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Sample records for fly megaselia scalaris

  1. Developmental Variation of Indian Thermophilic Variety of Scuttle Fly Megaselia (Megaselia) scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera: Phoridae) on Different Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Abesh; Naskar, Atanu; Parui, Panchanan; Banerjee, Dhriti

    2016-01-01

    The scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are important in forensic dipterology, because of their necrophagous habit. They are amongst the first wave of insects visiting human corpses in mechanically barricaded environments; hence their immature stages are generally used for estimation of PMI. The effect of different substrates commonly used for developmental studies was studied to analyze the variation of growth of the thermophilic variety of Megaselia (M.) scalaris prevalent in India on GDM, EDM, and SMS (n = 3). One approach of PMI estimation depends on larvae collected from the crime scene and comparing them with reference data derived from larval rearing to establish PMI. Results showed that there was a significant variation in avg. length (F(2,111) = 15.79873, p = 0.000000917), width (F(2,111) = 14.60528, p = 0.00000234), and biomass (F(2,111) = 37.01727, p = 0.000000000000482) of the immature stages in the three media and the larvae grow maximally in the SMS medium. The results of the present study thus provide baseline data on the growth and developmental pattern of the Megaselia (M.) scalaris, which can be utilized in conjunction with specific geoclimatic reference data, for forensic entomological studies and also for using the phorid as a biocontrol agent of pestiferous insects. PMID:27471604

  2. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ming; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Qinlai; Luo, Baihua; Wu, Chang; Wen, Jifang

    2016-01-01

    More than 1400 scuttle flies species in worldwide comprise the Megaselia genus, the largest genus in the family Phoridae. The complete mitochondrial genome of Megaselia scalaris, a medically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 15,599 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. The arrangement of the genes was identical with other insect. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.87%, G: 13.74%, C: 9.46%, T: 37.93% and the A + T content 76.80%. The mitochondrial genome of M. scalaris presented may be valuable for determining phylogenetic relationships within the order Diptera and especially for the family Phoridae. These sequences could also be used to select reliable molecular markers for species identification in forensic entomology.

  4. Heterochronic shifts in germband movements contribute to the rapid embryonic development of the coffin fly Megaselia scalaris.

    PubMed

    Wotton, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The coffin fly, Megaselia scalaris, is a species of medical and forensic importance and is increasingly being used for the study of genetics. Postmortem interval can be estimated based on the life stage of M. scalaris recovered from corpses, therefore many studies have addressed the duration of each life stage. These studies demonstrate that embryogenesis completes significantly faster in M. scalaris than in the congener Megaselia abdita and faster even than the 24 h needed for Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. However, until now it has been unclear if this increased speed is achieved by reducing developmental time across all embryonic stages or by the acceleration of individual stages and processes. Here I use time-lapse imaging to create a staging scheme for M. scalaris embryogenesis. Comparison of stages between D. melanogaster and both Megaselia species reveals that heterochronic shifts, simultaneous morphogenetic movements and compression of individual stages all contribute to the rapid development of M. scalaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Megaselia scalaris causing human intestinal myiasis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mazayad, Said A M; Rifaat, Manal M A

    2005-04-01

    Megaselia scalaris is a worldwide distributed insect of medical importance. In a laboratory-based study, stool samples with undefined maggot infestation were examined and the presence of M. scalaris maggots was confirmed. Binocular stereo-microscopy was used for identification of the maggots. Larvae were allowed to develop into adults onto a human stool culture. The larvae and the emerged flies were identified using standard keys. This may be the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of human myiasis in Egypt. Details of the third instar larva, pupa and adults were given.

  6. Cloning and functional characterizations of an apoptogenic Hid gene in the Scuttle Fly, Megaselia scalaris (Diptera; Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Yoo, Siuk; Lam, Haylie; Lee, Chansong; Lee, Gyunghee; Park, Jae H

    2017-03-10

    Although the mechanisms of apoptotic cell death have been well studied in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, it is unclear whether such mechanisms are conserved in other distantly related species. Using degenerate primers and PCR, we cloned a proapoptotic gene homologous to Head involution defective (Hid) from the Scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (MsHid). MsHid cDNA encodes a 197-amino acid-long polypeptide, which so far is the smallest HID protein. PCR analyses revealed that the MsHid gene consists of four exons and three introns. Ectopic expression of MsHid in various peptidergic neurons and non-neuronal tissues in Drosophila effectively induced apoptosis of these cells. However, deletion of either conserved domain, N-terminal IBM or C-terminal MTS, abolished the apoptogenic activity of MsHID, indicating that these two domains are indispensable. Expression of MsHid was found in all life stages, but more prominently in embryos and pupae. MsHid is actively expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), indicating its important role in CNS development. Together MsHID is likely to be an important cell death inducer during embryonic and post-embryonic development in this species. In addition, we found 2-fold induction of MsHid expression in UV-irradiated embryos, indicating a possible role for MsHid in UV-induced apoptosis.

  7. First Record of Urogenital Myiasis Induced by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghavami, Mohammad Bagher; Djalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of organs and tissues of human and animals with fly larvae. This article reports an 18 year-old man with urogenital myiasis, the passing of live Megaselia scalaris larvae in the urine, from Zanjan City, northwest of Iran. We discourse the importance of diagnosis and management of urogenital myiasis in medicine. PMID:26623439

  8. Chronobiological studies on body search, oviposition and emergence of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera, Phoridae) in controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Esta; Green, Edward W; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Vanin, Stefano

    2017-03-18

    Circadian clocks have evolved to synchronize physiology, metabolism and behaviour to the 24-h geophysical cycles of the Earth. Understanding the circadian clock mechanism could play an important role in forensic entomology because it temporally gates behaviour such as locomotor activities, feeding, mating, egg laying and adult emergence which could provide useful information for crime reconstruction. The scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris colonises both exposed and buried bodies, whether indoors or outdoors. Locomotor activity, oviposition and adult emergence of this species have been investigated using technologies employed in many previous Drosophila circadian studies. The results reported here clearly highlight the underlying role of the circadian clock in regulating the behaviour of males and females of M. scalaris, and show the role of light as a "zeitgeber" for clock resetting. In contrast to Calliphoridae, M. scalaris can reach the oviposition site and lay eggs in darkness both during the day and the night, although the number of ovipositing females is lower under subjective darkness. The number of eggs laid shows a clear circadian rhythm with much higher numbers laid during the day than during night or subjective night. In conclusion, locomotor activity and oviposition rate of M. scalaris is under circadian clock control with significant forensic implications.

  9. A Laboratory-Based Study for First Documented Case of Urinary Myiasis Caused by Larvae of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Wakid, Majed H.

    2008-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the medically important insects. Maggots from a urine sample of a 5-year-old Saudi girl were examined microscopically for identification. These maggots were cultured to become adult flies. Larvae and adults were identified using standard keys. Protozoan flagellates were obtained from the gut of the larvae. This is the first report of M. scalaris as a causative agent of urinary human myiasis in Saudi Arabia. PMID:18344675

  10. Developmental rate, size, and sexual dimorphism of Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae): its possible implications in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-06-01

    Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. However, developmental and size data of M. scalaris are still lacking and they are derived from a limited range of thermal values. The objective of this study is to develop the growth model of M. scalaris by emphasizing the size range of larvae and puparia at different constant temperatures. This species was reared in six replicates at eight varying constant temperatures ranging from 23 to 36 °C and cow's liver was provided as food source. Larvae and puparia were sampled at set time intervals and measured by their length and weight. Because interpretation of forensic entomological evidence is subject to application of different techniques, development of M. scalaris is expressed herein by using developmental table, length/morphological stage diagrams and linear/nonlinear estimation methods. From the findings, it is very important to highlight that sexual dimorphism of M. scalaris during post feeding larva and pupa stage could be observed based on size and developmental periods. Mean length and weight ratios of male to female puparia are approximately 0.8 and 0.3-0.5, respectively, indicating sexual dimorphism of this species. Developmental period in female are 4.0-11.4 h (post feeding larval stage), 3.7-24.0 h (pupal stage), and 3.0-20.1 h (total developmental period) longer in male. Due to this dimorphism, PMI estimation using M. scalaris post feeding larva or puparium specimens must be carried out carefully by to avoid inaccuracy and misinterpretation.

  11. Large pathogen screening reveals first report of Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitizing Apis mellifera intermissa (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Menail, Ahmed Hichem; Piot, Niels; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida

    2016-06-01

    As it is most likely that global warming will also lead to a shift in pollinator-habitats northwards, the study of southern species becomes more and more important. Pathogen screenings in subspecies of Apis mellifera capable of withstanding higher temperatures, provide an insight into future pathogen host interactions. Screenings in different climate regions also provide a global perspective on the prevalence of certain pathogens. In this project, we performed a pathogen screening in Apis mellifera intermissa, a native subspecies of Algeria in northern Africa. Colonies were sampled from different areas in the region of Annaba over a period of two years. Several pathogens were detected, among them Apicystis bombi, Crithidia mellificae, Nosema ceranae, Paenibacillus larvae, Lake Sinai Virus, Sacbrood Virus and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV). Our screening also revealed a phoroid fly, Megaselia scalaris, parasitizing honey bee colonies, which we report here for the first time. In addition, we found DWV to be present in the adult flies and replicating virus in the larval stages of the fly, which could indicate that M. scalaris acts as a vector of DWV.

  12. Myiasis by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) in a python affected by pulmonitis.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Mazzariol, S; Menandro, M L; Lafisca, A; Turchetto, M

    2013-01-01

    Myiases are caused by the presence of maggots in vertebrate tissues and organs. Myiases have been studied widely in humans, farm animals, and pets, whereas reports of myiasis in reptiles are scarce. We describe a case of myiasis caused by the Megaselia scalaris (Loew) in an Indian python (Python molurus bivittatus, Kuhl) (Ophida: Boidae). The python, 15 yr old, born and reared in a terrarium in the mainland of Venice (Italy), was affected by diffuse, purulent pneumonia caused by Burkholderia cepacia. The severe infestation of maggots found in the lungs during an autopsy indicated at a myiasis.

  13. A Staging Scheme for the Development of the Scuttle Fly Megaselia abdita

    PubMed Central

    García Matheu, Belén; Jaeger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster, provide powerful experimental tools for the study of development. However, approaches using model systems need to be complemented by comparative studies for us to gain a deeper understanding of the functional properties and evolution of developmental processes. New model organisms need to be established to enable such comparative work. The establishment of new model system requires a detailed description of its life cycle and development. The resulting staging scheme is essential for providing morphological context for molecular studies, and allows us to homologise developmental processes between species. In this paper, we provide a staging scheme and morphological characterisation of the life cycle for an emerging non-drosophilid dipteran model system: the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. We pay particular attention to early embryogenesis (cleavage and blastoderm stages up to gastrulation), the formation and retraction of extraembryonic tissues, and the determination and formation of germ (pole) cells. Despite the large evolutionary distance between the two species (approximately 150 million years), we find that M. abdita development is remarkably similar to D. melanogaster in terms of developmental landmarks and their relative timing. PMID:24409295

  14. Quantitative system drift compensates for altered maternal inputs to the gap gene network of the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita

    PubMed Central

    Wotton, Karl R; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Crombach, Anton; Janssens, Hilde; Alcaine-Colet, Anna; Lemke, Steffen; Schmidt-Ott, Urs; Jaeger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The segmentation gene network in insects can produce equivalent phenotypic outputs despite differences in upstream regulatory inputs between species. We investigate the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon through a systems-level analysis of the gap gene network in the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita (Phoridae). It combines quantification of gene expression at high spatio-temporal resolution with systematic knock-downs by RNA interference (RNAi). Initiation and dynamics of gap gene expression differ markedly between M. abdita and Drosophila melanogaster, while the output of the system converges to equivalent patterns at the end of the blastoderm stage. Although the qualitative structure of the gap gene network is conserved, there are differences in the strength of regulatory interactions between species. We term such network rewiring ‘quantitative system drift’. It provides a mechanistic explanation for the developmental hourglass model in the dipteran lineage. Quantitative system drift is likely to be a widespread mechanism for developmental evolution. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04785.001 PMID:25560971

  15. Morphology of immature stages of Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz (Diptera: Phoridae).

    PubMed

    Dian-Xing, Feng; Guang-Chun, Liu

    2012-09-01

    In addition to causing myiasis in humans, Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz has also been reported as a forensically important fly. In this study, we presented the morphology of all larval instars and puparium of M. spiracularis using scanning electron microscopy. The first instar larva was composed of 12 segments. Antennae and maxillary palp complex were visible. Two spiracular slits could be seen at the posterior spiracle. The branch of posterior spiracular hairs was approximately equal to the palm-formed base in length. Second and third larval instars were very similar to first instar, except for the presence of anterior spiracle. The labium of the second instar larva was triangular and ventrally curved, whereas it was a bilobed structure and the tip forked in the first instar. The bubble membrance comprised of ≈40 globules presented at the third instar larvae. Puparia showed a retracted cephalic region and a pair of pupal respiratory horns on the dorsum. A comparison of the morphological features between immature stages of M. spiracularis and M. scalaris, a forensically important fly indoors in Germany, Malaysia, and China, was discussed.

  16. THE TRUE IDENTITY OF COPELAND'S AQUATIC SCUTTLE FLY (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) FROM INDIANA AND RECOGNITION OF A SIBLING SPECIES FROM TEXAS.

    PubMed

    Disney, R Henry L; Copeland, Robert S; Murrell, Ebony

    2009-07-01

    Among the insects reported by Copeland (1989) breeding in the waters retained by treeholes in Indiana was a scuttle fly identified by W. H. Robinson as Megaselia scalaris (Loew). It is here reported that in fact this fly, along with fresh material from Illinois and Missouri, is M. imitatrix Borgmeier, whose type series was from Puerto Rico. An aquatic species reported from Texas is recognized as a sibling species of M. imitatrix and is named M. hansonix Disney, sp. nov. A single female from Brazil represents a third species of this complex, thus raising doubts about the identity of specimens from Brazil attributed to M. imitatrix by Benton and Claugher (2000).

  17. A review of scuttle fly genera of Israel (Diptera: Phoridae), with new records and an identification key.

    PubMed

    Mostovski, Mike B

    2016-07-08

    A brief review of Israeli scuttle flies is given. The following genera are new records for the country: Arabiphora, Billotia, Chonocephalus, Menozziola, Phalacrotophora, Pseudacteon, Psyllomyia, and Puliciphora. Eighteen species-Arabiphora tenuifemorata, Chonocephalus depressus, Conicera floricola, Conicera similis, Gymnophora integralis, Gymnophora perpropinqua, Megaselia scalaris, Megaselia stigmatica, Menozziola schmitzi, Metopina formicomendicula, Phalacrotophora beuki, Phalacrotophora fasciata, Phora limpida, Phora tincta, Psyllomyia braunsi, Puliciphora rufipes, Spiniphora bergenstammi, and Tubicera lichtwardi-are added to the list of 56 phorid species previously known from Israel. Two species, Conicera similis and Megaselia scalaris, are recorded in association with the summer truffle Tuber aestivum commercially grown in northern Israel. The status of the Afrotropical Phora congolensis Beyer, 1965 is designated as nomen dubium. A lapsius calami, which led to an erroneous generic attribution of Metopina braueri in the paper on Israeli Metopina (Mostovski, 2016), is noted here. An identification key to the Israeli genera of scuttle flies, as well as notes on recognition and/or biology of individual species, are provided.

  18. Molecular identification of carrion-breeding scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) using COI barcodes.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Petra; Amendt, Jens; Disney, R Henry L; Zehner, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Entomological evidence is often used in forensic cases for post-mortem interval (PMI) calculation. The most dominant species present on a corpse are typically blowflies. However, several cases have been reported where access to a corpse has been restricted for blowflies (e.g., on a buried or wrapped cadavers) but species of the family Phoridae were abundant. It has also been reported that some phorid species that exploit human corpses may also feature in cases of myiasis acquired ante-mortem. In all these cases, they may provide decisive evidence. As for blowflies, the precise identification of a phorid species collected from a corpse is necessary when estimating the PMI. Since morphological determination is often hampered due to similar characteristics especially in the larval and pupal stage, we used DNA-based methods to identify six phorid species (Megaselia scalaris, Megaselia giraudii, Megaselia abdita, Megaselia rufipes, Conicera tibialis, and Puliciphora borinquenensis) on the molecular level. We focused on a 658-bp-long region of the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI), the most common molecular marker in forensic entomology. The amplified fragment is also used in DNA barcode approaches and was found to be suitable for identification of a wide range of insect taxa. The present study demonstrates that this region is also sufficient to distinguish between several species of scuttle flies.

  19. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.

  20. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja M; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on the

  1. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    PubMed Central

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  2. Flies from L.A., The Sequel: A further twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) from the BioSCAN Project in Los Angeles (California, USA)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.; Disney, R. Henry L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). Presented are continued results from the BioSCAN Project, an urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA). New information Twelve new species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) are described: M. baileyae, M. friedrichae, M. gonzalezorum, M. joanneae, M. losangelensis, M. phyllissunae, M. pongsaiae, M. shatesae, M. stoakesi, M. studentorum, M. voluntariorum, M. wongae. PMID:27226746

  3. Morphology and identification of fly eggs: application in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Sanit, S; Sribanditmongkol, P; Sukontason, K L; Moophayak, K; Klong-Klaew, T; Yasanga, T; Sukontason, K

    2013-06-01

    Fly eggs found in corpses can be used as entomological evidence in forensic investigation. This study aims to investigate the morphology of forensically important fly eggs. Eggs of Chrysomya rufifacies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya pinguis, Chrysomya nigripes, Hypopygiopsis tumrasvini, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia porphyrina and Musca domestica were examined using 1% potassium permanganate solution for 1 min. Morphometric analysis revealed that the mean length of Hy. tumrasvini (1.63 mm) and C. pinguis (1.65 mm) eggs was the longest, followed by that of L. porphyrina (1.45 mm), C. rufifacies (1.34 mm). The egg length, width of median area and darkness staining of hatching pleats were distinctive features. Four categories of median area were proposed, based on width; (1) distinctly wide (Megaselia scalaris, Synthesiomyia nudiseta); (2) wide (C. nigripes, M. domestica); (3) slightly widening (Hy. tumrasvini, L. cuprina, L. porphyrina); and (4) narrow (C. rufifacies, C. albiceps, C. megacephala, C. pinguis). Four species were examined using SEM, i.e., C. megacephala, C. pinguis, Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina. The eggs of C. megacephala demonstrated swollen hatching pleats. Inside, the hexagon of the chorion appeared as a sponging bumpy feature. The egg of C. pinguis was similar to C. megacephala, except for the sponging bumpy feature on the outer surface of the hatching pleats. Regarding Hy. tumrasvini and L. porphyrina, their island structure was apparent at the inner surface of the upright hatching pleats. The key for identifying these eggs together with other reported species in Thailand has been updated.

  4. Taxonomy and First Records of Two Megaselia Rondani Species (Diptera: Phoridae) Preying upon Eggs of Phyllomedusa iheringii Boulenger (Anura: Phyllomedusidae).

    PubMed

    Ament, D C; Dos Santos, T G

    2017-06-01

    Non-aquatic reproductive modes have evolved among frogs possibly favored by some advantages such as the avoidance of aquatic predators. These reproductive modes, however, make the egg clutches susceptible to terrestrial predators, among which Diptera larvae are some of the most harmful. The present work reports the predation by phorid flies of 22 egg clutches of Phyllomedusa iheringii Boulenger in the South of Brazil. Phorid specimens were identified as Megaselia bruchiana (Borgmeier & Schmitz) and Megaselia necrophaga (Enderlein), species that were reported previously to be associated with ants and dead beetles, respectively. Frog-feeding in these species is hypothesized to be use of an alternative seasonal food source. We amend the diagnoses of both Megaselia species and provide new illustrations to facilitate their identification. We also describe the male of M. bruchiana for the first time and associate males with females of both species.

  5. Comparative fly species composition on indoor and outdoor forensic cases in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Syamsa, Rizal Abdullah; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Firdaus Mohd Salleh; Hidayatulfathi, Othman; Shahrom, Abd Wahid

    2017-01-01

    Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification. Five families, seven genera and nine species of flies were identified from human remains. The results of the study showed Chrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) maggots occurred on corpses with the highest frequency (70.6%), followed by Ch. rufifacies (Calliphoridae) (44.1%), sarcophagid fly (Sarcophagidae) (38.2%), Synthesiomya nudiseta (Muscidae) (20.6%), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) (14.7%), Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Ch. nigripes (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Eristalis spp. (Syrphidae) (5.9%) and Hydrotaea spinigera (Muscidae) (2.9%). The greatest fly diversity occurred on remains recovered indoors (eight species) compared to outdoors (three species). Whilst, single and double infestations were common for both indoor and outdoor cases, multiple infestation of up to six species was observed in one of the indoor cases. Although large numbers of fly species were found on human remains, the predominant species were still those of Chrysomya, while S. nudiseta was found only on human remains recovered from indoors. The present study provides additional knowledge in the context of Malaysian forensic entomology and the distribution of forensically important flies which is of relevance to forensic science. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. The tip of the iceberg: a distinctive new spotted-wing Megaselia species (Diptera: Phoridae) from a tropical cloud forest survey and a new, streamlined method for Megaselia descriptions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new Megaselia species, M. shadeae, with a large, central, pigmented and bubble-like wing spot and a greatly enlarged radial wing vein fork, is described from Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica. As part of the Zurquí All Diptera Biodiversity Inventory (ZADBI) project, it represents the first of an incredible number of new phorid species to be described from this one Costa Rican cloud forest site. A new, streamlined method of description for species of this enormous genus of phorid flies is presented. PMID:25425935

  7. The use of Megaselia abdita (Diptera: Phoridae) in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Manlove, J D; Disney, R H L

    2008-02-25

    This case study demonstrates the importance of the Phorid, Megaselia abdita (Schmitz), as an indicator for post-mortem interval estimation in criminal investigations involving forensic entomology where it is usually the more frequently occurring Calliphorids that are most useful. A case example is discussed where the temperatures were low for the period of time the deceased was missing.

  8. Germ line transformation and in vivo labeling of nuclei in Diptera: report on Megaselia abdita (Phoridae) and Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Caroti, Francesca; Urbansky, Silvia; Wosch, Maike; Lemke, Steffen

    2015-06-01

    To understand how and when developmental traits of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster originated during the course of insect evolution, similar traits are functionally studied in variably related satellite species. The experimental toolkit available for relevant fly models typically comprises gene expression and loss as well as gain-of-function analyses. Here, we extend the set of available molecular tools to piggyBac-based germ line transformation in two satellite fly models, Megaselia abdita and Chironomus riparius. As proof-of-concept application, we used a Gateway variant of the piggyBac transposon vector pBac{3xP3-eGFPafm} to generate a transgenic line that expresses His2Av-mCherry as fluorescent nuclear reporter ubiquitously in the gastrulating embryo of M. abdita. Our results open two phylogenetically important nodes of the insect order Diptera for advanced developmental evolutionary genetics.

  9. Facultative Myiasis by Megaselia sp. (Diptera: Phoridae) in Texas: A case Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-08

    deep in [his] throat" which caused him to cough , expelling a living Megaselia sp. larva. The site of the infestation was presumed to be the sinuses or...throat" which caused him to cough , expelling a living Megaselia sp. larva. The site of the infestation was presumed to be the sinuses or upper...Megaselia. mviasis HUMAN MYIASIS caused by species in the family for 10 d) for cough , congestion, and rhinorrhea. Phoridae has been reported only rarely in

  10. Presence of microorganisms from isolated Megaselia spp. in foodservice establishments.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Esteban, J Guillermo; Jiménez, Ricardo; Mañes, Jordi; Soriano, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la transmisión de patógenos por insectos es una creciente preocupación para la salud pública. Más concretamente, las moscas son conocidas por ser capaces de transmitir el agente infeccioso mecánicamente. Objetivo: el presente trabajo muestra un estudio en los servicios de restauración en los que se aisló por primera vez en la literatura Megaselia spp, detectándose la presencia de microorganismos en estas moscas. Método: se basa en análisis microbiológicos y entomológicos. Resultados: la presencia de aerobios mesófilos y Enterobacteriaceae se han encontrado en todas las muestras, superando los límites establecidos en el 41,7% (5/12) para las bacterias aerobias mesófilas y el 66,7% (8/12) para Enterobacteriaceae. Por otra parte, en el 25 y 66,7% de las moscas analizadas se detectó la presencia de Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Conclusiones: hay un binomio entre la presencia de microorganismos y Megaselia spp., lo que demuestra la importancia de mantener una vigilancia más estricta en las medidas higiénico-sanitarias en los servicios de restauración.

  11. A new species group in Megaselia, the lucifrons group, with description of a new species (Diptera, Phoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Häggqvist, Sibylle; Ulefors, Sven Olof; Ronquist, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With 1,400 described species, Megaselia is one of the most species-rich genera in the animal kingdom, and at the same time one of the least studied. An important obstacle to taxonomic progress is the lack of knowledge concerning the phylogenetic structure within the genus. Classification of Megaselia at the level of subgenus is incomplete although Schmitz addressed several groups of species in a series of monographs published from 1956 to 1981. Another problem is the lack of molecular phylogenetic analyses to support morphology-based conclusions. As a contribution towards addressing these problems, we here circumscribe a previously unrecognized monophyletic lineage of Megaselia consisting of species similar to Megaselia lucifrons. We base this taxonomic decision on morphological study of an extensive phorid material from Sweden, complemented by molecular analyses of select exemplars using two markers (COI and 28S). We name the clade the lucifrons species group, and show that it contains three distinct species. Our results also demonstrate that Megaselia subnitida Lundbeck, 1920, previously treated as a synonym of Megaselia lucifrons Schmitz, 1918, is a separate species, and we remove it from synonymy. The third species in the group was previously unknown; we describe it here as Megaselia albalucifrons sp. n. PMID:26257562

  12. Species delimitation using Bayes factors: simulations and application to the Sceloporus scalaris species group (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae).

    PubMed

    Grummer, Jared A; Bryson, Robert W; Reeder, Tod W

    2014-03-01

    Current molecular methods of species delimitation are limited by the types of species delimitation models and scenarios that can be tested. Bayes factors allow for more flexibility in testing non-nested species delimitation models and hypotheses of individual assignment to alternative lineages. Here, we examined the efficacy of Bayes factors in delimiting species through simulations and empirical data from the Sceloporus scalaris species group. Marginal-likelihood scores of competing species delimitation models, from which Bayes factor values were compared, were estimated with four different methods: harmonic mean estimation (HME), smoothed harmonic mean estimation (sHME), path-sampling/thermodynamic integration (PS), and stepping-stone (SS) analysis. We also performed model selection using a posterior simulation-based analog of the Akaike information criterion through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM). Bayes factor species delimitation results from the empirical data were then compared with results from the reversible-jump MCMC (rjMCMC) coalescent-based species delimitation method Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BP&P). Simulation results show that HME and sHME perform poorly compared with PS and SS marginal-likelihood estimators when identifying the true species delimitation model. Furthermore, Bayes factor delimitation (BFD) of species showed improved performance when species limits are tested by reassigning individuals between species, as opposed to either lumping or splitting lineages. In the empirical data, BFD through PS and SS analyses, as well as the rjMCMC method, each provide support for the recognition of all scalaris group taxa as independent evolutionary lineages. Bayes factor species delimitation and BP&P also support the recognition of three previously undescribed lineages. In both simulated and empirical data sets, harmonic and smoothed harmonic mean marginal-likelihood estimators provided much higher marginal-likelihood estimates

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel perivitellin from the eggs of Pomacea scalaris (Mollusca, Ampullariidae).

    PubMed

    Ituarte, S; Dreon, M S; Ceolín, M; Heras, H

    2008-09-01

    Perivitellins are important components of the perivitelline fluid (PVF) that surrounds gastropod embryos. The glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein ovorubin (OR) from eggs of the snail Pomacea canaliculata has been the most studied to date. Here we report the characterization of scalarin (SC), a glyco-lipo-carotenoprotein from the PVF of P. scalaris. SC was purified by ultracentrifugation and exclusion chromatography. It is the major egg protein, representing 64% of the total soluble protein. The particle has a hydration density of 1.26 g/ml, an apparent molecular mass of 380 kDa and it is an elongated compact protein as estimated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). It is composed of three subunits of ca. 35, 28, and 24 kDa noncovalently bonded. SC is highly glycosylated (carbohydrate content 20.1%, by wt.), with a low lipid content (0.7%), being esterified sterols, pigments and polar lipids the most abundant lipid classes. HPTLC and spectrophotometric analysis of the carotenoid fraction revealed the presence of free astaxanthin (ASX; 62.0%), and an unidentified carotenoid (38.0%). The carotenoid-apoprotein interaction was studied by spectrophotometry. Carotenoids do not seem to affect the structural characteristics of the oligomer. However, the carotenoid-protein association protected ASX against oxidation. The cross-reactivity between SC and perivitellins of P. canaliculata was tested using polyclonal antibodies (PAb) against SC, OR, and perivitellin PV2. The PAbs failed to cross-react with any egg proteins of either the same or other species. SC, among other functional similarities with OR, would be an antioxidant carrier, protecting at the same time carotenoids from oxidation in the perivitellin fluid of the egg.

  14. Opportunity in our Ignorance: Urban Biodiversity Study Reveals 30 New Species and One New Nearctic Record for Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) in Los Angeles (California, USA).

    PubMed

    Hartop, Emily A; Brown, Brian V; Disney, R Henry L

    2015-04-02

    An urban biodiversity study sampling primarily from private backyards in Los Angeles, California (USA), reveals the presence of fifty-six species of Megaselia within the first few months of sampling. Thirty of these are described as new to science: M. armstrongorum, M. bradyi, M. brejchaorum, M. carthayensis, M. ciancii, M. creasoni, M. defibaughorum, M. donahuei, M. francoae, M. fujiokai, M. hardingorum, M. heini, M. hentschkeae, M. hoffmanorum, M. hoggorum, M. hoguei, M. isaacmajorum, M. kelleri, M. lombardorum, M. marquezi, M. mikejohnsoni, M. oxboroughae, M. pisanoi, M. renwickorum, M. rodriguezorum, M. sacatelensis, M. seaverorum, M. sidneyae, M. steptoeae, and M. wiegmanae. M. largifrontalis is newly reported from the Nearctic Region. The implications these findings have for future taxonomic work in Megaselia, particularly in urban areas, are discussed.

  15. An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia.

    PubMed

    Disney, R H L

    2013-01-01

    64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft.

  16. Agglutinating Activity and Structural Characterization of Scalarin, the Major Egg Protein of the Snail Pomacea scalaris (d’Orbigny, 1832)

    PubMed Central

    Ituarte, Santiago; Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ceolin, Marcelo; Heras, Horacio

    2012-01-01

    Apple snail perivitellins are emerging as ecologically important reproductive proteins. To elucidate if the protective functions of the egg proteins of Pomacea canaliculata (Caenogastropoda, Ampullariidae), involved in embryo defenses, are present in other Pomacea species we studied scalarin (PsSC), the major perivitellin of Pomacea scalaris. Using small angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy and biochemical methods, we analyzed PsSC structural stability, agglutinating activity, sugar specificity and protease resistance. PsSC aggluttinated rabbit, and, to a lesser extent, human B and A erythrocytes independently of divalent metals Ca2+ and Mg2+ were strongly inhibited by galactosamine and glucosamine. The protein was structurally stable between pH 2.0 to 10.0, though agglutination occurred only between pH 4.0 to 8.0 (maximum activity at pH 7.0). The agglutinating activity was conserved up to 60°C and completely lost above 80°C, in agreement with the structural thermal stability of the protein (up to 60°C). PsSC was able to withstand in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, and showed no trypsin inhibition activity. The presence of lectin activity has been reported in eggs of other Pomacea snails, but here we link for the first time, this activity to an apple snail multifunctional perivitellin. This novel role for a snail egg storage protein is different from closely related P.canaliculata defensive proteins. PMID:23185551

  17. First records of two species of Oriental scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) from forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Thevan, Kumara; Disney, R Henry L Henry; Ahmad, Abu Hassan

    2010-02-25

    In Penang, Malaysia, the Oriental and Afrotropical Megaselia curtineura (Brues) and the Oriental and Japanese Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz are reported from human corpses, these being the first reports of these species in such forensic cases.

