, Yonggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2015-11-28

    An elementary molecular process can be characterized by the flow of particles (i.e., electrons and nuclei) that compose the system. The flow, in turn, is quantitatively described by the flux (i.e., the time-sequence of maps of the rate of flow of particles though specified surfaces of observation) or, in more detail, by the flux density. The quantum theory of concerted electronic and nuclear fluxes (CENFs) associated with electronically adiabatic intramolecular processes is presented. In particular, it is emphasized how the electronic continuity equation can be employed to circumvent the failure of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which always predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). It is also shown that all CENFs accompanying coherent tunnelling between equivalent "reactant" and "product" configurations of isolated molecules are synchronous. The theory is applied to three systems of increasing complexity. The first application is to vibrating, aligned H2(+)((2)Σg(+)), or vibrating and dissociating H2(+)((2)Σg(+), J = 0, M = 0). The EFD maps manifest a rich and surprising structure in this simplest of systems; for example, they show that the EFD is not necessarily synchronous with the nuclear flux density and can alternate in direction several times over the length of the molecule. The second application is to coherent tunnelling isomerization in the model inorganic system B4, in which all CENFs are synchronous. The contributions of core and valence electrons to the EFD are separately computed and it is found that core electrons flow with the nuclei, whereas the valence electrons flow obliquely to the core electrons in distinctive patterns. The third application is to the Cope rearrangement of semibullvalene, which also involves coherent tunnelling. An especially interesting discovery is that the so-called "pericyclic" electrons do not behave in the manner typically portrayed by the traditional Lewis structures with appended arrows. Indeed, it is

  9. Surface flux processes and evolution of characteristic eddy scales above a young Middle Rio Grande forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleverly, J. R.; Thibault, J. R.; Slusher, M.; Hipps, L.; Prueger, J.; Dahm, C. N.

    2003-12-01

    The extended drought throughout the Southwest has brought water budgets and policy decisions into public purview. It is often presumed that riparian restoration, i.e. removal of non-native species, presents a water salvage panacea. The cost of such operations can be prohibitive, making reliable estimates of phreatophytic ET a crucial piece of information. This study has taken a long-term approach to monitoring ET water flux from a variety of these forests. ET monitoring towers have been established at 5 sites along the Middle Rio Grande -- 2 over mature cottonwood forests, 2 over mature saltcedar forests, and 1 over a young mixed stand of Russian olive and willow. Because there is yet no infallible method for determining ET fluxes, eddy covariance technology provides the best method for evaluating those processes in the surface layer by provided data directly into surface layer similarity relationships. ET, energy, and carbon flux were measured during the 2003 growing season from towers using the 3-dimensional sonic eddy covariance (3SEC) method. Scalar flux sensors included a 3-D sonic anemometer, Krypton hygrometer, 12.7 μ m type E fine wire thermocouple (Campbell Scientific, Inc), and LI-7500 open-path IRGA (Licor, Inc). An averaging period of 30 min was chosen based as a period of low cospectral density. The following corrections were applied to these fluxes: coordinate rotation; correction of frequency-specific signal attenuation due to instrument separation, instrument line averaging, and signal path length (Massman 2000 & 2001); krypton hygrometer calibration as a function of humidity; oxygen contribution to the krypton hygrometer signal; and flux effects on measured densities (Webb et al 1980). These corrections reduced the closure error by 5 percent. Closure was then forced using the measured Bowen Ratio as the weighting factor. Measured ET, along with leaf area index, was reduced as much as 35 percent during the prolonged drought in the southwestern U

  10. Measured and simulated nitrogen fluxes after field application of food-processing and municipal organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Parnaudeau, V; Génermont, S; Hénault, C; Farrugia, A; Robert, P; Nicolardot, B

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess N fluxes (mineralization, volatilization, denitrification, leaching) caused by spreading various organic wastes from food-processing industries during a field experiment, and (ii) to identify the main factors affecting N transformation processes after field spreading. Experimental treatments including the spreading of six types of waste and a control soil were set up in August 2000 and studied for 22 mo under bare soil conditions. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, and nitrogen mineralization were measured in experimental devices and extrapolated to field conditions or computed in calculation models. The ammonia emissions varied from 80 to 580 g kg(-1) NH4+-N applied, representing 0 to 90 g N kg(-1) total N applied. Under these meteorologically favorable conditions (dry and warm weather), waste pH was the main factor affecting volatilization rates. Cumulated N2O-N fluxes were estimated at 2 to 5 g kg(-1) total N applied, which was quite low due to the low soil water content during the experimental period; water-filled pore space (WFPS) was confirmed as the main factor affecting N2O fluxes. Nitrogen mineralization from wastes represented 126 to 723 g N kg(-1) organic N added from the incorporation date to 14 May 2001 and was not related to the organic C to organic N ratio of wastes. Nitrogen lost by leaching during the equivalent period ranged from 30 to 890 g kg(-1) total N applied. The highest values were obtained for wastes having the highest inorganic N content and mineralization rates. PMID:19141817

  11. Measured and simulated nitrogen fluxes after field application of food-processing and municipal organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Parnaudeau, V; Génermont, S; Hénault, C; Farrugia, A; Robert, P; Nicolardot, B

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess N fluxes (mineralization, volatilization, denitrification, leaching) caused by spreading various organic wastes from food-processing industries during a field experiment, and (ii) to identify the main factors affecting N transformation processes after field spreading. Experimental treatments including the spreading of six types of waste and a control soil were set up in August 2000 and studied for 22 mo under bare soil conditions. Ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions, and nitrogen mineralization were measured in experimental devices and extrapolated to field conditions or computed in calculation models. The ammonia emissions varied from 80 to 580 g kg(-1) NH4+-N applied, representing 0 to 90 g N kg(-1) total N applied. Under these meteorologically favorable conditions (dry and warm weather), waste pH was the main factor affecting volatilization rates. Cumulated N2O-N fluxes were estimated at 2 to 5 g kg(-1) total N applied, which was quite low due to the low soil water content during the experimental period; water-filled pore space (WFPS) was confirmed as the main factor affecting N2O fluxes. Nitrogen mineralization from wastes represented 126 to 723 g N kg(-1) organic N added from the incorporation date to 14 May 2001 and was not related to the organic C to organic N ratio of wastes. Nitrogen lost by leaching during the equivalent period ranged from 30 to 890 g kg(-1) total N applied. The highest values were obtained for wastes having the highest inorganic N content and mineralization rates.

  12. Serpentinization-assisted deformation processes and characterization of hydrothermal fluxes at mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genc, Gence

    methods and techniques either in the plumes or right at sources, there is still limited knowledge of direct estimates of heat discharge particularly at the vent scale and reliable estimates of temporal variation in heat flux. Moreover, a few previously used tools to make discrete measurements were associated with mechanical complications and/or problems mostly related to electronics or irrecoverable damage due to environmental problems such as accumulation of sediments/particles from hydrothermal fluids. In this dissertation we showed the stages of design, fabrication, calibration and in-situ deployment from DSV Alvin for two unique heat flow measuring seafloor instruments; cup anemometer and turbine flow meter. The devices have proven to be robust, practical, and simple to maneuver and perform in both focused and diffuse flow milieus. Field experiments showed that these self-contained devices yielded a broad range of accurate heat flow estimates ranging from 2 cm/s to 200 cm/s with minimum required maintenance and much less on-station time compared to previous designs. This dissertation reports 63 successful point measurements of focused and diffuse fluid flow the majority of which were completed at the Main Endeavour, High Rise and Mothra hydrothermal vent fields along Endeavour Segment of Juan de Fuca Ridge. By coupling a fraction of our flow rate results with geochemical data (i.e. fluid volatile concentrations) collected with in-situ mass spectrometer, direct geochemical flux were estimated from both focused and diffuse flows. Heat and fluid flow results we have obtained complement our understanding of serpentinization assisted deformation processes at Mid-Ocean Ridges and subduction zones. This dissertation also includes a simple mathematical model developed for crustal deformation and seafloor uplift resulting from volume expansion associated with subsurface serpentinization. Application of this model shows the apparent deformation at the central portion of the

  13. Flux Recovery of a Forward Osmosis Membrane After a Fouling Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamboa-Vázquez, Sonia; Flynn, Michael; Romero Mangado, Jaione; Parodi, Jurek

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment through Forward Osmosis (FO) membranes is a process that has been evaluated in the past years as an innovative technology for the Next Generation Life Support Systems. FO technologies are cost effective, and require very low energy consumption, but are subject to membrane fouling. Membrane fouling occurs when unwanted materials accumulate on the active side of the membrane during the wastewater treatment process, which leads to a decrease in membrane flow rates. Membrane fouling can be reversed with the use of antifoulant solutions. The aim of this study is to identify the materials that cause flow rate reduction due to membrane fouling, as well as to evaluate the flux recovery after membrane treatment using commercially available antifoulants. 3D Laser Scanning Microscope images were taken to observe the surface of the membrane. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry results identified possible compounds that cause membrane fouling and FO testing results demonstrated flow rate recovery after membrane treatment using antifoulants.

  14. Quasi-classical theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic molecular processes.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J

    2012-11-26

    The standard Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (EFD). A previously proposed "coupled-channels" theory permits the extraction of the EFD from the BO wave function for one-electron diatomic systems, but attempts at generalization to many-electron polyatomic systems are frustrated by technical barriers. An alternative "quasi-classical" approach, which eliminates the explicit quantum dynamics of the electrons within a classical framework, yet retains the quantum character of the nuclear motion, appears capable of yielding EFDs for arbitrarily complex systems. Quasi-classical formulas for the EFD in simple systems agree with corresponding coupled-channels formulas. Results of the application of the new quasi-classical formula for the EFD to a model triatomic system indicate the potential of the quasi-classical scheme to elucidate the dynamical role of electrons in electronically adiabatic processes in more complex multiparticle systems.

  15. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J

    2012-03-22

    The Born-Oppenheimer (BO) description of electronically adiabatic molecular processes predicts a vanishing electronic flux density (j(e)), =1/2∫dR[Δ(b) (x;R) - Δ(a) (x;R)] even though the electrons certainly move in response to the movement of the nuclei. This article, the first of a pair, proposes a quantum-mechanical "coupled-channels" (CC) theory that allows the approximate extraction of j(e) from the electronically adiabatic BO wave function . The CC theory is detailed for H(2)(+), in which case j(e) can be resolved into components associated with two channels α (=a,b), each of which corresponds to the "collision" of an "internal" atom α (proton a or b plus electron) with the other nucleus β (proton b or a). The dynamical role of the electron, which accommodates itself instantaneously to the motion of the nuclei, is submerged in effective electronic probability (population) densities, Δ(α), associated with each channel (α). The Δ(α) densities are determined by the (time-independent) BO electronic energy eigenfunction, which depends parametrically on the configuration of the nuclei, the motion of which is governed by the usual BO nuclear Schrödinger equation. Intuitively appealing formal expressions for the electronic flux density are derived for H(2)(+).

  16. Electro-osmotic fluxes in multi-well electro-remediation processes.

    PubMed

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén; Sáez, Cristina; Mena, Esperanza; Villaseñor, Jose; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, electrokinetic techniques on a laboratory scale have been studied but few applications have been assessed at full-scale. In this work, a mock-up plant with two rows of three electrodes positioned in semipermeable electrolyte wells has been used to study the electro-osmotic flux distribution. Water accumulated in the cathodic wells when an electric voltage gradient was applied between the two electrode-well rows. Likewise, slight differences in the water flux were observed depending on the position and number of electrodes used and on the voltage gradient applied. Results show that the electro-osmotic flow did not increase proportionally with the number of electrodes used. During the start-up of the study, there was an abrupt change in the current density, pH and conductivity of the soil portions closest to electrodic wells due to electrokinetic processes. These differences can be explained in terms of the complex current distributions from anode and cathode rows. PMID:22029697

  17. Electro-osmotic fluxes in multi-well electro-remediation processes.

    PubMed

    López-Vizcaíno, Rubén; Sáez, Cristina; Mena, Esperanza; Villaseñor, Jose; Cañizares, Pablo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, electrokinetic techniques on a laboratory scale have been studied but few applications have been assessed at full-scale. In this work, a mock-up plant with two rows of three electrodes positioned in semipermeable electrolyte wells has been used to study the electro-osmotic flux distribution. Water accumulated in the cathodic wells when an electric voltage gradient was applied between the two electrode-well rows. Likewise, slight differences in the water flux were observed depending on the position and number of electrodes used and on the voltage gradient applied. Results show that the electro-osmotic flow did not increase proportionally with the number of electrodes used. During the start-up of the study, there was an abrupt change in the current density, pH and conductivity of the soil portions closest to electrodic wells due to electrokinetic processes. These differences can be explained in terms of the complex current distributions from anode and cathode rows.

  18. Fluxes in PHA-storing microbial communities during enrichment and biopolymer accumulation processes.

    PubMed

    Janarthanan, Om Murugan; Laycock, Bronwyn; Montano-Herrera, Liliana; Lu, Yang; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica V; Werker, Alan; Pratt, Steven

    2016-01-25

    The use of mixed microbial cultures for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is emerging as a viable technology. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing was used to analyse fluctuations in populations over a 63-day period within a PHA-storing mixed microbial community enriched on fermented whey permeate. This community was dominated by the genera Flavisolibacter and Zoogloea as well as an unidentified organism belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes. The population was observed to cycle through an increase in Zoogloea followed by a return to a community composition similar to the initial one (highly enriched in Flavisolibacter). It was found that the PHA accumulation capacity of the community was robust to population flux during enrichment and even PHA accumulation, with final polymer composition dependent on the overall proportion of acetic to propionic acids in the feed. This community adaptation suggests that mixed culture PHA production is a robust process. PMID:26257140

  19. What's the flux? Unraveling how CO2 fluxes from trees reflect underlying physiological processes

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, Susan E.; Angert, Alon; Kunert, Norbert; Muhr, Jan; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2012-12-18

    We report that the CO2 emitted from a stem is produced by physiological processes, but the challenge remains identifying what portion is produced by local tissues, which will facilitate much-needed mechanistic understanding of factors controlling autotrophic respiration.

  20. Relating hyporheic fluxes, residence times, and redox-sensitive biogeochemical processes upstream of beaver dams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura; Hare, Danielle K.

    2013-01-01

    ¨hler number seemed to overestimate the actual transition as indicated by multiple secondary electron acceptors, illustrating the gradient nature of anaerobic transition. Temporal flux variability in low-flux morphologies generated a much greater range in hyporheic redox conditions compared to high-flux zones, and chemical responses to changing flux rates were consistent with those predicted from the empirical relationship between redox condition and residence time. The Raz tracer revealed that hyporheic flow paths have strong net aerobic respiration, particularly at higher residence time, but this reactive exchange did not affect the net stream signal at the reach scale.

  1. Comparisons between TiO2- and SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding processes.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuang-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Lung

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of flux compounds on the weld shape, ferrite content, and hardness profile in the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 6 mm-thick austenitic 316 L stainless steel plates, using TiO2 and SiO2 powders as the activated fluxes. The metallurgical characterizations of weld metal produced with the oxide powders were evaluated using ferritoscope, optical microscopy, and Vickers microhardness test. Under the same welding parameters, the penetration capability of TIG welding with TiO2 and SiO2 fluxes was approximately 240% and 292%, respectively. A plasma column made with SiO2 flux exhibited greater constriction than that made with TiO2 flux. In addition, an anode root made with SiO2 flux exhibited more condensation than that made with TiO2 flux. Results indicate that energy density of SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding is higher than that of TiO2-flux assisted TIG welding.

  2. Comparisons between TiO2- and SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding processes.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuang-Hung; Chen, Kuan-Lung

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of flux compounds on the weld shape, ferrite content, and hardness profile in the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding of 6 mm-thick austenitic 316 L stainless steel plates, using TiO2 and SiO2 powders as the activated fluxes. The metallurgical characterizations of weld metal produced with the oxide powders were evaluated using ferritoscope, optical microscopy, and Vickers microhardness test. Under the same welding parameters, the penetration capability of TIG welding with TiO2 and SiO2 fluxes was approximately 240% and 292%, respectively. A plasma column made with SiO2 flux exhibited greater constriction than that made with TiO2 flux. In addition, an anode root made with SiO2 flux exhibited more condensation than that made with TiO2 flux. Results indicate that energy density of SiO2-flux assisted TIG welding is higher than that of TiO2-flux assisted TIG welding. PMID:22962749

  3. A Bayesian Deconvolution Approach to Partitioning Soil Respiration: Coupling Carbon Flux and Isotope Data with Process-based Flux and Mixing Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogle, K.; Cable, J. M.; Huxman, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    The respiratory loss of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems is a major carbon flux affecting local, regional, and global carbon cycling. Such losses (e.g., soil CO2 efflux), however, are often overly simplified in biogeochemical models compared to processes such as photosynthesis. This discrepancy is partly due to the difficulty associated with partitioning soil respiration (or CO2 efflux) into its various components (e.g., autotrophic vs. heterotrophic). Different components operate at dissimilar temporal and spatial scales, thus estimation of their relative activity based on bulk soil efflux measurements is challenging. Hence, development of a robust, biophysically-inspired method for partitioning the different components is paramount to teasing- apart the mechanisms underlying carbon source-sink dynamics within and across diverse landscapes. Towards this goal, we developed a semi-mechanistic Bayesian deconvolution modeling approach for partitioning soil respiration into its component sources. While the sources can be broadly categorized as autotrophic or heterotrophic, the fundamental sources of biogenic CO2 efflux arises from specific interactions between plants, micro-organisms, and the soil environment. Potential sources have been identified based on their different turnover rates and functional roles, including, (1) activity of roots, (2) rhizomicrobial (e.g., mycorrhiza) respiration, (3) microbial decomposition of plant tissues, (4) microbial activity primed by root exudation, and (5) microbial decomposition of soil organic matter. The relative contribution of each source to soil CO2 efflux can vary within the soil matrix, depending on spatial and temporal variability in soil properties, resource and substrate availability, and microclimate. Our Bayesian deconvolution framework allows for simultaneous analysis of multiple data sources related to soil respiration dynamics, and the data are analyzed within the context of process-based models. The data include

  4. Process for reducing series resistance of solar-cell metal-contact systems with a soldering-flux etchant

    DOEpatents

    Coyle, R.T.; Barrett, J.M.

    1982-05-04

    Disclosed is a process for substantially reducing the series resistance of a solar cell having a thick film metal contact assembly thereon while simultaneously removing oxide coatings from the surface of the assembly prior to applying solder therewith. The process includes applying a flux to the contact assembly and heating the cell for a period of time sufficient to substantially remove the series resistance associated with the assembly by etching the assembly with the flux while simultaneously removing metal oxides from said surface of said assembly.

  5. Concerning Some Physical Processes which Magnetic Flux Ropes Undergo as They Propagate in the Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrugia, Charles; Galvin, Antoinette; Lugaz, Noé

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are frequently observed in the inner heliosphere. They can be large-scale, such as magnetic clouds, or small-scale structures, the latter often called ``small flux rope transients''. Their duration of passage at Earth lasts about 1 day and a few hours, respectively. We shall discuss measurements in the inner heliosphere made by Wind, ACE and STEREO during the past two solar cycles. We address the analytical and numerical modeling of these flux rope structures and discuss under what conditions non-force free methods are preferable to force-free models. Specific applications will be presented. Two cases of large flux ropes magnetically connected to the Sun will be reviewed. Flux ropes typically expand in the inner heliosphere and we shall address the issue as to whether small and large flux ropes follow the same expansion characteristics. When the flux ropes interact with other heliospheric structures, they can form more complex structures. We shall present a specific case which was observed by Wind and STEREO in year 2007. Lastly, the possibility of magnetic erosion of the outer layers of the flux rope during transit will also be discussed.

  6. Helioseismic Holography and a Study of the Process of Magnetic Flux Disappearance in Canceling Bipoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles; Harvey, Karen L.; Braun, D.; Jones, H. P.; Penn, M.; Hassler, D.

    2001-01-01

    Project 1: We have developed and applied a technique of helioseismic holography along the lines of originally set out in our proposal. The result of the application of this diagnostic technique to solar activity and the quiet Sun has produced a number of important discoveries: (1) acoustic moats surrounding sunspots; (2) acoustic glories surround large active regions; (3) acoustic condensations beneath active regions; and (4) temporally-resolve acoustic images of a solar flare. These results have been published in a series of papers in the Astrophysical Journal. We think that helioseismic holography is now established as the most powerful and discriminating diagnostic in local helioseismology. Project 2: We conducted a collaborative observational program to define the physical character and magnetic geometry of canceling magnetic bipoles aimed at determining if the cancellation process is the result of submergence of magnetic fields. This assessment is based on ground-based observations combining photospheric and chromospheric magnetograms from NSO/KP, BBSO, and SOHO-MDI, and EUV and X-ray images from SOHO EIT/CDS, Yohkoh/SXT, and TRACE. Our study involves the analysis of data taken during three observing campaigns to define the height structure of canceling bipoles inferred from magnetic field and intensity images, and how this varies with time. We find that some canceling bipoles can be explained by the submerge of their magnetic flux. A paper on the results of this analysis will be presented at an upcoming scientific meeting and be written up for publication.

  7. Control of Crystal Morphology for Mold Flux During High-Aluminum AHSS Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GUO, Jing; SEO, Myung-Duk; SHI, Cheng-Bin; CHO, Jung-Wook; KIM, Seon-Hyo

    2016-08-01

    In the present manuscript, the efforts to control the crystal morphology are carried out aiming at improving the lubrication of lime-alumina-based mold flux for casting advanced high-strength steel with high aluminum. Jackson α factors for crystals of melt crystallization in multi-component mold fluxes are established and reasonably evaluated by applying thermodynamic databases to understand the crystal morphology control both in lime-alumina-based and lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The results show that Jackson α factor and supercooling are the most critical factors to determine the crystal morphology in a mold flux. Crystals precipitating in mold fluxes appear with different morphologies due to their different Jackson α factors and are likely to be more faceted with higher Jackson α factor. In addition, there is a critical supercooling degree for crystal morphology dendritic transition. When the supercooling over the critical value, the crystals transform from faceted shape to dendritic ones in morphology as the kinetic roughening occurs. Typically, the critical supercooling degrees for cuspidine dendritic transition in the lime-silica-based mold fluxes are evaluated to be between 0.05 and 0.06. Finally, addition of a small amount of Li2O in the mold flux can increase the Jackson α factor and decrease the supercooling for cuspidine precipitation; thus, it is favorable to enhance a faceted cuspidine crystal.

  8. Allogenic processes, sediment flux, and Carboniferous stratigraphy in the Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, C.B.; Dulong, F.T.; Edgar, N.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The origin of Carboniferous strata in the central Appalachian basin is being evaluated as a function of paleoclimatic, eustatic, and tectonic processes. Of these processes, paleoclimate has, in the past, received the least attention but appears to be of primary importance as a control on stratigraphy. For example, Upper Mississippian strata include both marine carbonates and marine dark gray to black shales. The marine carbonate units are underlain and overlain by paleosols that contain calcic peds, pseudomorphs of gypsum, and rhizoconcretions with vertical root structures suggesting low soil moisture. The marine limestone generally is in sharp contact with an underlying paleosol. The lithostratigraphy of such a sequence is consistent with a transgressive-regressive cycle under relatively dry (semiarid) climatic conditions, which limits siliciclastic influx. In contrast, the marine gray and black shales are bounded by leached paleosols containing horizontal rhizomorphs and coal beds suggestive of wet soil conditions. Terrestrial organic matter in marine shales indicate relatively high terrestrial organic productivity, and the shale units are in gradational contact with underling strata. The lithostratigraphy of the marine shale sequences is consistent with deposition under relatively wet climatic regimes (probably seasonal and subhumid), which increased siliciclastic and terrestrial organic matter input. Relatively short-term climate cycles were a primary control on sediment flux within Carboniferous deposystems in the Appalachian basin. Long-term climate change also occurred as eastern North America moved from relatively dry latitudes of the southern hemisphere through the tropical rainy belt into drier latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Long-term tectonic change provided accommodation space. Such controls can readily be observed throughout Carboniferous strata in the Appalachian basin.

  9. BENTHIC-PELAGIC PROCESSES IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL: EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON OXYGEN FLUXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eutrophication caused by excess nutrients can exacerbate hypoxia by increasing bottom water and sediment respiration. However, in shallow sub-tropical estuaries, the euphotic zone often extends below the pycnocline allowing oxygen fluxes in Pensacola Bay, FL, USA. Measurements we...

  10. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  11. Particle fluxes, benthic processes and the palaeoenvironmental record in the Northern Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudsey, Carol J.; King, Penny

    1997-11-01

    At the northern edge of the Weddell Gyre, Antarctica, fine-grained sediments accumulate beneath eastward-flowing Weddell Sea Bottom Water. We report on sediment trap material and core tops from four sites, with relevant water-column data. In this cold, low-productivity oceanographic setting it is the processes in the benthic nepheloid layer (resuspension, transport, winnowing of fines) and in the upper few cm of sediment (bioturbation, dissolution of biogenic silica and carbonate, degradation of organic matter) that dominate the palaeoenvironmental record. Biogenic productivity is low and seasonal because of sea-ice cover; terrigenous sediment is supplied by resuspension of Weddell Sea slope and rise sediments and by ice-rafting. The benthic nepheloid layer is up to 150 m thick, with particulate matter concentrations of up to 0.51 mg/l. Sediment traps moored for 2 years 827 m above the seabed collected mainly biogenic opal with well-preserved and diverse diatoms and radiolarians. Traps 21 m above the seabed recorded additional high fluxes of terrigenous silt and clay. Core tops are terrigenous with very little organic matter or opal except at the northernmost site and a very restricted diatom assemblage. Core tops consist of silty clay or sandy silty clay, depending on current regime; the proportion of fine sand is related to the annual frequency of high ( > 15 cm/sec) current speeds at each site. AMS 14C dates on organic carbon in sediment traps are 965±50 and 1895±55 radiocarbon years, reflecting the high reservoir age of Southern Ocean surface waters. Core top ages of particulate organic carbon are 10500 and 13000 calendar years B.P. These high ages are related to the glacial-age source of resuspended slope and rise sediments. Cores from this area contain a textural record of Weddell Sea Bottom Water flow, but only fragmentary data on palaeo-surface conditions.

  12. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    PubMed

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-12-12

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn.

  13. Surface renewal: an advanced micrometeorological method for measuring and processing field-scale energy flux density data.

    PubMed

    McElrone, Andrew J; Shapland, Thomas M; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn. PMID:24378712

  14. Surface Renewal: An Advanced Micrometeorological Method for Measuring and Processing Field-Scale Energy Flux Density Data

    PubMed Central

    McElrone, Andrew J.; Shapland, Thomas M.; Calderon, Arturo; Fitzmaurice, Li; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Snyder, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced micrometeorological methods have become increasingly important in soil, crop, and environmental sciences. For many scientists without formal training in atmospheric science, these techniques are relatively inaccessible. Surface renewal and other flux measurement methods require an understanding of boundary layer meteorology and extensive training in instrumentation and multiple data management programs. To improve accessibility of these techniques, we describe the underlying theory of surface renewal measurements, demonstrate how to set up a field station for surface renewal with eddy covariance calibration, and utilize our open-source turnkey data logger program to perform flux data acquisition and processing. The new turnkey program returns to the user a simple data table with the corrected fluxes and quality control parameters, and eliminates the need for researchers to shuttle between multiple processing programs to obtain the final flux data. An example of data generated from these measurements demonstrates how crop water use is measured with this technique. The output information is useful to growers for making irrigation decisions in a variety of agricultural ecosystems. These stations are currently deployed in numerous field experiments by researchers in our group and the California Department of Water Resources in the following crops: rice, wine and raisin grape vineyards, alfalfa, almond, walnut, peach, lemon, avocado, and corn. PMID:24378712

  15. Uncertainties in Eddy Covariance fluxes due to post-field data processing: a multi-site, full factorial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbatini, S.; Fratini, G.; Arriga, N.; Papale, D.

    2012-04-01

    Eddy Covariance (EC) is the only technologically available direct method to measure carbon and energy fluxes between ecosystems and atmosphere. However, uncertainties related to this method have not been exhaustively assessed yet, including those deriving from post-field data processing. The latter arise because there is no exact processing sequence established for any given situation, and the sequence itself is long and complex, with many processing steps and options available. However, the consistency and inter-comparability of flux estimates may be largely affected by the adoption of different processing sequences. The goal of our work is to quantify the uncertainty introduced in each processing step by the fact that different options are available, and to study how the overall uncertainty propagates throughout the processing sequence. We propose an easy-to-use methodology to assign a confidence level to the calculated fluxes of energy and mass, based on the adopted processing sequence, and on available information such as the EC system type (e.g. open vs. closed path), the climate and the ecosystem type. The proposed methodology synthesizes the results of a massive full-factorial experiment. We use one year of raw data from 15 European flux stations and process them so as to cover all possible combinations of the available options across a selection of the most relevant processing steps. The 15 sites have been selected to be representative of different ecosystems (forests, croplands and grasslands), climates (mediterranean, nordic, arid and humid) and instrumental setup (e.g. open vs. closed path). The software used for this analysis is EddyPro™ 3.0 (www.licor.com/eddypro). The critical processing steps, selected on the basis of the different options commonly used in the FLUXNET community, are: angle of attack correction; coordinate rotation; trend removal; time lag compensation; low- and high- frequency spectral correction; correction for air density

  16. Measurement of Heat Flux and Heat Transfer Coefficient Due to Spray Application for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2007-01-01

    Lubricant spray application experiments were conducted for the die casting process. The heat flux was measured in situ using a differential thermopile sensor for three application techniques. First, the lubricant was applied under a constant flowrate while the nozzle was held in the same position. Second, the lubricant was applied in a pulsed, static manner, in which the nozzle was held over the same surface while it was turned on and off several times. Third, the lubricant was applied in a sweeping manner, in which the nozzle was moved along the die surface while it was held open. The experiments were conducted at several die temperatures and at sweep speeds of 20, 23, and 68 cm/s. The heat flux data, which were obtained with a sensor that was located in the centre of the test plate, were presented and discussed. The sensor can be used to evaluate lubricants, monitor the consistency of die lubrication process, and obtain useful process data, such as surface temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficients. The heat removed from the die surface during lubricant application is necessary for (a) designing the cooling channels in the die, i.e. their size and placement, and (b) performing accurate numerical simulations of the die casting process.

  17. Heat flux through sea ice in the western Weddell Sea: Convective and conductive transfer processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, V. I.; Ackley, S. F.

    1996-04-01

    The heat flux through the snow and sea ice cover and at the ice/ocean interface were calculated at five sites in the western Weddell Sea during autumn and early winter 1992. The ocean heat flux averaged 7 ± 2 W/m2 from late February to early June, and average ice/air heat flux in the second-year floes depended on the depth of the snow cover and ranged from 9 to 17 (±0.8) W/m2. In late February, three of the five sites had an ice surface which was depressed below sea level, resulting, at two of the sites, in a partially flooded snow cover and a slush layer at the snow/ice interface. As this slush layer froze to form snow ice, the dense brine which was rejected flowed out through brine drainage channels and was replaced by lower-salinity, nutrient-rich seawater from the ocean upper layer. We estimate that about half of the second-year ice in the region was covered with this slush layer early in the winter. As the slush layer froze, over a 2- to 3-week period, the convection within the ice transported salt from the ice to the upper ocean and increased total heat flux through the overlying ice and snow cover. On an area-wide basis, approximately 10 cm of snow ice growth occurred within second-year pack ice, primarily during a 2- to 3-week period in February and March. This ice growth, near the surface of the ice, provides a salt flux to the upper ocean equivalent to 5 cm of ice growth, despite the thick (about 1 m) ice cover, in addition to the ice growth in the small (area less than 5%), open water regions.

  18. Causal production of the electromagnetic energy flux and role of the negative energies in the Blandford-Znajek process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, Kenji; Takahara, Fumio

    2016-06-01

    The Blandford-Znajek process, the steady electromagnetic energy extraction from a rotating black hole (BH), is widely believed to work for driving relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and Galactic microquasars, although it is still under debate how the Poynting flux is causally produced and how the rotational energy of the BH is reduced. We generically discuss the Kerr BH magnetosphere filled with a collisionless plasma screening the electric field along the magnetic field, extending the arguments of Komissarov [S. S. Komissarov, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 50, 427 (2004)] and our previous [K. Toma and F. Takahara, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 442, 2855 (2014)] paper, and propose a new picture for resolving the issues. For the magnetic field lines threading the equatorial plane in the ergosphere, we find that the inflow of particles with negative energy as measured in the coordinate basis is generated near that plane as a feedback from the Poynting flux production, which appears to be a similar process to the mechanical Penrose process. For the field lines threading the event horizon, we first show that the concept of the steady inflow of negative electromagnetic energy is not physically essential, partly because the sign of the electromagnetic energy density depends on the coordinates. Then we build an analytical toy model of a time-dependent process in both the Boyer-Lindquist and Kerr-Schild coordinate systems, in which the force-free plasma injected continuously fills a vacuum, and suggest that the structure of the steady outward Poynting flux is causally constructed by the displacement current and the cross-field current at the ingoing boundary between the plasma and the vacuum. In the steady state, the Poynting flux is maintained without any electromagnetic source.

  19. Influence of physical and biological processes on the seasonal cycle of biogenic flux in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidya, P. J.; Prasanna Kumar, S.; Gauns, M.; Verenkar, A.; Unger, D.; Ramaswamy, V.

    2013-11-01

    Seasonal cycle of biogenic fluxes obtained from sediment trap at two locations 5°24' N, 86°46' E (southern Bay of Bengal trap; SBBT) and 3°34' N, 77°46' E (equatorial Indian Ocean trap; EIOT) within the equatorial Indian Ocean (EIO) were examined to understand the factors that control them. The sediment trap data at SBBT was collected for ten years from November 1987 while that at EIOT was for a one year period from January 1996. The characteristic of biogenic flux at SBBT was the strong seasonality with peak flux in August, while lack of seasonality characterised the flux at EIOT. The high chlorophyll biomass at the SBBT during the summer monsoon was supported by a combination of processes such as wind-mixing and advection, both of which supplied new nitrogen to the upper ocean. In contrast, the elevated chlorophyll at EIOT during summer monsoon was supported only by wind mixing. High cell counts of phytoplankton (> 5 μm) at SBBT dominated by diatoms suggest the operation of classical food web and high carbon export. On the contrary, dominance of pico-phytoplankton and one-and-a-half time higher magnitude of micro-zooplankton biomass along with 2-fold lesser meso-zooplankton at EIOT indicated the importance of microbial loop. The substantial decrease in the carbon export at EIOT indicated faster remineralization of photosynthetically produced organic matter.

  20. Macroscale water fluxes: 3. Effects of land processes on variability of monthly river discharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.; Wetherald, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    A salient characteristic of river discharge is its temporal variability. The time series of flow at a point on a river can be viewed as the superposition of a smooth seasonal cycle and an irregular, random variation. Viewing the random component in the spectral domain facilitates both its characterization and an interpretation of its major physical controls from a global perspective. The power spectral density functions of monthly flow anomalies of many large rivers worldwide are typified by a "red noise" process: the density is higher at low frequencies (e.g., <1 y-1) than at high frequencies, indicating disproportionate (relative to uncorrelated "white noise") contribution of low frequencies to variability of monthly flow. For many high-latitude and arid-region rivers, however, the power is relatively evenly distributed across the frequency spectrum. The power spectrum of monthly flow can be interpreted as the product of the power spectrum of monthly basin total precipitation (which is typically white or slightly red) and several filters that have physical significance. The filters are associated with (1) the conversion of total precipitation (sum of rainfall and snowfall) to effective rainfall (liquid flux to the ground surface from above), (2) the conversion of effective rainfall to soil water excess (runoff), and (3) the conversion of soil water excess to river discharge. Inferences about the roles of each filter can be made through an analysis of observations, complemented by information from a global model of the ocean-atmosphere-land system. The first filter causes a snowmelt-related amplification of high-frequency variability in those basins that receive substantial snowfall. The second filter causes a relatively constant reduction in variability across all frequencies and can be predicted well by means of a semiempirical water balance relation. The third filter, associated with groundwater and surface water storage in the river basin, causes a strong

  1. A New Approach in Optimizing the Induction Heating Process Using Flux Concentrators: Application to 4340 Steel Spur Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barka, Noureddine; Chebak, Ahmed; El Ouafi, Abderrazak; Jahazi, Mohammad; Menou, Abdellah

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effects of using flux concentrators during induction heat treatment process of spur gears made of 4340 high strength steel is demonstrated using 3D finite element model. The model is developed by coupling electromagnetic field and heat transfer equations and simulated by using Comsol software. Based on an adequate formulation and taking into account material properties and process parameters, the model allows calculating temperature distribution in the gear tooth. A new approach is proposed to reduce the electromagnetic edge effect in the gear teeth which allows achieving optimum hardness profile after induction heat treatment. In the proposed method, the principal gear is positioned in sandwich between two other gears having the same geometry that act as flux concentrators. The gap between the gear and the flux concentrators was optimized by studying temperature variation between the tip and root regions of gear teeth. Using the proposed model, it was possible identifying processing conditions that allow for quasi-uniform final temperature profile in the medium and high frequency conditions during induction hardening of spur gears.

  2. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Luciana Renata de; Bazzani, Armando; Giampieri, Enrico; Castellani, Gastone C.

    2014-08-14

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their “far from equilibrium behavior,” hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative “external vector field” whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the “plasticity property” of biological systems

  3. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Luciana Renata; Bazzani, Armando; Giampieri, Enrico; Castellani, Gastone C

    2014-08-14

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their "far from equilibrium behavior," hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative "external vector field" whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the "plasticity property" of biological systems and to their

  4. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Luciana Renata; Bazzani, Armando; Giampieri, Enrico; Castellani, Gastone C.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their "far from equilibrium behavior," hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative "external vector field" whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the "plasticity property" of biological systems and to their

  5. Measuring the energy flux at the substrate position during magnetron sputter deposition processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cormier, P.-A.; Thomann, A.-L.; Dussart, R.; Semmar, N.; Mathias, J.; Balhamri, A.; Snyders, R.; Konstantinidis, S.

    2013-01-07

    In this work, the energetic conditions at the substrate were investigated in dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS), pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (pDCMS), and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges by means of an energy flux diagnostic based on a thermopile sensor, the probe being set at the substrate position. Measurements were performed in front of a titanium target for a highly unbalanced magnetic field configuration. The average power was always kept to 400 W and the probe was at the floating potential. Variation of the energy flux against the pulse peak power in HiPIMS was first investigated. It was demonstrated that the energy per deposited titanium atom is the highest for short pulses (5 {mu}s) high pulse peak power (39 kW), as in this case, the ion production is efficient and the deposition rate is reduced by self-sputtering. As the argon pressure is increased, the energy deposition is reduced as the probability of scattering in the gas phase is increased. In the case of the HiPIMS discharge run at moderate peak power density (10 kW), the energy per deposited atom was found to be lower than the one measured for DCMS and pDCMS discharges. In these conditions, the HiPIMS discharge could be characterized as soft and close to a pulsed DCMS discharge run at very low duty cycle. For the sake of comparison, measurements were also carried out in DCMS mode with a balanced magnetron cathode, in the same working conditions of pressure and power. The energy flux at the substrate is significantly increased as the discharge is generated in an unbalanced field.

  6. Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method

    SciTech Connect

    Seiz, J.B.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Quantifying the uncertainty of eddy covariance fluxes due to the use of different software packages and combinations of processing steps in two contrasting ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, Ivan; Peltola, Olli; Nordbo, Annika; Järvi, Leena; Rannik, Üllar

    2016-10-01

    We have carried out an inter-comparison between EddyUH and EddyPro®, two public software packages for post-field processing of eddy covariance data. Datasets including carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour fluxes measured over 2 months at a wetland in southern Finland and carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes measured over 3 months at an urban site in Helsinki were processed and analysed. The purpose was to estimate the flux uncertainty due to the use of different software packages and to evaluate the most critical processing steps, determining the largest deviations in the calculated fluxes. Turbulent fluxes calculated with a reference combination of processing steps were in good agreement, the systematic difference between the two software packages being up to 2.0 and 6.7 % for half-hour and cumulative sum values, respectively. The raw data preparation and processing steps were consistent between the software packages, and most of the deviations in the estimated fluxes were due to the flux corrections. Among the different calculation procedures analysed, the spectral correction had the biggest impact for closed-path latent heat fluxes, reaching a nocturnal median value of 15 % at the wetland site. We found up to a 43 % median value of deviation (with respect to the run with all corrections included) if the closed-path carbon dioxide flux is calculated without the dilution correction, while the methane fluxes were up to 10 % lower without both dilution and spectroscopic corrections. The Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL) and spectroscopic corrections were the most critical steps for open-path systems. However, we found also large spectral correction factors for the open-path methane fluxes, due to the sensor separation effect.

  8. CO2 fluxes and ecosystem dynamics at five European treeless peatlands - merging data and process oriented modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, C.; Jansson, P.-E.; Lohila, A.; Aurela, M.; Eickenscheidt, T.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Drewer, J.; van Huissteden, J.; Drösler, M.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange of five different peatland systems across Europe with a wide gradient in land use intensity, water table depth, soil fertility and climate was simulated with the process oriented CoupModel. The aim of the study was to find out whether CO2 fluxes, measured at different sites, can be explained by common processes and parameters or to what extend a site specific configuration is needed. The model was calibrated to fit measured CO2 fluxes, soil temperature, snow depth and leaf area index (LAI) and resulting differences in model parameters were analyzed. Finding site independent model parameters would mean that differences in the measured fluxes could be explained solely by model input data: water table, meteorological data, management and soil inventory data. Seasonal variability in the major fluxes was well captured, when a site independent configuration was utilized for most of the parameters. Parameters that differed between sites included the rate of soil organic decomposition, photosynthetic efficiency, and regulation of the mobile carbon (C) pool from senescence to shooting in the next year. The largest difference between sites was the rate coefficient for heterotrophic respiration. Setting it to a common value would lead to underestimation of mean total respiration by a factor of 2.8 up to an overestimation by a factor of 4. Despite testing a wide range of different responses to soil water and temperature, rate coefficients for heterotrophic respiration were consistently the lowest on formerly drained sites and the highest on the managed sites. Substrate decomposability, pH and vegetation characteristics are possible explanations for the differences in decomposition rates. Specific parameter values for the timing of plant shooting and senescence, the photosynthesis response to temperature, litter fall and plant respiration rates, leaf morphology and allocation fractions of new assimilates, were not needed, even though the

  9. Coupled-channels quantum theory of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic processes: application to the hydrogen molecule ion.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J; Kenfack, A; Manz, J; Paulus, B

    2012-03-22

    This article presents the results of the first quantum simulations of the electronic flux density (j(e)) by the "coupled-channels" (CC) theory, the fundamentals of which are presented in the previous article [Diestler, D. J. J. Phys. Chem. A 2012, DOI: 10.1021/jp207843z]. The principal advantage of the CC scheme is that it employs exclusively standard methods of quantum chemistry and quantum dynamics within the framework of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA). The CC theory goes beyond the BOA in that it yields a nonzero j(e) for electronically adiabatic processes, in contradistinction to the BOA itself, which always gives j(e) = 0. The CC is applied to oriented H(2)(+) vibrating in the electronic ground state ((2)Σ(g)(+)), for which the nuclear and electronic flux densities evolve on a common time scale of about 22 fs per vibrational period. The system is chosen as a touchstone for the CC theory, because it is the only one for which highly accurate flux densities have been calculated numerically without invoking the BOA [Barth et al, Chem. Phys. Lett. 2009, 481, 118]. Good agreement between CC and accurate results supports the CC approach, another advantage of which is that it allows a transparent interpretation of the temporal and spatial properties of j(e).

  10. [Sediment-water flux and processes of nutrients and gaseous nitrogen release in a China River Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu-hong; Chen, Neng-wang; Wu, Yin-qi; Mo, Qiong-li; Zhou, Xing-peng; Lu, Ting; Tian, Yun

    2014-09-01

    The key processes and fluxes of nutrients (N and P) and gaseous N (N2 and N2O) across the sediment-water interface in a river reservoir (Xipi) of the Jiulong River watershed in southeast China were studied. Intact core sediment incubation of nutrients exchange, in-situ observation and lab incubation of excess dissolved N2 and N2O (products of nitrification, denitrification and Anammox), and determination of physiochemical and microbe parameters were carried out in 2013 for three representative sites along the lacustrine zone of the reservoir. Results showed that ammonium and phosphate were generally released from sediment to overlying water [with averaged fluxes of N (479.8 ± 675.4) mg. (m2. d)-1 and P (4. 56 ± 0.54) mg. (m2 d) -1] , while nitrate and nitrite diffused into the sediment. Flood events in the wet season could introduce a large amount of particulate organic matter that would be trapped by the dam reservoir, resulting in the high release fluxes of ammonium and phosphate observed in the following low-flow season. No clear spatial variation of sediment nutrient release was found in the lacustrine zone of the reservoir. Gaseous N release was dominated by excess dissolved N2 (98% of total), and the N2 flux from sediment was (15.8 ± 12. 5) mg (m2. d) -1. There was a longitudinal and vertical variation of excess dissolved N2, reflecting the combined results of denitrification and Anammox occurring in anoxic sediment and fluvial transport. Nitrification mainly occurred in the lower lacustrine zone, and the enrichment of N2O was likely regulated by the ratio of ammonium to DIN in water.

  11. Optimization of permeate flux produced by solar energy driven membrane distillation process using central composite design approach.

    PubMed

    Bouguecha, Salah T; Boubakri, Ali; Aly, Samir E; Al-Beirutty, Mohammad H; Hamdi, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is considered as a relatively high-energy requirement. To overcome this drawback, it is recommended to couple the MD process with solar energy as the renewable energy source in order to provide heat energy required to optimize its performance to produce permeate flux. In the present work, an original solar energy driven direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) pilot plant was built and tested under actual weather conditions at Jeddah, KSA, in order to model and optimize permeate flux. The dependency of permeate flux on various operating parameters such as feed temperature (46.6-63.4°C), permeate temperature (6.6-23.4°C), feed flow rate (199-451L/h) and permeate flow rate (199-451L/h) was studied by response surface methodology based on central composite design approach. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that all independent variables had significant influence on the model (where P-value <0.05). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9644 and R(adj)(2) = 0.9261) obtained by ANOVA demonstrated good correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response. The optimized conditions, determined using desirability function, were T(f) = 63.4°C, Tp = 6.6°C, Q(f) = 451L/h and Q(p) = 451L/h. Under these conditions, the maximum permeate flux of 6.122 kg/m(2).h was achieved, which was close to the predicted value of 6.398 kg/m(2).h.

  12. Optimization of permeate flux produced by solar energy driven membrane distillation process using central composite design approach.

    PubMed

    Bouguecha, Salah T; Boubakri, Ali; Aly, Samir E; Al-Beirutty, Mohammad H; Hamdi, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is considered as a relatively high-energy requirement. To overcome this drawback, it is recommended to couple the MD process with solar energy as the renewable energy source in order to provide heat energy required to optimize its performance to produce permeate flux. In the present work, an original solar energy driven direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) pilot plant was built and tested under actual weather conditions at Jeddah, KSA, in order to model and optimize permeate flux. The dependency of permeate flux on various operating parameters such as feed temperature (46.6-63.4°C), permeate temperature (6.6-23.4°C), feed flow rate (199-451L/h) and permeate flow rate (199-451L/h) was studied by response surface methodology based on central composite design approach. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that all independent variables had significant influence on the model (where P-value <0.05). The high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.9644 and R(adj)(2) = 0.9261) obtained by ANOVA demonstrated good correlation between experimental and predicted values of the response. The optimized conditions, determined using desirability function, were T(f) = 63.4°C, Tp = 6.6°C, Q(f) = 451L/h and Q(p) = 451L/h. Under these conditions, the maximum permeate flux of 6.122 kg/m(2).h was achieved, which was close to the predicted value of 6.398 kg/m(2).h. PMID:27386986

  13. Processes of bedrock groundwater seepage and their effects on soil water fluxes in a foot slope area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaoka, Naoya; Kosugi, Ken'ichirou; Yamakawa, Yosuke; Tsutsumi, Daizo

    2016-04-01

    The impact of bedrock groundwater seepage on surface hydrological processes in a foot slope area is an important issue in hillslope hydrology. However, properties of water flux vectors around a seepage area are poorly understood because previous studies have lacked sufficient spatial resolution to capture detailed water movements. Here, we conducted hydrometric observations using unprecedented high-resolution and three-dimensional tensiometer nests in the mountainous foot slope area of the Hirudani experimental basin (Japan). Our findings are summarized as follows: (1) a considerable quantity of groundwater seeped from the bedrock surface in the study site. A groundwater exfiltration flux occurred constantly from a seepage area regardless of rainfall conditions. Saturated lateral flow over the bedrock surface occurred constantly in the region downslope of the seepage area. Groundwater was likely to mixed with soil water infiltration and flowed toward the lower end of the slope. (2) During the wet season, the seepage area expanded ∼3 m in the upslope direction along the bedrock valley in a single season. (3) The pressure head waveform observed in the seepage area showed gradual and significant increases after large rainfall events. However, the seepage pressure propagated within a relatively narrow area: a slope distance of ∼4 m from the seepage point in the downslope direction due to the damping of seepage pressure. (4) Within the whole study area, groundwater seeped from a narrow area located at the bottom of the valley line of the bedrock surface. The shape of the seepage area changed along the valley line in the wet season. Overall, we reveal spatial and temporal variations in bedrock groundwater seepage under the soil mantle and the effects on soil water fluxes. These findings should improve the accuracy of models for predicting surface hydrogeomorphological processes in mountainous hillslopes.

  14. Geochemical investigation of weathering processes in a forested headwater catchment: Mass-balance weathering fluxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Herman, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical research on natural weathering has often been directed towards explanations of the chemical composition of surface water and ground water resulting from subsurface water-rock interactions. These interactions are often defined as the incongruent dissolution of primary silicates, such as feldspar, producing secondary weathering products, such as clay minerals and oxyhydroxides, and solute fluxes (Meunier and Velde, 1979). The chemical composition of the clay-mineral product is often ignored. However, in earlier investigations, the saprolitic weathering profile at the South Fork Brokenback Run (SFBR) watershed, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, was characterized extensively in terms of its mineralogical and chemical composition (Piccoli, 1987; Pochatila et al., 2006; Jones et al., 2007) and its basic hydrology. O'Brien et al. (1997) attempted to determine the contribution of primary mineral weathering to observed stream chemistry at SFBR. Mass-balance model results, however, could provide only a rough estimate of the weathering reactions because idealized mineral compositions were utilized in the calculations. Making use of detailed information on the mineral occurrence in the regolith, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of compositional variation on mineral-solute mass-balance modelling and to generate plausible quantitative weathering reactions that support both the chemical evolution of the surface water and ground water in the catchment, as well as the mineralogical evolution of the weathering profile. ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  15. Exploiting diurnal variations to evaluate the ISCCP-FD flux calculations and radiative-flux-analysis-processed surface observations from BSRN, ARM, and SURFRAD

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanchong; Long, Charles N.; Rossow, William B.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.

    2010-01-01

    Based on monthly-3-hourly and 3-hourly mean surface radiative fluxes and their associated meteorological parameters for 2004 from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project-FD (ISCCP-FD) and the Radiative Flux Analysis method-Produced Surface Observations (RFA-PSO) for 15 high-quality-controlled surface stations, operated by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Surface Radiation budget network (SURFRAD), this work, goes beyond the previous validation for FD against surface observation by introducing the Meteorological Similarity Comparison Method (MSCM) to make a more precise, mutual evaluation of both FD and PSO products. The comparison results in substantial uncertainty reduction and provides reasonable physical explanations for the flux differences. This approach compares fluxes for cases where the atmospheric and surface physical properties (specifically, the input parameters for radiative transfer model) are as close as possible to the values determined at the observational sites by matching the RFA-produced cloud fraction (CF) and/or optical thickness (Tau), etc., or alternatively, by directly changing the model input variables for FD to match PSO values, and using such-produced matched sub-datasets to make more accurate comparisons based on more similar meteorological environments between FD and PSO. The crucial part is the availability of flux-associated meteorological parameters from RFA-PSO, which was only recently made available that makes this work possible. For surface downwelling shortwave(SW) flux (SWdn) and its two components, diffuse (Dif) and direct (Dir), uncertainty for monthly mean is 15, 15 and 17 W/m2, respectively, smaller than the separately estimated uncertainty values from both FD and PSO. When applying MSCM by reducing their CF difference, the differences can be reduced by a factor of 2. The strength of

  16. Fluxes of H2, COS, and CO2 across a temperate forest snowpack driven by below snow soil microbial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, L. K.; McLaren, J.; Commane, R.; Munger, J. W.; Prinn, R. G.; Wofsy, S. C.; Richardson, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Snowpack overlying temperate soils insulates soil microbial communities from wintertime subzero air temperatures that would otherwise halt most biogeochemical processes. Moreover, a porous snow matrix permits soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange to continue despite the snowpack cover. Consequently, below snow (subniveal) soil biogeochemical processes proceed throughout the winter season and continue to impact atmospheric trace gas composition. In this study, three atmospheric trace gases (H2, COS, CO2) that exhibit strong soil-atmosphere exchange are investigated to understand the following: 1) how snowpack properties affect the exchange of trace gases and 2) how different biogeochemical cycles behave throughout the low temperature subniveal winter. The selected trace gases represent largely decoupled and distinct biogeochemical cycles. Soil microorganisms act as a net sink for atmospheric hydrogen (H2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) by oxidation (hydrogenase) and hydrolysis (carbonic anhydrase) reactions, respectively. In contrast, soil microbial respiration is a strong source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). We present continuous, high frequency atmospheric flux measurements of H2, COS, and CO2 over the winter season in a temperate deciduous forest. Significant soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange was measured above the four-month snowpack, which reached 70 cm at peak accumulation. Additionally, we use a novel camera-based method to monitor snow depth, density, and fractional extent to understand how physical snowpack properties affect the exchange of these trace gases. The episodic nature of snow fall, snow melt, and snowpack ventilation events are also considered. By comparative analysis of the H2, COS, and CO2 fluxes, we investigate differences in subniveal biogeochemical processes at different soil temperature and moisture levels throughout the winter season. Projections for global change anticipate changes in the temperate snowpack; therefore, understanding the

  17. Caught in the flux net: disentangling error, uncertainty, heterogeneity, and spatial process in biogeochemical scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.

    2014-12-01

    Attempts to link observations across multiple scales, and in particular the problem of scaling up fine-scale observations to landscape and regional process, faces numerous theoretical, computational, and statistical challenges. This talk aims to link theoretical advances in the scaling of biotic heterogeneity, abiotic heterogeneity, and contagious disturbance with statistical advances for linking observations that integrate over different scales. Critical to this goal is the need to partition sources of uncertainty and variability. In particular, the variance you can calculate most readily is rarely the most important or relevant one to quantify. In community ecology, hierarchical Bayes (HB) latent-variable models that separate true variability in ecosystem processes from observation errors have challenged long-standing theory surrounding the maintenance of biodiversity, yet application of such approaches to regional-scale biogeochemical processes is just beginning. A special case of such models, focused on the change of support problem, deal specifically with linking observations that integrate over different spatial and temporal scales. Occurring in parallel with these statistical advances have been the development of new theories for the spatially-implicit scaling of biotic and abiotic heterogeneity, as well as contagious disturbances such as fire and pathogens, and the incorporation of such approaches into process-based ecosystem models. Such approaches upscale by integrating the probability distributions of system heterogeneity over the functional response of the ecosystem to such heterogeneity. We demonstrate that this approach can also be downscaled by conditioning on incomplete partial observation at a local scale, and can have lower uncertainty than brute-force spatially-explicit approaches. We also extend such approaches from integrating over observed heterogeneities to integrating the latent, high-dimensional variability in HB models. Finally, there is a

  18. Fundamental processes capable of accounting for the neutron flux enhancements in a thunderstorm atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, L. P.

    2014-03-01

    Elementary processes capable of producing neutrons in a thunderstorm atmosphere are analyzed. The efficiency of nuclear fusion 2H(2H, n)3He, photonuclear reactions (γ, Xn), electrodisintegration reactions {/m n }A( e -, n){/m n-1}, and reactions e -( p +, n)ν e opposite to the β-decay is evaluated. It is shown that an unrealistically strong electric field is required for the nuclear fusion to be responsible for the neutron production in the lightning channel. The generation of neutrons in a thunderstorm atmosphere is connected with photonuclear (γ, Xn) and, at a much lower degree, electrodisintegration reactions, the relativistic runaway electron avalanches being primary parent processes.

