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Sample records for fm laser radar

  1. Applications of FM-CW laser radar to antenna contour mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slotwinski, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The FM-CW coherent laser radar concept, based on the FM radar principle which makes use of the coherence and lunability of injection laser diodes, is discussed. Laser radar precision/time tradeoffs, block diagrams, system performance, fiber optic system implantation, and receiver improvements are briefly described.

  2. Generating nonlinear FM chirp waveforms for radar.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-09-01

    Nonlinear FM waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents design and implementation techniques for Nonlinear FM waveforms.

  3. Phase and amplitude errors in FM radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Hugh D.

    The constraints on phase and amplitude errors are determined for various types of FM radar by calculating the range sidelobe levels on the point target response due to the phase and amplitude modulation of the target echo. It is shown that under certain circumstances the constraints on phase linearity appropriate for conventional pulse compression radars are unnecessarily stringent, and quite large phase errors can be tolerated provided the relative delay of the local oscillator with respect to the target echo is small compared with the periodicity of the phase error characteristic. The constraints on amplitude flatness, however, are severe under almost all circumstances.

  4. Random FM-CW radar and its ECCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guosui; Shi, Xiangquan; Lu, Jinhui

    The principle of a random FM-CW radar system is introduced, and the range cutoff charactertistic (RCC) for the system is derived. In a fuze radar system, this radar can be used against passive jamming away from the point of range cutoff as well as against active jamming. Experimental results are presented which show that the random FM-CW radar system has RCC and ECCM properties. The system can be used as a short-range detection system, a low-altitude altimeter, and a blind landing device.

  5. A fine resolution multifrequency polarimetric FM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredow, J.; Gogineni, S.; Leung, T.; Moore, R. K.

    1988-01-01

    A fine resolution polarimetric FM SAR was developed for optimization of polarimetric SARs and interpretation of SAR data via controlled experiments with surface-base sensors. The system is designed for collecting polarimetric data at 5.3 and 10 GHz over incidence angles from 0 to 60 deg. Features of the system include broad bandwidth to obtain fine range resolution, phase stabilization and linearization loop circuitry, and digital signal processing capability. The system is used in a research program to collect polarimetric backscatter data from artificial sea ice research and design trade-offs, laboratory and field evaluation, as well as results from experiments on artificial sea ice are presented.

  6. Laser Radar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Laser and radar instruments aboard NASA aircraft provide measurements of the snow and ice surface and down to the bedrock under the ice. Lasers, with a shorter wavelength, measure the surface eleva...

  7. Spaceborne laser radar.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.

    1972-01-01

    Development of laser systems to acquire and track targets in applications such as the rendezvous and docking of two spacecraft. A scan technique is described whereby a narrow laser beam is simultaneously scanned with an equally narrow receiver field-of-view without the aid of mechanical gimbals. Equations are developed in order to examine the maximum acquisition and tracking rates, and the maximum target range for a scanning laser radar system. A recently built prototype of a small, lightweight, low-power-consuming scanning laser radar is described.

  8. Forensic Application of FM-CW and Pulse Radar

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Koppenjan; R. S. Freeland; M. L. Miller; R. E. Yoder

    2003-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology has supplied vital assistance in criminal investigations. However, law enforcement personnel desire further developments such that the technology is rapidly deployable, and that it provides both a simple user interface and sophisticated target identification. To assist in the development of target identification algorithms, our efforts involve gathering background GPR data for the various site conditions and circumstances that often typify clandestine burials. For this study, forensic anthropologists established shallow-grave plots at The University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility (ARF) that are specific to GPR research. These plots contain donated human cadavers lying in various configurations and depths, surrounded by assorted construction material and backfill debris. We scanned the plots using two GPR technologies: (1) a multi-frequency synthetic-aperture FM-CW radar (200-700 MHz) (GPR-X) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), Bechtel Nevada (Koppenjan et al., 2000), and (2) a commercial pulse radar (SIR-20) manufactured by Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (400 and 900 MHz)(GSSI). The sweep-frequency data show the large biological mass decomposing within the torso as encircled ''hot spots.'' The 400-MHz pulse radar exhibit major horizontal reflectors above the body, with shadow reflectors (horizontal multiples) occurring beneath the body at 60 cm depth. The 400-MHz antenna was able to discern the grave walls and folded tarp covering the lower body. Under these moist, clay-rich conditions, the 900-MHz antenna was able to penetrate slightly beyond 30 cm beneath the concrete layer. However, neither system was able to penetrate beyond a one meter depth in the moist, clay-rich soil (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalf). Example scans from each system are provided, along with a discussion of the survey protocol and general performance.