  18. Relative roles of Neogene vicariance and Quaternary climate change on the historical diversification of bunchgrass lizards (Sceloporus scalaris group) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Robert W; García-Vázquez, Uri Omar; Riddle, Brett R

    2012-01-01

    Neogene vicariance during the Miocene and Pliocene and Quaternary climate change have synergistically driven diversification in Mexican highland taxa. We investigated the impacts of these processes on genetic diversification in the widely distributed bunchgrass lizards in the Sceloporus scalaris group. We searched for correlations between timing in diversification and timing of (1) a period of marked volcanism across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in central Mexico 3-7.5million years ago (Ma) and (2) a transition to larger glacial-interglacial cycles during the mid-Pleistocene. From our phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA we identified two major clades that contained 13 strongly supported lineages. One clade contained lineages from the two northern sierras of Mexico, and the other clade included lineages associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and Central Mexican Plateau. Results provided support for Neogene divergences within the S. scalaris group in response to uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, a pattern observed in several co-distributed taxa, and suggested that Quaternary climate change likely had little effect on diversification between lineages. Uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt during specific time periods appears to have strongly impacted diversification in Mexican highland taxa. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  20. SuperFly: a comparative database for quantified spatio-temporal gene expression patterns in early dipteran embryos

    PubMed Central

    Cicin-Sain, Damjan; Pulido, Antonio Hermoso; Crombach, Anton; Wotton, Karl R.; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Taly, Jean-François; Roma, Guglielmo; Jaeger, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We present SuperFly (http://superfly.crg.eu), a relational database for quantified spatio-temporal expression data of segmentation genes during early development in different species of dipteran insects (flies, midges and mosquitoes). SuperFly has a special focus on emerging non-drosophilid model systems. The database currently includes data of high spatio-temporal resolution for three species: the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita and the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata. At this point, SuperFly covers up to 9 genes and 16 time points per species, with a total of 1823 individual embryos. It provides an intuitive web interface, enabling the user to query and access original embryo images, quantified expression profiles, extracted positions of expression boundaries and integrated datasets, plus metadata and intermediate processing steps. SuperFly is a valuable new resource for the quantitative comparative study of gene expression patterns across dipteran species. Moreover, it provides an interesting test set for systems biologists interested in fitting mathematical gene network models to data. Both of these aspects are essential ingredients for progress toward a more quantitative and mechanistic understanding of developmental evolution. PMID:25404137

  1. Wasp predation drives the assembly of fungal and fly communities on frog egg masses.

    PubMed

    Hughey, Myra C; Nicolás, Angie; Vonesh, James R; Warkentin, Karen M

    2012-04-01

    Community ecology aims to understand how species interactions shape species diversity and abundance. Although less studied than predatory or competitive interactions, facilitative interactions can be important in communities associated with ephemeral microhabitats. Successful recruitment from these habitats requires species to rapidly colonize, develop, and disperse during brief periods of habitat suitability. Interactions between organisms, including processing chain interactions whereby initial consumers alter resources in ways that improve their quality for subsequent consumers, could aid these processes. The terrestrial egg masses of red-eyed treefrogs (Agalychnis callidryas) are a resource for predatory wasps (Agelaia spp., Polybia rejecta) and a microhabitat and resource for saprovoric and pathogenic fungi and saprovoric flies (Megaselia spp., Psychoda savaiiensis). We investigate how interactions with wasps might facilitate fly and fungal colonization of and survival on frog egg masses. Our results indicate that wasps facilitate fungal colonization, whereas flies appear not to, and that both wasps and fungi generate frog egg carrion that attracts saprovoric flies to oviposit and increases the survival of fly larvae. While studies of colonization order often focus on inhibition by early colonizers of subsequent arrivals, this study demonstrates how early colonizers can facilitate the establishment of later ones, by modifying resources in ways that promote the location of and survival in habitat patches. This research draws attention to the diversity of interactions that can occur within ephemeral communities and emphasizes the role that positive interactions may play. Processing chain interactions may be a generally important mechanism increasing the diversity of local communities, including very ephemeral ones.

  2. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  3. Human intestinal parasites in non-biting synanthropic flies in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adenusi, Adedotun Adesegun; Adewoga, Thomas O Sunday

    2013-01-01

    Filth-feeding and breeding, non-biting synanthropic flies have been incriminated in the dissemination of human enteropathogens in the environment. This study determined the species of non-biting synanthropic flies associated with four filthy sites in Ilishan, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria, and assessed their potentials for mechanical transmission of human intestinal parasites. 7190 flies identified as Musca domestica (33.94%), Chrysomya megacephala (26.01%), Musca sorbens (23.23%), Lucilia cuprina (8.76%), Calliphora vicina (4.59%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.78%) and Fannia scalaris (0.70%) were examined for human intestinal parasites by the formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Eggs of the following parasites: Ascaris lumbricoides (34.08%), Trichuris trichiura (25.87%), hookworms (20.45%), Taenia sp. (2.36%), Hymenolepis nana (1.11%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.56%), Strongyloides stercoralis (larvae; 3.89%) and cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (27.26%), Entamoeba coli (22.67%), Giardia lamblia (3.34%) and Cryptosporidium sp. (1.81%) were isolated from the body surfaces and or gut contents of 75.24% of 719 pooled fly batches. The helminths A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura and the protozoans, E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli were the dominant parasites detected, both on body surfaces and in the gut contents of flies. C. megacephala was the highest carrier of parasites (diversity and number). More parasites were isolated from the gut than from body surfaces (P < 0.05). Flies from soiled ground often carried more parasites than those from abattoir, garbage or open-air market. Synanthropic fly species identified in this study can be of potential epidemiological importance as mechanical transmitters of human intestinal parasites acquired naturally from filth and carried on their body surfaces and or in the gut, because of their vagility and feeding mechanisms.

  4. Stable Fly Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult stable flies feed on the blood of humans, pets and livestock, inflicting painful bites. Stable flies need one and sometimes two bloodmeals each day to develop their eggs. Unlike mosquitoes where only the females bloodfeed, both male and female stable flies require blood to reproduce. Stable fl...

  5. Prevalence of flying dreams.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Piel, Edgar

    2007-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of flying dreams in four representative German samples of adults (N=5941). Overall, 7.5% of the participants reported having flying dreams within the last few months. The increase in percentage of persons who report flying dreams from 1956 to 2000 might reflect the increasing amount of air travel. This would support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming.

  6. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  7. Sound radiation around a flying fly.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics--and their possible biological functions--unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  8. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  9. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  10. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  11. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  12. Review of forensically important entomological specimens collected from human cadavers in Malaysia (2005-2010).

    PubMed

    Kavitha, Rajagopal; Nazni, Wasi Ahmad; Tan, Tian Chye; Lee, Han Lim; Azirun, Mohd Sofian

    2013-07-01

    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  13. [The dream of flying].

    PubMed

    Goddemeier, Christof

    2005-01-01

    More than a 100 years ago the Wright brothers succeeded in performing the first motor flight in the history of mankind. But irrespective of its technical realisation man has always dealt with flying. So myths, rites and fairy-tales as well reflect the different ideas of flying as these conceptions come to light again and again in dreams and visions. Whether ascension, expression of desire and yearning or sexual metaphor -- the idea of flying seems to be a universal magic figure of thinking.

  14. An observation on the decomposition process of gasoline-ingested monkey carcasses in a secondary forest in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rumiza, A R; Khairul, O; Zuha, R M; Heo, C C

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to mimic homicide or suicide cases using gasoline. Six adult long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis), weighing between 2.5 to 4.0 kg, were equally divided into control and test groups. The control group was sacrificed by a lethal dose of phenobarbital intracardiac while test group was force fed with two doses of gasoline LD50 (37.7 ml/kg) after sedation with phenobarbital. All carcasses were then placed in a decomposition site to observe the decomposition and invasion process of cadaveric fauna on the carcasses. A total of five decomposition stages were recognized during this study. This study was performed during July 2007. Fresh stage of control and test carcasses occurred between 0 to 15 and 0 to 39 hours of exposure, respectively. The subsequent decomposition stages also exhibited the similar pattern whereby the decomposition process of control carcasses were faster than tested one. The first larvae were found on control carcasses after 9 hours of death while the test group carcasses had only their first blowfly eggs after 15 hours of exposure. Blow flies, Achoetandrus rufifacies and Chrysomya megacephala were the most dominant invader of both carcasses throughout the decaying process. Diptera collected from control carcasses comprised of scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris and flesh fly, sarcophagid. We concluded that the presence of gasoline and its odor on the carcass had delayed the arrival of insect to the carcasses, thereby slowing down the decomposition process in the carcass by 6 hours.

  15. Forensic entomology of high-rise buildings in Malaysia: Three case reports.

    PubMed

    Syamsa, R A; Omar, B; Zuha, R M; Faridah, M N; Swarhib, M S; Hidayatulfathi, O; Shahrom, A W

    2015-06-01

    The distributions of flies are not only confined to ground level but can also be at higher altitudes. Here, we report three forensic cases involving dipterans in high-rise buildings in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Case 1 involved a corpse of adult female found at the top floor of a fifteen-story apartment. Case 2 dealt with a body of a 75-year-old female discovered in a bedroom on the eleventh floor of an eighteen-story building, while Case 3 was a 52-year-old male found in his fifth floor shop house. Interestingly, entomological analysis revealed that all corpses were infested with similar Dipterans: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) (Diptera: Muscidae) and sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). The first two species were commonly associated with corpses found indoors at ground level. We noted the additional occurrence of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies Macquart (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae in Case 2 and Case 3, respectively. Findings from this study are significant as they demonstrate that certain groups of fly can locate dead bodies even in high-rise buildings. Forensic entomofauna research on corpses found at high elevation is scarce and our study has highlighted the peculiarity of the fly species involved in Malaysia.

  16. Forensic entomology cases in Thailand: a review of cases from 2000 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kom; Narongchai, Paitoon; Kanchai, Chaturong; Vichairat, Karnda; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Bhoopat, Tanin; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Chockjamsai, Manoch; Piangjai, Somsak; Bunchu, Nophawan; Vongvivach, Somsak; Samai, Wirachai; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Methanitikorn, Rungkanta; Ngern-Klun, Rachadawan; Sripakdee, Duanghatai; Boonsriwong, Worachote; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Srimuangwong, Chaowakit; Hanterdsith, Boonsak; Chaiwan, Khankam; Srisuwan, Chalard; Upakut, Surasak; Moopayak, Kittikhun; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Olson, Jimmy K; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents and discusses 30 cases of cadavers that had been transferred for forensic entomology investigations to the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, northern Thailand, from 2000 to 2006. Variable death scenes were determined, including forested area and suburban and urban outdoor and indoor environments. The fly specimens found in the corpses obtained were the most commonly of the blow fly of family Calliphoridae, and consisted of Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve, Chrysomya chani Kurahashi, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann), and two unknown species. Flies of the family Muscidae [Hydrotaea spinigera Stein, Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp)], Piophilidae [Piophila casei (L.)], Phoridae [Megaselia scalaris (Loew)], Sarcophagidae [Parasarcophaga ruficornis (F.) and three unknown species], and Stratiomyiidae (Sargus sp.) were also collected from these human remains. Larvae and adults of the beetle, Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae), were also found in some cases. Chrysomya megacephala and C. rufifacies were the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats associated with both urban and forested areas, while C. nigripes was commonly discovered in forested places. S. nudiseta was collected only from corpses found in an indoor death scene.

  17. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  18. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  19. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089829 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  20. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089793 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  1. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089820 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  2. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089830 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  3. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089802 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  4. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089782 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  5. ATV Fly-Under

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-08

    ISS040-E-089798 (8 Aug. 2014) --- The “Georges Lemaitre” Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV-5), photographed by an Expedition 40 crew member, flies directly under the International Space Station at a distance of about 3.7 miles to test sensors and radar systems designed for future European spacecraft. After its “fly-under” of the station, the ATV will move in front of, above, and behind the outpost for the final days of its two-week rendezvous that will lead to an automated docking to the aft port of the Zvezda Service Module on Aug. 12.

  6. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  7. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  8. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  9. Wisdom from the fly.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Leila E; Larschan, Erica N

    2014-11-01

    Arguably, almost all research in Drosophila can be considered basic research, yet many of the most essential and fundamental concepts of human genetics were first decoded in the fly. Although the fly genome, which is organized into only four chromosomes, is approximately one-twentieth the size of the human genome, it contains roughly the same number of genes, and up to 75% of human disease-related genes have Drosophila homologues [1]. The fly was prized for its simplicity and utility even before such compelling homology with humans was apparent. Since Thomas Hunt Morgan began his seminal experiments over a century ago (Table 1), the Drosophila system has revealed countless key mechanisms by which cells function, including the factors that maintain chromatin and the signaling pathways that control cell fate determination and organism development. More recently, the fly has emerged as a critical neurobiological tool and disease model for a range of genetic disorders. In this review, we present a brief retrospective of Drosophila as an indispensable genetic system and discuss some of the many contributions, past and present, of this facile system to human genetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic Impact of Stable Flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A dynamic model was created to estimate the economic impact of stable flies on livestock production. Based upon a nationwide average of 10 stable flies per animal for 3 months per year, the model estimates the impact of stable flies to be $543 million to the dairy industry, $1.34 billion to pasture ...

  11. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  12. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  13. WAYS OF ACQUIRING FLYING PHOBIA.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Bettina; Vriends, Noortje; Margraf, Jürgen; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-02-01

    The few studies that have explored how flying phobia is acquired have produced contradictory results. We hypothesized that classical conditioning plays a role in acquiring flying phobia and investigated if vicarious (model) learning, informational learning through media, and experiencing stressful life events at the time of onset of phobia also play a role. Thirty patients with flying phobia and thirty healthy controls matched on age, sex, and education were interviewed with the Mini-DIPS, the short German version of the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria) and the Fear-of-Flying History Interview. Fifty Percent of patients with flying phobia and 53% of healthy controls reported frightening events in the air. There was no significant difference between the two samples. Thus there were not more classical conditioning events for patients with flying phobia. There also was no significant difference between the two samples for vicarious (model) learning: 37% of flying phobia patients and 23% of healthy controls felt influenced by model learning. The influence of informational learning through media was significantly higher for the clinical sample (70%) than for the control group (37%). Patients with flying phobia experienced significantly more stressful life events in the period of their frightening flight experience (60%) than healthy controls (19%). Frightening experiences while flying are quite common, but not everybody develops a flying phobia. Stressful life events and other factors might enhance conditionability. Informational learning through negative media reports probably reinforces the development of flying phobia. Clinical implications are discussed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. O fly, where art thou?

    PubMed

    Grover, Dhruv; Tower, John; Tavaré, Simon

    2008-10-06

    In this paper, the design of a real-time image acquisition system for tracking the movement of Drosophila in three-dimensional space is presented. The system uses three calibrated and synchronized cameras to detect multiple flies and integrates the detected fly silhouettes to construct the three-dimensional visual hull models of each fly. We used an extended Kalman filter to estimate the state of each fly, given past positions from the reconstructed fly visual hulls. The results show that our approach constructs the three-dimensional visual hull of each fly from the detected image silhouettes and robustly tracks them at real-time rates. The system is suitable for a more detailed analysis of fly behaviour.

  15. Flies with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Vanhauwaert, Roeland; Verstreken, Patrik

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is an incurable neurodegenerative disease. Most cases of the disease are of sporadic origin, but about 10% of the cases are familial. The genes thus far identified in Parkinson's disease are well conserved. Drosophila is ideally suited to study the molecular neuronal cell biology of these genes and the pathogenic mutations in Parkinson's disease. Flies reproduce quickly, and their elaborate genetic tools in combination with their small size allow researchers to analyze identified cells and neurons in large numbers of animals. Furthermore, fruit flies recapitulate many of the cellular and molecular defects also seen in patients, and these defects often result in clear locomotor and behavioral phenotypes, facilitating genetic modifier screens. Hence, Drosophila has played a prominent role in Parkinson's disease research and has provided invaluable insight into the molecular mechanisms of this disease.

  16. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  17. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-10-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  18. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; ...

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. Thus, this approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  19. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  20. Fly-scan ptychography

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  1. Satellite formation flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiguo

    2002-09-01

    The control of Distributed Satellite Formation Flying (DSFF) has attracted the attention of many researchers over the past decade. The increasing stringent performance specifications required for controlling DSFF systems necessitates the accurate maintenance of the relative positions/orientations of the participating satellites. This research focuses on the development of new effective controllers for DSFF system via various linear and nonlinear approaches. Based on the classical Hill's equation, a mathematically rigorous control design framework is proposed for linear control of DSFF with guaranteed closed-loop stability. In particular, a pulse-based, periodic gain, control architectures is developed which utilize intermittent control action. Next, a Lyapunov-based, nonlinear adaptive control law is designed which guarantees global asymptotic convergence of position tracking error. In addition, a nonlinear, output feedback control law for DSFF is presented, which guarantees global uniformly ultimately bounded position and velocity tracking error in the presence of some DSFF system parametric uncertainties. Another contribution of this research consists of the development of the perturbative control of satellite flying around the oblate earth which can pave the way for its direct application of one class of optimal formation flying in polar orbits. Numerical simulations are presented to demonstrate the efficacies of the proposed control design methodologies.

  2. Retinal degeneration in the fly.

    PubMed

    Colley, Nansi Jo

    2012-01-01

    Many genes are functionally equivalent between flies and humans. In addition, the same, or similar, mutations cause disease in both species. In fact, nearly three-fourths of all human disease genes have related sequences in Drosophila. The fly has a relatively small genome, made up of about 13,600 genes in four pairs of chromosomes. However, despite the dramatic differences in size and apparent complexity between humans and flies--we have less than twice as many genes as a fly--our genome is estimated to be made up of only 20,000-25,000 genes contained in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Therefore, despite the fly's perceived simplicity, or our perceived complexity, our genetic makeup may not be all that different. Its versatility for genetic manipulation and convenience for unraveling fundamental biological processes continue to guarantee the fly a place in the spotlight for unraveling the basis of and therapeutic treatments for human eye diseases.

  3. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  4. Toward a Flying MEMS Robot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    vast realm of applications for nano and micro robotics is limited only by the imagination. Realizing these novel ideas on the other hand, is limited...helicopter style flying micro air vehicle (MAV). Three different types of motor designs were developed and tested, which included circular scratch drives...7 Figure 4: Seiko Epson developed the Micro -Flying Robot-II, one of smallest rotary flying vehicles, which

  5. [Medical supply of long flies].

    PubMed

    Belevitin, A B; Tsygan, V N; Blagitin, A A; Lizogub, I N

    2010-05-01

    The article presents a characteristics of main negative factors, disimproving a functional condition and working capacity of airmen in long flies: long stay in a working pose, necessity of using of summer form, of defense form and oxygen-breath means, peculiarities of eating in fly, solving of nature-imposed necessity, relative sensor deprivation, sameliness of environment, high level of noise, hypokinesia, high nervous-emotional tension in conditions of air refueling, temperature fall, difference of barometric pressure, desynchronisms. Were given practical recommendations on maintenance of functional and working capacity of members of flying staff, realizing long flies.

  6. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  7. Flying over decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  8. Flying Past Pluto Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-28

    This dramatic view of the Pluto system is as NASA's New Horizons spacecraft saw it in July 2015. The animation, made with real images taken by New Horizons, begins with Pluto flying in for its close-up on July 14; we then pass behind Pluto and see the atmosphere glow in sunlight before the sun passes behind Pluto's largest moon, Charon. The movie ends with New Horizons' departure, looking back on each body as thin crescents. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19873

  9. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Vision in flying insects.

    PubMed

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  11. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  12. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  13. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of…

  14. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  15. Physics of flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  16. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  17. Passive Baited Sequential Fly Trap

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sampling fly populations associated with human populations is needed to understand diel behavior and to monitor population densities before and after control operations. Population control measures are dependent on the results of monitoring efforts as they may provide insight into the fly behavior ...

  18. Why flies are good vectors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It was around 1900 when house flies were implicated in disease transmission. Flies with white powder on their feet were seen landing on food in US Army chow halls. This white powder was lime that had been sprinkled over the human excrement in open latrines not too far from the eating establishments....

  19. The black flies of Maine

    Treesearch

    L.S. Bauer; J. Granett

    1979-01-01

    Black flies have been long-time residents of Maine and cause extensive nuisance problems for people, domestic animals, and wildlife. The black fly problem has no simple solution because of the multitude of species present, the diverse and ecologically sensitive habitats in which they are found, and the problems inherent in measuring the extent of the damage they cause...

  20. Biology and control of tabanids, stable flies and horn flies.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Hogsette, J A

    1994-12-01

    Tabanids are among the most free-living adult flies which play a role as livestock pests. A single blood meal is used as a source of energy for egg production (100-1,000 eggs per meal), and females of certain species can oviposit before a blood meal is obtained (autogeny). Therefore, the maintenance of annual populations requires successful oviposition by only 2% of females. Wild animal blood sources are usually available to maintain annual tabanid populations. Larval habitats are also independent of domestic livestock. Thus, the use of repellents or partial repellents is the only effective chemical strategy to reduce the incidence of tabanids on livestock. Permanent traps (and possibly treated silhouette traps) can be employed to intercept flies. Selective grazing or confinement can also reduce the impact of tabanids. Stable fly adults are dependent on vertebrate blood for survival and reproduction, but the amount of time spent in contact with the host is relatively small. Stable fly larvae develop in manure, spilled feed and decaying vegetation. Management of larval habitats by sanitation is the key to stable fly control. Treatment of animals with residual insecticides can aid in control; thorough application to the lower body parts of livestock is important. Proper use of modified traps, using either treated targets or solar-powered electrocution grids, can be effective in reducing stable fly populations. Adult horn flies spend the major part of their time on the host, and the larvae are confined to bovid manure. Therefore, almost any form of topical insecticide application for livestock is effective against horn flies, in the absence of insecticide resistance. Treatments should be applied when economic benefit is possible; economic gains are associated with increased weaning weights and weight gains of yearling and growing cattle. Oral chemical treatments (insect growth regulators or insecticides) administered at appropriate rates via bolus, water, food or

  1. Using fly ash for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-05-01

    Each year electrical utilities generate 80 million tons of fly ash, primarily from coal combustion. Typically, utilities dispose of fly ash by hauling it to landfills, but that is changing because of the increasing cost of landfilling, as well as environmental regulations. Now, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in Palo Alto, Calif., its member utilities, and manufacturers of building materials are finding ways of turning this energy byproduct into the building blocks of roads and structures by converting fly ash into construction materials. Some of these materials include concrete and autoclaved cellular concrete (ACC, also known as aerated concrete), flowable fill, and light-weight aggregate. EPRI is also exploring uses for fly ash other than in construction materials. One of the more high-end uses for the material is in metal matrix composites. In this application, fly ash is mixed with softer metals, such as aluminum and magnesium, to strengthen them, while retaining their lighter weight.

  2. A combined protocol for identification of maggots of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Tuccia, Fabiola; Giordani, Giorgia; Vanin, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    In Forensic Entomology the estimation of the age of insects is used for the estimation of the minimum post-mortem interval. As insect development is temperature dependent and species specific, a correct species identification is therefore fundamental. In the majority of cases the molecular identification is based on a destructive approach. In this paper a working protocol for molecular identification of fly larvae without affecting the anatomical characters used for morphological identification is presented. The suggested technique allows the preservation of the larval exoskeleton and of the unused soft tissues in the same vial allowing a repetition of both the morphological and molecular identification and reducing the risk of loss of the evidence. This method also allows the possibility of measuring the size of the specimens before their morphological and biomolecular characterization. In order to demonstrate that this technique can be applied on maggots of a large spectrum of dimensions it has been tested and validated using larvae of different size from ~1.7-1.3cm [Calliphora vomitoria and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)] to ~10-6.5mm [Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) and Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae)]. The importance of a unique identifier and of a complete database with all the specimen information (origin, sample size, identification, etc.) is also discussed.

  3. The flying radiation case

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L.

    1997-04-01

    The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

  4. Phosphate-Bonded Fly Ash.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-09

    FCODE OC ______________ ARLINGTON VA 22217-5660 - dis~bu~i.19~ 3 B Navy Case No. 75,787 PATENTS PHOSPHATE -BONDED FLY ASH IN’NA G. TALMY DEBORAH A. HAUGHT...2 3 , CaO. MgO, etc. with which the H.PO4 reacts to form the polymer-like phosphate bonds which hold the fly ash particles together. In the second...conventional means. The moisture (water) content of the aqueous HP0 4 /fly ash mixture is preferably from about 3 to about 5 weight percent for semidry

  5. Revisiting the obstetric flying squad.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J; Parampalam, S D

    2000-06-01

    The obstetric flying squad has been used in obstetric practice since 1933 to manage obstetric emergencies occurring in domicilliary practice. It has often been criticised in such situations as only delaying effective treatment to the patient. We have introduced the obstetric flying squad in an urban setting to cater for obstetric emergencies occurring in private practice. This service has been used on ten occasions since its inception without any maternal deaths being recorded or any delay in the provision of emergency care. The flying squad has led to closer cooperation between the government and private sectors in providing obstetric care.

  6. Flying qualities criteria for superaugmented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of Dryden superaugmented aircraft flying qualities research is presented. This includes F-8 digital fly by wire flight experiments, orbiter flying qualities, shuttle improvements, AFTI/F-16, flying qualities and control system alternatives, Vertical Motion Simulator Shuttle evaluation and Total in Flight Simulator pitch rate criteria.

  7. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  8. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  9. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  10. [Fear of flying].

    PubMed

    Müller-Ortstein, H; Baumeister, H P

    1999-10-01

    All reliable data and statistics point to the safety of flying. Nevertheless many opinion surveys indicate that every third in the population is affected by aviophobia in one way or the other. Aviophobia is simply a specific phobia from which men and women suffer the same degree. It can be found in all social strata and all occupational groups. Aviophobia is felt in very subjective manners and different ways. The structure of reasons of aviophobia can be very complex, whereas it is somewhat easier to identify immediately the causes. Depending upon the degree of aviophobia different strategies of treatment are indicated. Next to the confrontation theraphy the most wellknown therapy is the systematic desensibilization, classic relaxation methods and cognitive strategies for overcoming the phobia. A high degree of success has been achieved with workshops on aviophobia. These workshops show an increasing tendency. It can be expected that in the future exposition treatment working with virtual realities will also prove successful in overcoming aviophobia. First case studies on the effectivity are all ready available and further effects towards corroborating the effectivity are being plant. Successful with a reduced and minimal input of therapeutic council are also self-management books. In order to master aviophobia, it may be sufficient in cases of less intensivity to work with self-management books in the sense of bibliotherapy.

  11. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-31

    submitted for publication. iii 7. Key Words: Sand fly Lutzomyia Phlebotominae Phlebotomus Leishmaniasis 1i Note: Copies of this report are filed with...5 II. Sand Flies of the Central Amazon of Brazil. 2. De- scription of Lutzomyia (Triehophoromyia) ruii n. sp. . 28 III. A New Phlebotomine Sand...previously unknown in the Republic. These are Brvmptomyia hamata, B. galindoi, Lutzomyia odax, L. ovallesi, L. carpenteri, L. shannoni, L. texana, L

  12. Associative learning in flying phobia.

    PubMed

    Vriends, Noortje; Michael, Tanja; Schindler, Bettina; Margraf, Jürgen

    2012-06-01

    Modern learning theories suggest that particularly strong associative learning contributes to the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, thus explaining why some individuals develop an anxiety disorder after a frightening (conditioning) event, whereas others do not. However, associative learning has rarely been investigated experimentally in specific phobias. The current study investigated associative learning in patients with flying phobia and healthy controls using a modified version of Olson and Fazio's associative learning paradigm (Olson & Fazio, 2001). Under the guise of an attention task, patients with flying phobia (n = 33), and healthy controls (n = 39) viewed a series of distracters interspersed with pairings of novel objects (counterbalanced conditioned stimuli, CSs) with frightening and pleasant stimuli (unconditioned stimuli, USs). After the conditioning procedure patients with flying phobia rated both CSs more frightening and showed stronger discrimination between the CSs for valence compared to healthy controls. Our findings indicate a particularly stronger conditioning effect in flying phobia. These results contribute to the understanding of the etiology of specific phobia and may help to explain why only some individuals develop a flying phobia after an aversive event associated with flying. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Studying the "fly factor" phenomenon and its underlying mechanisms in house flies, Musca domestica.

    PubMed

    Holl, Matthew V; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-07-19

    The "fly factor" was first discovered >60 years ago and describes the phenomenon that food currently or previously fed on by flies attracts more foraging flies than the same type and amount of food kept inaccessible to flies. Since then, there has been little progress made to understanding this phenomenon. Our objectives were (i) to demonstrate the existence of the fly factor in house flies, Musca domestica, and (ii) to study underlying mechanisms that may cause or contribute to the fly factor. In two-choice laboratory bioassays, we obtained unambiguous evidence for a fly factor phenomenon in house flies, in that we demonstrated that feeding flies are more attractive to foraging flies than are non-feeding flies, and that fed-on food is more attractive to foraging flies than is "clean" food. Of the potential mechanisms [fly excreta, metabolic output parameters (elevated temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide)], causing the fly factor, fly feces and regurgitate do attract foraging flies but none of the metabolic output parameters of feeding flies does. Even though feeding flies produce significantly more CO2 than non-feeding flies, elevated levels of CO2 have no behaviour-modifying effect on flies. Preferential attraction of house flies to fly feces and regurgitate indicates that the flies sense airborne semiochemicals emanating from these sources. Hypothesizing that these semiochemicals are microbe-produced, future studies will aim at isolating and mass producing these microbes to accumulate semiochemicals for identification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Respiration in High Flying

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, G. Struan

    1937-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure falls, as height increases, to about one-ninth of its sea-level value at 50,000 feet. The intake of oxygen into the blood depends on the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air, which is about one-fifth of the atmospheric pressure. But since the gaseous content of the lungs is saturated with water vapour at body temperature, 47 mm. Hg. of the atmospheric pressure in the lungs is due to water vapour and is therefore not available for oxygen or other gases, while the alveolar air contains also an almost constant pressure of 40 mm. CO2. Mental and physical output demand an adequate partial pressure of O2; they begin to be limited as soon as this falls, and at heights above 18,000 feet are seriously reduced. Consequently in order to fly higher than about 15,000 feet it is necessary to increase the partial pressure of oxygen in the inspired air. Up to about 44,000 feet this can be done by merely raising the percentage of oxygen, usually by allowing a regulated stream of oxygen to enter a small naso-buccal mask, but preferably by a closed system in which the negative pressure of inspiration opens a valve and allows oxygen to enter a bag from which it is inspired. Beyond 44,000 feet as a limit (and a lesser height for safety) it is necessary to create a local atmospheric pressure around the pilot higher than that of the surrounding air, by enclosing him in an airtight sit or cabin in which a relatively increased pressure with a maximum value of about 2½ lb. per square inch is maintained, while he breathes pure oxygen. This device was used in the recent British world record high flight, when a height of 50,000 feet was attained. The pressure-suit used by the pilot on this occasion and the decompression chamber recently built at Farnborough are described in detail. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:19991176

  15. Fly on the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The email was addressed not only to me, but also to all the Project Knowledge Sharing Community at Ames Research Center. We were invited to sit in on a major project review as a new experiment in knowledge sharing. This first-of-its-kind opportunity had been conceived by Claire Smith, who leads the knowledge sharing program, as well as heading up the Center's Project Leadership Development Program and serving as coordinator of the APPL-West program at Ames. The objective was to offer Ames project practitioners the opportunity to observe project-review processes as they happen. Not that I haven't participated in my share of project reviews, but this seemed like a great way for me to get up-to-date about a new project, the Kepler mission, and to experience a review from a new perspective. Typically, when you're being reviewed, it's difficult to see what's happening objectively-the same way it is on a project. Presenters are always thinking, 'Okay, what's on my slides? How much time do I have left? What are they going to ask me?' So when Claire's email pinged on my computer, I quickly responded by asking her to save a place for me. It was to be an informational review about progress on the project: what the team had done, where they were going, and what they needed to do to get there. There were people on the project team from all over the United States, and it was the first time for them to get together from all aspects of the project. For our part, as observers, we were asked to abide by a couple of rules: Don't ask any questions. and don't talk about the specifics of what we saw or heard. The idea was that we weren't supposed to be noticed. We weren't to buzz around and bother people. Hence the name for this experinient: Fly on the Wall.

  16. XMM flying beautifully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    The early orbit phase came to an end on 16 December after XMM had been manoeuvred to its final orbit. This required four firings of its thrusters, on successive passages at apogee, in order to increase XMM's velocity, thus elongating its orbit and raising the perigee from 826 km to 7,365 km. One burn was then made to fine tune the apogee to around 114,000km. The spacecraft, being tracked by ground stations in Perth, Kourou and Villafranca, is now circling the Earth in this highly elliptical orbit once every 48 hours. The XMM flight operations staff have found themselves controlling a spacecraft that responds exceptionally well. During these first orbits, the satellite has been oriented several times with razor-sharp precision. On board systems have responded without incident to several thousand instructions sent by controllers. "XMM is flying so beautifully" says Dietmar Heger, XMM Spacecraft Operations Manager. "The satellite is behaving better in space than all our pre-launch simulations and we have been able to adjust our shifts to this more relaxed situation". On his return from French Guiana, Robert Lainé, XMM Project Manager immediately visited the Darmstadt Mission Control Centre, at ESOC. "The perfect behaviour of XMM at this early stage reflects the constructive cooperation of European industrial companies and top scientists. Spacecraft operations are in the hands of professionals who will endeavour to fulfill the expectations of the astronomers and astrophysicists of the world. I am very happy that ESA could provide them with such a wonderful precision tool". During the early orbit phase, controllers have activated part of XMM's science payload. The three EPIC X-ray cameras have been switched on and vented. On 17 December the telescope doors were opened allowing the spacecraft's golden X-ray Multi Mirror modules to see the sky. The Optical Monitor telescope door was opened on 18 December. During this last weekend, XMM's Radiation Monitor which records

  17. Tsetse flies and their control.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D J; Hendrickx, G; Slingenbergh, J H

    1994-12-01

    The authors use a quantitative modelling framework to describe and explore the features of the biology of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) which are important in determining the rate of transmission of the African trypanosomiases between hosts. Examples are presented of the contribution of previous research on tsetse to quantified epidemiological and epizootiological understanding, and areas of current ignorance are identified for future study. Spatial and temporal variations in risk are important (but rarely-studied) determinants of the impact of trypanosomiasis on humans, domestic animals and agricultural activities. Recent grid-based sampling surveys to Togo provide valuable data sets on tsetse, cattle and trypanosomiasis throughout the country. A combination of ground-based meterological and remotely-sensed satellite data, within linear discriminant analytical models, enables description of the observed distributions of the five species of tsetse occurring in Togo, with accuracies of between 72% (Glossina palpalis and G. tachinoides) and 98% (G. fusca). Abundance classes of the two most widespread species, G. palpalis and G. tachinoides, are described with accuracies of between 47% and 83%. This is especially remarkable given the relatively small differences between the average values of the predictor variables in areas of differing fly abundance. Similar analyses could be used to predict the occurrence and abundance of flies in other areas, which have not been surveyed to date, in order to plan tsetse control campaigns or explore development options. Finally, some recent tsetse control campaigns are briefly reviewed. The shift of emphasis from fly eradication to fly control is associated with a devolution of responsibility for control activities from central government to local areas, communities or even individuals. The future role of central governments will remain crucial, however, in determining the areas in which different control options are practised, in

  18. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  19. Rich Rogers Flying Over Greenland Icecap

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Ihis is a view from the NASA P3 aircraft cockpit as it flies 1000 feet over the Greenland icecap during Operation Icebridge mission, which flies each March-May. The end of video shows an ice camp w...

  20. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough to imagine a ...