  19. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting Earth's climate by altering the carbon, water and energy fluxes, but climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In particular, we implement crop specific phenology schemes, which account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem and grain pools; dynamic vegetation structure growth, which better simulate the LAI and canopy height; dynamic root distribution processes in the soil layers, which better simulate the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration; and litter fall due to fresh and old dead leaves to better represent the water and energy interception by both stem and brown leaves of the canopy during leaf senescence. Observational data for LAI, above and below ground biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes were compiled from two Ameri-Flux sites, Mead, NE and Bondville, IL, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance under corn (C4)-soybean (C3) rotation system over the period 2001-2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, water and energy fluxes under the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated GPP, net radiation fluxes at the top of canopy and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results is in sensible heat flux (H) for corn and soybean at both sites. With dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, model simulated GPP and latent heat flux (LH) were in much better agreement with observation data than for the without dynamic case. Modeled latent heat improved by 12-27% during the growing season at both sites, leading to the improvement in modeled GPP by 13

  20. Behaviour and fluxes of natural radionuclides in the production process of a phosphoric acid plant.

    PubMed

    Bolívar, J P; Martín, J E; García-Tenorio, R; Pérez-Moreno, J P; Mas, J L

    2009-02-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the occupational and public hazards of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries which process materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides. These include the industries devoted to the production of phosphoric acid by treating sedimentary phosphate rocks enriched in radionuclides from the uranium series. With the aim of evaluating the radiological impact of a phosphoric acid factory located in the south-western Spain, the distribution and levels of radionuclides in the materials involved in its production process have been analysed. In this way, it is possible to asses the flows of radionuclides at each step and to locate those points where a possible radionuclide accumulation could be produced. A set of samples collected along the whole production process were analysed to determine their radionuclide content by both alpha-particle and gamma spectrometry techniques. The radionuclide fractionation steps and enrichment sources have been located, allowing the establishment of their mass (activity) balances per year.

  1. Spatio-temporal rectification of tower-based eddy-covariance flux measurements for consistently informing process-based models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, S.; Xu, K.; Desai, A. R.; Taylor, J. R.; Kljun, N.; Schneider, D.; Kampe, T. U.; Fox, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Process-based models, such as land surface models (LSMs), allow insight in the spatio-temporal distribution of stocks and the exchange of nutrients, trace gases etc. among environmental compartments. More recently, LSMs also become capable of assimilating time-series of in-situ reference observations. This enables calibrating the underlying functional relationships to site-specific characteristics, or to constrain the model results after each time-step in an attempt to minimize drift. The spatial resolution of LSMs is typically on the order of 10^2-10^4 km2, which is suitable for linking regional to continental scales and beyond. However, continuous in-situ observations of relevant stock and exchange variables, such as tower-based eddy-covariance (EC) fluxes, represent orders of magnitude smaller spatial scales (10^-6-10^1 km2). During data assimilation, this significant gap in spatial representativeness is typically either neglected, or side-stepped using simple tiling approaches. Moreover, at ';coarse' resolutions, a single LSM evaluation per time-step implies linearity among the underlying functional relationships as well as among the sub-grid land cover fractions. This, however, is not warranted for land-atmosphere exchange processes over more complex terrain. Hence, it is desirable to explicitly consider spatial variability at LSM sub-grid scales. Here we present a procedure that determines from a single EC tower the spatially integrated probability density function (PDF) of the surface-atmosphere exchange for individual land covers. These PDFs allow quantifying the expected value, as well as spatial variability over a target domain, can be assimilated in tiling-capable LSMs, and mitigate linearity assumptions at ';coarse' resolutions. The procedure is based on the extraction and extrapolation of environmental response functions (ERFs), for which a technical-oriented companion poster is submitted. In short, the subsequent steps are: (i) Time

  2. Processes Driving Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Nutrient Fluxes in a Semi-arid Coastal Area: Coastal South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulet, D.; Douglas, A. R.; Spalt, N.

    2015-12-01

    Assessments of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), an important pathway for material transport to coastal embayments, are difficult, as there is no simple means to estimate the water flux. Because of processes like tidal pumping, non-homogeneous bottom sediment compositions, high hydrologic and hydrogeologic "heterogeneity", and the likelihood of multiple sources (i.e. different aquifers or recirculated seawater) within a study region, there could be significant variation in the magnitude of discharge. Furthermore, in highly saline semi-arid environments such as south Texas, density-driven flow will also influence the discharge rates and location of seepage faces. Thus, discharge throughout a bay is undoubtedly variable temporally and spatially so it is not reasonable to extrapolate a single flow rate to the entire surface area. Multiple approaches are necessary especially where the terrestrial groundwater is not fresh like in coastal area of south Texas. To meet this challenge, we have explored the use of high-resolution continuous subsurface imaging techniques, continuous radon monitoring, and other geochemical tracers to more precisely measure SGD and nutrient fluxes to coastal zone waters over time periods of hours and under different climatic conditions. This approach allowed us to differentiate between fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater, delineate seepage faces as dependent on / independent of sediment heterogeneity and convective flow caused by density differences. We were able to also correct SGD rates derived from continuous radon monitoring that can be significantly variable on account of observation uncertainties associated with the above-mentioned complications. Areas of significant SGD, as shown by both continuous resistivity profiling and radon and radium isotopes, were also associated with the highest non-conservative nutrient (i.e. nitrate) concentrations. Overall, this combination of methods shows promise in differentiating between flow

  3. The Development of CaO-SiO2-B2O3-based Fluorine-Free Mold Flux for a Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin

    2016-05-01

    Designing and developing high-performance fluorine-free (F-free) mold flux has become a hot topic in steel continuous casting processes, with concerns of environment protection and energy saving. In conventional commercial mold flux, fluorine plays important roles on the properties as it works as a fluxing agent; however, it tends to cause serious environmental and health problems. In this paper, a new F-free mold flux based on the CaO-SiO2-B2O3 slag system has been introduced through summarizing previous works. The melting temperature range of F-free mold flux decreases with the addition of Na2O/Li2O and B2O3; the viscosity and heat flux decrease with the increase of basicity and Na2O/Li2O, as well as the decrease of B2O3 contents. Also, the crystallization temperatures of F-free mold fluxes increase with the increase of basicity and Na2O/Li2O content. The analyses of EDS and XRD show that Ca11Si4B2O22 and Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8 are the two main precipitated crystalline phases in F-free mold fluxes, and that the Ca11Si4B2O22 is a common and stable crystalline phase in the designed F-free mold fluxes system that shows the potential to replace Ca4Si2O7F2 in conventional flourine-containing mold fluxes.

  4. The Development of CaO-SiO2-B2O3-based Fluorine-Free Mold Flux for a Continuous Casting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lejun; Wang, Wanlin

    2016-09-01

    Designing and developing high-performance fluorine-free (F-free) mold flux has become a hot topic in steel continuous casting processes, with concerns of environment protection and energy saving. In conventional commercial mold flux, fluorine plays important roles on the properties as it works as a fluxing agent; however, it tends to cause serious environmental and health problems. In this paper, a new F-free mold flux based on the CaO-SiO2-B2O3 slag system has been introduced through summarizing previous works. The melting temperature range of F-free mold flux decreases with the addition of Na2O/Li2O and B2O3; the viscosity and heat flux decrease with the increase of basicity and Na2O/Li2O, as well as the decrease of B2O3 contents. Also, the crystallization temperatures of F-free mold fluxes increase with the increase of basicity and Na2O/Li2O content. The analyses of EDS and XRD show that Ca11Si4B2O22 and Ca14Mg2(SiO4)8 are the two main precipitated crystalline phases in F-free mold fluxes, and that the Ca11Si4B2O22 is a common and stable crystalline phase in the designed F-free mold fluxes system that shows the potential to replace Ca4Si2O7F2 in conventional flourine-containing mold fluxes.

  5. Assessing temporal flux of plant hormones in stored processing potatoes using high definition accurate mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Ordaz-Ortiz, José Juan; Foukaraki, Sofia; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormones are important molecules which at low concentration can regulate various physiological processes. Mass spectrometry has become a powerful technique for the quantification of multiple classes of plant hormones because of its high sensitivity and selectivity. We developed a new ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography–full-scan high-definition accurate mass spectrometry method, for simultaneous determination of abscisic acid and four metabolites phaseic acid, dihydrophaseic acid, 7′-hydroxy-abscisic acid and abscisic acid glucose ester, cytokinins zeatin, zeatin riboside, gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7) and indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid. We measured the amount of plant hormones in the flesh and skin of two processing potato cvs. Sylvana and Russet Burbank stored for up to 30 weeks at 6 °C under ambient air conditions. Herein, we report for the first time that abscisic acid glucose ester seems to accumulate in the skin of potato tubers throughout storage time. The method achieved a lowest limit of detection of 0.22 ng g−1 of dry weight and a limit of quantification of 0.74 ng g−1 dry weight (zeatin riboside), and was able to recover, detect and quantify a total of 12 plant hormones spiked on flesh and skin of potato tubers. In addition, the mass accuracy for all compounds (<5 ppm) was evaluated. PMID:26504563

  6. Impact of heavy metals on mass and energy flux within the decomposition process in deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Köhler, H R; Wein, C; Reiss, S; Storch, V; Alberti, G

    1995-04-01

    : Laboratory experiments on microbial decomposition and on the contribution of diplopods to organic matter decomposition in soil were combined with field studies to reveal the major points of heavy metal effects on the leaf litter decomposition process. The study focused on the accumulation of organic litter material in heavy metal-contaminated soils. Microbial decomposition of freshly fallen leaves remained quantitatively unaffected by artificial lead contamination (1000 mg kg(-1)). The same was true for further decomposed leaf litter material, provided that the breakdown of this material was not influenced by faunal components. Although nutrient absorption in diplopods is affected by high lead contents in the food, this effect alone, however, was shown not to be sufficient for the massive deceleration of the decomposition process under heavy metal influence which could not only be observed in the field but occurred in microcosm studies as well. Reduced reproduction and lower activity of the diplopods most likely were responsible for the observation that lead-influenced diplopods enhanced microbial activity in soil only in a lesser degree than uncontaminated animals did. This effect is assigned to represent the main reason for decreased decomposition rates and the subsequent accumulation of organic material in heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  7. Anthropogenic and climatic influences on carbon fluxes from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean: A process-based modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hanqin; Yang, Qichun; Najjar, Raymond G.; Ren, Wei; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Pan, Shufen

    2015-04-01

    The magnitude, spatiotemporal patterns, and controls of carbon flux from land to the ocean remain uncertain. Here we applied a process-based land model with explicit representation of carbon processes in streams and rivers to examine how changes in climate, land conversion, management practices, atmospheric CO2, and nitrogen deposition affected carbon fluxes from eastern North America to the Atlantic Ocean, specifically the Gulf of Maine (GOM), Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB), and South Atlantic Bight (SAB). Our simulation results indicate that the mean annual fluxes (±1 standard deviation) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the past three decades (1980-2008) were 2.37 ± 0.60, 1.06 ± 0.20, and 3.57 ± 0.72 Tg C yr-1, respectively. Carbon export demonstrated substantial spatial and temporal variability. For the region as a whole, the model simulates a significant decrease in riverine DIC fluxes from 1901 to 2008, whereas there were no significant trends in DOC or POC fluxes. In the SAB, however, there were significant declines in the fluxes of all three forms of carbon, and in the MAB subregion, DIC and POC fluxes declined significantly. The only significant trend in the GOM subregion was an increase in DIC flux. Climate variability was the primary cause of interannual variability in carbon export. Land conversion from cropland to forest was the primary factor contributing to decreases in all forms of C export, while nitrogen deposition and fertilizer use, as well as atmospheric CO2 increases, tended to increase DOC, POC, and DIC fluxes.

  8. Early diagenetic processes, fluxes, and reaction rates in sediments of the South Atlantic

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, H.D.; Dahmke, A.; Schinzel, U.; Wallmann, K.; Zabel, M. )

    1994-05-01

    Porewaters recovered from sediment cores (gravity corers, box corers, and multicorers) from various subregions of the South Atlantic (Amazon River mouth, equatorial upwelling, Congo River mouth, Benguela coastal upwelling area, and Angola Basin) were investigated geochemically. Objectives included determination of Eh, pH, oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, alkalinity, phosphate, ammonium, fluoride, sulfide, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, and Si, in order to quantify organic matter diagenesis and related mineral precipitation and dissolution processes. Porewater profiles from the eastern upwelling areas of the South Atlantic suggest that sulfate reduction in the deeper parts of the sediment may be attributed mainly to methane oxidation, whereas organic matter degradation by sulfate reduction is restricted to the near-surface sediments. Further, a prominent concentration gradient change of sulfate and related mineralization products occurred typically in the upwelling sediments at a depth of 4 to 8 m, far below the zone of bioturbation or bioirrigation. Because other sedimentological reasons seem to fail as explanations, an early diagenetic sulfide oxidation to sulfate within the anoxic environment is discussed. Porewater profiles from the sediments of the Amazon fan area are mainly influenced by reactions with Fe(III)-phases. The remarkable linearity of the concentration gradients of sulfate supports the idea of distinct reaction layers in these sediments. In contrast to the upwelling sediments, the sulfate gradient develops from the sediment surface to a sulfate reduction zone at a depth of 5.3 m, probably because a reoxidation of sulfide is prevented by the reaction with iron oxides and the formation of iron sulfide minerals. A comparison of organic matter degradation rates from the different areas of the South Atlantic show the expected relationship to primary productivity.

  9. Effect of Se beam flux rate on photovoltaic properties of CIGS cells fabricated by three-stage co-evaporation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jae Ho; Kim, Ki Hwan; Ahn, Byung Tae; Yoon, Kyung Hoon

    2006-09-01

    The conversion efficiency of CIGS cells fabricated with three stage co-evaporation process was improved by regulating the Se beam flux rate. When the Se beam flux rate was 15 Å/s or less, the surface of CIGS was uniform and it showed tightly connected structure and facet shape structure. However pits and crevices were found on the surface in the condition of Se beam flux rate above 15 Å/s, which caused an increase in the leakage current. The best CIGS solar cell was obtained at the Se beam flux rate of 15 Å/s and it had the following photovoltaic parameters: conversion efficiency of 17.57%, Jsc = 36.48 mA/cm2, Voc = 0.655 V and FF = 73.5% in an active area of 0.45 cm2.

  10. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting the earth's climate by altering carbon, water, and energy fluxes, but the climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water, and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In particular, we implemented crop-specific phenology schemes and dynamic carbon allocation schemes. These schemes account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem, and grain pools. The dynamic vegetation structure simulation better captured the seasonal variability in leaf area index (LAI), canopy height, and root depth. We further implemented dynamic root distribution processes in soil layers, which better simulated the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration. Observational data for LAI, above- and belowground biomass, and carbon, water, and energy fluxes were compiled from two AmeriFlux sites, Mead, NE, and Bondville, IL, USA, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance. For the purposes of calibration and evaluation, we use a corn-soybean (C4-C3) rotation system over the period 2001-2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation and water and energy fluxes for the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated gross primary production (GPP), net radiation fluxes at the top of the canopy, and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results was in sensible heat flux (SH) for corn and soybean at both sites. The dynamic crop growth simulation better captured the seasonal variability in carbon and energy fluxes relative to the static simulation implemented in the original version of ISAM. Especially, with dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, the model

  11. A Study of the Response of Deep Tropical Clouds to Mesoscale Processes. Part 2; Sensitivities to Microphysics, Radiation, and Surface Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Daniel; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model is used to examine the sensitivities of surface fluxes, explicit radiation, and ice microphysical processes on multi-day simulations of deep tropical convection over the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). The simulations incorporate large-scale advective temperature and moisture forcing, as well as large-scale momentum, that are updated every time step on a periodic lateral boundary grid. This study shows that when surface fluxes are eliminated, the mean atmosphere is much cooler and drier, convection and CAPE are much weaker, precipitation is less, and cloud coverage in stratiform regions much greater. Surface fluxes using the TOGA COARE flux algorithm are weaker than with the aerodynamic formulation, but closer to the observed fluxes. In addition, similar trends noted above for the case without surface fluxes are produced for the TOGA flux case, albeit to a much lesser extent. The elimination of explicit shortwave and longwave radiation is found to have only minimal effects on the mean thermodynamics, convection, and precipitation. However explicit radiation does have a significant impact on cloud temperatures and structure above 200 mb and on the overall mean vertical circulation. The removal of ice processes produces major changes in the structure of the cloud. Much of the liquid water is transported aloft and into anvils above the melting layer (600 mb), leaving narrow, but intense bands of rainfall in convective regions. The elimination of melting processes leads to greater hydrometeor mass below the melting layer, and produces a much warmer and moister boundary layer, leading to a greater mean CAPE. Finally, the elimination of the graupel species has only a small impact on mean total precipitation, thermodynamics, and dynamics of the simulation, but does produce much greater snow mass just above the melting layer. Some of these results differ from previous CRM

  12. Reduction-melting combined with a Na₂CO₃ flux recycling process for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2014-08-01

    With large quantity of flux (Na2CO3), lead can be recovered from the funnel glass of waste cathode-ray tubes via reduction-melting at 1000°C. To reduce flux cost, a technique to recover added flux from the generated oxide phase is also important in order to recycle the flux recovered from the reduction-melting process. In this study, the phase separation of sodium and the crystallization of water-soluble sodium silicates were induced after the reduction-melting process to enhance the leachability of sodium in the oxide phase and to extract the sodium from the phase for the recovery of Na2CO3 as flux. A reductive atmosphere promoted the phase separation and crystallization, and the leachability of sodium from the oxide phase was enhanced. The optimum temperature and treatment time for increasing the leachability were 700°C and 2h, respectively. After treatment, more than 90% of the sodium in the oxide phase was extracted in water. NaHCO3 can be recovered by carbonization of the solution containing sodium ions using carbon dioxide gas, decomposed to Na2CO3 at 50°C and recycled for use in the reduction-melting process.

  13. Conceptual Process for the Manufacture of Low-Enriched Uranium/Molybdenum Fuel for the High Flux Isotope Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sease, J.D.; Primm, R.T. III; Miller, J.H.

    2007-09-30

    The U.S. nonproliferation policy 'to minimize, and to the extent possible, eliminate the use of HEU in civil nuclear programs throughout the world' has resulted in the conversion (or scheduled conversion) of many of the U.S. research reactors from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). A foil fuel appears to offer the best option for using a LEU fuel in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) without degrading the performance of the reactor. The purpose of this document is to outline a proposed conceptual fabrication process flow sheet for a new, foil-type, 19.75%-enriched fuel for HFIR. The preparation of the flow sheet allows a better understanding of the costs of infrastructure modifications, operating costs, and implementation schedule issues associated with the fabrication of LEU fuel for HFIR. Preparation of a reference flow sheet is one of the first planning steps needed in the development of a new manufacturing capacity for low enriched fuels for U.S. research and test reactors. The flow sheet can be used to develop a work breakdown structure (WBS), a critical path schedule, and identify development needs. The reference flow sheet presented in this report is specifically for production of LEU foil fuel for the HFIR. The need for an overall reference flow sheet for production of fuel for all High Performance Research Reactors (HPRR) has been identified by the national program office. This report could provide a starting point for the development of such a reference flow sheet for a foil-based fuel for all HPRRs. The reference flow sheet presented is based on processes currently being developed by the national program for the LEU foil fuel when available, processes used historically in the manufacture of other nuclear fuels and materials, and processes used in other manufacturing industries producing a product configuration similar to the form required in manufacturing a foil fuel. The processes in the reference flow sheet are within the

  14. Mixing processes and diapycnal heat and solute fluxes in the Peruvian upwelling region at 12°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dengler, Marcus; Bryant, Lee; Fischer, Tim; Krahmann, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Observations from an extensive measurement program conducted along the continental slope and shelf region off Peru at 12°S are used to investigate mixing processes and their impact on mixed layer heat budget and water column solute budgets. The data set was collected during austral summer in 2013 and consists of microstructure and CTD/O2 profiles as well as shipboard velocity data from two successive cruises, a glider swarm experiment and current time series from a moored array. During the observational period (Jan.-Mar. 2013), energetic non-linear internal waves were observed along the continental slope in water depths of up to 400m traveling onshore. At the shelf break at about 200m depth, surface intensifies packets of internal waves were generated that also propagated onshore. Individual waves within the packets displaced surface waters to up to 50m depths and had periods of about 5 minutes. Dissipation rates of turbulent kinetic energy evidenced strongly elevated mixing levels associated with the non-linear waves. Diapycnal heat fluxes in the upper ocean were as large as 180W/m2 during the presents of a bore indicating significant cooling of the mixed layer inward of the 200m-isobath due to the presents of the non-linear waves. The impact of the waves on the mixed layer heat budget and their role for nutrient transport from the deeper ocean to the euphotic zone will be discussed.

  15. The effects of estuarine processes on the fluxes of inorganic and organic carbon in the Yellow River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Dianjun; Zhang, Longjun; Jiang, Liqing

    2009-12-01

    Riverine carbon flux is an important component of the global carbon cycle. The spatial and temporal variations of organic and inorganic carbon were examined during both dry and wet seasons in the Yellow River estuary. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the Yellow River during dry seasons were higher than those during wet seasons. The effective concentrations of DOC (CDOC*) were higher than the observed DOC at zero salinity. This input of DOC in the Yellow River estuary was due to sediment desorption processes in low salinity regions. In contrast to DOC, the effective concentrations of DIC were 10% lower than the DIC measured at freshwater end, and the loss of DIC was caused by CaCO3 precipitation in low salinity region. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) contents of the particles stabilized to constant values (0.5%±0.05% and 1.8%±0.2%, respectively) within the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) and showed no noticeable seasonal variations. A rapid drop of PIC and rise of POC occurred simultaneously outside the TMZ due to an intense dilution of riverine inorganic-rich particles being transported into a pool of aquatic organic-poor particles outside the TMZ. Annually, the Yellow River transported 6.95×105 t of DIC, 0.64×105 t of DOC, 78.58×105 t of PIC and 2.29×105 t of POC to the sea.

  16. Patterns of Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Title, A.; Cheung, M.

    2008-05-01

    The high spatial resolution and high cadence of the Solar Optical Telescope on the JAXA Hinode spacecraft have allowed capturing many examples of magnetic flux emergence from the scale of granulation to active regions. The observed patterns of emergence are quite similar. Flux emerges as a array of small bipoles on scales from 1 to 5 arc seconds throughout the region that the flux eventually condenses. Because the fields emerging from the underlying flux rope my appear many in small segments and the total flux (absolute sum) is not a conserved quantity the amount of total flux on the surface may vary significantly during the emergence process. Numerical simulations of flux emergence exhibit patterns similar to observations. Movies of both observations and numerical simulations will be presented.

  17. Initiation and Eruption Process of Magnetic Flux Rope from Solar Active Region NOAA 11719 to Earth-directed CME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vemareddy, P.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-01

    An eruption event launched from the solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from a major sunspot and its south section is associated with an inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. This overlying flux bundle transforms in shape similar to kink-rise evolution, which corresponds with the rise motion of the FR. The emission measure and temperature along the FR exhibits an increasing trend with its rising motion, indicating reconnection in the thinning current sheet underneath the FR. Net magnetic flux of the AR, evaluated at north and south polarities, showed decreasing behavior whereas the net current in these fluxes exhibits an increasing trend. Because the negative (positive) flux has a dominant positive (negative) current, the chirality of AR flux system is likely negative (left handed) in order to be consistent with the chirality of inverse S-sigmoidal FR. This analysis of magnetic fields of the source AR suggests that the cancelling fluxes are prime factors of the monotonous twisting of the FR system, reaching to a critical state to trigger kink instability and rise motion. This rise motion may have led to the onset of the torus instability, resulting in an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection, and the progressive reconnection in the thinning current sheet beneath the rising FR led to the M6.5 flare.

  18. INITIATION AND ERUPTION PROCESS OF MAGNETIC FLUX ROPE FROM SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11719 TO EARTH-DIRECTED CME

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.; Zhang, J.

    2014-12-20

    An eruption event launched from the solar active region (AR) NOAA 11719 is investigated based on coronal EUV observations and photospheric magnetic field measurements obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The AR consists of a filament channel originating from a major sunspot and its south section is associated with an inverse-S sigmoidal system as observed in Atmospheric Imaging Assembly passbands. We regard the sigmoid as the main body of the flux rope (FR). There also exists a twisted flux bundle crossing over this FR. This overlying flux bundle transforms in shape similar to kink-rise evolution, which corresponds with the rise motion of the FR. The emission measure and temperature along the FR exhibits an increasing trend with its rising motion, indicating reconnection in the thinning current sheet underneath the FR. Net magnetic flux of the AR, evaluated at north and south polarities, showed decreasing behavior whereas the net current in these fluxes exhibits an increasing trend. Because the negative (positive) flux has a dominant positive (negative) current, the chirality of AR flux system is likely negative (left handed) in order to be consistent with the chirality of inverse S-sigmoidal FR. This analysis of magnetic fields of the source AR suggests that the cancelling fluxes are prime factors of the monotonous twisting of the FR system, reaching to a critical state to trigger kink instability and rise motion. This rise motion may have led to the onset of the torus instability, resulting in an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection, and the progressive reconnection in the thinning current sheet beneath the rising FR led to the M6.5 flare.

  19. The effect of linear velocity and flux on performance of ceramic graded permeability membranes when processing skim milk at 50°C.

    PubMed

    Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M

    2014-05-01

    Raw milk (about 500 kg) was cold (4°C) separated and then the skim milk was pasteurized at 72°C and a holding time of 16s. The milk was cooled to 4°C and stored at ≤ 4°C until processing. The skim milk was microfiltered using a pilot-scale ceramic graded permeability (GP) microfilter system equipped with 0.1-µm nominal pore diameter ceramic Membralox membranes. First, about 155 kg of pasteurized skim milk was flushed through the system to push the water out of the system. Then, additional pasteurized skim milk (about 320 kg) was microfiltered (stage 1) in a continuous feed-and-bleed 3× process using the same membranes. The retentate from stage 1 was diluted with pasteurized reverse osmosis water in a 1:2 ratio and microfiltered (stage 2) with a GP system. This was repeated 3 times, with total of 3 stages in the process (stage 1 = microfiltration; stages 2 and 3 = diafiltration). The results from first 3 stages of the experiment were compared with previous data when processing skim milk at 50°C using ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) membranes. Microfiltration of skim milk using ceramic UTP and GP membranes resulted in similar final retentate in terms of serum proteins (SP) removed. The SP removal rate (expressed by kilogram of SP removed per meter-squared of membrane area) was higher for GP membranes for each stage compared with UTP membranes. A higher passage of SP and SP removal rate for GP than UTP membranes was achieved by using a higher cross-flow velocity when processing skim milk. Increasing flux in subsequent stages did not affect membrane permeability and fouling. We operated under conditions that produced partial membrane fouling, due to using a flux that was less than limiting flux but higher than critical flux. Because the critical flux is a function of the cross-flow velocity, the difference in critical flux between UTP and GP membranes resulted only from operating under different cross-flow velocities (6.6 vs 7.12 for UTP and GP

  20. Joint assimilation of eddy covariance flux measurements and FAPAR products over temperate forests within a process-oriented biosphere model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacour, C.; Peylin, P.; MacBean, N.; Rayner, P. J.; Delage, F.; Chevallier, F.; Weiss, M.; Demarty, J.; Santaren, D.; Baret, F.; Berveiller, D.; Dufrêne, E.; Prunet, P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the benefits of assimilating in situ and satellite data of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) relative to eddy covariance flux measurements for the optimization of parameters of the ORCHIDEE (Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystem) biosphere model. We focus on model parameters related to carbon fixation, respiration, and phenology. The study relies on two sites—Fontainebleau (deciduous broadleaf forest) and Puechabon (Mediterranean broadleaf evergreen forest)—where measurements of net carbon exchange (NEE) and latent heat (LE) fluxes are available at the same time as FAPAR products derived from ground measurements or derived from spaceborne observations at high (SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre)) and medium (MERIS (MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer)) spatial resolutions. We compare the different FAPAR products, analyze their consistency with the in situ fluxes, and then evaluate the potential benefits of jointly assimilating flux and FAPAR data. The assimilation of FAPAR data leads to a degradation of the model-data agreement with respect to NEE at the two sites. It is caused by the change in leaf area required to fit the magnitude of the various FAPAR products. Assimilating daily NEE and LE fluxes, however, has a marginal impact on the simulated FAPAR. The results suggest that the main advantage of including FAPAR data is the ability to constrain the timing of leaf onset and senescence for deciduous ecosystems, which is best achieved by normalizing FAPAR time series. The joint assimilation of flux and FAPAR data leads to a model-data improvement across all variables similar to when each data stream is used independently, corresponding, however, to different and likely improved parameter values.

  1. Sediment dissolved iron:phosphate ratios as indicators of phosphate fluxes and benthic processes in two temperate small estuaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrieux, Françoise; Raimonet, Mélanie; Kerouel, Roger; Philippon, Xavier; Youenou, Agnès; Caradec, Florian; Labry, Claire; Ragueneau, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen is known to be the most limiting nutrient in marine ecosystems. However in transition areas such as estuaries, phosphorus can locally and seasonally play an important role. In these shallow areas, the sediment might act as a phosphorus sink, then liberating phosphate (PO4) under specific conditions (e.g. dissolution of iron-bound PO4 under anoxia, desorption of adsorbed PO4 in case of sediment resuspension…). The released PO4 may significantly increase the biologically available pool of phosphorus in the water, counteracting decreases in the external loads. One method to evaluate the contribution of benthic phosphorus is to measure phosphorus forms in the sediment matrix. Such extraction methods are robust but time consuming. Alternatively, other authors have suggested using dissolved Fe : P ratios as indicators of PO4 release to oxic waters. This study aims to investigate the relationships between dissolved Fe : P ratios in pore waters and PO4 fluxes at the sediment-water interface in two macrotidal estuaries (Aulne and Elorn, NW France). PO4 and Fe2+ pore waters concentrations and PO4 diffusive fluxes were evaluated during a seasonal cycle. PO4 fluxes increased from the outer to the inner estuary and from February to July (up to 300 µmol m-2 d-1) . In upper estuary, NH4 : PO4 and dissolved Fe : P ratios, significantly higher in the Aulne than in the Elorn, indicated a higher availability to retain P in the Aulne Estuary. In both estuaries, high dissolved Fe : P ratios (> 2 mol/mol) in the surface layer of the sediment, especially in February, indicated insignificant or low PO43-release and high NH4 : PO4 flux ratios. The lowest ratio generally occurred in July and corresponded to the highest PO4 fluxes and the lowest NH4 : PO4 fluxes. These Fe : P ratios, lower than the theorical value of 2, suggested that there were no enough diffusing Fe3+ to retain PO4. However relationships between Fe : P ratios and PO4 fluxes were specific of each part of the

  2. Volatile organic compound flux from manure of cattle fed diets differing in grain processing method and co-product inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Kristin; Parker, David B.; Cole, N. Andy

    2015-01-01

    Odor emissions from livestock production have become increasingly important in the past decade. Odors derived from animal feeding operations are caused by odorous VOC emitted from the mixture of feces and urine, as well as feed and silage which may be experiencing microbial fermentation. Distillers grains are a by-product of corn grain fermentation used to produce fuel ethanol, and this industry has grown rapidly throughout the U.S. in past years. Therefore, the use of wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) in feedlot cattle diets has also increased. The objective of this research was to determine specific VOC emissions from feces and urine or a mixture of both, from cattle fed steam flaked or dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets containing either 0% or 30% WDGS. Flux of dimethyl trisulfide was greater from feces of cattle fed DRC than steam-flaked corn (SFC) diets. No other differences in flux from feces were detected across dietary treatments for phenol, 4-methylphenol, indole, skatole, dimethyl disulfide, and flux of volatile fatty acids (VFA) such as acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids (P > 0.15). Flux of skatole, acetic acid, and valeric acid from urine was greater for cattle fed SFC than DRC diets (P < 0.05). Moreover, dimethyl disulfide flux was greater for cattle fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). When evaluating WDGS inclusion in the diet, flux of acetic acid and heptanoic acid from urine was greater when cattle were fed diets containing 0% WDGS than 30% WDGS (P < 0.05). When combining urine and feces in the ratio in which they were excreted from the animal, flux of propionic acid was greater when cattle were fed DRC vs. SFC diets (P = 0.05). Based on these results, the majority of the VOC, VFA, and odor flux from cattle feeding operations is from the urine. Therefore, dietary strategies to reduce odor from cattle feeding facilities should primarily focus on reducing excretion of odorous compounds in the urine.

  3. Effects of warming on CO2, N2O and CH4 fluxes and underlying processes from subarctic tundra, Northwest Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti J.

    2014-05-01

    Peatlands, especially those located in the highly sensitive arctic and subarctic latitudes, are known to play a major role in the global carbon cycle. Predicted climatic changes - entailing an increase in near-surface temperature and a change in precipitation patterns - will most likely have a serious yet uncertain impact on the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of these ecosystems. Microbial processes are enhanced by warmer temperatures which may lead to increased trace gas fluxes to the atmosphere. However, the response of ecosystem processes and related GHG fluxes may differ largely across the landscape depending on soil type, vegetation cover, and moisture conditions. In this study we investigate how temperature increase potentially reflects on GHG fluxes (CO2, CH4 and N2O) from various tundra surfaces in the Russian Arctic. These surfaces include raised peat plateau complexes, mineral tundra soils, bare surfaces affected by frost action such as peat circles and thermokarst lake walls, as well as wetlands. Predicted temperature increase and climate change effects are simulated by means of open top chambers (OTCs), which are placed on different soil types for the whole snow-free period. GHG fluxes, gas and nutrient concentrations in the soil profile, as well as supporting environmental parameters are monitored for the full growing season. Aim of the study is not only the quantification of aboveground GHG fluxes from the study area, but the linking of those to underlying biogeochemical processes in permafrost soils. Special emphasis is placed on the interface between active layer and old permafrost and its response to warming, since little is known about the lability of old carbon stocks made available through an increase in active layer depth. Overall goal of the study is to gain a better understanding of C and N cycling in subarctic tundra soils and to deepen knowledge in respect to carbon-permafrost feedbacks in respect to climate.

  4. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  5. Sea surface carbon dioxide at the Georgia time series site (2006-2007): Air-sea flux and controlling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Sabine, Christopher; Jones, Stacy; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Jiang, Li-Qing; Reimer, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) in surface seawater was continuously recorded every three hours from 18 July 2006 through 31 October 2007 using a moored autonomous pCO2 (MAPCO2) system deployed on the Gray's Reef buoy off the coast of Georgia, USA. Surface water pCO2 (average 373 ± 52 μatm) showed a clear seasonal pattern, undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere in cold months and generally oversaturated in warm months. High temporal resolution observations revealed important events not captured in previous ship-based observations, such as sporadically occurring biological CO2 uptake during April-June 2007. In addition to a qualitative analysis of the primary drivers of pCO2 variability based on property regressions, we quantified contributions of temperature, air-sea exchange, mixing, and biological processes to monthly pCO2 variations using a 1-D mass budget model. Although temperature played a dominant role in the annual cycle of pCO2, river inputs especially in the wet season, biological respiration in peak summer, and biological production during April-June 2007 also substantially influenced seawater pCO2. Furthermore, sea surface pCO2 was higher in September-October 2007 than in September-October 2006, associated with increased river inputs in fall 2007. On an annual basis this site was a moderate atmospheric CO2 sink, and was autotrophic as revealed by monthly mean net community production (NCP) in the mixed layer. If the sporadic short productive events during April-May 2007 were missed by the sampling schedule, one would conclude erroneously that the site is heterotrophic. While previous ship-based pCO2 data collected around this buoy site agreed with the buoy CO2 data on seasonal scales, high resolution buoy observations revealed that the cruise-based surveys undersampled temporal variability in coastal waters, which could greatly bias the estimates of air-sea CO2 fluxes or annual NCP, and even produce contradictory results.

  6. ) Mold Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Myung-Duk; Shi, Cheng-Bin; Cho, Jung-Wook; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2014-10-01

    The effects of basicity (CaO/SiO2), B2O3, and Li2O addition on the crystallization behaviors of lime-silica-based mold fluxes have been investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and single hot thermocouple technique. It was found that the crystallization temperature of cuspidine increased with increasing the basicity of mold fluxes. The crystallization of wollastonite was suppressed with increasing the mold flux basicity due to the enhancement of cuspidine crystallization. The addition of B2O3 suppresses the crystallization of mold flux. The crystallization temperature of mold flux decreases with Li2O addition. The size of cuspidine increases, while the number of cuspidine decreases with increasing mold flux basicity. The morphology of cuspidine in mold fluxes with lower basicity is largely dendritic. The dendritic cuspidine in mold fluxes is composed of many fine cuspidine crystals. On the contrary, in mold fluxes with higher basicity, the cuspidine crystals are larger in size with mainly faceted morphology. The crystalline phase evolution was also calculated using a thermodynamic database, and compared with the experimental results determined by DSC and XRD. The results of thermodynamic calculation of crystalline phase formation are in accordance with the results determined by DSC and XRD.

  7. Application of Satellite Altimeter Data to Studies of Ocean Surface Heat Flux and Upper Ocean Thermal Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Xiao-Hal

    2003-01-01

    This is a one-year cost extension of previous grant but carrying a new award number for the administrative purpose. Supported by this one-year extension, the following research has continued and obtained significant results. 20 papers have been published (9) or submitted (11) to scientific journals in this one-year period. A brief summary of scientific results on: 1. A new method for estimation of the sensible heat flux using satellite vector winds, 2. Pacific warm pool excitation, earth rotation and El Nino Southern Oscillations, 3. A new study of the Mediterranean outflow and Meddies at 400-meter isopycnal surface using multi-sensor data, 4. Response of the coastal ocean to extremely high wind, and 5. Role of wind on the estimation of heat flux using satellite data, are provided below as examples of our many research results conducted in the last year,

  8. Avoiding the Enumeration of Infeasible Elementary Flux Modes by Including Transcriptional Regulatory Rules in the Enumeration Process Saves Computational Costs

    PubMed Central

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Ruckerbauer, David E.; Gerstl, Matthias P.; Hanscho, Michael; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant progress made in recent years, the computation of the complete set of elementary flux modes of large or even genome-scale metabolic networks is still impossible. We introduce a novel approach to speed up the calculation of elementary flux modes by including transcriptional regulatory information into the analysis of metabolic networks. Taking into account gene regulation dramatically reduces the solution space and allows the presented algorithm to constantly eliminate biologically infeasible modes at an early stage of the computation procedure. Thereby, computational costs, such as runtime, memory usage, and disk space, are extremely reduced. Moreover, we show that the application of transcriptional rules identifies non-trivial system-wide effects on metabolism. Using the presented algorithm pushes the size of metabolic networks that can be studied by elementary flux modes to new and much higher limits without the loss of predictive quality. This makes unbiased, system-wide predictions in large scale metabolic networks possible without resorting to any optimization principle. PMID:26091045

  9. Round robin measurements of the flux trapping properties of melt processed Sm-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, D. A.; Murakami, M.; Zeisberger, M.; Gawalek, W.; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.; Fuchs, G.; Krabbes, G.; Leenders, A.; Freyhardt, H. C.; Chaud, X.; Tournier, R.; Hari Babu, N.

    2004-10-01

    Scanning Hall probe round robin measurements of the trapped field of two CFRF-clad, epoxy resin-reinforced large grain samples of Sm-Ba-Cu-O fabricated at ISTEC-SRL by top seeded melt growth (TSMG) have been performed by five European laboratories over a two year period under the auspice of the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) and Technical Committee 90 (TC90) of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). This study completes the interim report of the round robin tests presented at the fourth PASREG Workshop, Jena, July 2003. The peak fields derived from flux profiles measured by the different groups are found to correlate to within 6% over the measurement period. The flux trapping ability of the samples, measured by the peak field in the upper surface, deteriorated over the period of measurement by around 2% and 1%, respectively. Overall the measurements suggest that the trapped flux profile is most sensitive to changes in magnetizing field, experimental geometry and the sample-Hall probe separation. As a result, variations in these parameters should be minimized during flux mapping. In general a magnetizing field of 1.75 times the maximum trapped field for field cooled (FC) samples is required to ensure complete magnetization of a homogeneous cylindrical sample with an aspect ratio of ≈2.5, corresponding to the geometry of the samples measured here. Finally, 20 min relaxation time following magnetization was observed to be sufficient to yield consistent measurement of the peak trapped field within the error of the measurement, which was typically less than 4%. Other than the recommended magnetizing field of 3 T, which should be determined by aspect ratio, temperature and maximum trapped field rather than pre-defined, the experimental conditions were confirmed to lie within the guidelines described in a draft International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 90 (TC90) standardization document on flux

  10. Data Processing for Making Eddy Covariance Methane Flux Measurement with Laser-Based CH4 Gas Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.; McDermitt, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    First we will discuss the fundamental difference in the theory of operation between NDIR (Non-dispersive Infrared) based and laser-based gas analyzer. Taking LI-7500A (an open-path CO2 gas analyzer) as an example for a NDIR-based gas analyzer, the wavelength of the infrared radiation for making the gas concentration measurement is from 4.20 to 4.34 μm which includes many absorption lines. While the LI-7700 (an open-path methane gas analyzer) is a laser-based analyzer. It uses a single absorption line at 1.651 μm to make the methane concentration measurement. It employs a Herriott cell configuration with mirror spacing of 0.47 m and a total optical path length of 28.2 m. Methane density is measured using wavelength modulation spectroscopy. As a result, the measured methane density is affected by sensible heat and latent heat flux, and also by spectroscopic effects (e.g., line broadening) due to changes in temperature and water vapor content. Here we propose a new procedure to account for spectroscopic effects. Since both density effects and spectroscopic effects are predictable with the ideal gas law and HITRAN respectively, the spectroscopic effect can be incorporated into WPL correction. In this paper, we will discuss the details of this new procedure to account for the spectroscopic effect in the methane flux calculation. Field experiment results will be presented to show the accuracy of this new procedure.

  11. A process-based model to estimate gas exchange and monoterpene emission rates in the mediterranean maquis - comparisons between modelled and measured fluxes at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, M.; Matteucci, G.; Fares, S.; Davison, B.

    2009-02-01

    This paper concerns the application of a process-based model (MOCA, Modelling of Carbon Assessment) as an useful tool for estimating gas exchange, and integrating the empirical algorithms for calculation of monoterpene fluxes, in a Mediterranean maquis of central Italy (Castelporziano, Rome). Simulations were carried out for a range of hypothetical but realistic canopies of the evergreen Quercus ilex (holm oak), Arbutus unedo (strawberry tree) and Phillyrea latifolia. More, the dependence on total leaf area and leaf distribution of monoterpene fluxes at the canopy scale has been considered in the algorithms. Simulation of the gas exchange rates showed higher values for P. latifolia and A. unedo (2.39±0.30 and 3.12±0.27 gC m-2 d-1, respectively) with respect to Q. ilex (1.67±0.08 gC m-2 d-1) in the measuring campaign (May-June). Comparisons of the average Gross Primary Production (GPP) values with those measured by eddy covariance were well in accordance (7.98±0.20 and 6.00±1.46 gC m-2 d-1, respectively, in May-June), although some differences (of about 30%) were evident in a point-to-point comparison. These differences could be explained by considering the non uniformity of the measuring site where diurnal winds blown S-SW direction affecting thus calculations of CO2 and water fluxes. The introduction of some structural parameters in the algorithms for monoterpene calculation allowed to simulate monoterpene emission rates and fluxes which were in accord to those measured (6.50±2.25 vs. 9.39±4.5μg g-1DW h-1 for Q. ilex, and 0.63±0.207μg g-1DW h-1 vs. 0.98±0.30μg g-1DW h-1 for P. latifolia). Some constraints of the MOCA model are discussed, but it is demonstrated to be an useful tool to simulate physiological processes and BVOC fluxes in a very complicated plant distributions and environmental conditions, and necessitating also of a low number of input data.

  12. Validating soil denitrification models based on laboratory N_{2} and N_{2}O fluxes and underlying processes derived by stable isotope approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, Reinhard; Böttcher, Jürgen; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael; Deppe, Marianna; Dittert, Klaus; Dörsch, Peter; Horn, Marcus; Ippisch, Olaf; Mikutta, Robert; Müller, Carsten; Müller, Christoph; Senbayram, Mehmet; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Robust denitrification data suitable to validate soil N2 fluxes in denitrification models are scarce due to methodical limitations and the extreme spatio-temporal heterogeneity of denitrification in soils. Numerical models have become essential tools to predict denitrification at different scales. Model performance could either be tested for total gaseous flux (NO + N2O + N2), individual denitrification products (e.g. N2O and/or NO) or for the effect of denitrification factors (e.g. C-availability, respiration, diffusivity, anaerobic volume, etc.). While there are numerous examples for validating N2O fluxes, there are neither robust field data of N2 fluxes nor sufficiently resolved measurements of control factors used as state variables in the models. To the best of our knowledge there has been only one published validation of modelled soil N2 flux by now, using a laboratory data set to validate an ecosystem model. Hence there is a need for validation data at both, the mesocosm and the field scale including validation of individual denitrification controls. Here we present the concept for collecting model validation data which is be part of the DFG-research unit "Denitrification in Agricultural Soils: Integrated Control and Modelling at Various Scales (DASIM)" starting this year. We will use novel approaches including analysis of stable isotopes, microbial communities, pores structure and organic matter fractions to provide denitrification data sets comprising as much detail on activity and regulation as possible as a basis to validate existing and calibrate new denitrification models that are applied and/or developed by DASIM subprojects. The basic idea is to simulate "field-like" conditions as far as possible in an automated mesocosm system without plants in order to mimic processes in the soil parts not significantly influenced by the rhizosphere (rhizosphere soils are studied by other DASIM projects). Hence, to allow model testing in a wide range of conditions

  13. A process-level evaluation of the spatiotemporal variability of CO2 fluxes predicted by terrestrial biosphere models using atmospheric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y.; Michalak, A. M.; Shiga, Y. P.; Yadav, V.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are used to extrapolate local observations and process-level understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions, and can serve as a predictive tool for examining carbon-climate interactions and global change. Understanding and improving the performance of TBMs is thus crucial to the carbon cycle research community. In this work, we evaluate the spatiotemporal patterns of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulated by TBMs using atmospheric CO2 observations and a Geostatistical Inverse Modeling (GIM) framework. The evaluation methodology is based on the ability (or inability) of the spatiotemporal patterns in NEE estimates to explain the variability observed in atmospheric CO2 distribution. More simply, we examine whether the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE simulated by TBMs (including CASA-GFED, ORCHIDEE, VEGAS2 and SiB3) are consistent with the variations observed in the atmosphere. A similar GIM methodology is also applied using environmental variables (such as water availability, temperature, radiation, etc.) rather than TBMs, to explore the environmental processes associated with the variability of NEE, and determine which processes are associated with good/poor performance in TBMs. We find that NEE simulated by TBMs is consistent with that seen by atmospheric measurements more often during growing season months (Apr-Sept) than during the non-growing season. Over Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests, Temperate Coniferous Forests and Temperate Grasslands, Savannas and Shrublands, atmospheric measurements are sufficiently sensitive to NEE fluxes to constrain the evaluation of model performance during the majority of the year (about 7-8 months in a year, mostly in growing season). For these regions and months, at least one of the TBMs is found to be able to reproduce the observed variability, but the most representative TBM varies by region and month. For the remaining months, none of the TBMs are able to reproduce

  14. Estimating the greenhouse gas fluxes of European grasslands with a process-based model: 2. Simulations at the continental level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuichard, Nicolas; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Calanca, Pierluigi; Soussana, Jean-FrançOis

    2007-03-01

    We apply a simulation model in order to quantify the patterns of carbon and nitrogen cycling within European grasslands. We map the fluxes of CO2, N2O and CH4 exchanged with the atmosphere as controlled by climate and management conditions. We distinguish between grazing and cutting practice. Because geo-referenced management information for grasslands does not exist at the scale of Europe, we develop a new and robust set of rules defining some management variables. We then perform realistic simulations in term of N fertilization using a national level data set. The model results at European scale are compared with agricultural statistics (yield, animal stocks), which shows that our very simple management calculation is reasonably realistic. We also compare the simulated seasonal cycle of grassland phenology as calculated by PASIM with remote sensing observations from the EOS-TERRA-MODIS satellite, which shows a good general agreement. Emission factors for soil N2O and grazing animals CH4 emissions are diagnosed from the model runs and shown to be comparable to those of previous experimental surveys. We investigate impact of N fertilization on NPP and C storage potential, N2O emissions by soils and CH4 emissions by ruminants. We conclude that, for different time horizon, CH4 and N2O sources are lower than the potential sink of CO2, on a carbon equivalent basis. This result is independent of fertilization intensity but assumes that the current soil C stocks are below the long-term equilibrium values.

  15. Beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation: a treatment of electronic flux density in electronically adiabatic molecular processes.

    PubMed

    Diestler, D J

    2013-06-01

    Intuition suggests that a molecular system in the electronic ground state Φ0 should exhibit an electronic flux density (EFD) in response to the motion of its nuclei. If that state is described by the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), however, a straightforward calculation of the EFD yields zero, since the electrons are in a stationary state, regardless of the state of the nuclear motion. Here an alternative pathway to a nonzero EFD from a knowledge of only the BOA ground-state wave function is proposed. Via perturbation theory a complete set of approximate vibronic eigenfunctions of the whole Hamiltonian is generated. If the complete non-BOA wave function is expressed in the basis of these vibronic eigenfunctions, the ground-state contribution to the EFD is found to involve a summation over excited states. Evaluation of this sum through the so-called "average excitation energy approximation" produces a nonzero EFD. An explicit formula for the EFD for the prototypical system, namely, oriented H2+ vibrating in the electronic ground state, is derived.

  16. Field Micrometeorological Measurements, Process-Level Studies and Modeling of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes in a Boreal Wetland Ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, S. B.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Ullman, F. G.; Valentine, D. W.; Parton, W. J.; Schimel, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    The main instrumentation platform consisted of eddy correlation sensors mounted on a scaffold tower at a height of 4.2 m above the peat surface. The sensors were attached to a boom assembly which could be rotated into the prevailing winds. The boom assembly was mounted on a movable sled which, when extended, allowed sensors to be up to 2 m away from the scaffolding structure to minimize flow distortion. When retracted, the sensors could easily be installed, serviced or rotated. An electronic level with linear actuators allowed the sensors to be remotely levelled once the sled was extended. Two instrument arrays were installed. A primary (fast-response) array consisted of a three-dimensional sonic anemometer, a methane sensor (tunable diode laser spectrometer), a carbon dioxide/water vapor sensor, a fine wire thermocouple and a backup one-dimensional sonic anemometer. The secondary array consisted of a one-dimensional sonic anemometer, a fine wire thermocouple and a Krypton hygrometer. Descriptions of these sensors may be found in other reports (e.g., Verma; Suyker and Verma). Slow-response sensors provided supporting measurements including mean air temperature and humidity, mean horizontal windspeed and direction, incoming and reflected solar radiation, net radiation, incoming and reflected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil heat flux, peat temperature, water-table elevation and precipitation. A data acquisition system (consisting of an IBM compatible microcomputer, amplifiers and a 16 bit analog-to-digital converter), housed in a small trailer, was used to record the fast response signals. These signals were low-pass filtered (using 8-pole Butterworth active filters with a 12.5 Hz cutoff frequency) and sampled at 25 Hz. Slow-response signals were sampled every 5 s using a network of CR21X (Campbell Scientific, Inc., Logan Utah) data loggers installed in the fen. All signals were averaged over 30-minute periods (runs).

  17. Major ion chemistry of the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    SciTech Connect

    Sarin, M.M.; Krishnaswami, S.; Dilli, K.; Somayajulu, B.L.K. ); Moore, W.S. )

    1989-05-01

    The Ganga-Brahmaputra, one of the worlds's largest river systems, is first in terms of sediment transport and fourth in terms of water discharge. A detailed and systematic study of the major ion chemistry of these rivers and their tributaries, as well as the clay mineral composition of the bed sediments has been conducted. The chemistry of the highland rivers are all dominated by carbonate weathering; (Ca + Mg) and HCO{sub 3} account for about 80% of the cations and anions. In the lowland rivers, HCO{sub 3} excess over (Ca + Mg) and a relatively high contribution of (Na + K) to the total cations indicate that silicate weathering and/or contributions from alkaline/saline soils and ground waters could be important sources of major ions to these waters. The chemistry of the Ganga and the Yamuna in the lower reaches is by and large dictated by the chemistry of their tributaries and their mixing proportions. The highland rivers weather acidic rocks, whereas the others flow initially through basic effusives. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system transports about 130 million tons of dissolved salts to the Bay of Bengal, which is nearly 3% of the global river flux to the oceans. The chemical denudation rates for the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins are about 72 and 105 tons{center dot}km{sup {minus}2}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}, respectively, which are factors of 2 to 3 higher than the global average. The high denudation rate, particularly in the Brahmaputra, is attributable to high relief and heavy rainfall.

  18. Estimating the greenhouse gas fluxes of European grasslands with a process-based model: 1. Model evaluation from in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuichard, Nicolas; Soussana, Jean-FrançOis; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Ammann, Christof; Calanca, Pierluigi; Clifton-Brown, John; Fuhrer, Jürg; Jones, Mike; Martin, CéCile

    2007-03-01

    We improved a process-oriented biogeochemical model of carbon and nitrogen cycling in grasslands and tested it against in situ measurements of biomass and CO2 and CH4 fluxes at five European grassland sites. The new version of the model (PASIM) calculates the growth and senescence of aboveground vegetation biomass accounting for sporadic removals when the grassland is cut and for continuous removals when it is grazed. Limitations induced by high leaf area index (LAI), soil water deficits and aging of leaves are also included. We added to this a simple empirical formulation to account for the detrimental impact on vegetation of trampling and excreta by grazing animals. Finally, a more realistic methane emission module than is currently used was introduced on the basis of the quality of the animals' diet. Evaluation of this improved version of PASIM is performed at (1) Laqueuille, France, on grassland continuously grazed by cattle with two plots of intensive and extensive grazing intensities, (2) Oensingen, Switzerland, on cut grassland with two fertilized and nonfertilized plots, and (3) Carlow, Ireland, on grassland that is both cut and grazed by cattle during the growing season. In addition, we compared the modeled animal CH4 emissions with in situ measurements on cattle for two grazing intensities at the grazed grassland site of Laqueuille. Altogether, when all improvements to the PASIM model are included, we found that the new parameterizations resulted into a better fit to the observed seasonal cycle of biomass and of measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes. However, the large uncertainties in measurements of biomass and LAI make simulation of biomass dynamics difficult to make. Also simulations for cut grassland are better than for grazed swards. This work paves the way for simulating greenhouse gas fluxes over grasslands in a spatially explicit manner, in order to quantify and understand the past, present and future role of grasslands in the greenhouse gas budget of the

  19. Origin, speciation, and fluxes of trace-element gases at Augustine volcano, Alaska: Insights into magma degassing and fumarolic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Symonds, R.B.; Rose, W.I. ); Reed, M.H. )

    1992-02-01

    Thermochemical modeling predicts that trace elements in the Augustine gas are transported from near-surface magma as simple chloride, oxychloride, sulfide, and elemental gas species. However, Si, Ca, Al, Mg, Ti, V, and Cr are actually more concentrated in solids, beta-quartz (SiO{sub 2}), wollastonite (CaSiO{sub 3}), anorthite (CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}), diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), sphene (CaTiSiO{sub 5}), V{sub 2}O{sub 3}(c), and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}(c), respectively, than in their most abundant gaseous species, SiF{sub 4}, CaCl{sub 2}, AlF{sub 2}O, MgCl{sub 2}, TiCl{sub 4}, VOCl{sub 3}, and CrO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Using the calculated distribution of gas species and the COSPEC SO{sub 2} fluxes, the authors have estimated the emission rates for many species. Such forecasts could be useful to evaluate the effects of these trace species on atmospheric chemistry. Because of the high volatility of metal chlorides, the extremely HCl-rich Augustine volcanic gases are favorable for transporting metals from magma. Thermochemical modeling shows that equilibrium degassing of magma near 870C can account for the concentrations of Fe, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Ni, and part of the Mg in the gases escaping from the dome fumaroles on the 1986 lava dome. Nonvolatile elements in the gas condensates came from eroded rock particles that dissolved in the authors' samples or, for Si, from contamination from the silica sampling tube. Erosion is more prevalent in the pyroclastic flow fumaroles than in the summit vents, reflecting physical differences in the fumarole walls: ash vs. lava. Trace element contents of volcanic gases show enormous variability because of differences in the intensive parameters of degassing magma and variable amounts of wall rock erosion in volcanic fumaroles.

  20. Major ion chemistry of the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarin, M. M.; Krishnaswami, S.; Dilli, K.; Somayajulu, B. L. K.; Moore, W. S.