  9. Quantum cascade laser FM spectroscopy of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Zach; Clasp, Trocia; Lue, Chris; Johnson, Tiffani; Ingle, Taylor; Jamison, Janet; Buchanan, Roger; Reeve, Scott

    2013-05-01

    Polyisobutylene is an industrial polymer that is widely used in a number of applications including the manufacture of military grade explosives. We have examined the vapor emanating from a series of different molecular weight samples of polyisobutylene using high resolution Quantum Cascade Laser FM spectroscopy. The vapor phase spectra all exhibit a rovibrational structure similar to that for the gas phase isobutylene molecule. We have assigned the structure in the 890 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1 regions to the isobutylene ν28 and ν7 fundamental bands respectively. These spectroscopic signatures may prove useful for infrared sensing applications. Here we will present the infrared signatures along with recent GCMS data from a sample of C4, utilizing solid-phase microextraction vapor collection fibers, which confirm the presence of isobutylene as one of the volatile bouquet species in RDX-based explosives.

  10. Generating nonlinear FM chirp radar signals by multiple integrations

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-02-01

    A phase component of a nonlinear frequency modulated (NLFM) chirp radar pulse can be produced by performing digital integration operations over a time interval defined by the pulse width. Each digital integration operation includes applying to a respectively corresponding input parameter value a respectively corresponding number of instances of digital integration.

  11. Digital generation of high time-bandwidth product linear FM waveforms for radar altimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, H. D.; Bradford, W. J.

    1992-04-01

    The paper describes and demonstrates a method of generating linear FM waveforms of very high time bandwidth product (in excess of 100,000) with range sidelobe levels more than adequate for future-generation radar altimeters. The technique is extremely flexible, and the pulse length and bandwidth are easily varied by changing the parameters of the digital circuitry. An analysis is developed to relate the level of phase and amplitude errors to the permissible range sidelobe level, showing that considerably greater phase errors can be tolerated than for conventional pulse compression radars. The validity of this analysis is confirmed by experiment.

  12. Noise analysis for near field 3-D FM-CW radar imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.

    2015-06-19

    Near field radar imaging systems are used for several applications including concealed weapon detection in airports and other high-security venues. Despite the near-field operation, phase noise and thermal noise can limit the performance in several ways including reduction in system sensitivity and reduction of image dynamic range. In this paper, the effects of thermal noise, phase noise, and processing gain are analyzed in the context of a near field 3-D FM-CW imaging radar as might be used for concealed weapon detection. In addition to traditional frequency domain analysis, a time-domain simulation is employed to graphically demonstrate the effect of these noise sources on a fast-chirping FM-CW system.

  13. Plasma density measurements using FM-CW millimeter wave radar techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, J.L.; Mazzucato, E.; Schmidt, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Modified FM-CW radar techniques using swept millimeter-wave oscillators are useful for determining when a particular density has been reached in a plasma. Narrowband measurements on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) demonstrate the suitability of these techniques for controlling high-power auxiliary plasma heating systems. Broadband measurements using these same techniques are proposed, by which the density profile could be determined.

  14. Medical applications of shortwave FM radar: Remote monitoring of cardiac and respiratory motion

    PubMed Central

    Mostov, K.; Liptsen, E.; Boutchko, R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces the use of low power continuous wave frequency modulated radar for medical applications, specifically for remote monitoring of vital signs in patients. Methods: Gigahertz frequency radar measures the electromagnetic wave signal reflected from the surface of a human body and from tissue boundaries. Time series analysis of the measured signal provides simultaneous information on range, size, and reflective properties of multiple targets in the field of view of the radar. This information is used to extract the respiratory and cardiac rates of the patient in real time. Results: The results from several preliminary human subject experiments are provided. The heart and respiration rate frequencies extracted from the radar signal match those measured independently for all the experiments, including a case when additional targets are simultaneously resolved in the field of view and a case when only the patient’s extremity is visible to the radar antennas. Conclusions: Micropower continuous wave FM radar is a reliable, robust, inexpensive, and harmless tool for real-time monitoring of the cardiac and respiratory rates. Additionally, it opens a range of new and exciting opportunities in diagnostic and critical care medicine. Differences between the presented approach and other types of radars used for biomedical applications are discussed. PMID:20384270