  1. Flying Training at West Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, M. Hamlin

    During World War Two the United States Military Academy operated a three-year program of instruction. Superimposed on this abbreviated curriculum was full-scale pilot training program. The emphasis of this study is on the problems that arose as a result. Included is a summary of responses to a questionnaire on the value of the flying training…

  2. Choreographing the fly's danse macabre.

    PubMed

    Poon, Peter C; Pletcher, Scott D

    2007-08-01

    In several species, immune signaling networks are emerging as critical modulators of disease resistance, energy metabolism, and aging. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Ren et al. (2007) lay the groundwork for dissecting the mechanisms of this coordination by characterizing the interplay between microbial pathogens and aging in the fly.

  3. [Psychophysiologic aspects of occupational flying].

    PubMed

    Lapa, V V

    1993-01-01

    The paper deals with advanced research on psychophysiology of flying activity to solve a triune task: to humanize the character and means of labour, to maintain a high level of working capacity and to develop professionally important psychophysiological features of flying personnel. The solution of the first task is associated with consecutive realization of the principle of actualization, an increase of psychophysiological capabilities of a man with the use of technical means in designing aeronautical engineering. Assurance of high functional reliability of flying personnel requires the development of the methods to evaluate and predict the state of psychophysiologic reserves during flying activities; the refinement of the norms of flight load on the basis of determining the quantitative interactions between a complexity level of flight assignments and a degree of decrease in reserve capabilities; the search for means and methods of correcting functional state directly in flight and accelerated recovery of performance postflight. The solution of psychophysiologic aspects of the professional reliability of pilot should be the development of a flight capabilities theory and theory-based improvement of estimation methods, development of methods and technical means for their improvements.

  4. To Fly in the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  5. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  6. The Spider and the Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  7. The Spider and the Fly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  8. Physics between a Fly's Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A novel method of localizing the direction of a source of sound has evolved in the auditory system of certain small parasitic flies. A mechanical model of this design has been shown to describe the system well. Here, a simplified version of this mechanical model is presented which demonstrates the key feature: direction estimates of high accuracy…

  9. Physics between a Fly's Ears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A novel method of localizing the direction of a source of sound has evolved in the auditory system of certain small parasitic flies. A mechanical model of this design has been shown to describe the system well. Here, a simplified version of this mechanical model is presented which demonstrates the key feature: direction estimates of high accuracy…

  10. To Fly in the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1995-01-01

    Suggests activities for students that focus on airplanes, famous pilots, and travel. Provides a list of suggested titles with the following topics: history of flight and airplanes; airplanes and flying information; paper and model airplanes; Charles Lindbergh; Amelia Earhart; the Wright Brothers; videos; and picture books. (AEF)

  11. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    PubMed

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  12. Sugar feeding in adult stable flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult stable flies, (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)), are known to feed readily on sugars in the laboratory. However, little is known concerning the extent of stable fly sugar feeding in wild populations. We examined the frequency of sugar feeding in stable flies in rural and urban environments. In additi...

  13. Bartonella spp. DNA associated with biting flies from California.

    PubMed

    Chung, Crystal Y; Kasten, Rickie W; Paff, Sandra M; Van Horn, Brian A; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Chomel, Bruno B

    2004-07-01

    Bartonella DNA was investigated in 104 horn flies (Haematobia spp.), 60 stable flies (Stomoxys spp.), 11 deer flies (Chrysops spp.), and 11 horse flies (Tabanus spp.) collected on cattle in California. Partial sequencing indicated B. bovis DNA in the horn fly pool and B. henselae type M DNA in one stable fly.

  14. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Cooperation between Drosophila flies in searching behavior.

    PubMed

    Tinette, S; Zhang, L; Robichon, A

    2004-02-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster food search behaviour, groups of flies swarm around and aggregate on patches of food. We wondered whether flies explore their environment in a cooperative way as interactions between individual flies within a population might influence the flies' ability to locate food sources. We have shown that the food search behavior in the fruit fly Drosophila is a two-step process. Firstly, 'primer' flies search the environment and randomly land on different food patches. Secondly, the remaining group of flies move to the most favorable food source and aggregate there. We call this a 'search-aggregation' cycle. Our data demonstrate that flies do not individually assess all available food resources. Rather, social interactions between flies appear to affect their choice of a specific food patch. A genetic analysis of this 'search-aggregation' behavior shows that flies carrying mutations in specific genes (for example, the dunce (dnc) gene which codes for a phosphodiesterase) were defective in this search-aggregation behavior when compared to normal flies. Future investigations of the neuronal signaling involved in this behavior will help us to understand the complexities of this aspect of Drosophila social behaviour.

  17. Binocular Interactions Underlying the Classic Optomotor Responses of Flying Flies

    PubMed Central

    Duistermars, Brian J.; Care, Rachel A.; Frye, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    In response to imposed course deviations, the optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, many anatomical and electrophysiological studies suggest that disparate motion cues stimulating the left and right eyes are not processed in isolation but rather are integrated in the brain to produce a cohesive panoramic percept. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory–motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record wing and head optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular rotation and monocular front-to-back and back-to-front motion. Within a narrow range of stimulus parameters that generates large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular front-to-back motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation, but are contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular back-to-front motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the influence of non-additive contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions that serve to confer contrast insensitivity to flight behaviors influenced by rotatory optic flow. PMID:22375108

  18. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    PubMed Central

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY are not required for motility but may regulate sigma F activity, perhaps in response to a putative cell density signal that may be detected by FliY, a member of the bacterial extracellular solute-binding protein family 3. PMID:8550423

  19. Utilization of coal fly ash. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Openshaw, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce approximately 80 million tons of fly ash each year. Efforts to use fly ash have reached only a twenty to thirty percent reutilization rate. A literature review was performed to provide a consensus of the available information regarding fly ash. Fly ash is highly variable depending on the coal source, plant operations, and several other parameters. The various fly ash characteristics are discussed including classifications, physical characteristics, chemical properties and chemical compositions. Although extensive research has been performed on the use of fly ash, very little of this research has monitored any environmental impacts. The environmental concerns addressed include mobilization of toxic elements, biota impact, microbial impact, handling dangers, and pertinent regulations. Finally, the various disposal and reutilization options for fly ash are examined. A recommendation is provided for further research to cover deficiencies found in the literature.

  20. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study. PMID:28075346

  1. Automated Surveillance of Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Rigakis, Iraklis; Tatlas, Nicolaos-Alexandros

    2017-01-08

    Insects of the Diptera order of the Tephritidae family cause costly, annual crop losses worldwide. Monitoring traps are important components of integrated pest management programs used against fruit flies. Here we report the modification of typical, low-cost plastic traps for fruit flies by adding the necessary optoelectronic sensors to monitor the entrance of the trap in order to detect, time-stamp, GPS tag, and identify the species of incoming insects from the optoacoustic spectrum analysis of their wingbeat. We propose that the incorporation of automated streaming of insect counts, environmental parameters and GPS coordinates into informative visualization of collective behavior will finally enable better decision making across spatial and temporal scales, as well as administrative levels. The device presented is at product level of maturity as it has solved many pending issues presented in a previously reported study.

  2. Notes on flying and dying.

    PubMed

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  3. Flying Qualities (Qualites de Vol)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    These new technologies have expanded flight envelopes, reduced drag, increased man(xuvrahility. provided the framework for practical gust alleviation...criteria haa in gcnccal not kept pace with these technological changes. The purpose of this Symposium was to review flying qualities issues today, and...de libertý et Li couplage intt~gral. Ces nouvelles technologies ont eu pour effet S’~argir Ie domaine de vol, de r~duire la trainee, d’accroitre Ia

  4. Plasma vitrification of fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Beudin, V.; Guihard, B.; Pineau, D.; Labrot, M.; Soler, G.; Favier, J.M.; Boudeau, A.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the plasma vitrification of fly-ash produced by a Municipal Waste Incinerator, as programmed by Europlasma Company in France. It describes the main assumptions, technical and economical data and regulations taken into account to build and operate the first industrial pilot plant from 1995, near Bordeaux (France), using a non transferred plasma torch of 500 kW operated with air.

  5. Exercise your physics when flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baffa, Oswaldo

    1999-10-01

    Recently, while flying, I found it difficult to sleep and started to pay attention to the television screens in the airplane. There were two types of TV to watch—a large cathode raye tube (CRT)monitor and smaller liquid crystal display (LCD) for passengers sitting near the bulkhead. In one of my glances at the large monitors I noticed that the colors were changing. I looked at the LCD monitors and the colors were fine. What could be happening?

  6. Fruit_Flies_in_Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-25

    Scientists study how astronauts are affected by microgravity, but with a relatively small number of human subjects available to them, they often turn to model organisms for research. Model organisms are living organisms that have a genetic makeup that is relatively well-documented and understood, and is similar to human systems. Fruit flies are reliable model organisms because their systems closely resemble that of larger organisms. They have the benefit of being small in size, well understood, and reproduce quickly so many generations can be studied in a short amount of time. Some of the things we can study using fruit flies are how microgravity affects the immune system. Will the muscle cells of the heart lose strength in microgravity? Are reproduction, lifespan and the aging process affected by microgravity? Do changes in gravity affect the basic metabolic rate and metabolism of living systems? Fruit flies offer a manageable way to study living systems in microgravity. Learn more about other model organisms and how they are being used for microgravity research, and keep up with all the science being conducted aboard your orbiting laboratory by visiting ISS Research Overview on nasa.gov http://www.twitter.com/ISS_Research

  7. Repairing pipes on the fly

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    When piping develops leaks, the natural instinct is to shut the process down, purge the lines and call in maintenance crews to make the repairs. There is, however, an alternative: on-the-fly repairs. Through the use of specialized tools, equipment and technicians, shut-off valves can be installed and leaks repaired without interrupting production. The split sleeve offers one of the simpler approaches to on-the-fly repairs. Two half cylinders with inside diameter slightly larger than the outside diameter slightly larger than the outside diameter of the pipe to be repaired are slipped over the latter some distance form the leak and loosely bolted together. The cylinder is then slid over the leaking area and the bolts tightened. Gaskets inside the half cylinders provide the needed seal between the pipe and the cylinder. Installing a shut-off valve in an operating pipeline requires much more specialized equipment and skills than does repairing a leak with a split sleeve. A device available from International Piping Services Co. allows a trained crew to isolate a section of pipe, drill out the isolated portion, install a blocking valve and then remove the isolation system--all while continuing to operate the pipeline at temperatures to 700 F and pressures to 700 psi. But Herb Porter, CEO of Ipsco, cautions that unlike the repairing leaks with a split sleeve, installing a blocking valve on-the-fly always demands the services of a highly trained crew.

  8. House fly oviposition inhibition by larvae ofHermetia illucens, the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Bradley, S W; Sheppard, D C

    1984-06-01

    Wild populations of house flies were inhibited from ovipositing into poultry manure containing larvae of the black soldier fly,Hermetia illucens (L.). A laboratory strain of house fly responded differently, readily ovipositing into manure with lower densities of soldier fly larvae, but avoiding the higher densities tested. The amount of timeH. illucens larvae occupy the manure prior to an oviposition test influences ovipositional responses of house flies. Manure conditioned byH. illucens larvae for 4-5 days did not significantly inhibit house fly oviposition. We suggest that some type of interspecific chemical communication (allomone) is present.

  9. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  10. Toxicity of insecticides to tsetse flies

    PubMed Central

    Hadaway, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    New insecticides have been evaluated for toxicity to tsetse flies and compared with organochlorine compounds currently in use. The most toxic compounds and their estimated median lethal doses in nanograms per fly by topical application in solution to teneral Glossina austeni were: resmethrin 4, fenthion 8, dieldrin 10, propoxur 12, chlorfenvinphos 12, tetrachlorvinphos 20, and dichlorvos 20. There was little variation in the susceptibility of teneral male and female flies, young fed flies, and fed stud males with all the compounds tested (dieldrin, resmethrin, tetrachlorvinphos, bromophos, and propoxur) and increased tolerance in old fed pregnant flies occurred only with dieldrin and resmethrin. There was also little variation in the susceptibility of teneral flies of the two species G. austeni and G. morsitans. In contact toxicity tests with water dispersible powder deposits on plywood, propoxur was highly active initially but lost its effectiveness after only a few weeks, whereas tetrachlorvinphos was less active initially but more persistent. PMID:4537853

  11. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  12. Flying the Earth Observing Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Case, Warren F.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Landsat-7 satellites in 1999, the Project Scientists for the two missions and the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center signed an inter-project agreement document describing their plan to fly in loose formation, approximately 20 minutes within each other. In November 2000, a technology demonstration satellite, Earth Observer-1 (EO-1), was launched into the same orbit as that of Landsat-7 and Terra, with a goal of flying within a minute from Landsat-7. The SAC-C satellite, developed and operated by the government of Argentina, was launched along with EO-1, with a goal of flying near both Terra and Landsat-7. This formation enables the scientists to make use of the scientific synergy among the instruments on the different spacecraft. This group of satellites constitutes the morning constellation, which is led by the Landsat-7, which has a mean local time (MLT) at 10:00 a.m. In May 2002, the EOS Aqua satellite was launched into an orbit with an altitude of 705 km. and a 1:30 p.m. MLT. Two smaller satellites, CALIPSO (a joint U.S./French mission), and CloudSat (a joint NASA/Colorado State University/Air Force mission), plan to fly in tight formation, within 15 seconds of each other. In addition, CALIPSO and CloudSat also plan to be within 30 to 60 seconds of the Aqua satellite. A third satellite, PARASOL, managed by the French Space Agency, CNES, will be placed within a minute of the CALIPSO satellite. In 2004, the Aura satellite will be launched and phased in relation to the Aqua satellite, such that the instruments on Aura will be able to view the same mass of air no later than 8 minutes after the instruments on Aqua have observed it. Representatives from each mission are currently documenting a plan on how they will coordinate on-orbit operations. Why are all these satellites planning to fly as a constellation? The answer is that as a

  13. Fear of flying--a Singapore perspective.

    PubMed

    Chew, P H

    1997-01-01

    Fear of flying is a term commonly used in the Aviation Medicine community. However, heterogeneous conditions which can present with fear of flying, demand that a more stringent and systematic approach be made in one's management of the aviator with fear of flying (FOF). Cases of FOF between 1974 and 1995 presented to the Civil Aviation Medical Board and the Aeromedical Centre of the Republic of Singapore Air Force were studied for their psychopathology, psychodynamics, diagnoses, motivation for treatment, type of treatment and response to treatment, and their eventual outcome in relation of flying. 53.3% of 15 cases had Adult Situational Reaction, 26.7% had phobia of flying, 6.6% had Adjustment Disorder, 6.7% had Anxiety Depressive Disorder and 6.7% had Transient Psychosis. All cases of Adjustment Disorder were returned to flying, compared with 25% of Adult Situational Reaction, 66.7% of Phobia of Flying and none of the aircrew suffering from Transient Psychosis. Fear of flying is thus a complex phenomenon, where there is interaction of elements of mental health, neurotic roots, real and imaginary threats and life events affecting eventually the flyer's willingness to fly.

  14. Emittance growth due to Tevatron flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M; Eddy, Nathan

    2004-06-01

    During Tevatron injection, Flying Wires have been used to measure the transverse beam size after each transfer from the Main Injector in order to deduce the transverse emittances of the proton and antiproton beams. This amounts to 36 + 9 = 45 flies of each of 3 wire systems, with an individual wire passing through each beam bunch twice during a single ''fly''. below they estimate the emittance growth induced by the interaction of the wires with the particles during these measurements. Changes of emittance from Flying Wire measurements conducted during three recent stores are compared with the estimations.

  15. Use Of Fly Iarvae In Space Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Mitsuhashi, Jun; Hachiya, Natumi; Miyashita, Sachiko; Hotta, Atuko

    The concept of space agriculture is full use of biological and ecological components ot drive materials recycle loop. In an ecological system, producers, consumers and decomposers are its member. At limited resources acailable for space agriculture, full use of members' function is required to avoid food shortage and catastrophe.Fly is categrized to a decomposer at its eating excreta and rotten materials. However, is it could be edible, certainly it is eaten in several food culture of the world, it functions as a converter of inedible biomass ot edible substance. This conversion enhances the efficiency of usage of resource that will be attributed to space agriculture. In this context, we examine the value of melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae, as a candidate fly species ofr human food. Nutrients in 100g of melon fly larvae were protein 12g, lipid 4.6g Fe 4.74mg, Ca 275mg, Zn 6.37mg, Mn 4.00mg. Amino acids compositon in 100g of larvae was glutamic acid 1.43g and aspartic acid 1.12g. Because of high contents of these amino acids taste of fly larva might be good. Life time of adult melon fly is one to two month, and lays more than 1,000 eggs in total during the life. Larvae hatch after one to two days, and metamorphose after 8 to 15 days to pupae. Srxual maturity is reached after 22 days the earliest from it egg. Sixteen generations could be succeeded in a year for melon fly at maximum. The rate of proliferation of fly is quite high compared to silkworm that can have 8.7 generations per year. The wide food habit of fly, compared to mulberry leaf for silkworm, is another advantage to choose fly for entomophage. Rearing technology of melon fly is well established, since large scaled production of sterile male fly has been conducted in order ot exterminate melon fly in the field. Feeding substance for melon fly larvae in production line is a mixture of wheat, bran, raw sugar, olara, beer yeast, tissue paper, and additive chemicals. A 1 kg of feed substance can be converted to

  16. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  17. What the fly's nose tells the fly's brain.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-07-28

    The fly olfactory system has a three-layer architecture: The fly's olfactory receptor neurons send odor information to the first layer (the encoder) where this information is formatted as combinatorial odor code, one which is maximally informative, with the most informative neurons firing fastest. This first layer then sends the encoded odor information to the second layer (decoder), which consists of about 2,000 neurons that receive the odor information and "break" the code. For each odor, the amplitude of the synaptic odor input to the 2,000 second-layer neurons is approximately normally distributed across the population, which means that only a very small fraction of neurons receive a large input. Each odor, however, activates its own population of large-input neurons and so a small subset of the 2,000 neurons serves as a unique tag for the odor. Strong inhibition prevents most of the second-stage neurons from firing spikes, and therefore spikes from only the small population of large-input neurons is relayed to the third stage. This selected population provides the third stage (the user) with an odor label that can be used to direct behavior based on what odor is present.

  18. Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    Brazil. 2. Lutzomyia ( Trichophoromyia ) n. sp. Acta Amazonica (in press). 5 PERSONNEL SUPPORTED ON PROJECT D.G. Young, Ph.D., Assistant Research...Fly Lutzomyia Phlebo tominae Leishmaniasis 2. AssrN ACr (M.mA& am ree "mi N nFeey ad Identify by block number) The Technical Bulletin on the...Two other papers, based on field work near Manaus, Brazil in 1979, are in press. A proven vector of leishmania- sis, Lutzomyia wellcomei, and 39 other

  19. Fly-by-Wireless Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2010-01-01

    The presentation reviews what is meant by the term 'fly-by-wireless', common problems and motivation, provides recent examples, and examines NASA's future and basis for collaboration. The vision is to minimize cables and connectors and increase functionality across the aerospace industry by providing reliable, lower cost, modular, and higher performance alternatives to wired data connectivity to benefit the entire vehicle/program life-cycle. Focus areas are system engineering and integration methods to reduce cables and connectors, vehicle provisions for modularity and accessibility, and a 'tool box' of alternatives to wired connectivity.

  20. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  1. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-01

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  2. Shuttle Discovery Fly-Over

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) flies over the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Washington. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Dane Penland)

  3. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-30

    underneath discarded (Bexar Co.), San Antonio , Lackland AFB, 20- lumber and cardboard. From tl-ese field associ- XI-1965, D. Young and C. Parrish. 3 9... Antonio , Bexar Co.. Texas). Rozoeboom has not been established where, or- if’ popula- 1944:274 (listed). Addis 19󈧓h:328 (keyed). tions of these 2...Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas

  4. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to oriental fruit fly, mediterranean fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forced infestation studies were conducted to determine if fruits of southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrids) are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies. Fruits of 17 blueberry cultivars were exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental frui...

  5. Assembly States of FliM and FliG within the Flagellar Switch Complex

    PubMed Central

    Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P.; Lynch, Michael J.; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S.; Halkides, Christopher J.; Freed, Jack H.; Crane, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    At the base of the bacterial flagella a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima have been investigated with x-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled component proteins fit to a self-consistent model that agrees well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. This data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions. PMID:25536293

  6. Assembly states of FliM and FliG within the flagellar switch complex.

    PubMed

    Sircar, Ria; Borbat, Peter P; Lynch, Michael J; Bhatnagar, Jaya; Beyersdorf, Matthew S; Halkides, Christopher J; Freed, Jack H; Crane, Brian R

    2015-02-27

    At the base of the bacterial flagella, a cytoplasmic rotor (the C-ring) generates torque and reverses rotation sense in response to stimuli. The bulk of the C-ring forms from many copies of the proteins FliG, FliM, and FliN, which together constitute the switch complex. To help resolve outstanding issues regarding C-ring architecture, we have investigated interactions between FliM and FliG from Thermotoga maritima with X-ray crystallography and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS). A new crystal structure of an 11-unit FliG:FliM complex produces a large arc with a curvature consistent with the dimensions of the C-ring. Previously determined structures along with this new structure provided a basis to test switch complex assembly models. PDS combined with mutational studies and targeted cross-linking reveal that FliM and FliG interact through their middle domains to form both parallel and antiparallel arrangements in solution. Residue substitutions at predicted interfaces disrupt higher-order complexes that are primarily mediated by contacts between the C-terminal domain of FliG and the middle domain of a neighboring FliG molecule. Spin separations among multi-labeled components fit a self-consistent model that agree well with electron microscopy images of the C-ring. An activated form of the response regulator CheY destabilizes the parallel arrangement of FliM molecules to perturb FliG alignment in a process that may reflect the onset of rotation switching. These data suggest a model of C-ring assembly in which intermolecular contacts among FliG domains provide a template for FliM assembly and cooperative transitions.

  7. Cost Avoidance Techniques for RC-135 Program Flying Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    9 Air Force Flying Hour Costs ........................................................................................ 10 Cost Savings vs. Cost...Figure 9 - FMT/PMT Flying Schedule Chg 2 .................................................................. 29 Figure 10 - FMT/FMT Flying Schedule w...22 Table 9 - PMT vs. FMT Events per Hour ANOVA

  8. FlyBase: a Drosophila database. The FlyBase consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Gelbart, W M; Crosby, M; Matthews, B; Rindone, W P; Chillemi, J; Russo Twombly, S; Emmert, D; Ashburner, M; Drysdale, R A; Whitfield, E; Millburn, G H; de Grey, A; Kaufman, T; Matthews, K; Gilbert, D; Strelets, V; Tolstoshev, C

    1997-01-01

    FlyBase is a database of genetic and molecular data concerning Drosophila. FlyBase is maintained as a relational database (in Sybase) and is made available as html documents and flat files. The scope of FlyBase includes: genes, alleles (and phenotypes), aberrations, transposons, pointers to sequence data, clones, stock lists, Drosophila workers and bibliographic references. The Encyclopedia of Drosophila is a joint effort between FlyBase and the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project which integrates FlyBase data with those from the BDGP. PMID:9045212

  9. Semiochemical-based technologies for fly management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filth flies are important insect pests that have caused over billions of dollars damage in animal production, food contamination and disease transmitting. The present presentation reports our recent findings on the development of filth fly control using semiochemical-based technologies to reduce the...

  10. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  11. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  12. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  13. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  14. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  15. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  16. 14 CFR 121.549 - Flying equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flying equipment. 121.549 Section 121.549 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.549 Flying equipment. (a) The pilot...

  17. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  18. Area wide management of stable flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable flies are among the most damaging pests of livestock worldwide. Their painful bites cause both physiological and behavioral changes that reduce productivity and wellbeing of domestic animals and humans alike. Immature stable flies develop in decomposing and fermenting vegetative materials, of...

  19. Neoplasms identified in free-flying birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siegfried, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Nine neoplasms were identified in carcasses of free-flying wild birds received at the National Wildlife Health Laboratory; gross and microscopic descriptions are reported herein. The prevalence of neoplasia in captive and free-flying birds is discussed, and lesions in the present cases are compared with those previously described in mammals and birds.

  20. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  1. Horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans L., overwintering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Putative diapause in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), has frequently been assumed as the pest's mode for overwinter survival from the tropics to temperate regions of northern and southern hemispheres. Examination of the scientific literature indicates that putative horn fly diapause ...

  2. Passive baited sequential filth fly trap

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted cone design to passively confi...

  3. Requirements for satisfactory flying qualities of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilruth, R R

    1943-01-01

    Report discusses the results of an analysis of available data to determine what measured characteristics are significant in defining satisfactory flying qualities, what characteristics are reasonable to require of an airplane, and what influence the various design features have on the observed flying qualities.

  4. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  5. Flightless Flies: Drosophila models of neuromuscular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Thomas E.; Taylor, J. Paul

    2010-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has a long and rich history as an important model organism for biologists. In particular, study of the fruit fly has been essential to much of our fundamental understanding of the development and function of the nervous system. In recent years, studies using fruit flies have provided important insights into the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and neuromuscular diseases. Fly models of spinal muscular atrophy, spinobulbar muscular atrophy, myotonic dystrophy, dystrophinopathies and other inherited neuromuscular diseases recapitulate many of the key pathologic features of the human disease. The ability to perform genetic screens holds promise for uncovering the molecular mechanisms of disease, and indeed, for identifying novel therapeutic targets. This review will summarize recent progress in developing fly models of neuromuscular diseases and will emphasize the contribution that Drosophila has made to our understanding of these diseases. PMID:20329357

  6. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  7. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  8. Fruit Flies in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wangler, Michael F.; Yamamoto, Shinya; Bellen, Hugo J.

    2015-01-01

    Many scientists complain that the current funding situation is dire. Indeed, there has been an overall decline in support in funding for research from the National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation. Within the Drosophila field, some of us question how long this funding crunch will last as it demotivates principal investigators and perhaps more importantly affects the long-term career choice of many young scientists. Yet numerous very interesting biological processes and avenues remain to be investigated in Drosophila, and probing questions can be answered fast and efficiently in flies to reveal new biological phenomena. Moreover, Drosophila is an excellent model organism for studies that have translational impact for genetic disease and for other medical implications such as vector-borne illnesses. We would like to promote a better collaboration between Drosophila geneticists/biologists and human geneticists/bioinformaticians/clinicians, as it would benefit both fields and significantly impact the research on human diseases. PMID:25624315

  9. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  10. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  11. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT; Akash, Akash [Salt lake City, UT; Zhao, Qiang [Natick, MA

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  12. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  13. FlyBase 101 – the basics of navigating FlyBase

    PubMed Central

    McQuilton, Peter; St. Pierre, Susan E.; Thurmond, Jim

    2012-01-01

    FlyBase (http://flybase.org) is the leading database and web portal for genetic and genomic information on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and related fly species. Whether you use the fruit fly as an experimental system or want to apply Drosophila biological knowledge to another field of study, FlyBase can help you successfully navigate the wealth of available Drosophila data. Here, we review the FlyBase web site with novice and less-experienced users of FlyBase in mind and point out recent developments stemming from the availability of genome-wide data from the modENCODE project. The first section of this paper explains the organization of the web site and describes the report pages available on FlyBase, focusing on the most popular, the Gene Report. The next section introduces some of the search tools available on FlyBase, in particular, our heavily used and recently redesigned search tool QuickSearch, found on the FlyBase homepage. The final section concerns genomic data, including recent modENCODE (http://www.modencode.org) data, available through our Genome Browser, GBrowse. PMID:22127867

  14. Flying fruit flies correct for visual sideslip depending on relative speed of forward optic flow

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Stephanie; Theobald, Jamie C.

    2013-01-01

    As a fly flies through its environment, static objects produce moving images on its retina, and this optic flow is essential for steering and course corrections. Different types of rotation and translation produce unique flow fields, which fly brains are wired to identify. However, a feature of optic flow unique to translational motion is that adjacent images may move across the retina at different speeds, depending on their distance from the observer. Many insects take advantage of this depth cue, called motion parallax, to determine the distance to objects. We wanted to know if differential object speeds affect the corrective responses of fruit flies when they experience unplanned course deviations. We presented tethered flying flies with optic flow and measured their corrective responses to sideways perturbations of images with different relative forward speeds. We found that flying flies attend to the relative speed of dots during forward motion, and adjust their corrective responses to sideslip deviations depending on this cue. With no other distinguishing features (such as brightness or size), flies mounted a greater response to sideways deviations that were signaled by faster moving dots in the forward flow field, those that appeared radially closer by their speeds. This is consistent with the interpretation that fruit flies attend to seemingly nearer objects, and correct more strongly when they indicate a perturbation. PMID:23847482

  15. FlyBase 101--the basics of navigating FlyBase.

    PubMed

    McQuilton, Peter; St Pierre, Susan E; Thurmond, Jim

    2012-01-01

    FlyBase (http://flybase.org) is the leading database and web portal for genetic and genomic information on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and related fly species. Whether you use the fruit fly as an experimental system or want to apply Drosophila biological knowledge to another field of study, FlyBase can help you successfully navigate the wealth of available Drosophila data. Here, we review the FlyBase web site with novice and less-experienced users of FlyBase in mind and point out recent developments stemming from the availability of genome-wide data from the modENCODE project. The first section of this paper explains the organization of the web site and describes the report pages available on FlyBase, focusing on the most popular, the Gene Report. The next section introduces some of the search tools available on FlyBase, in particular, our heavily used and recently redesigned search tool QuickSearch, found on the FlyBase homepage. The final section concerns genomic data, including recent modENCODE (http://www.modencode.org) data, available through our Genome Browser, GBrowse.

  16. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    PubMed

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  17. Erodibility of fly ash-treated minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.M.; Sencindiver, J.C.; Singh, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    Fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants, has been used successfully in reclaiming adverse mine sites such as abandoned mine lands by improving minesoil chemical and physical properties. But, the fine sand-silt particle size of fly ash may make it more susceptible to detachment and transport by erosive processes. Furthermore, the high content of silt-size particles in fly ash may make it more susceptable to surface crust formation resulting in reduced infiltration and increased surface runoff and erosion. In the summer of 1989, fly ash/wood waste mixtures were surface applied on two separate mine sites, one with 10% slope and the other 20% slope, in central Preston County, West Virginia. Erosion rates were measured directly using the Linear Erosion/Elevation Measuring Instrument (LEMI). Erosion measurements were taken during the first two growing seasons on both sites. Erosion values were up to five times greater on the fly ash-treated minesoil than on the minesoil without fly ash cover. Mulching with wood chips reduced fly ash erosion to about one-half the loss of the unmulched plots. Erosion was related to both the amount and type of ground cover. Increased vegetative ground cover resulted in reduced erosion. Mosses and fungi appeared to provide better erosion protection than grass-legume cover.

  18. From Fly Models to Flight Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    simulating the motion of articulated rigid bodies and an aerodynamics model of the forces and moments produced by motion through the atmosphere. In the model...a fly is approximated as a system of three articulated rigid bodies. One rigid body is used to represent the fly’s body and the other two are used to...fixing of the head stationary relative to the thorax , all six degrees of freedom of the fly’s head are known, allowing a detailed reconstruction of the

  19. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  20. Controlling roll perturbations in fruit flies

    PubMed Central

    Beatus, Tsevi; Guckenheimer, John M.; Cohen, Itai

    2015-01-01

    Owing to aerodynamic instabilities, stable flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here, we investigate how flies control perturbations along their body roll angle, which is unstable and their most sensitive degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly and apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air. Fast video shows flies correct perturbations up to 100° within 30 ± 7 ms by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear proportional–integral controller. For more aggressive perturbations, we show evidence for nonlinear and hierarchical control mechanisms. Flies respond to roll perturbations within 5 ms, making this correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom. PMID:25762650

  1. MMS Spacecraft Transition to Tetrahedral Flying Formation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In the latter half of July 2015, the four satellites of the Magnetosphere Multi-scale (MMS) mission move into their tetrahedral formation flying configuration as part of the checkout for the scienc...

  2. Fli-1 expression in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, Emina E; Slipicevic, Ana; Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Chibbar, Richa; DeCoteau, John F; Bilalovic, Nurija

    2008-11-01

    Friend leukemia integration site 1 (Fli-1) has been reported as the first nuclear marker of endothelial differentiation; it is expressed in leukocytes and recently demonstrated in melanomas. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 97 melanomas including 69 cases of primary and 28 metastatic melanomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Five melanoma cell lines were evaluated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Fli-1 expression was observed in all cell lines. Fli-1 expression was higher in metastatic than in primary tumors (r=0.208, p=0.041, Spearman correlation), it positively correlated with Ki-67 expression (r=0.233, p=0.022, Spearman correlation), and the presence of an ulcer in the primary tumor (r=0.267, p=0.030, Spearman correlation). Therefore, the expression of Fli-1 in malignant melanoma appears to be associated with biologically more aggressive tumors.

  3. X-48B: How Does it Fly?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Gary Cosentino, lead flight operations engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, talks about what it's like to fly the remotely piloted test vehicle -- X-48B -- a new kind of aircraft that ...

  4. NASA Administrator Flies Dream Chaser Simulator

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden had the opportunity to fly a simulated landing of the Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Dream Chaser while touring the agency's Dryden Flight Research Center in Cali...

  5. NASA Is With You When You Fly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Aviation touches us. Even if you didn't fly today, something you needed did. Did you know that NASA-developed technology is on board every U.S. commercial aircraft and in every U.S. control tower? ...

  6. Fly ash enhanced metal removal process

    SciTech Connect

    Nonavinakere, S.; Reed, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fly ashes from local thermal power plants in the removal of cadmium, nickel, chromium, lead, and copper from aqueous waste streams. Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ashes were determined, batch isotherm studies were conducted. A practical application of using fly ash in treating spent electroless nickel (EN) plating baths by modified conventional precipitation or solid enhanced metal removal process (SEMR) was investigated. In addition to nickel the EN baths also contains completing agents such as ammonium citrate and succinic acid reducing agents such as phosphate and hypophosphite. SEMR experiments were conducted at different pHs, fly ash type and concentrations, and settling times.