    1989-05-01

    The Ganga-Brahmaputra, one of the world's largest river systems, is first in terms of sediment transport and fourth in terms of water discharge. A detailed and systematic study of the major ion chemistry of these rivers and their tributaries, as well as the clay mineral composition of the bed sediments has been conducted. The chemistry of the highland rivers (upper reaches of the Ganga, the Yamuna, the Brahmaputra, the Gandak and the Ghaghra) are all dominated by carbonate weathering; (Ca + Mg) and HCO 3 account for about 80% of the cations and anions. In the lowland rivers (the Chambal, the Betwa and the Ken), HCO 3 excess over (Ca + Mg) and a relatively high contribution of (Na + K) to the total cations indicate that silicate weathering and/or contributions from alkaline/saline soils and groundwaters could be important sources of major ions to these waters. The chemistry of the Ganga and the Yamuna in the lower reaches is by and large dictated by the chemistry of their tributaries and their mixing proportions. Illite is the dominant clay mineral (about 80%) in the bedload sediments of the highland rivers. Kaolinite and chlorite together constitute the remaining 20% of the clays. In the Chambal, Betwa and Ken, smectite accounts for about 80% of the clays. This difference in the clay mineral composition of the bed sediments is a reflection of the differences in the geology of their drainage basins. The highland rivers weather acidic rocks, whereas the others flow initially through basic effusives. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system transports about 130 million tons of dissolved salts to the Bay of Bengal, which is nearly 3% of the global river flux to the oceans. The chemical denudation rates for the Ganga and the Brahmaputra basins are about 72 and 105 tons· km -· yr -1, respectively, which are factors of 2 to 3 higher than the global average. The high denudation rate, particularly in the Brahmaputra, is attributable to high relief and heavy rainfall.

  1. Linking carbon-water- and nitrogen fluxes at forest ecosystems throughout Europe with a coupled soil-vegetation process model "LandscapeDNDC"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Grote, Rüdiger; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in Europe play a key role in the emission reduction commitment agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for mitigating climatic change. Forest ecological functioning and potential services (such as carbon sequestration) are a matter of debate for policy decision makers resulting from the need of identifying affordable strategies for forest management and exploitation against climate change. Forest ecosystem functioning and the linkages governing carbon-, water- and nitrogen fluxes at site scale was evaluated for three dominant tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) grown on 10 different sites across Europe. We did answer in particular the following questions: a) is LandscapeDNDC able to represent NEE, GPP, TER and ET fluxes for dominant forest types in Europe at different sites with only a species specific parameterization? b) What is the relation between carbon input into the ecosystem and on the emission of carbon and nitrogen from the forest soil? Furthermore we analyzed the interaction between carbon-, nitrogen-, and water cycle, in particular the dependence of gaseous fluxes on water and litter availability. LandscapeDNDC is a process based model that integrates modules for carbon, nitrogen and water cycling within terrestrial ecosystems (i.e. forest) on the site and regional scale. Biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere processes in forest ecosystems are linked by daily time step integration of the microclimate, water cycle, soil biogeochemistry and tree physiology and dimensional growth modules which balances all three aforementioned cycles. All processes and state variables are considered in a vertically structured one dimensional vertical column that reaches from rooting depth (more than 1 m depth) to the uppermost canopy layer. LandscapeDNDC was tested against long term (about 10 years) field data. The capability of the applied model for reproducing daily derived GPP and TER was accompanied by a high statistical precision (r

  2. Inference of super-resolution ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes from non-linear and multiscale processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Carrasco, Ismael; Sudre, Joel; Garçon, Veronique; Yahia, Hussein; Dewitte, Boris; Garbe, Christoph; Illig, Séréna; Montes, Ivonne; Dadou, Isabelle; Paulmier, Aurélien; Butz, André

    2014-05-01

    In recent years the role of submesoscale activity is emerging as being more and more important to understand global ocean properties, for instance, for accurately estimating the sources and sinks of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) at the air-sea interface. The scarcity of oceanographic cruises and the lack of available satellite products for GHG concentrations at high resolution prevent from obtaining a global assessment of their spatial variability at small scales. In this work we develop a novel method to reconstruct maps of CO2 fluxes at super resolution (4km) using SST and ocean colour data at this resolution, and CarbonTracker CO2 fluxes data at low resolution (110 km). The responsible process for propagating the information between scales is related to cascading properties and multiscale organization, typical of fully developed turbulence. The methodology, based on the Microcanonical Multifractal Formalism, makes use, from the knowledge of singularity exponents, of the optimal wavelet for the determination of the energy injection mechanism between scales. We perform a validation analysis of the results of our algorithm using pCO2 ocean data from in-situ measurements in the upwelling region off Namibia.

  3. Spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the Western English Channel based on two years of FerryBox deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrec, P.; Cariou, T.; Latimier, M.; Macé, E.; Morin, P.; Vernet, M.; Bozec, Y.

    2014-12-01

    From January 2011 to January 2013, a FerryBox system was installed on a Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS), which crossed the Western English Channel (WEC) between Roscoff (France) and Plymouth (UK) up to 3 times a day. The FerryBox continuously measured sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), fluorescence and partial pressure of CO2 (from April 2012) along the ferry track. Sensors were calibrated based on 714 bimonthly surface samplings with precisions of 0.016 for SSS, 3.3 μM for DO, 0.40 μg L- 1 for Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (based on fluorescence measurements) and 5.2 μatm for pCO2. Over the 2 years of deployment (900 crossings), we reported 9% of data lost due to technical issues and quality checked data was obtained to allow investigation of the dynamics of biogeochemical processes related to air-sea CO2 fluxes in the WEC. Based on this unprecedented high-frequency dataset, the physical structure of the WEC was assessed using SST anomalies and the presence of a thermal front was observed around the latitude 49.5°N, which divided the WEC in two main provinces: the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC) and the all-year well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC). These hydrographical properties strongly influenced the spatial and inter-annual distributions of phytoplankton blooms, which were mainly limited by nutrients and light availability in the nWEC and the sWEC, respectively. Air-sea CO2 fluxes were also highly related to hydrographical properties of the WEC between late April and early September 2012, with the sWEC a weak source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1, whereas the nWEC acted as a sink for atmospheric CO2 of 6.9 mmol m- 2 d- 1. The study of short time-scale dynamics of air-sea CO2 fluxes revealed that an intense and short (less than 10 days) summer bloom in the nWEC contributed to 29% of the CO2 sink during the productive period, highlighting the necessity for high frequency observations in coastal

  4. Long-term records of global radiation, carbon and water fluxes derived from multi-satellite data and a process-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Youngryel; Jiang, Chongya

    2016-04-01

    To gain insights about the underlying impacts of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystem fluxes, we present a long-term (1982-2015) global radiation, carbon and water fluxes products by integrating multi-satellite data with a process-based model, the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS). BESS is a coupled processed model that integrates radiative transfer in the atmosphere and canopy, photosynthesis (GPP), and evapotranspiration (ET). BESS was designed most sensitive to the variables that can be quantified reliably, fully taking advantages of remote sensing atmospheric and land products. Originally, BESS entirely relied on MODIS as input variables to produce global GPP and ET during the MODIS era. This study extends the work to provide a series of long-term products from 1982 to 2015 by incorporating AVHRR data. In addition to GPP and ET, more land surface processes related datasets are mapped to facilitate the discovery of the ecological variations and changes. The CLARA-A1 cloud property datasets, the TOMS aerosol datasets, along with the GLASS land surface albedo datasets, were input to a look-up table derived from an atmospheric radiative transfer model to produce direct and diffuse components of visible and near infrared radiation datasets. Theses radiation components together with the LAI3g datasets and the GLASS land surface albedo datasets, were used to calculate absorbed radiation through a clumping corrected two-stream canopy radiative transfer model. ECMWF ERA interim air temperature data were downscaled by using ALP-II land surface temperature dataset and a region-dependent regression model. The spatial and seasonal variations of CO2 concentration were accounted by OCO-2 datasets, whereas NOAA's global CO2 growth rates data were used to describe interannual variations. All these remote sensing based datasets are used to run the BESS. Daily fluxes in 1/12 degree were computed and then aggregated to half-month interval to match with the spatial

  5. Elucidating source processes of N2O fluxes following grassland-to-field-conversion using isotopologue signatures of soil-emitted N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, G.; Giesemann, A.; Well, R.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Conversion of grassland to arable land often causes enhanced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to the atmosphere. This is due to the tillage of the sward and subsequent decomposition of organic matter. Prediction of such effects is uncertain so far because emissions may differ depending on site and soil conditions. The processes of N2O turnover (nitrification, production by bacterial or fungal denitrifiers, bacterial reduction to N2) are difficult to identify, however. Isotopologue signatures of N2O such as δ18O, average δ15N (δ15Nbulk) and 15N site preference (SP = difference in δ15N between the central and peripheral N positions of the asymmetric N2O molecule) can be used to characterize N2O turnover processes using the known ranges of isotope effects of the various N2O pathways. We aim to evaluate the impact of grassland-to-field-conversion on N2O fluxes and the governing processes using isotopic signatures of emitted N2O. At two sites, in Kleve (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, conventional farming) and Trenthorst (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, organic farming), a four times replicated plot experiment with (i) mechanical conversion (ploughing, maize), (ii) chemical conversion (broadband herbicide, maize per direct seed) and (iii) continuous grassland as reference was started in April 2010. In Trenthorst we additionally established a (iv) field with continuous maize cultivation as further reference. Over a period of two years, mineral nitrogen (Nmin) content was measured weekly on soil samples taken from 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth. Soil water content and N2O emissions were measured weekly as well. Gas samples were collected using a closed chamber system. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry was carried out on gas samples from selected high flux events to determine δ18O, δ15Nbulk and SP of N2O. δ18O and SP of N2O exhibited a relatively large range (32 to 72 ‰ and 6 to 34 ‰, respectively) indicating highly variable process dynamics. The data-set is grouped

  6. Origin, speciation, and fluxes of trace-element gases at Augustine volcano, Alaska: Insights into magma degassing and fumarolic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symonds, Robert B.; Reed, Mark H.; Rose, William I.

    1992-02-01

    Thermochemical modeling predicts that trace elements in the Augustine gas are transported from near-surface magma as simple chloride (NaCl, KCl, FeCl 2, ZnCl 2, PbCl 2, CuCl, SbCl 3, LiCl, MnCl 2, NiCl 2, BiCl, SrCl 2), oxychloride (MoO 2Cl 2), sulfide (AsS), and elemental (Cd) gas species. However, Si, Ca, Al, Mg, Ti, V, and Cr are actually more concentrated in solids, beta-quartz (SiO 2), wollastonite (CaSiO 3), anorthite (CaAl 2Si 2O 8), diopside (CaMgSi 2O 6), sphene (CaTiSiO 5), V 2O 3(c), and Cr 2O 3(c), respectively, than in their most abundant gaseous species, SiF 4, CaCl 2, AlF 2O, MgCl 2 TiCl 4, VOCl 3, and CrO 2Cl 2. These computed solids are not degassing products, but reflect contaminants in our gas condensates or possible problems with our modeling due to "missing" gas species in the thermochemical data base. Using the calculated distribution of gas species and the COSPEC SO 2 fluxes, we have estimated the emission rates for many species (e.g., COS, NaCl, KCl, HBr, AsS, CuCl). Such forecasts could be useful to evaluate the effects of these trace species on atmospheric chemistry. Because of the high volatility of metal chlorides (e.g., FeCl 2, NaCl, KCl, MnCl 2, CuCl), the extremely HCl-rich Augustine volcanic gases are favorable for transporting metals from magma. Thermochemical modeling shows that equilibrium degassing of magma near 870°C can account for the concentrations of Fe, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Ni and part of the Mg in the gases escaping from the dome fumaroles on the 1986 lava dome. These calculations also explain why gases escaping from the lower temperature but highly oxidized moat vents on the 1976 lava dome should transport less Fe, Na, K, Mn and Ni, but more Cu; oxidation may also account for the larger concentrations of Zn and Mo in the moat gases. Nonvolatile elements (e.g., Al, Ca, Ti, Si) in the gas condensates came from eroded rock particles that dissolved in our samples or, for Si, from contamination from the silica sampling tube. Only a

  7. Fractionation and fluxes of metals and radionuclides during the recycling process of phosphogypsum wastes applied to mineral CO₂ sequestration.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Pérez-López, R; Gázquez, M J; Morales-Flórez, V; Santos, A; Esquivias, L; Bolívar, J P

    2015-11-01

    The industry of phosphoric acid produces a calcium-rich by-product known as phosphogypsum, which is usually stored in large stacks of millions of tons. Up to now, no commercial application has been widely implemented for its reuse because of the significant presence of potentially toxic contaminants. This work confirmed that up to 96% of the calcium of phosphogypsum could be recycled for CO2 mineral sequestration by a simple two-step process: alkaline dissolution and aqueous carbonation, under ambient pressure and temperature. This CO2 sequestration process based on recycling phosphogypsum wastes would help to mitigate greenhouse gasses emissions. Yet this work goes beyond the validation of the sequestration procedure; it tracks the contaminants, such as trace metals or radionuclides, during the recycling process in the phosphogypsum. Thus, most of the contaminants were transferred from raw phosphogypsum to portlandite, obtained by dissolution of the phosphogypsum in soda, and from portlandite to calcite during aqueous carbonation. These findings provide valuable information for managing phosphogypsum wastes and designing potential technological applications of the by-products of this environmentally-friendly proposal.

  8. Production process monitoring by serial mapping of microbial carbon flux distributions using a novel Sensor Reactor approach: II--(13)C-labeling-based metabolic flux analysis and L-lysine production.

    PubMed

    Drysch, A; El Massaoudi, M; Mack, C; Takors, R; de Graaf, A A; Sahm, H

    2003-04-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is intensively used for the industrial large-scale (fed-) batch production of amino acids, especially glutamate and lysine. However, metabolic flux analyses based on 13C-labeling experiments of this organism have hitherto been restricted to small-scale batch conditions and carbon-limited chemostat cultures, and are therefore of questionable relevance for industrial fermentations. To lever flux analysis to the industrial level, a novel Sensor Reactor approach was developed (El Massaoudi et al., Metab. Eng., submitted), in which a 300-L production reactor and a 1-L Sensor Reactor are run in parallel master/slave modus, thus enabling 13C-based metabolic flux analysis to generate a series of flux maps that document large-scale fermentation courses in detail. We describe the successful combination of this technology with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, metabolite balancing methods and a mathematical description of 13C-isotope labelings resulting in a powerful tool for quantitative pathway analysis during a batch fermentation. As a first application, 13C-based metabolic flux analysis was performed on exponentially growing, lysine-producing C. glutamicum MH20-22B during three phases of a pilot-scale batch fermentation. By studying the growth, (co-) substrate consumption and (by-) product formation, the similarity of the fermentations in production and Sensor Reactor was verified. Applying a generally applicable mathematical model, which included metabolite and carbon labeling balances for the analysis of proteinogenic amino acid 13C-isotopomer labeling data, the in vivo metabolic flux distribution was investigated during subsequent phases of exponential growth. It was shown for the first time that the in vivo reverse C(4)-decarboxylation flux at the anaplerotic node in C. glutamicum significantly decreased (70%) in parallel with threefold increased lysine formation during the investigated subsequent phases of exponential growth.

  9. Using Lagrangian-based process studies to test satellite algorithms of vertical carbon flux in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukel, M. R.; Kahru, M.; Benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Décima, M.; Goericke, R.; Landry, M. R.; Ohman, M. D.

    2015-11-01

    The biological carbon pump is responsible for the transport of ˜5-20 Pg C yr-1 from the surface into the deep ocean but its variability is poorly understood due to an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the complex underlying planktonic processes. In fact, algorithms designed to estimate carbon export from satellite products incorporate fundamentally different assumptions about the relationships between plankton biomass, productivity, and export efficiency. To test the alternate formulations of export efficiency in remote-sensing algorithms formulated by Dunne et al. (2005), Laws et al. (2011), Henson et al. (2011), and Siegel et al. (2014), we have compiled in situ measurements (temperature, chlorophyll, primary production, phytoplankton biomass and size structure, grazing rates, net chlorophyll change, and carbon export) made during Lagrangian process studies on seven cruises in the California Current Ecosystem and Costa Rica Dome. A food-web based approach formulated by Siegel et al. (2014) performs as well or better than other empirical formulations, while simultaneously providing reasonable estimates of protozoan and mesozooplankton grazing rates. By tuning the Siegel et al. (2014) algorithm to match in situ grazing rates more accurately, we also obtain better in situ carbon export measurements. Adequate representations of food-web relationships and grazing dynamics are therefore crucial to improving the accuracy of export predictions made from satellite-derived products. Nevertheless, considerable unexplained variance in export remains and must be explored before we can reliably use remote sensing products to assess the impact of climate change on biologically mediated carbon sequestration.

  10. The influence of melt flux and crustal processing on Re-Os isotope systematics of ocean island basalts: Constraints from Galápagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, S. A.; Dale, C. W.; Geist, D. J.; Day, J. A.; Brügmann, G.; Harpp, K. S.

    2016-09-01

    New rhenium-osmium data for high-MgO (>9 wt.%) basalts from the Galápagos Archipelago reveal a large variation in 187Os/188Os (0.1304 to 0.173), comparable with the range shown by primitive global ocean island basalts (OIBs). Basalts with the least radiogenic 187Os/188Os occur closest to the Galápagos plume stem: those in western Galápagos have low 187Os/188Os, moderate 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb and high 3He/4He whereas basalts in the south also have low 187Os/188Os but more radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb and 3He/4He. Our new Os isotope data are consistent with the previously established spatial zonation of the common global isotopic mantle reservoir "C" and ancient recycled oceanic crust in the mantle plume beneath western and southern parts of Galápagos, respectively. Galápagos basalts with the most radiogenic 187Os/188Os (up to 0.1875) typically have moderate MgO (7-9 wt.%) and low Os (<50 pg g-1) but have contrastingly unenriched Sr, Nd and Pb isotope signatures. We interpret this decoupling of chalcophile and lithophile isotopic systems as due to assimilation of young Pacific lower crust during crystal fractionation. Mixing models show the assimilated crust must have higher contents of Re and Os, and more radiogenic 187Os/188Os (0.32), than previously proposed for oceanic gabbros. We suggest the inferred, exceptionally-high radiogenic 187Os of the Pacific crust may be localised and due to sulfides precipitated from hydrothermal systems established at the Galápagos Spreading Centre. High 187Os/188Os Galápagos basalts are found where plume material is being dispersed laterally away from the plume stem to the adjacent spreading centre (i.e. in central and NE parts of the archipelago). The extent to which crustal processing influences 187Os/188Os appears to be primarily controlled by melt flux: as distance from the stem of the Galápagos plume increases, the melt flux decreases and crustal assimilation becomes proportionally

  11. Microbial processes dominate P fluxes in a low-phosphorus temperate forest soil: insights provided by 33P and 18O in phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Tamburini, Federica; Bünemann, Else; Mészáros, Éva; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    The classical view of the P cycle in forests is that trees and mycorrhizal fungi associated with them take up most of their phosphorus as phosphate (P) from the soil solution. The soil solution is then replenished by the release of P from sorbed phases, by the dissolution of P containing minerals or by biological mineralization and/or enzymatic hydrolysis of organic P compounds. Direct insight into the processes phosphate goes through at the ecosystem level is, however, missing. Assessing the relevance of inorganic and biological processes controlling P cycling requires the use of appropriate approaches and tracers. Within the German Priority Program "Ecosystem Nutrition: Forest Strategies for limited Phosphorus Resources" we studied P forms and dynamics in organic horizons (Of/Oh) of temperate beech forest soils in Germany with contrasting soil P availability (P-poor and P-rich). We followed the fate of P from the litter into the soil pools, using isotopes as tracers (stable oxygen isotopes in water and phosphate and 33P) and relied on measurements in experimental forest sites and a three-months incubation experiment with litter addition. Using an isotopic dilution approach we were able to estimate gross (7 mg P kg-1 d-1 over the first month) and net mineralization rates (about 5 mg P kg-1 d-1 over the first 10 days) in the P-poor soil. In this soil the immobilization of P in the microbial biomass ranged from 20 to 40% of gross mineralization during the incubation, meaning that a considerable part of mineralized P contributed to replenish the available P pool. In the P-rich soil, physicochemical processes dominated exchangeable P to the point that the contribution of biological/biochemical processes was non-detectable. Oxygen isotopes in phosphate elucidated that organic P mineralization by enzymatic hydrolysis gains more importance with decreasing P availability, both under controlled and under field conditions. In summary, microbial processes dominated P fluxes

  12. Microbial processes dominate P fluxes in a low-phosphorus temperate forest soil: insights provided by 33P and 18O in phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Tamburini, Federica; Bünemann, Else; Mészáros, Éva; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    fluxes (70 to 80%) in the P-poor soil, while in the P-rich soil microbial processes could not be detected because of the higher baseline of physicochemical processes. Our results support the hypothesis that organic P has a faster turnover under conditions of low P availability and that net mineralization is the most relevant process providing available P for plants under these conditions.

  13. Latent Heat in Soil Heat Flux Measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  14. Quantification of terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the conterminous United States combining a process-based biogeochemical model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate quantification of carbon dynami...

  15. Magnetospheric-ionospheric Poynting flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years of funding SRI, in collaboration with the University of Texas at Dallas, has been involved in determining the total electromagnetic energy flux into the upper atmosphere from DE-B electric and magnetic field measurements and modeling the electromagnetic energy flux at high latitudes, taking into account the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. This effort has been very successful in establishing the DC Poynting flux as a fundamental quantity in describing the coupling of electromagnetic energy between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. The DE-B satellite electric and magnetic field measurements were carefully scrutinized to provide, for the first time, a large data set of DC, field-aligned, Poynting flux measurement. Investigations describing the field-aligned Poynting flux observations from DE-B orbits under specific geomagnetic conditions and from many orbits were conducted to provide a statistical average of the Poynting flux distribution over the polar cap. The theoretical modeling effort has provided insight into the observations by formulating the connection between Poynting's theorem and the electromagnetic energy conversion processes that occur in the ionosphere. Modeling and evaluation of these processes has helped interpret the satellite observations of the DC Poynting flux and improved our understanding of the coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  16. Fast flux locked loop

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-09-10

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  17. Constraints from Field Geology for Numerical Modeling of the Crustal Overturn Processes During the Cretaceous High-Magma-Flux Episode in the Central and Southern Sierra Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Paterson, S. R.; Kaus, B. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Memeti, V.

    2010-12-01

    Building on prior studies, recent fieldwork combined with geochronology, thermobarometry and geochemistry studies in the Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc reveal the following arc-scale features: 1) The Middle to Late Cretaceous Sierra Nevada arc has a 30-35 km thick granodioritic to tonalitic upper-middle crust and may have had up to 30-35 km of mafic to ultramafic lower crust, including dehydrated amphibolitic residues. 2) Plutons emplaced during the ~20 myr long High-Magma-Flux Episode (HMFE, 105-85 Ma) include large batholiths (~1000 km2 at exposure level) with growth histories occurring over millions of years (e.g. ~9 myr for Tuolumne Batholith). Magma pulses creating such large intrusions could vary from up to 103 km3 in dimension depending on different growth models. 3) In the central Sierra Nevada, emplacement depths of the granitoid plutons during the HMFE are 7-15 km with shallow emplaced plutons’ solidi at usually ~700 -760 °C. 4) Plutons intruding only slightly older volcanic host rocks in the central and southern Sierra Nevada indicate that host rocks’ downward displacement of ~7-25 km depths occurred within 1-3 myr. This process is accompanied with the long-lived arc exhumation since at least middle Jurassic. 5) Steep syn-emplacement subsolidus lineations, rim monoclines, and plastic shear strain in pluton aureoles suggest ductile deformations of host rock materials. 6) Partial melting occurred along the margins of plutons and in the middle-lower crust, as represented in the more deeply exposed southern Sierra (30-45 km). 7) Magmatic to subsolidus foliations in plutons and ductile shear zones in host rocks indicate NW-trending transpressional tectonics during the HMFE. 8) Isotopic oxygen data and mass balance calculation indicate that crustal components provides more than 50% of the entire arc’s mass. Intra-crustal magma sources of the HMFE are sustained possibly by thickened crust due to contractional tectonics. These observations in the central

  18. Aqueous cleaning of flux residue from solder joints. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krska, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    Solder joints have traditionally been cleaned using chlorinated or fluorinated solvents. This study addressed alternate processing. One process involved using a saponifier/water solution to remove rosin flux residues; the other process involved using a water-soluble flux and water to remove the residues. Although both processes were satisfactory, the water-soluble flux with water cleaning proved to be the best.

  19. Aqueous cleaning of flux residue from solder joints

    SciTech Connect

    Krska, C.M.

    1992-08-01

    Solder joints have traditionally been cleaned using chlorinated or fluorinated solvents. This study addressed alternate processing. One process involved using a saponifier/water solution to remove rosin flux residues; the other process involved using a water-soluble flux and water to remove the residues. Although both processes were satisfactory, the water-soluble flux with water cleaning proved to be the best.

  20. Magnetic-flux pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrandt, A. F.; Elleman, D. D.; Whitmore, F. C. (Inventor)

    1966-01-01

    A magnetic flux pump is described for increasing the intensity of a magnetic field by transferring flux from one location to the magnetic field. The device includes a pair of communicating cavities formed in a block of superconducting material, and a piston for displacing the trapped magnetic flux into the secondary cavity producing a field having an intense flux density.

  1. Flux Emergence at the Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2006-12-01

    To model the emergence of magnetic fields at the photosphere, we carried out 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) simulations using the MURaM code. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. In the simulations, an initially buoyant magnetic flux tube is embedded in the upper layers of the convection zone. We find that the interaction between the flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with real observations of emerging flux.

  2. Using environmental variables and soil processes to forecast denitrification potential and nitrous oxide fluxes in coastal plain wetlands across different land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Jennifer L.; Ardón, Marcelo; Bernhardt, Emily S.

    2012-06-01

    We examined relationships between denitrification (DNF) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes and potentially important chemical and physical predictors to build a predictive understanding of gaseous N losses from coastal plain wetlands. We collected soil, gas, and pore water samples from 48 sampling locations across a large (440 ha) restored wetland, an adjacent drained agricultural field, and nearby forested wetlands every two months over two years. In summer and fall 2007, we measured soil DNF potential (21.6-3560 mg N m-3 d-1) and N2O efflux (-4.36-8.81 mg N m-2 d-1), along with 17 predictor variables. We developed statistical models for the most comprehensive subset of the data set (fall 2007) and used another subset (summer 2007) for cross-validation. Soil pH and total soil nitrogen were the best predictors of DNF potential (Radj2 = 0.68). A regression using carbon dioxide flux and soil temperature together with soil extractable NH4+ and DNF potential explained 85% of the variation in fall N2O fluxes. The model for DNF performed reasonably well when cross-validated with summer data (R2 = 0.40), while the N2O model did not predict summer N2O fluxes (R2 < 0.1). Poor model performance was likely due to nonlinear responses to high temperatures and/or higher and more variable root respiration by plants during the growing season, leading to overprediction of N2O flux. Our results suggest that soil DNF potential may be modeled fairly effectively from a small number of soil parameters, that DNF potential is uncorrelated with N2O effluxes, and that successful estimation of wetland N2O effluxes will require finer-scale models that incorporate seasonal dynamics.

  3. Automated Heat-Flux-Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    Computer control speeds operation of equipment and processing of measurements. New heat-flux-calibration facility developed at Lewis Research Center. Used for fast-transient heat-transfer testing, durability testing, and calibration of heat-flux gauges. Calibrations performed at constant or transient heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 6 MW/m2 and at temperatures ranging from 80 K to melting temperatures of most materials. Facility developed because there is need to build and calibrate very-small heat-flux gauges for Space Shuttle main engine (SSME).Includes lamp head attached to side of service module, an argon-gas-recirculation module, reflector, heat exchanger, and high-speed positioning system. This type of automated heat-flux calibration facility installed in industrial plants for onsite calibration of heat-flux gauges measuring fluxes of heat in advanced gas-turbine and rocket engines.

  4. Flux-p: automating metabolic flux analysis.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Birgitta E; Lamprecht, Anna-Lena; Steffen, Bernhard; Blank, Lars M

    2012-11-12

    Quantitative knowledge of intracellular fluxes in metabolic networks is invaluable for inferring metabolic system behavior and the design principles of biological systems. However, intracellular reaction rates can not often be calculated directly but have to be estimated; for instance, via 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, a model-based interpretation of stable carbon isotope patterns in intermediates of metabolism. Existing software such as FiatFlux, OpenFLUX or 13CFLUX supports experts in this complex analysis, but requires several steps that have to be carried out manually, hence restricting the use of this software for data interpretation to a rather small number of experiments. In this paper, we present Flux-P as an approach to automate and standardize 13C-based metabolic flux analysis, using the Bio-jETI workflow framework. Exemplarily based on the FiatFlux software, it demonstrates how services can be created that carry out the different analysis steps autonomously and how these can subsequently be assembled into software workflows that perform automated, high-throughput intracellular flux analysis of high quality and reproducibility. Besides significant acceleration and standardization of the data analysis, the agile workflow-based realization supports flexible changes of the analysis workflows on the user level, making it easy to perform custom analyses.

  5. Methane flux from Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Crill, P.M.; Bartlett, K.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S. )

    1988-12-01

    Northern (> 40 deg N) wetlands have been suggested as the largest natural source of methane (CH{sub 4}) to the troposphere. To refine the authors estimates of source strengths from this region and to investigate climatic controls on the process, fluxes were measured from a variety of Minnesota peatlands during May, June, and August 1986. Late spring and summer fluxes ranged from 11 to 866 mg CH{sub 4}/sq/m/day, averaging 207 mg CH{sub 4} sq/m/day overall. At Marcell Forest, forested bogs and fen sites had lower fluxes than open bogs. In the Red Lake peatland, circumneutral fens, with standing water above the peat surface, produced more methane than acid bog sites in which the water table was beneath the moss surface. Peat temperature was an important control. Methane flux increased in response to increasing soil temperature. It is estimated that the methane flux from all peatlands north of 40 deg may be on the order of 70 to 90 Tg/yr though estimates of this sort are plagued by uncertainties in the areal extent of peatlands, length of the CH{sub 4} producing season, and the spatial and temporal variability of the flux. 60 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Importance of crop varieties and management practices: evaluation of a process-based model for simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize (Zea mays L.) sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ciais, P.; Wang, T.; Ceschia, E.; Jans, W.; Wattenbach, M.; Béziat, P.; Gruenwald, T.; Lehuger, S.; Bernhofer, C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper is a modelling study of crop management impacts on carbon and water fluxes at a range of European sites. The model is a crop growth model (STICS) coupled with a process-based land surface model (ORCHIDEE). The data are online eddy-covariance observations of CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize cultivation sites. The results show that the ORCHIDEE-STICS model explains up to 75 % of the observed daily net CO2 ecosystem exchange (NEE) variance, and up to 79 % of the latent heat flux (LE) variance at five sites. The model is better able to reproduce gross primary production (GPP) variations than terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) variations. We conclude that structural deficiencies in the model parameterizations of leaf area index (LAI) and TER are the main sources of error in simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes. A number of sensitivity tests, with variable crop variety, nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, and planting date, indicate that any of these management factors is able to change NEE by more than 15 %, but that the response of NEE to management parameters is highly site-dependent. Changes in management parameters are found to impact not only the daily values of NEE and LE, but also the cumulative yearly values. In addition, LE is shown to be less sensitive to management parameters than NEE. Multi-site model evaluations, coupled with sensitivity analysis to management parameters, thus provide important information about model errors, which helps to improve the simulation of CO2 and H2O fluxes across European croplands.

  7. Quantification of Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics in the Conterminous United States Combining a Process-Based Biogeochemical Model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, David R.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-09-21

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial 24 ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical 25 models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate 26 quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution 27 Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index 28 (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary 29 production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the 30 changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and 31 verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous 32 United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05o ×0.05o spatial resolution. We find that the new 33 version of TEM generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon 34 dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 Pg C yr-1 and net primary 35 production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg C yr-1 and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies 36 within 0.08-0.73 Pg C yr-1 over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The 37 uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 Pg C yr-1 for the regional estimates of GPP, 38 NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 39 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a 40 new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, 41 which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon 42 management and climate.

  8. Quantification of terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the conterminous United States combining a process-based biogeochemical model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, D.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-08-31

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05-0.05 spatial resolution. We find that the new version of TEM made improvement over the previous version and generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 PgC yr{sup -1} and net primary production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg Cyr{sup -1} and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies within 0.08- 0.73 PgC yr{sup -1} over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 PgC yr{sup -1} for the regional estimates of GPP, NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon management and climate.

  9. Importance of crop varieties and management practices: evaluation of a process-based model for simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize (Zea mays L.) sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Vuichard, N.; Viovy, N.; Ciais, P.; Ceschia, E.; Jans, W.; Wattenbach, M.; Béziat, P.; Gruenwald, T.; Lehuger, S.; Bernhofer, C.

    2011-03-01

    Crop varieties and management practices such as planting and harvest dates, irrigation, and fertilization have important effects on the water and carbon fluxes over croplands, and lack or inaccuracy of this information may cause large uncertainties in hydraulic and carbon modeling. Yet the magnitude of uncertainties has not been investigated in detail. This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the performances of a process-based ecosystem model called ORCHIDEE-STICS (a coupled model between generic ecosystem model ORCHIDEE and the crop growth model STICS), against eddy-covariance observations of CO2 and H2O fluxes at five European maize cultivation sites. The results show that ORCHIDEE-STICS has a good potential to simulate energy, water vapor and carbon dioxide fluxes from maize croplands on a daily basis. The model explains 23-75% of the observed daily net ecosystem exchange (NEE) variance at five sites, and 26-79% of the latent heat flux (LE) variance. Similarly, 34-83% of the variance in observed gross primary productivity (GPP) is accounted for by the model. However, only 3-81% of the variance of observed terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) is explained. Therefore, simulating TER is shown to be much more difficult than GPP. We conclude that structural deficiencies of the model in the determination of LAI and TER are the main sources of errors in simulating carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes. A group of sensitivity analyses, by setting different crop variety, nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, and planting date, indicate that any of these factors is able to cause more than 15% change in simulated NEE although the response of these fluxes to management parameters is site-dependent. Varying management practice in the model is shown to affect not only the daily values of NEE and LE, but also the total seasonal cumulative values, and therefore the annual carbon and water budgets. However, LE is found to be less sensitive to management practices than

  10. Topology of magnetic flux ropes and formation of fossil flux transfer events and boundary layer plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. C.; Ma, Z. W.; Fu, Z. F.; Otto, A.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanism for the formation of fossil flux transfer events and the low-level boundary layer within the framework of multiple X-line reconnection is proposed. Attention is given to conditions for which the bulk of magnetic flux in a flux rope of finite extent has a simple magnetic topology, where the four possible connections of magnetic field lines are: IMF to MSP, MSP to IMF, IMF to IMF, and MSP to MSP. For a sufficient relative shift of the X lines, magnetic flux may enter a flux rope from the magnetosphere and exit into the magnetosphere. This process leads to the formation of magnetic flux ropes which contain a considerable amount of magnetosheath plasma on closed magnetospheric field lines. This process is discussed as a possible explanation for the formation of fossil flux transfer events in the magnetosphere and the formation of the low-latitude boundary layer.

  11. Rheology and Wetting Properties of Fluxes for Flip Chip Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlin

    2008-07-01

    The rheological properties, wettability, and fluxability of fluxes for flip chip packages were studied. The flux viscosity showed significant decrease from room temperature to the peak reflow temperature. The viscosity of fluxes decreased after kneading process. One of the reasons of the viscosity decrease for some fluxes during the kneading is the moisture uptake. The tackiness of the fluxes increased with both applied load and retraction speed.

  12. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  13. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  14. Canalization: what the flux?

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-02-01

    Polarized transport of the hormone auxin plays crucial roles in many processes in plant development. A self-organizing pattern of auxin transport--canalization--is thought to be responsible for vascular patterning and shoot branching regulation in flowering plants. Mathematical modeling has demonstrated that membrane localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN)-family auxin efflux carriers in proportion to net auxin flux can plausibly explain canalization and possibly other auxin transport phenomena. Other plausible models have also been proposed, and there has recently been much interest in producing a unified model of all auxin transport phenomena. However, it is our opinion that lacunae in our understanding of auxin transport biology are now limiting progress in developing the next generation of models. Here we examine several key areas where significant experimental advances are necessary to address both biological and theoretical aspects of auxin transport, including the possibility of a unified transport model.

  15. Emergence of Twisted Flux in Prominence Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, T. J.; Tsuneta, S.; Berger, T. E.; Lites, B. W.

    2012-05-01

    The emergence of twisted flux is a key process for supply of magnetic flux into the corona as well as solar dynamic activities such as sunspot formation and trigger of coronal mass ejections. In particular, there are numerous discussions about the role and necessity of twisted flux emergence for origin of prominences. However, the difficulty to measure vector magnetic fields has not allowed us to investigate the detailed relationship between emerging twisted flux and prominence. Hinode has changed the situation. The Spectro-Polarimeter aboard Hinode has high sensitivity to weaker magnetic fields of fine structures, and provides opportunities to detect weak horizontal magnetic fields. As a result, we have obtained signatures of twisted flux emergence associated with prominences: The observational features are "broadening and narrowing of a region dominated by horizontal magnetic field" and "rotating direction of horizontal field" on the photosphere. Moreover, the data show the interaction between the emerging twisted flux and granules, and that the flux rope has high intrinsic strength 650 G, while the flux density is as low as 100 G. Theoretical research with numerical simulation on the basis of these results is active. In addition, we investigate activities of a coronal cavity overlying a prominence on the limb, and suggest the existence of twisted flux rope to explain the activities of prominence and the coronal cavity comprehensively. Here we introduce both these observational and theoretical results, and discuss the details about emerging twisted flux.

  16. How the Saturnian Magnetosphere Conserves Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Wei, H.; Russell, C. T.; Arridge, C. S.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn are driven by the centrifugal force of near co-rotating water group ions released at a rate of hundreds of kilograms per second by Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plasma is accelerated up to co-rotation speed by the magnetospheric magnetic field coupled to the Saturnian ionosphere. The plasma is lost ultimately through the process of magnetic reconnection in the tail. Conservation of magnetic flux requires that plasma-depleted, "empty" flux tubes return magnetic flux to the inner magnetosphere. After completion of the initial inrush of the reconnected and largely emptied flux tubes inward of the reconnection point, the flux tubes face the outflowing plasma and must move inward against the flow. Observations of such flux tubes have been identified in the eight years of Cassini magnetometer data. The occurrence of these tubes is observed at all local times indicating slow inward transport of the tubes relative to the co-rotation speed. Depleted flux tubes observed in the equatorial region appear as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field, whereas the same flux tubes observed at higher latitudes appear as decreased field strength. The difference in appearance of the low latitude and the high latitude tubes is due to the plasma environment just outside the tube. Warm low-density plasma fills the inside of the flux tube at all latitudes. This flux tube thus will expand in the less dense regions away from the magnetic equator and will be observed as a decrease in the magnitude of the magnetic field from the background. These flux tubes near the equator, where the plasma density outside of the flux tube is much greater, will be observed as an enhancement in the magnitude of the magnetic field. Cassini magnetometer and CAPS data are examined to understand the properties of these flux tubes and their radial and latitudinal evolution throughout the Saturnian magnetospheric environment.

  17. Model estimating the effect of marginal ice zone processes on the phytoplankton primary production and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvornikov, Anton; Sein, Dmitry; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Gorchakov, Victor; Martjyanov, Stanislav

    2016-04-01

    This study is aimed to assess the impact of sea ice on the primary production of phytoplankton (PPP) and air-sea CO2 flux in the Barents Sea. To get the estimations, we apply a three-dimensional eco-hydrodynamic model based on the Princeton Ocean Model which includes: 1) a module of sea ice with 7 categories, and 2) the 11-component module of marine pelagic ecosystem developed in the St. Petersburg Branch, Institute of Oceanology. The model is driven by atmospheric forcing, prescribed from the reanalysis NCEP / NCAR, and conditions on the open sea boundary, prescribed from the regional model of the atmosphere-ocean-sea ice-ocean biogeochemistry, developed at Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg. Comparison of the model results for the period 1998-2007 with satellite data showed that the model reproduces the main features of the evolution of the sea surface temperature, seasonal changes in the ice extent, surface chlorophyll "a" concentration and PPP in the Barents Sea. Model estimates of the annual PPP for whole sea, APPmod, appeared in 1.5-2.3 times more than similar estimates, APPdata, from satellite data. The main reasons for this discrepancy are: 1) APPdata refers to the open water, while APPmod, to the whole sea area (under the pack ice and marginal ice zone (MIZ) was produced 16 - 38% of PPP); and 2) values of APPdata are underestimated because of the subsurface chlorophyll maximum. During the period 1998-2007, the modelled maximal (in the seasonal cycle) sea ice area has decreased by 15%. This reduction was accompanied by an increase in annual PPP of the sea at 54 and 63%, based, respectively, on satellite data and the model for the open water. According to model calculations for the whole sea area, the increase is only 19%. Using a simple 7-component model of oceanic carbon cycle incorporated into the above hydrodynamic model, the CO2 exchange between the atmosphere and sea has been estimated in different conditions. In the absence of biological

  18. Return flux experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    1992-01-01

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  19. Return flux experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  20. Heat flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1989-01-01

    A new automated, computer controlled heat flux measurement facility is described. Continuous transient and steady-state surface heat flux values varying from about 0.3 to 6 MW/sq m over a temperature range of 100 to 1200 K can be obtained in the facility. An application of this facility is the development of heat flux gauges for continuous fast transient surface heat flux measurement on turbine blades operating in space shuttle main engine turbopumps. The facility is useful for durability testing at fast temperature transients.

  1. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  2. Video Meteor Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.

    2011-01-01

    The flux of meteoroids, or number of meteoroids per unit area per unit time, is critical for calibrating models of meteoroid stream formation and for estimating the hazard to spacecraft from shower and sporadic meteors. Although observations of meteors in the millimetre to centimetre size range are common, flux measurements (particularly for sporadic meteors, which make up the majority of meteoroid flux) are less so. It is necessary to know the collecting area and collection time for a given set of observations, and to correct for observing biases and the sensitivity of the system. Previous measurements of sporadic fluxes are summarized in Figure 1; the values are given as a total number of meteoroids striking the earth in one year to a given limiting mass. The Gr n et al. (1985) flux model is included in the figure for reference. Fluxes for sporadic meteoroids impacting the Earth have been calculated for objects in the centimeter size range using Super-Schmidt observations (Hawkins & Upton, 1958); this study used about 300 meteors, and used only the physical area of overlap of the cameras at 90 km to calculate the flux, corrected for angular speed of meteors, since a large angular speed reduces the maximum brightness of the meteor on the film, and radiant elevation, which takes into account the geometric reduction in flux when the meteors are not perpendicular to the horizontal. They bring up corrections for both partial trails (which tends to increase the collecting area) and incomplete overlap at heights other than 90 km (which tends to decrease it) as effects that will affect the flux, but estimated that the two effects cancelled one another. Halliday et al. (1984) calculated the flux of meteorite-dropping fireballs with fragment masses greater than 50 g, over the physical area of sky accessible to the MORP fireball cameras, counting only observations in clear weather. In the micron size range, LDEF measurements of small craters on spacecraft have been used to

  3. Chemistry and fluxes of magmatic gases powering the explosive trachyandesitic phase of Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption: constraints on degassing magma volumes and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allard, P.; Burton, M. R.; Oskarsson, N.; Michel, A.; Polacci, M.

    2010-12-01

    The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption developed in two distinct phases, with initial lateral effusion of alkali basalt since March 20, followed by highly explosive extrusion of a quite homogenous and crystal-poor trachyandesitic magma [1] through the central volcano ice cap between April 14 and May 24. As usual, magmatic volatiles played a key role in the eruption dynamics. Here we report on the chemical composition and the mass output of magmatic gases powering intense explosive activity during the second eruptive phase in early May. On May 8 we could measure the composition of magmatic gases directly issuing from the eruptive vents, by using OP-FTIR spectroscopy from the crater rim (~900 m distance) and molten lava blocks as IR radiation source. FTIR spectra reveal a variable mixture between two gas components equally rich in H2O (91.3 mol%) and CO2 (8%) but differing in their SO2/HCl ratio (up to 3.5 for the main one and 0.5 for the Cl-richer second one). Analysis of S-Cl-F in ash leachates and in ash and lava bomb samples (pyrohydrolysis) show that this second component was generated by greater chlorine loss during extensive magma fragmentation into fine ash. S/Cl and Cl/F ratios from both these analyses and solar occultation FTIR plume sensing indicate a modest fluorine content in emitted gas and its preferential adsorption onto solid particles during plume transport. DOAS traverses under the volcanic plume (4-6 km height), though hampered by dense ash load, gave most reliable SO2 fluxes of 4500-6600 tons d-1 on May 9, consistent with OMI satellite data [2]. These imply the daily co-emission of 7.2x105 tons of H2O, 1.5x105 tons of CO2, 2000 tons of HCl and ≤200 tons of HF. Eyjafjallajökull thus produced more hydrous and relatively CO2-poorer gas, in much greater quantities, during that stage than during its first basaltic phase [3]. Linear variations of dissolved S with TiO2/FeO ratio in nearby Katla alkali magmas [4] suggest possible pre-eruptive S contents

  4. Simulations of Magnetic Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robert; Nordlund, Aake

    Magnetic flux emerges from the solar surface on a wide range of scales. We review recent simulations of both large and small scale flux emergence. In our own simulations, we represent the magnetic flux produced by the global dynamo as uniform, untwisted, horizontal field advected into the simulation domain by supergranule scale inflows at the bottom. Our computational domain extends from the temperature minimum (half a megameter above the visible surface) to 20 Mm below the surface, which is 10% of the depth of the convection zone, but contains 2/3 of its scale heights. We investigate how magnetic flux rises through the upper solar convection zone and emerges through the surface. Convective up-flows and magnetic buoyancy bring field toward the surface. Convective down-flows pin down field and prevent its rise. Most of the field gets pumped downward by the convection, but some field rises to the surface. The convective motions both confine the flux concentrations (without the need for twist) and shred them. This process creates a hierarchy of magnetic loops with smaller loops riding "piggy-back", in a serpentine pattern, on larger loops. As a result, magnetic flux emerges in a mixed polarity, "pepper and salt" pattern. The small loops appear as horizontal field over granules with their vertical legs in the bounding intergranular lanes. The fields are quickly swept into the intergranular lanes. As the larger, parent, flux concentrations reach the surface with their legs rooted in the the downflow boundaries of the underlying, supergranule-scale, convective cells near the bottom of the simulation domain, the surface field counter-streams into separate, opposite polarity concentrations, creating pores and spots. The subsurface magnetic field lines of the pores and spots formed by the magneto-convection (without being imposed as an initial condition) are braided, some tightly, some loosely and they connect in complicated ways to the surrounding field at large depths

  5. Nitrous oxide fluxes in an ecosystem context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groffman, P. M.; Burgin, A. J.; Morse, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrous oxide fluxes are extremely difficult to quantify because this gas is produced by multiple processes that have complex controls that vary in time and space. Fluxes often exhibit extraordinary variability, with activity dominated by brief periods (hot moments) and small areas (hotspots) of flux. One approach to evaluating nitrous oxide is to focus on how flux is linked to overall patterns of nitrogen cycling in an ecosystem which can point to potential hotspots and hot moments that be incorporated into sampling campaigns. A key impediment to this approach, has been an inability to quantify the ratio of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen produced during dissimilatory processes, especially denitrification. Here we present data on nitrous oxide and dinitrogen fluxes from watershed/landscape studies at National Science Foundation funded Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites in Maryland (Baltimore LTER) and New Hampshire (Hubbard Brook LTER). Fluxes were measured using a new direct flow soil core incubation system that allows for quantification of the nitrous oxide yield during denitrification and the watershed/landscape studies provide data on overall ecosystem nitrogen cycling. Results suggest that nitrous oxide flux and yield vary coherently with spatial and temporal patterns of ecosystem nitrogen cycling. These patterns should allow us to develop more focused measurement and modeling campaigns that should result in improved understanding and estimates of nitrous oxide fluxes from forest ecosystems.

  6. LCLS Spectral Flux Viewer

    2005-10-25

    This application (FluxViewer) is a tool for displaying spectral flux data for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This tool allows the user to view sliced spatial and energy distributions of the photons selected for specific energies and positions transverse to the beam axis.

  7. Latent heat sink in soil heat flux measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The surface energy balance includes a term for soil heat flux. Soil heat flux is difficult to measure because it includes conduction and convection heat transfer processes. Accurate representation of soil heat flux is an important consideration in many modeling and measurement applications. Yet, the...

  8. Flux Compression Magnetic Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In pulsed fusion propulsion schemes in which the fusion energy creates a radially expanding plasma, a magnetic nozzle is required to redirect the radially diverging flow of the expanding fusion plasma into a rearward axial flow, thereby producing a forward axial impulse to the vehicle. In a highly electrically conducting plasma, the presence of a magnetic field B in the plasma creates a pressure B(exp 2)/2(mu) in the plasma, the magnetic pressure. A gradient in the magnetic pressure can be used to decelerate the plasma traveling in the direction of increasing magnetic field, or to accelerate a plasma from rest in the direction of decreasing magnetic pressure. In principle, ignoring dissipative processes, it is possible to design magnetic configurations to produce an 'elastic' deflection of a plasma beam. In particular, it is conceivable that, by an appropriate arrangement of a set of coils, a good approximation to a parabolic 'magnetic mirror' may be formed, such that a beam of charged particles emanating from the focal point of the parabolic mirror would be reflected by the mirror to travel axially away from the mirror. The degree to which this may be accomplished depends on the degree of control one has over the flux surface of the magnetic field, which changes as a result of its interaction with a moving plasma.

  9. Intramolecular Nuclear Flux Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, I.; Daniel, C.; Gindensperger, E.; Manz, J.; PéRez-Torres, J. F.; Schild, A.; Stemmle, C.; Sulzer, D.; Yang, Y.

    The topic of this survey article has seen a renaissance during the past couple of years. Here we present and extend the results for various phenomena which we have published from 2012-2014, with gratitude to our coauthors. The new phenomena include (a) the first reduced nuclear flux densities in vibrating diatomic molecules or ions which have been deduced from experimental pump-probe spectra; these "experimental" nuclear flux densities reveal several quantum effects including (b) the "quantum accordion", i.e., during the turn from bond stretch to bond compression, the diatomic system never stands still — instead, various parts of it with different bond lengths flow into opposite directions. (c) Wavepacket interferometry has been extended from nuclear densities to flux densities, again revealing new phenomena: For example, (d) a vibrating nuclear wave function with compact initial shape may split into two partial waves which run into opposite directions, thus causing interfering flux densities. (e) Tunneling in symmetric 1-dimensional double-well systems yields maximum values of the associated nuclear flux density just below the potential barrier; this is in marked contrast with negligible values of the nuclear density just below the barrier. (f) Nuclear flux densities of pseudorotating nuclei may induce huge magnetic fields. A common methodologic theme of all topics is the continuity equation which connects the time derivative of the nuclear density to the divergence of the flux density, subject to the proper boundary conditions. (g) Nearly identical nuclear densities with different boundary conditions may be related to entirely different flux densities, e.g., during tunneling in cyclic versus non-cyclic systems. The original continuity equation, density and flux density of all nuclei, or of all nuclear degrees of freedom, may be reduced to the corresponding quantities for just a single nucleus, or just a single degree of freedom.

  10. Large levitation force due to flux pinning in YBaCuO superconductors fabricated by Melt-Powder-Melt-Growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Masato; Oyama, Terutugu; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Takahiro; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1990-11-01

    An extremely large levitation force of as high as 30 N at a height of 1 mm was achieved in Ag-doped YBaCuO fabricated by the Melt-Powder-Melt-Growth process using a repulsive force against a 0.4 T rare-earth magnet at 77 K. The combination of a large Jc value and large shielding current loop is the source of such a large levitation force.

  11. Magnetic Flux Emergence in the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2008-04-01

    The most prominent magnetic structures on the surface of the Sun are bipolar active regions. These magnetic complexes are comprised of a hierarchy of magnetic structures of different sizes, the largest of which are sunspots. Observations indicate that the appearance of active regions on the solar surface result from the emergence of bundles of magnetic flux from the underlying convection zone. We study the emergence process by means of 3D radiation MHD simulations. In the simulations, an initially buoyant magnetic flux tube is introduced into the near-surface layers of the convection zone. Subject to the buoyancy force, the flux tube rises towards the photosphere. Our simulations highlight the importance of magneto-convection on the evolution of the magnetic flux tube. The external convective flow field has an important influence on the emergence morphology of the emerging magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the magnetic flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), flux emergence may lead to a disturbance of the local granulation pattern. The observational signatures associated with emerging magnetic flux in our simulations are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with observational studies of emerging flux regions on the Sun.

  12. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  13. Heat Flux Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A heat flux microsensor developed under a NASP Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) has a wide range of potential commercial applications. Vatell Corporation originally designed microsensors for use in very high temperatures. The company then used the technology to develop heat flux sensors to measure the rate of heat energy flowing in and out of a surface as well as readings on the surface temperature. Additional major advantages include response to heat flux in less than 10 microseconds and the ability to withstand temperatures up to 1,200 degrees centigrade. Commercial applications are used in high speed aerodynamics, supersonic combustion, blade cooling, and mass flow measurements, etc.

  14. Reappraisal of soil C storage processes. The controversy on structural diversity of humic substances as biogeochemical driver for soil C fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendros, Gonzalo; Gonzalez-Vila, Francisco J.; Gonzalez-Perez, Jose Antonio; Knicker, Heike

    2016-04-01

    The functional relationships between the macromolecular structure of the humic substances (HS) and a series of biogeochemical processes related with the C sequestration performance in soils have been recently questioned. In this communication we collect recent data from a wide array of different ecosystems where the C storage in soils has been studied and explained as a possible cause-to-effect relationship or has been found significantly correlated (multivariate statistical models) with a series of structural characteristics of humic materials. The study of humic materials has methodological analytical limitations that are derived from its complex, chaotic and not completely understood structure, that reflects its manifold precursors as well as the local impact of environmental/depositional factors. In this work we attempt to design an exploratory, multiomic approach based on the information provided by the molecular characterization of the soil organic matter (SOM). Massive data harvesting was carried out of statistical variables, to infer biogeochemical proxies (spectroscopic, chromatographic, mass spectrometric quantitative descriptors). The experimental data were acquired from advanced instrumental methodologies, viz, analytical pyrolysis, compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA), derivative infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, solid-state C-13 and N-15 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) data after direct injection (thermoevaporation), previous pyrolysis, or ion averaging of specific m/z ranges from classical GC/MS chromatograms. In the transversal exploratory analysis of the multianalytical information, the data were coded for on-line processing in a stage in which there is no need for interpretation, in molecular or structural terms, of the quantitative data consisting of e.g., peak intensities, signal areas, chromatographic (GC) total abundances, etc. A series of forecasting chemometric approaches (aiming to express SOM

  15. Modeling Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chun; Keppens, Rony

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic configuration hosting prominences can be a large-scale helical magnetic flux rope. As a necessary step towards future prominence formation studies, we report on a stepwise approach to study flux rope formation. We start with summarizing our recent three-dimensional (3D) isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation where a flux rope is formed, including gas pressure and gravity. This starts from a static corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, altered by lower boundary vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows towards the polarity inversion. The latter flows induce magnetic reconnection and this forms successive new helical loops so that a complete flux rope grows and ascends. After stopping the driving flows, the system relaxes to a stable helical magnetic flux rope configuration embedded in an overlying arcade. Starting from this relaxed isothermal endstate, we next perform a thermodynamic MHD simulation with a chromospheric layer inserted at the bottom. As a result of a properly parametrized coronal heating, and due to radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction, the system further relaxes to an equilibrium where the flux rope and the arcade develop a fully realistic thermal structure. This paves the way to future simulations for 3D prominence formation.

  16. Changes in the flux of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms at elevated CO{sub 2}: Physiological processes with ecosystem-level implications. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, D.R.; Pregitzer, K.S.

    1994-05-15

    Our ability to interpret ecosystem response to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} is contingent on understanding and integrating a complex of physiological and ecological processes. However, we have a limited understanding of the combined effects of changes in plant carbon (C) allocation, microbial activity, and nitrogen (N) dynamics on the long-term response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO{sub 2}. Individually, these factors are potent modifiers of C and N dynamics, and an in depth understanding of their interactions should provide insight into ecosystem-level responses to global climate change. Our research is aimed at quantifying the physiological mechanisms leading to increased fine root production, microbial biomass and rates of N cycling at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}. More specifically, we will experimentally manipulate soil nitrogen availability and atmospheric CO{sub 2} to understand how changes in plant resource availability influence the cycling of carbon between plants and soil microorganisms.

  17. Anisotropic flux pinning in high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleśnik, S.; Igalson, J.; Skośkiewicz, T.; Szymczak, R.; Baran, M.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the results of FC magnetization measurements on several PbSr(Y,Ca)CuO crystals representing various levels of flux pinning. The pinning centers in our crystals have been set up during the crystal growth process or introduced by neutron irradiation. Some possible explanations of the observed effects, including surface barrier, flux-center distribution and sample-shape effects, are discussed.

  18. Flux pinning enhancement in melt processed YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} through rare-earth ion (Nd, La) substitutions

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, C.; McGinn, P.J.; Blackstead, H.A.; Pulling, D.B.