  15. Research on Doppler frequency in incoherent FM/CW laser detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Cui, Zhanzhong

    2010-10-01

    The principle of transmitted and received laser in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is different from the one in coherent FM/CW laser detection. The methods for distance solution in both detections are similar. Incoherent FM/CW laser detection uses subcarrier to modulate the intensity of laser, and the photodetector detects the intensity of received signal. The amplified photocurrent is mixed with local oscillator signal, and the intermediate frequency (IF) signal contains the information of distance from sensor to target. The Doppler frequency for this detection is related with the relative radial velocity between sensor and target. The optical frequency is directly modulated with electro-optic device in coherent FM/CW laser detection and the received laser signal is photomixed with transmitted laser signal. The Doppler frequency in the detection relates to the optical frequency. In distance-measuring lidar, the Doppler frequency affects the solution. The Doppler frequency in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is unrelated with optical frequency, and it is much less than the one in coherent FM/CW laser detection, correspondingly. The error in incoherent FM/CW laser detection is smaller. As a result, the incoherent FM/CW laser detection is more suitable for the use of distance-measuring lidar.

  16. Measurement of Wideband FM-CW-Radar Characteristics During Approach of Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küllmer, A.; Spieker, H.; Schüür, J.; Ender, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper a method to measure and characterize wideband fm-cw-radars like the radio altimeter of aircraft is presented. The limitations of frequency domain measuring systems will be shown by comparing the results from frequency and time domain based measurements. The need of additional measuring equipment like a down converter and amplifier to improve the signal quality in time domain is described as well as the used software tools to calculate the spectrum. Finally it is described how the frequency ramp speed and shape of the frequency modulated signal can be determined in addition to the already calculated occupied bandwidth and spectral power density.

  17. Micro-machined millimeter wave sensor array for FM radar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trontelj, Janez; Sešek, Aleksander

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this work was to create a low cost sensor array that operates at room temperature for millimeter wave applications and could be used for FM radars and various heterodyne receivers. The selected technology was silicon wafer micromachining allowing the creation of microstructures on silicon membranes using different metal layers. The technology used allowed submicron dimensions for a photolithography pattern and thin membranes down to a few micrometers. One of the most critical requirements for the sensor was to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high bandwidth for a mixed frequency. The sensor is a titanium-based micro-bolometer connected to the micro-antenna which is integrated with the bolometer. The results are very promising. The measured NEP is below 5pW/√Hz and the sensitivity is close to 1000 V/W. In the paper the antenna - bolometer sensor microstructure is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and design guidelines for the bolometer itself are discussed. Simulation results of the bolometer and antenna show very close matching to the measured results. Characterization measurements were performed, and thermal behavior of microbolometer structure was simulated and measured. The measurement results are presented for THz FM radar different targets, and a technology demonstrator is also described.

  18. Underwater probing with laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, A. I.; Sizgoric, S.

    1975-01-01

    Recent advances in laser and electro optics technology have greatly enhanced the feasibility of active optical probing techniques aimed at the remote sensing of water parameters. This paper describes a LIDAR (laser radar) that has been designed and constructed for underwater probing. The influence of the optical properties of water on the general design parameters of a LIDAR system is considered. Discussion of the specific details in the choice of the constructed LIDAR is given. This system utilizes a cavity dumped argon ion laser transmitter capable of 50 watt peak powers, 10 nanosecond pulses and megahertz pulse repetition rates at 10 different wavelengths in the blue green region of the spectrum. The performance of the system, in proving various types of water, is demonstrated by summarizing the results of initial laboratory and field experiments.