  7. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingwen; Weiss, Brian L.; Aksoy, Serap

    2013-01-01

    Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms—obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV). Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse's physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse's microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly. PMID:24195062

  8. Distributed simulation for formation flying applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohl, Garett A.; Udomkesmalee, Santi; Kellogg, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    High fidelity engineering simulation plays a key role in the rapidly developing field of space-based formation flying. This paper describes the design and implementation of the Formation Algorithms and Simulation Testbed (FAST).

  9. The practical difficulties of commercial flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtney, F T

    1924-01-01

    This paper relates some of the problems commercial aircraft companies have in attracting larger numbers of paying customers. The author discusses some remedies such as changing the public perception of flying as dangerous.

  10. Leaching characteristics of lead from melting furnace fly ash generated by melting of incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the effect of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the leaching characteristics of Pb from melting furnace fly ash generated by melting incineration fly ash. Melting furnace fly ash from both a real-scale melting process and lab-scale melting experiments was analyzed. In addition, the theoretical behavior of Cl that affects the leaching characteristics of Pb was simulated by a thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. Proportions of water-soluble Pb in the melting furnace fly ash were correlated with equivalent ratios of total Pb in the ash and Cl transferred to gas. The amount of Cl in the gas increased with an increase in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the incineration fly ash. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that HCl generation is promoted by the increase in the molar ratio, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated a possible presence of PbCl(2) in the melting furnace fly ash. These results implied that the formation of water-soluble PbCl(2) with HCl was affected by the relationships among the amounts of Na, K, and Cl in the incineration fly ash. This is highly significant in determining the leaching characteristics of Pb from the melting furnace fly ash. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fruit flies and intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory. PMID:19182539

  12. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  13. The fly's eye camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  14. Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, M.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Stewart, M. F.; Corredor, D.; Podgorny, S.

    2016-12-01

    In anticipation of the launch of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) onboard GOES-R that will provide continuous real time observations of total (both cloud and ground) lightning, the Fly's Eye GLM Simulator (FEGS) has been developed. FEGS is an airborne instrument designed to provide cal/val measurements for GLM from high altitude aircraft. It consists of a 5 x 5 array of telescopes each with a narrow passband filter to isolate the 777.4 nm neutral oxygen emission triplet radiated by lightning. The telescopes will measure the optical radiance emitted by lightning that is transmitted through the cloud top with a temporal resolution of 10 μs. When integrated on the NASA ER-2 aircraft, the FEGS array with its 90° field-of-view will observe a cloud top area nearly equal to a single GLM pixel. This design will allow FEGS to determine the temporal and spatial variation of light that contributes to a GLM event detection. In addition to the primary telescope array, the instrument includes 5 supplementary optical channels that observe alternate spectral emission features and will enable the use of FEGS for interesting lightning physics applications. Here we present a summary of the instrument development, calibration, and aircraft integration.

  15. Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2008-06-24

    Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic 'flying mirror', which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of {approx_equal}4-6x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are {approx}55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3x10{sup 7} photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.

  16. Fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, J.W.; Boyd, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    The CBO process for fly ash beneficiation shows excellent potential. Values derived from avoided disposal costs, revenue from fly ash sales, environmental attributes and the ability to process 100% of the ash indicate the potential market for this process. Work has begun on the next phase of process development and commercialization and includes site specific application studies (technical and economic investigations for specific sites). Demonstration plant designs at approximately 100,000 TPY are being considered by several participating utilities.

  17. Sex in flies: the splice of life.

    PubMed

    Baker, B S

    1989-08-17

    The discovery that the primary transcripts of many genes are processed to produce more than one kind of messenger RNA focuses attention on the control of RNA processing as a developmental regulatory mechanism. In the fruit-fly Drosophila melanogaster, differential splicing of a hierarchy of regulatory genes determines sex, and thus the molecular biology of sex determination in the fruit-fly may lead to insights into the mechanisms by which alternative splicing is regulated.

  18. Measurement of Altitude in Blind Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    In this note, instruments for measuring altitude and rate of change of altitude in blind flying and landing of aircraft and their performance are discussed. Of those indicating the altitude above ground level, the sonic altimeter is the most promising. Its present bulk, intermittent operation, and more or less unsatisfactory means of indication are serious drawbacks to its use. The sensitive type aneroid altimeter is also discussed and errors in flying at a pressure level and in landing are discussed in detail.

  19. Display Systems Dynamics Requirements for Flying Qualities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-09

    augmentation of the aircraft dynamics by a control system has been studied extensively, with current and evolving standards in existence. Consideration of the...MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVES Current and emerging military aircraft present a number of challenges with respect to ".." ensuring good flying qualities... current and emerging military aircraft and the often costly consequences of poor design with respect to flying qualifies, such guidelines should be

  20. Wolbachia in Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Coscrato, Virginia E; Braz, Antônio S K; P Perondini, André L; Selivon, Denise; Marino, Celso L

    2009-09-01

    Endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are widespread among arthropods and cause a variety of reproductive abnormalities, such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, thelytokous parthenogenesis, male-killing, and host feminization. In this study, we used three sets of Wolbachia-specific primers (16S rDNA, ftsZ, and wsp) in conjunction with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing to study the infection of fruit flies (Anastrepha spp. and Ceratitis capitata) by Wolbachia. The flies were collected at several localities in Brazil and at Guayaquil, Ecuador. All of the fruit flies studied were infected with Wolbachia supergroup A, in agreement with the high prevalence of this group in South America. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the wsp gene was the most sensitive gene for studying the relationships among Wolbachia strains. The Wolbachia sequences detected in these fruit flies were similar to those such as wMel reported for other fruit flies. These results show that the infection of Anastrepha fruit flies by Wolbachia is much more widespread than previously thought.

  1. Space shuttle flying qualities and criteria assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1987-01-01

    Work accomplished under a series of study tasks for the Flying Qualities and Flight Control Systems Design Criteria Experiment (OFQ) of the Shuttle Orbiter Experiments Program (OEX) is summarized. The tasks involved review of applicability of existing flying quality and flight control system specification and criteria for the Shuttle; identification of potentially crucial flying quality deficiencies; dynamic modeling of the Shuttle Orbiter pilot/vehicle system in the terminal flight phases; devising a nonintrusive experimental program for extraction and identification of vehicle dynamics, pilot control strategy, and approach and landing performance metrics, and preparation of an OEX approach to produce a data archive and optimize use of the data to develop flying qualities for future space shuttle craft in general. Analytic modeling of the Orbiter's unconventional closed-loop dynamics in landing, modeling pilot control strategies, verification of vehicle dynamics and pilot control strategy from flight data, review of various existent or proposed aircraft flying quality parameters and criteria in comparison with the unique dynamic characteristics and control aspects of the Shuttle in landing; and finally a summary of conclusions and recommendations for developing flying quality criteria and design guides for future Shuttle craft.

  2. Retention of Flying Skills and Refresher Training Requirements: Effects of Nonflying and Proficiency Flying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert H.

    A questionnaire survey was conducted of Army aviators who had experienced extended periods of nonflying or of flying only the minimum number of hours required by Army regulations to maintain proficiency, in order to determine the loss of flying ability experienced and the refresher training required for combat readiness. Analysis of the data…

  3. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  4. Filthy Flies? Experiments to Test Flies as Vectors of Bacterial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Julie J.; Warner, Kasey Jo; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2007-01-01

    For more than 75 years, flies and other insects have been known to serve as mechanical vectors of infectious disease (Hegner, 1926). Flies have been shown to harbor over 100 different species of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and are known to transmit more than 65 infectious diseases (Greenberg, 1965). This laboratory exercise is a simple…

  5. Attractant for vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii, and cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Diptera: Drosophilidae et Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Buda, Vincas; Radziute, Sandra; Lutovinovas, Erikas

    2009-01-01

    A field test carried out in an industrial greenhouse in Lithuania revealed the attractiveness of synthetic methyl salicylate (MeSa) to two dipteran species: the vinegar fly, Drosophila busckii (Drosophilidae), and the cluster fly, Pollenia rudis (Calliphoridae). The attractant for the former fly species was especially effective, as sticky traps containing 0.25 ml of MeSa captured (814 +/- 55) D. busckii flies/trap on average compared to (12 +/- 4) flies/trap in control traps. The mean capture of P. rudis [(42 +/- 4) flies/trap] was significantly higher in MeSa-baited traps compared to the control traps [(13 +/- 4) flies/trap]. The presence of MeSa in emissions of many fruits suitable for D. busckii feeding allows to attribute this attractant to kairomones. In case of P. rudis, MeSa should be attributed to synomones (compounds beneficial for both receiver and sender), because adult flies feeding on flowers act as pollinators. This is the first report on the field-active attractant for D. busckii and the second for P. rudis.

  6. Expression of defensin paralogs across house fly life history: insights into fly-microbe interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies have a life-long association with microbe-rich environments. Larvae directly ingest bacteria in decaying substrates utilizing them for nutritional purposes. Adult house flies ephemerally associate with microbes, ingesting them either by direct feeding or indirectly during grooming. The h...

  7. Filthy Flies? Experiments to Test Flies as Vectors of Bacterial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Julie J.; Warner, Kasey Jo; Hoback, W. Wyatt

    2007-01-01

    For more than 75 years, flies and other insects have been known to serve as mechanical vectors of infectious disease (Hegner, 1926). Flies have been shown to harbor over 100 different species of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and are known to transmit more than 65 infectious diseases (Greenberg, 1965). This laboratory exercise is a simple…

  8. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  9. Salt-thermal zeolitization of fly ash.

    PubMed

    Choi, C L; Park, M; Lee, D H; Kim, I E; Park, B Y; Choi, J

    2001-07-01

    The molten-salt method has been recently proposed as a new approach to zeolitization of fly ash. Unlike the hydrothermal method, this method employs salt mixtures as the reaction medium without any addition of water. In this study, systematic investigation has been conducted on zeolitization of fly ash in a NaOH-NaNO3 system in order to elucidate the mechanism of zeolite formation and to achieve its optimization. Zeolitization of fly ash was conducted by thermally treating a powder mixture of fly ash, NaOH, and NaNO3. Zeolitization of fly ash took place above 200 degrees C, a temperature lower than the melting points of salt and base in the NaOH-NaNO3 system. However, it was uncertain whether the reactions took place in a local molten state or in a solid state. Therefore, the proposed method is renamed the "salt-thermal" method rather than the "molten-salt" method. Mainly because of difficulty in mobility of components in salt mixtures, zeolitization seems to occur within a local reaction system. In situ rearrangement of activated components seems to lead to zeolite formation. Particle growth, rather than crystal growth through agglomeration, resulted in no distinct morphologies of zeolite phases. Following are the optimal zeolitization conditions of the salt-thermal method: temperature, 250-350 degrees C; time, 3-12 h; weight ratio of NaOH/NaNO3, 0.3-0.5; weight ratio of NaNO3/fly ash, 0.7-1.4. Therefore, it is clear from this work that the salt-thermal method could be applied to massive zeolitization of fly ash as a new alternative method for recycling this waste.

  10. Mechanical treatment of fly ashes. Part 1: Physico-chemical characterization of ground fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Paya, J.; Monzo, J.; Borrachero, M.V.; Peris-Mora, E.

    1995-10-01

    Physico-chemical characteristics of mechanically treated fly ashes are investigated. An original fly ash was ground, using a laboratory mill, for several times (from 10 to 60 minutes). Respect to physical characterization, fineness increasing of samples with grinding time was observed, but loss of effectiveness occurred for grinding time longer than 20 minutes. Ground samples showed higher specific gravity probably due to the presence of cenospheres in the original fly ash. Only a little change in mineralogical composition of fly ashes was observed when grinding: calcium carbonate formation by reaction of calcium oxide with carbon dioxide. Chemical behavior (pH and conductivity) of fly ash/water suspensions were studied and acid neutralization capacities measured.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron as a development site treatment for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), in cow manure. V...

  12. Feeding and attraction of non-target flies to spinosad-based fruit fly bait.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Messing, Russell H

    2006-10-01

    A spinosad-based fruit fly bait, GF-120, has recently become a primary tool for area-wide suppression or eradication of pest tephritid fruit flies. The present study assessed the attraction and feeding of five non-target fly species to GF-120 in Hawaii. These non-target flies include three beneficial tephritid species [Eutreta xanthochaeta (Aldrich), Tetreuaresta obscuriventris (Loew), Ensina sonchi (L.)] introduced for weed biological control, an endemic Hawaiian tephritid [Trupanea dubautiae (Bryan)] (all Diptera: Tephritidae) and the cosmopolitan Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae). All five non-target fly species were susceptible to GF-120, as was the target pest Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Feeding on, or even brief tasting of, GF-120 killed all fly species within 2 h. When individual flies were provided with a choice of GF-120 or honey solution, there was no difference in the frequency of first food encounter by E. xanthochaeta, D. melanogaster or C. capitata. The other three non-target species approached honey more often than GF-120 in their first food encounter. Feeding times on GF-120 and honey were not significantly different for D. melanogaster and C. capitata, while the other four non-target species fed longer on honey than on GF-120. There was no significant difference in feeding time on honey versus GF-120 between males and females of each species. These results suggest that area-wide treatment using GF-120 for the purpose of eradication of pest fruit flies has potential negative impacts on these and other non-target fly species in Hawaii.

  13. Reconstructing the behavior of walking fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Gordon; Bialek, William; Shaevitz, Joshua

    2010-03-01

    Over the past century, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has arisen as almost a lingua franca in the study of animal behavior, having been utilized to study questions in fields as diverse as sleep deprivation, aging, and drug abuse, amongst many others. Accordingly, much is known about what can be done to manipulate these organisms genetically, behaviorally, and physiologically. Most of the behavioral work on this system to this point has been experiments where the flies in question have been given a choice between some discrete set of pre-defined behaviors. Our aim, however, is simply to spend some time with a cadre of flies, using techniques from nonlinear dynamics, statistical physics, and machine learning in an attempt to reconstruct and gain understanding into their behavior. More specifically, we use a multi-camera set-up combined with a motion tracking stage in order to obtain long time-series of walking fruit flies moving about a glass plate. This experimental system serves as a test-bed for analytical, statistical, and computational techniques for studying animal behavior. In particular, we attempt to reconstruct the natural modes of behavior for a fruit fly through a data-driven approach in a manner inspired by recent work in C. elegans and cockroaches.

  14. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    PubMed

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  15. Investigation of gliding flight by flying fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyungmin; Jeon, Woo-Pyung; Choi, Haecheon

    2006-11-01

    The most successful flight capability of fish is observed in the flying fish. Furthermore, despite the difference between two medium (air and water), the flying fish is well evolved to have an excellent gliding performance as well as fast swimming capability. In this study, flying fish's morphological adaptation to gliding flight is experimentally investigated using dry-mounted darkedged-wing flying fish, Cypselurus Hiraii. Specifically, we examine the effects of the pectoral and pelvic fins on the aerodynamic performance considering (i) both pectoral and pelvic fins, (ii) pectoral fins only, and (iii) body only with both fins folded. Varying the attack angle, we measure the lift, drag and pitching moment at the free-stream velocity of 12m/s for each case. Case (i) has higher lift-to-drag ratio (i.e. longer gliding distance) and more enhanced longitudinal static stability than case (ii). However, the lift coefficient is smaller for case (i) than for case (ii), indicating that the pelvic fins are not so beneficial for wing loading. The gliding performance of flying fish is compared with those of other fliers and is found to be similar to those of insects such as the butterfly and fruitfly.

  16. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Wai, Chien M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  17. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  18. Flying Squad response to medical emergencies.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, D; Pritty, P

    1990-01-01

    The Flying Squad of the Accident and Emergency Department, of the Derbyshire Royal Infirmary, was established in 1955 by Collins. The initial function was to provide emergency care to victims of industrial accidents. However, the spectrum of emergencies they now respond to has expanded and includes predominantly road traffic accidents and medical emergencies. Despite the proliferation of Flying Squads their benefit has been difficult to quantify even in a trauma setting (Robertson & Steedman, 1985; Gorman & Coals, 1983). The outcome in medical emergencies is reported as dismal (Robertson & Steedman, 1985; Rowley & Collins, 1979) yet the number of calls for the flying squad to attend medical emergencies are many. Previous reports have recorded 20-30% of Squad calls responding to medical emergencies (Gorman & Coals, 1983; Rowley & Collins, 1979; Steedman & Robertson, 1986; Harrop & Bodiwala, 1983). PMID:2135174

  19. Pigments of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria).

    PubMed

    Stintzing, Florian; Schliemann, Willibald

    2007-01-01

    The complex pigment pattern of fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) cap skins has been studied by LC-DAD and mass spectrometry. Among the betaxanthins the corresponding derivatives of serine, threonine, ethanolamine, alanine, Dopa, phenylalanine and tryptophan are reported for the first time to contribute to the pigment pattern of fly agarics. Betalamic acid, the chromophoric precursor of betaxanthins and betacyanins, muscaflavin and seco-dopas were also detected. Furthermore, the red-purple muscapurpurin and the red muscarubrin were tentatively assigned while further six betacyanin-like components could not be structurally allocated. Stability studies indicated a high susceptibility of pigment extracts to degradation which led to rapid colour loss thus rendering a complete characterization of betacyanin-like compounds impossible at present. Taking into account these difficulties the presented results may be a starting point for a comprehensive characterization of the pigment composition of fly agarics.

  20. Size dependent cytotoxicity of fly ash particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Tam, J.S.K.; Wong, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    Fly ash samples were collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a coal-fired power plant in Hong Kong. The particles of the respirable range (smaller than 10 {mu}m) were divided into 4 groups according to their particle size (mass median aerodynamic diameters). The surface morphology and the metal contents (Fe, Mn, Al and Zn) of fly ash particles were examined by a scanning electron microscopy and an inductively coupled plasma spectrophotometer, respectively. The particles were very heterogeneous in size and shape as well as the concentration of metals. The cytotoxicity of these four groups of fly ash particles were evaluated using an in vitro rat alveolar macrophages culture assay. The viability of alveolar macrophages was lower when incubated with smaller size particles. This relationship was also reflected by the damage of the surface morphology of the cells and the release of cytoplasmic (lactate dehydrogenase) and lysosomal (acid phosphatase and {beta}-glucuronidase) marker enzymes into the culture media.

  1. FlyBase: improvements to the bibliography.

    PubMed

    Marygold, Steven J; Leyland, Paul C; Seal, Ruth L; Goodman, Joshua L; Thurmond, Jim; Strelets, Victor B; Wilson, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    An accurate, comprehensive, non-redundant and up-to-date bibliography is a crucial component of any Model Organism Database (MOD). Principally, the bibliography provides a set of references that are specific to the field served by the MOD. Moreover, it serves as a backbone to which all curated biological data can be attributed. Here, we describe the organization and main features of the bibliography in FlyBase (flybase.org), the MOD for Drosophila melanogaster. We present an overview of the current content of the bibliography, the pipeline for identifying and adding new references, the presentation of data within Reference Reports and effective methods for searching and retrieving bibliographic data. We highlight recent improvements in these areas and describe the advantages of using the FlyBase bibliography over alternative literature resources. Although this article is focused on bibliographic data, many of the features and tools described are applicable to browsing and querying other datasets in FlyBase.

  2. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26083385

  3. A Novel Method for Tracking Individuals of Fruit Fly Swarms Flying in a Laboratory Flight Arena.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shuo Hong; Jiang, Nan; Guo, Aike; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in studying social behaviours of swarming fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has heightened the need for developing tools that provide quantitative motion data. To achieve such a goal, multi-camera three-dimensional tracking technology is the key experimental gateway. We have developed a novel tracking system for tracking hundreds of fruit flies flying in a confined cubic flight arena. In addition to the proposed tracking algorithm, this work offers additional contributions in three aspects: body detection, orientation estimation, and data validation. To demonstrate the opportunities that the proposed system offers for generating high-throughput quantitative motion data, we conducted experiments on five experimental configurations. We also performed quantitative analysis on the kinematics and the spatial structure and the motion patterns of fruit fly swarms. We found that there exists an asymptotic distance between fruit flies in swarms as the population density increases. Further, we discovered the evidence for repulsive response when the distance between fruit flies approached the asymptotic distance. Overall, the proposed tracking system presents a powerful method for studying flight behaviours of fruit flies in a three-dimensional environment.

  4. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Jimmy B; Kaufman, Phillip E; Hogsette, Jerome A; Geden, Christopher J; Tenbroeck, Saundra H

    2011-06-01

    Beginning in November 2007 and continuing until December 2009, weekly stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), surveillance was conducted at four equine facilities near Ocala, FL, by using alsynite sticky traps for adults and by searching immature developmental sites for pupae. Adult stable fly trap captures were highly variable throughout the year, ranging from 0 to 1,400 flies per trap per farm. The greatest adult stable fly activity was observed during the spring months of March and April, with weekly three-trap means of 121 and 136 flies per farm, respectively. The importance of cultural control measures was most apparent on the only farm with no reported insecticide use and the lowest stable fly trap captures, where an intense daily sanitation and composting program was conducted. A survey of on-site filth fly pupae revealed that 99.9% of all parasitoids recovered were Spalangia spp., consisting of Spalangia cameroni Perkins (56.5%), Spalangia nigroaenea Curtis (34.0%), Spalangia endius Walker (5.8%), and Spalangia nigra Latreille (3.7%). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on

  6. Adsorptive properties of fly ash carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, U.M.; Robl, T.L.; Rathbone, R.F.

    1996-12-31

    The driving force behind the development of this research project has been the increasing concerns about the detrimental effects of high carbon carryover into combustion ash. Without the carbon, combustion ash can be utilized in cement industry avoiding environmental implications in landfill operations. Because the carbon surfaces have been structurally altered while passing through the combustor, including the formation of a macro-porous surface, fly ash carbons, after separation from the ash, may constitute a unique precursor for the production of adsorbents. This paper discusses a novel approach for using fly ash carbons in the cleanup of organic pollutants.

  7. Benchmark Problems for Space Mission Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Leitner, Jesse A.; Folta, David C.; Burns, Richard

    2003-01-01

    To provide a high-level focus to distributed space system flight dynamics and control research, several benchmark problems are suggested for space mission formation flying. The problems cover formation flying in low altitude, near-circular Earth orbit, high altitude, highly elliptical Earth orbits, and large amplitude lissajous trajectories about co-linear libration points of the Sun-Earth/Moon system. These problems are not specific to any current or proposed mission, but instead are intended to capture high-level features that would be generic to many similar missions that are of interest to various agencies.

  8. Changeing of fly ash leachability after grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakatos, J.; Szabo, R.; Racz, A.; Banhidi, O.; Mucsi, G.

    2016-04-01

    Effect of grinding on the reactivity of fly ash used for geopolymer production was tested. Extraction technique using different alkaline and acidic solutions were used for detect the change of the solubility of elements due to the physical and mechano-chemical transformation of minerals in function of grinding time. Both the extraction with alkaline and acidic solution have detected improvement in solubility in function of grinding time. The enhancement in alkaline solution was approx. 100% in case of Si and Al. The acidic medium able to dissolve the fly ash higher manner than the alkaline, therefore the effect of grinding was found less pronounced.

  9. Using fly ash to mitigate explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Taulbee, D.

    2008-07-01

    In 2005 the University of Kentucky's Center for Applied Energy Research was given funding to evaluate the use of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) to reduce the explosive potential of ammonium nitrate (AN) fertilizers. Fly ash C (FAC), fly ash F (FAF) and flue gas desulfurization by-product (FGD) were evaluated. It was found that applying a CCB coating to the AN particles at concentrations of 5 wt% or greater prevented the AN explosion from propagating. The article reports on results so far and outlines further work to be done. 6 figs.

  10. Design of the ST 3 Formation Flying Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, O.; Blackwood, G.; Dubovitsky, S.; Gorham, P.; Linfield, R.

    1999-01-01

    The interferometer will operate in both a single spacecraft mode and a formation flying mode using two spacecraft. The primary goal is to validate interferometer and formation flying technology for future missions.

  11. Fly ash as an adsorbent for wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, J.; Wang, Z.; Shao, X.; Li, H.

    1997-12-31

    Fly ash is a kind of finely divided residue that results from the combustion of ground or powdered coal in power stations. The production of large amount of fly ash causes serious environmental problems. The grain size of fly ash is very small. Fly ash has high specific surface and high porosity. The contents of active components, active silicon and aluminum, are high too. So, fly ash has high adsorptivity. Wastewater contains amounts of inorganic and organic materials that pollute the environments. Normal adsorbent, such as activated carbon, has a high cost and a complex production technique. Fly ash can adsorb many materials in wastewater and it can partly substitute for activated carbon. When fly ash is used in wastewater treatment, it can bring about economic and social benefits. As a kind of adsorbent, fly ash has good results for decolorization, deodorization, organic matter removal, COD removal, defluorization, dephosporization, heavy metal removal, and pH modification in wastewater treatment processes.

  12. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A.

    2009-07-01

    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  13. FlyBase: the Drosophila database. The Flybase Consortium.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    FlyBase is a database of genetic and molecular data concerning Drosophila. FlyBase is maintained as a relational database (in Sybase). The scope of FlyBase includes: genes, alleles (and phenotypes), aberrations, pointers to sequence data, clones, stock lists, Drosophila workers and bibliographic references. FlyBase is also available on CD-ROM for Macintosh systems (Encyclopaedia of Drosophila). PMID:8594600

  14. Studies on the flight patterns of foraging sand flies.

    PubMed

    Faiman, R; Kirstein, O; Moncaz, A; Guetta, H; Warburg, A

    2011-01-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies transmit Leishmania parasites that cause leishmaniasis in humans. We report experimental results that improve our understanding of how foraging sand flies proceed over flat or sloping ground and how they negotiate vertical obstacles. Three rows of traps were suspended at different heights on a wire fence. Those just above ground level captured 87% of all flies, traps set at one meter captured 11% while only 2% of the flies were captured in traps set two meters above ground. When traps were deployed on a vertical support wall, the mean catch per trap was much higher than for traps suspended on the fence. Traps suspended just above ground level captured 57% of all flies, traps set at one meter above ground captured 27% of the flies and even traps set at two meters captured 16% of the flies. Although, most flies were still captured close to the ground, a higher percentage reached the second and third rows of traps. Sticky traps on a vertical wall produced similar results with significantly more flies alighting on the lower sections of the trap closest to the ground. On a vertical sand fly-proof net the overall dispersal of the flies was more like on a wall than in open space. Traps suspended just above ground level captured 49%, traps set at one meter above ground captured 36% and traps set at two meters captured 15% of the flies. Following spraying of the net with deltamethrin (1%), fewer sand flies were captured but the reduction was not statistically significant. Our conclusions are that being small and frail, sand flies tend to fly close to the ground probably in order to avoid being swept away by gusts of wind. When they encounter a vertical obstacle, they proceed upwards close to the obstacle with intermittent stops. Therefore, insecticide-sprayed walls or vertical nets should be effective for controlling sand flies approaching human habitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evolution: Fruit Fly Clocks on the Edge.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2017-03-20

    Fruit flies evolved in tropical regions under stable light-dark cycles. However, their photosensitive circadian clock had to adapt to extreme seasonal photoperiods during their colonisation of temperate regions. This was achieved by changing the neuronal expression of two key clock-related components.

  16. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  17. A Coincidental Sound Track for "Time Flies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    Sound tracks serve a valuable purpose in film and video by helping tell a story, create a mood, and signal coming events. Holst's "Mars" from "The Planets" yields a coincidental soundtrack to Eric Rohmann's Caldecott-winning book, "Time Flies." This pairing provides opportunities for upper elementary and…

  18. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  19. Tephritid fruit fly transgenesis and applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most serious agricultural pests in the world, owing in large part to those species having broad host ranges including hundreds of fruits and vegetables. They are the largest group of insects subject to population control by a biologically-based systems, most notab...

  20. Unidentified Flying Objects, A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Kay, Comp.

    This bibliography, intended for the general reader, provides selective coverage of the unidentified flying object (UFO) literature that has appeared since 1969. The coverage is limited to English language works, but does include translations and materials published abroad. Other bibliographies are listed, as are books, congressional and other…

  1. The fruit flies (Tephritidae) of Ontario

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirteen species of Tephritidae are newly recorded from Ontario, and alternative format keys are provided to the 31 genera and 72 species of fruit fly now known from, or likely to occur, in the province. Standard dichotomous keys to genera, and simplified field keys to genera and species are provide...

  2. Mutagenicity of fly ash particles in Paramecium

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Sonneborn, J.; Palizzi, R.A.; Herr, C.; Fisher, G.L.

    1981-01-09

    Paramecium, a protozoan that ingests nonnutritive particulate matter, was used to determine the mutagenicity of fly ash. Heat treatment inactivated mutagens that require metabolic conversion to their active form but did not destroy all mutagenicity. Extraction of particles with hydrochloric acid, but not dimethyl sulfoxide, removed detectable mutagenic activity.

  3. Fly ash disposal in a limestone quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Peffer, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    Approximately 740 000 tons of eastern bituminous coal fly ash were deposited at the abandoned Zullinger limestone quarry from 1973-1980. The quarry extended below the water table and was not lined to isolate the ash from the aquifer. Long-term groundwater pollution has apparently not resulted.

  4. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  5. Letting Your Students "Fly" in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Students investigate the concept of motion by making simple paper airplanes and flying them in the classroom. Students are introduced to conversion factors to calculate various speeds. Additional activities include rounding decimal numbers, estimating, finding averages, making bar graphs, and solving problems. Offers ideas for extension such as…

  6. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Adalberto Pérez de León, all USDA-ARS, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cança...

  7. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Beto Perez de Leon, all USDA, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cançado, is t...

  8. Space Station Fisheye Fly-Through_ UHD

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-27

    Join us for a fly-through of the International Space Station. Produced by Harmonic exclusively for NASA TV UHD, the footage was shot in Ultra High Definition (4K) using a fisheye lens for extreme focus and depth of field.

  9. Motion control of the accumulator flying wires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.Q.

    1990-04-23

    Flying wire systems for the Fermilab Accumulator are being constructed in order to measure the transverse beam profiles during stacking. Each device passes a 25 micron carbon filament through the beam transversely at a constant velocity of 10 m/s. Collisions between the beam particles and the wire produce secondary particle cascades, which in turn produce photons in a scintillator. A photomultiplier tube is used to measure the light intensity while the wire position is determined by an optical encoder. There are six Accumulator flying wire systems. Four of them are to be used in normal stacking operation: two horizontal and two vertical flying wires are in the AP40 high dispersion section, covering the core orbit and the extraction orbit respectively. The other two horizontal wires are for measuring the momentum distribution of the beam on the central orbit at the Accumulator transition energy. At the AP40 high dispersion region a wire covers the central orbit, the other is in the AP30 low dispersion section. The operation and control of the flying wire system is discussed in this paper. 11 figs.

  10. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  11. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Panduka S.; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Karawita, Anjana C.; Breed, Andrew C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  12. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  13. Ka-Band Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, Jeffrey; Purcell, George, Jr.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey; Ciminera, Michael; Srinivasan, Meera; Meehan, Thomas; Young, Lawrence; Aung, MiMi; Amaro, Luis; Chong, Yong; Quirk, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Ka-band integrated range and bearing-angle formation sensor called the Autonomous Formation Flying (AFF) Sensor has been developed to enable deep-space formation flying of multiple spacecraft. The AFF Sensor concept is similar to that of the Global Positioning System (GPS), but the AFF Sensor would not use the GPS. The AFF Sensor would reside in radio transceivers and signal-processing subsystems aboard the formation-flying spacecraft. A version of the AFF Sensor has been developed for initial application to the two-spacecraft StarLight optical-interferometry mission, and several design investigations have been performed. From the prototype development, it has been concluded that the AFF Sensor can be expected to measure distances and directions with standard deviations of 2 cm and 1 arc minute, respectively, for spacecraft separations ranging up to about 1 km. It has also been concluded that it is necessary to optimize performance of the overall mission through design trade-offs among the performance of the AFF Sensor, the field of view of the AFF Sensor, the designs of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments that they will carry, the spacecraft maneuvers required for formation flying, and the design of a formation-control system.

  14. The Next Best Thing to Flying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Discusses flight simulator use in pilot training. With computer graphics, sound effects, and hydraulic thrust, pilots can learn to fly without leaving the ground. Indicates that air safety has significantly improved since the Federal Aviation Administration approved using simulators, replacing a large portion of training received in actual…

  15. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  16. Tools, flies and what to do next

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Marin, A.

    2013-01-01

    In these brief notes addressed to students and researchers, recent advances of modern neurobiology are discussed in the light of some of its challenges. I use fly larval chemotaxis as a platform to debate about how much we are able to do with the available tools as opposed to how little we actually understand what it means to decide.

  17. Multicopter Design Challenge: Design, Fly, and Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Kevin G.; Busby, Joe R.; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of the nation's attention has turned to the sky as new technologies open the door for new opportunities with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are powered aerial vehicles that do not carry an operator, use aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, and can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. As people become accustomed to…

  18. The Next Best Thing to Flying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Discusses flight simulator use in pilot training. With computer graphics, sound effects, and hydraulic thrust, pilots can learn to fly without leaving the ground. Indicates that air safety has significantly improved since the Federal Aviation Administration approved using simulators, replacing a large portion of training received in actual…

  19. "Lord of the Flies". [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on William Golding's novel "Lord of the Flies," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that, on a literal level, the novel deals with what happens to a group of boys stranded on an island; and that on a symbolic level, it investigates what happens to civilized people when the structures of civilization…

  20. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  1. Improve California trap programs for detection of fruit flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are >160,000 federal and state fruit fly detection traps deployed in southern and western U.S. States and Puerto Rico. In California alone, >100,000 traps are deployed and maintained just for exotic fruit flies detection. Fruit fly detection and eradication requires deployment of large numbers...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  4. Vestergaard zerofly fabric for stable fly management outside of Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vestergaard ZeroFly pesticide-impregnated fabric has been evaluated in zero-graze swine and cattle facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa for management of biting flies, particularly those capable of transmitting Nagana, i.e. tsetse. Other major blood-feeding flies encountered around these units are vario...