    1995-08-14

    Stoichiometric YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (Y123) samples doped with excess Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and La{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions were melt processed in air. Because decomposition and reformation of 123 occurs during melt processing, lighter rare-earth ion substitution in 123 takes place. As the lighter rare-earth ion sizes (Nd, La) are comparable to that of Ba{sup 2+}, in addition to Y ion site substitution, partial substitution into the Ba{sup 2+} sites is also anticipated. The {ital T}{sub {ital c}} and magnetic properties of lighter rare-earth oxide doped samples were analyzed and compared with undoped Y123 to investigate the flux pinning enhancement due to these substitutions. The lighter rare-earth oxide doped, melt processed 123 shows significant improvement in magnetization compared to undoped samples, which is likely due to point defects created by partial substitutions of the lighter rare-earth ions. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  19. O-GlcNAcylation and the Metabolic Shift in High-Proliferating Cells: All the Evidence Suggests that Sugars Dictate the Flux of Lipid Biogenesis in Tumor Processes

    PubMed Central

    Baldini, Steffi F.; Lefebvre, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells are characterized by their high capability to proliferate. This imposes an accelerated biosynthesis of membrane compounds to respond to the need for increasing the membrane surface of dividing cells and remodeling the structure of lipid microdomains. Recently, attention has been paid to the upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation processes observed in cancer cells. Although O-GlcNAcylation of lipogenic transcriptional regulators is described in the literature (e.g., FXR, LXR, ChREBP), little is known about the regulation of the enzymes that drive lipogenesis: acetyl co-enzyme A carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The expression and catalytic activity of both FAS and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) are high in cancer cells but the reciprocal regulation of the two enzymes remains unexplored. In this perspective, we collected data linking FAS and OGT and, in so doing, pave the way for the exploration of the intricate functions of these two actors that play a central role in tumor growth. PMID:26835421

  20. Sediment flux and the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Syvitski, James P M; Kettner, Albert

    2011-03-13

    Data and computer simulations are reviewed to help better define the timing and magnitude of human influence on sediment flux--the Anthropocene epoch. Impacts on the Earth surface processes are not spatially or temporally homogeneous. Human influences on this sediment flux have a secondary effect on floodplain and delta-plain functions and sediment dispersal into the coastal ocean. Human impact on sediment production began 3000 years ago but accelerated more widely 1000 years ago. By the sixteenth century, societies were already engineering their environment. Early twentieth century mechanization has led to global signals of increased sediment flux in most large rivers. By the 1950s, this sediment disturbance signal reversed for many rivers owing to the proliferation of dams, and sediment load reduction below pristine conditions is the dominant signal today. A delta subsidence signal began in the 1930s and is now a dominant signal in terms of sea level for many coastal environments, overwhelming even the global warming imprint on sea level. Humans have engineered how most water and sediment are discharged into the coastal ocean. Hyperpycnal flow events have become more common for some rivers, and less common for other rivers. Bottom trawling is now widespread, suggesting that even continental shelves have received a significant but as yet quantified Anthropocene impact. The Anthropocene attains the level of a geological climate event, such as that seen in the transition between the Pleistocene and the Holocene.

  1. Conditional flux analysis and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeeman, M. J.; Knohl, A.; Sturm, P.; Buchmann, N. C.; Thomas, C. K.

    2009-12-01

    We propose to investigate to what extend conditional flux analysis can benefit from the addition of stable isotope information. Stable isotopes have been recognized for their potential as process tracer, and could add an extra dimension to the conditional flux concept, which aims at directly quantifying component fluxes and identifying their sources. Differences in 13C abundance in carbon dioxide can be used to distinguish assimilation or respiration sources, whereas the 18O abundance expresses differences in water exchange, for instance between canopy and soil. Lending to recent advances in measurement technology, stable isotopes can now be measured at high temporal resolutions (10Hz) required for commonly applied micrometeorological methods such as the eddy-covariance technique, or related conditional flux methods. We will present current ideas on how the conditional flux method, as recently proposed and evaluated by Thomas et al. (2008), Scanlon & Sahu (2008), to perform daytime flux partitioning at the ecosystem level, can be refined by stable isotope analysis (13C and 18O) of carbon dioxide as additional dimension for identification of fluxes.

  2. Superradiance and flux conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Ngampitipan, Tritos; Visser, Matt

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical foundations of the phenomenon known as superradiance still continue to attract considerable attention. Despite many valiant attempts at pedagogically clear presentations, the effect nevertheless still continues to generate some significant confusion. Part of the confusion arises from the fact that superradiance in a quantum field theory context is not the same as superradiance (superfluorescence) in some condensed matter contexts; part of the confusion arises from traditional but sometimes awkward normalization conventions, and part is due to sometimes unnecessary confusion between fluxes and probabilities. We shall argue that the key point underlying the effect is flux conservation (and, in the presence of dissipation, a controlled amount of flux nonconservation), and that attempting to phrase things in terms of reflection and transmission probabilities only works in the absence of superradiance. To help clarify the situation we present a simple exactly solvable toy model exhibiting both superradiance and damping.

  3. Flux amplification in SSPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodestro, Lynda; Hooper, E. B.; Jayakumar, R. J.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Wood, R. D.; McLean, H. S.

    2007-11-01

    Flux amplification---the ratio of poloidal flux enclosed between the magnetic and geometric axes to that between the separatrix and the geometric axis---is a key measure of efficiency for edge-current-driven spheromaks. With the new, modular capacitor bank, permitting flexible programming of the gun current, studies of flux amplification under various drive scenarios can be performed. Analysis of recent results of pulsed operation with the new bank finds an efficiency ˜ 0.2, in selected shots, of the conversion of gun energy to confined magnetic energy during the pulses, and suggests a route toward sustained efficiency at 0.2. Results of experiments, a model calculation of field build-up, and NIMROD simulations exploring this newly suggested scenario will be presented.

  4. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MaCarthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  5. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic phosphors. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  6. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, Bruce W.; Borella, Henry M.; Cates, Michael R.; Turley, W. Dale; MacArthur, Charles D.; Cala, Gregory C.

    1991-01-01

    A heat flux gauge comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable.

  7. Chesapeake Bay sediment flux model. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Di Toro, D.M.; Fitzpatrick, J.J.

    1993-06-01

    Formulation and application of a predictive diagenetic sediment model are described in this report. The model considers two benthic sediment layers: a thin aerobic layer in contact with the water column and a thicker anaerobic layer. Processes represented include diagenesis, diffusion, particle mixing, and burial. Deposition of organic matter, water column concentrations, and temperature are treated as independent variables that influence sediment-water fluxes. Sediment oxygen demand and sediment-water fluxes of sulfide, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, and silica are predicted. The model was calibrated using sediment-water flux observations collected in Chesapeake Bay 1985-1988. When independent variables were specified based on observations, the model correctly represented the time series of sediment-water fluxes observed at eight stations in the Bay and tributaries.... Chesapeake Bay, Models, Sediments, Dissolved oxygen, Nitrogen Eutrophication, Phosphorus.

  8. On calculating the potential vorticity flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Pei-Chun; Diamond, P. H.

    2015-03-15

    We discuss and compare different approaches to calculating the dynamics of anisotropic flow structure formation in quasi two-dimensional turbulence based on potential vorticity (PV) transport in real space. The general structure of the PV flux in the relaxation processes is deduced non-perturbatively. The transport coefficients of the PV flux are then systematically calculated using perturbation theory. We develop two non-perturbative relaxation models: the first is a mean field theory for the dynamics of minimum enstrophy relaxation based on the requirement that the mean flux of PV dissipates total potential enstrophy but conserves total fluid kinetic energy. The results show that the structure of PV flux has the form of a sum of a positive definite hyper-viscous and a negative or positive viscous flux of PV. Turbulence spreading is shown to be related to PV mixing via the link of turbulence energy flux to PV flux. In the relaxed state, the ratio of the PV gradient to zonal flow velocity is homogenized. This homogenized quantity sets a constraint on the amplitudes of PV and zonal flow in the relaxed state. The second relaxation model is derived from symmetry principles alone. The form of PV flux contains a nonlinear convective term in addition to viscous and hyper-viscous terms. For both cases, the transport coefficients are calculated using perturbation theory. For a broad turbulence spectrum, a modulational calculation of the PV flux gives both a negative viscosity and a positive hyper-viscosity. For a narrow turbulence spectrum, the result of a parametric instability analysis shows that PV transport is also convective. In both relaxation and perturbative analyses, it is shown that turbulent PV transport is sensitive to flow structure, and the transport coefficients are nonlinear functions of flow shear.

  9. Magnetic Flux Cancellation and Formation of Prominence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Kim, Mun Song; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Kyong Chol

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic flux cancellation appears to be closely related to various kinds of solar activities such as flares, microflares/surges/jets, X-ray bright points, erupting mini-filaments, transition region explosive events, filament formation, filament activation and eruption, and coronal mass ejections. It is commonly believed that magnetic reconnections in the low atmosphere are responsible for canceling magnetic features, and magnetic fragments are observed to originate as bipoles. According to the Sweet-Parker type reconnection model, the inflow speed closely corresponds to the converging speed of each pole in a canceling magnetic feature and the rate of flux cancellation must be explained by the observed converging speed. As distinct from the corona, the efficiency of photospheric magnetic reconnection may be due to the small Cowling conductivity, instead of the Spitzer, of weakly ionized and magnetized plasma in the low atmosphere of the sun. Using the VAL-C atmospheric model and Cowling conductivity, we have computed the parameters describing Sweet-Parker type reconnecting current sheets in the plasma of the solar photosphere and chromosphere, and particularly for the phenomena of magnetic flux cancellation and dark filament formation which occurred on July 2, 1994 we have estimated the rate of flux cancellation, the inflow speed(the converging speed) and the upward mass flux to compare with the observation. The results show that when taking account of the Cowling conductivity in the low atmosphere, large flux cancellation rates(>1019Mxhr-1) in solar active regions are better explained than by the Spitzer conductivity-considered reconnection model. Particularly for the flux cancellation event on July 2, 1994, the inflow speed(0.26kms-1)is almost similar to the converging speed(0.22kms-1)and the upward mass flux(3.3X1012gs-1) in the model is sufficient for the large dark filament formation in a time of several hours through magnetic flux cancellation process.

  10. [Research advances in ecosystem flux].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Peng, Zhenhua; Qi, Lianghua; Zhou, Jinxing

    2005-10-01

    To develop the long-term localized observation and investigation on ecosystem flux is of great importance. On the basis of generalizing the concepts and connotations of ecosystem flux, this paper introduced the construction and development histories of Global Flux Networks, Regional Flux Networks (Ameri-Flux, Euro-Flux and Asia-Flux) and China-Flux, as well as the main methodologies, including micrometeorological methods (such as eddy correlation method, mass balance method, energy balance method and air dynamic method)and chamber methods (static and dynamic chamber methods), and their basic operation principles. The research achievements, approaches and advances of CO2, N2O, CH4, and heat fluxes in forest ecosystem, farmland ecosystem, grassland ecosystem and water ecosystem were also summarized. In accordance with the realities and necessities of ecosystem flux research in China, some suggestions and prospects were put forward.

  11. Estimating methane fluxes at a landscape scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockdale, James; MacBean, Natasha

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial methane fluxes are an important component of peatland carbon budgets. Using a well-studied peatland site in Wales as a case study, we present a variety of approaches to quantifying annual methane fluxes at a landscape scale, with a focus on the comparison between a simple stratification method, an empirical regression-based method and a process-based method. The simplest approach relies on in situ methane flux measurements which, due to the indirect effects on methane flux from the vascular transport mechanism and co-variation with hydrological conditions, were stratified by vegetation type. Aside from this initial classification, an annual landscape flux was produced through a linear scaling model without attempting to consider any physical, chemical or biological processes known to control methane fluxes. The regression-based approach attempted to model fluxes using repeated measurements from across the study site over a 12 months period, together with environmental variables from associated locations. This method classifies the landscape by vegetation in a similar way to the first method and also takes into consideration variables commonly known to influence methane flux such as temperature and water table. However, no direct consideration of methane production or consumption is included in this empirical regression model. In contrast to both the preceding methods, estimates of methane flux using a process-based model were constructed for the same landscape. This method uses the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model (Potter et al., 1993), which has been modified to include a representation of methane dynamics. The model is calibrated with ground-based measurements of net CH4 flux and water table depth using a Metropolis Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. Comparison of these approaches shows that, while simple methods of stratification and scaling are computationally inexpensive and quick to perform, they are least successful when

  12. Limits to solar cycle predictability: Cross-equatorial flux plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, R. H.; Dasi-Espuig, M.; Jiang, J.; Işık, E.; Schmitt, D.; Schüssler, M.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Within the Babcock-Leighton framework for the solar dynamo, the strength of a cycle is expected to depend on the strength of the dipole moment or net hemispheric flux during the preceding minimum, which depends on how much flux was present in each hemisphere at the start of the previous cycle and how much net magnetic flux was transported across the equator during the cycle. Some of this transport is associated with the random walk of magnetic flux tubes subject to granular and supergranular buffeting, some of it is due to the advection caused by systematic cross-equatorial flows such as those associated with the inflows into active regions, and some crosses the equator during the emergence process. Aims: We aim to determine how much of the cross-equatorial transport is due to small-scale disorganized motions (treated as diffusion) compared with other processes such as emergence flux across the equator. Methods: We measure the cross-equatorial flux transport using Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms, estimating both the total and diffusive fluxes. Results: Occasionally a large sunspot group, with a large tilt angle emerges crossing the equator, with flux from the two polarities in opposite hemispheres. The largest of these events carry a substantial amount of flux across the equator (compared to the magnetic flux near the poles). We call such events cross-equatorial flux plumes. There are very few such large events during a cycle, which introduces an uncertainty into the determination of the amount of magnetic flux transported across the equator in any particular cycle. As the amount of flux which crosses the equator determines the amount of net flux in each hemisphere, it follows that the cross-equatorial plumes introduce an uncertainty in the prediction of the net flux in each hemisphere. This leads to an uncertainty in predictions of the strength of the following cycle.

  13. High flux heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Edward M.; Mackowski, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    This interim report documents the results of the first two phases of a four-phase program to develop a high flux heat exchanger for cooling future high performance aircraft electronics. Phase 1 defines future needs for high flux heat removal in advanced military electronics systems. The results are sorted by broad application categories: (1) commercial digital systems, (2) military data processors, (3) power processors, and (4) radar and optical systems. For applications expected to be fielded in five to ten years, the outlook is for steady state flux levels of 30-50 W/sq cm for digital processors and several hundred W/sq cm for power control applications. In Phase 1, a trade study was conducted on emerging cooling technologies which could remove a steady state chip heat flux of 100 W/sq cm while holding chip junction temperature to 90 C. Constraints imposed on heat exchanger design, in order to reflect operation in a fighter aircraft environment, included a practical lower limit on coolant supply temperature, the preference for a nontoxic, nonflammable, and nonfreezing coolant, the need to minimize weight and volume, and operation in an accelerating environment. The trade study recommended the Compact High Intensity Cooler (CHIC) for design, fabrication, and test in the final two phases of this program.

  14. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  15. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  16. Incident meteoroid flux density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badadjanov, P. B.; Bibarsov, R. SH.; Getman, V. S.; Kolmakov, V. M.

    1987-01-01

    Complex photographic and radar meteor observations were carried out. Using the available observational data, the density of incident flux of meteoroids was estimated over a wide mass range of 0.001 to 100 g. To avoid the influence of apparatus selectivity a special technique was applied. The main characteristics of this technique are given and discussed.

  17. Brownian simulations and unidirectional flux in diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, A.; Schuss, Z.

    2005-02-01

    The prediction of ionic currents in protein channels of biological membranes is one of the central problems of computational molecular biophysics. Existing continuum descriptions of ionic permeation fail to capture the rich phenomenology of the permeation process, so it is therefore necessary to resort to particle simulations. Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations require the connection of a small discrete simulation volume to large baths that are maintained at fixed concentrations and voltages. The continuum baths are connected to the simulation through interfaces, located in the baths sufficiently far from the channel. Average boundary concentrations have to be maintained at their values in the baths by injecting and removing particles at the interfaces. The particles injected into the simulation volume represent a unidirectional diffusion flux, while the outgoing particles represent the unidirectional flux in the opposite direction. The classical diffusion equation defines net diffusion flux, but not unidirectional fluxes. The stochastic formulation of classical diffusion in terms of the Wiener process leads to a Wiener path integral, which can split the net flux into unidirectional fluxes. These unidirectional fluxes are infinite, though the net flux is finite and agrees with classical theory. We find that the infinite unidirectional flux is an artifact caused by replacing the Langevin dynamics with its Smoluchowski approximation, which is classical diffusion. The Smoluchowski approximation fails on time scales shorter than the relaxation time 1/γ of the Langevin equation. We find that the probability of Brownian trajectories that cross an interface in one direction in unit time Δt equals that of the probability of the corresponding Langevin trajectories if γΔt=2 . That is, we find the unidirectional flux (source strength) needed to maintain average boundary concentrations in a manner consistent with the physics of Brownian particles. This unidirectional flux

  18. Metabolic process engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 for enhanced n-butanol production from glucose: effects of methyl viologen on NADH availability, flux distribution, and fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-04-01

    Butanol biosynthesis through aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) is usually limited by NADH availability, resulting in low butanol titer, yield, and productivity. To alleviate this limitation and improve n-butanol production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 overexpressing adhE2, the NADH availability was increased by using methyl viologen (MV) as an artificial electron carrier to divert electrons from ferredoxin normally used for H2 production. In the batch fermentation with the addition of 500 μM MV, H2 , acetate, and butyrate production was reduced by more than 80-90%, while butanol production increased more than 40% to 14.5 g/L. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that butanol production increased in the fermentation with MV because of increased NADH availability as a result of reduced H2 production. Furthermore, continuous butanol production of ∼55 g/L with a high yield of ∼0.33 g/g glucose and extremely low ethanol, acetate, and butyrate production was obtained in fed-batch fermentation with gas stripping for in situ butanol recovery. This study demonstrated a stable and reliable process for high-yield and high-titer n-butanol production by metabolically engineered C. tyrobutyricum by applying MV as an electron carrier to increase butanol biosynthesis. PMID:25363722

  19. Metabolic process engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 for enhanced n-butanol production from glucose: effects of methyl viologen on NADH availability, flux distribution, and fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Du, Yinming; Jiang, Wenyan; Yu, Mingrui; Tang, I-Ching; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2015-04-01

    Butanol biosynthesis through aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (adhE2) is usually limited by NADH availability, resulting in low butanol titer, yield, and productivity. To alleviate this limitation and improve n-butanol production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δack-adhE2 overexpressing adhE2, the NADH availability was increased by using methyl viologen (MV) as an artificial electron carrier to divert electrons from ferredoxin normally used for H2 production. In the batch fermentation with the addition of 500 μM MV, H2 , acetate, and butyrate production was reduced by more than 80-90%, while butanol production increased more than 40% to 14.5 g/L. Metabolic flux analysis revealed that butanol production increased in the fermentation with MV because of increased NADH availability as a result of reduced H2 production. Furthermore, continuous butanol production of ∼55 g/L with a high yield of ∼0.33 g/g glucose and extremely low ethanol, acetate, and butyrate production was obtained in fed-batch fermentation with gas stripping for in situ butanol recovery. This study demonstrated a stable and reliable process for high-yield and high-titer n-butanol production by metabolically engineered C. tyrobutyricum by applying MV as an electron carrier to increase butanol biosynthesis.

  20. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOEpatents

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  1. NEUTRON FLUX INTENSITY DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.

    1964-04-21

    A method of measuring the instantaneous intensity of neutron flux in the core of a nuclear reactor is described. A target gas capable of being transmuted by neutron bombardment to a product having a resonance absorption line nt a particular microwave frequency is passed through the core of the reactor. Frequency-modulated microwave energy is passed through the target gas and the attenuation of the energy due to the formation of the transmuted product is measured. (AEC)

  2. Reconnecting Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; van Compernolle, Bart

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic flux ropes are due to helical currents and form a dense carpet of arches on the surface of the sun. Occasionally one tears loose as a coronal mass ejection and its rope structure is detected by satellites close to the earth. Current sheets can tear into filaments and these are nothing other than flux ropes. Ropes are not static, they exert mutual JxB forces causing them to twist about each other and merge. Kink instabilities cause them to violently smash into each other and reconnect at the point of contact. We report on experiments done in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA (L=17m,dia=60cm,0.3<=B0z<=2.5kG,n˜2x10^12cm-3)on three dimensional flux ropes. Two, three or more magnetic flux ropes are generated from initially adjacent pulsed current channels in a background magnetized plasma. The currents and magnetic fields form exotic shapes with no ignorable direction and no magnetic nulls. Volumetric space-time data show multiple reconnection sites with time-dependent locations. The concept of a quasi-separatrix layer (QSL), a tool to understand 3D reconnection without null points. In our experiment the QSL is a narrow ribbon-like region(s) that twists between field lines. Within the QSL(s) field lines that start close to one another rapidly diverge as they pass through one or more reconnection regions. When the field lines are tracked they are observed to slip along the QSL when reconnection occurs. The Heating and other co-existing waves will be presented.

  3. Heat Flux Sensor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the following objectives: Developing secondary calibration capabilities for MSFC's (Marshall Space Flight Center) Hot Gas Facility (HGF), a Mach 4 Aerothermal Wind Tunnel; Evaluating ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) slug/ thinskin calorimeters against current HGF heat flux sensors; Providing verification of baselined AEDC (Arnold Engineering Development Center) / Medtherm gage calibrations; Addressing future calibration issues involving NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) certified radiant gages.

  4. The distribution of solar magnetic fluxes and the nonlinearity of stellar flux-flux relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrijver, C. J.; Harvey, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Synoptic maps for the 1975-1984 period are used to determine the time-dependent distribution function of magnetic flux densities in the solar atmosphere. The distribution function depends only on the global level of magnetic activity, and it is used to study how relations between magnetic flux densities and radiative flux densities from different temperature regimes in the outer atmosphere (derived from spatially resolved solar observations) transform into relations between surface-averaged flux densities. It is found that the transformation to surface-averaged fluxes preserves the power-law character of relations between radiative and magnetic flux densities for spatially resolved data.

  5. Ultrahigh-energy particle flux from cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, P. . Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-04-01

    We estimate the expected flux of ultrahigh-energy (> 10{sup 18}eV) protons in the present epoch due to a process which involves collapse or multiple self-intersections of a special class of closed cosmic string loops in the universe. We compare this flux with the observed flux of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, and discuss the implications. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Methane Fluxes from Subtropical Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, N.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is well documented that green house gas concentrations have risen at unequivocal rates since the industrial revolution but the disparity between anthropogenic sources and natural sources is uncertain. Wetlands are one example of a natural ecosystem that can be a substantial source or sink for methane (CH4) depending on climate conditions. Due to strict anaerobic conditions required for CH4-generating microorganisms, natural wetlands are one of the main sources for biogenic CH4. Although wetlands occupy less than 5% of total land surface area, they contribute approximately 20% of total CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. The processes regulating CH4 emissions are sensitive to land use and management practices of areas surrounding wetlands. Variation in adjacent vegetation or grazing intensity by livestock can, for example, alter CH4 fluxes from wetland soils by altering nutrient balance, carbon inputs and hydrology. Therefore, understanding how these changes will affect wetland source strength is essential to understand the impact of wetland management practices on the global climate system. In this study we quantify wetland methane fluxes from subtropical wetlands on a working cattle ranch in central Florida near Okeechobee Lake (27o10'52.04'N, 81o21'8.56'W). To determine differences in CH4 fluxes associated with land use and management, a replicated (n = 4) full factorial experiment was designed for wetlands where the surrounding vegetation was (1) grazed or un-grazed and (2) composed of native vegetation or improved pasture. Net exchange of CH4 and CO2 between the land surface and the atmosphere were sampled with a LICOR Li-7700 open path CH4 analyzer and Li-7500A open path CO2/H20 analyzer mounted in a 1-m3 static gas-exchange chamber. Our results showed and verified that CH4 emissions from subtropical wetlands were larger when high soil moisture was coupled with high temperatures. The presence of cattle only amplified these results. These results help quantify

  7. Stabilization of moduli by fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Behrndt, Klaus

    2004-12-10

    In order to fix the moduli, non-trivial fluxes might the essential input. We summarize different aspects of compactifications in the presence of fluxes, as there is the relation to generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions and gauged supergravity but also the description of flux-deformed geometries in terms of G-structures and intrinsic torsion.

  8. Estimates of carbon cycle surface fluxes from the NASA Carbon Monitoring System Flux Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, K. W.; Liu, J.; Lee, M.; Gurney, K. R.; Menemenlis, D.; Brix, H.; Hill, C. N.; Denning, S.; Haynes, K.; Baker, I. T.; Henze, D. K.; Bousserez, N.; Marland, G.; Marland, E.; Badurek, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of NASA Carbon Monitoring Study (CMS) Flux Pilot Project is to incorporate the full suite of NASA observational, modeling, and assimilation capabilities in order to attribute changes in globally distributed CO2 concentrations to spatially resolved surface fluxes across the entire carbon cycle. To that end, CMS has initiated a coordinated effort between land surface, ocean, fossil fuel, and atmospheric scientists to provide global estimates of CO2 constrained by satellite observations and informed by contemporaneous estimates of 'bottom up' fluxes from land surface, ocean, and fossil fuel models. The CMS Flux has evolved to incorporate a spatially explicit fossil fuel data assimilation system (FFDAS), an updated ECCO2 Darwin biogeochemical adjoint ocean state estimation system, and the new Simple Biospheric Model (Sib4) terrestrial ecosystem model. We compare GOSAT xCO2 observations, processed by the JPL ACOS v33, to predicted CMS Flux atmospheric CO2 concentrations for 2010-2011, and attribute the differences to spatially-resolved fluxes. We examine these fluxes in terms of interannual variability, correlative satellite measurements, and uncertainty across the carbon cycle

  9. Simulations of emerging magnetic flux. I. The formation of stable coronal flux ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.; Török, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    We present results from three-dimensional visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of a convection zone magnetic flux tube into a solar atmosphere containing a pre-existing dipole coronal field, which is orientated to minimize reconnection with the emerging field. We observe that the emergence process is capable of producing a coronal flux rope by the transfer of twist from the convection zone, as found in previous simulations. We find that this flux rope is stable, with no evidence of a fast rise, and that its ultimate height in the corona is determined by the strength of the pre-existing dipole field. We also find that although the electric currents in the initial convection zone flux tube are almost perfectly neutralized, the resultant coronal flux rope carries a significant net current. These results suggest that flux tube emergence is capable of creating non-current-neutralized stable flux ropes in the corona, tethered by overlying potential fields, a magnetic configuration that is believed to be the source of coronal mass ejections.

  10. Insects, infestations and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalzik, B.

    2012-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are characterized by a high temporal and spatial variability in the vertical transfer of energy and matter within the canopy and the soil compartment. The mechanisms and controlling factors behind canopy processes and system-internal transfer dynamics are imperfectly understood at the moment. Seasonal flux diversities and inhomogeneities in throughfall composition have been reported from coniferous and deciduous forests, and in most cases leaf leaching has been considered as principle driver for differences in the amount and quality of nutrients and organic compounds (Tukey and Morgan 1963). Since herbivorous insects and the processes they initiate received less attention in past times, ecologists now emphasize the need for linking biological processes occurring in different ecosystem strata to explain rates and variability of nutrient cycling (Bardgett et al. 1998, Wardle et al. 2004). Consequently, herbivore insects in the canopies of forests are increasingly identified to play an important role for the (re)cycling and availability of nutrients, or, more generally, for the functioning of ecosystems not only in outbreak situations but also at endemic (non-outbreak) density levels (Stadler et al. 2001, Hunter et al. 2003). Before, little attention was paid to insect herbivores when quantifying element and energy fluxes through ecosystems, although the numerous and different functions insects fulfill in ecosystems (e.g. as pollinators, herbivores or detritivores) were unanimously recognized (Schowalter 2000). Amongst the reasons for this restraint was the argument that the total biomass of insects tends to be relatively low compared to the biomass of trees or the pool of soil organic matter (Ohmart et al. 1983). A second argument which was put forward to justify the inferior role of insects in nutrient cycling were the supposed low defoliation losses between 5-10% of the annual leaf biomass, or net primary production, due to insect herbivory under

  11. Production of Welding Fluxes Using Waste Slag Formed in Silicomanganese Smelting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyreva, O. E.; Lipatova, U. I.; Filonov, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The possibility in principle of using slag, which is formed in the silicon-manganese smelting process, in producing welding fluxes is shown. The composition of and technology used for a new fused flux has been designed. A comparative evaluation of the new flux and the widely used AN-348 type flux was done. It has been proved that the new flux has high strength properties.

  12. Characterizing In Situ Uranium and Groundwater Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J.; Newman, M. A.; Stucker, V.; Peacock, A.; Ranville, J.; Cabaniss, S.; Hatfield, K.; Annable, M. D.; Klammler, H.; Perminova, I. V.

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a new sensor that incorporates the field-tested concepts of the passive flux meter to provide direct in situ measures of uranium and groundwater fluxes. The sensor uses two sorbents and resident tracers to measure uranium flux and specific discharge directly; but, sensor principles and design should also apply to fluxes of other radionuclides. Flux measurements will assist with obtaining field-scale quantification of subsurface processes affecting uranium transport (e.g., advection) and transformation (e.g., uranium attenuation) and further advance conceptual and computational models for field scale simulations. Project efforts will expand our current understanding of how field-scale spatial variations in uranium fluxes and those for salient electron donor/acceptors, and groundwater are coupled to spatial variations in measured microbial biomass/community composition, effective field-scale uranium mass balances, attenuation, and stability. The new sensor uses an anion exchange resin to measure uranium fluxes and activated carbon with resident tracers to measure water fluxes. Several anion-exchange resins including Dowex 21K and 21K XLT, Purolite A500, and Lewatit S6328 were tested as sorbents for capturing uranium on the sensor and Lewatit S6328 was determined to be the most effective over the widest pH range. Four branched alcohols proved useful as resident tracers for measuring groundwater flows using activated carbon for both laboratory and field conditions. The flux sensor was redesigned to prevent the discharge of tracers to the environment, and the new design was tested in laboratory box aquifers and the field. Geochemical modeling of equilibrium speciation using Visual Minteq and an up-to-date thermodynamic data base suggested Ca-tricarbonato-uranyl complexes predominate under field conditions, while calculated uranyl ion activities were sensitive to changes in pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and alkaline earth

  13. REGULAR VERSUS DIFFUSIVE PHOTOSPHERIC FLUX CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, Yuri E.

    2011-04-20

    Observations of photospheric flux cancellation on the Sun imply that cancellation can be a diffusive rather than regular process. A criterion is derived, which quantifies the parameter range in which diffusive photospheric cancellation should occur. Numerical estimates show that regular cancellation models should be expected to give a quantitatively accurate description of photospheric cancellation. The estimates rely on a recently suggested scaling for a turbulent magnetic diffusivity, which is consistent with the diffusivity measurements on spatial scales varying by almost two orders of magnitude. Application of the turbulent diffusivity to large-scale dispersal of the photospheric magnetic flux is discussed.

  14. Flux Trapping Properties of Bulk HIGH-TC Superconductors in Static Field-Cooling Magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.

    2013-06-01

    The trapping process and saturation effect of trapped magnetic flux of bulk high-temperature superconductors by static field-cooling magnetization (FCM) are reported in the paper. With a cryogenic Bell Hall sensor attached on the center of the bulk surface, the synchronous magnetic signals were recorded during the whole magnetization process. It enables us to know the flux trapping behavior since the removal of the excitation field, as well as the subsequent flux relaxation phenomenon and the flux dissipation in the quench process of the bulk sample. With the help of flux mapping techniques, the relationship between the trapped flux and the applied field was further investigated; the saturation effect of trapped flux was discussed by comparing the peak trapped field and total magnetic flux of the bulk sample. These studies are useful to understand the basic flux trapping properties of bulk superconductors.

  15. High flux reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lake, James A.; Heath, Russell L.; Liebenthal, John L.; DeBoisblanc, Deslonde R.; Leyse, Carl F.; Parsons, Kent; Ryskamp, John M.; Wadkins, Robert P.; Harker, Yale D.; Fillmore, Gary N.; Oh, Chang H.

    1988-01-01

    A high flux reactor is comprised of a core which is divided into two symetric segments housed in a pressure vessel. The core segments include at least one radial fuel plate. The spacing between the plates functions as a coolant flow channel. The core segments are spaced axially apart such that a coolant mixing plenum is formed between them. A channel is provided such that a portion of the coolant bypasses the first core section and goes directly into the mixing plenum. The outlet coolant from the first core segment is mixed with the bypass coolant resulting in a lower inlet temperature to the lower core segment.

  16. Thermal flux transfer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freggens, R. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermal flux transfer system for use in maintaining the thrust chamber of an operative reaction motor at given temperatures is described. The system is characterized by an hermetically sealed chamber surrounding a thrust chamber to be cooled, with a plurality of parallel, longitudinally spaced, disk-shaped wick members formed of a metallic mesh and employed in delivering a working fluid, in its liquid state, radially toward the thrust chamber and delivering the working fluid, in its vapor state, away from the nozzle for effecting a cooling of the nozzle, in accordance with known principles of an operating heat pipe.

  17. Evaluation of a new, perforated heat flux plate design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurement of heat flux is essential to optimize structural and process design and to improve understanding of energy transfer in natural systems. Laboratory and field experiments evaluated the performance of a new, perforated heat flux plate designed for environmental applications. Labora...

  18. Helicity charging and eruption of magnetic flux from the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, David M.; Kumar, A.

    1994-01-01

    The ejection of helical toroidal fields from the solar atmosphere and their detection in interplanetary space are described. The discovery that solar magnetic fields are twisted and that they are segregated by hemisphere according to their chirality has important implications for the escape process. The roles played by erupting prominences, coronal mass ejections (CME's) and active region (AR) loops in expressing the escape of magnetic flux and helicity are discussed. Sporadic flux escape associated with filament eruptions accounts for less than one-tenth the flux loss. Azimuthal flux loss by CME's could account for more, but the major contributor to flux escape may be AR loop expansion. It is shown how the transfer of magnetic helicity from the sun's interior into emerged loops ('helicity charging') could be the effective driver of solar eruptions and of flux loss from the sun.

  19. Mapping AmeriFlux footprints: Towards knowing the flux source area across a network of towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzer, O.; Pastorello, G.; Metzger, S.; Poindexter, C.; Agarwal, D.; Papale, D.

    2014-12-01

    The AmeriFlux network collects long-term carbon, water and energy flux measurements obtained with the eddy covariance method. In order to attribute fluxes to specific areas of the land surface, flux source calculations are essential. Consequently, footprint models can support flux up-scaling exercises to larger regions, often based on remote sensing data. However, flux footprints are not currently being routinely calculated; different approaches exist but have not been standardized. In part, this is due to varying instrumentation and data processing methods at the site level. The goal of this work is to map tower footprints for a future standardized AmeriFlux product to be generated at the network level. These footprints can be estimated by analytical models, Lagrangian simulations, and large-eddy simulations. However, for many sites, the datasets currently submitted to central databases generally do not include all variables required. The AmeriFlux network is moving to collection of raw data and expansion of the variables requested from sites, giving the possibility to calculate all parameters and variables needed to run most of the available footprint models. In this pilot study, we are applying state of the art footprint models across a subset of AmeriFlux sites, to evaluate the feasibility and merit of developing standardized footprint results. In addition to comparing outcomes from several footprint models, we will attempt to verify and validate the results in two ways: (i) Verification of our footprint calculations at sites where footprints have been experimentally estimated. (ii) Validation at towers situated in heterogeneous landscapes: here, variations in the observed fluxes are expected to correlate with spatiotemporal variations of the source area composition. Once implemented, the footprint results can be used as additional information within the AmeriFlux database that can support data interpretation and data assimilation. Lastly, we will explore the

  20. Flux qubit as a sensor of magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichev, E.; Greenberg, Ya. S.

    2007-03-01

    A magnetometer based on the quantum properties of a superconducting flux qubit is proposed. The main advantage of this device is that its sensitivity can be below the so-called "standard quantum limit" (for an oscillator this is half of the Plank constant). Moreover its transfer functions relative to the measured flux can be made to be about 10 mV/Φ0, which is an order of magnitude more than the best value for a conventional DC SQUIDs with a direct readout. We analyze here the voltage-to-flux, the phase-to-flux transfer functions and the main noise sources. We show that the experimental characteristics of a flux qubit, obtained in recent experiments, allow the use of a flux qubit as magnetometer with energy resolution close to the Planck constant.

  1. The Solar Internetwork. I. Contribution to the Network Magnetic Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gošić, M.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 × 1024 Mx day-1 over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  2. The solar internetwork. I. Contribution to the network magnetic flux

    SciTech Connect

    Gošić, M.; Rubio, L. R. Bellot; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Katsukawa, Y.

    2014-12-10

    The magnetic network (NE) observed on the solar surface harbors a sizable fraction of the total quiet Sun flux. However, its origin and maintenance are not well known. Here we investigate the contribution of internetwork (IN) magnetic fields to the NE flux. IN fields permeate the interior of supergranular cells and show large emergence rates. We use long-duration sequences of magnetograms acquired by Hinode and an automatic feature tracking algorithm to follow the evolution of NE and IN flux elements. We find that 14% of the quiet Sun (QS) flux is in the form of IN fields with little temporal variations. IN elements interact with NE patches and modify the flux budget of the NE either by adding flux (through merging processes) or by removing it (through cancellation events). Mergings appear to be dominant, so the net flux contribution of the IN is positive. The observed rate of flux transfer to the NE is 1.5 × 10{sup 24} Mx day{sup –1} over the entire solar surface. Thus, the IN supplies as much flux as is present in the NE in only 9-13 hr. Taking into account that not all the transferred flux is incorporated into the NE, we find that the IN would be able to replace the entire NE flux in approximately 18-24 hr. This renders the IN the most important contributor to the NE, challenging the view that ephemeral regions are the main source of flux in the QS. About 40% of the total IN flux eventually ends up in the NE.

  3. NITRATE RELEASE BY SALT MARSH PLANTS: AN OVERLOOKED NUTRIENT FLUX MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...

  4. Deep mantle subduction flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Katherine A.; White, William M.

    2009-12-01

    We assess the flux of incompatible trace elements into the deep mantle in the Aleutian, Central America, Izu-Bonin, Kurile, Lesser Antilles, Mariana, Sunda, and Tonga subduction zones. We use a simple mass balance approach in which we assume that all of the material lost from the subducting crust and sediment (the "slab") is incorporated into the magmas erupted above the subduction zone, and we use these assumptions to calculate a residual slab composition. The calculated residual slabs are enriched in incompatible elements compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts and highly enriched compared to primitive or depleted mantle. Almost all of the subducted Nb, Ta, and intermediate and heavy rare earths survive into the deep mantle, as do most of the light rare earths. On average, 73% of Th and Pb, 74% of K, 79% of U, 80% of Rb, 80% of Sr, and 82% of Ba survive into the deep mantle. Pb/Ce ratios are systematically lower, and Nb/U ratios are systematically higher, in the deep mantle flux than they are in the flux of material into the trench. Nevertheless, most residual slabs have Pb/Ce and Nb/U ratios outside the typical mantle range. Changes to U/Pb and Th/U ratios tend to be small and are not systematic. Rb/Sr ratios significantly decrease in some subduction zones but increase in others. In contrast, Sm/Nd ratios increase by small but significant amounts in most arcs. Based on these results, we attempt to predict the Sr, Nd, and Pb composition of anciently recycled material now in the mantle. We find that such material would most resemble enriched mantle II-type oceanic island basalts (OIB). None of our calculated residual slabs would evolve to Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions similar to either high 238U/204Pb or enriched mantle I. The range of Sr and Pb isotope ratios in anciently recycled material is similar to that seen in modern OIB, but Nd isotopic compositions do not range to ɛNd values as low as those in some modern OIB. Neither radiogenic nor unradiogenic Pb isotope

  5. Permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a permanent magnet flux-biased magnetic actuator with flux feedback for adjustably suspending an element on a single axis. The magnetic actuator includes a pair of opposing electromagnets and provides bi-directional forces along the single axis to the suspended element. Permanent magnets in flux feedback loops from the opposing electromagnets establish a reference permanent magnet flux-bias to linearize the force characteristics of the electromagnets to extend the linear range of the actuator without the need for continuous bias currents in the electromagnets.

  6. Dynamic and Stagnating Plasma Flow Leading to Magnetic-Flux-Tube Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    You, S.; Yun, G.S.; Bellan, P.M.

    2005-07-22

    Highly collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are frequently observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. We propose that a single, universal magnetohydrodynamic pumping process explains why such collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are ubiquitous. Experimental evidence from carefully diagnosed laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets confirms this assertion and is reported here. The magnetohydrodynamic process pumps plasma into a magnetic-flux tube and the stagnation of the resulting flow causes this flux tube to become collimated.

  7. Dynamic and stagnating plasma flow leading to magnetic-flux-tube collimation.

    PubMed

    You, S; Yun, G S; Bellan, P M

    2005-07-22

    Highly collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are frequently observed on galactic, stellar, and laboratory scales. We propose that a single, universal magnetohydrodynamic pumping process explains why such collimated, plasma-filled magnetic-flux tubes are ubiquitous. Experimental evidence from carefully diagnosed laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets confirms this assertion and is reported here. The magnetohydrodynamic process pumps plasma into a magnetic-flux tube and the stagnation of the resulting flow causes this flux tube to become collimated.

  8. The Oceanic Flux Program: A three decade time-series of particle flux in the deep Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J. C.; Conte, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Oceanic Flux Program (OFP), 75 km SE of Bermuda, is the longest running time-series of its kind. Initiated in 1978, the OFP has produced an unsurpassed, nearly continuous record of temporal variability in deep ocean fluxes, with a >90% temporal coverage at 3200m depth. The OFP, in conjunction with the co-located Bermuda-Atlantic Time Series (BATS) and the Bermuda Testbed Mooring (BTM) time-series, has provided key observations enabling detailed assessment of how seasonal and non-seasonal variability in the deep ocean is linked with the overlying physical and biogeochemical environment. This talk will focus on the short-term flux variability that overlies the seasonal flux pattern in the Sargasso Sea, emphasizing episodic extreme flux events. Extreme flux events are responsible for much of the year-to-year variability in mean annual flux and are most often observed during early winter and late spring when surface stratification is weak or transient. In addition to biological phenomena (e.g. salp blooms), passage of productive meso-scale features such as eddies, which alter surface water mixing characteristics and surface export fluxes, may initiate some extreme flux events. Yet other productive eddies show a minimal influence on the deep flux, underscoring the importance of upper ocean ecosystem structure and midwater processes on the coupling between the surface ocean environment and deep fluxes. Using key organic and inorganic tracers, causative processes that influence deep flux generation and the strength of the coupling with the surface ocean environment can be identified.

  9. Chaos in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Vincena, S.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic Flux Ropes Immersed in a uniform magnetoplasma are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and rotate about a central axis. They are kink unstable and smash into one another as they move. Each collision results in magnetic field line generation and the generation of a quasi-seperatrix layer. Three dimensional magnetic field lines are computed by conditionally averaging the data using correlation techniques. When the currents associated with the ropes are large,this is possible for only a number of rotation cycles as the field line motion becomes chaotic. The permutation entropy1 can be calculated from the the time series of the magnetic field data (this is also done with flows) and used to calculate the positions of the data on a Jensen Shannon complexity map2. The power spectra of much of the magnetic and flow data is exponential and Lorentzian structures in the time domain are embedded in them. The location of data on this map indicates if the magnetic fields are stochastic, or fall into regions of minimal or maximal complexity. The complexity is a function of space and time. The complexity map, and analysis will be explained in the course of the talk. Other types of chaotic dynamical models such as the Lorentz or Gissinger process also fall on the map and can give a clue to the nature of the flux rope turbulence. The ropes fall in the region of the C-H plane where chaotic systems lie. 1 C. Bandt, B. Pompe, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88,174102 (2007) 2 O. Russo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 154102 (2007), J. Maggs, G.Morales, “Permutation Entropy analysis of temperature fluctuations from a basic electron heat transport experiment”,submitted PPCF (2013)

  10. Quantum tunneling in flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Schwartz-Perlov, Delia; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    We identify instantons representing vacuum decay in a 6-dimensional toy model for string theory flux compactifications, with the two extra dimensions compactified on a sphere. We evaluate the instanton action for tunneling between different flux vacua, as well as for the decompactification decay channel. The bubbles resulting from flux tunneling have an unusual structure. They are bounded by two-dimensional branes, which are localized in the extra dimensions. This has important implications for bubble collisions.

  11. Heat-Flux-Measuring Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Weikle, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus simulates conditions in turbine engines. Automated facility generates and measures transient and steady-state heat fluxes at flux densities from 0.3 to 6 MW/m(Sup2) and temperatures from 100 to 1,200 K. Positioning arm holds heat-flux gauge at focal point of arc lamp. Arm previously chilled gauge in liquid nitrogen in Dewar flask. Cooling water flows through lamp to heat exchanger. Used to develop heat-flux gauges for turbine blades and to test materials for durability under rapidly changing temperatures.

  12. Measuring surface fluxes in CAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; D-Shah, T.; Nie, Dalin

    1992-01-01

    Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux), air temperature, vapor pressure, soil temperature (at 1 cm depth), and precipitation. Canopy reflectance and light interception data were taken three times at each site between 6 July and 18 August. Soil moisture content was measured twice at each site.

  13. KoFlux: Korean Regional Flux Network in AsiaFlux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.

    2002-12-01

    AsiaFlux, the Asian arm of FLUXNET, held the Second International Workshop on Advanced Flux Network and Flux Evaluation in Jeju Island, Korea on 9-11 January 2002. In order to facilitate comprehensive Asia-wide studies of ecosystem fluxes, the meeting launched KoFlux, a new Korean regional network of long-term micrometeorological flux sites. For a successful assessment of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, an accurate measurement of surface fluxes of energy and water is one of the prerequisites. During the 7th Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) held in Nagoya, Japan on 1-2 October 2001, the Implementation Committee of the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) was established. One of the immediate tasks of CEOP was and is to identify the reference sites to monitor energy and water fluxes over the Asian continent. Subsequently, to advance the regional and global network of these reference sites in the context of both FLUXNET and CEOP, the Korean flux community has re-organized the available resources to establish a new regional network, KoFlux. We have built up domestic network sites (equipped with wind profiler and radiosonde measurements) over deciduous and coniferous forests, urban and rural rice paddies and coastal farmland. As an outreach through collaborations with research groups in Japan, China and Thailand, we also proposed international flux sites at ecologically and climatologically important locations such as a prairie on the Tibetan plateau, tropical forest with mixed and rapid land use change in northern Thailand. Several sites in KoFlux already begun to accumulate interesting data and some highlights are presented at the meeting. The sciences generated by flux networks in other continents have proven the worthiness of a global array of micrometeorological flux towers. It is our intent that the launch of KoFlux would encourage other scientists to initiate and

  14. Radial Flux Distribution of Low-Energy Neutrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higinbotham, J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to illustrate the basic principle involved in the process of moderation of fast neutrons by water, and the monitoring of the low-energy neutron flux using indium as a probe. (GA)

  15. MAGNETIC FLUX PARADIGM FOR RADIO LOUDNESS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, Marek; Begelman, Mitchell C. E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu

    2013-02-20

    We argue that the magnetic flux threading the black hole (BH), rather than BH spin or Eddington ratio, is the dominant factor in launching powerful jets and thus determining the radio loudness of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Most AGNs are radio quiet because the thin accretion disks that feed them are inefficient in depositing magnetic flux close to the BH. Flux accumulation is more likely to occur during a hot accretion (or thick disk) phase, and we argue that radio-loud quasars and strong emission-line radio galaxies occur only when a massive, cold accretion event follows an episode of hot accretion. Such an event might be triggered by the merger of a giant elliptical galaxy with a disk galaxy. This picture supports the idea that flux accumulation can lead to the formation of a so-called magnetically choked accretion flow. The large observed range in radio loudness reflects not only the magnitude of the flux pressed against the BH, but also the decrease in UV flux from the disk, due to its disruption by the ''magnetosphere'' associated with the accumulated flux. While the strongest jets result from the secular accumulation of flux, moderate jet activity can also be triggered by fluctuations in the magnetic flux deposited by turbulent, hot inner regions of otherwise thin accretion disks, or by the dissipation of turbulent fields in accretion disk coronae. These processes could be responsible for jet production in Seyferts and low-luminosity AGNs, as well as jets associated with X-ray binaries.

  16. Transport of magnetic flux and mass in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, H. R.; Russell, C. T.; Jia, Y. D.; Wei, H. Y.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    It is well accepted that cold plasma sourced by Enceladus is ultimately lost to the solar wind, while the magnetic flux convecting outward with the plasma must return to the inner magnetosphere. However, whether the interchange or reconnection, or a combination of the two processes is the dominant mechanism in returning the magnetic flux is still under debate. Initial Cassini observations have shown that the magnetic flux returns in the form of flux tubes in the inner magnetosphere. Here we investigate those events with 10 year Cassini magnetometer data and confirm that their magnetic signatures are determined by the background plasma environments: inside (outside) the plasma disk, the returning magnetic field is enhanced (depressed) in strength. The distribution, temporal variation, shape, and transportation rate of the flux tubes are also characterized. The flux tubes break into smaller ones as they convect in. The shape of their cross section is closer to circular than fingerlike as produced in the simulations based on the interchange mechanism. In addition, no sudden changes in any flux tube properties can be found at the "boundary" which has been claimed to separate the reconnection and interchange-dominant regions. On the other hand, reasonable cold plasma loss rate and outflow velocity can be obtained if the transport rate of the magnetic flux matches the reconnection rate, which supports reconnection alone as the dominant mechanism in unloading the cold plasma from the inner magnetosphere and returning the magnetic flux from the tail.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems (CO2Flux) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, M

    2005-01-01

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) carbon dioxide flux (CO2 flux) measurement systems provide half-hour average fluxes of CO2, H2O (latent heat), and sensible heat. The fluxes are obtained by the eddy covariance technique, which computes the flux as the mean product of the vertical wind component with CO2 and H2O densities, or estimated virtual temperature. A three-dimensional sonic anemometer is used to obtain the orthogonal wind components and the virtual (sonic) temperature. An infrared gas analyzer is used to obtain the CO2 and H2O densities. A separate sub-system also collects half-hour average measures of meteorological and soil variables from separate 4-m towers.

  18. Wind-Speed—Surface-Heat-Flux Feedback in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Junshi; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Strong winds associated with dust devils can induce locally large heat fluxes from the surface, and resulting enhanced buoyancy may further intensify the dust devils. This positive wind—surface-heat-flux feedback is studied using a large-eddy simulation of a convective boundary layer. A comparison of the results with and without the feedback process for the same environment demonstrates the significance of the feedback process for simulated dust devils.

  19. Wind-Speed—Surface-Heat-Flux Feedback in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Junshi; Niino, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    Strong winds associated with dust devils can induce locally large heat fluxes from the surface, and resulting enhanced buoyancy may further intensify the dust devils. This positive wind—surface-heat-flux feedback is studied using a large-eddy simulation of a convective boundary layer. A comparison of the results with and without the feedback process for the same environment demonstrates the significance of the feedback process for simulated dust devils.

  20. Methane flux from the Central Amazonian Floodplain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Karen B.; Crill, Patrick M.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Harriss, Robert C.; Wilson, John O.; Melack, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 186 methane measurements from the three primary Amazon floodplain environments of open water lakes, flood forests, and floating grass mats were made over the period 18 July through 2 September 1985. These data indicate that emissions were lowest over open water lakes. Flux from flooded forests and grass mats was significantly higher. At least three transport processes contribute to tropospheric emissions: ebullition from sediments, diffusion along the concentration gradient from sediment to overlaying water to air, and transport through the roots and stems of aquatic plants. Measurements indicate that the first two of these processes are most significant. It was estimated that on the average bubbling makes up 49% of the flux from open water, 54% of that from flooded forests, and 64% of that from floating mats. If the measurements were applied to the entire Amazonian floodplain, it is calculated that the region could supply up to 12% of the estimated global natural sources of methane.

  1. Chaos in Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, W. N.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic Flux Ropes Immersed in a uniform magnetoplasma are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and rotate about a central axis. They are kink unstable and smash into one another as they move. Full three dimensional magnetic field and flows are measured at thousands of time steps. Each collision results in magnetic field line generation and the generation of a quasi-seperatrix layer and induced electric fields. Three dimensional magnetic field lines are computed by conditionally averaging the data using correlation techniques. The permutation entropy1 ,which is related to the Lyapunov exponent, can be calculated from the the time series of the magnetic field data (this is also done with flows) and used to calculate the positions of the data on a Jensen Shannon complexity map2. The location of data on this map indicates if the magnetic fields are stochastic, or fall into regions of minimal or maximal complexity. The complexity is a function of space and time. The complexity map, and analysis will be explained in the course of the talk. Other types of chaotic dynamical models such as the Lorentz, Gissinger and Henon process also fall on the map and can give a clue to the nature of the flux rope turbulence. The ropes fall in the region of the C-H plane where chaotic systems lie. The entropy and complexity change in space and time which reflects the change and possibly type of chaos associated with the ropes. The maps give insight as to the type of chaos (deterministic chaos, fractional diffusion , Levi flights..) and underlying dynamical process. The power spectra of much of the magnetic and flow data is exponential and Lorentzian structures in the time domain are embedded in them. Other quantities such as the Hurst exponent are evaluated for both magnetic fields and plasma flow. Work Supported by a UC-LANL Lab fund and the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by DOE and NSF. 1) C. Bandt, B. Pompe, Phys. Rev. Lett., 88,174102 (2007) 2

  2. Errors in airborne flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Lenschow, Donald H.

    1994-07-01

    We present a general approach for estimating systematic and random errors in eddy correlation fluxes and flux gradients measured by aircraft in the convective boundary layer as a function of the length of the flight leg, or of the cutoff wavelength of a highpass filter. The estimates are obtained from empirical expressions for various length scales in the convective boundary layer and they are experimentally verified using data from the First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Experiment) Field Experiment (FIFE), the Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX), and the Electra Radome Experiment (ELDOME). We show that the systematic flux and flux gradient errors can be important if fluxes are calculated from a set of several short flight legs or if the vertical velocity and scalar time series are high-pass filtered. While the systematic error of the flux is usually negative, that of the flux gradient can change sign. For example, for temperature flux divergence the systematic error changes from negative to positive about a quarter of the way up in the convective boundary layer.

  3. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    PubMed

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  4. Magnetoresistive Flux Focusing Eddy Current Flaw Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A giant magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current device effectively detects deep flaws in thick multilayer conductive materials. The probe uses an excitation coil to induce eddy currents in conducting material perpendicularly oriented to the coil s longitudinal axis. A giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, surrounded by the excitation coil, is used to detect generated fields. Between the excitation coil and GMR sensor is a highly permeable flux focusing lens which magnetically separates the GMR sensor and excitation coil and produces high flux density at the outer edge of the GMR sensor. The use of feedback inside the flux focusing lens enables complete cancellation of the leakage fields at the GMR sensor location and biasing of the GMR sensor to a location of high magnetic field sensitivity. In an alternate embodiment, a permanent magnet is positioned adjacent to the GMR sensor to accomplish the biasing. Experimental results have demonstrated identification of flaws up to 1 cm deep in aluminum alloy structures. To detect deep flaws about circular fasteners or inhomogeneities in thick multi-layer conductive materials, the device is mounted in a hand-held rotating probe assembly that is connected to a computer for system control, data acquisition, processing and storage.

  5. Methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Day, F. P., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The paper reports measurements made over a 17-month period of the methane flux in the Great Dismal Swamp of Virginia in light of the potential implications of variations in atmospheric methane concentrations. Gas flux measurements were made by a technique combining a gas filter correlation IR absorption analyzer with improved sampling chambers that enclose a soil area under conditions ranging from totally flooded soils to dry soils resulting from drought conditions. Methane emissions are found to range from 0.0013 g CH4/sq m per day to 0.019 g CH4/sq m per day, depending on temperature and season, when the soil is in a waterlogged state. During drought conditions, the peat soils in the swamp were a sink for atmospheric methane, with fluxes from less than 0.001 to 0.005 g CH4/sq m per day and decreasing with decreasing temperature. Results illustrate the potential complexity of the processes which regulate the net flux of methane between wetland soils and the atmosphere.

  6. Magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current flaw detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A giant magnetoresistive flux focusing eddy current device effectively detects deep flaws in thick multilayer conductive materials. The probe uses an excitation coil to induce eddy currents in conducting material perpendicularly oriented to the coil's longitudinal axis. A giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor, surrounded by the excitation coil, is used to detect generated fields. Between the excitation coil and GMR sensor is a highly permeable flux focusing lens which magnetically separates the GMR sensor and excitation coil and produces high flux density at the outer edge of the GMR sensor. The use of feedback inside the flux focusing lens enables complete cancellation of the leakage fields at the GMR sensor location and biasing of the GMR sensor to a location of high magnetic field sensitivity. In an alternate embodiment, a permanent magnet is positioned adjacent to the GMR sensor to accomplish the biasing. Experimental results have demonstrated identification of flaws up to 1 cm deep in aluminum alloy structures. To detect deep flaws about circular fasteners or inhomogeneities in thick multilayer conductive materials, the device is mounted in a hand-held rotating probe assembly that is connected to a computer for system control, data acquisition, processing and storage.

  7. Designing with null flux coils

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, K.R.