  5. Vestergaard zerofly fabric for fly control in the US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vestergaard ZeroFly pesticide-impregnated fabric has been evaluated in zero-graze swine and cattle farms in Sub-Saharan Africa for management of biting flies, particularly those capable of transmitting Nangana, i.e. tsetse. Other major blood-feeding flies encountered around these units are various s...

  6. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flying equipment and operating information... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment... flying equipment and aeronautical charts and data, in current and appropriate form, are accessible...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  8. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  9. 7 CFR 29.3151 - Flyings (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flyings (X Group). 29.3151 Section 29.3151 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3151 Flyings (X Group). This group consists of leaves normally grown at the... other groups on the stalk, Flyings consist of relatively thin to tissuey leaves which show the...

  10. 7 CFR 29.3151 - Flyings (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flyings (X Group). 29.3151 Section 29.3151 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3151 Flyings (X Group). This group consists of leaves normally grown at the... other groups on the stalk, Flyings consist of relatively thin to tissuey leaves which show the...

  11. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  13. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  16. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flying equipment and operating information... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment... flying equipment and aeronautical charts and data, in current and appropriate form, are accessible...

  17. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  18. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  19. 14 CFR 91.503 - Flying equipment and operating information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flying equipment and operating information... Turbine-Powered Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.503 Flying equipment... flying equipment and aeronautical charts and data, in current and appropriate form, are accessible...

  20. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  1. 14 CFR 61.110 - Night flying exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Night flying exceptions. 61.110 Section 61... flying exceptions. (a) Subject to the limitations of paragraph (b) of this section, a person is not...: (1) May be issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “Night flying prohibited”; and (2)...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3151 - Flyings (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flyings (X Group). 29.3151 Section 29.3151 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3151 Flyings (X Group). This group consists of leaves normally grown at the... other groups on the stalk, Flyings consist of relatively thin to tissuey leaves which show the...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 56.14110 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or conveyors present...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14110 - Flying or falling materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Flying or falling materials. 57.14110 Section... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14110 Flying or falling materials. In areas where flying or falling materials generated from the operation of screens, crushers, or...

  5. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  6. Advanced control technology and airworthiness flying qualities requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    Flying quality requirements are specified in terms of the complete pilot-airframe-systems loop, the task, and the environment. Results from a study of flying qualities are reported. A review of the treatment of failure cases in various flying quality requirements is presented along with a description of the methods used and relevant lessons learned from recent Autoland certification programs.

  7. Pandora bullata (Entomophthorales) affecting calliphorid flies in Central Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungi are where one finds them, and if one seeks fungal pathogens affecting flies, then a garbage dump may be an ideal place to find both persistent, abundant fly populations and their fungal pathogens. An obvious fungal epizootic affecting blue bottle flies, Chrysomyia megacephala (Diptera: Calliph...

  8. Pollen recovered from the exoskeleton of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in Gainesville, Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable flies are pestiferous blood feeding flies that attack animals and humans. Besides consuming blood, these flies will also visit flowers to take nectar meals. When feeding on nectar, flies become coated with pollen which can be used to identify flowers used by the flies. Recently, flies cove...

  9. FlyBase 102--advanced approaches to interrogating FlyBase.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, Susan E; Ponting, Laura; Stefancsik, Raymund; McQuilton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    FlyBase (http://flybase.org) is the leading website and database of Drosophila genes and genomes. Whether you are using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as an experimental system or wish to understand Drosophila biological knowledge in relation to human disease or to other model systems, FlyBase can help you successfully find the information you are looking for. Here, we demonstrate some of our more advanced searching systems and highlight some of our new tools for searching the wealth of data on FlyBase. The first section explores gene function in FlyBase, using our TermLink tool to search with Controlled Vocabulary terms and our new RNA-Seq Search tool to search gene expression. The second section of this article describes a few ways to search genomic data in FlyBase, using our BLAST server and the new implementation of GBrowse 2, as well as our new FeatureMapper tool. Finally, we move on to discuss our most powerful search tool, QueryBuilder, before describing pre-computed cuts of the data and how to query the database programmatically.

  10. Puncture resistance in 'Sharwil' avocado to oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Follett, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    The physiological basis for host antibiosis or nonpreference to a quarantine pest is often not understood. Studies are needed on the mechanisms that impart resistance to better understand how resistance might fail. Experiments were conducted to examine the infestability of 'Sharwil' avocados by oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), after harvest and to quantify the effect of avocado skin hardness on resistance to infestation by oriental fruit fly. Infestation rate increased with decreasing fruit firmness, but fruit were generally poor hosts. Fruit with a patch of skin removed produced more flies than intact fruit, suggesting that skin puncture resistance was an important deterrent to oviposition. This study showed that fruit can be infested within 1 d after harvest, suggesting that fruit should be transferred to fruit fly-proof containers as they are harvested to minimize the risk of attack. Although risk of infestation is negatively correlated with fruit firmness, even some hard fruit may become infested. Therefore, fruit firmness cannot be used alone as an indicator to ensure fruit fly-free 'Sharwil' avocados. Measuring fruit firmness may be a useful component of a multiple component systems approach as an additional safeguard to reduce risk of infestation.

  11. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  12. Explosibility boundaries for fly ash/pulverized fuel mixtures.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, A G; Amyotte, P R

    2002-05-27

    Incomplete combustion and subsequent fuel contamination of a waste stream can pose a serious explosion hazard. An example of this type of incident is the contamination of fly ash with unburned pulverized coal. The coal, if present in sufficient quantities in the mixture, can act as a fuel source for a potential explosion. Experiments were conducted in a 20l Siwek explosibility test chamber to determine the minimum fuel contamination of fly ash required to form an explosible mixture. A sample of fly ash from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) (Ont., Canada) was artificially contaminated with Pittsburgh pulverized coal dust (the surrogate used to represent unburned fuel dust). Additionally, the influence of fly ash particle size on the amount of fuel contaminant required to form an explosible mixture was examined. Fine and coarse size fractions of fly ash were obtained by screening the original sample of OPG fly ash. The results show that at least 21% Pittsburgh pulverized coal (or 10% volatile matter) was required to form an explosible mixture of the original fly ash sample and coal dust. The results also illustrate that fly ash particle size is important when examining the explosibility of the mixture. The fine size fraction of fly ash required a minimum of 25% coal dust (12% volatile matter) in the mixture for explosibility, whereas the coarse fly ash required only 10% coal dust (7% volatile matter). Thus, the larger the particle size of the inert fly ash component in the mixture, the greater the hazard.

  13. The catalytic and photocatalytic activity of coal fly ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugi, Ralph; Güsten, Hans

    Great differences in the catalytic and photocatalytic activity of two samples of fly ash from two different coal-fired power plants have been demonstrated to exist for two reactions of environmental significance, namely, the heterogeneous SO 2 oxidation in a smog chamber and the photochemical degradation of two polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed onto the fly ashes. At a relative humidity (r.h.) of 80%, the reaction rate for the heterogeneous SO 2 oxidation on an acidic fly ash (pH 5.65) is ten times higher than for the oxidation on a fly ash of pH 9.3. Compared to silica gel, the 'acidic' fly ash gives rise to a faster photocatalytic degradation of anthracene and phenanthrene, while the same aromatic hydrocarbons are highly resistant to photodegradation when adsorbed on the fly ash of pH 9.3. Possible explanations and environmental consequences of the differing catalytic activity of fly ashes are discussed.

  14. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents.

  15. Characteristics of the transfer of fly ash utilization technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, B.; Nieel, E.; Raats, M.

    1997-12-31

    In the Netherlands, the total amount of fly ash produced from power generating plants lies between 900,000 and 1,000,000 tons per year. Since 1986, a 100% fly ash utilization has been achieved as a high quality raw material for the building materials industry. In China, the present fly ash production capacity is approximately 100 million tons per year. The share of fly ash used by the building materials industry is less then 15% of the total fly ash production. In this presentation, efforts are made to illustrate the difference in characteristics between the Dutch and the Chinese approach towards the fly ash utilization problem. Government policy, environmental legislation and an active involvement of the power industry have been, amongst others, three crucial factors for the successful utilization of fly ash in the Netherlands. It is believed that some of the Dutch experiences might also be applicable in China.

  16. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliJ, and FliH, do not deliver flagellin, the major filament protein, from the cytosol to the export gate.

    PubMed

    Sajó, Ráchel; Liliom, Károly; Muskotál, Adél; Klein, Agnes; Závodszky, Péter; Vonderviszt, Ferenc; Dobó, József

    2014-11-01

    Flagella, the locomotion organelles of bacteria, extend from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior. External flagellar proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and exported by the flagellar type III secretion system. Soluble components of the flagellar export apparatus, FliI, FliH, and FliJ, have been implicated to carry late export substrates in complex with their cognate chaperones from the cytoplasm to the export gate. The importance of the soluble components in the delivery of the three minor late substrates FlgK, FlgL (hook-filament junction) and FliD (filament-cap) has been convincingly demonstrated, but their role in the transport of the major filament component flagellin (FliC) is still unclear. We have used continuous ATPase activity measurements and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies to characterize interactions between the soluble export components and flagellin or the FliC:FliS substrate-chaperone complex. As controls, interactions between soluble export component pairs were characterized providing Kd values. FliC or FliC:FliS did not influence the ATPase activity of FliI alone or in complex with FliH and/or FliJ suggesting lack of interaction in solution. Immobilized FliI, FliH, or FliJ did not interact with FliC or FliC:FliS detected by QCM. The lack of interaction in the fluid phase between FliC or FliC:FliS and the soluble export components, in particular with the ATPase FliI, suggests that cells use different mechanisms for the export of late minor substrates, and the major substrate, FliC. It seems that the abundantly produced flagellin does not require the assistance of the soluble export components to efficiently reach the export gate.

  17. Wastewater sludge conditioning by fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1998-09-01

    Conditioning wastewater sludge from the City of Regina Wastewater Treatment Plant by fly ash from Boundary Dam Power Station, Saskatchewan, Canada, was studied. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), equilibrium leach test (ELT), and long-term leaching test (LTLT) were used to investigate the leachability of heavy metals. Results from these leaching tests indicated that, on the basis of concentrations of microorganisms and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn), the sludge produced at the Regina Wastewater Treatment Plant conditioned by the locally available fly ash can be disposed of in landfills and used as a soil conditioner for land application. Sorption, and silicate and hydroxide precipitations were considered to be the three important mechanisms in fixation of heavy metals. High pH conditions were considered to be the predominant mechanism in killing microorganisms.

  18. Syncope and driving, flying and vocational concerns.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Scott; Li, Huagui

    2013-01-01

    When advising a syncope patient about resumption of driving, flying or vocational activities, physicians must consider relevant laws and regulations, the etiology of the syncope, and the risk of recurrence and the impact of recurrence on the safety of the patient and others. Guidelines from professional cardiology societies may aid the physician. In the United States, private driving is regulated by individual states and their laws show significant variance. Commercial driving and flying are regulated at the federal level. These regulations tend to be more uniform, but are significantly stricter due to the potential risk to the public posed by commercial drivers or pilots with syncope. For many diagnoses, both regulations and professional society recommendations incorporate an observation period following the index syncopal event. This is due to the natural history of syncope recurrence and to allow time to monitor the response to treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The secret lives of Drosophila flies

    PubMed Central

    Markow, Therese Ann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Flies of the genus Drosophila, and particularly those of the species Drosophila melanogaster, are best known as laboratory organisms. As with all model organisms, they were domesticated for empirical studies, but they also continue to exist as wild populations. Decades of research on these flies in the laboratory have produced astounding and important insights into basic biological processes, but we have only scratched the surface of what they have to offer as research organisms. An outstanding challenge now is to build on this knowledge and explore how natural history has shaped D. melanogaster in order to advance our understanding of biology more generally. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06793.001 PMID:26041333

  20. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, T. J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the Fly Back Engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  1. Radiation dose to the global flying population.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis E; Eastham, Sebastian D; Barrett, Steven R H

    2016-03-01

    Civil airliner passengers and crew are exposed to elevated levels of radiation relative to being at sea level. Previous studies have assessed the radiation dose received in particular cases or for cohort studies. Here we present the first estimate of the total radiation dose received by the worldwide civilian flying population. We simulated flights globally from 2000 to 2013 using schedule data, applying a radiation propagation code to estimate the dose associated with each flight. Passengers flying in Europe and North America exceed the International Commission on Radiological Protection annual dose limits at an annual average of 510 or 420 flight hours per year, respectively. However, this falls to 160 or 120 h on specific routes under maximum exposure conditions.

  2. Shuttle Liquid Fly Back Booster Configuration Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Healy, Thomas J., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This paper surveys the basic configuration options available to a Liquid Fly Back Booster (LFBB), integrated with the Space Shuttle system. The background of the development of the LFBB concept is given. The influence of the main booster engine (BME) installations and the fly back engine (FBE) installation on the aerodynamic configurations are also discussed. Limits on the LFBB configuration design space imposed by the existing Shuttle flight and ground elements are also described. The objective of the paper is to put the constrains and design space for an LFBB in perspective. The object of the work is to define LFBB configurations that significantly improve safety, operability, reliability and performance of the Shuttle system and dramatically lower operations costs.

  3. From fat fruit fly to human obesity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Wanli W; Thomas, Joseph; Liu, Jingnan; Li, Tianxia; Moran, Timothy H

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease that has become a global problem. Although a tremendous amount of effort has been spent to prevent and treat obesity, its etiology is still largely unknown and there are not yet sufficient strategies to control obesity. Recently, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a useful model for studying metabolic homeostasis and obesity related disorders. The goal of this mini-review is to summarize the recent achievements of Drosophila models and to highlight the experimental protocols used in studying feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in the fly. The Drosophila models provide useful tools to understand obesity pathogenesis and to develop novel therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Horse flies (Tabanidae) of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Mikuska, Alma; Krcmar, Stjepan; Mikuska, József

    2008-12-01

    The horse fly (Diptera: Tabanidae) fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 62 species belonging to ten genera. The present study adds eight new records for the fauna of Bosnia and Herzegovina. These new records are Chrysops flavipes Meigen, Hybomitra tropica (Linnaeus), Tabanus darimonti Leclercq, Tabanus eggeri Schiner, Tabanus miki Brauer in Brauer and Bergenstamm, Tabanus shannonellus Kröber, Haematopota bigoti Gobert, and Haematopota subcylindrica Pandellé. Most of the species belong to the Boreal-Eurasian group (28), followed by the Mediterranean group with 17 species, the South European group with 13 species, the Afro-Eurasian arid group and the European group with two species each. This paper presents the first comprehensive collection data on the horse fly fauna of this part of the Balkan Peninsula.

  5. Energy calibration of the fly's eye detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    The methods used to calibrate the Fly's eye detector to evaluate the energy of EAS are discussed. The energy of extensive air showers (EAS) as seen by the Fly's Eye detector are obtained from track length integrals of observed shower development curves. The energy of the parent cosmic ray primary is estimated by applying corrections to account for undetected energy in the muon, neutrino and hadronic channels. Absolute values for E depend upon the measurement of shower sizes N sub e(x). The following items are necessary to convert apparent optical brightness into intrinsical optical brightness: (1) an assessment of those factors responsible for light production by the relativistic electrons in an EAS and the transmission of light thru the atmosphere, (2) calibration of the optical detection system, and (3) a knowledge of the trajectory of the shower.

  6. Appreciation and Prediction of Flying Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H

    1949-01-01

    The material given in this report summarizes some of the results of recent research that will aid the designers of an airplane in selecting or modifying a configuration to provide satisfactory stability and control characteristics. The requirements of the NACA for satisfactory flying qualities, which specify the important stability and control characteristics of an airplane from the pilot's standpoint, are used as the main topics of the report. A discussion is given of the reasons for the requirements, of the factors involved in obtaining satisfactory flying qualities, and of the methods used in predicting the stability and control characteristics of an airplane. The material is based on lecture notes for a training course for research workers engaged in airplane stability and control investigations.

  7. Fly ash system technology improves opacity

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    Unit 3 of the Dave Johnston Power Plant east of Glenrock, WY, USA had problems staying at or below the opacity limits set by the state. The unit makes use of a Lodge Cottrell precipitator. When the plant changed to burning Power River Basin coal, ash buildup became a significant issue as the fly ash control system was unable to properly evacuate hoppers on the unit. To overcome the problem, the PLC on the unit was replaced with a software optimization package called SmartAsh for the precipitator fly ash control system, at a cost of $500,000. After the upgrade, there have been no plugged hoppers and the opacity has been reduced from around 20% to 3-5%. 2 figs.

  8. Relative Navigation for Formation Flying of Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Du, Ju-Young; Hughes, Declan; Junkins, John L.; Crassidis, John L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a robust and efficient approach for relative navigation and attitude estimation of spacecraft flying in formation. This approach uses measurements from a new optical sensor that provides a line of sight vector from the master spacecraft to the secondary satellite. The overall system provides a novel, reliable, and autonomous relative navigation and attitude determination system, employing relatively simple electronic circuits with modest digital signal processing requirements and is fully independent of any external systems. Experimental calibration results are presented, which are used to achieve accurate line of sight measurements. State estimation for formation flying is achieved through an optimal observer design. Also, because the rotational and translational motions are coupled through the observation vectors, three approaches are suggested to separate both signals just for stability analysis. Simulation and experimental results indicate that the combined sensor/estimator approach provides accurate relative position and attitude estimates.

  9. The role of FLI-1-EWS, a fusion gene reciprocal to EWS-FLI-1, in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Elzi, David J; Song, Meihua; Houghton, Peter J; Chen, Yidong; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2015-11-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a cancer of bone and soft tissue in children that is characterized by a chromosomal translocation involving EWS and an Ets family transcription factor, most commonly FLI-1. The EWS-FLI-1 fusion oncogene is widely believed to play a central role in Ewing sarcoma. The EWS-FLI-1 gene product regulates the expression of a number of genes important for cancer progression, can transform mouse cells such as NIH3T3 and C3H10T1/2, and is necessary for proliferation and tumorigenicity of Ewing sarcoma cells, suggesting that EWS-FLI-1 is the causative oncogene. However, a variety of evidence also suggest that EWS-FLI-1 alone cannot fully explain the Ewing sarcomagenesis. Here we report that FLI-1-EWS, a fusion gene reciprocal to EWS-FLI-1, is frequently expressed in Ewing sarcoma. We present evidence suggesting that endogenous FLI-1-EWS is required for Ewing sarcoma growth and that FLI-1-EWS cooperates with EWS-FLI-1 in human mesenchymal stem cells, putative cells of origin of Ewing sarcoma, through abrogation of the proliferation arrest induced by EWS- FLI-1.

  10. Floating vs flying: A propulsion energy comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marbury, F.

    1975-01-01

    Floating craft are compared to those that fly. Drag/weight for floaters is shown to be proportional to v squared/L, while for flyers it is independent of size and speed. The transportation market will therefore assign airships to lower speeds than airplanes, and will favor large airship sizes. Drag of an airship is shown to be only 11 percent of submarine drag at equal displacement and speed, raising the possibility that airships can compete with some types of ships.

  11. Navigation Algorithms for Formation Flying Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huxel, Paul J.; Bishop, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the investigations is to develop navigation algorithms to support formation flying missions. In particular, we examine the advantages and concerns associated with the use of combinations of inertial and relative measurements, as well as address observability issues. In our analysis we consider the interaction between measurement types, update frequencies, and trajectory geometry and their cumulative impact on observability. Furthermore, we investigate how relative measurements affect inertial navigation in terms of algorithm performance.

  12. SNAP: An Astrophysical Camp That Flies High!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, D.; English, D.

    2010-08-01

    It has become widely recognized that there is a shortage of students coming out of provincial high schools who plan to pursue careers in scientific and technical fields. We aim to capture the interest and excite the imaginations of Grade 11 students in a three-day camp. The School for Nuclei, Astrophysics, and Particles (SNAP) will combine an introduction to astrophysics with the building and flying of a balloon-borne cosmic-ray detector to the very edge of space.

  13. Safety Passage in the Flying Canoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Jungle Aviation and Radio Service (JAARS) delivers missionaries to remote outposts under sometimes hazardous flying conditions. A serious accident led JAARS' to initiate a crash survivability research program based on NASA technology. In 1978, JAARS sought help from Langley Research Center and was invited to participate in Langley's crashworthiness program. With assistance from Langley, JAARS developed an impact absorbing aircraft seat designed to minimize crash injury. The seat design is available to all missionary aircraft and JAARS is offering it for commercial manufacture.

  14. Flying Training Capacity Model: Initial Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-21

    numbers by base • FTRAP model is not versatile • Excel spreadsheets based on corporate knowledge • Requires flying training subject matter expert ( SME ... IFR & VFR operations • Capacity given in terms of runway operations per year • AETC Capacity Metrics - Graduates • Based on sortie generation • Consider...Pilots (IPs) from each course • Airspace capacities from base operations SMEs • Runway capacities • Military Operating Area capacities (including aux

  15. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Hnat, James G.; Mathur, Akshay; Simpson, James C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants.

  16. Manufacture of ceramic tiles from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Hnat, J.G.; Mathur, A.; Simpson, J.C.

    1999-08-10

    The present invention relates to a process for forming glass-ceramic tiles. Fly ash containing organic material, metal contaminants, and glass forming materials is oxidized under conditions effective to combust the organic material and partially oxidize the metallic contaminants and the glass forming materials. The oxidized glass forming materials are vitrified to form a glass melt. This glass melt is then formed into tiles containing metallic contaminants. 6 figs.

  17. Fly-by-light technology development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, J. R.; Williams, T.; Goldthorpe, S.; Hay, J.; Brennan, M.; Sherman, B.; Chen, J.; Yount, Larry J.; Hess, Richard F.; Kravetz, J.

    1990-01-01

    The driving factors and developments which make a fly-by-light (FBL) viable are discussed. Documentation, analyses, and recommendations are provided on the major issues pertinent to facilitating the U.S. implementation of commercial FBL aircraft before the turn of the century. Areas of particular concern include ultra-reliable computing (hardware/software); electromagnetic environment (EME); verification and validation; optical techniques; life-cycle maintenance; and basis and procedures for certification.

  18. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  19. T-38 Aircraft Fly Over Washington

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-05

    Two NASA T-38 training jets are seen as they fly over Washington, DC, Thursday, April 5, 2012. NASA, in cooperation with the Federal Aviation Administration, conducted training and photographic flights over the DC metropolitan area. T-38 aircraft have been used for astronaut training for more than 30 years as they allow pilots and mission specialists to think quickly in changing situations, mental experiences the astronauts say are critical to practicing for the rigors of spaceflight. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Volunteer Flying Organizations: Law Enforcements Untapped Resource

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Eugene , Oregon, uses all-volunteer flying divisions to bridge the gap in resources and meet their aviation requirements. Comparative case studies...the three pilots helps the local LE team protect and serve the county surrounding the Eugene , Oregon area.144 The following analysis demonstrates...146 Lane County Sheriff’s Office [LCSO] Helicopter Procedures, G.O. 10.06 ( Eugene , OR: Lane County

  1. Flying saucer located at the basal septum.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Murat; Senkaya, Emine Bilen; Bilge, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Arslantas, Ugur; Karakas, Fatih

    2008-08-01

    Left ventricular thrombus formation is a frequent complication in patients with ischemic heart disease and is associated with a high risk of systemic embolization. Generally, thrombi localize at the apical segment. However, thrombus localized at the basal septum has not been reported yet. In this case, we discuss a flying saucer shaped mass located at the basal septum, which was later diagnosed as thrombus after anticoagulant therapy.

  2. Pulsed Thrust Method for Hover Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hope, Alan; Trask, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A non-continuous thrust method for hover type formation flying has been developed. This method differs from a true hover which requires constant range and bearing from a reference vehicle. The new method uses a pulsed loop, or pogo, maneuver sequence that keeps the follower spacecraft within a defined box in a near hover situation. Equations are developed for the hover maintenance maneuvers. The constraints on the hover location, pulse interval, and maximum/minimum ranges are discussed.

  3. Formation Flying of Tethered and Nontethered Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2005-01-01

    A paper discusses the effect of the dynamic interaction taking place within a formation composed of a rigid and a deformable vehicle, and presents the concept of two or more tethered spacecraft flying in formation with one or more separated free-flying spacecraft. Although progress toward formation flight of nontethered spacecraft has already been achieved, the document cites potential advantages of tethering, including less consumption of fuel to maintain formation, very high dynamic stability of a rotating tethered formation, and intrinsically passive gravity-gradient stabilization. The document presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamics of a system comprising one free-flying spacecraft and two tethered spacecraft in orbit, as a prototype of more complex systems. The spacecraft are modeled as rigid bodies and the tether as a mass-less spring with structural viscous damping. Included in the analysis is a study of the feasibility of a centralized control system for maintaining a required formation in low Earth orbit. A numerical simulation of a retargeting maneuver is reported to show that even if the additional internal dynamics of the system caused by flexibility is considered, high pointing precision can be achieved if a fictitious rigid frame is used to track the tethered system, and it should be possible to position the spacecraft with centimeter accuracy and to orient the formation within arc seconds of the desired direction also in the presence of low Earth orbit environmental perturbations. The results of the study demonstrate that the concept is feasible in Earth orbit and point the way to further study of these hybrid tethered and free-flying systems for related applications in orbit around other Solar System bodies.

  4. Ferrite insertion at Recycler Flying Wire System

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2004-02-27

    Ferrite rods are installed inside the flying-wire cavity of the Recycler Ring and at entrance and exit beam pipes in order to absorb high-frequency electromagnetic waves excited by the beam. However, these rods may also deteriorate the vacuum pressure of the ring. An investigation is made to analyze the necessity of the ferrite rods at the entrance and exit beam pipes.

  5. NASA scientists are flying over Alaska

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    As part of the Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), NASA scientists are flying over Alaska and Canada, measuring the elevation of rivers and lakes to study how thawing permafrost affects hydrology in the landscape. This view of was taken from NASA’s DC-8 “flying laboratory” as part of the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS) experiment. Scientists on NASA’s Air Surface, Water and Ocean Topography (AirSWOT) mission have been flying over the same location, investigating how water levels in the Arctic landscape change as permafrost thaws. Under typical conditions, the frozen layer of soil keeps water from sinking into the ground and percolating away. As permafrost thaws, the water has new ways to move between rivers and lakes, which can raise or lower the elevation of the bodies of water. These changes in water levels will have effects on Arctic life— plants, animals, and humans—in the near future. Credit: NASA/Peter Griffith NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Flies and flowers in Darwin's race.

    PubMed

    Pauw, Anton; Stofberg, Jaco; Waterman, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    The idea of coevolution originated with Darwin's proposal that long-proboscid pollinators and long-tubed flowers might be engaged in reciprocal selection, but this has not been demonstrated. Here we test key aspects of Darwin's hypothesis of reciprocal selection in an experiment with naturally interacting populations of extremely long-proboscid flies (Moegistorhynchus longirostris: Nemestinidae) and long-tubed irises (Lapeirousia anceps: Iridaceae). We show that the benefit derived by both the fly (volume of nectar consumed) and the plant (number pollen grains received) depends on the relative length of their interacting organs. Each trait is shown to act both as agent and target in directional reciprocal selection, potentially leading to a race. This understanding of how fitness in both species varies in relation to the balance of their armament allows us to make tentative predictions about the nature of selection across multiple communities. We find that in each community a core group of long-tubed plant species might together be involved in diffuse coevolution with the fly. In poorly matched populations, the imbalance in armament is too great to allow reciprocal selection to act, and these species might instead experience one-sided selection that leads to convergence with the core species. Reciprocal selection drives the evolution of the community, then, additional species become attached to the network of interacting mutualists by convergence.

  7. Flying Drosophila Orient to Sky Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Peter T.; Dickinson, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Insects maintain a constant bearing across a wide range of spatial scales. Monarch butterflies and locusts traverse continents [1, 2], foraging bees and ants travel hundreds of meters to return to their nest [1, 3, 4], whereas many other insects fly straight for only a few centimeters before changing direction. Despite this variation in spatial scale, the brain region thought to underlie long-distance navigation is remarkably conserved [5, 6], suggesting that the use of celestial cues for navigation is a general and perhaps ancient behavioral capability of insects. Laboratory studies of Drosophila have identified a local search mode in which short straight segments are interspersed with rapid turns [7, 8]. Such flight modes, however, are inconsistent with measures of gene flow between geographically-separated populations [9-11], and individual Drosophila have been observed to travel 10 km across desert terrain in a single night [9, 12, 13] – a feat that would be impossible without prolonged periods of straight flight. To directly examine orientation behavior under outdoor conditions, we built a portable flight arena in which a fly viewed the natural sky through a liquid crystal device that could experimentally rotate the angle of polarization. Our findings indicate that flying Drosophila actively orient using the sky's natural polarization pattern. PMID:22177905

  8. Spacecraft formation flying: Dynamics, control and navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfriend, Kyle Terry; Vadali, Srinivas Rao; Gurfil, Pini; How, Jonathan; Breger, Louis S.

    2009-12-01

    Space agencies are now realizing that much of what has previously been achieved using hugely complex and costly single platform projects - large unmanned and manned satellites (including the present International Space Station) - can be replaced by a number of smaller satellites networked together. The key challenge of this approach, namely ensuring the proper formation flying of multiple craft, is the topic of this second volume in Elsevier's Astrodynamics Series, Spacecraft Formation Flying: Dynamics, control and navigation. In this unique text, authors Alfriend et al. provide a coherent discussion of spacecraft relative motion, both in the unperturbed and perturbed settings, explain the main control approaches for regulating relative satellite dynamics, using both impulsive and continuous maneuvers, and present the main constituents required for relative navigation. The early chapters provide a foundation upon which later discussions are built, making this a complete, standalone offering. Intended for graduate students, professors and academic researchers in the fields of aerospace and mechanical engineering, mathematics, astronomy and astrophysics, Spacecraft Formation Flying is a technical yet accessible, forward-thinking guide to this critical area of astrodynamics.

  9. Hydrothermal reaction of fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    The reactions which occur when fly ash is treated under hydrothermal conditions were investigated. This was done for the following primary reasons. The first of these is to determine the nature of the phases that form to assess the stabilities of these phases in the ambient environment and, finally, to assess whether these phases are capable of sequestering hazardous species. The second reason for undertaking this study was whether, depending on the composition of the ash and the presence of selected additives, it would be possible under hydrothermal conditions to form compounds which have cementitious properties. Formation of four classes of compounds, which bracket likely fly ash compositional ranges, were selected for study. The classes are calcium silicate hydrates, calcium selenates, and calcium aluminosulfates, and silicate-based glasses. Specific compounds synthesized were determined and their stability regions assessed. As part of stability assessment, the extent to which selected hazardous species are sequestered was determined. Finally, the cementing properties of these compounds were established. The results obtained in this program have demonstrated that mild hydrothermal conditions can be employed to improve the reactivity of fly ash. Such improvements in reactivity can result in the formation of monolithic forms which may exhibit suitable mechanical properties for selected applications as building materials. If the ashes involved are considered hazardous, the mechanical properties exhibited indicated the forms could be handled in a manner which facilitates their disposal.

  10. Local Estimators for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathpour, Nanaz; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Mesbahi, Mehran; Nabi, Marzieh

    2011-01-01

    A formation estimation architecture for formation flying builds upon the local information exchange among multiple local estimators. Spacecraft formation flying involves the coordination of states among multiple spacecraft through relative sensing, inter-spacecraft communication, and control. Most existing formation flying estimation algorithms can only be supported via highly centralized, all-to-all, static relative sensing. New algorithms are needed that are scalable, modular, and robust to variations in the topology and link characteristics of the formation exchange network. These distributed algorithms should rely on a local information-exchange network, relaxing the assumptions on existing algorithms. In this research, it was shown that only local observability is required to design a formation estimator and control law. The approach relies on breaking up the overall information-exchange network into sequence of local subnetworks, and invoking an agreement-type filter to reach consensus among local estimators within each local network. State estimates were obtained by a set of local measurements that were passed through a set of communicating Kalman filters to reach an overall state estimation for the formation. An optimization approach was also presented by means of which diffused estimates over the network can be incorporated in the local estimates obtained by each estimator via local measurements. This approach compares favorably with that obtained by a centralized Kalman filter, which requires complete knowledge of the raw measurement available to each estimator.

  11. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s. PMID:26848852

  12. Examining the nature of fear of flying.

    PubMed

    Hawkins-Gilligan, Janice; Dygdon, Judith A; Conger, Anthony J

    2011-10-01

    The nature of fear of flying (FOF) is not well understood. It is commonly assumed to be a fear learned from flight-specific experiences. However, existing literature suggests that FOF is a manifestation of fears of other stimuli (e.g., heights) embedded in the flying situation, but not specific to it. This study compared the level of prediction of FOF attained from flight-specific conditioning experiences (specifically, classical conditioning experiences in direct, observational, and verbal modes) with the level of prediction attained from flight-embedded fears. There were 109 university students who completed the Flight Anxiety Situations Questionnaire (FAS) and the Fear Survey Schedule, Version III (FSS) as well as demographic and flying experience questionnaires built for this study. All FOF measures were highly predicted by at least one flight-embedded fear. Conversely, conditioning experiences predicted only four of five FOF measures and this prediction was not strong. In general, conditioning experiences did not behave as in previous studies of conditioning and fear. The results suggest that FOF is based more on several flight-embedded innate fears than on learned fears. The implications of these results for FOF emergence and prevention are discussed.

  13. FlyCap: Markerless Motion Capture Using Multiple Autonomous Flying Cameras.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lan; Liu, Yebin; Cheng, Wei; Guo, Kaiwen; Zhou, Guyue; Dai, Qionghai; Fang, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Aiming at automatic, convenient and non-instrusive motion capture, this paper presents a new generation markerless motion capture technique, the FlyCap system, to capture surface motions of moving characters using multiple autonomous flying cameras (autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles(UAVs) each integrated with an RGBD video camera). During data capture, three cooperative flying cameras automatically track and follow the moving target who performs large-scale motions in a wide space. We propose a novel non-rigid surface registration method to track and fuse the depth of the three flying cameras for surface motion tracking of the moving target, and simultaneously calculate the pose of each flying camera. We leverage the using of visual-odometry information provided by the UAV platform, and formulate the surface tracking problem in a non-linear objective function that can be linearized and effectively minimized through a Gaussian-Newton method. Quantitative and qualitative experimental results demonstrate the plausible surface and motion reconstruction results.

  14. Flying the Needles: Flight Deck Automation Erodes Fine-Motor Flying Skills Among Airline Pilots.

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, Andreas; Hoermann, Hans-Juergen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of practice and training on fine-motor flying skills during a manual instrument landing system (ILS) approach. There is an ongoing debate that manual flying skills of long-haul crews suffer from a lack of flight practice due to conducting only a few flights per month and the intensive use of automation. However, objective evidence is rare. One hundred twenty-six randomly selected airline pilots had to perform a manual flight scenario with a raw data precision approach. Pilots were assigned to four equal groups according to their level of practice and training by fleet (short-haul, long-haul) and rank (first officer, captain). Average ILS deviation scores differed significantly in relation to the group assignments. The strongest predictor variable was fleet, indicating degraded performance among long-haul pilots. Manual flying skills are subject to erosion due to a lack of practice on long-haul fleets: All results support the conclusion that recent flight practice is a significantly stronger predictor for fine-motor flying performance than the time period since flight school or even the total or type-specific flight experience. Long-haul crews have to be supported in a timely manner by adequate training tailored to address manual skills or by operational provisions like mixed-fleet flying or more frequent transitions between short-haul and long-haul operation. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  15. Treatment of fly ash from power plants using thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Al-Mayman, Sulaiman; AlShunaifi, Ibrahim; Albeladi, Abdullah; Ghiloufi, Imed; Binjuwair, Saud

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash from power plants is very toxic because it contains heavy metals. In this study fly ash was treated with a thermal plasma. Before their treatment, the fly ash was analyzed by many technics such as X-ray fluorescence, CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With these technics, the composition, the chemical and physical proprieties of fly ash are determined. The results obtained by these analysis show that fly ash is mainly composed of carbon, and it contains also sulfur and metals such as V, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, and Rh. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that fly ash particles are porous and have very irregular shapes with particle sizes of 20-50 μm. The treatment of fly ash was carried out in a plasma reactor and in two steps. In the first step, fly ash was treated in a pyrolysis/combustion plasma system to reduce the fraction of carbon. In the second step, the product obtained by the combustion of fly ash was vitrified in a plasma furnace. The leaching results show that the fly ash was detoxified by plasma vitrification and the produced slag is amorphous and glassy.

  16. Treatment of fly ash from power plants using thermal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mayman, Sulaiman; AlShunaifi, Ibrahim; Albeladi, Abdullah; Binjuwair, Saud

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash from power plants is very toxic because it contains heavy metals. In this study fly ash was treated with a thermal plasma. Before their treatment, the fly ash was analyzed by many technics such as X-ray fluorescence, CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With these technics, the composition, the chemical and physical proprieties of fly ash are determined. The results obtained by these analysis show that fly ash is mainly composed of carbon, and it contains also sulfur and metals such as V, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, and Rh. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that fly ash particles are porous and have very irregular shapes with particle sizes of 20–50 μm. The treatment of fly ash was carried out in a plasma reactor and in two steps. In the first step, fly ash was treated in a pyrolysis/combustion plasma system to reduce the fraction of carbon. In the second step, the product obtained by the combustion of fly ash was vitrified in a plasma furnace. The leaching results show that the fly ash was detoxified by plasma vitrification and the produced slag is amorphous and glassy. PMID:28546898

  17. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-01-01

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies. PMID:22237540

  18. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qun; Fonseca, Alicia; Liu, Wenqi; Fields, Andrew T; Pimsler, Meaghan L; Spindola, Aline F; Tarone, Aaron M; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-07-01

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae that provide a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericata; this strain swarmed significantly and produced a strong odor that attracts blow flies. To identify the putative interkingdom signals for the bacterium and flies, we reasoned that as swarming is used by this bacterium to cover the food resource and requires bacterial signaling, the same bacterial signals used for swarming may be used to communicate with blow flies. Using transposon mutagenesis, we identified six novel genes for swarming (ureR, fis, hybG, zapB, fadE and PROSTU_03490), then, confirming our hypothesis, we discovered that fly attractants, lactic acid, phenol, NaOH, KOH and ammonia, restore swarming for cells with the swarming mutations. Hence, compounds produced by the bacterium that attract flies also are utilized for swarming. In addition, bacteria with the swarming mutation rfaL attracted fewer blow flies and reduced the number of eggs laid by the flies. Therefore, we have identified several interkingdom signals between P. mirabilis and blow flies.

  19. The performance and application of fly ash modified by PDMDAAC.

    PubMed

    Cao, X Y; Yue, Q Y; Song, L Y; Li, M; Zhao, Y C

    2007-08-17

    Fly ash modification by polydimethydiallylammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) in laboratory scale was explored in this work and the adsorption performance of modified fly ash and its application in dyeing wastewater treatment were also studied. The key factors (concentration and temperature) for PDMDAAC to affect the adsorption properties of fly ash (FA) were revealed using the orthogonal test with four factors. The results indicated that the adsorption magnitude of fly ash to PDMDAAC increased due to its favorable specific surface causing the change of the surface charge nature. Hence, adsorption performance of modified fly ash on organic molecules and its ion exchange capacity are strengthened. The maximum color removal efficiency was obtained as 88.2% by modified fly ash with 2.0 g/100 mL dosage in dyeing wastewater, which is much higher than 12.5% color removal efficiency by raw fly ash with the same dosage. And, the used modified fly ash could be used for cement production as additive agent. The intensity of cement produced with 15% the modified fly ash in weight reached the Chinese Cement Standard (GB/T17671-1999), blazing a promising novel way in fly ash utilization.

  20. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) Attraction to Insect Honeydew

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Kim Y.; Michailides, Themis J.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Wayadande, Astri; Gerry, Alec C.

    2015-01-01

    House flies are of major concern as vectors of food-borne pathogens to food crops. House flies are common pests on cattle feedlots and dairies, where they develop in and feed on animal waste. By contacting animal waste, house flies can acquire human pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., in addition to other bacteria, viruses, or parasites that may infect humans and animals. The subsequent dispersal of house flies from animal facilities to nearby agricultural fields containing food crops may lead to pre-harvest food contamination with these pathogens. We hypothesized that odors from honeydew, the sugary excreta produced by sucking insects feeding on crops, or molds and fungi growing on honeydew, may attract house flies, thereby increasing the risk of food crop contamination. House fly attraction to honeydew-contaminated plant material was evaluated using a laboratory bioassay. House flies were attracted to the following plant-pest-honeydew combinations: citrus mealybug on squash fruit, pea aphid on faba bean plants, whitefly on navel orange and grapefruit leaves, and combined citrus mealybug and cottony cushion scale on mandarin orange leaves. House flies were not attracted to field-collected samples of lerp psyllids on eucalyptus plants or aphids on crepe myrtle leaves. Fungi associated with field-collected honeydews were isolated and identified for further study as possible emitters of volatiles attractive to house flies. Two fungal species, Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides, were repeatedly isolated from field-collected honeydew samples. Both fungal species were grown in potato dextrose enrichment broth and house fly attraction to volatiles from these fungal cultures was evaluated. House flies were attracted to odors from A. pullulans cultures but not to those of C. cladosporioides. Identification of specific honeydew odors that are attractive to house flies could be valuable for the development of improved house

  1. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body wt/day and 0.6 mg/kg body wt/day) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% AI Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musc...

  2. Effects of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation in house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans).

    PubMed

    Weeks, E N I; Machtinger, E T; Gezan, S A; Kaufman, P E; Geden, C J

    2017-03-01

    The house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, several strains of which are commercially available. Three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and one strain of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were tested in commercial formulations for pathogenicity against house flies and stable flies. There was a significant increase in mortality of house flies with three of the formulations, BotaniGard(®) ES, Mycotrol(®) O, and Met52(®) EC, during days 4-9 in comparison with balEnce™ and the control. In stable flies, mortality rates were highest with Met52(®) EC, followed by Mycotrol(®) O, BotaniGard(®) ES and, finally, balEnce™. There was a significant fungal effect on sporulation in both house flies and stable flies. Product formulation, species differences and fungal strains may be responsible for some of the differences observed. Future testing in field situations is necessary. These commercial biopesticides may represent important tools in integrated fly management programmes.

  3. FliH and FliI ensure efficient energy coupling of flagellar type III protein export in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Minamino, Tohru; Kinoshita, Miki; Inoue, Yumi; Morimoto, Yusuke V; Ihara, Kunio; Koya, Satomi; Hara, Noritaka; Nishioka, Noriko; Kojima, Seiji; Homma, Michio; Namba, Keiichi

    2016-06-01

    For construction of the bacterial flagellum, flagellar proteins are exported via its specific export apparatus from the cytoplasm to the distal end of the growing flagellar structure. The flagellar export apparatus consists of a transmembrane (TM) export gate complex and a cytoplasmic ATPase complex consisting of FliH, FliI, and FliJ. FlhA is a TM export gate protein and plays important roles in energy coupling of protein translocation. However, the energy coupling mechanism remains unknown. Here, we performed a cross-complementation assay to measure robustness of the energy transduction system of the export apparatus against genetic perturbations. Vibrio FlhA restored motility of a Salmonella ΔflhA mutant but not that of a ΔfliH-fliI flhB(P28T) ΔflhA mutant. The flgM mutations significantly increased flagellar gene expression levels, allowing Vibrio FlhA to exert its export activity in the ΔfliH-fliI flhB(P28T) ΔflhA mutant. Pull-down assays revealed that the binding affinities of Vibrio FlhA for FliJ and the FlgN-FlgK chaperone-substrate complex were much lower than those of Salmonella FlhA. These suggest that Vibrio FlhA requires the support of FliH and FliI to efficiently and properly interact with FliJ and the FlgN-FlgK complex. We propose that FliH and FliI ensure robust and efficient energy coupling of protein export during flagellar assembly. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Use of insecticide-impregnated ear tags for the control of face flies and horn-flies on pastured cattle.

    PubMed

    Williams, R E; Westby, E J; Hendrix, K S; Lemenager, R P

    1981-11-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated ear tags in controlling face flies, Musca autumnalis DeGeer, and horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linn.), on pastured beef cattle. In one 16-week trial, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ear tags treated with stirofos (Rabon) insecticide reduced horn fly numbers by 79% (P less than .05) and face fly numbers by 30% (P less than .05). Coumaphos (Co-Ral) insecticide dust bags used in a separate herd produced an 86% (P less than .05) reduction in horn flies and an 18% (P less than .05) reduction in face flies. In the second study, 5 and 10% permethrin (Atroban), PVC-treated ear tags in a one-piece design were tested. In this 11 week trial, horn fly control averaged 95% (P less than .05) with the 10% tag and 77% (P less than .05) with the 5% tag. Face fly control averaged 49% (P less than .05) for 8 weeks with the 10% permethrin tag. No significant face fly control was achieved with the 5% permethrin tag. In a herd treated with coumaphos dust bags, horn fly control averaged 93% (P less than .05) and face fly control averaged 34% (P less than .05). The third study tested 5 and 10% permethrin, PVC-treated ear tags in a two-piece design and two-piece 5% permethrin-treated ear tags in a polyurethane matrix. Fourteen-week horn fly control averaged 88% (P less than .05) with the 10% PVC-treated tag, 83% (P less than .05) with the 5% PVC-treated tag, 71% (P less than .05) with the 5% polyurethane-treated tag and 74% (P less than .05) with coumaphos dust bags. Face fly control averaged less than 50% (P greater than .05) throughout the trial with all treatments.

  5. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  6. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  7. Inescapable Stress Changes Walking Behavior in Flies - Learned Helplessness Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Batsching, Sophie; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Like other animals flies develop a state of learned helplessness in response to unescapable aversive events. To show this, two flies, one 'master', one 'yoked', are each confined to a dark, small chamber and exposed to the same sequence of mild electric shocks. Both receive these shocks when the master fly stops walking for more than a second. Behavior in the two animals is differently affected by the shocks. Yoked flies are transiently impaired in place learning and take longer than master flies to exit from the chamber towards light. After the treatment they walk more slowly and take fewer and shorter walking bouts. The low activity is attributed to the fly's experience that its escape response, an innate behavior to terminate the electric shocks, does not help anymore. Earlier studies using heat pulses instead of electric shocks had shown similar effects. This parallel supports the interpretation that it is the uncontrollability that induces the state. PMID:27875580

  8. Target-invariant aggressive display in a tephritid fly.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Argüello, Samuel; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Rao, Dinesh

    2015-12-01

    Fruit flies of the family Tephritidae (Diptera) use specialized wing displays in aggressive encounters with conspecifics and predators. These displays, called supination displays, have been thought to deter attacks from one of their main predators, spiders of the family Salticidae. However, there is no information whether the display is qualitatively or quantitatively different when the target is a conspecific or a predator. In this study, we sought to determine whether flies vary their displays depending on the display target. Using the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens, we compared the characteristics of the display that male and female flies use against conspecifics and spiders. Flies did not distinguish between spiders and conspecifics in terms of display rates and bout duration. In general, flies are more likely to retreat faster from spiders after performing a display. We suggest that supination is a generalized aggressive behavior that is independent of the target.

  9. Investigation of Aerodynamic Capabilities of Flying Fish in Gliding Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Choi, H.

    In the present study, we experimentally investigate the aerodynamic capabilities of flying fish. We consider four different flying fish models, which are darkedged-wing flying fishes stuffed in actual gliding posture. Some morphological parameters of flying fish such as lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins, incidence angles of pectoral and pelvic fins are considered to examine their effect on the aerodynamic performance. We directly measure the aerodynamic properties (lift, drag, and pitching moment) for different morphological parameters of flying fish models. For the present flying fish models, the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio are similar to those of medium-sized birds such as the vulture, nighthawk and petrel. The pectoral fins are found to enhance the lift-to-drag ratio and the longitudinal static stability of gliding flight. On the other hand, the lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio decrease with increasing lateral dihedral angle of pectoral fins.

  10. Fly ash of mineral coal as ceramic tiles raw material.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, A; Bergmann, C P

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of mineral coal fly ash as a raw material in the production of ceramic tiles. The samples of fly ash came from Capivari de Baixo, a city situated in the Brazilian Federal State of Santa Catarina. The fly ash and the raw materials were characterized regarding their physical chemical properties, and, based on these results; batches containing fly ash and typical raw materials for ceramic tiles were prepared. The fly ash content in the batches varied between 20 and 80 wt%. Specimens were molded using a uniaxial hydraulic press and were fired. All batches containing ash up to 60 wt% present adequate properties to be classified as several kinds of products in the ISO 13006 standard () regarding its different absorption groups (pressed). The results obtained indicate that fly ash, when mixed with traditional raw materials, has the necessary requirements to be used as a raw material for production of ceramic tiles.

  11. Potential products from North Dakota lignite fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G R

    1980-06-01

    Four major areas where fly ash can be used are explored. Concrete building blocks with fly ash replacing 50% of the portland cement have proven to be successful using current ASTM standards. Results in the ceramics area show that a ceramic-like product using fly ash and crushed glass with a small amount of clay as a green binder. Some preliminary results using sulfur ash in building materials are reported and with results of making wallboard from ash. (MHR)

  12. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.

    1979-11-01

    The invention relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  13. Recovery of aluminum and other metal values from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, William J.; Seeley, Forest G.

    1981-01-01

    The invention described herein relates to a method for improving the acid leachability of aluminum and other metal values found in fly ash which comprises sintering the fly ash, prior to acid leaching, with a calcium sulfate-containing composition at a temperature at which the calcium sulfate is retained in said composition during sintering and for a time sufficient to quantitatively convert the aluminum in said fly ash into an acid-leachable form.

  14. FlyBase: a Drosophila database. Flybase Consortium.

    PubMed Central

    1998-01-01

    FlyBase (http://flybase.bio.indiana.edu/) is a comprehensive database of genetic and molecular data concerning Drosophila . FlyBase is maintained as a relational database (in Sybase) and is made available as html documents and flat files. The scope of FlyBase includes: genes, alleles (with phenotypes), aberrations, transposons, pointers to sequence data, gene products, maps, clones, stock lists, Drosophila workers and bibliographic references. PMID:9399806

  15. The Neuronal Control of Flying Prey Interception in Dragonflies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-19

    activity rotates the head as well in the direction opposite the preferred target direction. Two TSDNs also move the legs and mouthparts. Insect ...flight, Prey interception, Insect vision, Receptive field, Dragonfly U U U UU 0 Robert M. Olberg 518 388 6509 THE NEURONAL CONTROL OF FLYING PREY...reconstruct, in 3D, the flight trajectory of an aerial predator (killer fly: C. attenuata) and its potential prey (small flying insects such as fungus gnats

  16. Control of free-flying space robot manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    To accelerate the development of multi-armed, free-flying satellite manipulators, a fixed-base cooperative manipulation facility is being developed. The work performed on multiple arm cooperation on a free-flying robot is summarized. Research is also summarized on global navigation and control of free-flying space robots. The Locomotion Enhancement via Arm Pushoff (LEAP) approach is described and progress to date is presented.

  17. Market opportunities for fly ash fillers in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Eckert, C.; Harris, T.; Gledhill, J. )

    1990-11-01

    Direct Acid Leaching (DAL) processed fly ash is derived from treating raw and beneficiated coal fly ash with hydrochloric acid. The DAL process allows for the production of fly ash with greater chemical purity and consistency than raw fly ash alone. In addition, DAL fly ash is similar to various minerals used in a wide range of applications that require filler minerals. This project investigates the feasibility of using three grades of DAL fly ash ranging from 10 microns to 30 microns in diameter as an alternative filler material to mineral fillers. Six major applications in North America, requiring large volumes of filler minerals were investigated by region including: (1) asphalt roofing shingles (2) carpet backing (3) joint compound and wallboard (4) industrial coatings (5) plastics (6) vinyl flooring. It is determined that calcium carbonate was the primary mineral filler DAL fly ash would be competing with in the applications investigated. Calcium carbonate is used in all applications investigated. The application which demonstrated the greatest potential for using DAL fly ash is asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingles were the largest calcium carbonate consuming application identified, consuming 4.8 million tons in 1988, and is the least sensitive to the dark color of the DAL fly ash. Although the DAL fly ash typically has a smaller particle size, in comparison to calcium carbonate, the asphalt shingle manufacturers felt it would be a good substitute. Other promising applications for DAL fly ash were industrial coatings and plastics where the calcium carbonate particle size requirements of 3 to 6 microns very closely matches the particle size of the DAL fly ash considered in this project. 17 figs., 36 tabs.

  18. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  19. Space Shuttle flying qualities and flight control system assessment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Johnston, D. E.; Mcruer, D.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of existing and proposed flying quality and flight control system criteria for application to the space shuttle orbiter during atmospheric flight phases was assessed. An orbiter experiment for flying qualities and flight control system design criteria is discussed. Orbiter longitudinal and lateral-directional flying characteristics, flight control system lag and time delay considerations, and flight control manipulator characteristics are included. Data obtained from conventional aircraft may be inappropriate for application to the shuttle orbiter.

  20. Activating neurons by light in free-moving adult flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Chin; Hsiao, Po-Yen; Chu, Li-An; Lin, Yen-Yin; Fu, Chien-Chung; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation, we show our preliminary results which is related to neurons activation in vivo by laser. A laser scanning system was adopted to guide laser beam to an assigned fly and an assigned position. A 473-nm laser can be a heat punishment source to restrain a wild-type fly's moving area. Furthermore, neurons in optogenetics transgene flies can be triggered by the blue laser in this system.

  1. Fli-1, a Functional Factor Performed in Autoimmune Lupus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wang-Dong; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Yi; Liu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease. The friend leukemia insertion site 1 (Fli-1) belongs to the Ets family of transcription factors. Recent findings suggested that expression of Fli-1 was abnormal in SLE patients and lupus mice. In addition, functional analysis indicated that Fli-1 plays a key role in the development of this complex autoimmune disorder. Here, we review the updated evidence indicating the roles of Fli-1 in autoimmune lupus. Hopefully, the information obtained may result in a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the systemic autoimmune disease.

  2. Distribution and abundance of Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Changbunjong, Tanasak; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Maneeon, Pattarapon; Ganpanakngan, Manoch; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Sriwichai, Patchara; Sumruayphol, Suchada; Ruangsittichai, Jiraporn

    2012-11-01

    Stomoxyini flies (Diptera: Muscidae) include species of parasitic flies of medical and veterinary importance. The adult flies feed on the blood of mammals and may transmit several parasites and pathogens. We conducted an entomological survey of Stomoxyini flies from different sites in Thailand. Stomoxyini flies were collected at four major types of sites: zoos, livestock farms, wildlife conservation areas and a national park using vavoua traps between November 2010 and April 2011. A total of 3,314 Stomoxyini flies belonging to the genera Stomoxys, Haematobosca, Haematostoma and Haematobia were collected. Eight species were identified: S. calcitrans (46.6%), S. uruma (26.8%), S. pulla (4.3%), S. indicus (0.7%), S. sitiens (0.1%), H. sanguinolenta (11.2 %), H. austeni (0.5%) and H. irritans exigua (9.8%). The diversity of Stomoxyini flies in the livestock farms was higher than the other sites. Altitude correlated with the number of flies. This study provides information that may be useful for Stomoxyini flies control.

  3. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A.; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  4. Sulfate resistance of high calcium fly ash concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhole, Rajaram

    Sulfate attack is one of the mechanisms which can cause deterioration of concrete. In general, Class C fly ash mixtures are reported to provide poor sulfate resistance. Fly ashes, mainly those belonging to the Class C, were tested as per the ASTM C 1012 procedure to evaluate chemical sulfate resistance. Overall the Class C fly ashes showed poor resistance in the sulfate environment. Different strategies were used in this research work to improve the sulfate resistance of Class C fly ash mixes. The study revealed that some of the strategies such as use of low W/CM (water to cementing materials by mass ratio), silica fume or ultra fine fly ash, high volumes of fly ash and, ternary or quaternary mixes with suitable supplementary cementing materials, can successfully improve the sulfate resistance of the Class C fly ash mixes. Combined sulfate attack, involving physical and chemical action, was studied using sodium sulfate and calcium sulfate solutions. The specimens were subjected to wetting-drying cycles and temperature changes. These conditions were found to accelerate the rate of degradation of concrete placed in a sodium sulfate environment. W/CM was found to be the main governing factor in providing sulfate resistance to mixes. Calcium sulfate did not reveal damage as a result of mainly physical action. Characterization of the selected fly ashes was undertaken by using SEM, XRD and the Rietveld analysis techniques, to determine the relation between the composition of fly ashes and resistance to sulfate attack. The chemical composition of glass represented on the ternary diagram was the main factor which had a significant influence on the sulfate resistance of fly ash mixtures. Mixes prepared with fly ashes containing significant amounts of vulnerable crystalline phases offered poor sulfate resistance. Comparatively, fly ash mixes containing inert crystalline phases such as quartz, mullite and hematite offered good sulfate resistance. The analysis of hydrated lime-fly

  5. Fly ash design manual for road and site applications

    SciTech Connect

    DiGioia, A.M. Jr.; Brendel, G.F.

    1992-04-01

    This design manual describes the use of fly ash as a construction material for use as structural and nonstructural fills, backfills, embankments, base courses, roller compacted concrete dams and pavements, soil stabilization, land reclamation and other high volume uses. The manual details the physical, engineering, and chemical properties of bituminous, subbituminous and lignite fly ash. Included are field and laboratory testing methods, design data, procedures and examples, specifications, quality control, and pre- and post-construction monitoring. Volume 1 describes uses where fly ash is used dry or conditioned with small amounts of moisture. Volume 2 describes uses where fly ash is placed as a slurry with relatively large amounts of water.

  6. Virulence and biotype analyses of Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor) populations from Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hessian fly is a major pest of wheat, and is controlled mainly through deploying fly-resistant wheat cultivars. Changes in Hessian fly populations in the field may quickly overcome fly-resistance of wheat cultivars within a few years, thus continuous monitoring dynamics of Hessian fly populatio...

  7. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.517 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. No... commercial flying, if that commercial flying plus his flying in operations under this part will exceed...

  8. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.517 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. No... commercial flying, if that commercial flying plus his flying in operations under this part will exceed...

  9. 14 CFR 121.517 - Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flying: airplanes. 121.517 Section 121.517 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Limitations: Supplemental Operations § 121.517 Flight time limitations: Other commercial flying: airplanes. No... commercial flying, if that commercial flying plus his flying in operations under this part will exceed...

  10. Space Shuttle Discovery DC Fly-Over

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) is seen from Top of the Town in Arlington, Virginia as it flies near the U.S. Capitol, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Washington. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Chris Gunn)

  11. The flying carpet and other tales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafferis, Noah Thomas

    In this thesis we demonstrate propulsion of a thin plastic piezoelectric sheet using controlled traveling wave deformations. This is achieved in air, without touching the ground, thus confirming the physical basis for a "flying" carpet near a horizontal surface. The device developed in this work demonstrates a novel form of propulsion, which operates without separate moving parts, since all actuation elements are formed from the same thin sheet of material. Potential advantages of this include low manufacturing costs and long lifetime. This work also demonstrates the advantages, in general, of using integrated sensors to control the vibrations of thin plastic sheets. Although we focus here on traveling waves, the same techniques could be used to produce a wide variety of time-varying deformations. The device could be used to model biological organisms, for example, for fluid dynamics studies. In addition, sensor arrays, for example chemical or biological, could be integrated onto the sheet. We discuss the fundamental and experimental conditions for realizing such a device, and describe the experimental approach to produce the traveling waves and demonstrate propulsion. The propulsive forces qualitatively agree with previous theoretical predictions. Theory predicts that such a sheet needs to reach speeds of ~20 cm/s to produce its own lift (the so-called "flying carpet" effect). Currently, the sheet is not free, so the observed velocity is ~1-2 cm/s. We present preliminary work to free the sheet from its tethers by providing on-board power using a boost-converter circuit, and, alternatively, using a cart that carries the tethering wires and follows the sheet. In addition, to enable the sheet to begin moving without external lift, methods to reduce friction and static electricity are presented. Experiments with passive test samples show indications of lift beginning at ~20-30 cm/s. Two aspects related to the integration of improved functionality on the sheet are also

  12. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  13. Animation of flocks flying in line formations.

    PubMed

    Klotsman, Marina; Tal, Ayellet

    2012-01-01

    We provide a biologically motivated technique for modeling and animating bird flocks in flight, which produces plausible and realistic-looking flock animations. While most previous approaches have focused on animating cluster formations, this article introduces a technique for animating flocks that fly in certain patterns, so-called line formations. We distinguish between the behavior of such flocks during initiation and their behavior during steady flight. Our simulation of the initiation stage is rule-based and incorporates an artificial bird model. Our simulation of the steady-flight stage combines a data-driven approach and an energy-savings model.

  14. Anionic States of LiFLi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-22

    EUIYCASFCTO 9 SECURITT12b CLSIIAIONT0.RIMITTION CODE TRC UNIDCLASIFEDT HCAS SIFIAPRO ED UNCPBICR LEASSEFIEDUNITE SALE IT.OO.0S50 DItTRdarIO Ior UNLIMITED-89 13...core Is atomic orbitals were doubly occupied in every configuration state function (CSF). The neglected core-core and core- valence correlation...has 2s and 2p valence orbitals to use but H has only Is valence orbitals. B. The Anion The ground electronic state of LiFLi- has a linear equilibrium

  15. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  16. Micro-Flying Robotics in Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, Jorge; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued a major recommendation to NASA. Prior to return to flight, NASA should develop and implement a comprehensive inspection plan to determine the structural integrity of all Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) system components. This inspection plan should take advantage of advanced non-destructive inspection technology. This paper describes a non-intrusive technology with a micro-flying robot to continuously monitor inside a space vehicle for any stress related fissures, cracks and foreign material embedded in walls, tubes etc.

  17. The flying hot wire and related instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, D.; Cantnell, B.; Wadcock, A.

    1978-01-01

    A flying hot-wire technique is proposed for studies of separated turbulent flow in wind tunnels. The technique avoids the problem of signal rectification in regions of high turbulence level by moving the probe rapidly through the flow on the end of a rotating arm. New problems which arise include control of effects of torque variation on rotor speed, avoidance of interference from the wake of the moving arms, and synchronization of data acquisition with rotation. Solutions for these problems are described. The self-calibrating feature of the technique is illustrated by a sample X-array calibration.

  18. T-38 Aircraft Fly Over Washington

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-05

    A NASA T-38 training jet is seen as it flies at 1500 feet over Washington, DC, Thursday, April 5, 2012. NASA, in cooperation with the Federal Aviation Administration, conducted training and photographic flights over the DC metropolitan area. T-38 aircraft have been used for astronaut training for more than 30 years as they allow pilots and mission specialists to think quickly in changing situations, mental experiences the astronauts say are critical to practicing for the rigors of spaceflight. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery DC Fly-Over

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), flies over the Washington skyline as seen from a NASA T-38 aircraft, Tuesday, April 17, 2012. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Robert Markowitz)

  20. T-38 Aircraft Fly Over Washington

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-05

    Two NASA T-38 training jets are seen as they fly over Reagan National Airport, Thursday, April 5, 2012 in Arlington, VA. NASA, in cooperation with the Federal Aviation Administration, conducted training and photographic flights over the DC metropolitan area. T-38 aircraft have been used for astronaut training for more than 30 years as they allow pilots and mission specialists to think quickly in changing situations, mental experiences the astronauts say are critical to practicing for the rigors of spaceflight. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Remote sensing for control of tsetse flies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Remotely sensed information is discussed which has potential for aiding in the control or eradication of tsetse flies. Data are available from earth resources meteorological, and manned satellites, from airborne sensors, and possibly from data collection platforms. A new zone discrimination technique, based on data from meteorological satellites may also allow the identification of zones hospitable to one or another species of tsetse. For background, a review is presented of the vegetation of Tanzania and Zanzibar, and illustrations presented of automatic processing of data from these areas. In addition, a review is presented of the applicability of temperature data to tsetse areas.

  2. Space Shuttle Discovery DC Fly-Over

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) is seen as it flies near the U.S. Capitol, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Washington. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Harold Dorwin)

  3. Space Shuttle Discovery Fly-By

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) flies over the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Washington. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  4. Interkingdom responses of flies to bacteria mediated by fly physiology and bacterial quorum sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect location and utilization of a resource is influenced by a host of variables, including nutrients acquired prior to encountering a stimulus and age of the individual. For the carrion system, we hypothesized the volatiles to which primary colonizers such as blow flies respond are the same sign...

  5. Seasonal abundance of stable flies and filth fly pupal parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) at Florida equine facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable flies cause problems around horses by taking blood meals and increasing horse activity. Although this is a recognized problem, few equine studies have been conducted. Therefore scientists at the USDA-CMAVE worked cooperatively with University of Florida scientists to conduct a 26-month study ...

  6. Importance of Campylobacter jejuni FliS and FliW in Flagella Biogenesis and Flagellin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Ordoñez, Soledad R.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2017-01-01

    Flagella-driven motility enables bacteria to reach their favorable niche within the host. The human foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni produces two heavily glycosylated structural flagellins (FlaA and FlaB) that form the flagellar filament. It also encodes the non-structural FlaC flagellin which is secreted through the flagellum and has been implicated in host cell invasion. The mechanisms that regulate C. jejuni flagellin biogenesis and guide the proteins to the export apparatus are different from those in most other enteropathogens and are not fully understood. This work demonstrates the importance of the putative flagellar protein FliS in C. jejuni flagella assembly. A constructed fliS knockout strain was non-motile, displayed reduced levels of FlaA/B and FlaC flagellin, and carried severely truncated flagella. Pull-down and Far Western blot assays showed direct interaction of FliS with all three C. jejuni flagellins (FlaA, FlaB, and FlaC). This is in contrast to, the sensor and regulator of intracellular flagellin levels, FliW, which bound to FlaA and FlaB but not to FlaC. The FliS protein but not FliW preferred binding to glycosylated C. jejuni flagellins rather than to their non-glycosylated recombinant counterparts. Mapping of the binding region of FliS and FliW using a set of flagellin fragments showed that the C-terminal subdomain of the flagellin was required for FliS binding, whereas the N-terminal subdomain was essential for FliW binding. The separate binding subdomains required for FliS and FliW, the different substrate specificity, and the differential preference for binding of glycosylated flagellins ensure optimal processing and assembly of the C. jejuni flagellins. PMID:28659885

  7. Development and Oviposition Preference of House Flies and Stable Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Six Substrates From Florida Equine Facilities.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, E T; Geden, C J; Hogsette, J A; Leppla, N C

    2014-11-01

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine the success and duration of larval development and oviposition preferences on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. Substrates tested were hay soiled with urine and manure, fresh horse manure, pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (<12 h old), pine shaving bedding soiled with urine and manure (aged >72 h in a manure pile), builders sand bedding soiled with urine and manure aged 3 d, and soil from an overgrazed pasture mixed with urine and manure of variable age. House fly larvae failed to develop into adults in hay, soil, and sand substrates. Stable flies preferred to oviposit on substrates with plant material and not on fresh manure. However, when eggs were added to the substrates, pupariation was maximal in fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrate. Stable flies developed in all six equine substrates, but development was less successful on the substrates with soil. In choice tests, fresh manure and the fresh pine shaving substrates were the most attractive for house fly oviposition. These substrates also yielded the greatest number of house fly puparia from artificially added eggs. An understanding of oviposition preferences and differential larval development of house flies and stable flies on these substrates may help develop options for reducing pest populations by effectively managing equine waste and selecting appropriate bedding materials.

  8. Stabilizing soft fine-grained soils with fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Edil, T.B.; Acosta, H.A.; Benson, C.H.