    1997-09-01

    Null flux were suggested by Danby and Powell in the late 1960`s as a useful means for realizing induced lift with little drag. As an array of alternating magnets is translated past a set of null flux coils, the currents induced in these coils act to vertically center the magnets on those coils. At present, one Japanese MAGLEV system company and two American-based companies are employing either null flux or flux eliminating coils in their design for high speed magnetically levitated transportation. The principle question addressed in paper is: what is the proper choice of coil length to magnet length in a null flux system? A generic analysis in the time and frequency domain is laid out with the intent of showing the optimal design specification in terms of coil parameters.

  8. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2)more » and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.« less

  9. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, J.-Q.

    2015-04-01

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. The reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growth in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. For the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.

  10. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    DOE PAGES

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growthmore » in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.« less

  11. PHLUX: Photographic Flux Tools for Solar Glare and Flux

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-02

    A web-based tool to a) analytically and empirically quantify glare from reflected light and determine the potential impact (e.g., temporary flash blindness, retinal burn), and b) produce flux maps for central receivers. The tool accepts RAW digital photographs of the glare source (for hazard assessment) or the receiver (for flux mapping), as well as a photograph of the sun for intensity and size scaling. For glare hazard assessment, the tool determines the retinal irradiance (W/cm2) and subtended source angle for an observer and plots the glare source on a hazard spectrum (i.e., low-potential for flash blindness impact, potential for flash blindness impact, retinal burn). For flux mapping, the tool provides a colored map of the receiver scaled by incident solar flux (W/m2) and unwraps the physical dimensions of the receiver while accounting for the perspective of the photographer (e.g., for a flux map of a cylindrical receiver, the horizontal axis denotes receiver angle in degrees and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters; for a flat panel receiver, the horizontal axis denotes horizontal position in meters and the vertical axis denotes vertical position in meters). The flux mapping capability also allows the user to specify transects along which the program plots incident solar flux on the receiver.

  12. Flux analysis in plant metabolic networks: increasing throughput and coverage.

    PubMed

    Junker, Björn H

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative information about metabolic networks has been mainly obtained at the level of metabolite contents, transcript abundance, and enzyme activities. However, the active process of metabolism is represented by the flow of matter through the pathways. These metabolic fluxes can be predicted by Flux Balance Analysis or determined experimentally by (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis. These relatively complicated and time-consuming methods have recently seen significant improvements at the level of coverage and throughput. Metabolic models have developed from single cell models into whole-organism dynamic models. Advances in lab automation and data handling have significantly increased the throughput of flux measurements. This review summarizes advances to increase coverage and throughput of metabolic flux analysis in plants.

  13. Gaussian mixture models as flux prediction method for central receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobler, Annemarie; Gauché, Paul; Smit, Willie

    2016-05-01

    Flux prediction methods are crucial to the design and operation of central receiver systems. Current methods such as the circular and elliptical (bivariate) Gaussian prediction methods are often used in field layout design and aiming strategies. For experimental or small central receiver systems, the flux profile of a single heliostat often deviates significantly from the circular and elliptical Gaussian models. Therefore a novel method of flux prediction was developed by incorporating the fitting of Gaussian mixture models onto flux profiles produced by flux measurement or ray tracing. A method was also developed to predict the Gaussian mixture model parameters of a single heliostat for a given time using image processing. Recording the predicted parameters in a database ensures that more accurate predictions are made in a shorter time frame.

  14. Energy balance and non-turbulent fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moderow, Uta; Feigenwinter, Christian; Bernhofer, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Often, the sum of the turbulent fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat from eddy covariance (EC) measurements does not match the available energy (sum of net radiation, ground heat flux and storage changes). This is referred to as energy balance closure gap. The reported imbalances vary between 0% and 50% (Laubach 1996). In various publications, it has been shown that the uncertainty of the available energy itself does not explain the gap (Vogt et al. 1996; Moderow et al. 2009). Among other reasons, the underestimation is attributed to an underestimation of turbulent fluxes and undetected non-turbulent transport processes, i.e. advection (e.g. Foken et al. 2006). The imbalance is typically larger during nighttime than during daytime as the EC method fails to capture non-turbulent transports that can be significant during night (e.g. Aubinet 2008). Results for the budget of CO2 showed that including non-turbulent fluxes can change the budgets considerably. Hence, it is interesting to see how the budget of energy is changed. Here, the consequences of including advective fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat in the energy balance are explored with focus on nighttime conditions. Non-turbulent fluxes will be inspected critically regarding their plausibility. Following Bernhofer et al. (2003), a ratio similar to Bowen's ratio of the turbulent fluxes are defined for the non-turbulent fluxes and compared to each other. This might have implications for the partitioning of the available energy into sensible heat and latent heat. Data of the ADVEX-campaigns (Feigenwinter et al. 2008) of three different sites across Europe are used and selected periods are inspected. References Aubinet M (2008) Eddy covariance CO2-flux measurements in nocturnal conditions: An analysis of the problem. Ecol Appl 18: 1368-1378 Bernhofer C, Grünwald T, Schwiebus A, Vogt R (2003) Exploring the consequences of non-zero energy balance closure for total surface flux. In: Bernhofer C (ed

  15. Magnetic Flux Supplement to Coronal Bright Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Chaozhou; Huang, Zhenghua; Xia, Lidong; Madjarska, Maria S.; Li, Bo; Fu, Hui; Jiao, Fangran; Hou, Zhenyong

    2016-02-01

    Coronal bright points (BPs) are associated with magnetic bipolar features (MBFs) and magnetic cancellation. Here we investigate how BP-associated MBFs form and how the consequent magnetic cancellation occurs. We analyze longitudinal magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager to investigate the photospheric magnetic flux evolution of 70 BPs. From images taken in the 193 Å passband of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) we dermine that the BPs’ lifetimes vary from 2.7 to 58.8 hr. The formation of the BP MBFs is found to involve three processes, namely, emergence, convergence, and local coalescence of the magnetic fluxes. The formation of an MBF can involve more than one of these processes. Out of the 70 cases, flux emergence is the main process of an MBF buildup of 52 BPs, mainly convergence is seen in 28, and 14 cases are associated with local coalescence. For MBFs formed by bipolar emergence, the time difference between the flux emergence and the BP appearance in the AIA 193 Å passband varies from 0.1 to 3.2 hr with an average of 1.3 hr. While magnetic cancellation is found in all 70 BPs, it can occur in three different ways: (I) between an MBF and small weak magnetic features (in 33 BPs); (II) within an MBF with the two polarities moving toward each other from a large distance (34 BPs); (III) within an MBF whose two main polarities emerge in the same place simultaneously (3 BPs). While an MBF builds up the skeleton of a BP, we find that the magnetic activities responsible for the BP heating may involve small weak fields.

  16. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice; Roming, Peter W. A.; Siegel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions (SED) and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broadband photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by forward modeling the spectrum into the count rates or magnitudes of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or SED which is consistent with the multi-band photometry rather than converting individual photometric measurements to flux densities, linearly interpolating between the points, and integrating. We also highlight some specific areas where the UV flux can be mischaracterized.

  17. Monte Carlo surface flux tallies

    SciTech Connect

    Favorite, Jeffrey A

    2010-11-19

    Particle fluxes on surfaces are difficult to calculate with Monte Carlo codes because the score requires a division by the surface-crossing angle cosine, and grazing angles lead to inaccuracies. We revisit the standard practice of dividing by half of a cosine 'cutoff' for particles whose surface-crossing cosines are below the cutoff. The theory behind this approximation is sound, but the application of the theory to all possible situations does not account for two implicit assumptions: (1) the grazing band must be symmetric about 0, and (2) a single linear expansion for the angular flux must be applied in the entire grazing band. These assumptions are violated in common circumstances; for example, for separate in-going and out-going flux tallies on internal surfaces, and for out-going flux tallies on external surfaces. In some situations, dividing by two-thirds of the cosine cutoff is more appropriate. If users were able to control both the cosine cutoff and the substitute value, they could use these parameters to make accurate surface flux tallies. The procedure is demonstrated in a test problem in which Monte Carlo surface fluxes in cosine bins are converted to angular fluxes and compared with the results of a discrete ordinates calculation.

  18. Modern Estimates of Global Water Cycle Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the first phase of the NASA Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project was to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. Here we describe results of the water cycle assessment, including mean annual and monthly fluxes over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the water flux estimates are based on (1) satellite measurements and (2) data-integrating models. A careful accounting of uncertainty in each flux was applied within a routine that enforced multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework, in order to produce objectively-determined, optimized estimates. Simultaneous closure of the water and energy budgets caused the ocean evaporation and precipitation terms to increase by about 10% and 5% relative to the original estimates, mainly because the energy budget required turbulent heat fluxes to be substantially larger in order to balance net radiation. In the majority of cases, the observed annual, surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are a non-issue. Fluxes are poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian Islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Other details of the study and future directions will be discussed.

  19. Optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-03-01

    ecophysiological function. In addition to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of ecosystem processes, this integration of remote sensing with flux measurements offers many rich opportunities for upscaling, satellite validation, and informing practical management objectives ranging form assessing ecosystem health and productivity to quantifying biospheric carbon sequestration.

  20. Zircons reveal magma fluxes in the Earth's crust.

    PubMed

    Caricchi, Luca; Simpson, Guy; Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-07-24

    Magma fluxes regulate the planetary thermal budget, the growth of continents and the frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, and play a part in the genesis and size of magmatic ore deposits. However, because a large fraction of the magma produced on the Earth does not erupt at the surface, determinations of magma fluxes are rare and this compromises our ability to establish a link between global heat transfer and large-scale geological processes. Here we show that age distributions of zircons, a mineral often present in crustal magmatic rocks, in combination with thermal modelling, provide an accurate means of retrieving magma fluxes. The characteristics of zircon age populations vary significantly and systematically as a function of the flux and total volume of magma accumulated in the Earth's crust. Our approach produces results that are consistent with independent determinations of magma fluxes and volumes of magmatic systems. Analysis of existing age population data sets using our method suggests that porphyry-type deposits, plutons and large eruptions each require magma input over different timescales at different characteristic average fluxes. We anticipate that more extensive and complete magma flux data sets will serve to clarify the control that the global heat flux exerts on the frequency of geological events such as volcanic eruptions, and to determine the main factors controlling the distribution of resources on our planet.

  1. Why different gas flux velocity parameterizations result in so similar flux results in the North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Wróbel, Iwona

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic is a crucial region for both ocean circulation and the carbon cycle. Most of ocean deep waters are produced in the basin making it a large CO2 sink. The region, close to the major oceanographic centres has been well covered with cruises. This is why we have performed a study of net CO2 flux dependence upon the choice of gas transfer velocity k parameterization for this very region: the North Atlantic including European Arctic Seas. The study has been a part of a ESA funded OceanFlux GHG Evolution project and, at the same time, a PhD thesis (of I.W) funded by Centre of Polar Studies "POLAR-KNOW" (a project of the Polish Ministry of Science). Early results have been presented last year at EGU 2015 as a PICO presentation EGU2015-11206-1. We have used FluxEngine, a tool created within an earlier ESA funded project (OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases) to calculate the North Atlantic and global fluxes with different gas transfer velocity formulas. During the processing of the data, we have noticed that the North Atlantic results for different k formulas are more similar (in the sense of relative error) that global ones. This was true both for parameterizations using the same power of wind speed and when comparing wind squared and wind cubed parameterizations. This result was interesting because North Atlantic winds are stronger than the global average ones. Was the flux result similarity caused by the fact that the parameterizations were tuned to the North Atlantic area where many of the early cruises measuring CO2 fugacities were performed? A closer look at the parameterizations and their history showed that not all of them were based on North Atlantic data. Some of them were tuned to the South Ocean with even stronger winds while some were based on global budgets of 14C. However we have found two reasons, not reported before in the literature, for North Atlantic fluxes being more similar than global ones for different gas transfer velocity parametrizations

  2. Untangling Autophagy Measurements: All Fluxed Up

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Andres, Allen M.; Sin, Jon; Taylor, David

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important physiological process in the heart, and alterations in autophagic activity can exacerbate or mitigate injury during various pathological processes. Methods to assess autophagy have changed rapidly as the field of research has expanded. As with any new field, methods and standards for data analysis and interpretation evolve as investigators acquire experience and insight. The purpose of this review is to summarize current methods to measure autophagy, selective mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), and autophagic flux. We will examine several published studies where confusion arose in in data interpretation, in order to illustrate the challenges. Finally we will discuss methods to assess autophagy in vivo and in patients. PMID:25634973

  3. Improved metabolite profile smoothing for flux estimation.

    PubMed

    Dromms, Robert A; Styczynski, Mark P

    2015-09-01

    As genome-scale metabolic models become more sophisticated and dynamic, one significant challenge in using these models is to effectively integrate increasingly prevalent systems-scale metabolite profiling data into them. One common data processing step when integrating metabolite data is to smooth experimental time course measurements: the smoothed profiles can be used to estimate metabolite accumulation (derivatives), and thus the flux distribution of the metabolic model. However, this smoothing step is susceptible to the (often significant) noise in experimental measurements, limiting the accuracy of downstream model predictions. Here, we present several improvements to current approaches for smoothing metabolite time course data using defined functions. First, we use a biologically-inspired mathematical model function taken from transcriptional profiling and clustering literature that captures the dynamics of many biologically relevant transient processes. We demonstrate that it is competitive with, and often superior to, previously described fitting schemas, and may serve as an effective single option for data smoothing in metabolic flux applications. We also implement a resampling-based approach to buffer out sensitivity to specific data sets and allow for more accurate fitting of noisy data. We found that this method, as well as the addition of parameter space constraints, yielded improved estimates of concentrations and derivatives (fluxes) in previously described fitting functions. These methods have the potential to improve the accuracy of existing and future dynamic metabolic models by allowing for the more effective integration of metabolite profiling data.

  4. Subcanopy Flux Measurements in Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Paul-Limoges, E.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    Eddy-covariance measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy provide direct evidence for the biosphere-atmosphere exchange at the ecosystem scale. Such continuous measurements are typically performed in the atmospheric surface layer above the canopy and integrate fluxes over the entire ecosystem within the footprint. Forest ecosystems, however, have complex vertical structures composed of several layers with different functional properties that are represented to a limited extend by above canopy measurements. Concurrent eddy-covariance measurements below canopy (subcanopy) can provide valuable insights on (1) understory processes, (2) their contributions to total ecosystem fluxes, and (3) the partitioning of component fluxes. Accordingly, there is a large potential for including standardized subcanopy forest measurements into large-scale measurement networks such as FLUXNET. However, our understanding of the performance and limitations for such measurements is still very limited. To gain a better understanding of subcanopy measurements, we conducted (I) a survey across FLUXNET on their availability, and (II) a literature review on published subcanopy measurements. Subsequently, we are preparing a standardized synthesis dataset on subcanopy measurements within FLUXNET. We will present the results from our survey, summarize the current process understanding, and discuss research priorities for concurrent below and above canopy eddy-covariance measurements.

  5. Comparison of isopropyl alcohol and trichloroethylene in removing solder flux: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This work evaluated a nontoxic solvent for its ability to remove solder flux as compared to trichloroethylene solvent. Isopropyl alcohol was evaluated for its cleaning efficiency for solder flux removal using a high pressure spray process (minimum spray pressure of 80 psig). Cleanliness levels were measured by the Meseran Surface Analyzer. Test samples also underwent gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer Analysis and were visually inspected under a longwave ultraviolet lamp. Detailed analyses of flux removal by the two solvents were made as related to solder flux types, solder flux diluted by 50% with isopropyl alcohol, and solder process conditions. 2 refs., 2 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M.; Shimizu, Toshifumi

    2009-05-20

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  7. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  8. Magnetic flux cancellation and Doppler shifts in flaring active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Olga; Petrie, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    Flux cancellation plays an important role in some theories of solar eruptions. The mechanism of flux cancellation is suggested by many models to be a necessary condition of flare initiation as a part of slow reconnection processes in the lower atmosphere. In our earlier work we analyzed flux cancellation events during major flares using GONG line-of-sight magnetograms. In this work we use vector magnetic field data from SDO/HMI for better interpretation of the longitudinal field changes. We also compute Doppler velocity shifts at the cancellation sites in attempt to distinguish between the three physical processes that could stand behind flux removal from the photosphere: submergence of U-shaped loops, emergence of Ω-shaped loops and magnetic reconnection.

  9. Flux tubes at finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cea, Paolo; Cosmai, Leonardo; Cuteri, Francesca; Papa, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    The chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair, with its peculiar tube-like shape, can be nicely described, at zero temperature, within the dual superconductor scenario for the QCD confining vacuum. In this work we investigate, by lattice Monte Carlo simulations of the SU (3) pure gauge theory, the fate of chromoelectric flux tubes across the deconfinement transition. We find that, if the distance between the static sources is kept fixed at about 0.76 fm˜eq 1.6/√{σ } and the temperature is increased towards and above the deconfinement temperature T c , the amplitude of the field inside the flux tube gets smaller, while the shape of the flux tube does not vary appreciably across deconfinement. This scenario with flux-tube "evaporation" above T c has no correspondence in ordinary (type-II) superconductivity, where instead the transition to the phase with normal conductivity is characterized by a divergent fattening of flux tubes as the transition temperature is approached from below. We present also some evidence about the existence of flux-tube structures in the magnetic sector of the theory in the deconfined phase.

  10. Flux growth utilizing the reaction between flux and crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, J. -Q.

    2015-01-22

    Flux growth involves dissolving the components of the target compound in an appropriate flux at high temperatures and then crystallizing under supersaturation controlled by cooling or evaporating the flux. A refractory crucible is generally used to contain the high temperature melt. Moreover, the reaction between the melt and crucible materials can modify the composition of the melt, which typically results in growth failure, or contaminates the crystals. Thus one principle in designing a flux growth is to select suitable flux and crucible materials thus to avoid any reaction between them. In this paper, we review two cases of flux growth in which the reaction between flux and Al2O3 crucible tunes the oxygen content in the melt and helps the crystallization of desired compositions. For the case of La5Pb3O, the Al2O3 crucible oxidizes La to form a passivating La2O3 layer which not only prevents further oxidization of La in the melt but also provides [O] to the melt. Finally, in the case of La0.4Na0.6Fe2As2, it is believed that the Al2O3 crucible reacts with NaAsO2 and the reaction consumes oxygen in the melt thus maintaining an oxygen-free environment.

  11. Magnetic topology of emerging flux regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariat, Etienne

    Coronal magnetic fields structure and governs the dynamics of the solar atmosphere. These magnetic fields are often complex, composed of multiples domains of magnetic-field-lines connectivity. The topology of the magnetic field allows a synthetic description of these complex magnetic field by highlighting the structural elements that are important for the dynamic and the activity of the corona. Topology identifies the key elements where magnetic reconnection will preferentially occurs, and allows to explain and predict the evolution of the coronal plasma. However the topological elements - such as null points, separatrices, separators - do not appear out of thin air. Along with energy, and helicity, the magnetic topology of an active region is build up as the consequence of flux emergence. Some topological elements, such as bald-patches, are even fully part of the mechanism of flux emergence mechanism and drive the evolution and the structuration of the coronal magnetic field as it crosses the lower layer of the solar atmosphere. In the present talk I will therefore review our current understanding of the formation of active region in terms of magnetic topology. I will speak on how the topological structures which are key to solar activity are formed. Meanwhile I'll also discus the topological properties of emerging active region and how topology influences the very process of flux emergence.

  12. Photospheric Magnetic Flux Transport - Supergranules Rule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Rightmire-Upton, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Observations of the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's photosphere show that active region magnetic flux is carried far from its origin by a combination of flows. These flows have previously been identified and modeled as separate axisymmetric processes: differential rotation, meridional flow, and supergranule diffusion. Experiments with a surface convective flow model reveal that the true nature of this transport is advection by the non-axisymmetric cellular flows themselves - supergranules. Magnetic elements are transported to the boundaries of the cells and then follow the evolving boundaries. The convective flows in supergranules have peak velocities near 500 m/s. These flows completely overpower the superimposed 20 m/s meridional flow and 100 m/s differential rotation. The magnetic elements remain pinned at the supergranule boundaries. Experiments with and without the superimposed axisymmetric photospheric flows show that the axisymmetric transport of magnetic flux is controlled by the advection of the cellular pattern by underlying flows representative of deeper layers. The magnetic elements follow the differential rotation and meridional flow associated with the convection cells themselves -- supergranules rule!

  13. Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest.

    PubMed

    Commane, Róisín; Meredith, Laura K; Baker, Ian T; Berry, Joseph A; Munger, J William; Montzka, Stephen A; Templer, Pamela H; Juice, Stephanie M; Zahniser, Mark S; Wofsy, Steven C

    2015-11-17

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, has a summer minimum associated with uptake by vegetation and soils, closely correlated with CO2. We report the first direct measurements to our knowledge of the ecosystem flux of OCS throughout an annual cycle, at a mixed temperate forest. The forest took up OCS during most of the growing season with an overall uptake of 1.36 ± 0.01 mol OCS per ha (43.5 ± 0.5 g S per ha, 95% confidence intervals) for the year. Daytime fluxes accounted for 72% of total uptake. Both soils and incompletely closed stomata in the canopy contributed to nighttime fluxes. Unexpected net OCS emission occurred during the warmest weeks in summer. Many requirements necessary to use fluxes of OCS as a simple estimate of photosynthesis were not met because OCS fluxes did not have a constant relationship with photosynthesis throughout an entire day or over the entire year. However, OCS fluxes provide a direct measure of ecosystem-scale stomatal conductance and mesophyll function, without relying on measures of soil evaporation or leaf temperature, and reveal previously unseen heterogeneity of forest canopy processes. Observations of OCS flux provide powerful, independent means to test and refine land surface and carbon cycle models at the ecosystem scale.

  14. Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commane, Róisín; Meredith, Laura K.; Baker, Ian T.; Berry, Joseph A.; Munger, J. William; Montzka, Stephen A.; Templer, Pamela H.; Juice, Stephanie M.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2015-11-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, has a summer minimum associated with uptake by vegetation and soils, closely correlated with CO2. We report the first direct measurements to our knowledge of the ecosystem flux of OCS throughout an annual cycle, at a mixed temperate forest. The forest took up OCS during most of the growing season with an overall uptake of 1.36 ± 0.01 mol OCS per ha (43.5 ± 0.5 g S per ha, 95% confidence intervals) for the year. Daytime fluxes accounted for 72% of total uptake. Both soils and incompletely closed stomata in the canopy contributed to nighttime fluxes. Unexpected net OCS emission occurred during the warmest weeks in summer. Many requirements necessary to use fluxes of OCS as a simple estimate of photosynthesis were not met because OCS fluxes did not have a constant relationship with photosynthesis throughout an entire day or over the entire year. However, OCS fluxes provide a direct measure of ecosystem-scale stomatal conductance and mesophyll function, without relying on measures of soil evaporation or leaf temperature, and reveal previously unseen heterogeneity of forest canopy processes. Observations of OCS flux provide powerful, independent means to test and refine land surface and carbon cycle models at the ecosystem scale.

  15. Gauge fluxes in F-theory and type IIB orientifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Sven; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Weigand, Timo

    2012-08-01

    We provide a detailed correspondence between G 4 gauge fluxes in F-theory compactifications with SU( n) and SU( n) × U(1) gauge symmetry and their Type IIB orientifold limit. Based on the resolution of the relevant F-theory Tate models, we classify the factorisable G 4-fluxes and match them with the set of universal D5-tadpole free U(1)-fluxes in Type IIB. Where available, the global version of the universal spectral cover flux corresponds to Type IIB gauge flux associated with a massive diagonal U(1). In U(1)-restricted Tate models extra massless abelian fluxes exist which are associated with specific linear combinations of Type IIB fluxes. Key to a quantitative match between F-theory and Type IIB is a proper treatment of the conifold singularity encountered in the Sen limit of generic F-theory models. We also shed further light on the brane recombination process relating generic and U(1)-restricted Tate models.

  16. Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest.

    PubMed

    Commane, Róisín; Meredith, Laura K; Baker, Ian T; Berry, Joseph A; Munger, J William; Montzka, Stephen A; Templer, Pamela H; Juice, Stephanie M; Zahniser, Mark S; Wofsy, Steven C

    2015-11-17

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, has a summer minimum associated with uptake by vegetation and soils, closely correlated with CO2. We report the first direct measurements to our knowledge of the ecosystem flux of OCS throughout an annual cycle, at a mixed temperate forest. The forest took up OCS during most of the growing season with an overall uptake of 1.36 ± 0.01 mol OCS per ha (43.5 ± 0.5 g S per ha, 95% confidence intervals) for the year. Daytime fluxes accounted for 72% of total uptake. Both soils and incompletely closed stomata in the canopy contributed to nighttime fluxes. Unexpected net OCS emission occurred during the warmest weeks in summer. Many requirements necessary to use fluxes of OCS as a simple estimate of photosynthesis were not met because OCS fluxes did not have a constant relationship with photosynthesis throughout an entire day or over the entire year. However, OCS fluxes provide a direct measure of ecosystem-scale stomatal conductance and mesophyll function, without relying on measures of soil evaporation or leaf temperature, and reveal previously unseen heterogeneity of forest canopy processes. Observations of OCS flux provide powerful, independent means to test and refine land surface and carbon cycle models at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26578759

  17. Seasonal fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in a midlatitude forest

    PubMed Central

    Commane, Róisín; Meredith, Laura K.; Baker, Ian T.; Berry, Joseph A.; Munger, J. William; Montzka, Stephen A.; Templer, Pamela H.; Juice, Stephanie M.; Zahniser, Mark S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS), the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, has a summer minimum associated with uptake by vegetation and soils, closely correlated with CO2. We report the first direct measurements to our knowledge of the ecosystem flux of OCS throughout an annual cycle, at a mixed temperate forest. The forest took up OCS during most of the growing season with an overall uptake of 1.36 ± 0.01 mol OCS per ha (43.5 ± 0.5 g S per ha, 95% confidence intervals) for the year. Daytime fluxes accounted for 72% of total uptake. Both soils and incompletely closed stomata in the canopy contributed to nighttime fluxes. Unexpected net OCS emission occurred during the warmest weeks in summer. Many requirements necessary to use fluxes of OCS as a simple estimate of photosynthesis were not met because OCS fluxes did not have a constant relationship with photosynthesis throughout an entire day or over the entire year. However, OCS fluxes provide a direct measure of ecosystem-scale stomatal conductance and mesophyll function, without relying on measures of soil evaporation or leaf temperature, and reveal previously unseen heterogeneity of forest canopy processes. Observations of OCS flux provide powerful, independent means to test and refine land surface and carbon cycle models at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26578759

  18. Magnetic field characters of returning flux tubes in Saturn's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hairong; Russell, Christopher; Jia, Yingdong; Wei, Hanying

    2016-04-01

    Deep in the Saturnian magnetosphere, water-group neutrals are ionized after being released from the plume of Enceladus at 4 RS. This forms a plasma disk from 2.5 to 8 RS around Saturn and the typical source rate is 12~250 kg/s. Such plasma addition must be shed to the solar wind ultimately to maintain the plasma density in the magnetosphere in long term average. In this plasma transfer process, the magnetic flux also convects outward. To conserve the total magnetic flux imposed on the magnetosphere by the planet's internal dynamo, the magnetic flux has to return to the inner magnetosphere. Flux tubes are found to be the major form of such return. Determining such flux tubes is essential in understanding the breathing of Saturn magnetosphere. We investigated 10 years of Cassini magnetometer data to identify over six hundred flux-returning events between 4 and 18 in L. Statistical properties are presented, to constrain the origin, transport and evolution of these flux tubes.

  19. Complexity and diffusion of magnetic flux surfaces in anisotropic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Ruffolo, D.; Oughton, S.

    2014-04-10

    The complexity of magnetic flux surfaces is investigated analytically and numerically in static homogeneous magnetic turbulence. Magnetic surfaces are computed to large distances in magnetic fields derived from a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model. The question addressed is whether one can define magnetic surfaces over large distances when turbulence is present. Using a flux surface spectral analysis, we show that magnetic surfaces become complex at small scales, experiencing an exponential thinning that is quantified here. The computation of a flux surface is of either exponential or nondeterministic polynomial complexity, which has the conceptual implication that global identification of magnetic flux surfaces and flux exchange, e.g., in magnetic reconnection, can be intractable in three dimensions. The coarse-grained large-scale magnetic flux experiences diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established explicitly through multiple scale analysis. The Kubo number controls both large and small scale limits. These results have consequences for interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in astrophysical plasmas.

  20. Calibration of Ocean Forcing with satellite Flux Estimates (COFFEE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Charlie; Jan, Dastugue; Jackie, May; Rowley, Clark; Smith, Scott; Spence, Peter; Gremes-Cordero, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the evolution of ocean temperature in regional ocean models depends on estimates of surface heat fluxes and upper-ocean processes over the forecast period. Within the COFFEE project (Calibration of Ocean Forcing with satellite Flux Estimates, real-time satellite observations are used to estimate shortwave, longwave, sensible, and latent air-sea heat flux corrections to a background estimate from the prior day's regional or global model forecast. These satellite-corrected fluxes are used to prepare a corrected ocean hindcast and to estimate flux error covariances to project the heat flux corrections for a 3-5 day forecast. In this way, satellite remote sensing is applied to not only inform the initial ocean state but also to mitigate errors in surface heat flux and model representations affecting the distribution of heat in the upper ocean. While traditional assimilation of sea surface temperature (SST) observations re-centers ocean models at the start of each forecast cycle, COFFEE endeavors to appropriately partition and reduce among various surface heat flux and ocean dynamics sources. A suite of experiments in the southern California Current demonstrates a range of COFFEE capabilities, showing the impact on forecast error relative to a baseline three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation using operational global or regional atmospheric forcing. Experiment cases combine different levels of flux calibration with assimilation alternatives. The cases use the original fluxes, apply full satellite corrections during the forecast period, or extend hindcast corrections into the forecast period. Assimilation is either baseline 3DVAR or standard strong-constraint 4DVAR, with work proceeding to add a 4DVAR expanded to include a weak constraint treatment of the surface flux errors. Covariance of flux errors is estimated from the recent time series of forecast and calibrated flux terms. While the California Current examples are shown, the approach is

  1. Vertical CO2-Flux Gradients in the Marine Boundary Layer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupski, Michael; Peters, Gerhard; Münster, Hans; Ament, Felix

    2010-05-01

    A classical method to estimate CO2-fluxes through the air/sea-interface consist of measuring the vertical turbulent flux close to the surface by Eddy-Covariance assuming constant flux between the measuring height and the surface. To re-evaluate this assumption, a two level flux measurement was installed on the research platform FINO2 in order to search for vertical flux gradients. The research platform is located at 55° 00' north and 13°09' east in the Baltic Sea between the coasts of Sweden, Denmark and Germany. At FINO2 the water is about 25 meters deep. A 9 meter long boom carrying the flux sensors is mounted at the south-east corner of the platform pointing south. Raw data with 10 Hz sampling rate are stored locally since June 2008 and can be downloaded remotely via satellite-based internet link. CO2-fluxes were calculated with 30 min time resolution applying a standard eddy covariance processing scheme including tilt- and Webb-corrections. In addition, power and cross spectra were calculated for selected (high wind) periods - mainly in order to verify that there are no artifacts due to wind- and wave-induced vibrations of the platform. Our first results over a period of two months in summer 2008 show significant flux gradients over extended periods (1-2 days). Recent runs of mesoscale circulation models, which consider the time dependent sources and sinks of vegetation-covered land, predict patterns of CO2 concentration with horizontal gradients of considerable magnitude. Moreover these model results show that the gradients fade out over open oceans only very gradually on trajectories several hundred kilometers off the coast. We estimate that these horizontal gradients of atmospheric CO2 concentration in combination with vertical gradients of wind speed could be a potential reason for vertical flux gradients. In coastal waters the gradients can result in flux differences between the height of the flux sensor and the sea surface which can amount the same

  2. Integral Plug-Type Heat-Flux Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Koch, John, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Integral thermoplug gauge measures flux of heat across specimen of material. New gauge not screwed or welded into place, but instead thermoplug and annulus electrical-discharge-machined (EDM) into specimen material. EDM process leaves no interface between material and thermoplug, thus inherently increasing gauge accuracy by eliminating interface and associated temperature discontinuity. Process also conducive to accurate fabrication of minute gauges.

  3. Ideal flux field dielectric concentrators.

    PubMed

    García-Botella, Angel

    2011-10-01

    The concept of the vector flux field was first introduced as a photometrical theory and later developed in the field of nonimaging optics; it has provided new perspectives in the design of concentrators, overcoming standard ray tracing techniques. The flux field method has shown that reflective concentrators with the geometry of the field lines achieve the theoretical limit of concentration. In this paper we study the role of surfaces orthogonal to the field vector J. For rotationally symmetric systems J is orthogonal to its curl, and then a family of surfaces orthogonal to the lines of J exists, which can be called the family of surfaces of constant pseudopotential. Using the concept of the flux tube, it is possible to demonstrate that refractive concentrators with the shape of these pseudopotential surfaces achieve the theoretical limit of concentration. PMID:22016201

  4. Diffuse fluxes of cosmic high energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Production spectra of high-energy neutrinos from galactic cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray interactions with microwave black-body photons are presented and discussed. These production processes involve the decay of charged pions and are thus related to the production of cosmic gamma-rays from the decay of neutral pions. Estimates of the neutrino fluxes from various diffuse cosmic sources are then made and the reasons fro significant differences with previous estimates are discussed. Predicted event rates for a DUMAND type detection system are significantly lower than early estimates indicated.

  5. Flux of light antimatter nuclei near Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Baret, B.; Barrau, A.; Buenerd, M.; Derome, L.; Duperray, R.; Protasov, K.; Vratogna, S.; Maurin, D.

    2006-07-11

    The fluxes of light antinuclei A{<=} 4 induced near earth by Cosmic Ray (CR) interactions with the interstellar matter (ISM) in the Galaxy are calculated in a phenomenological framework. The hadronic production cross-section for antinucleons is based on a recent parametrization of a wide set of accelerator data. The production of light nuclei is calculated using coalescence models. The non annihilating inelastic scattering process for the antideuterons is discussed and taken into account for the first time via a more realistic procedure than used so far for antiprotons.

  6. Surface flux evolution constraints for flux transport dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schmitt, D.; Jiang, J.; Işık, E.

    2012-06-01

    The surface flux transport (SFT) model of solar magnetic fields involves empirically well-constrained velocity and magnetic fields. The basic evolution of the Sun's large-scale surface magnetic field is well described by this model. The azimuthally averaged evolution of the SFT model can be compared to the surface evolution of the flux transport dynamo (FTD), and the evolution of the SFT model can be used to constrain several near-surface properties of the FTD model. We compared the results of the FTD model with different upper boundary conditions and diffusivity profiles against the results of the SFT model. Among the ingredients of the FTD model, downward pumping of magnetic flux, related to a positive diffusivity gradient, has a significant effect in slowing down the diffusive radial transport of magnetic flux through the solar surface. Provided the pumping was strong enough to give rise to a downflow of a magnetic Reynolds number of 5 in the near-surface boundary layer, the FTD using a vertical boundary condition matches the SFT model based on the average velocities above the boundary layer. The FTD model with a potential field was unable to match the SFT results.

  7. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOEpatents

    Impink, Jr., Albert J.; Goldstein, Norman P.

    1990-01-01

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  8. ASGASEX, a comprehensive flux experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Oost, W.A.

    1994-12-31

    Among scientists working on CO{sub 2} exchange between air and sea there is a controversy between methods based on concentration measurements and transport coefficients on one hand and direct measurements of CO{sub 2} fluxes with the eddy correlation technique on the other. The controversy is caused by a gap of often more than an order of magnitude between the results of the two methods, in the transfer velocity k. The author decided to use the expertise gained during the HEXOS program to try to contribute to a solution of this problem by measuring all fluxes involved.

  9. The magnetotail and substorms. [magnetic flux transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    The tail plays a very active and important role in substorms. Magmetic flux eroded from the dayside magnetosphere is stored here. As more and more flux is transported to the magnetotail and stored, the boundary flares more, the field strength in the tail increases, and the currents strengthen and move closer to the earth. Further, the plasma sheet thins and the magnetic flux crossing the neutral sheet lessens. The experimental evidence for these processes is discussed and a phenomenological or qualitative model of the substorm sequence is presented. In this model, the flux transport is driven by the merging of the magnetospheric and interplanetary magnetic fields. During the growth phase of substorms the merging rate on the dayside magnetosphere exceeds the reconnection rate in the neutral sheet.

  10. Quantum transport in coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum transport properties are instrumental to understanding quantum coherent transport processes. Potential applications of quantum transport are widespread, in areas ranging from quantum information science to quantum engineering, and not restricted to quantum state transfer, control and manipulation. Here, we study light transport in a ring array of coupled resonators enclosed synthetic magnetic flux. The ring configuration, with an arbitrary number of resonators embedded, forms a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer. The influence of magnetic flux on light transport is investigated. Tuning the magnetic flux can lead to resonant transmission, while half-integer magnetic flux quantum leads to completely destructive interference and transmission zeros in an interferometer with two equal arms.

  11. Rotating reverse osmosis: a dynamic model for flux and rejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) is a compact process for the removal of ionic and organic pollutants from contaminated water. However, flux decline and rejection deterioration due to concentration polarization and membrane fouling hinders the application of RO technology. In this study, a rotating cylindrical RO membrane is theoretically investigated as a novel method to reduce polarization and fouling. A dynamic model based on RO membrane transport incorporating concentration polarization is used to predict the performance of rotating RO system. Operating parameters such as rotational speed and transmembrane pressure play an important role in determining the flux and rejection in rotating RO. For a given geometry, a rotational speed sufficient to generate Taylor vortices in the annulus is essential to maintain high flux as well as high rejection. The flux and rejection were calculated for wide range of operating pressures and rotational speeds. c 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Information for seasonal models of carbon fluxes in terrestrial biomes

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.W.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    1985-06-01

    This report is a compilation of information that can be used in developing seasonal carbon flux models for several principal terrestrial biome types. The information includes flux data as well as models made either to simulate such data or to deduce fluxes not directly measurable. The report is divided into three sections that examine (1) photosynthetic production, (2) litterfall, and (3) decomposition during a year. The sections on photosynthetic production and decomposition discuss a large number of models that relate the processes to basic abiotic variables in each of several biome types. The information on litterfall, however, is largely empirical phenology data. A fourth section demonstrates the application of this compiled information to a compartment model of seasonal carbon flux in terrestrial biomes. 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. The structure of photospheric flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.

    1990-01-01

    Basic physical mechanisms for producing the observed intense magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere are reviewed. The mechanism of flux expulsion by convective cells can concentrate magnetic flux up to the equipartition field strength, which is only about 200 G at the solar surface for the observed granular convection. Other mechanisms that partially evacuate the flux tube are needed to produce further concentration of magnetic flux to the observed values of 1000-1500 G. Two such mechanisms are discussed: concentration by convective collapse of a vertical flux tube in the superadiabatic layer just below the solar surface, and concentration by a siphon flow in an arched, isolated flux tube.

  14. Considering the relevance of hysteresis in storage-flux relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.

    2012-12-01

    Hysteresis has been documented in many hydrological relationships but one of the most common types is of the storage-flux variety. Hysteresis has been well documented in storage-flux relationships at the soil column, hillslope and stream channel scales, but is often assumed to be, paradoxically, inconsequential or too complicating, and therefore ignored. Recent increased awareness of the importance of storage as a hydrological process led to the identification of storage-flux relationships at the catchment scale. There are relatively few examples of catchment scale storage-streamflow relationships published in the scientific literature. That some have exhibited hysteresis begs several questions to be asked. This presentation will address three. What causes hysteresis in catchment scale storage-flux relationships? How pervasive could it be? Can we similarly disregard hysteresis in catchment scale storage-flux relationships as is often done for smaller scales? In regards to the latter, if the hydrological research community wishes to address important areas of societal concern, such hysteresis should be considered relevant. The processes that create storage-streamflow hysteresis are the same processes that influence flood extent and water quality. Better addressing hysteresis is one way to decipher the important biogeophysical processes in catchments needed for constructing sound predictive tools for responsible resource management and development.

  15. Ocean Winds and Turbulent Air-Sea Fluxes Inferred From Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Mark A.; Gille, Sarah T.; Jackson, Daren L.; Roberts, J. Brent; Wick, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Air-sea turbulent fluxes determine the exchange of momentum, heat, freshwater, and gas between the atmosphere and ocean. These exchange processes are critical to a broad range of research questions spanning length scales from meters to thousands of kilometers and time scales from hours to decades. Examples are discussed (section 2). The estimation of surface turbulent fluxes from satellite is challenging and fraught with considerable errors (section 3); however, recent developments in retrievals (section 3) will greatly reduce these errors. Goals for the future observing system are summarized in section 4. Surface fluxes are defined as the rate per unit area at which something (e.g., momentum, energy, moisture, or CO Z ) is transferred across the air/sea interface. Wind- and buoyancy-driven surface fluxes are called surface turbulent fluxes because the mixing and transport are due to turbulence. Examples of nonturbulent processes are radiative fluxes (e.g., solar radiation) and precipitation (Schmitt et al., 2010). Turbulent fluxes are strongly dependent on wind speed; therefore, observations of wind speed are critical for the calculation of all turbulent surface fluxes. Wind stress, the vertical transport of horizontal momentum, also depends on wind direction. Stress is very important for many ocean processes, including upper ocean currents (Dohan and Maximenko, 2010) and deep ocean currents (Lee et al., 2010). On short time scales, this horizontal transport is usually small compared to surface fluxes. For long-term processes, transport can be very important but again is usually small compared to surface fluxes.

  16. Spatial-temporal variability in GHG fluxes and their functional interpretation in RusFluxNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Meshalkina, Julia; Sarzhanov, Dmitriy; Mazirov, Ilia; Yaroslavtsev, Alex; Komarova, Tatiana; Tikhonova, Maria

    2016-04-01

    different meso- or micro-relief forms, natural or man-made succession studies, topsoil texture or organic matter state, subsoil or perched groundwater features. Zonal, seasonal and functional subdividing the monitoring data allows essentially increase the regression links between GHG fluxes and air or soil temperature and moisture (to 0.75-0.87) that is very important for their modeling and prediction. In taiga and mix-forest zones usually there is stronger effect on GHG fluxes by air temperature than soil one due to comparatively thin (from 3 till 10 cm) layer of principal soil organic and/or humus-accumulative horizons with maximum biological activity that usually determines the total rate of GHG soil fluxes. Unfavorable seasonal conditions (dry season or low temperature) determine essential (in 1.5-2 times) decreasing not only in soil GHG fluxes but in level of their spatial variability, intraseasonal and daily dynamics too. These trends are most obvious in case of more open and sensitive to the external factors ecosystems, for example in case of industrial area lawns or at the first stages of the windthrow or fallow-forest successions. Understanding the principal regional and land-use-determined regularities of spatial and temporal changes in ecosystem and soil GHG fluxes help better modeling them in the process of spatial intra- and extrapolations, seasonal and interseasonal predictions, taking into attention basic and current principal ecological factors limiting GHG fluxes and balances. Their introduction in the ecological or agroecological models and land-use decision support systems allows improve the quality of environmental/agroecological monitoring and control not only for GHG emission but also for soil organic matter conservation, manure and nitrogen fertilizer application that is often crucially important for sustainable rural development and profitable farming.

  17. Quantifying benthic nitrogen fluxes in Puget Sound, Washington: a review of available data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Richard W.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding benthic fluxes is important for understanding the fate of materials that settle to the Puget Sound, Washington, seafloor, as well as the impact these fluxes have on the chemical composition and biogeochemical cycles of marine waters. Existing approaches used to measure benthic nitrogen flux in Puget Sound and elsewhere were reviewed and summarized, and factors for considering each approach were evaluated. Factors for selecting an appropriate approach for gathering information about benthic flux include: availability of resources, objectives of projects, and determination of which processes each approach measures. An extensive search of literature was undertaken to summarize known benthic nitrogen fluxes in Puget Sound. A total of 138 individual flux chamber measurements and 38 sets of diffusive fluxes were compiled for this study. Of the diffusive fluxes, 35 new datasets were located, and new flux calculations are presented in this report. About 65 new diffusive flux calculations are provided across all nitrogen species (nitrate, NO3-; nitrite, NO2-; ammonium, NH4+). Data analysis of this newly compiled benthic flux dataset showed that fluxes beneath deep (greater than 50 meters) water tended to be lower than those beneath shallow (less than 50 meters) water. Additionally, variability in flux at the shallow depths was greater, possibly indicating a more dynamic interaction between the benthic and pelagic environments. The overall range of bottom temperatures from studies in the Puget Sound area were small (5–16 degrees Celsius), and only NH4+ flux showed any pattern with temperature. For NH4+, flux values and variability increased at greater than about 12 degrees Celsius. Collection of additional study site metadata about environmental factors (bottom temperature, depth, sediment porosity, sediment type, and sediment organic matter) will help with development of a broader regional understanding benthic nitrogen flux in the Puget Sound.

  18. High flux compact neutron generators

    SciTech Connect

    Reijonen, J.; Lou, T.-P.; Tolmachoff, B.; Leung, K.-N.; Verbeke, J.; Vujic, J.

    2001-06-15

    Compact high flux neutron generators are developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutron production is based on D-D or D-T reaction. The deuterium or tritium ions are produced from plasma using either a 2 MHz or 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) discharge. RF-discharge yields high fraction of atomic species in the beam which enables higher neutron output. In the first tube design, the ion beam is formed using a multiple hole accelerator column. The beam is accelerated to energy of 80 keV by means of a three-electrode extraction system. The ion beam then impinges on a titanium target where either the 2.4 MeV D-D or 14 MeV D-T neutrons are generated. The MCNP computation code has predicted a neutron flux of {approximately}10{sup 11} n/s for the D-D reaction at beam intensity of 1.5 A at 150 kV. The neutron flux measurements of this tube design will be presented. Recently new compact high flux tubes are being developed which can be used for various applications. These tubes also utilize RF-discharge for plasma generation. The design of these tubes and the first measurements will be discussed in this presentation.

  19. Flux distribution---pipeline flaws

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, W.

    1989-03-16

    The physical basis for gas pipeline inspection with flux leakage pigs is the interaction of a magnetostatic (d.c.) excitation field with defects in the pipeline wall. Such an interaction produces a leakage field which is characteristic of the defect type, and can be detected with any flux density sensitive device such as a Hall plate. Predictions of defect leakage field profiles are necessary in order to optimize the design of flux leakage pigs, and also aid in the development of reliable defect characterization schemes. In order to carry out generic leakage field studies without reference to a specific flux leakage pig structure, finite element studies were made out on a 1.5-inch diameter carbon steel pipe excited by a central d.c. current carrying conductor. This report gives finite element predictions as well as experimental measurements for a wide variety of defect shapes. Some difficulty was encountered in obtaining an appropriate mesh discretization for the finite element studies. The background to this is given in detail because of its importance to 3-D modeling work. 15 refs., 40 figs.

  20. Mass fluxes for hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucy, L. B.

    2010-03-01

    In an attempt to understand the extraordinarily small mass-loss rates of late-type O dwarfs, mass fluxes in the relevant part of (Teff, g)-space are derived from first principles using a previously-described code for constructing moving reversing layers. From these mass fluxes, a weak-wind domain is identified within which a star's rate of mass loss by a radiatively-driven wind is less than that due to nuclear burning. The five weak-wind stars recently analysed by Marcolino et al. (2009, A&A, 498, 837) fall within or at the edge of this domain. But although the theoretical mass fluxes for these stars are ≈1.4 dex lower than those derived with the formula of Vink et al. (2000), the observed rates are still not matched, a failure that may reflect our poor understanding of low-density supersonic outflows. Mass fluxes are also computed for two strong-wind O4 stars analysed by Bouret et al. (2005, A&A, 438, 301). The predictions agree with the sharply reduced mass loss rates found when Bouret et al. take wind clumping into account.

  1. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  2. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  3. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) Arctic Campaign (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafimovich, A.; Metzger, S.; Hartmann, J.; Kohnert, K.; Sachs, T.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most pressing questions with regard to climate feedback processes in a warming Arctic is the regional-scale methane release from Arctic permafrost areas. The Airborne Measurements of Methane Fluxes (AIRMETH) campaign is designed to quantitatively and spatially explicitly address this question. Ground-based eddy covariance (EC) measurements provide continuous in-situ observations of the surface-atmosphere exchange of methane. However, these observations are rare in the Arctic permafrost zone and site selection is bound by logistical constraints among others. Consequently, these observations cover only small areas that are not necessarily representative of the region of interest. Airborne measurements can overcome this limitation by covering distances of hundreds of kilometers over time periods of a few hours. Here, we present the potential of environmental response functions (ERFs) for quantitatively linking methane flux observations in the atmospheric surface layer to meteorological and biophysical drivers in the flux footprints. For this purpose thousands of kilometers of AIRMETH data across the Alaskan North Slope are utilized, with the aim to extrapolate the airborne EC methane flux observations to the entire North Slope. The data were collected aboard the research aircraft POLAR 5, using its turbulence nose boom and fast response methane and meteorological sensors. After thorough data pre-processing, Reynolds averaging is used to derive spatially integrated fluxes. To increase spatial resolution and to derive ERFs, we then use wavelet transforms of the original high-frequency data. This enables much improved spatial discretization of the flux observations, and the quantification of continuous and biophysically relevant land cover properties in the flux footprint of each observation. A machine learning technique is then employed to extract and quantify the functional relationships between the methane flux observations and the meteorological and

  4. Towards GERB Edition 2 TOA fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ipe, Alessandro; Baudrez, Edward; Clerbaux, Nicolas; Moreels, Johan; Urbain, Manon; Velazquez Blazquez, Almudena

    2016-04-01

    The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) dataset currently covers more than 10 years from 2004 and makes it an unique record for the climate and the numerical weather prediction scientific communities through assimilation in various models and climate studies. Indeed, the geostationary platform of this broadband radiometer flying together with the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) on board of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites allows to estimate TOA solar and thermal fluxes every 15 minutes at spatial resolutions upto 10 km (nadir). In this contribution, we will discuss the improvements that were developped for the Edition 1 post-processing. These includes terminator and sunglint modeling through scene identification extrapolation. Moreover, with the experience acquired by generating the Edition 1 dataset as well as through its critical assessment, an improved Edition 2 of the processing is been implemented. This second version aims to fulfill climate data record standards. Such goal will be achieved by improving the scene identification for the selection of solar angular dependency models (ADMs), the solar and thermal narrow-to-broadband conversion schemes, as well as including new thermal ADMs for radiance-to-flux conversion and GERB instrument ageing correction schemes.

  5. Methane flux from the central Amazonian floodplain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, Karen B.; Crill, Patrick M.; Sebacher, Daniel I.; Harriss, Robert C.; Wilson, John O.

    1988-01-01

    A total of 186 methane measurements from the three primary Amazon floodplain environments of open water lakes, flood forests, and floating grass mats were made over the period 18 July through 2 September 1985. These data indicate that emissions were lowest over open water lakes. Flux from flooded forests and grass mats was significantly higher. At least three transport processes contribute to tropospheric emissions: ebullition from sediments, diffusion along the concentration gradient from sediment to overlaying water to air, and transport through the roots and stems of aquatic plants. Measurements indicate that the first two of these processes are most significant. It was estimated that on the average bubbling makes up 49 percent of the flux from open water, 54 percent of that from flooded forests, and 64 percent of that from floating mats. If the measurements were applied to the entire Amazonian floodplain, it is calculated that the region could supply up to 12 percent of the estimated global natural sources of methane.

  6. Magnetic flux submergence in the photosphere: A target for DKIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Pillet, Valentin

    2016-05-01

    While magnetic flux emergence is ubiquitous on the Sun and relatively well observed, the opposite process, flux submergence, is elusive. In the absence of large-scale submergence processes, it has always been assumed that submergence occurs at granular or smaller scales. Models that explain flux rope and filament formation near neutral lines, specifically need small-scale submergence. The same is true for dynamo models that propose the repair of the large-scale toroidal tubes after they have emerged to the surface. However, the detection of field lines being pulled back down into the solar photosphere has escaped clear detection. In this work, I demonstrate that DKIST capabilities are uniquely tailored to observe and characterize small-scale flux submergence, if it indeed happens on the Sun. By searching for transverse fields at small scales and studying their Doppler shifts, an understanding of the nature of flux submergence can be achieved. Such studies are particularly relevant near magnetic neutral lines where filaments are formed though poorly understood processes.

  7. Seasonal and diurnal variation in CO fluxes from an agricultural bioenergy crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlatie, Mari; Rannik, Üllar; Haapanala, Sami; Peltola, Olli; Shurpali, Narasinha; Martikainen, Pertti J.; Lind, Saara; Hyvönen, Niina; Virkajärvi, Perttu; Zahniser, Mark; Mammarella, Ivan

    2016-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important reactive trace gas in the atmosphere, while its sources and sinks in the biosphere are poorly understood. Soils are generally considered as a sink of CO due to microbial oxidation processes, while emissions of CO have been reported from a wide range of soil-plant systems. We measured CO fluxes using the micrometeorological eddy covariance method from a bioenergy crop (reed canary grass) in eastern Finland from April to November 2011. Continuous flux measurements allowed us to assess the seasonal and diurnal variability and to compare the CO fluxes to simultaneously measured net ecosystem exchange of CO2, N2O and heat fluxes as well as to relevant meteorological, soil and plant variables in order to investigate factors driving the CO exchange.The reed canary grass (RCG) crop was a net source of CO from mid-April to mid-June and a net sink throughout the rest of the measurement period from mid-June to November 2011, excluding a measurement break in July. CO fluxes had a distinct diurnal pattern with a net CO uptake in the night and a net CO emission during the daytime with a maximum emission at noon. This pattern was most pronounced in spring and early summer. During this period the most significant relationships were found between CO fluxes and global radiation, net radiation, sensible heat flux, soil heat flux, relative humidity, N2O flux and net ecosystem exchange. The strong positive correlation between CO fluxes and radiation suggests abiotic CO production processes, whereas the relationship between CO fluxes and net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and night-time CO fluxes and N2O emissions indicate biotic CO formation and microbial CO uptake respectively. The study shows a clear need for detailed process studies accompanied by continuous flux measurements of CO exchange to improve the understanding of the processes associated with CO exchange.

  8. Automated calculation of surface energy fluxes with high-frequency lake buoy data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolway, R Iestyn; Jones, Ian D; Hamilton, David P.; Maberly, Stephen C; Muroaka, Kohji; Read, Jordan S.; Smyth, Robyn L; Winslow, Luke A.

    2015-01-01

    Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is a program used for calculating the surface energy fluxes in lakes according to established literature methodologies. The program was developed in MATLAB for the rapid analysis of high-frequency data from instrumented lake buoys in support of the emerging field of aquatic sensor network science. To calculate the surface energy fluxes, the program requires a number of input variables, such as air and water temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and short-wave radiation. Available outputs for Lake Heat Flux Analyzer include the surface fluxes of momentum, sensible heat and latent heat and their corresponding transfer coefficients, incoming and outgoing long-wave radiation. Lake Heat Flux Analyzer is open source and can be used to process data from multiple lakes rapidly. It provides a means of calculating the surface fluxes using a consistent method, thereby facilitating global comparisons of high-frequency data from lake buoys.

  9. Comparisons of Earthward Poynting flux and the kinetic energy flux of up-flowing transversely heated ions from the Polar spacecraft on cusp magnetic field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, S.; Wygant, J. R.; Cattell, C. A.; Scudder, J. D.; Mozer, F.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents estimates of the Poynting flux flowing along magnetic field lines in the Earth's cusp region over altitudes from 0.8 Re to 7 Re using measurements during several passes from the Polar spacecraft. The Poynting flux is calculated from measurements of electric fields from the University of California, Berkeley double probe electric field instrument, and from magnetic field measurements from the U.C.L.A. fluxgate magnetometer. The estimates of Poynting flux are of special interest because the high altitude mapping of the cusp magnetic flux tubes may connect to newly reconnected field lines and the low altitude mapping of these field lines is the scene of powerful acceleration processes, most notably transverse heating and outflow of ions. The data show that the Poynting flux is predominantly downward over the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 Hz . This frequency range includes the Poynting flux due to steady state convection and field-aligned current systems, Alfven waves, and kinetic Alfven waves. Measurement of transversely heated ions over the energy ranges from 10 eV to several keV and their associated ion kinetic energy flux are presented from the University of Iowa Hydra instrument and compared to the values of the downward Poynting flux. Generally the downward Poynting flux exceeds the upward kinetic energy flux of the ions.

  10. Software applications toward quantitative metabolic flux analysis and modeling.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Thomas; Fieselmann, Astrid; Majeed, Saman; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites and their pathways are central for adaptation and survival. Metabolic modeling elucidates in silico all the possible flux pathways (flux balance analysis, FBA) and predicts the actual fluxes under a given situation, further refinement of these models is possible by including experimental isotopologue data. In this review, we initially introduce the key theoretical concepts and different analysis steps in the modeling process before comparing flux calculation and metabolite analysis programs such as C13, BioOpt, COBRA toolbox, Metatool, efmtool, FiatFlux, ReMatch, VANTED, iMAT and YANA. Their respective strengths and limitations are discussed and compared to alternative software. While data analysis of metabolites, calculation of metabolic fluxes, pathways and their condition-specific changes are all possible, we highlight the considerations that need to be taken into account before deciding on a specific software. Current challenges in the field include the computation of large-scale networks (in elementary mode analysis), regulatory interactions and detailed kinetics, and these are discussed in the light of powerful new approaches.