    2006-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of self-cementing fly ashes derived from combustion of subbituminous coal at electric power plants for stabilization of soft fine-grained soils. California bearing ratio (CBR) and resilient modulus (M{sub r}) tests were conducted on mixtures prepared with seven soft fine-grained soils (six inorganic soils and one organic soil) and four fly ashes. The soils were selected to represent a relatively broad range of plasticity, with plasticity indices ranging between 15 and 38. Two of the fly ashes are high quality Class C ashes (per ASTM C 618) that are normally used in Portland cement concrete. The other ashes are off-specification ashes, meaning they do not meet the Class C or Class F criteria in ASTM C 618. Tests were conducted on soils and soil-fly ash mixtures prepared at optimum water content (a standardized condition), 7% wet of optimum water content (representative of the typical in situ condition in Wisconsin), and 9-18% wet of optimum water content (representative of a very wet in situ condition). Addition of fly ash resulted in appreciable increases in the CBR and M{sub r} of the inorganic soils. For water contents 7% wet of optimum, CBRs of the soils alone ranged between 1 and 5. Addition of 10% fly ash resulted in CBRs ranging between 8 and 17, and 18% fly ash resulted in CBRs between 15 and 31. Similarly, M{sub r} of the soil alone ranged between 3 and 15 MPa at 7% wet of optimum, whereas addition of 10% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 12 and 60 MPa and 18% fly ash resulted in M{sub r} between 51 and 106 MPa. In contrast, except for one fly ash, addition of fly ash generally had little effect on CBR or M{sub r} of the organic soil.

  9. Mediterranean Fruit Fly as a Potential Vector of Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sela, Shlomo; Nestel, David; Pinto, Riky; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Bar-Joseph, Moshe

    2005-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) is a cosmopolitan pest of hundreds of species of commercial and wild fruits. It is considered a major economic pest of commercial fruits in the world. Adult Mediterranean fruit flies feed on all sorts of protein sources, including animal excreta, in order to develop eggs. After reaching sexual maturity and copulating, female flies lay eggs in fruit by puncturing the skin with their ovipositors and injecting batches of eggs into the wounds. In view of the increase in food-borne illnesses associated with consumption of fresh produce and unpasteurized fruit juices, we investigated the potential of Mediterranean fruit fly to serve as a vector for transmission of human pathogens to fruits. Addition of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Escherichia coli to a Mediterranean fruit fly feeding solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the fly's bacterial load. Flies exposed to fecal material enriched with GFP-tagged E. coli were similarly contaminated and were capable of transmitting E. coli to intact apples in a cage model system. Washing contaminated apples with tap water did not eliminate the E. coli. Flies inoculated with E. coli harbored the bacteria for up to 7 days following contamination. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the majority of fluorescent bacteria were confined along the pseudotrachea in the labelum edge of the fly proboscis. Wild flies captured at various geographic locations were found to carry coliforms, and in some cases presumptive identification of E. coli was made. These findings support the hypothesis that the common Mediterranean fruit fly is a potential vector of human pathogens to fruits. PMID:16000820

  10. Speciation of chromium in Australian fly ash.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Riley, Kenneth W; French, David H; Chiba, Koichi

    2007-08-15

    The concentrations of chromium (III) and (VI) in fly ash from nine Australian coal fired power stations were determined. Cr(VI) was completely leached by extraction with 0.01 M NaOH solution and the concentration was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). This was confirmed by determining Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in the extracts of fly ash that had been spiked with chromium salts. These analytical measurements were done using a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and ICP-AES. The elutant was 0.05 M HNO(3) containing 0.5%-CH(3)OH. When the column was operated at a flow rate of 1.2 ml min(-1) and samples were injected by use of a sample loop with a volume of 100 microl, Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in sample solution was exclusively separated within approximately 10 min. The detection limits (3sigma) were 5 ng for Cr(III) (0.050 mg l(-1)) and 9 ng for Cr(VI) (0.090 mg l(-1)), respectively. A relative standard deviation of 1.9% (n=6) was obtained for the determination by IC-ICP-AES of 0.25 mg l(-1) Cr(III) and Cr(VI).

  11. Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Parseghian, Zareh; Hogue, Jeffrey R.

    1988-01-01

    This project was devoted to the development of a software package, called the Orbiter Flying Qualities (OFQ) Workstation, for working with the OFQ Archives which are specially selected sets of space shuttle entry flight data relevant to flight control and flying qualities. The basic approach to creation of the workstation software was to federate and extend commercial software products to create a low cost package that operates on personal computers. Provision was made to link the workstation to large computers, but the OFQ Archive files were also converted to personal computer diskettes and can be stored on workstation hard disk drives. The primary element of the workstation developed in the project is the Interactive Data Handler (IDH) which allows the user to select data subsets from the archives and pass them to specialized analysis programs. The IDH was developed as an application in a relational database management system product. The specialized analysis programs linked to the workstation include a spreadsheet program, FREDA for spectral analysis, MFP for frequency domain system identification, and NIPIP for pilot-vehicle system parameter identification. The workstation also includes capability for ensemble analysis over groups of missions.

  12. Properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Poran, C.J. ); Ahtchi-Ali, F. )

    1989-08-01

    Since the late 1950s solid waste incinerators have become widely used in the United States. The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash, which has been disposed of primarily by landfilling. However, as landfills become undesirable other disposal methods are being sought. An experimental research program is conducted to determine engineering properties of solid waste incinerator fly ash (SWIF) in order to evaluate the feasibility of using the material for compacted fill and road and subbase construction. Moisture-density relationship, permeability, shear strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) are investigated. The effects of densification on these engineering properties are also examined. In addition, the effectiveness of cement and lime stabilization is investigated using two common mix ratios. Test results of stabilized mixes are compared to the unstabilized material. Cement stabilization is found to be very effective in reducing permeability, and increasing shear strength and CBR values of the material. The results indicate that SWIF with cement stabilization may be used effectively for compacted fill and road subbase construction. Finally, some environmental aspects related to these applications are examined.

  13. Uncontrolled Stability in Freely Flying Insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melfi, James, Jr.; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-11-01

    One of the key flight modes of a flying insect is longitudinal flight, traveling along a localized two-dimensional plane from one location to another. Past work on this topic has shown that flying insects, unless stabilized by some external stimulus, are typically unstable to a well studied pitching instability. In our work, we examine this instability in a computational study to understand whether it is possible for either evolution or an aero-vehicle designer to stabilize longitudinal flight through changes to insect morphology, kinematics, or aerodynamic quantities. A quasi-steady wingbeat averaged flapping flight model is used to describe the insect. From this model, a number of non-dimensional parameters are identified. The effect of these parameters was then quantified using linear stability analysis, applied to various translational states of the insect. Based on our understanding of these parameters, we demonstrate how to find an intrinsically stable flapping flight sequence for a dragonfly-like flapping flier in an instantaneous flapping flight model.

  14. Cellular Potts Models of Fruit Fly Embryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohner, Jason; Hutson, Shane

    2006-11-01

    Biologists have extensively studied embryonic development in the fruit fly (Drosophila melangaster) as a model for morphogenesis. Our overall goal is to understand how the cellular rearrangements of morphogenesis are caused by the underlying forces between cells. To that end, we are developing means to replicate fruit fly embryogenesis (from cellular differentiation to dorsal closure) using cellular Potts models. Cells are described as collections of like ``spins''; and spin-spin interaction energies are used to describe the forces along cell boundaries. Using a four state (spin-type) model (three tissue types and the surrounding media) we have reproduced cell sorting as well as engulfment of a surface grouping of tissue. Cell sorting can be accomplished using only the spin-spin interaction energies with the volume components being used only for cell size management. We are currently attempting to replicate the experimentally determined geometry and dynamics of dorsal closure. This modeling will take advantage of software tools developed at Notre Dame for looking at cellular Potts models and packaged as CompuCell3D.

  15. Flying Drosophila orient to sky polarization.

    PubMed

    Weir, Peter T; Dickinson, Michael H

    2012-01-10

    Insects maintain a constant bearing across a wide range of spatial scales. Monarch butterflies and locusts traverse continents [1, 2], and foraging bees and ants travel hundreds of meters to return to their nests [1, 3, 4], whereas many other insects fly straight for only a few centimeters before changing direction. Despite this variation in spatial scale, the brain region thought to underlie long-distance navigation is remarkably conserved [5, 6], suggesting that the use of a celestial compass is a general and perhaps ancient capability of insects. Laboratory studies of Drosophila have identified a local search mode in which short, straight segments are interspersed with rapid turns [7, 8]. However, this flight mode is inconsistent with measured gene flow between geographically separated populations [9-11], and individual Drosophila can travel 10 km across desert terrain in a single night [9, 12, 13]-a feat that would be impossible without prolonged periods of straight flight. To directly examine orientation behavior under outdoor conditions, we built a portable flight arena in which a fly viewed the natural sky through a liquid crystal device that could experimentally rotate the polarization angle. Our findings indicate that Drosophila actively orient using the sky's natural polarization pattern.

  16. Reconfigurable Software for Controlling Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Joseph B.

    2006-01-01

    Software for a system to control the trajectories of multiple spacecraft flying in formation is being developed to reflect underlying concepts of (1) a decentralized approach to guidance and control and (2) reconfigurability of the control system, including reconfigurability of the software and of control laws. The software is organized as a modular network of software tasks. The computational load for both determining relative trajectories and planning maneuvers is shared equally among all spacecraft in a cluster. The flexibility and robustness of the software are apparent in the fact that tasks can be added, removed, or replaced during flight. In a computational simulation of a representative formation-flying scenario, it was demonstrated that the following are among the services performed by the software: Uploading of commands from a ground station and distribution of the commands among the spacecraft, Autonomous initiation and reconfiguration of formations, Autonomous formation of teams through negotiations among the spacecraft, Working out details of high-level commands (e.g., shapes and sizes of geometrically complex formations), Implementation of a distributed guidance law providing autonomous optimization and assignment of target states, and Implementation of a decentralized, fuel-optimal, impulsive control law for planning maneuvers.

  17. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Andrew J; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L; Samet, James M

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient air PM in studies of biologic effects testing the hypothesis that metals mediate the biologic effects of air pollution particles. A majority of the in vitro and animal model investigations support the postulate that transition metals present in ROFA (especially vanadium) participate in Fenton-like chemical reactions to produce reactive oxygen species. This is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B and other transcription factor activation, induction of inflammatory mediator expression, and inflammatory lung injury. It is also evident that vanadium accounts for a significant portion of the biologic activity of ROFA. The extrapolation of this body of investigation on ROFA to the field of ambient air PM is difficult, as particles in numerous environments have such small amounts of vanadium. PMID:11834466

  18. Demonstration of Flying Mirror with Improved Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Kando, Masaki; Fukuda, Yuji; Chen Liming; Daito, Izuru; Ogura, Koichi; Homma, Takayuki; Hayashi, Yukio; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Sagisaka, Akito; Mori, Michiaki; Koga, James K.; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Okada, Hajime; Kawase, Keigo; Kameshima, Takashi; Nishimori, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Toyoaki; Tajima, Toshiki

    2009-07-25

    A strongly nonlinear wake wave driven by an intense laser pulse can act as a partially reflecting relativistic mirror (the flying mirror)[S. V. Bulanov, et al., Bulletin of the Lebedev Physics Institute, No. 6, 9 (1991); S. V. Bulanov, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085001 (2003)]. Upon reflection from such mirror, a counter-propagating optical-frequency laser pulse is directly converted into high-frequency radiation, with a frequency multiplication factor approx4gamma{sup 2}(the double Doppler effect). We present the results of recent experiment in which the photon number in the reflected radiation was at least several thousand times larger than in our proof-of-principle experiment [M. Kando, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 135001 (2007); A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 123106 (2007)]. The flying mirror holds promise of generating intense coherent ultrashort XUV and x-ray pulses that inherit their temporal shape and polarization from the original optical-frequency (laser) pulses. Furthermore, the reflected radiation bears important information about the reflecting wake wave itself, which can be used for its diagnostics.

  19. Modes of thrust generation in flying animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Song, Jialei; Tobalske, Bret; Luo Team; Tobalske Team

    2016-11-01

    For flying animals in forward flight, thrust is usually much smaller as compared with weight support and has not been given the same amount of attention. Several modes of thrust generation are discussed in this presentation. For insects performing slow flight that is characterized by low advance ratios (i.e., the ratio between flight speed and wing speed), thrust is usually generated by a "backward flick" mode, in which the wings moves upward and backward at a faster speed than the flight speed. Paddling mode is another mode used by some insects like fruit flies who row their wings backward during upstroke like paddles (Ristroph et al., PRL, 2011). Birds wings have high advance ratios and produce thrust during downstroke by directing aerodynamic lift forward. At intermediate advance ratios around one (e.g., hummingbirds and bats), the animal wings generate thrust during both downstroke and upstroke, and thrust generation during upstroke may come at cost of negative weight support. These conclusions are supported by previous experiment studies of insects, birds, and bats, as well as our recent computational modeling of hummingbirds. Supported by the NSF.

  20. Relative navigation for spacecraft formation flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kate R.; Gramling, Cheryl J.; Lee, Taesul; Kelbel, David A.; Long, Anne C.

    1998-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) is currently developing and implementing advanced satellite systems to provide autonomous control of formation flyers. The initial formation maintenance capability will be flight-demonstrated on the Earth-Orbiter-1 (EO-1) satellite, which is planned under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Millennium Program to be a coflight with the Landsat-7 (L-7) satellite. Formation flying imposes relative navigation accuracy requirements in addition to the orbit accuracy requirements for the individual satellites. In the case of EO-1 and L-7, the two satellites are in nearly coplanar orbits, with a small difference in the longitude of the ascending node to compensate for the Earth's rotation. The GNCC has performed trajectory error analysis for the relative navigation of the EO-1/L-7 formation, as well as for a more advanced tracking configuration using cross-link satellite communications. This paper discusses the orbit determination and prediction accuracy achievable for EO-1 and L-7 under various tracking and orbit determination scenarios and discusses the expected relative separation errors in their formation flying configuration.

  1. Relative Navigation for Spacecraft Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Kate R.; Gramling, Cheryl J.; Lee, Taesul; Kelbel, David A.; Long, Anne C.

    1998-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center Guidance, Navigation, and Control Center (GNCC) is currently developing and implementing advanced satellite systems to provide autonomous control of formation flyers. The initial formation maintenance capability will be flight-demonstrated on the Earth-Orbiter-1 (EO-l) satellite, which is planned under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration New Millennium Program to be a coflight with the Landsat-7 (L-7) satellite. Formation flying imposes relative navigation accuracy requirements in addition to the orbit accuracy requirements for the individual satellites. In the case of EO-1 and L-7, the two satellites are in nearly coplanar orbits, with a small difference in the longitude of the ascending node to compensate for the Earth's rotation. The GNCC has performed trajectory error analysis for the relative navigation of the EO-1/L-7 formation, as well as for a more advanced tracking configuration using cross- link satellite communications. This paper discusses the orbit determination and prediction accuracy achievable for EO-1 and L-7 under various tracking and orbit determination scenarios and discusses the expected relative separation errors in their formation flying configuration.

  2. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ghio, Andrew J; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L; Samet, James M

    2002-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient air PM in studies of biologic effects testing the hypothesis that metals mediate the biologic effects of air pollution particles. A majority of the in vitro and animal model investigations support the postulate that transition metals present in ROFA (especially vanadium) participate in Fenton-like chemical reactions to produce reactive oxygen species. This is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B and other transcription factor activation, induction of inflammatory mediator expression, and inflammatory lung injury. It is also evident that vanadium accounts for a significant portion of the biologic activity of ROFA. The extrapolation of this body of investigation on ROFA to the field of ambient air PM is difficult, as particles in numerous environments have such small amounts of vanadium.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority`s newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective.

  4. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bai...

  5. Control of House Flies on Florida Dairy Farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies are a health and general annoyance issue for both cattle and humans. Unfortunately dairy farms are endowed with odors and breeding sites which naturally attract house flies, making their control essential for healthy cattle and happy neighbors. Objective: Evaluate the relative effective...

  6. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3151 - Flyings (X Group).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... tolerance. X4M Fair Mixed Color Flyings. Medium to tissuey body, mature to ripe, firm to porous, wrinkly to... Mixed Color Flyings. Medium to tissuey body, mature to ripe, firm to porous, wrinkly, dingy finish,...

  8. Response of northern flying squirrels to supplementary dens.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is a keystone species in Pacific Northwest conifer forests, consuming and disseminating spores of ectomycorrhizal fungi essential to Pinaceae and preyed upon by different vertebrate predators. Increasing the numbers of flying squirrels has been suggested as part of a strategy to increase the...

  9. Autonomous formation flying sensor for the Star Light Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, M.; Purcell, G.; Tien, J.; Young, L.; Srinivasan, J.; Ciminera, M. A.; Chong, Y. J.; Amaro, L. R.; Young, L. E.

    2002-01-01

    The StarLight Mission, an element of NASA's Origins Program, was designed for first-time demonstration of two technologies: formation flying optical interferometry between spacecraft and autonomous precise formation flying of an array of spacecraft to support optical interferometry. The design overview and results of the technology effort are presented in this paper.

  10. Stable fly control in cattle winter feeding sites with Novaluron

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mixture of wasted feed with manure and urine residues at livestock winter feeding sites provides an excellent substrate for the development of immature stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Such sites are primary sources of early summer stable flies in the central United States and limited opt...

  11. Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), dispersal and governing factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), movement has been studied, its extent and significance has been uncertain. On a local scale (<13 km), fly movement occurs between host animals and at resting sites to feed and mate, mainly at on-farm locations where herbivorous livestock regularly congr...

  12. Navy Flying Clubs: Management Control Systems and Performance Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    provide a model for measuring the financial and business performance of the Monterey Navy Flying Club. The benefit is that the club can use these...Cuskey Associate Advisor Douglas A. Brook Dean, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy iv...into its new business environment of fewer members and planes. All Navy Flying Clubs need to start assessing their maintenance and aircraft

  13. 78 FR 55219 - Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Flying Machine Competition, Chicago, IL... machine competition event in Chicago, IL on September 21, 2013. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... Stat. 2064; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. An annual flying machine competition...

  14. The recycling of the coal fly ash in glass production

    SciTech Connect

    Erol, M.M.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The recycling of fly ash obtained from the combustion of coal in thermal power plant has been studied. Coal fly ash was vitrified by melting at 1773 K for 5 hours without any additives. The properties of glasses produced from coal fly ash were investigated by means of Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. DTA study indicated that there was only one endothermic peak at 1003 K corresponding to the glass transition temperature. XRD analysis showed the amorphous state of the glass sample produced from coal fly ash. SEM investigations revealed that the coal fly ash based glass sample had smooth surface. The mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the glass sample were also determined. Recycling of coal fly ash by using vitrification technique resulted to a glass material that had good mechanical, physical and chemical properties. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results showed that the heavy metals of Pb, Cr, Zn and Mn were successfully immobilized into the glass. It can be said that glass sample obtained by the recycling of coal fly ash can be taken as a non-hazardous material. Overall, results indicated that the vitrification technique is an effective way for the stabilization and recycling of coal fly ash.

  15. Contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes.

    PubMed

    Deka, Abhijit; Sekharan, Sreedeep

    2017-01-01

    It is important to determine the contaminant retention characteristics of materials when assessing their suitability for use as liners in landfill sites. Sand-bentonite mixtures are commonly used as liners in the construction of landfill sites for industrial and hazardous wastes. Sand is considered to be a passive material with a negligible chemical retention capacity; fly ash, however, offers the additional advantage of adsorbing the heavy metals present in landfill leachates. There have been few studies of the contaminant retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes. The study reported here determined the contaminant retention characteristics of different fly ashes, bentonite and selected fly ash-bentonite mixes for Pb(2+) using 24 h batch tests. The tests were conducted by varying the initial concentrations of metal ions under uncontrolled pH conditions. The efficiency of the removal of Pb(2+) by the different types of fly ash and fly ash-bentonite mixes was studied. The influence of multiple sources of fly ash on the retention characteristics of fly ash-bentonite mixes was investigated.

  16. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  17. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  18. House fly management with viral and botanical agents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies are major pests of human and animal health throughout the world and are among the most difficult to control because of resistance to every insecticide that has been developed for their control. A promising microbial agent for fly control is salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a m...

  19. Identification of a fliG homologue in Treponema denticola.

    PubMed

    Heinzerling, H F; Penders, J E; Burne, R A

    1995-08-08

    Using a bacteriophage lambda library of Treponema denticola (Td) ATCC 35405 DNA, and, as a reagent, sera derived from individuals with advanced adult periodontal disease, a variety of recombinant clones producing antigens of this oral spirochete have been isolated. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a clone expressing three immunoreactive antigens has revealed the presence of an open reading frame highly homologous to the flagellar switch/motor protein, FliG, which is known to be essential for flagellar assembly and rotation, and chemotaxis in enteric bacteria. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the treponemal FliG protein had 73% similarity (55% identity) to the Bacillus subtilis FliG protein, and showed significant, but lesser homologies to Gram- FliG proteins. Sequence analysis of regions flanking fliG indicated that this gene is immediately preceded by a fliF homologue, further supporting that the cloned DNA encodes FliG of Td. The findings imply that although the signals for control of chemotaxis may be distinctly different in spirochetes, at least some of the molecules involved in torque generation, control of flagellar rotation and signal transduction are highly conserved with other bacteria. The stronger homology of the spirochete FliG with those of Gram+ bacteria is also consistent with recent analyses of other spirochetal genes.

  20. Nuisance flies on Australian cattle feedlots: immature populations.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Like the US, Australia produces beef on large feedlots. Complaints of fly problems prompted a request for information on biology and management of feedlot flies. Therefore, USDA-CMAVE scientists worked cooperatively for 3 years with Australian scientists to determine species composition, seasonality...

  1. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  2. Fly Diversity Revealed by PCR-RFLP of Mitochondrial DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asraoui, Jimmy F.; Sayar, Nancy P.; Knio, Khouzama M.; Smith, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we describe an inexpensive, two-session undergraduate laboratory activity that introduces important molecular biology methods in the context of biodiversity. In the first session, students bring tentatively identified flies (order Diptera, true flies) to the laboratory, extract DNA, and amplify a region of the mitochondrial gene…

  3. Exploring Flying Faculty Teaching Experiences: Motivations, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen

    2014-01-01

    "Flying faculty" models of teaching represent an important aspect of the internationalisation agenda. As short-term sojourners, these overseas visits provide academics with disorientating dilemmas that can stimulate transformational learning. This study explored the impact of flying faculty teachers' experiences on their work, lives and…

  4. Field experiments on an intelligent towed vehicle ``Flying Fish``

    SciTech Connect

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M.

    1995-12-31

    A depth, pitch and roll controllable towed vehicle, ``Flying Fish`` is being developed to measure the ocean current, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, chlorophyll and total inorganic hydrocarbon. The first field experiments on its performance were carried out in the Japan sea last summer. The motion data of the ``Flying Fish`` are compared with those of numerical simulations.

  5. Fruit Fly Liquid Larval Diet Technology Transfer and Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Since October 2006, USDA-ARS has been implementing a fruit fly liquid larval diet technology transfer, which has proceeded according to the following steps: (1) Recruitment of interested groups through request; (2) Establishment of the Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) with ARS; (3) Fruit fly liquid...

  6. Fire ant microsporidia acquired by parasitoid flies of fire ants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The microsporidium Kneallhazia (formerly Thelohania) solenopsae and parasitoid flies in the genus Pseudacteon are natural enemies of the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. Pseudacteon flies oviposit into adult fire ants, where maggots that eclose from eggs migrate to the ants’ head, pupate, and...

  7. Bringing back the fruit into fruit fly-bacteria interactions.

    PubMed

    Behar, A; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2008-03-01

    Female Mediterranean fruit flies (Ceratitis capitata) oviposit in fruits, within which the larvae develop. This development is associated with rapid deterioration of the fruit, and frequently with invasion by secondary pests. Most research on the associations between medflies and microorganisms has focused on the bacteria inhabiting the digestive system of the adult fly, while the role of the fruit in mediating, amplifying or regulating the fruit fly microflora has been largely neglected. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that the host fruit plays a role in perpetuating the fly-associated bacterial community. Using direct and cultured-based approaches, we show that this community is composed in its very large majority of diazotrophic and pectinolytic Enterobacteriaceae. Our data suggest that this fly-associated enterobacterial community is vertically transmitted from the female parent to its offspring. During oviposition, bacteria are transferred to the fruit, establish and proliferate within it, causing its decay. These results show that the host fruit is indeed a central partner in the fruit fly-bacterial interaction as these transmitted bacteria are amplified by the fruit, and subsequently maintained throughout the fly's life. This enterobacterial community may contribute to the fly's nitrogen and carbon metabolism, affecting its development and ultimately, fitness.

  8. Enhanced trapping of stable flies via olfactory and visual cues

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult stable flies are highly attracted to the so-called Alsynite cylinder trap; however this trap is expensive. Here we report the development of a cheaper and better white panel trap with options of adding visual and olfactory stimuli for enhanced stable fly trapping. The white panel trap attracte...

  9. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Stable flies are considered to be one of themajor blood-feeding pests in theUS livestock industry, causing losses running into billions of dollars annually. Adult stable flies are highly attracted to Alsynite traps; however, Alsynite is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain and is ex...

  10. Dens of northern flying squirrels in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; T.M. Wilson; C.C. Maguire; B.L. Biswell

    1997-01-01

    Silvicultural prescriptions to enhance northern flying squirrel (Glaucoinys sabrinus) habitat have been suggested as an aid for recovery of the threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Flying squirrels are hypothesized to be limited by den sites (cavities in trees) and by food (truffles). However, no...

  11. Status of biopesticides for control of house flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) have resisted human attempts to control them since antiquity, and the global problem of fly resistance to conventional insecticides has resulted in renewed interest in biopesticides as alternative management tools. Entomopathogenic nematodes such as Steinernema and ...

  12. Autonomous formation flying sensor for the Star Light Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, M.; Purcell, G.; Tien, J.; Young, L.; Srinivasan, J.; Ciminera, M. A.; Chong, Y. J.; Amaro, L. R.; Young, L. E.

    2002-01-01

    The StarLight Mission, an element of NASA's Origins Program, was designed for first-time demonstration of two technologies: formation flying optical interferometry between spacecraft and autonomous precise formation flying of an array of spacecraft to support optical interferometry. The design overview and results of the technology effort are presented in this paper.

  13. The impact of flying qualities on helicopter operational agility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padfield, Gareth D.; Lappos, Nick; Hodgkinson, John

    1993-01-01

    Flying qualities standards are formally set to ensure safe flight and therefore reflect minimum, rather than optimum, requirements. Agility is a flying quality but relates to operations at high, if not maximum, performance. While the quality metrics and test procedures for flying, as covered for example in ADS33C, may provide an adequate structure to encompass agility, they do not currently address flight at high performance. This is also true in the fixed-wing world and a current concern in both communities is the absence of substantiated agility criteria and possible conflicts between flying qualities and high performance. AGARD is sponsoring a working group (WG19) title 'Operational Agility' that deals with these and a range of related issues. This paper is condensed from contributions by the three authors to WG19, relating to flying qualities. Novel perspectives on the subject are presented including the agility factor, that quantifies performance margins in flying qualities terms; a new parameter, based on maneuver acceleration is introduced as a potential candidate for defining upper limits to flying qualities. Finally, a probabilistic analysis of pilot handling qualities ratings is presented that suggests a powerful relationship between inherent airframe flying qualities and operational agility.

  14. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flies transport specific bacteria with their larvae which provides a wider range of nutrients for those bacteria. Our hypothesis was that this symbiotic interaction may depend on interkingdom signaling. We obtained Proteus mirabilis from the salivary glands of the blow fly Lucilia sericat. This s...

  15. Systematics and distribution of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Talafha, H; Amr, Z S; Baker, M Abu; Bader, A Katbeh

    2005-06-01

    The horse fly fauna of Jordan consists of 24 species belonging to seven genera. The present study adds two new records; Tabanus unifasciatus and Tabanus lunatus. Keys and illustrations for the horse flies of Jordan are presented based on examined materials. Distribution and geographic ranges for each species is also given.

  16. Multinuclear NMR approach to coal fly ash characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the application of various nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to study the hydration kinetics and mechanisms, the structural properties, and the adsorption characteristics of coal fly ash. Coal fly ash samples were obtained from the Dave Johnston and Laramie River electric power generating plants in Wyoming. Hydrogen NMR relaxation times were measured as a function of time to observe the kinetics of hydration for the two coal fly ashes at different temperatures and water-to-cement ration. The kinetic data for the hydrated coal fly ashes were compared to the hydration of portland cement. The mechanism used to describe the kinetic data for the hydration of portland cement was applied, with reservation, to describe the hydration of the coal fly ashes. The results showed that the coal fly ashes differ kinetically from that of portland cement and from each other. Consequently, both coal fly ashes were judged to be poorer cementitious materials than portland cement. Carbon-13 NMR CP/MAS spectra were obtained for the anhydrous coal fly ashes in an effort to determine the type of organic species that may be present, either adsorbed on the surface or entrained.

  17. Optimizing the use of fly ash in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.

    2007-07-01

    The optimum amount of fly ash varies not only with the application, but also with composition and proportions of all the materials in the concrete mixture (especially the fly ash), the conditions during placing (especially temperature), construction practices (for example, finishing and curing) and the exposure conditions. This document discusses issues related to using low to very high levels of fly ash in concrete and provides guidance for the use of fly ash without compromising the construction process or the quality of the finished product. The nature of fly ashes including their physical, mineralogical and chemical properties is covered in detail, as well as fly ash variability due to coal composition and plant operating conditions. A discussion on the effects of fly ash characteristics on fresh and hardened concrete properties includes; workability, bleeding, air entrainment, setting time, heat of hydration, compressive strength development, creep, drying shrinkage, abrasion resistance, permeability, resistance to chlorides, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), sulfate resistance, carbonation, and resistance to freezing and thawing and deicer salt scaling. Case studies were selected as examples of some of the more demanding applications of fly ash concrete for ASR mitigation, chloride resistance, and green building.

  18. Exploring Flying Faculty Teaching Experiences: Motivations, Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen

    2014-01-01

    "Flying faculty" models of teaching represent an important aspect of the internationalisation agenda. As short-term sojourners, these overseas visits provide academics with disorientating dilemmas that can stimulate transformational learning. This study explored the impact of flying faculty teachers' experiences on their work, lives and…

  19. Flies as pollinators of melittophilous Salvia species (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Celep, Ferhat; Atalay, Zeynep; Dikmen, Fatih; Doğan, Musa; Classen-Bockhoff, Regıne

    2014-12-01

    • Floral adaptation to a functional pollinator group does not necessarily mean close specialization to a few pollinator species. For the more than 950 species of Salvia, only bee and bird pollinations are known. Restriction to these pollinators is mainly due to the specific flower construction (lever mechanism). Nevertheless, it has been repeatedly suggested that Salvia flowers might also be pollinated by flies. Are flies able to handle the lever mechanism? Are they functionally equivalent pollinators? In this study, we compared and quantified pollen transfer by bees and flies to test whether flies are true pollinators in Salvia.• We identified pollinators using field observations and photos. Video documentation of the visitation rate and the site of pollen placement on the pollinator body, morphometric measurements, quantification of pollen placement, pollen load, handling time, and stigma contact ratio were analyzed.• Field investigations revealed that 19 insect species pollinated S. virgata and four pollinated S. verticillata, including 16 bee species from seven genera of the Apidae and three fly species from three genera of the Nemestrinidae and Tabanidae.• Flies have been found to be pollinators in primarily bee-pollinated Salvia species. This result demonstrates the potential of a given "melittoid" flower construction to broaden the range of pollinators to guarantee successful pollination and seed production. Though bees, particularly Bombus terrestris, were more efficient than flies, the study shows that flies significantly contribute to pollen transfer in Salvia. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Aerodynamic characteristics of flying fish in gliding flight.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2010-10-01

    The flying fish (family Exocoetidae) is an exceptional marine flying vertebrate, utilizing the advantages of moving in two different media, i.e. swimming in water and flying in air. Despite some physical limitations by moving in both water and air, the flying fish has evolved to have good aerodynamic designs (such as the hypertrophied fins and cylindrical body with a ventrally flattened surface) for proficient gliding flight. Hence, the morphological and behavioral adaptations of flying fish to aerial locomotion have attracted great interest from various fields including biology and aerodynamics. Several aspects of the flight of flying fish have been determined or conjectured from previous field observations and measurements of morphometric parameters. However, the detailed measurement of wing performance associated with its morphometry for identifying the characteristics of flight in flying fish has not been performed yet. Therefore, in the present study, we directly measure the aerodynamic forces and moment on darkedged-wing flying fish (Cypselurus hiraii) models and correlated them with morphological characteristics of wing (fin). The model configurations considered are: (1) both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread out, (2) only the pectoral fins spread with the pelvic fins folded, and (3) both fins folded. The role of the pelvic fins was found to increase the lift force and lift-to-drag ratio, which is confirmed by the jet-like flow structure existing between the pectoral and pelvic fins. With both the pectoral and pelvic fins spread, the longitudinal static stability is also more enhanced than that with the pelvic fins folded. For cases 1 and 2, the lift-to-drag ratio was maximum at attack angles of around 0 deg, where the attack angle is the angle between the longitudinal body axis and the flying direction. The lift coefficient is largest at attack angles around 30∼35 deg, at which the flying fish is observed to emerge from the sea surface. From glide polar

  1. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal. Volume 1 contains the dissertation of Ghosal which covers the characterization of fly ash and the measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  2. FlyTED: the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Klyne, Graham; Benson, Elizabeth; Gudmannsdottir, Elin; White-Cooper, Helen; Shotton, David

    2010-01-01

    FlyTED, the Drosophila Testis Gene Expression Database, is a biological research database for gene expression images from the testis of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. It currently contains 2762 mRNA in situ hybridization images and ancillary metadata revealing the patterns of gene expression of 817 Drosophila genes in testes of wild type flies and of seven meiotic arrest mutant strains in which spermatogenesis is defective. This database has been built by adapting a widely used digital library repository software system, EPrints (http://eprints.org/software/), and provides both web-based search and browse interfaces, and programmatic access via an SQL dump, OAI-PMH and SPARQL. FlyTED is available at http://www.fly-ted.org/.