  11. Fluxes across a thermohaline interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, M.; Lueck, R. G.

    1991-07-01

    Measurements of velocity and temperature microstructure and hydrography were made with a towed vehicle moving in and around a single interface in a double-diffusive staircase. The interface was traversed 222 times in a saw-tooth pattern over a track 35 km long. The salinity and potential temperature and density in the mixed layers adjacent to the interface were spatially uniform except for one 8 km long anomaly. The rate of dissipation of kinetic energy was uniformly low in the interface and in the mixed layers, except for one section 600 m long where a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability generated turbulence. For the non-turbulent section of the interface, the mean rate of dissipation was 30.2 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the mixed layers and 9.5 × 10 -10 W kg -1 in the interface. The non-dimensional dissipation rate, ɛ/vN 2, was almost always less than 16 in the interface and therfore, there was no turblent buoyancy flux according to ROHRet al. (1988, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 195, 77-111). The average double-diffusive flux of buoyancy by heat was 3.6 × 10 -10 W kg -1. Under certain assumptions the ratio of the flux of buoyancy by heat and salt can be estimated to be 0.53 ± 0.10, in good agreement with laboratory and theoretical estimates for salt fingers. The average Cox number was about 8 in the interface, consistent with the theories of STERN (1975, Ocean circulation physics, Academic Press) and KUNZE (1987, Journal of Marine Research, 45 533-556), but displayed an inverse dependence on the vertical temperature gradient which was not predicted. As a result, the flux of buoyancy, as well as the individual contributions by heat and salt, were independent of the local mean vertical temperature gradient and the buoyancy frequency. The length of the turbulent section of the interface was only 1.7% of the total length observed. However, the turbulence was intense—the mean rate of dissipation was 2.5 × 10 -8 W kg -1—and may have sufficiently enhanced the flux of heat to

  12. Origin of flux ropes in Venus' ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Keith D.

    1994-08-01

    The joule dissipation inside flux ropes in Venus' ionosphere is so great that they must be formed near, and maintained at, the place where they are observed. Thus ropes are not formed by a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the ionopause. The hypothesis that ropes may be formed by the dynamo action of internal gravity waves in Venus' thermosphere (Luhmann and Elphic, 1985; Cole, 1993) is strengthened by discussion of a magnetic evolution equation which includes neutral air motion. However, the dynamo process would work only at altitudes at which vin is greater than or equal to omegai. At altitudes or parts of a rope where vin is much less than omegai, the process does not work. A solar wind dynamo is therefore examined to account for the ropes. Thereby a major new heat source for ions of the Venus ionosphere associated with the ropes is uncovered.

  13. An odor flux model for cattle feedlots

    SciTech Connect

    Ormerod, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    Odor nuisance associated with cattle feedlots has been an issue of major interest and concern to regulators, rural communities and the beef industry in Australia over the past decade. Methods of assessing the likely impacts of new feedlots on community odor exposure are still being developed, but in the past few years much has been learnt about the processes of odor generation, flux and dispersion as well as the acceptability of feedlot odor to exposed communities. This paper outlines a model which simulates the complex physical and chemical processes leading to odor emissions in a simple and practical framework. The model, named BULSMEL, has been developed as a response to regulatory requirements for quantitative assessments of odor impact. It will continue to be refined as more data are gathered.

  14. Evaluating Surface Flux Results from CERES-FLASHFlux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, A. C.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Kratz, D. P.; Gupta, S. K.; Sawaengphokhai, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Fast Longwave and Shortwave Radiative Flux (FLASHFlux) data product was developed to provide a rapid release version of the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) results, which could be made available to the research and applications communities within one week of the satellite observations by exchanging some accuracy for speed of processing. TOA and surface flux products are provided for each CERES footprint (Single Scanner Footprint - SSF) and also time integrated and spatially averaged (TISA) to provide global daily averaged quantities. Despite the use of the most recently available calibration coefficients and operational inputs that are different from CERES formal climate quality data products, FLASHFlux has been found to provide results that compare very favorably with the CERES results. The TISA results from the FLASHFlux highly parameterized models are compared to the surface fluxes from CERES-EBAF, which uses a radiative transfer model, for the time period when both products are available. The FLASHFlux surface data products also have been found to give accurate surface flux results when compared to ground measurements. We present validation of both footprint-level and time-space averaged surface fluxes against ground measurements. Validation is done for both longwave (LW) and shortwave (SW) surface fluxes. The surface radiation measurements for land and island sites are collected from multiple networks, including the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM). In the US, the NOAA SURFRAD network provides surface flux data products within a day of measurement and these are optimal for FLASHFlux validation. Ocean buoy measurements are from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Overall bias for the SSF downward LW flux has been found to be about 6 Wm-2. For SW the bias is about 3 Wm-2. Clear and cloudy sky conditions will be evaluated separately. Validation is also examined by surface type.

  15. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.

  16. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; et al

    2016-06-10

    In muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ~10% due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We also isolated a sample of 135±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux frommore » 9% to 6%. Finally, our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.« less

  17. Absolute flux scale for radioastronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.P.; Stankevich, K.S.

    1986-07-01

    The authors propose and provide support for a new absolute flux scale for radio astronomy, which is not encumbered with the inadequacies of the previous scales. In constructing it the method of relative spectra was used (a powerful tool for choosing reference spectra). A review is given of previous flux scales. The authors compare the AIS scale with the scale they propose. Both scales are based on absolute measurements by the ''artificial moon'' method, and they are practically coincident in the range from 0.96 to 6 GHz. At frequencies above 6 GHz, 0.96 GHz, the AIS scale is overestimated because of incorrect extrapolation of the spectra of the primary and secondary standards. The major results which have emerged from this review of absolute scales in radio astronomy are summarized.

  18. Flux Quantization Without Cooper Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadin, Alan

    2013-03-01

    It is universally accepted that the superconducting flux quantum h/2e requires the existence of a phase-coherent macroscopic wave function of Cooper pairs, each with charge 2e. On the contrary, we assert that flux quantization can be better understood in terms of single-electron quantum states, localized on the scale of the coherence length and organized into a real-space phase-antiphase structure. This packing configuration is consistent with the Pauli exclusion principle for single-electron states, maintains long-range phase coherence, and is compatible with much of the BCS formalism. This also accounts for h/2e in the Josephson effect, without Cooper pairs. Experimental evidence for this alternative picture may be found in deviations from h/2e in loops and devices much smaller than the coherence length. A similar phase-antiphase structure may also account for superfluids, without the need for boson condensation.

  19. Heisenberg groups and noncommutative fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Daniel S. . E-mail: dafr@math.utexas.edu; Moore, Gregory W.; Segal, Graeme

    2007-01-15

    We develop a group-theoretical approach to the formulation of generalized abelian gauge theories, such as those appearing in string theory and M-theory. We explore several applications of this approach. First, we show that there is an uncertainty relation which obstructs simultaneous measurement of electric and magnetic flux when torsion fluxes are included. Next, we show how to define the Hilbert space of a self-dual field. The Hilbert space is Z{sub 2}-graded and we show that, in general, self-dual theories (including the RR fields of string theory) have fermionic sectors. We indicate how rational conformal field theories associated to the two-dimensional Gaussian model generalize to (4k+2)-dimensional conformal field theories. When our ideas are applied to the RR fields of string theory we learn that it is impossible to measure the K-theory class of a RR field. Only the reduction modulo torsion can be measured.

  20. Magnetic Flux Compression Experiments Using Plasma Armatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, M. W.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic flux compression reaction chambers offer considerable promise for controlling the plasma flow associated with various micronuclear/chemical pulse propulsion and power schemes, primarily because they avoid thermalization with wall structures and permit multicycle operation modes. The major physical effects of concern are the diffusion of magnetic flux into the rapidly expanding plasma cloud and the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the plasma surface, both of which can severely degrade reactor efficiency and lead to plasma-wall impact. A physical parameter of critical importance to these underlying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes is the magnetic Reynolds number (R(sub m), the value of which depends upon the product of plasma electrical conductivity and velocity. Efficient flux compression requires R(sub m) less than 1, and a thorough understanding of MHD phenomena at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is essential to the reliable design and operation of practical reactors. As a means of improving this understanding, a simplified laboratory experiment has been constructed in which the plasma jet ejected from an ablative pulse plasma gun is used to investigate plasma armature interaction with magnetic fields. As a prelude to intensive study, exploratory experiments were carried out to quantify the magnetic Reynolds number characteristics of the plasma jet source. Jet velocity was deduced from time-of-flight measurements using optical probes, and electrical conductivity was measured using an inductive probing technique. Using air at 27-inHg vacuum, measured velocities approached 4.5 km/s and measured conductivities were in the range of 30 to 40 kS/m.

  1. Intercomparison results for FIFE flux aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. I.; Grossman, R. L.; Kelly, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Three atmospheric research aircraft were used to explore the atmospheric boundary layer during FIFE: the National Research Council of Canada Twin Otter, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) King Air, and the University of Wyoming King Air. The aircraft were used to measure the mean and turbulent structure of the boundary layer and its variation with height, time, and space. These measurements are important to FIFE because they are being used to scale up point surface observations to landscape scales and because they can be used to relate satellite radiance measurements to boundary layer processes. Because the aircraft were used in coordinated flight patterns to investigate changes within and between intensive field campaigns, wing-to-wing intercomparisons were made so that measurements from one aircraft could be related to another. Intercomparisons were flown on 4 days in 1987 and 3 days in 1989. The eddy correlation measurements of the mixed layer fluxes of moisture and sensible heat were of particular interest to FIFE. Sensible heat fluxes agreed within 15 W/sq m and moisture fluxes agreed within 21 W/sq m. Mean wind component differences were within 1.0 m/s, air temperature within 0.3 C, and mixing ratio within 2 g/kg. Standard deviations showed similar good agreement, with mean differences generally less than 0.1 m/s for the wind components and 0.03 C for potential temperature. Intercomparisons between the NCAR King Air and the Twin Otter showed better agreement in 1989 than in 1987. Overall, the results suggest that data from the FIFE boundary layer aircraft will need little correction to account for instrument biases and spurious fluctuations.

  2. Metabolic fuels: regulating fluxes to select mix.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-15

    Animals must regulate the fluxes of multiple fuels to support changing metabolic rates that result from variation in physiological circumstances. The aim of fuel selection strategies is to exploit the advantages of individual substrates while minimizing the impact of disadvantages. All exercising mammals share a general pattern of fuel selection: at the same %V(O(2,max)) they oxidize the same ratio of lipids to carbohydrates. However, highly aerobic species rely more on intramuscular fuels because energy supply from the circulation is constrained by trans-sarcolemmal transfer. Fuel selection is performed by recruiting different muscles, different fibers within the same muscles or different pathways within the same fibers. Electromyographic analyses show that shivering humans can modulate carbohydrate oxidation either through the selective recruitment of type II fibers within the same muscles or by regulating pathway recruitment within type I fibers. The selection patterns of shivering and exercise are different: at the same %V(O(2,max)), a muscle producing only heat (shivering) or significant movement (exercise) strikes a different balance between lipid and carbohydrate oxidation. Long-distance migrants provide an excellent model to characterize how to increase maximal substrate fluxes. High lipid fluxes are achieved through the coordinated upregulation of mobilization, transport and oxidation by activating enzymes, lipid-solubilizing proteins and membrane transporters. These endurance athletes support record lipolytic rates in adipocytes, use lipoprotein shuttles to accelerate transport and show increased capacity for lipid oxidation in muscle mitochondria. Some migrant birds use dietary omega-3 fatty acids as performance-enhancing agents to boost their ability to process lipids. These dietary fatty acids become incorporated in membrane phospholipids and bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors to activate membrane proteins and modify gene expression.

  3. Integrating Aircraft, Tower fluxes, MODIS and Biome-BGC to Study Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Fluxes over Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Y.; Oechel, W. C.; Zulueta, R. C.; Verfaillie, J.; Kwon, H.; Heinsch, F.; Kimball, J.

    2003-12-01

    To understand carbon and water dynamics of susceptible Arctic Tundra ecosystem, intensive and integrated methods are implemented on the North Slope of Artic Alaska, including eddy covariance, remote sensing and ecosystem models. Tower-based eddy covariance instruments have strongly ability to measure long-term temporal trend, and aircraft-based flux measurements is able to assess spatial variations efficiently. Both of complemental measurements have been used on this region for several years. The Aircraft (Sky Arrow ERA 650) with eddy covariance and remote sensors flied at 100 km scale over 115 hours in 2001. The aircraft fluxes are compared to tower fluxes at Barrow, Atqasuk and potable tower. The correlation of aircraft fluxes and MODIS NDVI, EVI and LAI are addressed. MODIS GPP, PSN, NPP are validated by tower measurement at long-term temporal scale and by aircraft measurement at larger spatial scale. The process-based ecosystem model, Biome-BGC, is run at five sites: Barrow, Atqasuk, Ivotuk, Toolik Lake, Prudhoe Bay. While the model can computer components of CO2 flux that cannot be directly monitored, the comparisons of model outputs and aircraft, tower measurements are used to help improve the model estimate ability. The intercomparison of model and MODIS is also discussed in this paper. Key words: Arctic tundra, trace-gas flux, aircraft-based, eddy covariance, MODIS, Biome-BGC

  4. SQUID With Integral Flux Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    In improved superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), change in size and shape of superconducting ring improves coupling to external signal coil and eases coil-positioning tolerances. More rugged and easier to manufacture than conventional SQUID's with comparable electrical characteristics. Thin-film superconducting flux concentrator utilizes Meissner effect to deflect magnetic field of signal coil into central hole of SQUID. Used in magnetometers, ammeters, analog-to-digital converters, and related electronic applications in which high signal-to-noise ratios required.

  5. Recent Solar-Proton Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    The event-integrated fluences of energetic solar protons up to 2004 at the Earth have been determined and compared to previous data. The current solar cycle has been very active, and very large fluxes of solar protons have been observed that have had serious effects in the solar system and will have produced many radionuclides in the surfaces of meteorites. Such huge events are not expected again until about 2008 or 2009.

  6. Structural Control of Metabolic Flux

    PubMed Central

    Sajitz-Hermstein, Max; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have to continuously adapt to changing environmental conditions or undergo developmental transitions. To meet the accompanying change in metabolic demands, the molecular mechanisms of adaptation involve concerted interactions which ultimately induce a modification of the metabolic state, which is characterized by reaction fluxes and metabolite concentrations. These state transitions are the effect of simultaneously manipulating fluxes through several reactions. While metabolic control analysis has provided a powerful framework for elucidating the principles governing this orchestrated action to understand metabolic control, its applications are restricted by the limited availability of kinetic information. Here, we introduce structural metabolic control as a framework to examine individual reactions' potential to control metabolic functions, such as biomass production, based on structural modeling. The capability to carry out a metabolic function is determined using flux balance analysis (FBA). We examine structural metabolic control on the example of the central carbon metabolism of Escherichia coli by the recently introduced framework of functional centrality (FC). This framework is based on the Shapley value from cooperative game theory and FBA, and we demonstrate its superior ability to assign “share of control” to individual reactions with respect to metabolic functions and environmental conditions. A comparative analysis of various scenarios illustrates the usefulness of FC and its relations to other structural approaches pertaining to metabolic control. We propose a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate FCs for large networks, based on the enumeration of elementary flux modes. We further give detailed biological interpretation of FCs for production of lactate and ATP under various respiratory conditions. PMID:24367246

  7. Measurement and modelling of methane fluxes from UK peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, P. E.; Gray, A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly 5000 chamber measurements of CH4 flux were collated from 21 sites across the UK, covering a range of soil and vegetation types, to derive a parsimonious model that explains as much of the variability as possible, with the least input requirements. Less than half of the observed variability in instantaneous fluxes could be explained by the independent variables measured. Measurement error is one reason for this, and here we analyse several of the uncertainties inherent in these measurements, including the choice of model used to calculate the flux. Other reasons include the stochastic nature of some of the transport processes and the poor correspondence between the independent variables measured and the actual variables influencing the processes underlying methane production, transport and oxidation. Alternative measurement methods are considered which may circumvent some of these problems. When temporal variation was removed, and the fluxes averaged at larger spatial scales, simple models explained up to ~75 % of the variance in CH4 fluxes. Soil carbon, peat depth, soil moisture and pH together provided the best sub-set of explanatory variables. To estimate the impact of changes in peatland water table on CH4 emissions in the UK, an emission factor of +0.4 g CH4 m-2 y-1 per cm increase in water table was derived from the data. As an alternative approach, vegetation species composition provides a long-term integrator of environmental conditions, which may correlate with methane flux. Here, we used a "weighted averaging" approach to predict methane flux from plant species composition at a range of sites in the UK, continental Europe and Canada. Species were classified into functional groups, defined by a number of qualitative traits considered relevant to methane dynamics. We compared the results based on this functional classification with those based on the original species composition data with a purely taxonomic classification.

  8. HOMOLOGOUS FLUX ROPES OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2013-12-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory observations of four homologous flux ropes in the active region (AR) 11745 on 2013 May 20-22. The four flux ropes are all above the neutral line of the AR, with endpoints anchoring at the same region, and have a generally similar morphology. The first three flux ropes rose with a velocity of less than 30 km s{sup –1} after their appearance, and subsequently their intensities at 131 Å decreased and the flux ropes became obscure. The fourth flux rope erupted last, with a speed of about 130 km s{sup –1} and formed a coronal mass ejection (CME). The associated filament showed an obvious anti-clockwise twist motion at the initial stage, and the twist was estimated at 4π. This indicates that kink instability possibly triggers the early rise of the fourth flux rope. The activated filament material was spatially within the flux rope and showed consistent evolution in the early stages. Our findings provide new clues for understanding the characteristics of flux ropes. Firstly, multiple flux ropes are successively formed at the same location during an AR evolution process. Secondly, a slow-rise flux rope does not necessarily result in a CME, and a fast-eruption flux rope does result in a CME.

  9. Controlling VUV photon fluxes in low-pressure inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Peng; Kushner, Mark J.

    2015-06-01

    Low-pressure (a few to hundreds of millitorrs) inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), as typically used in microelectronics fabrication, often produce vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photon fluxes onto surfaces comparable to or exceeding the magnitude of ion fluxes. These VUV photon fluxes are desirable in applications such as sterilization of medical equipment but are unwanted in many materials fabrication processes due to damage to the devices by the high-energy photons. Under specific conditions, VUV fluxes may stimulate etching or synergistically combine with ion fluxes to modify polymeric materials. In this regard, it is desirable to control the magnitude of VUV fluxes or the ratio of VUV fluxes to those of other reactive species, such as ions, or to discretely control the VUV spectrum. In this paper, we discuss results from a computational investigation of VUV fluxes from low-pressure ICPs sustained in rare gas mixtures. The control of VUV fluxes through the use of pressure, pulsed power, and gas mixture is discussed. We found that the ratio, β, of VUV photon to ion fluxes onto surfaces generally increases with increasing pressure. When using pulsed plasmas, the instantaneous value of β can vary by a factor of 4 or more during the pulse cycle due to the VUV flux more closely following the pulsed power.

  10. Estimating correlations of CO and CO2 surface fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, B.; Pawson, S.; Ott, L. E.; Wargan, K.; Nielsen, J.; Todling, R.

    2014-12-01

    Increased understanding of the processes controlling biospheric CO2 flux isnecessary for improved climate projections. While satellite CO2 observationsare expected to better constrain surface sources and sinks, separatingbiospheric and anthropogenic fluxes is particularly challenging. Correlationsbetween CO and CO2 can help to differentiate between different types offluxes, but a more thorough understanding of these correlations is stillneeded. This presentation discusses the estimation of, and the correspondinguncertainty about, correlations between CO and CO2 surface fluxes in givenregions during given periods of time. The estimates follow from statisticaldiagnostics, including those popularized by Desrozies et al. (2005), appliedto the results of model simulations and assimilations of constituentmeasurements, notably data from satellites, in situ sites, and the TotalCarbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Nevertheless, the usefulness ofthese estimates is limited by their uncertainty, a property that depends onthe spatial and temporal resolution of the surface fluxes. This workconsiders a variety of different divisions of space (e.g., Global, land andsea, and Transcom regions) and time (e.g., total, seasonal, and monthly) andexamines the conclusions that can be drawn from the correlation estimates.For example, the correlation coefficient can give some indication of thecombustion efficiency of emissions from different regions, or it may suggestthat the surface fluxes of the two constituents are from two differentprocesses. This investigation is used to improve the diagnosis of biosphericflux processes in the GEOS-5 modeling system.

  11. Energetic particle characteristics of magnetotail flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    During the recent ISEE-3 Geotail Mission three events have been identified from the magnetometer data which are consistent with a spacecraft crossing of a magnetotail flux rope. Energetic electron and proton observations obtained by the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland sensor system during two of the possible flux rope events are presented. During one event remote sensing of the flux rope with energetic protons reveals that the flux rope is crossed by the spacecraft from south to north. This allows determination of the bandedness of the magnetic field twist and of the flux rope velocity relative to the spacecraft. A minimal flux rope radius of 3 earth radii is derived. Energetic proton intensity is highest just inside of the flux rope and decreases towards the core. Energetic electrons are streaming tailward near the outer boundary, indicating openness of the field lines, and are isotropic through the inner part of the flux rope.

  12. Vertical transport and sources in flux models

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical transport in flux models in examined and shown to reproduce expected limits for densities and fluxes. Disparities with catalog distributions are derived and inverted to find the sources required to rectify them.

  13. Production of fullerenes with concentrated solar flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, M. J.; Fields, C.; Lewandowski, A.; Bingham, C.; Pitts, R.

    1994-01-01

    Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has demonstrated that fullerenes can be produced using highly concentrated sunlight from a solar furnace. Since they were first synthesized in 1989, fullerenes have been the subject of intense research. They show considerable commercial potential in advanced materials and have potential applications that include semiconductors, superconductors, high-performance metals, and medical technologies. The most common fullerene is C60, which is a molecule with a geometry resembling a soccer ball. Graphite vaporization methods such as pulsed-laser vaporization, resistive heating, and carbon arc have been used to produce fullerenes. None of these, however, seems capable of producing fullerenes economically on a large scale. The use of concentrated sunlight may help avoid the scale-up limitations inherent in more established production processes. Recently, researchers at NREL made fullerenes in NREL's 10 kW high flux solar furnace (HFSF) with a vacuum reaction chamber designed to deliver a solar flux of 1200 W/sq cm to a graphite pellet. Analysis of the resulting carbon soot by mass spectrometry and high pressure liquid chromatography confirmed the existence of fullerenes. This paper presents the method, experimental apparatus, and results of fullerene production research performed with the HFSF.

  14. Regulation of flux through metabolic cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, K.

    1984-01-01

    The branchpoint of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate shunt was characterized in the intact organism by a multidimensional approach. Theory and methodology were developed to determine velocities for the net flow of carbon through the major steps of acetate metabolism in E. coli. Rates were assigned based on the /sup 13/C-NMR spectrum of intracellular glutamate, measured rates of substrate incorporation into end products, the constituent composition of E. coli and a series of conservation equations which described the system at steady state. The in vivo fluxes through the branchpoint of the tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles were compared to rates calculated from the kinetic constants of the branchpoint enzymes and the intracellular concentrations of their substrates. These studies elucidated the role of isocitrate dehydrogenase phosphorylation in the Krebs cycle and led to the development of a generalized mathematical description of the sensitivity of branchpoints to regulatory control. This theoretical analysis was termed the branchpoint effect and it describes conditions which result in large changes in the flux through an enzyme even though that enzyme is not subject to direct regulatory control. The theoretical and experimental characterization of this system provided a framework to study the effects of enzyme overproduction and underproduction on metabolic processes in the cell. An in vivo method was developed to determine the extent to which an enzyme catalyzes a rate-controlling reaction. The enzyme chosen for this study was citrate synthase.

  15. CRTF Real-Time Aperture Flux system

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Real-Time Aperture Flux system (TRAF) is a test measurement system designed to determine the input power/unit area (flux density) during solar experiments conducted at the Central Receiver Test Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The RTAF is capable of using both thermal sensors and photon sensors to determine the flux densities in the RTAF measuring plane. These data are manipulated in various ways to derive input power and flux density distribution to solar experiments.

  16. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions. PMID:20398381

  17. Force sensor using changes in magnetic flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Herman L. (Inventor); Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A force sensor includes a magnetostrictive material and a magnetic field generator positioned in proximity thereto. A magnetic field is induced in and surrounding the magnetostrictive material such that lines of magnetic flux pass through the magnetostrictive material. A sensor positioned in the vicinity of the magnetostrictive material measures changes in one of flux angle and flux density when the magnetostrictive material experiences an applied force that is aligned with the lines of magnetic flux.

  18. Flux balance analysis accounting for metabolite dilution.

    PubMed

    Benyamini, Tomer; Folger, Ori; Ruppin, Eytan; Shlomi, Tomer

    2010-01-01

    Flux balance analysis is a common method for predicting steady-state flux distributions within metabolic networks, accounting for the growth demand for the synthesis of a predefined set of essential biomass precursors. Ignoring the growth demand for the synthesis of intermediate metabolites required for balancing their dilution leads flux balance analysis to false predictions in some cases. Here, we present metabolite dilution flux balance analysis, which addresses this problem, resulting in improved metabolic phenotype predictions.

  19. EVALUATION OF NANOFILTRATION PRETREATMENTS FOR FLUX LOSS CONTROL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The loss of membrane flux due to fouling is a major impediment to the development of membrane processes for use in drinking water treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate fouling in nanofiltration (NF) pilot systems fed conventionally-treated (coagulation/sedimentati...

  20. Magnetic flux concentrations from turbulent stratified convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käpylä, P. J.; Brandenburg, A.; Kleeorin, N.; Käpylä, M. J.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2016-04-01

    effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI). Simulations in which a passive vector field is evolved do not show a noticeable difference from magnetohydrodynamic runs in terms of the growth of the structures. Furthermore, we find that magnetic flux is concentrated in regions of converging flow corresponding to large-scale supergranulation convection pattern. Conclusions: The linear growth of large-scale flux concentrations implies that their dominant formation process is a tangling of the large-scale field rather than an instability. One plausible mechanism that can explain both the linear growth and the concentration of the flux in the regions of converging flow pattern is flux expulsion. A possible reason for the absence of NEMPI is that the derivative of the effective magnetic pressure with respect to the mean magnetic field has an unfavourable sign. Furthermore, there may not be sufficient scale separation, which is required for NEMPI to work. Movies associated to Figs. 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. What are Up, Down and Net Fluxes?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... is of particular interest. Hence the term "Up" and "Down" for characterizing the direction of flow of radiative fluxes at a ... level. Moreover, by counting in or out these "Up" and "Down" energy fluxes, one can define a "Net" flux that is ultimately ...

  2. Apparatus for measuring a flux of neutrons

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    A flux of neutrons is measured by disposing a detector in the flux and applying electronic correlation techniques to discriminate between the electrical signals generated by the neutron detector and the unwanted interfering electrical signals generated by the incidence of a neutron flux upon the cables connecting the detector to the electronic measuring equipment at a remote location.

  3. Toroidal flow and radial particle flux in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callen, J. D.; Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.

    2009-08-01

    Many effects influence toroidal flow evolution in tokamak plasmas. Momentum sources and radial plasma transport due to collisional processes and microturbulence-induced anomalous transport are usually considered. In addition, toroidal flow can be affected by nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields; resonant components cause localized electromagnetic toroidal torques near rational surfaces in flowing plasmas and nonresonant components induce "global" toroidal flow damping torque throughout the plasma. Also, poloidal magnetic field transients on the magnetic field diffusion time scale can influence plasma transport. Many of these processes can also produce momentum pinch and intrinsic flow effects. This paper presents a comprehensive and self-consistent description of all these effects within a fluid moment context. Plasma processes on successive time scales (and constraints they impose) are considered sequentially: compressional Alfvén waves (Grad-Shafranov equilibrium and ion radial force balance), sound waves (pressure constant along a field line and incompressible flows within a flux surface), and ion collisions (damping of poloidal flow). Finally, plasma transport across magnetic flux surfaces is induced by the many second order (in the small gyroradius expansion) toroidal torque effects indicated above. Nonambipolar components of the induced particle transport fluxes produce radial plasma currents. Setting the flux surface average of the net radial current induced by all these effects to zero yields the transport-time-scale equation for evolution of the plasma toroidal flow. It includes a combination of global toroidal flow damping and resonant torques induced by nonaxisymmetric magnetic field components, poloidal magnetic field transients, and momentum source effects, as well as the usual collision- and microturbulence-induced transport. On the transport time scale, the plasma toroidal rotation determines the radial electric field for net ambipolar particle transport

  4. Seasonality of Overstory and Understory Fluxes in a Semi-Arid Oak Savanna: What can be Learned from Comparing Measured and Modeled Fluxes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz-Yaseef, N.; Sonnentag, O.; Kobayashi, H.; Chen, J. M.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Ma, S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Semi-arid climates experience large seasonal and inter-annual variability in radiation and precipitation, creating natural conditions adequate to study how year-to-year changes affect atmosphere-biosphere fluxes. Especially, savanna ecosystems, that combine tree and below-canopy components, create a unique environment in which phenology dramatically changes between seasons. We used a 10-year flux database in order to define seasonal and interannual variability of climatic inputs and fluxes, and evaluate model capability to reproduce observed variability. This is based on the perception that model capability to construct the deviation, and not the average, is important in order to correctly predict ecosystem sensitivity to climate change. Our research site is a low density and low LAI (0.8) semi-arid savanna, located at Tonzi Ranch, Northern California. In this system, trees are active during the warm season (Mar - Oct), and grasses are active during the wet season (Dec - May). Measurements of carbon and water fluxes above and below the tree canopy using eddy covariance and supplementary measurements have been made since 2001. Fluxes were simulated using bio-meteorological process-oriented ecosystem models: BEPS and 3D-CAONAK. Models were partly capable of reproducing fluxes on daily scales (R2=0.66). We then compared model outputs for different ecosystem components and seasons, and found distinct seasons with high correlations while other seasons were purely represented. Comparison was much higher for ET than for GPP. The understory was better simulated than the overstory. CANOAK overestimated spring understory fluxes, probably due to the capability to directly calculated 3D radiative transfer. BEPS underestimated spring understory fluxes, following the pre-description of grass die-off. Both models underestimated peak spring overstory fluxes. During winter tree dormant, modeled fluxes were null, but occasional high fluxes of both ET and GPP were measured following

  5. Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Haddad, G. N.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute photon-flux measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet have extended to short wavelengths by use of rare-gas ionization chambers. The technique involves the measurement of the ion current as a function of the gas pressure in the ion chamber. The true value of the ion current, and hence the absolute photon flux, is obtained by extrapolating the ion current to zero gas pressure. Examples are given at 162 and 266 A. The short-wavelength limit is determined only by the sensitivity of the current-measuring apparatus and by present knowledge of the photoionization processes that occur in the rate gases.

  6. Forecasting relativistic electron flux using dynamic multiple regression models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.-L.; Billings, S. A.; Surjalal Sharma, A.; Wing, S.; Boynton, R. J.; Walker, S. N.

    2011-02-01

    The forecast of high energy electron fluxes in the radiation belts is important because the exposure of modern spacecraft to high energy particles can result in significant damage to onboard systems. A comprehensive physical model of processes related to electron energisation that can be used for such a forecast has not yet been developed. In the present paper a systems identification approach is exploited to deduce a dynamic multiple regression model that can be used to predict the daily maximum of high energy electron fluxes at geosynchronous orbit from data. It is shown that the model developed provides reliable predictions.

  7. Distributions of nonsupersymmetric flux vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denef, Frederik; Douglas, Michael R.

    2005-03-01

    We continue the study of the distribution of nonsupersymmetric flux vacua in IIb string theory compactified on Calabi-Yau manifolds, as in hep-th/0404116. We show that the basic structure of this problem is that of finding eigenvectors of the matrix of second derivatives of the superpotential, and that many features of the results are determined by features of the generic ensemble of such matrices, the CI ensemble of Altland and Zirnbauer originating in mesoscopic physics. We study some simple examples in detail, exhibiting various factors which can favor low or high scale supersymmetry breaking.

  8. Soil CO2 Flux in the Amargosa Desert, Nevada, during El Nino 1998 and La Nina 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, Alan C.; Stannard, David I.; Maestas, Florentino B.; Karlinger, Michael R.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Mean annual soil CO2 fluxes from normally bare mineral soil in the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada, United States, measured with clear and opaque soil CO2-flux chambers (autochambers) were small - <5 millimoles per square meter per day - during both El Nino 1998 and La Nina 1999. The 1998 opaque-chamber flux exceeded 1999 opaque-chamber flux by an order of magnitude, whereas the 1998 clear-chamber flux exceeded 1999 clear-chamber flux by less than a factor of two. These data suggest that above-normal soil moisture stimulated increased metabolic activity, but that much of the extra CO2 produced was recaptured by plants. Fluxes from warm moist soil were the largest sustained fluxes measured, and their hourly pattern is consistent with enhanced soil metabolic activity at some depth in the soil and photosynthetic uptake of a substantial portion of the CO2 released. Flux from cool moist soil was smaller than flux from warm moist soil. Flux from hot dry soil was intermediate between warm-moist and cool-moist fluxes, and clear-chamber flux was more than double the opaque-chamber flux, apparently due to a chamber artifact stemming from a thermally controlled CO2 reservoir near the soil surface. There was no demonstrable metabolic contribution to the very small flux from cool dry soil, which was dominated by diffusive up-flux of CO2 from the water table and temperature-controlled CO2-reservoir up- and down-fluxes. These flux patterns suggest that transfer of CO2 across the land surface is a complex process that is difficult to accurately measure.

  9. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-04-01

    While Earth Observation (EO) has made significant advances in the study of urban areas, there are several unanswered science and policy questions to which it could contribute. To this aim the recently launched Horizon 2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the heat flux resulting from vehicular emissions, space heating and cooling of buildings, industrial processing and the metabolic heat release by people. Optical, thermal and SAR data from existing satellite sensors are used to improve the accuracy of the radiation balance spatial distribution calculation, using also in-situ reflectance measurements of urban materials are for calibration. EO-based methods are developed for estimating turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as urban heat storage flux and anthropogenic heat flux spatial patterns at city scale and local scale by employing an energy budget closure approach. Independent methods and models are engaged to evaluate the derived products and statistical analyses provide uncertainty measures as well. Ultimate goal of the URBANFLUXES is to develop a highly automated method for estimating urban energy budget components to use with Copernicus Sentinel data, enabling its integration into applications and operational services. Thus, URBANFLUXES prepares the ground for further innovative exploitation of European space data in scientific activities (i.e. Earth system modelling and climate change studies in cities) and future and emerging applications (i.e. sustainable urban planning) by exploiting the improved data quality, coverage and revisit times of the Copernicus data. The URBANFLUXES products will therefore have the potential to support both sustainable planning strategies to improve the quality of life in cities, as well as Earth system models to

  10. Spatial Transport of Magnetic Flux Surfaces in Strongly Anisotropic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Oughton, S.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic flux surfaces afford familiar descriptions of spatial structure, dynamics, and connectivity of magnetic fields, with particular relevance in contexts such as solar coronal flux tubes, magnetic field connectivity in the interplanetary and interstellar medium, as well as in laboratory plasmas and dynamo problems [1-4]. Typical models assume that field-lines are orderly, and flux tubes remain identifiable over macroscopic distances; however, a previous study has shown that flux tubes shred in the presence of fluctuations, typically losing identity after several correlation scales [5]. Here, the structure of magnetic flux surfaces is numerically investigated in a reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) model of homogeneous turbulence. Short and long-wavelength behavior is studied statistically by propagating magnetic surfaces along the mean field. At small scales magnetic surfaces become complex, experiencing an exponential thinning. At large scales, instead, the magnetic flux undergoes a diffusive behavior. The link between the diffusion of the coarse-grained flux and field-line random walk is established by means of a multiple scale analysis. Both large and small scales limits are controlled by the Kubo number. These results have consequences for understanding and interpreting processes such as magnetic reconnection and field-line diffusion in plasmas [6]. [1] E. N. Parker, Cosmical Magnetic Fields (Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 1979). [2] J. R. Jokipii and E. N. Parker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 44 (1968). [3] R. Bruno et al., Planet. Space Sci. 49, 1201 (2001). [4] M. N. Rosenbluth et al., Nuclear Fusion 6, 297 (1966). [5] W. H. Matthaeus et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2136 (1995). [6] S. Servidio et al., submitted (2013).

  11. 2D and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta=1 level (i.e., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a low-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  12. 20 and 3D Numerical Simulations of Flux Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C.; Antiochos, S. K.; Linton, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Cancellation of magnetic flux in the solar photosphere and chromosphere has been linked observationally and theoretically to a broad range of solar activity, from filament channel formation to CME initiation. Because this phenomenon is typically measured at only a single layer in the atmosphere, in the radial (line of sight) component of the magnetic field, the actual processes behind this observational signature are ambiguous. It is clear that reconnection is involved in some way, but the location of the reconnection sites and associated connectivity changes remain uncertain in most cases. We are using numerical modeling to demystify flux cancellation, beginning with the simplest possible configuration: a subphotospheric Lundquist flux tube surrounded by a potential field, immersed in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere, spanning many orders of magnitude in plasma beta. In this system, cancellation is driven slowly by a 2-cell circulation pattern imposed in the convection zone, such that the tops of the cells are located around the beta= 1 level (Le., the photosphere) and the flows converge and form a downdraft at the polarity inversion line; note however that no flow is imposed along the neutral line. We will present the results of 2D and 3D MHD-AMR simulations of flux cancellation, in which the flux at the photosphere begins in either an unsheared or sheared state. In all cases, a lOW-lying flux rope is formed by reconnection at the polarity inversion line within a few thousand seconds. The flux rope remains stable and does not rise, however, in contrast to models which do not include the presence of significant mass loading.

  13. Flux emergence event underneath a filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, J.; Cerrato, Y.; Cid, C.; Guerrero, A.; Saiz, E.

    2015-10-01

    Flux emergence phenomena are relevant at different temporal and spatial scales. We have studied a flux emergence region underneath a filament. This filament elevated itself smoothly, and the associated CME reached the Earth. In this study we investigate the size and the amount of flux in the emergence event. The flux emergence site appeared just beneath a filament. The emergence acquired a size of 24 Mm in half a day. The unsigned magnetic flux density from LOS-magnetograms was around 1 kG at its maximum. The transverse field as well as the filament eruption were also analysed.

  14. Baroclinic adjustment. [parameterization of eddy flux effects on atmospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed comparison is presented of the actual shear in the atmosphere with the critical shear given by the two-layer model of Phillips (1954), in which there is a critical temperature gradient separating stable conditions from baroclinically unstable ones. A very simple parameterization of the effect of eddy fluxes on atmospheric temperature is suggested, where the parameterization includes beta effects. The parameterization is illustrated by applying it in a one-dimensional heat-balance climate model. Enhancement of the eddy flux in a continuous atmosphere under supercritical conditions is stressed. This enhancement leads to a negative feedback between the meridional eddy flux of heat and the meridional temperature gradient. The feedback restricts gradients to values near the critical value, a process referred to as baroclinic adjustment. This should facilitate the development of simple climate models involving feedbacks associated with both the meridional vertical temperature structure.

  15. Modeling of solvent and ionic fluxes in electronanofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pupunat, L.; Rios, G.M.; Joulie, R.

    1999-07-01

    Electronanofiltration (ENF) is a new membrane separation process that uses an additional electric field between the permeate and retentate sides during nanofiltration. A recently published pioneering work gives the performance with single and mixed ionic solutions containing one monovalent cation and one or two anions (mono-or/and divalent). It appears that the electric field leads to a net increase of cation flux and a decrease of anion permeation at the same time if the cathode is placed on the permeate side. In relation with the well-known dependence of solvent flux on transmembrane pressure, these data open up potential applications of ENF for new integrated operations of ion separation/concentration. In this paper a semiempirical model accounting for permeate and ionic fluxes is proposed. Based on the Sefan-Maxwell approach, a simple set of linearized equations is developed that fits experimental data at various transmembrane pressure ({Delta}P), electric fields ({Delta}U), and concentrations (C).

  16. Electronic Flux Density beyond the Born-Oppenheimer Approximation.

    PubMed

    Schild, Axel; Agostini, Federica; Gross, E K U

    2016-05-19

    In the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, the electronic wave function is typically real-valued and hence the electronic flux density (current density) seems to vanish. This is unfortunate for chemistry, because it precludes the possibility to monitor the electronic motion associated with the nuclear motion during chemical rearrangements from a Born-Oppenheimer simulation of the process. We study an electronic flux density obtained from a correction to the electronic wave function. This correction is derived via nuclear velocity perturbation theory applied in the framework of the exact factorization of electrons and nuclei. To compute the correction, only the ground state potential energy surface and the electronic wave function are needed. For a model system, we demonstrate that this electronic flux density approximates the true one very well, for coherent tunneling dynamics as well as for over-the-barrier scattering, and already for mass ratios between electrons and nuclei that are much larger than the true mass ratios.

  17. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  18. Numerical Analysis of a Radiant Heat Flux Calibration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Shanjuan; Horn, Thomas J.; Dhir, V. K.

    1998-01-01

    A radiant heat flux gage calibration system exists in the Flight Loads Laboratory at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. This calibration system must be well understood if the heat flux gages calibrated in it are to provide useful data during radiant heating ground tests or flight tests of high speed aerospace vehicles. A part of the calibration system characterization process is to develop a numerical model of the flat plate heater element and heat flux gage, which will help identify errors due to convection, heater element erosion, and other factors. A 2-dimensional mathematical model of the gage-plate system has been developed to simulate the combined problem involving convection, radiation and mass loss by chemical reaction. A fourth order finite difference scheme is used to solve the steady state governing equations and determine the temperature distribution in the gage and plate, incident heat flux on the gage face, and flat plate erosion. Initial gage heat flux predictions from the model are found to be within 17% of experimental results.

  19. Downstream Heat Flux Profile vs. Midplane T Profile in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2009-08-20

    The relationship between the midplane scrape-off-layer electron temperature profile and the parallel heat flux profile at the divertor in tokamaks is investigated. A model is applied which takes into account anisotropic thermal diffusion, in a rectilinear geometry with constant density. Eigenmode analysis is applied to the simplified problem with constant thermal diffusivities. A self-similar nonlinear solution is found for the more realistic problem with anisotropically temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities. Numerical solutions are developed for both cases, with spatially dependent heat flux emerging from the plasma. For both constant and temperature-dependent thermal diffusivities it is found that, below about one-half of its peak, the heat flux profile shape at the divertor, compared with the midplane temperature profile shape, is robustly described by the simplest two-point model. However the physical processes are not those assumed in the simplest two-point model, nor is the numerical coefficient relating q||div to Tmp χ||mp/L|| as predicted. For realistic parameters the peak in the heat flux, moreover, can be reduced by a factor of two or more from the two-point model scaling which fits the remaining profile. For temperature profiles in the SOL region above the x-point set by marginal stability, the heat flux profile to the divertor can be largely decoupled from the prediction of the two-point model. These results suggest caveats for data interpretation, and possibly favorable outcomes for divertor configurations with extended field lines.

  20. Densitometric tomography using the measurement of muon flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hivert, F.; Busto, J.; Brunner, J.; Salin, P.; Gaffet, S.

    2013-12-01

    The knowledge of the subsurface properties is essentially obtained by geophysical methods, e.g. seismic imaging, electric prospection or gravimetry. The present work develops a recent method to investigate the in situ density of rocks using atmospheric the muon flux measurement , its attenuation depending on the rock density and thickness. This new geophysical technique have been mainly applied in volcanology (Lesparre N., 2011) using scintillator detectors. The present project (T2DM2) aims to realize underground muons flux measurements in order to characterizing the rock massif density variations above the LSBB underground research facility in Rustrel (France). The muon flux will be measure with a new Muon telescope instrumentation using Micromegas detectors in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) configuration. The first step of the work presented considers the muon flux simulation using the Gaisser model, for the interactions between muons and atmospheric particles, and the MUSIC code (Kudryavtsev V. A., 2008) for the muons/rock interactions. The results show that the muon flux attenuation caused by density variations are enough significant to be observed until around 500 m depth and for period of time in the order of one month. Such a duration scale and depth of investigation is compatible with the duration of the water transfer processes involved within the Karst unsaturated zone where LSBB is located. Our work now concentrates on the optimization of the spatial distribution of detectors that will be deployed in future.

  1. Simulation of Active-Region-Scale Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.

    2015-12-01

    Shear flows long observed in solar active regions are now understood to be a consequence of the Lorentz force that develops from a complex interaction between magnetic fields and the thermal pressure of the Sun's gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The shearing motions transport magnetic flux and energy from the submerged portion of the field to the corona providing the necessary energy for flares, filament eruptions and CMEs. To further examine this shearing process, we simulate flux emergence on the scale of active regions with a large-scale model of the near surface convection zone constructed on an adaptive spherical grid. This model is designed to simulate flux emerging on the scale of active regions from a depth of 30 Mm. Here, we show results of a twisted flux rope emerging through the hierarchy of granular convection, and examine the flow patterns that arise as the flux approaches the photosphere. We show how these organized flows driven by the Lorentz force cause the coronal field evolve to a highly non-potential configuration capable of driving solar eruptions such as CMEs and flares.

  2. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  3. 13C-based metabolic flux analysis: fundamentals and practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Isotope-based metabolic flux analysis is one of the emerging technologies applied to system level metabolic phenotype characterization in metabolic engineering. Among the developed approaches, (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis has been established as a standard tool and has been widely applied to quantitative pathway characterization of diverse biological systems. To implement (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in practice, comprehending the underlying mathematical and computational modeling fundamentals is of importance along with carefully conducted experiments and analytical measurements. Such knowledge is also crucial when designing (13)C-labeling experiments and properly acquiring key data sets essential for in vivo flux analysis implementation. In this regard, the modeling fundamentals of (13)C-labeling systems and analytical data processing are the main topics we will deal with in this chapter. Along with this, the relevant numerical optimization techniques are addressed to help implementation of the entire computational procedures aiming at (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis in vivo.

  4. Chromospheric and Coronal Wave Generation in a Magnetic Flux Sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Steiner, Oskar; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats

    2016-08-01

    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab “pump” the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in the chromosphere and higher tends to oscillate with a period of ν ≈ 4 mHz. We conclude that this process of “magnetic pumping” is a most plausible mechanism for the direct generation of longitudinal chromospheric and coronal compressive waves within magnetic flux concentrations, and it may provide an important heat source in the chromosphere. It may also be responsible for certain types of dynamic fibrils.

  5. DETECTION OF FLUX EMERGENCE, SPLITTING, MERGING, AND CANCELLATION OF NETWORK FIELD. I. SPLITTING AND MERGING

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Hagenaar, H. J.

    2012-06-20

    Frequencies of magnetic patch processes on the supergranule boundary, namely, flux emergence, splitting, merging, and cancellation, are investigated through automatic detection. We use a set of line-of-sight magnetograms taken by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board the Hinode satellite. We found 1636 positive patches and 1637 negative patches in the data set, whose time duration is 3.5 hr and field of view is 112'' Multiplication-Sign 112''. The total numbers of magnetic processes are as follows: 493 positive and 482 negative splittings, 536 positive and 535 negative mergings, 86 cancellations, and 3 emergences. The total numbers of emergence and cancellation are significantly smaller than those of splitting and merging. Further, the frequency dependence of the merging and splitting processes on the flux content are investigated. Merging has a weak dependence on the flux content with a power-law index of only 0.28. The timescale for splitting is found to be independent of the parent flux content before splitting, which corresponds to {approx}33 minutes. It is also found that patches split into any flux contents with the same probability. This splitting has a power-law distribution of the flux content with an index of -2 as a time-independent solution. These results support that the frequency distribution of the flux content in the analyzed flux range is rapidly maintained by merging and splitting, namely, surface processes. We suggest a model for frequency distributions of cancellation and emergence based on this idea.

  6. Atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Reymers, A.

    2015-07-01

    Fluxes of the electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons observed by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface during thunderstorms originate so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). The relativistic runaway electron avalanches giving rise to TGEs originate in the thundercloud's lower dipole between the main negatively charged region in the middle of the thundercloud and transient lower positively charged region. Acceleration of electrons in the upper dipole between main negative and main positive charge regions leads to initiation of the terrestrial gamma flashes (TGFs) intensive researched during the last two decades by orbiting gamma ray observatories. TGFs are exceptionally intense, submillisecond bursts of electromagnetic radiation directed to the open space from the thunderstorm atmosphere. Unlike visible lightning, TGF beams do not create a hot plasma channel and optical flash; hence, in the literature they got name "dark lightning." We investigate the TGEs development in 1 min and 1 s time series of particle detector count rates. Synchronized time series of the near-surface electric field and lightning occurrences allows interconnecting two atmospheric phenomena. Registration of the Extensive Air Showers allows approaching problems of relation of the lightning occurrences and particle fluxes.

  7. Cosmic Ray Neutron Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayananda, Mathes

    2009-11-01

    Cosmic rays are high-energetic particles originating from outer space that bombard the upper atmosphere of the Earth. Almost 90% of cosmic ray particles consist of protons, electrons and heavy ions. When these particles hit the Earth's atmosphere, cascade of secondary particles are formed. The most abundant particles reach to the surface of the Earth are muons, electrons and neutrons. In recent years many research groups are looking into potential applications of the effects of cosmic ray radiation at the surface of the Earth [1, 2]. At Georgia State University we are working on a long-term measurement of cosmic ray flux distribution. This study includes the simultaneous measurement of cosmic ray muons, neutrons and gamma particles at the Earth surface in downtown Atlanta. The initial effort is focusing on the correlation studies of the cosmic ray particle flux distribution and the atmospheric weather conditions. In this presentation, I will talk about the development of a cosmic ray detector using liquid scintillator and the preliminary results. [4pt] [1] K.Borozdin, G.Hogan, C.Morris, W.Priedhorsky, A.Saunders, L.Shultz, M.Teasdale, ``Radiographic imaging with cosmic-ray muons'', Nature, Vol.422, p.277, Mar.2003[0pt] [2] Svensmark Henrik, Physical Review 81, 3, (1998)

  8. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws.

  9. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-06-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  10. Flux focusing eddy current probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, John W. (Inventor); Clendenin, C. Gerald (Inventor); Fulton, James P. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Todhunter, Ronald G. (Inventor); Namkung, Min (Inventor); Nath, Shridhar C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A flux-focusing electromagnetic sensor which uses a ferromagnetic flux-focusing lens simplifies inspections and increases detectability of fatigue cracks and material loss in high conductivity material. The unique feature of the device is the ferrous shield isolating a high-turn pick-up coil from an excitation coil. The use of the magnetic shield is shown to produce a null voltage output across the receiving coil in the presence of an unflawed sample. A redistribution of the current flow in the sample caused by the presence of flaws, however, eliminates the shielding condition and a large output voltage is produced, yielding a clear unambiguous flaw signal. The maximum sensor output is obtained when positioned symmetrically above the crack. Hence, by obtaining the position of the maximum sensor output, it is possible to track the fault and locate the area surrounding its tip. The accuracy of tip location is enhanced by two unique features of the sensor; a very high signal-to-noise ratio of the probe's output which results in an extremely smooth signal peak across the fault, and a rapidly decaying sensor output outside a small area surrounding the crack tip which enables the region for searching to be clearly defined. Under low frequency operation, material thinning due to corrosion damage causes an incomplete shielding of the pick-up coil. The low frequency output voltage of the probe is therefore a direct indicator of the thickness of the test sample.

  11. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  12. Neutron flux enhancement at LASREF

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, W.F.; Ferguson, P.D.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The accelerator at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility produces a 1-mA beam of protons at an energy of 800 MeV. Since 1985, the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has made use of the neutron flux that is generated as the incident protons interact with the nuclei in targets and a copper beam stop. A variety of basic and applied experiments in radiation damage and radiation effects have been completed. Recent studies indicate that the flux at LASREF can be increased by at least a factor of ten from the present level of about 5 E+17 m{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1}. This requires changing the beam-stop material from Cu to W and optimizing the geometry of the beam-target interaction region. These studies are motivated by the need for a large volume, high energy, and high intensity neutron source in the development of materials for advanced energy concepts such as fusion reactors. 18 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Braiding fluxes in Pauli Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth, O. Avron, J.E.

    2014-10-15

    Aharonov and Casher showed that Pauli Hamiltonians in two dimensions have gapless zero modes. We study the adiabatic evolution of these modes under the slow motion of N fluxons with fluxes Φ{sub a}∈R. The positions, r{sub a}∈R{sup 2}, of the fluxons are viewed as controls. We are interested in the holonomies associated with closed paths in the space of controls. The holonomies can sometimes be abelian, but in general are not. They can sometimes be topological, but in general are not. We analyse some of the special cases and some of the general ones. Our most interesting results concern the cases where holonomy turns out to be topological which is the case when all the fluxons are subcritical, Φ{sub a}<1, and the number of zero modes is D=N−1. If N≥3 it is also non-abelian. In the special case that the fluxons carry identical fluxes the resulting anyons satisfy the Burau representations of the braid group.

  14. Removal of aqueous rinsable flux residues in a batch spray dishwater

    SciTech Connect

    Slanina, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    An alkaline detergent solution used in an industrial dishwasher was evaluated to remove aqueous rinsable flux residues on printed wiring boards (PWBs) after hot air solder leveling and hot oil solder dip and leveling. The dishwasher, a batch cleaning process, was compared to an existing conveyorized aqueous cleaning process. The aqueous soluble flux residues from both soldering processes were removed with a solution of a mild alkaline detergent dissolved in hot deionized (DI) water.

  15. Climate and Biological Controls of Carbon Fluxes along latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.; Yuan, J.; Niu, S.

    2012-12-01

    It has not been carefully examined whether relative importance of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes is similar among various ecosystem types along latitudinal gradients from the tropical to polar region. We hypothesize that except tropical regions, there is a consistent pattern of climate and biological controls of carbon fluxes across all the other ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis by analyzing data of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from nearly 200 eddy-flux towers distributed worldwide and simulated gross primary production (GPP) from the Australian Community Atmosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model. Specifically, we estimated yearly NEE (i.e., NEP), carbon uptake period (CUP) and seasonal maximum of NEE (NEE¬_max) from eddy-flux data. Similarly, we estimated CUP, GPP_max, seasonal maximum leaf area index (LAI_max), and Vcmax from the model across the globe. Our regression analysis indicates that NEP is very tightly correlated with the product of CUP and NEE_max cross all sites. Similarly, simulated GPP is highly correlated with the product of CUP and GPP_max over the globe in the CABLE model. CUP is related to phenology and represents climate control of carbon fluxes while NEE_max or GPP_max is determined by biological processes and thus represents biological control of carbon processes. We further analyzed relationships of GPP_max with LAI_max and Vcmax individually or in combination. GPP_max is highly correlated with them. This talk will present results of our analysis and explain our hypothesis test regarding relative importance of biological and climate controls of carbon fluxes along the latitudinal gradients.

  16. Use of global atmospheric data sets to test quasi-geostrophic eddy momentum flux convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The quasi-geostrophic relation between the fluxes of momentum, potential vorticity, and potential temperature is tested with global sets of atmospheric wind and temperature data by computing the convergence of momentum flux as a residual of the potential temperature and potential vorticity flux and comparing it to the momentum flux convergence computed directly. It is shown that in the troposphere between 18 N and 74 N the observed momentum flux convergence differs from the quasi-geostrophic convergence by 25%-60%, with the larger errors only occurring where the convergence is small. These results indicate that momentum flux convergence obtained from quasi-geostrophic theory is adequate for qualitative studies of the general circulation, and is comparable in accuracy to values obtained in general circulation models. For simple climate models and qualitative process studies, it can thus provide a useful approach.

  17. Thermal response to the surface heat flux in a macrotidal coastal region (Nuevo Gulf, Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Andrés L.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Dellatorre, Fernando G.

    2016-07-01

    At mid-latitudes, sea water temperature shows a strong seasonal cycle forced by the incident surface heat flux. As depth decreases, the heat flux incidence is damped by the horizontal flux, which prevents the indefinite growth of the seasonal temperature range. In the present work, cross-shore transport in the west coast of Nuevo Gulf (Argentina) was analyzed. Processes tending to cool the coastal waters in summer and to warm the coastal waters in winter, were identified through temperature measurements, surface heat flux and tidal height. The simplified models proposed here provide a feedback mechanism that links changes in surface heat flux with changes in the horizontal heat flux during both seasons. On shorter time scales, tide produces significant variations in the height of the water column, therefore influencing temperature fluctuations and the direction of the horizontal flow.

  18. Empirical predictive models of daily relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit: Multiple regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Laura E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Pilipenko, Viacheslav; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Clilverd, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The daily maximum relativistic electron flux at geostationary orbit can be predicted well with a set of daily averaged predictor variables including previous day's flux, seed electron flux, solar wind velocity and number density, AE index, IMF Bz, Dst, and ULF and VLF wave power. As predictor variables are intercorrelated, we used multiple regression analyses to determine which are the most predictive of flux when other variables are controlled. Empirical models produced from regressions of flux on measured predictors from 1 day previous were reasonably effective at predicting novel observations. Adding previous flux to the parameter set improves the prediction of the peak of the increases but delays its anticipation of an event. Previous day's solar wind number density and velocity, AE index, and ULF wave activity are the most significant explanatory variables; however, the AE index, measuring substorm processes, shows a negative correlation with flux when other parameters are controlled. This may be due to the triggering of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves by substorms that cause electron precipitation. VLF waves show lower, but significant, influence. The combined effect of ULF and VLF waves shows a synergistic interaction, where each increases the influence of the other on flux enhancement. Correlations between observations and predictions for this 1 day lag model ranged from 0.71 to 0.89 (average: 0.78). A path analysis of correlations between predictors suggests that solar wind and IMF parameters affect flux through intermediate processes such as ring current (Dst), AE, and wave activity.

  19. Analysis of the Rice ADP-Glucose Transporter (OsBT1) Indicates the Presence of Regulatory Processes in the Amyloplast Stroma That Control ADP-Glucose Flux into Starch1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Shota; Matsusaka, Hiroaki; Singh, Salvinder; Hosaka, Yuko; Satoh, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that efforts to further elevate starch synthesis in rice (Oryza sativa) seeds overproducing ADP-glucose (ADPglc) were prevented by processes downstream of ADPglc synthesis. Here, we identified the major ADPglc transporter by studying the shrunken3 locus of the EM1093 rice line, which harbors a mutation in the BRITTLE1 (BT1) adenylate transporter (OsBt1) gene. Despite containing elevated ADPglc levels (approximately 10-fold) compared with the wild-type, EM1093 grains are small and shriveled due to the reduction in the amounts and size of starch granules. Increases in ADPglc levels in EM1093 were due to their poor uptake of ADP-[14C]glc by amyloplasts. To assess the potential role of BT1 as a rate-determining step in starch biosynthesis, the maize ZmBt1 gene was overexpressed in the wild-type and the GlgC (CS8) transgenic line expressing a bacterial glgC-TM gene. ADPglc transport assays indicated that transgenic lines expressing ZmBT1 alone or combined with GlgC exhibited higher rates of transport (approximately 2-fold), with the GlgC (CS8) and GlgC/ZmBT1 (CS8/AT5) lines showing elevated ADPglc levels in amyloplasts. These increases, however, did not lead to further enhancement in seed weights even when these plant lines were grown under elevated CO2. Overall, our results indicate that rice lines with enhanced ADPglc synthesis and import into amyloplasts reveal additional barriers within the stroma that restrict maximum carbon flow into starch. PMID:26754668

  20. A quantitative method for silica flux evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonewille, R. H.; O'Connell, G. J.; Toguri, J. M.

    1993-02-01

    In the smelting of copper and copper/nickel concentrates, the role of silica flux is to aid in the removal of iron by forming a slag phase. Alternatively, the role of flux may be regarded as a means of controlling the formation of magnetite, which can severely hinder the operation of a furnace. To adequately control the magnetite level, the flux must react rapidly with all of the FeO within the bath. In the present study, a rapid method for silica flux evaluation that can be used directly in the smelter has been developed. Samples of flux are mixed with iron sulfide and magnetite and then smelted at a temperature of 1250 °C. Argon was swept over the reaction mixture and analyzed continuously for sulfur dioxide. The sulfur dioxide concentration with time was found to contain two peaks, the first one being independent of the flux content of the sample. A flux quality parameter has been defined as the height-to-time ratio of the second peak. The value of this parameter for pure silica is 5100 ppm/min. The effects of silica content, silica particle size, and silicate mineralogy were investigated. It was found that a limiting flux quality is achieved for particle sizes less than 0.1 mm in diameter and that fluxes containing feldspar are generally of a poorer quality. The relative importance of free silica and melting point was also studied using synthetic flux mixtures, with free silica displaying the strongest effect.

  1. Isotopic Compositions of Evaporative Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Lauder, A. M.; Kopec, B. G.; Dade, W. B.; Virginia, R. A.; Posmentier, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    The isotopic fluxes of evaporation from a water surface are typically computed using a one-dimensional model, originally conceptualized by Craig and Gordon (1965) and further developed and adapted to different natural settings (such as transpiration, open surface evaporation, etc.) by various investigators. These models have two distinguishing characteristics. First, there exists a laminar layer where molecular diffusion away from the water-air interface causes kinetic isotopic fractionation. The magnitude of this fractionation is controlled by the diffusion/transport coefficient of each vapor isotopologue in air and their concentration gradients, the latter being controlled by relative humidity, isotopic ratios of ambient air, and turbulent conditions (such as wind and surface roughness). Second, the horizontal variations are ignored. In particular, the effect of horizontal advection on isotopic variations in the ambient air is not considered. The research reported here addresses the effects of relinquishing the simplifying assumptions in both of these areas. We developed a model, in which the simplification of a purely laminar layer is dropped. Instead, we express the vertical transport coefficient as the sum of the molecular diffusivity, that differs for each water isotopologue, and the turbulent diffusivity that increases linearly with height but does not vary among water isotopologues. With this model, the kinetic isotopic effect reduces with height in the vicinity of the water surface, and the net isotopic fractionation through the boundary layer can be integrated. The advantage of this conceptualization is that the magnitude of kinetic isotopic fractionation can be assessed directly with changing environmental conditions, such as humidity and wind speed, rather than approximated by discontinuous empirical functions of the environmental conditions, as in the conventional models mentioned above. To address the effect of lateral heterogeneity, we expanded the

  2. Partitioning evapotranspiration fluxes using atmometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsag, Matej; Fischer, Milan; Trnka, Miroslav; Kucera, Jiri; Zalud, Zdenek

    2013-04-01

    This effort is aimed to derive a simple tool for separating soil evaporation and transpiration from evapotranspiration, measured by Bowen ration energy balance method (BREB) in short rotation coppice (SRC). The main idea is to utilize daily data of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measured above bare soil (spring 2010 - first year following harvest), reference evapotranspiration (ETo) measured by atmometer ETgage and precipitation data, in order to create an algorithm for estimation evaporation from bare soil. This approach is based on the following assumption: evaporation of wetted bare soil same as the ETo from atmometer is assumed to be identical in days with rain. In first and further days with no rain (and e.g. high evaporative demand) the easily evaporable soil water depletes and ETa so as crop coefficient of bare soil (Kcb) decreases in a way similar to decreasing power function. The algorithm represents a parameterized function of daily cumulated ETo (ETc) measured by atmometer in days elapsed from last rain event (Kcb = a*ETc^b). After each rain event the accumulation of ETo starts again till next rain event (e. g. only days with no rain are cumulated). The function provides decreasing Kcb for each day without rain. The bare soil evaporation can be estimated when the atmometer-recorded value is multiplied by Kcb for particular day without rain. In days with rain Kcb is assumed to be back at 1. This method was successfully tested for estimating evaporation from bare soil under closed canopy of poplar-based SRC. When subtracting the estimated soil evaporation from total ETa flux, measured above the canopy using BREB method, it is possible to obtain transpiration flux of the canopy. There is also possibility to test this approach on the contrary - subtracting transpiration derived from sap-flow measurement from total ETa flux is possible to get soil evaporation as well. Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of project Inter

  3. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  4. Progress in Modeling Global Atmospheric CO2 Fluxes and Transport: Results from Simulations with Diurnal Fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collatz, G. James; Kawa, R.

    2007-01-01

    Progress in better determining CO2 sources and sinks will almost certainly rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. Use of advanced data requires improved modeling and analysis capability. Under NASA Carbon Cycle Science support we seek to develop and integrate improved formulations for 1) atmospheric transport, 2) terrestrial uptake and release, 3) biomass and 4) fossil fuel burning, and 5) observational data analysis including inverse calculations. The transport modeling is based on meteorological data assimilation analysis from the Goddard Modeling and Assimilation Office. Use of assimilated met data enables model comparison to CO2 and other observations across a wide range of scales of variability. In this presentation we focus on the short end of the temporal variability spectrum: hourly to synoptic to seasonal. Using CO2 fluxes at varying temporal resolution from the SIB 2 and CASA biosphere models, we examine the model's ability to simulate CO2 variability in comparison to observations at different times, locations, and altitudes. We find that the model can resolve much of the variability in the observations, although there are limits imposed by vertical resolution of boundary layer processes. The influence of key process representations is inferred. The high degree of fidelity in these simulations leads us to anticipate incorporation of realtime, highly resolved observations into a multiscale carbon cycle analysis system that will begin to bridge the gap between top-down and bottom-up flux estimation, which is a primary focus of NACP.

  5. Superheavy Elements Production in High Intensive Neutron Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Lyashuk, V. I.; Panov, I. V.

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of superheavy elements production in high intensive neutron fluxes is being studied. A model of the transuranium isotopes production under conditions of pulse nucleosynthesis in a neutron flux with densities of up to ~1025 neutron/cm2 is considered. The pulse process allows us to divide it in time into two stages: the process of multiple neutron captures (with t < 10-6 s) and the subsequent β-decay of neutron-rich nuclei. The modeling of the transuranium yields takes into account the adiabatic character of the process, the probability of delayed fission, and the emission of delayed neutrons. A target with a binary composition of 238U and 239Pu, 248Cm, and 251Cf isotopes is used to predict the yields of heavy and superheavy isotopes.

  6. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-03-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita’s ansatz for warped dSp×Sq and AdSp×Sq spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green’s function method. The requirement that the Green’s functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dSp×Sq branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  7. Flux emergence in a magnetized convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Rui; Brun, Allan Sacha

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux-ropes, and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code and analysed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux-ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The actual flux-emergence episode is preceded by a localised increase of radial velocity, density and current density at the top of the convection zone. During the buoyant rise, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength and density scale as B~rho(alpha) , with alpha≤sssim 1. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and are, in consequence, in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly stronger as the flux-ropes evolve. The threshold for the initial magnetic field amplitude is slightly increased by the presence of the background dynamo field, even if it is on average much weaker than the flux-rope's field. The geometry and relative orientation of the magnetic field in the flux-ropes with respect to that in the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flows amplitudes (which develop within the flux-ropes) and surface signatures of magnetic flux emergence. This strongly influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing and Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence, which are key ingredients to the current coronal eruption triggering scenarios. The actual magnetic flux emergence is consistently preceded by strong and localised radial velocity enhancements at the place where the flux rope will emerge. The emerged magnetic flux is in most of the cases studied enough to influence the global surface magnetic field. In some cases, the emergence reinforces

  8. Methane Fluxes in Cold Season: Assessment by Closed Chamber Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.; Shnyrev, N. A.; Sadovnikova, N. B.

    2016-02-01

    The results of field studies of methane emission to the atmosphere from different landscape elements of West Siberian oligotrophic bog (Mukhrino test plot, Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) in the cold season are discussed. The statistical parameters of the process are estimated, and the high variability of methane fluxes and their deviation from the normal distribution are shown. From October to May, the mean arithmetic and median values of methane fluxes were equal to 0.06 ± 0.01 and 0.02 mg C/(m2 h), respectively, with the sampling ranging from-0.3 to 0.5 mg C/(m2 h). In 22% of cases, the negative fluxes (gas consumption) were observed with the average intensity of-0.03 ± 0.01 mg C/(m2 h) and the median of-0.01 mg C/(m2 h). At the same time, a considerable underestimation of emission values cannot be excluded, because of the methodological problems of the routine calculation of fluxes by the linear approximation of trends in the gas concentration dynamics in the chamber. The alternative calculation models are provided, and the possible reasons for the experimentally observed phenomenon of methane sink recorded in the chambers on the snow cover surface, including photochemical processes, are discussed.

  9. Flux-freezing breakdown in high-conductivity magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Eyink, Gregory; Vishniac, Ethan; Lalescu, Cristian; Aluie, Hussein; Kanov, Kalin; Bürger, Kai; Burns, Randal; Meneveau, Charles; Szalay, Alexander

    2013-05-23

    The idea of 'frozen-in' magnetic field lines for ideal plasmas is useful to explain diverse astrophysical phenomena, for example the shedding of excess angular momentum from protostars by twisting of field lines frozen into the interstellar medium. Frozen-in field lines, however, preclude the rapid changes in magnetic topology observed at high conductivities, as in solar flares. Microphysical plasma processes are a proposed explanation of the observed high rates, but it is an open question whether such processes can rapidly reconnect astrophysical flux structures much greater in extent than several thousand ion gyroradii. An alternative explanation is that turbulent Richardson advection brings field lines implosively together from distances far apart to separations of the order of gyroradii. Here we report an analysis of a simulation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence at high conductivity that exhibits Richardson dispersion. This effect of advection in rough velocity fields, which appear non-differentiable in space, leads to line motions that are completely indeterministic or 'spontaneously stochastic', as predicted in analytical studies. The turbulent breakdown of standard flux freezing at scales greater than the ion gyroradius can explain fast reconnection of very large-scale flux structures, both observed (solar flares and coronal mass ejections) and predicted (the inner heliosheath, accretion disks, γ-ray bursts and so on). For laminar plasma flows with smooth velocity fields or for low turbulence intensity, stochastic flux freezing reduces to the usual frozen-in condition.

  10. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  11. HONO fluxes from soil surfaces: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dianming; Sörgel, Matthias; Tamm, Alexandra; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cheng, Yafang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) contributes up to 80% of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) radicals and is also linked to health risks through reactions with tobacco smoke forming carcinogens. Field and modeling results suggested a large unknown HONO source in the troposphere during daytime. By measuring near ground HONO mixing ratio, up to 30% of HONO can be released from forest, rural and urban ground as well as snow surfaces. This source has been proposed to heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on humic acid surfaces or nitric acid photolysis. Laboratory studies showed that HONO emissions from bulk soil samples can reach 258 ng m-2 s-1 (in term of nitrogen), which corresponding to 1.1 × 1012 molecules cm-2 s-1and ˜ 100 times higher than most of the field studies, as measured by a dynamic chamber system. The potential mechanisms for soil HONO emissions include chemical equilibrium of acid-base reaction and gas-liquid partitioning between soil nitrite and HONO, but the positive correlation of HONO fluxes with pH (largest at neutral and slightly alkaline) points to the dominance of the formation process by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In general soil surface acidity, nitrite concentration and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria mainly regulate the HONO release from soil. A recent study showed that biological soil crusts in drylands can also emit large quantities of HONO and NO, corresponding to ˜20% of global nitrogen oxide emissions from soils under natural vegetation. Due to large concentrations of microorganisms in biological soil crusts, particularly high HONO and NO emissions were measured after wetting events. Considering large areas of arid and arable lands as well as peatlands, up to 70% of global soils are able to emitting HONO. However, the discrepancy between large soil HONO emissions measured in lab and low contributions of HONO flux from ground surfaces in field as well as the role of microorganisms should be further investigated.

  12. HONO fluxes from soil surfaces: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Dianming; Sörgel, Matthias; Tamm, Alexandra; Ruckteschler, Nina; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cheng, Yafang; Pöschl, Ulrich; Weber, Bettina

    2016-04-01

    Gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) contributes up to 80% of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) radicals and is also linked to health risks through reactions with tobacco smoke forming carcinogens. Field and modeling results suggested a large unknown HONO source in the troposphere during daytime. By measuring near ground HONO mixing ratio, up to 30% of HONO can be released from forest, rural and urban ground as well as snow surfaces. This source has been proposed to heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on humic acid surfaces or nitric acid photolysis. Laboratory studies showed that HONO emissions from bulk soil samples can reach 258 ng m‑2 s‑1 (in term of nitrogen), which corresponding to 1.1 × 1012 molecules cm‑2 s‑1and ˜ 100 times higher than most of the field studies, as measured by a dynamic chamber system. The potential mechanisms for soil HONO emissions include chemical equilibrium of acid-base reaction and gas-liquid partitioning between soil nitrite and HONO, but the positive correlation of HONO fluxes with pH (largest at neutral and slightly alkaline) points to the dominance of the formation process by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In general soil surface acidity, nitrite concentration and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria mainly regulate the HONO release from soil. A recent study showed that biological soil crusts in drylands can also emit large quantities of HONO and NO, corresponding to ˜20% of global nitrogen oxide emissions from soils under natural vegetation. Due to large concentrations of microorganisms in biological soil crusts, particularly high HONO and NO emissions were measured after wetting events. Considering large areas of arid and arable lands as well as peatlands, up to 70% of global soils are able to emitting HONO. However, the discrepancy between large soil HONO emissions measured in lab and low contributions of HONO flux from ground surfaces in field as well as the role of microorganisms should be further investigated.

  13. Downward Catastrophe of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui

    2016-07-01

    2.5-dimensional time-dependent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models in Cartesian coordinates were used in previous studies to seek MHD equilibria involving a magnetic flux rope embedded in a bipolar, partially open background field. As demonstrated by these studies, the equilibrium solutions of the system are separated into two branches: the flux rope sticks to the photosphere for solutions at the lower branch but is suspended in the corona for those at the upper branch. Moreover, a solution originally at the lower branch jumps to the upper, as the related control parameter increases and reaches a critical value, and the associated jump is here referred to as an upward catastrophe. The present paper advances these studies in three aspects. First, the magnetic field is changed to be force-free; the system still experiences an upward catastrophe with an increase in each control parameter. Second, under the force-free approximation, there also exists a downward catastrophe, characterized by the jump of a solution from the upper branch to the lower. Both catastrophes are irreversible processes connecting the two branches of equilibrium solutions so as to form a cycle. Finally, the magnetic energy in the numerical domain is calculated. It is found that there exists a magnetic energy release for both catastrophes. The Ampère's force, which vanishes everywhere for force-free fields, appears only during the catastrophes and does positive work, which serves as a major mechanism for the energy release. The implications of the downward catastrophe and its relevance to solar activities are briefly discussed.

  14. Pyrolytic graphite gauge for measuring heat flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunker, Robert C. (Inventor); Ewing, Mark E. (Inventor); Shipley, John L. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A gauge for measuring heat flux, especially heat flux encountered in a high temperature environment, is provided. The gauge includes at least one thermocouple and an anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body that covers at least part of, and optionally encases the thermocouple. Heat flux is incident on the anisotropic pyrolytic graphite body by arranging the gauge so that the gauge surface on which convective and radiative fluxes are incident is perpendicular to the basal planes of the pyrolytic graphite. The conductivity of the pyrolytic graphite permits energy, transferred into the pyrolytic graphite body in the form of heat flux on the incident (or facing) surface, to be quickly distributed through the entire pyrolytic graphite body, resulting in small substantially instantaneous temperature gradients. Temperature changes to the body can thereby be measured by the thermocouple, and reduced to quantify the heat flux incident to the body.

  15. Photospheric Magnetic Flux Emergence: A comparative study between Hinode/SOT Observations and MHD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Tarbell, T. D.

    2007-12-01

    With high angular resolution, high temporal cadence and a stable point spread function, the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite is the ideal instrument for the study of magnetic flux emergence and its manifestations on the solar surface. In this presentation, we focus on the development of ephemeral regions and small active regions. In many instances, SOT has been able to capture the entire emergence process from beginning to end: i.e. from the initial stages of flux appearance in granule interiors, through the intermediate stages of G-band bright point formation, and finally to the coalescence of small vertical flux elements to form pores. To investigate the physics of the flux emergence process, we performed 3D numerical MHD simulations with the MURaM code. The models are able to reproduce, and help us explain, various observational signatures of magnetic flux emergence.

  16. Soil air and soil flux measurements of 222Radon and CO2: A soil flux parametrization at Lutjewad (NL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, R. E. M.; Kettner, E.; Palstra, S. W. L.; Hoekman, S.; van der Graaf, E. R.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric 222Radon concentration measurements are used as a valuable transport tracer verifying the transport part of Carbon Cycle and Greenhouse Gas models. The production rate of the radioactive noble gas 222Radon (T1•2 = 3.8 days) by radioactive decay of 226Radium in the soil is constant, the absolute quantity depending on the local soil Radium concentration. The flux of 222Radon to the atmosphere (the soil exhalation, or effective atmospheric production rate), however, is not constant. It strongly depends on soil texture, soil humidity, precipitation and other parameters, but is nearly constant if these parameters stay unchanged. Recently, an effort has been done to predict this flux rate with widely available γ-dosimetry measurements (Szegvary et al., Predicting terrestrial 222Rn-flux using gamma dose rate as a proxy, ACP 7, 2789-2795, 2007), but real 222Radon-flux measurements are sparse. 222Radon undergoes the same transport processes on the way from soil to atmosphere as any other soil-derived (greenhouse) gas. This makes 222Radon an ideal tracer to separate variations in e.g. soil CO2-production from changes in the soil-atmosphere CO2-transport, both being reflected in the total soil-atmosphere CO2-flux. At the atmospheric measurement site Lutjewad in the north of the Netherlands (53N24'18", 6E21'13", www.rug.nl/ees/onderzoek/cio/projecten/atmosphericgases) we started in 2006 with the measurements of the soil 222Radon and CO2 concentration through soil probes as well as the Radon and CO2 soil fluxes by means of an automatic soil chamber. While there are up to eight soil air measurements per day, the soil chamber is automatically closed twice per day. The station is situated directly on the Waddensea dike at an elevation of 1 m a.s.l. on seaclay soil. The groundwater table shows variations between 0.5 m and 2 m below terrain. From our measurements we find that in the dryer summer season, from April to July, the mean 222Radon-flux can be up to 40

  17. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    PubMed

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing. PMID:24037377

  18. Reducing measurement scale mismatch to improve surface energy flux estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwema, Joost; Rosolem, Rafael; Rahman, Mostaquimur; Blyth, Eleanor; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture importantly controls land surface processes such as energy and water partitioning. A good understanding of these controls is needed especially when recognizing the challenges in providing accurate hyper-resolution hydrometeorological simulations at sub-kilometre scales. Soil moisture controlling factors can, however, differ at distinct scales. In addition, some parameters in land surface models are still often prescribed based on observations obtained at another scale not necessarily employed by such models (e.g., soil properties obtained from lab samples used in regional simulations). To minimize such effects, parameters can be constrained with local data from Eddy-Covariance (EC) towers (i.e., latent and sensible heat fluxes) and Point Scale (PS) soil moisture observations (e.g., TDR). However, measurement scales represented by EC and PS still differ substantially. Here we use the fact that Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensors (CRNS) estimate soil moisture at horizontal footprint similar to that of EC fluxes to help answer the following question: Does reduced observation scale mismatch yield better soil moisture - surface fluxes representation in land surface models? To answer this question we analysed soil moisture and surface fluxes measurements from twelve COSMOS-Ameriflux sites in the USA characterized by distinct climate, soils and vegetation types. We calibrated model parameters of the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) against PS and CRNS soil moisture data, respectively. We analysed the improvement in soil moisture estimation compared to uncalibrated model simulations and then evaluated the degree of improvement in surface fluxes before and after calibration experiments. Preliminary results suggest that a more accurate representation of soil moisture dynamics is achieved when calibrating against observed soil moisture and further improvement obtained with CRNS relative to PS. However, our results also suggest that a more accurate

  19. Urban Evapotranspiration and Carbon Dioxide Flux in Miami - Dade, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, T.; Hopper, W.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) concentrations are leading indicators of secular climate change. With increasing awareness of the consequences of climate change, methods for monitoring this change are becoming more important daily. Of particular interest is the carbon dioxide exchange between natural and urban landscapes and the correlation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Monitoring Evapotranspiration (ET) is important for assessments of water availability for growing populations. ET is surprisingly understudied in the hydrologic cycle considering ET removes as much as 80 to over 100% of precipitation back into the atmosphere as water vapor. Lack of understanding in spatial and temporal ET estimates can limit the credibility of hydrologic water budgets designed to promote sustainable water use and resolve water-use conflicts. Eddy covariance (EC) methods are commonly used to estimate ET and CO2 fluxes. The EC platform consist of a (CSAT) 3-D Sonic Anemometer and a Li-Cor Open Path CO2/ H2O Analyzer. Measurements collected at 10 Hz create a very large data sets. A EC flux tower located in the Snapper Creek Well Field as part of a study to estimate ET for the Miami Dade County Water and Sewer project. Data has been collected from December 17, 2009 to August 30, 2010. QA/QC is performed with the EdiRe data processing software according to Ameri-flux protocols. ET estimates along with other data--latent-heat flux, sensible-heat flux, rainfall, air temperature, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance, net radiation, soil-heat flux and relative humidity--can be used to aid in the development of water management policies and regulations. Currently, many financial institutions have adopted an understanding about baseline environmental monitoring. The “Equator Principle” is an example of a voluntary standard for managing social and environmental risk in project financing and has changed the way in which projects are financed.

  20. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOEpatents

    Gunkel, Ronald W.; Podey, Larry L.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2002-11-05

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  1. Siphon flows in isolated magnetic flux tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, John H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper considers steady siphon flows in isolated thin magnetic flux tubes surrounded by field-free gas, with plasma beta greater than or equal to 1, appropriate for conditions in the solar photosphere. The cross-sectional area of the flux tube varies along the tube in response to pressure changes induced by the siphon flow. Consideration is also given to steady isothermal siphon flows in arched magnetic flux tubes in a stratified atmosphere. Applications of the results to intense magnetic flux tubes in the solar photosphere and to the photospheric Evershed flow in a sunspot penumbra are addressed.

  2. Parity-time symmetry under magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Song, Z.

    2016-06-01

    We study a parity-time-(PT -) symmetric ring lattice, with one pair of balanced gain and loss located at opposite positions. The system remains PT -symmetric when threaded by a magnetic flux; however, the PT symmetry is sensitive to the magnetic flux in the presence of a large balanced gain and loss, or in a large system. We find a threshold gain or loss above which any nontrivial magnetic flux breaks the PT symmetry. We obtain the maximally tolerable magnetic flux for the exact PT -symmetric phase, which is approximately linearly dependent on a weak gain or loss.

  3. Flux-mediated diffuse mismatch model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, G. C.; Tay, B. K.; Teo, E. H. T.

    2010-09-01

    The diffuse mismatch model (DMM) is modified to account for the effect of thermal flux on phonon transmission at interfaces. This new model, the flux-mediated diffuse mismatch model (FMDMM) takes a slightly different approach in its formulation, and does not employ the principle of detailed balance. Two competing processes—an increase in the flux coefficient, and a decrease in the rest of the transmission term, may result in either a rise or fall in thermal boundary resistance when thermal flux is increased. This might partially explain the large disparities between experimental, theoretical, and simulated results of thermal boundary resistance.

  4. Chloride flux out of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, D.R.; Friedman, I.

    1985-01-01

    Monitoring of the chloride concentration, electrical conductivity, and discharge was carried out for the four major rivers of Yellowstone National Park from September 1982 to January 1984. Chloride flux out of the Park was determined from the measured values of chloride concentration and discharge. The annual chloride flux from the Park was 5.86 ?? 1010 g. Of this amount 45% was from the Madison River drainage basin, 32% from the Yellowstone River basin, 12% from the Snake River basin, and 11% from the Falls River basin. Of the annual chloride flux from the Yellowstone River drainage basin 36% was attributed to the Yellowstone Lake drainage basin. The geothermal contribution to the chloride flux was determined by subtracting the chloride contribution from rock weathering and atmospheric precipitation and is 94% of the total chloride flux. Calculations of the geothermal chloride flux for each river are given and the implications of an additional chloride flux out of the western Park boundary discussed. An anomalous increase in chloride flux out of the Park was observed for several weeks prior to the Mt. Borah earthquake in Central Idaho on October 28, 1983, reaching a peak value shortly thereafter. It is suggested that the rise in flux was a precursor of the earthquake. The information in this paper provides baseline data against which future changes in the hydrothermal systems can be measured. It also provides measurements related to the thermal contributions from the different drainage basins of the Park. ?? 1985.

  5. Helical flux ropes in solar prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    1990-01-01

    The present numerical method for the computation of force-free, cancelling magnetic structures shows that flux cancellation at the neutral line in a sheared magnetic arcade generates helical field lines that can support a prominence's plasma. With increasing flux cancellation, the axis of the helical fields moves to greater heights; this is suggestive of a prominence eruption. Two alternative scenarios are proposed for the formation of polar crown prominences which yield the correct axial magnetic field sign. Both models are noted to retain the formation of helical flux tubes through flux cancellation as their key feature.

  6. Charm contribution to the atmospheric neutrino flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halzen, Francis; Wille, Logan

    2016-07-01

    We revisit the estimate of the charm particle contribution to the atmospheric neutrino flux that is expected to dominate at high energies because long-lived high-energy pions and kaons interact in the atmosphere before decaying into neutrinos. We focus on the production of forward charm particles which carry a large fraction of the momentum of the incident proton. In the case of strange particles, such a component is familiar from the abundant production of K+Λ pairs. These forward charm particles can dominate the high-energy atmospheric neutrino flux in underground experiments. Modern collider experiments have no coverage in the very large rapidity region where charm forward pair production dominates. Using archival accelerator data as well as IceCube measurements of atmospheric electron and muon neutrino fluxes, we obtain an upper limit on forward D¯0Λc pair production and on the associated flux of high-energy atmospheric neutrinos. We conclude that the prompt flux may dominate the much-studied central component and represent a significant contribution to the TeV atmospheric neutrino flux. Importantly, it cannot accommodate the PeV flux of high-energy cosmic neutrinos, or the excess of events observed by IceCube in the 30-200 TeV energy range indicating either structure in the flux of cosmic accelerators, or a presence of more than one component in the cosmic flux observed.

  7. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Mark J.

    2014-01-15

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190 °C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

  8. A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

  9. Latest developments in advanced network management and cross-sharing of next-generation flux stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Johnson, Dave; Velgersdyk, Michael; Begashaw, Israel; Allyn, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, spatial and temporal flux data coverage improved significantly and on multiple scales, from a single station to continental networks, due to standardization, automation, and management of the data collection, and better handling of the extensive amounts of generated data. However, operating budgets for flux research items, such as labor, travel, and hardware, are becoming more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are required to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process, including sharing data among collaborative groups. On one hand, such tools can maximize time dedicated to publications answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data acquisition, processing, quality control and overall station management. On the other hand, cross-sharing the stations with external collaborators may help leverage available funding, and promote data analyses and publications. A new low-cost, advanced system, FluxSuite, utilizes a combination of hardware, software and web-services to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: (i) The system can be easily incorporated into a new flux station, or as un upgrade to many presently operating flux stations, via weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux 2, with fully digital inputs (ii) Each next-generation station will measure all parameters needed for flux computations in a digital and PTP time-synchronized mode, accepting digital signals from a number of anemometers and data loggers (iii) The field microcomputer will calculate final fully-processed flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. (iv) Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data will

  10. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of High Heat Fluxes During Transient Blackbody Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.; Horn, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    High heat fluxes are encountered in numerous applications, such as hypersonic vehicles in flight, fires, and engines, Calibration of heat flux gages may be performed in a dual cavity cylindrical blackbody resulting in a transient calibration environment. To characterize the transient heat fluxes. experiments were performed on a dual cavity cylindrical blackbody at nominal temperatures varying from 800 C to 1900 C in increments of 100 C. Based on experiments, the optimum heat flux sensor insertion location as measured from the center partition was determined. The pre-insertion steady state axial temperature profile is compared experimentally, numerically, and analytically. The effect of convection in the blackbody cavity during the insertion is calculated and found to be less than 2 per cent. Also, an empirical correlation for predicting the emissivity of the blackbody is included. Detailed transient thermal models have been developed to simulate the heat flux calibration process at two extreme fluxes. The high (1MW/sq m) and relatively low (70 kw/sq m) fluxes are reported in this article. The transient models show the effect of inserting a heat flux gage at room temperature on the thermal equilibrium of the blackbody at 1800 C and 800 C nominal temperatures, respectively. Also, heat flux sensor outputs are derived from computed sensor temperature distributions and compared to experimental results.

  11. Eustasy, supercontinental insulation, and the temporal variability of terrestrial heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2007-05-01

    Heat flux from convection in Earth's mantle has recently been suggested to vary substantially (20-30%) with the Wilson cycle of continental aggregation and dispersal, because of possible changes in the aspect ratio of convective cells, and the present-day heat flux may be at the maximum at such a temporal variation. This possibility of strong temporal fluctuations in heat flux has an important bearing on how we should model the thermal evolution of Earth in general. As most of convective heat flux appears as oceanic heat flux, and changes in oceanic heat flux can cause changes in the global sea-level, the likely amplitude of such a temporal variation can be quantified by long-term eustasy. Though this inference may be complicated by other processes that can affect the global sea level, most of them predict sea-level fall when Pangea was present, allowing to place a likely bound on the temporal variability of heat flux. Given the geologically plausible age-area distribution of seafloor, the present-day oceanic heat flux is likely at the minimum (not the maximum) of a possible temporal fluctuation, and the oceanic heat flux at ˜ 200 Ma cannot be lower than today by more than a few percent. I also suggest that mantle warming by supercontinental insulation is probably up to only ˜ 20 K, though it still has a nontrivial consequence for the global sea level.

  12. Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukin, Vyacheslav S.

    2014-06-01

    This cross-disciplinary special issue on 'Self-organization in magnetic flux ropes' follows in the footsteps of another collection of manuscripts dedicated to the subject of magnetic flux ropes, a volume on 'Physics of magnetic flux ropes' published in the American Geophysical Union's Geophysical Monograph Series in 1990 [1]. Twenty-four years later, this special issue, composed of invited original contributions highlighting ongoing research on the physics of magnetic flux ropes in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas, can be considered an update on our state of understanding of this fundamental constituent of any magnetized plasma. Furthermore, by inviting contributions from research groups focused on the study of the origins and properties of magnetic flux ropes in a variety of different environments, we have attempted to underline both the diversity of and the commonalities among magnetic flux ropes throughout the solar system and, indeed, the universe. So, what is a magnetic flux rope? The answer will undoubtedly depend on whom you ask. A flux rope can be as narrow as a few Larmor radii and as wide as the Sun (see, e.g., the contributions by Heli Hietala et al and by Angelous Vourlidas). As described below by Ward Manchester IV et al , they can stretch from the Sun to the Earth in the form of interplanetary coronal mass ejections. Or, as in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment described by David Schaffner et al , they can fit into a meter-long laboratory device tended by college students. They can be helical and line-tied (see, e.g., Walter Gekelman et al or J Sears et al ), or toroidal and periodic (see, e.g., John O'Bryan et al or Philippa Browning et al ). They can form in the low plasma beta environment of the solar corona (Tibor Török et al ), the order unity beta plasmas of the solar wind (Stefan Eriksson et al ) and the plasma pressure dominated stellar convection zones (Nicholas Nelson and Mark Miesch). In this special issue, Setthivoine You

  13. Seasonal trends in concentrations and fluxes of volatile organic compounds above central London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valach, A. C.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations and fluxes of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured between August and December 2012 at a roof-top site in central London as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). VOC concentrations were quantified using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer and fluxes were calculated using a virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique. The median VOC fluxes, including aromatics, oxygenated compounds and isoprene, ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1 and mixing ratios were 7.27 ppb for methanol (m / z 33) and <1 ppb for the remaining compounds. Strong relationships were observed between most VOC fluxes and concentrations with traffic density, but also with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and temperature for the oxygenated compounds and isoprene. An estimated 50-90 % of aromatic fluxes were attributable to traffic activity, which showed little seasonal variation, suggesting boundary layer effects or possibly advected pollution may be the primary causes of increased concentrations of aromatics in winter. PAR and temperature-dependent processes accounted for the majority of isoprene, methanol and acetaldehyde fluxes and concentrations in August and September, when fluxes and concentrations were largest. Modelled biogenic isoprene fluxes using the G95 algorithm agreed well with measured fluxes in August and September, due to urban vegetation. Comparisons of estimated annual benzene emissions from the London and National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory agreed well with measured benzene fluxes. Flux footprint analysis indicated emission sources were localized and that boundary layer dynamics and source strengths were responsible for temporal and spatial VOC flux and concentration variability during the measurement period.

  14. Magnetic Flux Compression in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velikovich, A. L.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic flux compression (MFC) as a method for producing ultra-high pulsed magnetic fields had been originated in the 1950s by Sakharov et al. at Arzamas in the USSR (now VNIIEF, Russia) and by Fowler et al. at Los Alamos in the US. The highest magnetic field produced by explosively driven MFC generator, 28 MG, was reported by Boyko et al. of VNIIEF. The idea of using MFC to increase the magnetic field in a magnetically confined plasma to 3-10 MG, relaxing the strict requirements on the plasma density and Lawson time, gave rise to the research area known as MTF in the US and MAGO in Russia. To make a difference in ICF, a magnetic field of ˜100 MG should be generated via MFC by a plasma liner as a part of the capsule compression scenario on a laser or pulsed power facility. This approach was first suggested in mid-1980s by Liberman and Velikovich in the USSR and Felber in the US. It has not been obvious from the start that it could work at all, given that so many mechanisms exist for anomalously fast penetration of magnetic field through plasma. And yet, many experiments stimulated by this proposal since 1986, mostly using pulsed-power drivers, demonstrated reasonably good flux compression up to ˜42 MG, although diagnostics of magnetic fields of such magnitude in HED plasmas is still problematic. The new interest of MFC in plasmas emerged with the advancement of new drivers, diagnostic methods and simulation tools. Experiments on MFC in a deuterium plasma filling a cylindrical plastic liner imploded by OMEGA laser beam led by Knauer, Betti et al. at LLE produced peak fields of 36 MG. The novel MagLIF approach to low-cost, high-efficiency ICF pursued by Herrmann, Slutz, Vesey et al. at Sandia involves pulsed-power-driven MFC to a peak field of ˜130 MG in a DT plasma. A review of the progress, current status and future prospects of MFC in plasmas is presented.

  15. Fluxes of carbon dioxide at Thetford Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, P. G.; Stewart, J. B.; Meir, P.

    2007-01-01

    The Thetford Project (1968-1976) was a keystone project for the newly established Institute of Hydrology. Its primary objective was to elucidate the processes underlying evaporation of transpired water and intercepted rainfall from plantation forest, so as to explain hydrological observations that more water was apparently returned to the atmosphere from plantations than from grassland and heathland. The primary approach was to determine the fluxes of water vapour from a stand of Scots pine, situated within a larger area of plantations of Scots and Corsican pine, in Thetford Forest, East Anglia, UK, using the Bowen ratio approach. In 1976, advantage was taken of the methodology developed to add measurement of profiles of carbon dioxide concentration so as to enable the fluxes of CO2 also to be calculated. A team from Aberdeen and Edinburgh Universities collected 914 hours of 8-point CO2 concentration profiles, largely between dawn and dusk, on days from March to October, and the data from an "elite" data set of 710 hours have been analysed. In conditions of moderate temperature (<25°C) and specific humidity deficit (<15 g kg-1 with high solar irradiance (>500 W m-2), CO2 uptake reached relatively high rates for pine of up to 20 µmol m-2 s-1 in the middle of the day. This rate of CO2 uptake is higher than has been recently found for four Scots pine forests in continental Europe during July 1997. However, the year of 1976 was exceptionally hot and dry, with air temperatures reaching 30°C and the water deficit in the top 3 m of soil at the site of 152 mm by August. Air temperatures of over 25°C led to large specific humidity deficits, approaching 20 g kg-1, and associated severe reductions in CO2 uptake, as well as in evaporation. However, when specific humidity deficits dropped below c. 15 g kg-1 on succeeding days, generally as a result of lower air temperatures rather than lower solar irradiance, there was rapid recovery in both uptake and evaporation, thus

  16. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000ÀC showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  17. Dual Active Surface Heat Flux Gage Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, Curt H.; Kolodziej, Paul

    1995-01-01

    A unique plug-type heat flux gage probe was tested in the NASA Ames Research Center 2x9 turbulent flow duct facility. The probe was fabricated by welding a miniature dual active surface heat flux gage body to the end of a hollow metal cylindrical bolt containing a metal inner tube. Cooling air flows through the inner tube, impinges onto the back of the gage body and then flows out through the annulus formed between the inner tube and the hollow bolt wall. Heat flux was generated in the duct facility with a Huels arc heater. The duct had a rectangular cross section and one wall was fabricated from 2.54 centimeter thick thermal insulation rigid surface material mounted onto an aluminum plate. To measure heat flux, the probe was inserted through the plate and insulating materials with the from of the gage located flush with the hot gas-side insulation surface. Absorbed heat fluxes measured with the probe were compared with absorbed heat fluxes measured with six water-cooled reference calorimeters. These calorimeters were located in a water-cooled metal duct wall which was located across from the probe position. Correspondence of transient and steady heat fluxes measured with the reference calorimeters and heat flux gage probe was generally within a satisfactory plus or minus 10 percent. This good correspondence was achieved even though the much cooler probe caused a large surface temperature disruption of 1000K between the metal gage and the insulation. However, this temperature disruption did not seriously effect the accuracy of the heat flux measurement. A current application for dual active surface heat flux gages is for transient and steady absorbed heat flux, surface temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the surface of an oxidizer turbine inlet deflector operating in a space shuttle test bed engine.

  18. Experimental Measurements of Temperature and Heat Flux in a High Temperature Black Body Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, Amanie N.

    1998-01-01

    During hypersonic flight, high temperatures and high heat fluxes are generated. The Flight Loads Laboratory (FLL) at Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is equipped to calibrate high heat fluxes up to 1100 kW/sq m. There are numerous uncertainties associated with these heat flux calibrations, as the process is transient, there are expected to be interactions between transient conduction, natural and forced convection, radiation, and possibly an insignificant degree of oxidation of the graphite cavity. Better understanding, of these mechanisms during the calibration process, will provide more reliable heat transfer data during either ground testing or flight testing of hypersonic vehicles.

  19. ENERGY INJECTION VIA FLUX EMERGENCE ON THE SUN DEPENDING ON THE GEOMETRIC SHAPE OF MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Magara, T.

    2011-04-20

    Flux emergence is a complicated process involving flow and magnetic field, which provides a way of injecting magnetic energy into the solar atmosphere. We show that energy injection via this complicated process is characterized by a physical quantity called the emergence velocity, which is determined by the spatial relationship between the flow velocity and magnetic field vectors. By using this quantity, we demonstrate that the geometric shape of magnetic field might play an important role in the energy injection via flux emergence.

  20. Vertical fluxes of organic contaminants in the Ligurian Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyme, Remi; Bouloubassi, Ioanna; Taphanel-Valt, Marie-Helene; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Lorre, Anne; Marty, Jean-Claude; Mejanelle, Laurence

    2010-05-01

    High resolution temporal series of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters have been monitored throughout the SO-DYFAMED program, aiming at better understanding the response of the ocean to anthropic and climatic disturbance. The present contribution addresses fluxes of organic semi-volatile contaminants and of biogenic lipids associated with marine sinking particles. Sediment trap samples were collected at the DYFAMED station (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean Sea) from December 2000 to July 2002, at a depth of 200m and 1000m, and with a time step of 2 to 3 weeks. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Non-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (NAHs) were investigated to characterize the levels of contamination and the fluxes of contaminants transferred from the upper marine waters to intermediate waters. Specific lipids of phytoplankton, terrigeneous matter and faecal pellets were also determined, aiming at better understanding biogeochemical processes that may impact on pollutant transfer toward deeper marine horizons. Up to 36 PAHs were identified. The 13 parent compound levels (Σ PAH13) varied from 564 to 4156 ng.g-1, with highest concentrations corresponding to winter months. The molecular profile was dominated by low molecular weight PAHs and higher abundance of alkylated homologues over parent compounds. This characteristic, together with diagnostic molecular ratios attribute the main part of PAHs to a petrogenic origin. Aliphatic hydrocarbons were largely dominated by an UCM (Unresolved Complex Mixture), accounting for ca. 91 % of NAHs, which further confirms the dominant petrogenic origin of hydrocarbons. Fluxes of PAHs13 and NAHs varied from 0.29 to 0.422 and from 0.4 to 19.0 ?g.m2.d-1, respectively. Alike concentrations, PAH fluxes were higher than those reported in other open Mediterranean locations, revealing that the study site is under a stronger anthropogenic influence. Various inputs of contaminants at the study site may be pointed out: riverine inputs

  1. Bacterial adhesion onto nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes: effect of permeate flux.

    PubMed

    Semião, Andrea J C; Habimana, Olivier; Casey, Eoin

    2014-10-15

    The influence of permeate flux on bacterial adhesion to NF and RO membranes was examined using two model Pseudomonas species, namely Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida. To better understand the initial biofouling profile during NF/RO processes, deposition experiments were conducted in cross flow under permeate flux varying from 0.5 up to 120 L/(h m(2)), using six NF and RO membranes each having different surface properties. All experiments were performed at a Reynolds number of 579. Complementary adhesion experiments were performed using Pseudomonas cells grown to early-, mid- and late-exponential growth phases to evaluate the effect of bacterial cell surface properties during cell adhesion under permeate flux conditions. Results from this study show that initial bacterial adhesion is strongly dependent on the permeate flux conditions, where increased adhesion was obtained with increased permeate flux, until a maximum of 40% coverage was reached. Membrane surface properties or bacterial growth stages was further found to have little impact on bacterial adhesion to NF and RO membrane surfaces under the conditions tested. These results emphasise the importance of conducting adhesion and biofouling experiments under realistic permeate flux conditions, and raises questions about the efficacy of the methods for the evaluation of antifouling membranes in which bacterial adhesion is commonly assessed under zero-flux or low flux conditions, unrepresentative of full-scale NF/RO processes.

  2. GHG fluxes in a subtropical European wetland (Southeast Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Kutzbach, Lars; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P.; Pérez-Priego, Oscar; Bockermann, Carla; Castro, Jorge; Runkle, Benjamin; Avagyan, Armina; Fernández, Néstor; Marañón-Jiménez, Sara; Kowalski, Andrew S.

    2013-04-01

    Wetlands accumulate a significant portion of the global soil carbon pool and are considered important carbon sinks. However, it is still unknown whether wetlands will convert from long-term carbon sinks to sources due to global warming and other anthropogenic effects. The eddy covariance technique is one of the most commonly used methods worldwide to measure GHG gas exchanges from "flux towers", forming a FLUXNET community. Several wetland sites are already included in the European FLUXNET community providing continuous information about CO2, H2O and CH4 exchanges over a temperature and precipitation gradient from northern Scandinavia to southern Germany. However, there is a lack of information about the behaviour of wetlands located in the south of Europe. The primary objective of this study is to analyse the ecosystem-scale water and carbon (CO2 and CH4) fluxes from a restored wetland located in southern Spain in a sub-humid warm climate. This restored wetland, with Phragmites australis as the dominant species, is characterised by a mean annual temperature of 16°C and mean annual precipitation of ca. 470 mm, with a very dry summer. In June 2012, an eddy covariance tower was installed to measure fluxes of H2O, CO2 and CH4 to evaluate possible effects of global warming on the role of such ecosystems as carbon sinks. We also analyse such effects on respiratory and photosynthetic processes through flux partitioning methods, calibrated using independent measurements. Here we present preliminary GHG fluxes at the site together with an evaluation of the dominant processes and their drivers.

  3. Quantifying Particle Numbers and Mass Flux in Drifting Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivelli, Philip; Paterna, Enrico; Horender, Stefan; Lehning, Michael

    2016-06-01

    We compare two of the most common methods of quantifying mass flux, particle numbers and particle-size distribution for drifting snow events, the snow-particle counter (SPC), a laser-diode-based particle detector, and particle tracking velocimetry based on digital shadowgraphic imaging. The two methods were correlated for mass flux and particle number flux. For the SPC measurements, the device was calibrated by the manufacturer beforehand. The shadowgrapic imaging method measures particle size and velocity directly from consecutive images, and before each new test the image pixel length is newly calibrated. A calibration study with artificially scattered sand particles and glass beads provides suitable settings for the shadowgraphical imaging as well as obtaining a first correlation of the two methods in a controlled environment. In addition, using snow collected in trays during snowfall, several experiments were performed to observe drifting snow events in a cold wind tunnel. The results demonstrate a high correlation between the mass flux obtained for the calibration studies (r ≥slant 0.93 ) and good correlation for the drifting snow experiments (r ≥slant 0.81 ). The impact of measurement settings is discussed in order to reliably quantify particle numbers and mass flux in drifting snow. The study was designed and performed to optimize the settings of the digital shadowgraphic imaging system for both the acquisition and the processing of particles in a drifting snow event. Our results suggest that these optimal settings can be transferred to different imaging set-ups to investigate sediment transport processes.

  4. Neutron Flux Perturbations due to Infinite Plane Absorbers IV: The Exponential Flux Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.M.R

    2002-02-15

    Flux depression factors and measures of asymmetry are presented for an absorbing and scattering slab in an infinite medium in which there is an overall exponential flux. One speed transport theory is employed. The effect of the slab on the exponential flux is determined and the necessary correction factors to recover the unperturbed flux from the activation of the slab are calculated. Although this is an old problem, we present here a new formalism which highlights clearly some important physical aspects.

  5. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Peter J; Rousculp, Christopher L; Reinovsky, Robert E; Reass, William A; Griego, Jeffrey R; Oro, David M; Merrill, Frank E

    2010-06-28

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  6. Extraterrestrial high energy neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Using the most recent cosmic ray spectra up to 2x10 to the 20th power eV, production spectra of high energy neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions with interstellar gas and extragalactic interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays with 3K universal background photons are presented and discussed. Estimates of the fluxes from cosmic diffuse sources and the nearby quasar 3C273 are made using the generic relationship between secondary neutrinos and gammas and using recent gamma ray satellite data. These gamma ray data provide important upper limits on cosmological neutrinos. Quantitative estimates of the observability of high energy neutrinos from the inner galaxy and 3C273 above atmospheric background for a DUMAND type detector are discussed in the context of the Weinberg-Salam model with sq sin theta omega = 0.2 and including the atmospheric background from the decay of charmed mesons. Constraints on cosmological high energy neutrino production models are also discussed. It appears that important high energy neutrino astronomy may be possible with DUMAND, but very long observing times are required.

  7. Pulmonary transvascular flux of transferrin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B. )

    1989-11-01

    We compared the pulmonary transvascular fluxes of transferrin and albumin in the intact sheep lung. Anesthetized sheep were prepared with lung lymph fistulas. The vascular blood pool was marked with {sup 99m}Tc-erythrocytes, autologous transferrin was labeled with {sup 113m}In, and albumin was labeled with {sup 125}I. Samples of blood, plasma, lymph, and lung were obtained up to 180 min after tracer infusion. Lymph tissue radioactivities were corrected for the intravascular component and expressed as extravascular-to-plasma concentration ratios. Clearance of transferrin and albumin from the plasma space followed a two-compartment model. The clearance rate constant was 2.1 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for albumin and 2.4 {plus minus} 0.1 x 10(-3) min for transferrin (P less than 0.05). Lymph-to-plasma ratios for albumin and transferrin were not different. However, the extravascular-to-plasma ratio for albumin was greater than transferrin (P less than 0.05). The lymph and lung data were deconvoluted for the plasma input function and fit to a two-compartment model. The results indicate that albumin and transferrin have similar permeabilities across the vascular barrier but have different pulmonary circulation to lymph kinetics because the extravascular volume of distribution of albumin is greater than transferrin.

  8. Chaos in magnetic flux ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gekelman, Walter; Van Compernolle, Bart; DeHaas, Tim; Vincena, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic flux ropes immersed in a uniform magnetoplasma are observed to twist about themselves, writhe about each other and rotate about a central axis. They are kink unstable and smash into one another as they move. Each collision results in magnetic field line reconnection and the generation of a quasi-separatrix layer. Three-dimensional magnetic field lines are computed by conditionally averaging the data using correlation techniques. Conditional averaging is possible for only a number of rotation cycles as the field line motion becomes chaotic. The permutation entropy can be calculated from the time series of the magnetic field data (this is also done with flows) and is used to calculate the positions of the data on a Jensen-Shannon complexity map. The location of data on this map indicates if the magnetic fields are stochastic, or fall into regions of minimal or maximal complexity. The complexity is a function of space and time. The Lyapunov and Hurst exponents are calculated and the complexity and permutation entropy of the flows and field components are shown throughout the volume.

  9. FluxSuite: a New Scientific Tool for Advanced Network Management and Cross-Sharing of Next-Generation Flux Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Beaty, K.; Forgione, A.; Begashaw, I.; Allyn, D.

    2015-12-01

    Significant increases in data generation and computing power in recent years have greatly improved spatial and temporal flux data coverage on multiple scales, from a single station to continental flux networks. At the same time, operating budgets for flux teams and stations infrastructure are getting ever more difficult to acquire and sustain. With more stations and networks, larger data flows from each station, and smaller operating budgets, modern tools are needed to effectively and efficiently handle the entire process. This would help maximize time dedicated to answering research questions, and minimize time and expenses spent on data processing, quality control and station management. Cross-sharing the stations with external institutions may also help leverage available funding, increase scientific collaboration, and promote data analyses and publications. FluxSuite, a new advanced tool combining hardware, software and web-service, was developed to address these specific demands. It automates key stages of flux workflow, minimizes day-to-day site management, and modernizes the handling of data flows: Each next-generation station measures all parameters needed for flux computations Field microcomputer calculates final fully-corrected flux rates in real time, including computation-intensive Fourier transforms, spectra, co-spectra, multiple rotations, stationarity, footprint, etc. Final fluxes, radiation, weather and soil data are merged into a single quality-controlled file Multiple flux stations are linked into an automated time-synchronized network Flux network manager, or PI, can see all stations in real time, including fluxes, supporting data, automated reports, and email alerts PI can assign rights, allow or restrict access to stations and data: selected stations can be shared via rights-managed access internally or with external institutions Researchers without stations could form "virtual networks" for specific projects by collaborating with PIs from

  10. Eddy covariance carbonyl sulfide flux measurements with a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdel, Katharina; Spielmann, Felix M.; Hammerle, Albin; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur containing trace gas present in the troposphere at concentrations of around 500 ppt. Recent interest in COS by the ecosystem-physiological community has been sparked by the fact that COS co-diffuses into plant leaves pretty much the same way as carbon dioxide (CO2) does, but in contrast to CO2, COS is not known to be emitted by plants. Thus uptake of COS by vegetation has the potential to be used as a tracer for canopy gross photosynthesis, which cannot be measured directly, however represents a key term in the global carbon cycle. Since a few years, quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometers (QCLAS) are commercially available with the precision, sensitivity and time response suitable for eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements. While there exist a handful of published reports on EC flux measurements in the recent literature, no rigorous investigation of the applicability of QCLAS for EC COS flux measurements has been carried out so far, nor have been EC processing and QA/QC steps developed for carbon dioxide and water vapor flux measurements within FLUXNET been assessed for COS. The aim of this study is to close this knowledge gap, to discuss critical steps in the post-processing chain of COS EC flux measurements and to devise best-practice guidelines for COS EC flux data processing. To this end we collected EC COS (and CO2, H2O and CO) flux measurements above a temperate mountain grassland in Austria over the vegetation period 2015 with a commercially available QCLAS. We discuss various aspects of EC data post-processing, in particular issues with the time-lag estimation between sonic anemometer and QCLAS signals and QCLAS time series detrending, as well as QA/QC, in particular flux detection limits, random flux uncertainty, the interaction of various processing steps with common EC QA/QC filters (e.g. detrending and stationarity tests), u*-filtering, etc.

  11. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-15

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a “heat flux viscosity,” is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  12. Surface Flux Modeling for Air Quality Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    For many gasses and aerosols, dry deposition is an important sink of atmospheric mass. Dry deposition fluxes are also important sources of pollutants to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The surface fluxes of some gases, such as ammonia, mercury, and certain volatile organic c...

  13. AmeriFlux US-Dia Diablo

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wharton, Sonia [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Dia Diablo. Site Description - The site is on land owned by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Site 300) and has no grazing or management history since the 1950's except for summer-time burning of selected acres for fire management (not included in the tower footprint).

  14. The minimum flux corona; theory or concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The reply to the criticisms of the minimum flux theory is discussed. These criticisms are correct in substance, as well as in detail. Counter arguments that the minimum flux corona theory is untenable, because of errors in its formulation, are presented.

  15. Fast flux module detection using matroid theory.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Arne C; Bruggeman, Frank J; Olivier, Brett G; Stougie, Leen

    2015-05-01

    Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most often applied methods on genome-scale metabolic networks. Although FBA uniquely determines the optimal yield, the pathway that achieves this is usually not unique. The analysis of the optimal-yield flux space has been an open challenge. Flux variability analysis is only capturing some properties of the flux space, while elementary mode analysis is intractable due to the enormous number of elementary modes. However, it has been found by Kelk et al. (2012) that the space of optimal-yield fluxes decomposes into flux modules. These decompositions allow a much easier but still comprehensive analysis of the optimal-yield flux space. Using the mathematical definition of module introduced by Müller and Bockmayr (2013b), we discovered useful connections to matroid theory, through which efficient algorithms enable us to compute the decomposition into modules in a few seconds for genome-scale networks. Using that every module can be represented by one reaction that represents its function, in this article, we also present a method that uses this decomposition to visualize the interplay of modules. We expect the new method to replace flux variability analysis in the pipelines for metabolic networks. PMID:25565150

  16. AmeriFlux US-Ivo Ivotuk

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, Walter; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ivo Ivotuk. Site Description - This site is 300 km south of Barrow and is located at the foothill of the Brooks Range and is classified as tussock sedge, dwarf-shrub, moss tundra.