  3. Issues and solutions for testing free-flying robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Carlo; Busolo, S.; Cocuzza, S.; Aboudan, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bettanini, C.; Marchesi, M.; Angrilli, F.

    2007-06-01

    Space robotics currently has an important role in space operations and scientists and engineers are designing new robotic systems for space servicing missions and extra-vehicular activities. In particular, free-flying robots with extended arms have compelling applications and several prototypes have recently been developed. Testing on Earth free-flying robots is a main issue as the unconstrained environment of free space must be simulated. From the experience acquired by testing a free-flying robot prototype both in a tethered facility and during a parabolic flight campaign, and after several years of experiments using air-bearing planar systems, the authors describe and discuss methods to test free-flying robots. A recent study aimed at designing a free-flying platform suitable for an under-water environment is also presented and discussed.

  4. Development of a novel walk-through fly trap for the control of horn flies and other pests on pastured dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Denning, S S; Washburn, S P; Watson, D W

    2014-07-01

    A prototype walk-through fly vacuum system, designed to remove horn flies Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) from cattle, was developed and tested for efficacy. The study was conducted during 4 fly seasons over 17 consecutive weeks each year within the months of May through September at 1 dairy research herd in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Additional data on horn flies, as well as face flies (Musca autumnalis) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), were collected during 1 yr from 7 commercial pasture-based and organic dairy farms in the piedmont region of North Carolina. The number of flies observed on animals in the pasture was compared with the number of flies collected in the trap. Studies were initiated after horn fly densities had met or exceeded a threshold of 200 flies per animal. The vacuum trap removed between 1.3 and 2.5 million flies annually from the research station cattle. Most fly removal occurred during the first few weeks of operation and maintained densities below threshold thereafter. Cattle using the fly trap at the research farm had only about 28% the number of horn flies as untreated cattle, and reductions ranged from 67.5 to 74.5% across the 4-yr study. In addition to large numbers of horn flies, traps placed on commercial dairies during 1 yr collected stable flies, face flies, and house flies, all species with differing behavior and larger in size than horn flies. The estimated cost of running the trap is $72 per season at commercial rates of $0.12 per hour and an expected 4h of daily operation during the time of milking. Use of a vacuum system as described herein has potential as a cost-effective method in reducing populations of parasitic flies in pasture-based dairy production systems without the use of insecticides. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Automated Flying-Insect Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An automated flying-insect detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland-security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect s wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing-beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically. All AFIDS data are preprocessed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LabVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al-GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing-beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation. Preliminary data indicate that AFIDS has

  6. Evolution of mutualism between globeflowers and their pollinating flies.

    PubMed

    Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste; Després, Laurence; Godelle, Bernard

    2002-07-21

    Plant/seed-eater pollinators mutualisms involve a plant pollinated by an insect whose larvae develop by eating a fraction of host-plant seeds. The outcome of the interaction therefore depends on the number of ovules fertilized by adult visits and the number of seeds destroyed by larvae. Among the very few cases of such mutualisms reported so far is the globeflower-globeflower flies mutualism, which is unique in that it involves several congeneric fly species (Chiastocheta genus) coexisting within a single host-plant species, Trollius europaeus. These species exhibit contrasted oviposition behaviors resulting in a more or less beneficial outcome for the plant. We designed an adaptive dynamics model to investigate how morphological traits of globeflower could affect the evolution of oviposition in its pollinating flies. Three fly traits (flower age at oviposition, clutch size and the level of avoidance of already parasitized flowers) and one plant trait (closed or open corolla) were examined. Whatever the shape of the flower, evolutionary branching occurs between early and late ovipositing flies, driven by strong competition among larvae within a fruit. Once this branching occurred, the closed shape of the corolla is likely to offer a better protection to eggs of early but not of late ovipositing flies. The difference in egg survival results in higher competition among early larvae and thus selects for decreased clutch size in early flies. This can be seen as a first step in the evolution of a mutualistic behavior. The prediction of our model fits field observations of fly behavior, giving theoretical support to the hypothesis of fly sympatric speciation within its host plant. Moreover, flower closed globe shape can be positively selected in globeflowers as it results in a reduction of parasitism strength. This last evolution therefore leads to a stable mutualism between globeflowers and globeflower flies.

  7. Dynamics of Dark-Fly Genome Under Environmental Selections.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Minako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Agata, Kiyokazu; Fuse, Naoyuki

    2015-12-04

    Environmental adaptation is one of the most fundamental features of organisms. Modern genome science has identified some genes associated with adaptive traits of organisms, and has provided insights into environmental adaptation and evolution. However, how genes contribute to adaptive traits and how traits are selected under an environment in the course of evolution remain mostly unclear. To approach these issues, we utilize "Dark-fly", a Drosophila melanogaster line maintained in constant dark conditions for more than 60 years. Our previous analysis identified 220,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Dark-fly genome, but did not clarify which SNPs of Dark-fly are truly adaptive for living in the dark. We found here that Dark-fly dominated over the wild-type fly in a mixed population under dark conditions, and based on this domination we designed an experiment for genome reselection to identify adaptive genes of Dark-fly. For this experiment, large mixed populations of Dark-fly and the wild-type fly were maintained in light conditions or in dark conditions, and the frequencies of Dark-fly SNPs were compared between these populations across the whole genome. We thereby detected condition-dependent selections toward approximately 6% of the genome. In addition, we observed the time-course trajectory of SNP frequency in the mixed populations through generations 0, 22, and 49, which resulted in notable categorization of the selected SNPs into three types with different combinations of positive and negative selections. Our data provided a list of about 100 strong candidate genes associated with the adaptive traits of Dark-fly.

  8. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  9. Visual targets for capture and management of house flies, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Geden, Christopher J

    2006-06-01

    House flies and stable flies were collected on a Florida dairy farm using a commercial Alsynite sticky cylinder trap that was either used alone or covered with white, blue, or black outdoor awning fabric. Collections of both species of flies were highest on exposed Alsynite (house flies, 506.2 flies/day; stable flies, 19.1) followed by blue fabric (house flies, 308.1 flies/day; stable flies 12.5). Responses of both species to white and black fabric were 70% lower than to either of the former materials. When blue fabric was used to cover 50% of the surface area of Alsynite cylinders, house fly responses were significantly higher (290.2 flies/day) than to blue fabric alone (165.2); stable fly responses to the bi-colored target were significantly higher (152.6) than to Alsynite alone (93.8). Comparison of fly counts in the blue-covered versus uncovered Alsynite with traps of a single material indicated that house fly attraction to blue fabric was enhanced by the presence of clear Alsynite, whereas stable fly attraction to Alsynite was enhanced by the presence of blue fabric. The presence of blue+Alsynite visual targets increased collections of house flies in pans of dry fly bait but not in baited jug traps. Visual targets treated with 1.2% bifenthrin controlled >50% and 90% of house flies in large cages by days two and four after placement, respectively.

  10. Increased Transmissibility of Leishmania donovani From the Mammalian Host to Vector Sand Flies After Multiple Exposures to Sand Fly Bites.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Joanna G; Paun, Andrea; Inbar, Ehud; Romano, Audrey; Lewis, Michael; Ghosh, Kashinath; Sacks, David

    2017-04-15

    Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. The role of the blood or skin as a source of infection to sand flies remains unclear, and the possible effect of multiple exposures to fly bites on transmissibility has not been addressed. L. donovani-infected hamsters underwent xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis on the same or different sites on the abdomen on 2 consecutive days or by artificial feeding on the skin or blood. The transmission of L. donovani from sick hamsters to flies was surprisingly low (mean, 24% of fed flies). New flies fed on the same site acquired significantly more infections (mean, 61%; P < .0001). By artificial feeding, flies could acquire infection from blood and skin. However, only artificial feeding on blood produced infections that correlated with the natural feeding (R = 0.792; P < .0001). Infections acquired from blood increased dramatically for blood obtained after exposure to bites, as did the parasitemia level and the number of monocytes in the circulation. The bites of uninfected sand flies favor the transmissibility of L. donovani by infected hosts, owing to a systemic effect that exposure to bites has on the parasitemia. Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. Using the hamster model of visceral disease, we demonstrate that prior exposure to bites of uninfected sand flies potentiates their ability to transmit infection to the vector.

  11. Contact and spatial repellency from catnip essential oil, Nepeta cataria, against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Presenting brief summaries of our significant findings on: 1). Development of an in vitro bioassay for screening/discovering biting fly repellents, 2). Strong repellency found from catnip oil and its ingredient compounds, nepetalactones against four filth fly species; 3). Feeding deterrency, oviposi...

  12. Drop or fly? Negative genetic correlation between death-feigning intensity and flying ability as alternative anti-predator strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Tatsunori; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2006-01-01

    A prey animal may have the alternative of flying away or feigning death when it encounters predators. These alternatives have a genetic base as anti-predator strategies in the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. A negative genetic correlation between death-feigning intensity and flying ability was found in C. chinensis, i.e. lower flying ability is genetically connected to escaping by dropping from a perch and then feigning death, whereas higher flying ability does not correspond to death-feigning behaviour. Two bidirectional artificial selections for death-feigning duration and flying ability were conducted independently in C. chinensis. The strains selected for shorter (longer) duration of death-feigning had higher (lower) flying ability, while the strains selected for lower (higher) flying ability showed longer (shorter) duration of death-feigning. When the two traits were compared in 21 populations of C. chinensis derived from different geographical regions, a significant negative correlation was found between death-feigning intensity and flying ability. Based on these results, the choice between alternative escaping behaviours in animals is discussed from two points of view: phenotypic plasticity, an individual with two tactics; and pleiotropic genetic correlation, different individuals with opposite strategies. PMID:17476776

  13. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  14. Efficacy of novaluron as a feed-through for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure.

    PubMed

    Lohmeyer, K H; Pound, J M; Yeater, K M; May, M A

    2014-07-01

    Two rates (0.4 mg/kg body weight/d and 0.6 mg/kg body weight/d) of a daily feed-through formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.67% active ingredient Cattle Mix), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, were evaluated for efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), house flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), developing in cow manure. Both rates of feed-through novaluron, delivered consecutively for 10 d, reduced adult emergence of all three species when compared with the untreated control. The presence of deformed puparia indicated that novaluron had an insect growth regulator effect on the developing fly larvae. Both of the feed-through rates evaluated resulted in 100% reduction of adult stable fly emergence after the second day of feed-through treatment. The level of control efficacy observed against these three fly species make this feed-through formulation a candidate for use in an integrated livestock pest management program, particularly in confined cattle production situations where a feed-through product could be easily administered.

  15. Fly-in/Fly-out nursing: is it for us? New graduate nurses' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hart, Bethne; Morris, Jack; Collins, Alexandra; McMullen, Paul; Stanis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Fly-in/Fly-out models of health care for rural-remote communities are currently the focus of evaluation and debate, as the health inequalities of rural and remote communities continue to challenge both health service providers and healthcare consumers. At first glance, these models of health care may attract new graduate nurses transitioning to practice, because they appear to resolve some of the tensions in career planning and aspirations. However, FIFO models may also present significant tensions between healthcare services and the communities they serve. This article presents the thoughts and perceptions of new graduate nurses as they explore future career pathways in rural-remote nursing. It draws on the rural and remote health literature, in recognition of the enduring inequalities of rural and remote health in Australia.

  16. Formation Flying for Distributed InSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Murray, Emmanuell A.; Ploen, Scott R.; Gromov, Konstantin G.; Chen, Curtis W.

    2006-01-01

    We consider two spacecraft flying in formation to create interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Several candidate orbits for such in InSar formation have been previously determined based on radar performance and Keplerian orbital dynamics. However, with out active control, disturbance-induced drift can degrade radar performance and (in the worst case) cause a collision. This study evaluates the feasibility of operating the InSAR spacecraft as a formation, that is, with inner-spacecraft sensing and control. We describe the candidate InSAR orbits, design formation guidance and control architectures and algorithms, and report the (Delta)(nu) and control acceleration requirements for the candidate orbits for several tracking performance levels. As part of determining formation requirements, a formation guidance algorithm called Command Virtual Structure is introduced that can reduce the (Delta)(nu) requirements compared to standard Leader/Follower formation approaches.

  17. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.; Phinney, Dale E.

    1989-01-01

    The ground based demonstration of the extensive extravehicular activity (EVA) Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out; (2) searches for and acquires the target; (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target; (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles; (5) reaches for and grapples the target; (6) returns to transfer the object; and (7) returns to base.

  18. Element bioaccumulation from coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    James, W.D.; Ogugbuaja, V.O.

    1986-01-01

    The hazard associated with exposure of populations to fossil-fuel combustion effluents has long been recognized. In this paper, work that was performed in an attempt to study the fate of various elements contained in coal fly ash after the exposure of ash to laboratory rats is described. Experiments were designed to examine relationships among exposure route, mass of exposure dose, and the rate and level of element accumulation in various body organs. Ash doses of 50 and 100 mg and 50, 100, and 200 mg were administered intratracheally and intragastrically, respectively, to female laboratory rats. Samples were pooled according to dose mass and administration route for each sacrifice day in groups of three rats. These samples were then analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis.

  19. Spacecraft Will Communicate "on the Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    As NASA probes deeper into space, the distance between sensor and scientist increases, as does the time delay. NASA needs to close that gap, while integrating more spacecraft types and missions-from near-Earth orbit to deep space. To speed and integrate communications from space missions to scientists on Earth and back again. NASA needs a comprehensive, high-performance communications network. To this end, the CICT Programs Space Communications (SC) Project is providing technologies for building the Space Internet which will consist of large backbone network, mid-size access networks linked to the backbones, and smaller, ad-hoc network linked to the access network. A key component will be mobile, wireless networks for spacecraft flying in different configurations.

  20. Spacecraft Will Communicate "on the Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufenberg, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    As NASA probes deeper into space, the distance between sensor and scientist increases, as does the time delay. NASA needs to close that gap, while integrating more spacecraft types and missions-from near-Earth orbit to deep space. To speed and integrate communications from space missions to scientists on Earth and back again. NASA needs a comprehensive, high-performance communications network. To this end, the CICT Programs Space Communications (SC) Project is providing technologies for building the Space Internet which will consist of large backbone network, mid-size access networks linked to the backbones, and smaller, ad-hoc network linked to the access network. A key component will be mobile, wireless networks for spacecraft flying in different configurations.

  1. FlyBase: genes and gene models

    PubMed Central

    Drysdale, Rachel A.; Crosby, Madeline A.

    2005-01-01

    FlyBase (http://flybase.org) is the primary repository of genetic and molecular data of the insect family Drosophilidae. For the most extensively studied species, Drosophila melanogaster, a wide range of data are presented in integrated formats. Data types include mutant phenotypes, molecular characterization of mutant alleles and aberrations, cytological maps, wild-type expression patterns, anatomical images, transgenic constructs and insertions, sequence-level gene models and molecular classification of gene product functions. There is a growing body of data for other Drosophila species; this is expected to increase dramatically over the next year, with the completion of draft-quality genomic sequences of an additional 11 Drosphila species. PMID:15608223

  2. An intelligent, free-flying robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, G. J.; Hess, C. W.; Rhoades, D. E.; Mcfadin, L. W.; Healey, K. J.; Erickson, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The ground-based demonstration of EVA Retriever, a voice-supervised, intelligent, free-flying robot, is designed to evaluate the capability to retrieve objects (astronauts, equipment, and tools) which have accidentally separated from the Space Station. The major objective of the EVA Retriever Project is to design, develop, and evaluate an integrated robotic hardware and on-board software system which autonomously: (1) performs system activation and check-out, (2) searches for and acquires the target, (3) plans and executes a rendezvous while continuously tracking the target, (4) avoids stationary and moving obstacles, (5) reaches for and grapples the target, (6) returns to transfer the object, and (7) returns to base.

  3. Network Configuration Analysis for Formation Flying Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoblock, Eric J.; Wallett, Thomas M.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Bhasin, Kul B.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of two networks to support autonomous multi-spacecraft formation flying systems is presented. Both systems are comprised of a ten-satellite formation, with one of the satellites designated as the central or 'mother ship.' All data is routed through the mother ship to the terrestrial network. The first system uses a TCP/EP over ATM protocol architecture within the formation, and the second system uses the IEEE 802.11 protocol architecture within the formation. The simulations consist of file transfers using either the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) or the Simple Automatic File Exchange (SAFE) Protocol. The results compare the IP queuing delay, IP queue size and IP processing delay at the mother ship as well as end-to-end delay for both systems. In all cases, using IEEE 802.11 within the formation yields less delay. Also, the throughput exhibited by SAFE is better than FTP.

  4. Formation Flying for Distributed InSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel P.; Murray, Emmanuell A.; Ploen, Scott R.; Gromov, Konstantin G.; Chen, Curtis W.

    2006-01-01

    We consider two spacecraft flying in formation to create interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Several candidate orbits for such in InSar formation have been previously determined based on radar performance and Keplerian orbital dynamics. However, with out active control, disturbance-induced drift can degrade radar performance and (in the worst case) cause a collision. This study evaluates the feasibility of operating the InSAR spacecraft as a formation, that is, with inner-spacecraft sensing and control. We describe the candidate InSAR orbits, design formation guidance and control architectures and algorithms, and report the (Delta)(nu) and control acceleration requirements for the candidate orbits for several tracking performance levels. As part of determining formation requirements, a formation guidance algorithm called Command Virtual Structure is introduced that can reduce the (Delta)(nu) requirements compared to standard Leader/Follower formation approaches.

  5. A survey of spacecraft formation flying guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, B. H.; Hadaegh, F. Y.; Scharf, D. P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the first comprehensive spacecraft formation flying guidance (FFG) survey. Here by the term guidance we mean both path planning (i. e., reference trajectory generation) and optimal, open loop control design. FFG naturally divides into two areas: Deep Space (DS), in which relative spacecraft dynamics reduce to double integrator form, and Planetary Orbital Environments (POE), in which they do not (e.9. libration point formations). Both areas consider optimal formation reconfigurations. In addition, DS FFG addresses optimal u, v-coverages for multiple spacecraft interferometers and rest-to-rest rotations. The main focus of the POE literature, however, is 'assive apertures.' These are periodic and fuel-eficient relative spacecraft trajectories that accomplish scientific objectives (e.9. synthesizing an aperture).

  6. A model for rotorcraft flying qualities studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittal, Manoj; Costello, Mark F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a mathematical model that is expected to be useful for rotorcraft flying qualities research. A computer model is presented that can be applied to a range of different rotorcraft configurations. The algorithm computes vehicle trim and a linear state-space model of the aircraft. The trim algorithm uses non linear optimization theory to solve the nonlinear algebraic trim equations. The linear aircraft equations consist of an airframe model and a flight control system dynamic model. The airframe model includes coupled rotor and fuselage rigid body dynamics and aerodynamics. The aerodynamic model for the rotors utilizes blade element theory and a three state dynamic inflow model. Aerodynamics of the fuselage and fuselage empennages are included. The linear state-space description for the flight control system is developed using standard block diagram data.

  7. Poisoning with brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis.

    PubMed

    Elonen, E; Tarssanen, L; Härkönen, M

    1979-01-01

    Three patients ate different amounts of a common northern mushroom, brown fly agaric, Amanita regalis. All of them believed they had eaten delicious parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera. The symptoms of poisoning began 1--2 hours after ingestion of the mushrooms. All the patients had marked gastrointestinal symptoms: nausea and heavy vomiting. Two had central nervous system manifestations and cholinergic symptoms: hallucinations, confusion, or loss of consciousness as well as copious salivation, or sweating. All patients recovered within 4--24 hours without any damage to liver, kidneys or central nervous system. It seems that cooking the mushrooms does not completely neutralize the toxic agents of Amanita regalis. The analysis of fried mushrooms shows that it may be possible to identify mushrooms reliably from the remains of a meal.

  8. Potential for Stable Flies and House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae) to Transmit Rift Valley Fever Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    disease and economic disruption. Of particular concern is Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) ( genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae), which has been...countries in Africa (Anyamba et al. 2009). Although most other members of the genus Phlebovirus are associated with sand flies in nature, RVFV has...al. 1998). Laboratory studies indicate that numerous species of mos- quitoes are susceptible to oral infection and are able to transmit RVFV by bite

  9. An Automated Flying-Insect-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi; Andrews, Jane C.; Howell, Dane; Ryan, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An automated flying-insect-detection system (AFIDS) was developed as a proof-of-concept instrument for real-time detection and identification of flying insects. This type of system has use in public health and homeland security decision support, agriculture and military pest management, and/or entomological research. Insects are first lured into the AFIDS integrated sphere by insect attractants. Once inside the sphere, the insect's wing beats cause alterations in light intensity that is detected by a photoelectric sensor. Following detection, the insects are encouraged (with the use of a small fan) to move out of the sphere and into a designated insect trap where they are held for taxonomic identification or serological testing. The acquired electronic wing beat signatures are preprocessed (Fourier transformed) in real-time to display a periodic signal. These signals are sent to the end user where they are graphically displayed. All AFIDS data are pre-processed in the field with the use of a laptop computer equipped with LABVIEW. The AFIDS software can be programmed to run continuously or at specific time intervals when insects are prevalent. A special DC-restored transimpedance amplifier reduces the contributions of low-frequency background light signals, and affords approximately two orders of magnitude greater AC gain than conventional amplifiers. This greatly increases the signal-to-noise ratio and enables the detection of small changes in light intensity. The AFIDS light source consists of high-intensity Al GaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The AFIDS circuitry minimizes brightness fluctuations in the LEDs and when integrated with an integrating sphere, creates a diffuse uniform light field. The insect wing beats isotropically scatter the diffuse light in the sphere and create wing beat signatures that are detected by the sensor. This configuration minimizes variations in signal associated with insect flight orientation.

  10. Oviposition deterrents for the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) from fly faeces extracts.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, J; Díaz-Fleischer, F

    2006-02-01

    After oviposition, females of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann deposit a host-marking pheromone on the fruit surface that deters oviposition by conspecifics. Methanolic extracts of fruit fly faeces elicit a similar deterrent effect. The results of laboratory and field experiments using raw methanolic extracts of C. capitata faeces as an oviposition deterrent are reported. Laboratory bioassays revealed a significant positive relationship between concentration of faeces and the inhibition of oviposition responses by C. capitata. Treatment of halves of coffee bushes with methanolic extracts containing 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg faeces ml(-1) resulted in a significant reduction of infestation only at the highest concentration (P=0.03). Treatment of blocks of coffee bushes with an extract of 10 mg faeces ml(-1) resulted in an 84% reduction in infestation by C. capitata in sprayed plants and a 56% reduction in adjacent untreated coffee bushes surrounding treated plots, probably due to the deterrent effect of host-marking pheromone on fly oviposition. We conclude that faeces contain oviposition deterrent substances that effectively reduce fruit infestations by C. capitata, suggesting a clear potential for the use of this infochemical in integrated management programmes targeted at this pest.

  11. One fly to rule them all-muscid flies are the key pollinators in the Arctic.

    PubMed

    Tiusanen, Mikko; Hebert, Paul D N; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-09-28

    Global change is causing drastic changes in the pollinator communities of the Arctic. While arctic flowers are visited by a wide range of insects, flies in family Muscidae have been proposed as a pollinator group of particular importance. To understand the functional outcome of current changes in pollinator community composition, we examined the role of muscids in the pollination of a key plant species, the mountain avens (Dryas). We monitored the seed set of Dryas across 15 sites at Zackenberg, northeast Greenland, and used sticky flower mimics and DNA barcoding to describe the flower-visiting community at each site. To evaluate the consequences of shifts in pollinator phenology under climate change, we compared the flower visitors between the early and the late season. Our approach revealed a diverse community of insects visiting Dryas, including two-thirds of all insect species known from the area. Even against this diverse background, the abundance of muscid flies emerged as a key predictor for seed set in Dryas, whereas overall insect abundance and species richness had little or no effect. With muscid flies as the main drivers of the pollinating function in the High Arctic, a recently observed decline in their abundances offers cause for concern. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. One fly to rule them all—muscid flies are the key pollinators in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Tiusanen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Global change is causing drastic changes in the pollinator communities of the Arctic. While arctic flowers are visited by a wide range of insects, flies in family Muscidae have been proposed as a pollinator group of particular importance. To understand the functional outcome of current changes in pollinator community composition, we examined the role of muscids in the pollination of a key plant species, the mountain avens (Dryas). We monitored the seed set of Dryas across 15 sites at Zackenberg, northeast Greenland, and used sticky flower mimics and DNA barcoding to describe the flower-visiting community at each site. To evaluate the consequences of shifts in pollinator phenology under climate change, we compared the flower visitors between the early and the late season. Our approach revealed a diverse community of insects visiting Dryas, including two-thirds of all insect species known from the area. Even against this diverse background, the abundance of muscid flies emerged as a key predictor for seed set in Dryas, whereas overall insect abundance and species richness had little or no effect. With muscid flies as the main drivers of the pollinating function in the High Arctic, a recently observed decline in their abundances offers cause for concern. PMID:27683367

  13. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, as mechanical vectors of pathogenic bacteria in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiwong, T; Srivoramas, T; Sueabsamran, P; Sukontason, K; Sanford, M R; Sukontason, K L

    2014-06-01

    The Oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the house fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are synanthropic flies which are adapted to live in close association with human habitations, thereby making them likely mechanical vectors of several pathogens to humans. There were two main aims of this study. The first aim was to determine the prevalence of these two fly species from five types of human habitations including: fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias and paddy fields, in the Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap districts of Ubon Ratchathani province of Northeast Thailand. Flies collection were conducted monthly from September 2010-October 2011 using a reconstructable funnel trap, containing 1 day-tainted beef offal as bait. A total of 7 750 flies (6 401 C. megacephala and 1 349 M.domestica) were collected. The second aim was to examine the potential of these flies to carry pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from 994 individual flies collected using a sweep net (555 C. megacephala and 439 M. domestica). A total of 15 bacterial genera were isolated from the external surfaces, comprising ten genera of gram-negative bacteria and five gram-positive bacteria. The most common bacteria isolated from both species were coagulase-negative staphylococci, followed by Streptococcus group D non-enterococci. Human pathogenic enteric bacteria isolated were Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus sp., and Enterococcus sp., of which S. typhi is the first report of isolation from these fly species. Other human pathogens included Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Not only were the number of C. megacephala positive for bacteria significantly higher than for M. domestica, but they were also carrying ~11-12 times greater bacterial load than M. domestica. These data suggest that both fly species should be considered potential

  14. Classical Olfactory Conditioning in the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning. PMID:25837420

  15. Direct transcriptional regulation of MDM2 by Fli-1.

    PubMed

    Truong, Amandine H L; Cervi, David; Lee, Jane; Ben-David, Yaacov

    2005-02-03

    The Ets transcription factor, Fli-1, has been shown to play a pivotal role in the induction and progression of Friend Murine Leukemia Virus (F-MuLV)-induced erythroleukemia, with its overexpression leading to erythroblast survival, proliferation, and inhibition of terminal differentiation. P53 inactivation is an additional genetic alteration that occurs in late-stage leukemic progression associated with in vivo and in vitro immortalization. Since p53 protein expression levels are low, to undetectable, in primary erythroleukemic cells that express elevated levels of Fli-1, we investigated the potential regulation of p53 by Fli-1. We assessed whether the overexpression of Fli-1 could partially regulate p53 via modulation of its well-established regulator, MDM2. In this paper, we demonstrate that the promoter of MDM2 contains a consensus binding site for Fli-1 that is bound by this transcription factor in vitro and in vivo, resulting in MDM2 transcriptional regulation. We further substantiate these observations in vivo by demonstrating a positive correlation in the expression of Fli-1 and MDM2, and a negative correlation with p53 in leukemic tissues obtained from mice with Friend Disease. These observations depict a significant function of Fli-1 overexpression in the indirect control of p53, evidently capable of leading to an increasingly aggressive erythroleukemic clone in vivo.

  16. Flared landing approach flying qualities. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingarten, Norman C.; Berthe, Charles J., Jr.; Rynaski, Edmund G.; Sarrafian, Shahan K.

    1986-01-01

    An in-flight research study was conducted utilizing the USAF/Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) to investigate longitudinal flying qualities for the flared landing approach phase of flight. A consistent set of data were generated for: determining what kind of command response the pilot prefers/requires in order to flare and land an aircraft with precision, and refining a time history criterion that took into account all the necessary variables and the characteristics that would accurately predict flying qualities. Seven evaluation pilots participated representing NASA Langley, NASA Dryden, Calspan, Boeing, Lockheed, and DFVLR (Braunschweig, Germany). The results of the first part of the study provide guidelines to the flight control system designer, using MIL-F-8785-(C) as a guide, that yield the dynamic behavior pilots prefer in flared landings. The results of the second part provide the flying qualities engineer with a derived flying qualities predictive tool which appears to be highly accurate. This time-domain predictive flying qualities criterion was applied to the flight data as well as six previous flying qualities studies, and the results indicate that the criterion predicted the flying qualities level 81% of the time and the Cooper-Harper pilot rating, within + or - 1%, 60% of the time.

  17. Fly ash in landfill top covers - a review.

    PubMed

    Brännvall, E; Kumpiene, J

    2016-01-01

    Increase of energy recovery from municipal solid waste by incineration results in the increased amounts of incineration residues, such as fly ash, that have to be taken care of. Material properties should define whether fly ash is a waste or a viable resource to be used for various applications. Here, two areas of potential fly ash application are reviewed: the use of fly ash in a landfill top cover either as a liner material or as a soil amendment in vegetation layer. Fly ashes from incineration of three types of fuel are considered: refuse derived fuel (RDF), municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and biofuel. Based on the observations, RDF and MSWI fly ash is considered as suitable materials to be used in a landfill top cover liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plant studies, could be considered suitable for the vegetation layer of the top cover. Responsible application of MSWI ashes is, however, warranted in order to avoid element accumulation in soil and elevation of background values over time.

  18. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life

    PubMed Central

    Wiegmann, Brian M.; Trautwein, Michelle D.; Winkler, Isaac S.; Barr, Norman B.; Kim, Jung-Wook; Lambkin, Christine; Bertone, Matthew A.; Cassel, Brian K.; Bayless, Keith M.; Heimberg, Alysha M.; Wheeler, Benjamin M.; Peterson, Kevin J.; Pape, Thomas; Sinclair, Bradley J.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.; Blagoderov, Vladimir; Caravas, Jason; Kutty, Sujatha Narayanan; Schmidt-Ott, Urs; Kampmeier, Gail E.; Thompson, F. Christian; Grimaldi, David A.; Beckenbach, Andrew T.; Courtney, Gregory W.; Friedrich, Markus; Meier, Rudolf; Yeates, David K.

    2011-01-01

    Flies are one of four superradiations of insects (along with beetles, wasps, and moths) that account for the majority of animal life on Earth. Diptera includes species known for their ubiquity (Musca domestica house fly), their role as pests (Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito), and their value as model organisms across the biological sciences (Drosophila melanogaster). A resolved phylogeny for flies provides a framework for genomic, developmental, and evolutionary studies by facilitating comparisons across model organisms, yet recent research has suggested that fly relationships have been obscured by multiple episodes of rapid diversification. We provide a phylogenomic estimate of fly relationships based on molecules and morphology from 149 of 157 families, including 30 kb from 14 nuclear loci and complete mitochondrial genomes combined with 371 morphological characters. Multiple analyses show support for traditional groups (Brachycera, Cyclorrhapha, and Schizophora) and corroborate contentious findings, such as the anomalous Deuterophlebiidae as the sister group to all remaining Diptera. Our findings reveal that the closest relatives of the Drosophilidae are highly modified parasites (including the wingless Braulidae) of bees and other insects. Furthermore, we use micro-RNAs to resolve a node with implications for the evolution of embryonic development in Diptera. We demonstrate that flies experienced three episodes of rapid radiation—lower Diptera (220 Ma), lower Brachycera (180 Ma), and Schizophora (65 Ma)—and a number of life history transitions to hematophagy, phytophagy, and parasitism in the history of fly evolution over 260 million y. PMID:21402926

  19. Classical olfactory conditioning in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia Li; Chen, Xiao Yan; Zeng, Xin Nian

    2015-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a serious pest of fruits and vegetables. Methyl eugenol (ME), a male attractant, is used to against this fly by mass trapping. Control effect may be influenced by learning, which could modify the olfactory response of the fly to this attractant. To collect the behavioral evidence, studies on the capability of this fly for olfactory learning are necessary. We investigated olfactory learning in male flies with a classical olfactory conditioning procedure using restrained individuals under laboratory conditions. The acquisition of the proboscis extension reflex was used as the criterion for conditioning. A high conditioned response level was found in oriental fruit flies when an odor was presented in paired association with a sucrose reward but not when the odor and sucrose were presented unpaired. We also found that the conditioning performance was influenced by the odor concentration, intertrial interval, and starvation time. A slight sensitization elicited by imbibing sucrose was observed. These results indicate that oriental fruit flies have a high capacity to form an olfactory memory as a result of classical conditioning.

  20. Development of Classified Fly Ash as a Pozzolanic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukzon, Sumrerng; Chindaprasirt, Prinya

    This research studies the potential for using classified fly ash from Mae Moh power plant in Thailand as a pozzolanic material. Three different fly ash finenesses viz., coarse Original Fly Ash (OFA), Medium Fly Ash (MFA) and Fine Fly Ash (FFA) were used for the study. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was partially replaced with fly ash at 20 and 40% by weight of binder. The water to binder ratio was kept constant at 0.5 and the flow of mortar was maintained at 110±5% with the aid of superplasticizer (SP). Compressive strength, carbonation depth and porosity test of mortars were determined. FFA has a high potential to be used as a good pozzolanic material. The use of FFA produces mortars with good strength and low porosity. The resistance to carbonation of mortar improves with partial replacement of FFA in comparison with the normal coarse fly ash. The use of FFA results in a strong and dense mortar which is due to better dispersion and filling effect as well as an increase in the pozzolanic reaction.