  17. AmeriFlux US-Atq Atqasuk

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, Walt; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Atq Atqasuk. Site Description - This site is 100 km south of Barrow, Alaska, Variety of moist-wet coastal sedge tundra, and moist-tussock tundra surfaces in the more well-drained upland.

  18. AmeriFlux US-Brw Barrow

    SciTech Connect

    Oechel, Walt; Zona, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Brw Barrow. Site Description - The local landscape surrounding the Barrow site has a history absent of any disturbances. The terrain was not heavily glaciated during the last period of glaciation. The vegetation is mature in an unmanaged and undisturbed Arctic tundra.

  19. Heat flux viscosity in collisional magnetized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-05-01

    Momentum transport in collisional magnetized plasmas due to gradients in the heat flux, a "heat flux viscosity," is demonstrated. Even though no net particle flux is associated with a heat flux, in a plasma there can still be momentum transport owing to the velocity dependence of the Coulomb collision frequency, analogous to the thermal force. This heat-flux viscosity may play an important role in numerous plasma environments, in particular, in strongly driven high-energy-density plasma, where strong heat flux can dominate over ordinary plasma flows. The heat flux viscosity can influence the dynamics of the magnetic field in plasmas through the generalized Ohm's law and may therefore play an important role as a dissipation mechanism allowing magnetic field line reconnection. The heat flux viscosity is calculated directly using the finite-difference method of Epperlein and Haines [Phys. Fluids 29, 1029 (1986)], which is shown to be more accurate than Braginskii's method [S. I. Braginskii, Rev. Plasma Phys. 1, 205 (1965)], and confirmed with one-dimensional collisional particle-in-cell simulations. The resulting transport coefficients are tabulated for ease of application.

  20. METHOD AND FLUX COMPOSITION FOR TREATING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.

    1958-08-23

    ABS>A flux composition is described fer use with molten uranium or uranium alloys. The flux consists of about 46 weight per cent calcium fiuoride, 46 weight per cent magnesium fluoride and about 8 weight per cent of uranium tetrafiuoride.

  1. Methane flux time series for tundra environments

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, S.C.; Reeburgh, W.E. )

    1988-12-01

    Seasonal measurements of net methane flux were made at permanent sites representing important components of arctic tundra. The sites include Eriophorum tussocks, intertussock depressions, moss-covered areas, and Carex stands. Methane fluxes showed high diel, seasonal, intra site, and between site variability. Eriophorum tussocks and Carex dominated methane release to the atmosphere, with mean annual net methane fluxes of 8.05 + or{minus}2.50 g CH{sub 4}/sq m and 4.88 + or{minus}0.73 g CH{sub 4}/sq m, respectively. Methane fluxes form the moss sites and intertussock depressions were much lower. Over 90% of the mean annual methane flux from the Eriophorum, intertussock depressions, and Carex sites occurred between thaw and freeze-up. Some 40% of the mean annual methane flux from the moss sites occurred during winter. Composite methane fluxes for tussock tundra and Carex-dominated wet meadow tundra environments were produced by weighting measured component fluxes according to areal coverage. Tussock and wet meadow tundra account for an estimated global methane emission of 19-33 Tg/yr. 39 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Investigating the Dynamics of Canonical Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Linden, Jens; Carroll, Evan; Kamikawa, Yu; Lavine, Eric; Vereen, Keon; You, Setthivoine

    2013-10-01

    Canonical flux tubes are defined by tracing areas of constant magnetic and fluid vorticity flux. This poster will present the theory for canonical flux tubes and current progress in the construction of an experiment designed to observe their evolution. In the zero flow limit, canonical flux tubes are magnetic flux tubes, but in full form, present the distinct advantage of reconciling two-fluid plasma dynamics with familiar concepts of helicity, twists and linkages. The experiment and the DCON code will be used to investigate a new MHD stability criterion for sausage and kink modes in screw pinches that has been generalized to magnetic flux tubes with skin and core currents. Camera images and a 3D array of ˙ B probes will measure tube aspect-ratio and ratio of current-to-magnetic flux, respectively, to trace these flux tube parameters in a stability space. The experiment's triple electrode planar gun is designed to generate azimuthal and axial flows. These diagnostics together with a 3D vector tomographic reconstruction of ion Doppler spectroscopy will be used to verify the theory of canonical helicity transport. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  3. Physical mechanisms of heat, momentum and turbulence fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theon, John S.

    1987-01-01

    In a qualitative way, the physical mechanisms which generate fluxes of heat, momentum, and turbulence in the atmosphere are discussed. This material is presented to acquaint people with the Earth science aspects of turbulence as important processes in the atmosphere. To attempt to describe turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture in precise mathematical detail becomes an intractable problem. It is burdened by an eighth order set of equations involving more variables than equations. It is a closure problem which requires complicated assumptions that are not necessarily always satisfied, variable boundary conditions, and sparse observational data. Therefore, we must approach the problem in a simplified manner to obtain any kind of solution involving the variables of shear, stress, and heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes. There are other problems, of course, in which the inclusion of the planetary boundary layer is extremely important. Air pollution studies, air-sea exchanges, mesoscale models, and so on, must account for the planetary layer in very specific terms. Some of the physical mechanisms that are involved in generating fluxes are described.

  4. SNS Sample Activation Calculator Flux Recommendations and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    McClanahan, Tucker C.; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Iverson, Erik B.; Lu, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) uses the Sample Activation Calculator (SAC) to calculate the activation of a sample after the sample has been exposed to the neutron beam in one of the SNS beamlines. The SAC webpage takes user inputs (choice of beamline, the mass, composition and area of the sample, irradiation time, decay time, etc.) and calculates the activation for the sample. In recent years, the SAC has been incorporated into the user proposal and sample handling process, and instrument teams and users have noticed discrepancies in the predicted activation of their samples. The Neutronics Analysis Team validated SAC by performing measurements on select beamlines and confirmed the discrepancies seen by the instrument teams and users. The conclusions were that the discrepancies were a result of a combination of faulty neutron flux spectra for the instruments, improper inputs supplied by SAC (1.12), and a mishandling of cross section data in the Sample Activation Program for Easy Use (SAPEU) (1.1.2). This report focuses on the conclusion that the SAPEU (1.1.2) beamline neutron flux spectra have errors and are a significant contributor to the activation discrepancies. The results of the analysis of the SAPEU (1.1.2) flux spectra for all beamlines will be discussed in detail. The recommendations for the implementation of improved neutron flux spectra in SAPEU (1.1.3) are also discussed.

  5. Aspect Ratio Effects in the Driven, Flux-Core Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, E B; Romero-Talam?s, C A; LoDestro, L L; Wood, R D; McLean, H S

    2009-03-02

    Resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to evaluate the effects of the aspect ratio, A (length to radius ratio) in a spheromak driven by coaxial helicity injection. The simulations are benchmarked against the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) [R. D. Wood, et al., Nucl. Nucl. Fusion 45, 1582 (2005)]. Amplification of the bias ('gun') poloidal flux is fit well by a linear dependence (insensitive to A) on the ratio of gun current and bias flux above a threshold dependent on A. For low flux amplifications in the simulations the n = 1 mode is coherent and the mean-field geometry looks like a tilted spheromak. Because the mode has relatively large amplitude the field lines are open everywhere, allowing helicity penetration. Strongly-driven helicity injection at A {le} 1.4 in simulations generates reconnection events which open the magnetic field lines; this state is characteristic of SSPX. Near the spheromak tilt-mode limit, A {approx} 1.67 for a cylindrical flux conserver, the tilt approaches 90{sup o}; reconnection events are not generated up to the strongest drives simulated. The time-sequence of these events suggests that they are representative of a chaotic process. Implications for spheromak experiments are discussed.

  6. Heat flux instrumentation for Hyflite thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diller, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Using Thermal Protection Tile core samples supplied by NASA, the surface characteristics of the FRCI, TUFI, and RCG coatings were evaluated. Based on these results, appropriate methods of surface preparation were determined and tested for the required sputtering processes. Sample sensors were fabricated on the RCG coating and adhesion was acceptable. Based on these encouraging results, complete Heat Flux Microsensors were fabricated on the RCG coating. The issue of lead attachment was addressed with the annnealing and welding methods developed at NASA Lewis. Parallel gap welding appears to be the best method of lead attachment with prior heat treatment of the sputtered pads. Sample Heat Flux Microsensors were submitted for testing in the NASA Ames arc jet facility. Details of the project are contained in two attached reports. One additional item of interest is contained in the attached AIAA paper, which gives details of the transient response of a Heat Flux Microsensors in a shock tube facility at Virginia Tech. The response of the heat flux sensor was measured to be faster than 10 micro-s.

  7. High-{Tc} DC SQUID and flux transformer development

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, A.A.; Angus, V.; Betts, K.

    1994-12-31

    A description is presented of the fabrication and properties of high {Tc} DC SQUIDS and flux transformers fabricated by dry processing of pulsed laser ablated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) thin films. SQUIDs have been fabricated with either bicrystal substrate or step edge junctions. For all devices fabricated thus far, measurements indicate a similar character to the flux noise spectra with a significant 1/f noise component below 100--500 Hz. The transfer function and energy sensitivities as a function of SQUID inductances in the range 60--200 pH have been measured for bicrystal DC SQUIDs and compared with estimates. Various techniques have been employed to improve the magnetic field sensitivity of the uncoupled DC SQUID toward more practical levels including the use of large area washers, single layer magnetometers and 3-level flux transformers fabricated from trilayers of YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/YBCO. The properties of open input coils are presented as well as the performance of closed loop transformers coupled via flip chip geometry to the SQUID washer. A white magnetic noise level of {approx} 130 fT rms/{radical}Hz above 200 Hz has been reached with a flux transformer with a 15 turn input coil and pick-up loop area of 13 mm{sup 2}.

  8. Models Robustness for Simulating Drainage and NO3-N Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabro, Jay; Jabro, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Computer models simulate and forecast appropriate agricultural practices to reduce environmental impact. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare robustness and performance of three models -- LEACHM, NCSWAP, and SOIL-SOILN--for simulating drainage and NO3-N leaching fluxes in an intense pasture system without recalibration. A 3-yr study was conducted on a Hagerstown silt loam to measure drainage and NO3-N fluxes below 1 m depth from N-fertilized orchardgrass using intact core lysimeters. Five N-fertilizer treatments were replicated five times in a randomized complete block experimental design. The models were validated under orchardgrass using soil, water and N transformation rate parameters and C pools fractionation derived from a previous study conducted on similar soils under corn. The model efficiency (MEF) of drainage and NO3-N fluxes were 0.53, 0.69 for LEACHM; 0.75, 0.39 for NCSWAP; and 0.94, 0.91for SOIL-SOILN. The models failed to produce reasonable simulations of drainage and NO3-N fluxes in January, February and March due to limited water movement associated with frozen soil and snow accumulation and melt. The differences between simulated and measured NO3-N leaching and among models' performances may also be related to soil N and C transformation processes embedded in the models These results are a monumental progression in the validation of computer models which will lead to continued diffusion across diverse stakeholders.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Transient Insertion of Heat Flux Gages in a Cylindrical Black Body Cavity at 1100 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelmessih, A. N.; Horn, T.

    2006-01-01

    Initial transient thermal models have been developed to simulate a heat flux gage calibration process capable of generating high heat flux levels of interest to reciprocating and gas turbine engine industries as well as the aerospace industry. These transient models are based on existing, experimentally validated, steady state models of the cylindrical blackbody calibration system. The steady state models were modified to include insertion of a heat flux gage into the hot zone of the calibration system and time varying electrical current passing through the resistance heated blackbody. Heat fluxes computed using the initial transient models were compared to experimental measurements. The calculated and measured transient heat fluxes were within 5% indicating that the major physical phenomena in the transient calibration had been captured by the models. The predicted and measured transient heat fluxes were also compared at two different gage insertion depths. These results indicated that there is an optimum insertion position which maximizes heat flux and minimizes cavity disturbance.

  10. Spacecraft-produced neutron fluxes on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quist, T. C.; Furst, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Baum, J. H.; Peacock, C. L., Jr.; Perry, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of neutron fluxes in different energy ranges are reported for the Skylab spacecraft. Detectors composed of uranium, thorium, and bismuth foils with mica as a fission track recorder, as well as boron foils with cellulose acetate as an alpha-particle recorder, were deployed at different positions in the Orbital Workshop. It was found that the Skylab neutron flux was dominated by high energy (greater than 1 MeV) contributions and that there was no significant time variation in the fluxes. Firm upper limits of 7-15 neutrons/sq cm-sec, depending on the detector location in the spacecraft, were established for fluxes above 1 MeV. Below 1 MeV, the neutron fluxes were about an order of magnitude lower. The neutrons are interpreted as originating from the interactions of leakage protons from the radiation belt with the spacecraft.

  11. Modeling Magnetic Flux-Ropes Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieves-Chinchilla, T.; Linton, M.; Hidalgo, M. A. U.; Vourlidas, A.; Savani, N.; Szabo, A.; Farrugia, C. J.; Yu, W.

    2015-12-01

    Flux-ropes are usually associated with magnetic structures embedded in the interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) with a depressed proton temperature (called Magnetic Clouds, MCs). However, small-scale flux-ropes in the solar wind are also identified with different formation, evolution, and dynamic involved. We present an analytical model to describe magnetic flux-rope topologies. The model is generalized to different grades of complexity. It extends the circular-cylindrical concept of Hidalgo et al. (2002) by introducing a general form for the radial dependence of the current density. This generalization provides information on the force distribution inside the flux rope in addition to the usual parameters of flux-rope geometrical information and orientation. The generalized model provides flexibility for implementation in 3-D MHD simulations.

  12. Comparative study of flux pinning flux creep and critical currents between YBaCuO crystals with and without Y2BaCuO5 inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Masato; Gotoh, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Koshizuka, Naoki; Tanaka, Shoji

    1990-01-01

    In the Y-Ba-Cu-O system YBa2Cu3Ox phase is produced by the following peritectic reaction: Y2BaCuO5 + liquid yields 2YBa2Cu3Ox. Through the control of processing conditions and starting compositions it becomes possible to fabricate large crystals containing fine Y2BaCuO5(211) inclusions. Such crystals exhibit Jc values exceeding 10000 A/sq cm at 77 K and 1T. Recently, researchers developed a novel process which can control the volume fraction of 211 inclusions. Elimination of 211 inclusions is also possible. In this study, researchers prepared YBaCuO crystals with and without 211 inclusions using the novel process and compared flux pinning, flux creep and critical currents. Magnetic field dependence of Jc for YBaCuO crystals with and without 211 inclusions is shown. It is clear that fine 211 inclusions can contribute to flux pinning. It was also found that flux creep rate could be reduced by increasing flux pinning force. Critical current density estimates based on the conventional flux pinning theory were in good agreement with experimental results.

  13. Nitrogen Gas Fluxes in Northeastern Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafave, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Venterea, R. T.; Lovett, G. M.

    2002-12-01

    Nitrogen gas fluxes are a poorly quantified component of the nitrogen (N) cycle of forest ecosystems and are important to water quality, atmospheric chemistry and forest health. We measured fluxes of nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and dinitrogen (N2) in oak and maple stands in the Catskill mountains of New York State. Fluxes of NO and N2O were measured using in situ chambers and N2 flux was measured in intact cores incubated in a helium-oxygen atmosphere closed recirculation system in the laboratory. Fluxes of NO and N2O were higher in maple than in oak stands, which is consistent with previous work showing higher rates of N cycling under maple than oak. NO fluxes averaged 1.7 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.2 in oak. N2O fluxes averaged 0.10 mg N m-2 d-1 in maple and 0.004 in oak. However, N2 fluxes were higher in oak (2.3 mg N m-2 d-1) than maple (0.15), a surprising result that was supported by independent measurements of denitrification potential. There was marked variability in fluxes between replicate plots that was linked to the presence of understory vegetation and physical characteristics of the forest floor. Results suggest that N gas fluxes in northeastern temperate forests may be more important than previously thought and may be an important regulator of export of N to coastal waters, N-related atmospheric chemistry and forest N saturation.

  14. Comparison of debris flux models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdunnus, H.; Beltrami, P.; Klinkrad, H.; Matney, M.; Nazarenko, A.; Wegener, P.

    The availability of models to estimate the impact risk from the man-made space debris and the natural meteoroid environment is essential for both, manned and unmanned satellite missions. Various independent tools based on different approaches have been developed in the past years. Due to an increased knowledge of the debris environment and its sources e.g. from improved measurement capabilities, these models could be updated regularly, providing more detailed and more reliable simulations. This paper addresses an in-depth, quantitative comparison of widely distributed debris flux models which were recently updated, namely ESA's MASTER 2001 model, NASA's ORDEM 2000 and the Russian SDPA 2000 model. The comparison was performed in the frame of the work of the 20t h Interagency Debris Coordination (IADC) meeting held in Surrey, UK. ORDEM 2000ORDEM 2000 uses careful empirical estimates of the orbit populations based onthree primary data sources - the US Space Command Catalog, the H ystackaRadar, and the Long Duration Exposure Facility spacecraft returned surfaces.Further data (e.g. HAX and Goldstone radars, impacts on Shuttle windows andradiators, and others) were used to adjust these populations for regions in time,size, and space not covered by the primary data sets. Some interpolation andextrapolation to regions with no data (such as projections into the future) wasprovided by the EVOLVE model. MASTER 2001The ESA MASTER model offers a full three dimensional description of theterrestrial debris distribution reaching from LEO up to the GEO region. Fluxresults relative to an orbiting target or to an inertial volume can be resolved intosource terms, impactor characteristics and orbit, as well as impact velocity anddirection. All relevant debris source terms are considered by the MASTERmodel. For each simulated source, a corresponding debris generation model interms of mass/diameter distribution, additional velocities, and directionalspreading has been developed. A

  15. The stretching of magnetic flux tubes in the convective overshoot region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, George H.; Mcclymont, Alexander N.; Chou, Dean-Yi

    1991-01-01

    The present study examines the fate of a magnetic flux tube initially lying at the bottom of the solar convective overshoot region. Stretching of the flux tube, e.g., by differential rotation, reduces its density, causing it to rise quasi-statically (a process referred to as vertical flux drift) until it reaches the top of the overshoot region and enters the buoyantly unstable convection region, from which a portion of it may ultimately protrude to form an active region on the surface. It is suggested that vertical flux drift and flux destabilization are inevitable consequences of field amplification, and it is surmised that these phenomena should be considered in self-consistent models of solar and stellar dynamos operating in the overshoot region.

  16. High-Flux and Low-Flux Membranes: Efficacy in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Oshvandi, Khodayar; Kavyannejad, Rasol; Borzuo, Sayed Reza; Gholyaf, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inadequacy of dialysis is one of the main causes of death in hemodialysis patients. Some studies have suggested that high‐flux membrane improves the removal of moderate-sized molecules while other studies indicate no significant effect on them. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the dialysis efficacy of low-flux versus high-flux membranes in hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods: Forty hemodialysis patients participated in this cross-over clinical trial. Two sessions of low-flux and high-flux membrane dialysis were performed consecutively, in the first and second stage of the trial. In both stages, blood samples before and after the dialysis were taken and sent to the laboratory for assessment. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), KT/V and the urea reduction ratio (URR) indexes were used to determine dialysis efficacy. Data were analyzed using t test and paired t test. Results: The mean KT/V was 1.27 ± 0.28 in high-flux and 1.10 ± 0.32 in low-flux membrane which, these differences were statistically significant (P = 0.017). The mean of URR was 0.65 ± 0.09 in high-flux and 0.61 ± 0.14 in low-flux membrane, which these differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.221). Conclusions: The high-flux membrane had better dialysis adequacy, so we suggest using high-flux membrane in hemodialysis centers. PMID:25699283

  17. Radiation fluxes at the FIFE site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Zara, Pedro; Vining, Roel; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions'. The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1987-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Our last report (Walter-Shea et al., 1992b) focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989. We report here on the final analysis of the slope data as well as results from thermal radiation studies conducted during the FIFE experiment. The specific areas reported are the following: (1) analysis of slope effects on measured reflectance values and estimates of surface albedo; (2) using remotely-measured surface temperatures as a means of estimating sensible heat flux from the Konza Prairie; (3) extracting canopy temperatures from remotely-measured composite surface temperatures; (4) modeling the measured composite temperature of partially vegetated surfaces; and (5) estimating gap distribution in partially vegetated surfaces from reflectance measurements.

  18. Flux Tube Oscillations and Coronal Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobouti, Y.; Karami, K.; Nasiri, S.

    2003-05-01

    Wave transmission in low beta magnetic flux tubes has, mathematically, the same structure as the propagation of electromagnetic waves in optical fibers. In both cases the problem is reducible to a single wave equation for the longitudinal component of the perturbed field along the fiber/tube axis. We derive this equation, solve the dispersion relation associated with it, and assign three wave numbers to each mode. In cylindrical coordinates (r, phi, z), for a given phi-wave number, the plane of the r- and z- wave numbers is divided into one ``mode zone" in which each grid point is a possible mode of the system and one ``forbidden zone" in which no mode may dwell. The cutoff line, the boundary of the two zones, is given both analytically and numerically. Next we introduce weak resistive and viscous dissipation to the system, solve for the decay time of each mode and for the densities of heat generation rates by each dissipative process. The two densities have identical spatial dependencies, but different magnitudes. The resistive heat rate is inversely proportional to the Lundquist number, S, and the viscous one to the Reynolds number, R. The time decay exponent is proportional to the sum (1/S + 1/R).

  19. An overview of flux braiding experiments

    PubMed Central

    Wilmot-Smith, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    In a number of papers dating back to the 1970s, Parker has hypothesized that, in a perfectly ideal environment, complex photospheric motions acting on a continuous magnetic field will result in the formation of tangential discontinuities corresponding to singular currents. I review direct numerical simulations of the problem and find that the evidence points to a tendency for thin but finite-thickness current layers to form, with thickness exponentially decreasing in time. Given a finite resistivity, these layers will eventually become important and cause the dynamical process of energy release. Accordingly, a body of work focuses on evolution under continual boundary driving. The coronal volume evolves into a highly dynamic but statistically steady state where quantities have a temporally and spatially intermittent nature and where the Poynting flux and dissipation are decoupled on short time scales. Although magnetic braiding is found to be a promising coronal heating mechanism, much work remains to determine its true viability. Some suggestions for future study are offered. PMID:25897088

  20. Flux qubit ultrastrongly coupled to two resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baust, A.; Hoffmann, E.; Haeberlein, M.; Schwarz, M. J.; Eder, P.; Goetz, J.; Wulschner, F.; Xie, E.; Zhong, L.; Fedorov, K.; Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.

    2015-03-01

    Circuit quantum electrodynamics has not only become a versatile toolbox for quantum information processing, but is also a powerful platform for the investigation of light-matter interaction. The coupling strength between microwave resonators and qubits acting as artificial atoms can be tuned over several orders of magnitude and can even reach the regime of ultrastrong coupling.We present spectroscopic data of a flux qubit coupled galvanically to the signal lines of two coplanar stripline resonators. We discuss the complex mode spectrum and show that the coupling strength between the qubit and one resonant mode reaches 15% of the respective mode frequency. Noticably, the high coupling strength is reached solely by the geometric layout of the qubit without utilizing additional coupling elements such as Josephson junctions. Our data exhibit a pronounced Bloch-Siegert shift and therefore represent an experimental evidence for the breakdown of the Jaynes-Cummings model. This work is supported by the DFG via SFB 631, and EU projects CCQED and PROMISCE.

  1. Structures of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Qiang; Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M. E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu

    2014-09-20

    Whether a magnetic flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that magnetic reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does magnetic reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-interplanetary CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/magnetic cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the magnetic field-line twist distribution within interplanetary magnetic flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 magnetic flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ≳ 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.

  2. Mechanism and Microstructure of Oxide Fluxes for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L. M.; Zhang, Z. D.; Song, G.; Wang, L.

    2007-03-01

    Five single oxide fluxes—MgO, CaO, TiO2, MnO2, and Cr2O3—were used to investigate the effect of active flux on the depth/width ratio in AZ31B magnesium alloy. The microstructure and mechanical property of the tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding seam were studied. The oxygen content in the weld seam and the arc images during the TIG welding process were analyzed. A series of emission spectroscopy of weld arc for TIG welding for magnesium with and without flux were developed. The results showed that for the five single oxide fluxes, all can increase the weld penetration effectively and grain size in the weld seam of alternating current tungsten inert gas (ACTIG) welding of the Mg alloy. The oxygen content of the welds made without flux is not very different from those produced with oxide fluxes not considering trapped oxide. However, welds that have the best penetration have a relatively higher oxygen content among those produced with flux. It was found that the arc images with the oxide fluxes were only the enlarged form of the arc images without flux; the arc constriction was not observed. The detection of arc spectroscopy showed that the metal elements in the oxides exist as the neutral atom or the first cation in the weld arc. This finding would influence the arc properties. When TIG simulation was carried out on a plate with flux applied only on one side, the arc image video showed an asymmetric arc, which deviated toward the flux free side. The thermal stability, the dissociation energy, and the electrical conductivity of oxide should be considered when studying the mechanism for increased TIG flux weld penetration.

  3. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  4. Magnetic balltracking: Tracking the photospheric magnetic flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attie, R.; Innes, D. E.

    2015-02-01

    Context. One aspect of understanding the dynamics of the quiet Sun is to quantify the evolution of the flux within small-scale magnetic features. These features are routinely observed in the quiet photosphere and were given various names, such as pores, knots, magnetic patches. Aims: This work presents a new algorithm for tracking the evolution of the broad variety of small-scale magnetic features in the photosphere, with a precision equal to the instrumental resolution. Methods: We have developed a new technique to track the evolution of the individual magnetic features from magnetograms, called "magnetic balltracking". It quantifies the flux of the tracked features, and it can track the footpoints of magnetic field lines inferred from magnetic field extrapolation. The algorithm can detect and quantify flux emergence, as well as flux cancellation. Results: The capabilities of magnetic balltracking are demonstrated with the detection and the tracking of two cases of magnetic flux emergence that lead to the brightening of X-ray loops. The maximum emerged flux ranges from 1018 Mx to 1019 Mx (unsigned flux) when the X-ray loops are observed. Movies associated to Figs. 6 and 18 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Plasma flux-dependent lipid A deactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hung-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Ahmed, Musahid; Liu, Suet Yi; Fang, Yigang; Seog, Joonil; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.; Graves, David B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of gas plasma flux on endotoxin lipid A film deactivation. To study the effect of the flux magnitude of reactive species, a modified low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP) with O radical flux ˜1016 cm-2 s-1 was used. After ICP exposures, it was observed that while the Fourier transform infrared absorbance of fatty chains responsible for the toxicity drops by 80% through the film, no obvious film endotoxin deactivation is seen. This is in contrast to that previously observed under low flux exposure conducted in a vacuum beam system: near-surface only loss of fatty chains led to significant film deactivation. Secondary ion mass spectrometry characterization of changes at the film surface did not appear to correlate with the degree of deactivation. Lipid A films need to be nearly completely removed in order to detect significant deactivation under high flux conditions. Additional high reactive species flux experiments were conducted using an atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet and a UV/ozone device. Exposure of lipid A films to reactive species with these devices showed similar deactivation behaviour. The causes for the difference between low and high flux exposures may be due to the nature of near-surface structural modifications as a function of the rate of film removal.

  6. Eutrophication effects on greenhouse gas fluxes from shallow-lake mesocosms override those of climate warming.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Thomas A; Audet, Joachim; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Lauridsen, Torben L; Søndergaard, Martin; Landkildehus, Frank; Larsen, Søren E; Jeppesen, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Fresh waters make a disproportionately large contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with shallow lakes being particular hot spots. Given their global prevalence, how GHG fluxes from shallow lakes are altered by climate change may have profound implications for the global carbon cycle. Empirical evidence for the temperature dependence of the processes controlling GHG production in natural systems is largely based on the correlation between seasonal temperature variation and seasonal change in GHG fluxes. However, ecosystem-level GHG fluxes could be influenced by factors, which while varying seasonally with temperature are actually either indirectly related (e.g. primary producer biomass) or largely unrelated to temperature, for instance nutrient loading. Here, we present results from the longest running shallow-lake mesocosm experiment which demonstrate that nutrient concentrations override temperature as a control of both the total and individual GHG flux. Furthermore, testing for temperature treatment effects at low and high nutrient levels separately showed only one, rather weak, positive effect of temperature (CH4 flux at high nutrients). In contrast, at low nutrients, the CO2 efflux was lower in the elevated temperature treatments, with no significant effect on CH4 or N2 O fluxes. Further analysis identified possible indirect effects of temperature treatment. For example, at low nutrient levels, increased macrophyte abundance was associated with significantly reduced fluxes of both CH4 and CO2 for both total annual flux and monthly observation data. As macrophyte abundance was positively related to temperature treatment, this suggests the possibility of indirect temperature effects, via macrophyte abundance, on CH4 and CO2 flux. These findings indicate that fluxes of GHGs from shallow lakes may be controlled more by factors indirectly related to temperature, in this case nutrient concentration and the abundance of primary producers. Thus, at ecosystem

  7. Eutrophication effects on greenhouse gas fluxes from shallow-lake mesocosms override those of climate warming.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Thomas A; Audet, Joachim; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Lauridsen, Torben L; Søndergaard, Martin; Landkildehus, Frank; Larsen, Søren E; Jeppesen, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Fresh waters make a disproportionately large contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, with shallow lakes being particular hot spots. Given their global prevalence, how GHG fluxes from shallow lakes are altered by climate change may have profound implications for the global carbon cycle. Empirical evidence for the temperature dependence of the processes controlling GHG production in natural systems is largely based on the correlation between seasonal temperature variation and seasonal change in GHG fluxes. However, ecosystem-level GHG fluxes could be influenced by factors, which while varying seasonally with temperature are actually either indirectly related (e.g. primary producer biomass) or largely unrelated to temperature, for instance nutrient loading. Here, we present results from the longest running shallow-lake mesocosm experiment which demonstrate that nutrient concentrations override temperature as a control of both the total and individual GHG flux. Furthermore, testing for temperature treatment effects at low and high nutrient levels separately showed only one, rather weak, positive effect of temperature (CH4 flux at high nutrients). In contrast, at low nutrients, the CO2 efflux was lower in the elevated temperature treatments, with no significant effect on CH4 or N2 O fluxes. Further analysis identified possible indirect effects of temperature treatment. For example, at low nutrient levels, increased macrophyte abundance was associated with significantly reduced fluxes of both CH4 and CO2 for both total annual flux and monthly observation data. As macrophyte abundance was positively related to temperature treatment, this suggests the possibility of indirect temperature effects, via macrophyte abundance, on CH4 and CO2 flux. These findings indicate that fluxes of GHGs from shallow lakes may be controlled more by factors indirectly related to temperature, in this case nutrient concentration and the abundance of primary producers. Thus, at ecosystem

  8. Fog chemical composition and its feedback to fog water fluxes, water vapor fluxes, and microphysical evolution of two events near Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degefie, D. T.; El-Madany, T.-S.; Held, M.; Hejkal, J.; Hammer, E.; Dupont, J.-C.; Haeffelin, M.; Fleischer, E.; Klemm, O.

    2015-10-01

    The chemical composition of collected fog water and its temporal evolution was studied during the PARISFOG campaign in winter 2012/2013 at the SIRTA (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphéric) atmospheric observatory outside Paris, France. A further development of the caltech active fog collector was applied, in which the collected fog water gets into contact with Teflon and polyether ether ketone (PEEK) material exclusively. The collector was operational whenever the visibility was below 1000 m. In addition, the turbulent and gravitational fluxes of fog water and water vapor flux were used to examine in detail the temporal evolution the chemical composition of two fogs. The technique was applied to two fog events, one representing a radiation fog and the other one representing a stratus lowering fog. The result revealed that the dominant inorganic species in the fog water were NH4+, NO3-, Ca2 + and SO42 -, which accounted for more than 85% of the ion balance. The pH ranged from 3.7 to 6.2. In the evolution the two fog events, the interaction among the turbulent fog water flux, gravitational fog water flux and water vapor flux controlled the major ion loads (amount of ions, dissolved in fog droplets per volume of air) and ion concentrations (amount dissolved per volume of liquid water) of the fog water. In the radiation fog event, an increase of ion loads and ion concentrations occurred when the direction of water vapor flux towards to the place where the condensation process occurred. A decrease of ion loads and ion concentrations mainly happened by gravitational fog water flux with a minor contribution from turbulent fog water flux. However, when the turbulent water vapor flux was oriented downward, it turned the turbulent fog water flux upward and offset the removal of ions in the fog. In the stratus lowering fog event, the turbulent fog water flux and the gravitational water flux together mainly contributed to the fog water deposition and

  9. Updated Absolute Flux Calibration of the COS FUV Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, D.; Ely, J.; Osten, R.; Penton, S.; Aloisi, A.; Bostroem, A.; Roman-Duval, J.; Proffitt, C.

    2014-03-01

    We present newly derived point source absolute flux calibrations for the COS FUV modes at both the original and second lifetime positions. The analysis includes observa- tions through the Primary Science Aperture (PSA) of the standard stars WD0308-565, GD71, WD1057+729 and WD0947+857 obtained as part of two calibration programs. Data were were obtained for all of the gratings at all of the original CENWAVE settings at both the original and second lifetime positions and for the G130M CENWAVE = 1222 at the second lifetime position. Data were also obtained with the FUVB segment for the G130M CENWAVE = 1055 and 1096 setting at the second lifetime position. We also present the derivation of L-flats that were used in processing the data and show that the internal consistency of the primary standards is 1%. The accuracy of the absolute flux calibrations over the UV are estimated to be 1-2% for the medium resolution gratings, and 2-3% over most of the wavelength range of the G140L grating, although the uncertainty can be as large as 5% or more at some G140L wavelengths. We note that these errors are all relative to the optical flux near the V band and small additional errors may be present due to inaccuracies in the V band calibration. In addition, these error estimates are for the time at which the flux calibration data were obtained; the accuracy of the flux calibration at other times can be affected by errors in the time dependent sensitivity (TDS) correction.

  10. Ultra High Precision Laser Monitor for Oxygen Eddy Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahniser, M. S.; Nelson, D. D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Herndon, S. C.; McManus, J. B.; Jervis, D.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric oxygen provides one of the most powerful tracers to study the carbon cycle through its close interaction with carbon dioxide. Keeling and co-workers demonstrated this at the global scale by using small variations in atmospheric oxygen content to disentangle oceanic and terrestrial carbon sinks. It would be very exciting to apply similar ideas at the ecosystem level to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and our ability to predict the response of the biosphere and atmosphere to climate change. The eddy covariance technique is perhaps the most effective approach available to quantify the exchange of gases between these spheres. Therefore, eddy covariance flux measurements of oxygen would be extremely valuable. However, this requires a fast response (0.1 seconds), high relative precision (0.001% or 10 per meg) oxygen sensor. We report recent progress in developing such a sensor using a high resolution visible laser to probe the oxygen A-band electronic transition. This sensor will enable oxygen flux measurements using eddy covariance. In addition, we will incorporate a second laser in this instrument to simultaneously determine the fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor within the same sampling cell. This will provide a direct, real time measurement of the ratio of the flux of oxygen to that of carbon dioxide. This ratio is expected to vary on short time scales and small spatial scales due to the differing stoichiometry of processes producing and consuming carbon dioxide. Thus measuring the variations in the ratio of oxygen and carbon dioxide fluxes will provide mechanistic information to improve our understanding of the crucial exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere.

  11. Ultra High Precision Laser Monitor for Oxygen Eddy Flux Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, David; Herndon, Scott; McManus, Barry; Roscioli, Rob; Jervis, Dylan; Zahniser, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric oxygen provides one of the most powerful tracers to study the carbon cycle through its close interaction with carbon dioxide. Keeling and co-workers demonstrated this at the global scale by using small variations in atmospheric oxygen content to disentangle oceanic and terrestrial carbon sinks. It would be very exciting to apply similar ideas at the ecosystem level to improve our understanding of biosphere-atmosphere exchange and our ability to predict the response of the biosphere and atmosphere to climate change. The eddy covariance technique is perhaps the most effective approach available to quantify the exchange of gases between these spheres. Therefore, eddy covariance flux measurements of oxygen would be extremely valuable. However, this requires a fast response (0.1 seconds), high relative precision (0.001% or 10 per meg) oxygen sensor. We report recent progress in developing such a sensor using a high resolution visible laser to probe the oxygen A-band electronic transition. We have demonstrated precision of 1 ppmv or 5 per meg for a 100 second measurement duration. This sensor will enable oxygen flux measurements using eddy covariance. In addition, we will incorporate a second laser in this instrument to simultaneously determine the fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor within the same sampling cell. This will provide a direct, real time measurement of the ratio of the flux of oxygen to that of carbon dioxide. This ratio is expected to vary on short time scales and small spatial scales due to the differing stoichiometry of processes producing and consuming carbon dioxide. Thus measuring the variations in the ratio of oxygen and carbon dioxide fluxes will provide mechanistic information to improve our understanding of the crucial exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere.

  12. Aquatic carbon fluxes from the conterminous US and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butman, D. E.; Stackpoole, S. M.; Stets, E.; McDonald, C.; Clow, D. W.; Striegl, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, the First State of the Carbon Cycle Report estimated that rivers exported ~ 35 Tg-C yr-1 to coastal systems and reservoirs in the US served as sink of ~ 25 Tg-C yr-1 through sedimentation, each reported with 95% confidence that the estimate was within 100%. Significant progress has been made to constrain and improve these estimates by carefully considering how inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon with attention given to the gaseous evasion of carbon across the air-water interface, a component that was not included in the 2007 estimates. As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's LandCarbon program, we present the first integrated assessment of freshwater carbon cycling for the conterminous US and Alaska. We estimate that 147 (95% confidence interval of 101- 208) Tg-C yr-1 is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 22 (95% confidence interval of 10-68) Tg-C yr-1 in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant removal flux at 85 Tg-C yr-1, or 58% of the total aquatic carbon flux. These new estimates for aquatic carbon fluxes indicate that inland waters must be considered in the context of national scale carbon accounting. For the conterminous US, we compare our results to the output of Terrestrial Biosphere Models. Analysis suggests that within the current modelling framework, calculations of Net Ecosystem Production may be overestimated by as much as 27%. Reconciliation of mass-flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional field data collection and modelling capacity.

  13. ON THE ERUPTION OF CORONAL FLUX ROPES

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.

    2010-08-10

    We present three-dimensional MHD simulations of the evolution of the magnetic field in the corona where the emergence of a twisted magnetic flux tube is driven at the lower boundary into a pre-existing coronal potential arcade field. Through a sequence of simulations in which we vary the amount of twisted flux transported into the corona before the emergence is stopped, we investigate the conditions that lead to a dynamic eruption of the resulting coronal flux rope. It is found that the critical condition for the onset of eruption is for the center of the flux rope to reach a critical height at which the corresponding potential field declines with height at a sufficiently steep rate, consistent with the onset of the torus instability of the flux rope. In some cases, immediately after the emergence is stopped, the coronal flux rope first settles into a quasi-static rise with an underlying sigmoid-shaped current layer developing. Preferential heating of field lines going through this current layer may give rise to the observed quiescent X-ray sigmoid loops before eruption. Reconnections in the current layer during the initial quasi-static stage is found to add detached flux to the coronal flux rope, allowing it to rise quasi-statically to the critical height and dynamic eruption of the flux rope then ensues. By identifying field lines whose tops are in the most intense part of the current layer during the eruption, we deduce the evolution and morphology of the post-flare X-ray loops and the flare ribbons at their footpoints.

  14. Reviews and Syntheses: optical sampling of the flux tower footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamon, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    improve our understanding of environmental constraints and ecophysiological function. In addition to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of ecosystem processes, this integration of remote sensing with flux measurements offers many rich opportunities for upscaling, satellite validation, and informing practical management objectives ranging from assessing ecosystem health and productivity to quantifying biospheric carbon sequestration.

  15. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  16. SUMOFLUX: A Generalized Method for Targeted 13C Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kogadeeva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic fluxes are a cornerstone of cellular physiology that emerge from a complex interplay of enzymes, carriers, and nutrients. The experimental assessment of in vivo intracellular fluxes using stable isotopic tracers is essential if we are to understand metabolic function and regulation. Flux estimation based on 13C or 2H labeling relies on complex simulation and iterative fitting; processes that necessitate a level of expertise that ordinarily preclude the non-expert user. To overcome this, we have developed SUMOFLUX, a methodology that is broadly applicable to the targeted analysis of 13C-metabolic fluxes. By combining surrogate modeling and machine learning, we trained a predictor to specialize in estimating flux ratios from measurable 13C-data. SUMOFLUX targets specific flux features individually, which makes it fast, user-friendly, applicable to experimental design and robust in terms of experimental noise and exchange flux magnitude. Collectively, we predict that SUMOFLUX's properties realistically pave the way to high-throughput flux analyses. PMID:27626798

  17. Three-dimensional prominence-hosting magnetic configurations: Creating a helical magnetic flux rope

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Guo, Y.

    2014-01-10

    The magnetic configuration hosting prominences and their surrounding coronal structure is a key research topic in solar physics. Recent theoretical and observational studies strongly suggest that a helical magnetic flux rope is an essential ingredient to fulfill most of the theoretical and observational requirements for hosting prominences. To understand flux rope formation details and obtain magnetic configurations suitable for future prominence formation studies, we here report on three-dimensional isothermal magnetohydrodynamic simulations including finite gas pressure and gravity. Starting from a magnetohydrostatic corona with a linear force-free bipolar magnetic field, we follow its evolution when introducing vortex flows around the main polarities and converging flows toward the polarity inversion line near the bottom of the corona. The converging flows bring the feet of different loops together at the polarity inversion line, where magnetic reconnection and flux cancellation happen. Inflow and outflow signatures of the magnetic reconnection process are identified, and thereby the newly formed helical loops wind around preexisting ones so that a complete flux rope grows and ascends. When a macroscopic flux rope is formed, we switch off the driving flows and find that the system relaxes to a stable state containing a helical magnetic flux rope embedded in an overlying arcade structure. A major part of the formed flux rope is threaded by dipped field lines that can stably support prominence matter, while the total mass of the flux rope is in the order of 4-5× 10{sup 14} g.

  18. SUMOFLUX: A Generalized Method for Targeted 13C Metabolic Flux Ratio Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogadeeva, Maria; Zamboni, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic fluxes are a cornerstone of cellular physiology that emerge from a complex interplay of enzymes, carriers, and nutrients. The experimental assessment of in vivo intracellular fluxes using stable isotopic tracers is essential if we are to understand metabolic function and regulation. Flux estimation based on 13C or 2H labeling relies on complex simulation and iterative fitting; processes that necessitate a level of expertise that ordinarily preclude the non-expert user. To overcome this, we have developed SUMOFLUX, a methodology that is broadly applicable to the targeted analysis of 13C-metabolic fluxes. By combining surrogate modeling and machine learning, we trained a predictor to specialize in estimating flux ratios from measurable 13C-data. SUMOFLUX targets specific flux features individually, which makes it fast, user-friendly, applicable to experimental design and robust in terms of experimental noise and exchange flux magnitude. Collectively, we predict that SUMOFLUX's properties realistically pave the way to high-throughput flux analyses. PMID:27626798

  19. Robustness and Plasticity of Metabolic Pathway Flux among Uropathogenic Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Antje; Dohnt, Katrin; Tielen, Petra; Jahn, Dieter; Becker, Judith; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a human pathogen that frequently causes urinary tract and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Here, using 13C-metabolic flux analysis, we conducted quantitative analysis of metabolic fluxes in the model strain P. aeruginosa PAO1 and 17 clinical isolates. All P. aeruginosa strains catabolized glucose through the Entner-Doudoroff pathway with fully respiratory metabolism and no overflow. Together with other NADPH supplying reactions, this high-flux pathway provided by far more NADPH than needed for anabolism: a benefit for the pathogen to counteract oxidative stress imposed by the host. P. aeruginosa recruited the pentose phosphate pathway exclusively for biosynthesis. In contrast to glycolytic metabolism, which was conserved among all isolates, the flux through pyruvate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the glyoxylate shunt was highly variable, likely caused by adaptive processes in individual strains during infection. This aspect of metabolism was niche-specific with respect to the corresponding flux because strains isolated from the urinary tract clustered separately from those originating from catheter-associated infections. Interestingly, most glucose-grown strains exhibited significant flux through the glyoxylate shunt. Projection into the theoretical flux space, which was computed using elementary flux-mode analysis, indicated that P. aeruginosa metabolism is optimized for efficient growth and exhibits significant potential for increasing NADPH supply to drive oxidative stress response. PMID:24709961

  20. NEW VACUUM SOLAR TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF A FLUX ROPE TRACKED BY A FILAMENT ACTIVATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Zhong; Xiang, Yongyuan E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    One main goal of the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) which is located at the Fuxian Solar Observatory is to image the Sun at high resolution. Based on the high spatial and temporal resolution NVST Hα data and combined with the simultaneous observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for the first time, we investigate a flux rope tracked by filament activation. The filament material is initially located at one end of the flux rope and fills in a section of the rope; the filament is then activated by magnetic field cancellation. The activated filament rises and flows along helical threads, tracking the twisted flux rope structure. The length of the flux rope is about 75 Mm, the average width of its individual threads is 1.11 Mm, and the estimated twist is 1π. The flux rope appears as a dark structure in Hα images, a partial dark and partial bright structure in 304 Å, and as a bright structure in 171 Å and 131 Å images. During this process, the overlying coronal loops are quite steady since the filament is confined within the flux rope and does not erupt successfully. It seems that, for the event in this study, the filament is located and confined within the flux rope threads, instead of being suspended in the dips of twisted magnetic flux.

  1. [Effect of fluorine in mould fluxes on microstructural units of silicates slag].

    PubMed

    He, Sheng-Ping; You, Jing-Lin; Wang, Qian; Xu, Chu-Shao

    2008-11-01

    In the continuous casting of steel, mold fluxes play an important role in improving surface quality of casting strands and maintaining the continuous casting process. The physiochemical property of mold fluxes is definitely correlated with the microstructure. Fluorides play an important role in modifying the high temperature properties of mold fluxes. So, studying the effect of fluoride on multicomponent silicate structure is helpful to understanding the performance of fluoride in mould fluxes. In the present paper, effects of fluorine on melt, glass and crystal structure of silicate were studied by using Raman spectroscopy and in situ high temperature technique. The results were as follows: While the content of CaF2 increased, the varieties and relative quantities of microstructural units of silicates changed, the polymerization of the silicate network decreased, and the viscosity of the melt decreased; comparing non-fluoride with high-fluorine mold fluxes, the main kind of microstructure of silicates in mold fluxes with high fluorine was mostly monomer, while in fluorine free mold fluxes it was mainly chain of microstructure. It would help to develop fluorine free mold fluxes.

  2. Magnetic flux emergence in granular convection: radiative MHD simulations and observational signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Schüssler, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F.

    2007-05-01

    Aims:We study the emergence of magnetic flux from the near-surface layers of the solar convection zone into the photosphere. Methods: To model magnetic flux emergence, we carried out a set of numerical radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulations. Our simulations take into account the effects of compressibility, energy exchange via radiative transfer, and partial ionization in the equation of state. All these physical ingredients are essential for a proper treatment of the problem. Furthermore, the inclusion of radiative transfer allows us to directly compare the simulation results with actual observations of emerging flux. Results: We find that the interaction between the magnetic flux tube and the external flow field has an important influence on the emergent morphology of the magnetic field. Depending on the initial properties of the flux tube (e.g. field strength, twist, entropy etc.), the emergence process can also modify the local granulation pattern. The emergence of magnetic flux tubes with a flux of 1019 Mx disturbs the granulation and leads to the transient appearance of a dark lane, which is coincident with upflowing material. These results are consistent with observed properties of emerging magnetic flux. Movies are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic water flux

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.; Mehta, Ashish J.; Dean, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    The groundwater tidal prism is defined as the volume of water that inundates a porous medium, forced by one tidal oscillation in surface water. The pressure gradient that generates the prism acts on the subterranean estuary. Analytical models for the groundwater tidal prism and associated benthic flux are presented. The prism and flux are shown to be directly proportional to porosity, tidal amplitude, and the length of the groundwater wave; flux is inversely proportional to tidal period. The duration of discharge flux exceeds the duration of recharge flux over one tidal period; and discharge flux continues for some time following low tide. Models compare favorably with laboratory observations and are applied to a South Atlantic Bight study area, where tide generates an 11-m3 groundwater tidal prism per m of shoreline, and drives 81 m3 s −1 to the study area, which describes 23% of an observational estimate. In a marine water body, the discharge component of any oscillatory benthic water flux is submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux transports constituents between groundwater and surface water, and is a process by which pollutant loading and saltwater intrusion may occur in coastal areas.

  4. Magnetic refrigeration using flux compression in superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelsson, U. E.; Strayer, D. M.; Jackson, H. W.; Petrac, D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using flux compression in high-temperature superconductors to produce the large time-varying magnetic fields required in a field cycled magnetic refrigerator operating between 20 K and 4 K is presently investigated. This paper describes the refrigerator concept and lists limitations and advantages in comparison with conventional refrigeration techniques. The maximum fields obtainable by flux compression in high-temperature supercoductor materials, as presently prepared, are too low to serve in such a refrigerator. However, reports exist of critical current values that are near usable levels for flux pumps in refrigerator applications.

  5. Diamagnetic flux measurement in Aditya tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sameer; Jha, Ratneshwar; Lal, Praveen; Hansaliya, Chandresh; Gopalkrishna, M. V.; Kulkarni, Sanjay; Mishra, Kishore

    2010-12-15

    Measurements of diamagnetic flux in Aditya tokamak for different discharge conditions are reported for the first time. The measured diamagnetic flux in a typical discharge is less than 0.6 mWb and therefore it has required careful compensation for various kinds of pick-ups. The hardware and software compensations employed in this measurement are described. We introduce compensation of a pick-up due to plasma current of less than 20 kA in short duration discharges, in which plasma pressure gradient is supposed to be negligible. The flux measurement during radio frequency heating is also presented in order to validate compensation.

  6. Extending quantum coherence of superconducting flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Fei; Kamal, Archana; Orlando, Terry; Gustavsson, Simon; Oliver, William; Engineering Quantum Systems, MIT Team

    We present the design of a superconducting qubit with multiple Josephson junctions. The design starts with a capacitively shunted flux qubit, and it incorporates particular junction parameter choices for the purpose of simultaneously optimizing over transition frequency, anharmonicity, flux- and charge-noise sensitivity around flux degeneracy. By studying the scaling properties with design parameters, we identify directions to extend coherence substantially. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.

  7. FLUX EMERGENCE IN A MAGNETIZED CONVECTION ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, R. F.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-07-20

    We study the influence of a dynamo magnetic field on the buoyant rise and emergence of twisted magnetic flux ropes and their influence on the global external magnetic field. We ran three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations using the ASH code (anelastic spherical harmonics) and analyzed the dynamical evolution of such buoyant flux ropes from the bottom of the convection zone until the post-emergence phases. The global nature of this model can only very crudely and inaccurately represent the local dynamics of the buoyant rise of the implanted magnetic structure, but nonetheless allows us to study the influence of global effects, such as self-consistently generated differential rotation and meridional circulation, and of Coriolis forces. Although motivated by the solar context, this model cannot be thought of as a realistic model of the rise of magnetic structures and their emergence in the Sun, where the local dynamics are completely different. The properties of initial phases of the buoyant rise are determined essentially by the flux-rope's properties and the convective flows and consequently are in good agreement with previous studies. However, the effects of the interaction of the background dynamo field become increasingly strong as the flux ropes evolve. During the buoyant rise across the convection zone, the flux-rope's magnetic field strength scales as B{proportional_to}{rho}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} {approx}< 1. An increase of radial velocity, density, and current density is observed to precede flux emergence at all longitudes. The geometry, latitude, and relative orientation of the flux ropes with respect to the background magnetic field influences the resulting rise speeds, zonal flow amplitudes (which develop within the flux ropes), and the corresponding surface signatures. This influences the morphology, duration and amplitude of the surface shearing, and the Poynting flux associated with magnetic flux-rope emergence. The emerged magnetic flux

  8. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  9. Flux qubit on a mesoscopic nonsuperconducting ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, E.; Kurpas, M.; Szeląg, M.; Dajka, J.; Szopa, M.

    2006-09-01

    The possibility of making a flux qubit on a nonsuperconducting mesoscopic ballistic quasi-one-dimensional ring is discussed. We showed that such a ring can be effectively reduced to a two-state system with two external control parameters. The two states carry opposite persistent currents and are coupled by tunneling, which leads to a quantum superposition of states. The qubit states can be manipulated by resonant microwave pulses. The flux state of the sample can be measured by a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. Two or more qubits can be coupled by the flux the circulating currents generate. The problem of decoherence is also discussed.

  10. Open flux in Saturn’s magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badman, Sarah V.; Jackman, Caitriona M.; Nichols, Jonathan D.; Clarke, John T.; Gérard, Jean-Claude

    2014-03-01

    We characterise the interaction between the solar wind and Saturn’s magnetosphere by evaluating the amount of ‘open’ magnetic flux connected to the solar wind. This is deduced from a large set of Hubble Space Telescope images of the ultraviolet aurora, using the poleward boundary of the main aurora as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary in the ionosphere. The amount of open flux is found to be 10-50 GWb, with a mean of 35 GWb. The typical change in open flux between consecutive observations separated by 10-60 h is -5 or +7 GWb. These changes are a result of imbalance between open flux creation at the dayside magnetopause and its closure in the magnetotail. The 5 GWb typical decrease in open flux is consistent with in situ measurements of the flux transported following a reconnection event. Estimates of average, net reconnection rates are found to be typically a few tens of kV, with some extreme examples of unbalanced magnetopause or tail reconnection occurring at ∼300 kV. The range of values determined suggest that Saturn’s magnetosphere does not generally achieve a steady state between flux opening at the magnetopause and flux closure in the magnetotail. The percentage of magnetic flux which is open in Saturn’s magnetosphere is similar to that measured at the Earth (2-11%), but the typical percentage that is closed between observations is significantly lower (13% compared to 40-70%). Therefore, open flux is usually closed in smaller (few GWb) events in Saturn’s magnetosphere. The exception to this behaviour is large, rapid flux closure events which are associated with solar wind compressions. While the rates of flux opening and closure should be equal over long timescales, they are evidently different on shorter (up to tens of hours) timescales. The relative independence of the magnetopause and tail reconnection rates can be attributed to the long loading timescales required to transport open field lines into the tail.

  11. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  12. Magnetic flux amplification by Lenz lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenmaker, J.; Pirota, K. R.; Teixeira, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Tailoring magnetic flux distribution is highly desirable in a wide range of applications such as magnetic sensors and biomedicine. In this paper we study the manipulation of induced currents in passive devices in order to engineer the distribution of magnetic flux intensity in a given region. We propose two different approaches, one based on especially designed wire loops (Lenz law) and the other based on solid conductive pieces (eddy currents). The gain of such devices is mainly determined by geometry giving perspective of high amplification. We consistently modeled, simulated, and executed the proposed devices. Doubled magnetic flux intensity is demonstrated experimentally for a moderate aspect ratio.

  13. Nitrous oxide flux following tropical land clearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luizao, Flavio; Luizao, Regina; Matson, Pamela; Livingston, Gerald; Vitousek, Peter

    1989-01-01

    The importance of seasonal cycles of N2O flux from tropical ecosystems and the possibility that tropical deforestation could contribute to the ongoing global increase in N2O concentrations were assessed by measuring N2O flux from forest, cleared land, and pasture over an annual cycle in the central Amazon. A pasture that had been converted from tropical forest had threefold greater annual N2O flux than a paired forest site; similar results were obtained in spot measurements in other pastures. If these results are general, such tropical pastures represent a globally significant source of increased N2O.

  14. Magnetic Flux Emergence on Different Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagenaar, H.; Cheung, M.

    2008-09-01

    Magnetic flux emerges on the Sun on many different scales, from weak intranetwork to network concentrations and (ephemeral) active regions. Methods previously developed to recognize regions of magnetic emergence on MDI Full Disk magnetograms fail when applied to Hinode/SOT Stokes maps: the resolution is so much higher that simple bipoles on MDI are observed as collections of fragments. We present a new method for the automatic detection and characterization of flux emergence on a range of scales. Our findings are compared with simulations and discuss the implications for our understanding of emerging flux ropes.

  15. Effects of Land Use History on Soil Carbon Dioxide Flux in Ecuadorian Páramo Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, J.; Harden, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a primary mechanism for soil carbon (C) loss and is intricately linked to processes that affect soil C storage. As a result, land-use changes that affect soil CO2 flux (Flux) rates can significantly influence regional C budgets. The páramo grasslands of the high altitude Ecuadorian Andes are important in regional C budgets due to large soil C stocks. Though some forms of land us