  19. Micro pulse laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An eye safe, compact, solid state lidar for profiling atmospheric cloud and aerosol scattering is disclosed. The transmitter of the micro pulse lidar is a diode pumped micro-J pulse energy, high repetition rate Nd:YLF laser. Eye safety is obtained through beam expansion. The receiver employs a photon counting solid state Geiger mode avalanche photodiode detector. Data acquisition is by a single card multichannel scaler. Daytime background induced quantum noise is controlled by a narrow receiver field-of-view and a narrow bandwidth temperature controlled interference filter. Dynamic range of the signal is limited to optical geometric signal compression. Signal simulations and initial atmospheric measurements indicate that micropulse lider systems are capable of detecting and profiling all significant cloud and aerosol scattering through the troposphere and into the stratosphere. The intended applications are scientific studies and environmental monitoring which require full time, unattended measurements of the cloud and aerosol height structure.

  20. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, M.W.

    1990-06-19

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typically sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream. 2 figs.

  1. Range imaging laser radar

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Marion W.

    1990-01-01

    A laser source is operated continuously and modulated periodically (typicy sinusoidally). A receiver imposes another periodic modulation on the received optical signal, the modulated signal being detected by an array of detectors of the integrating type. Range to the target determined by measuring the phase shift of the intensity modulation on the received optical beam relative to a reference. The receiver comprises a photoemitter for converting the reflected, periodically modulated, return beam to an accordingly modulated electron stream. The electron stream is modulated by a local demodulation signal source and subsequently converted back to a photon stream by a detector. A charge coupled device (CCD) array then averages and samples the photon stream to provide an electrical signal in accordance with the photon stream.

  2. Progress in coherent laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable progress with coherent laser radar has been made over the last few years, most notably perhaps in the available range of high performance devices and components and the confidence with which systems may now be taken into the field for prolonged periods of operation. Some of this increasing maturity was evident at the 3rd Topical Meeting on Coherent Laser Radar: Technology and Applications. Topics included in discussions were: mesoscale wind fields, nocturnal valley drainage and clear air down bursts; airborne Doppler lidar studies and comparison of ground and airborne wind measurement; wind measurement over the sea for comparison with satellite borne microwave sensors; transport of wake vortices at airfield; coherent DIAL methods; a newly assembled Nd-YAG coherent lidar system; backscatter profiles in the atmosphere and wavelength dependence over the 9 to 11 micrometer region; beam propagation; rock and soil classification with an airborne 4-laser system; technology of a global wind profiling system; target calibration; ranging and imaging with coherent pulsed and CW system; signal fluctuations and speckle. Some of these activities are briefly reviewed.

  3. Observations of tornadoes and wall clouds with a portable FM-CW Doppler radar: 1989--1990 results

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B. . School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on our progress using a portable, 1 W,FM (frequency modulated)-CW (continuous wave) Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to make measurements of the wind field in tornadoes and wall clouds along with simultaneous visual documentation. Results using a CW version of the radar in 1987--1988 are given in Bluestein and Unruh (1989). 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  5. [IM/FM phase delay time measurement method of laser for TDLAS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Ma, Wei-Guang

    2014-11-01

    The present paper presents an method of using fiber Michelson interferometer to measure the Intensity-frequency (IM/FM) phase delay change of the laser, it could realize the phase delay time measurement, while modulating the laser. Experimental results show that the laser output signal intensity-frequency (IM/FM) phase delay of the laser has some differences from the theoretical value. The proposed method can be used to compensate for real-time signal strength-frequency (IM/FM) phase delay effect on the gas concentration measurement results.

  6. Polarimetric laser radar target classification.

    PubMed

    Chun, Cornell S L; Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2005-07-15

    Imaging laser radar (ladar) systems have been developed for automatic target identification in surveillance systems. Ladar uses the range value at the target pixels to estimate the target's 3-D shape and identify the target. For targets in clutter and partially hidden targets, there are ambiguities in determining which pixels are on target that lead to uncertainties in determining the target's 3-D shape. An improvement is to use the polarization components of the reflected light. We describe the operation and preliminary evaluation of a polarization diverse imaging ladar system. Using a combination of intensity, range, and degree of polarization, we are better able to identify and distinguish the target from other objects of the same class.

  7. Remote Minefield Detection Using Infrared Laser Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    Technology of Coherent Infrared Radar, pp. 60, 1981. 22. R.M. Hardesty , T.R. Lawrence, R.A. Richter, et al., "Ground- Based Coherent Lidar Measurement...vegetation damage related to their deployment. High- resolution imaging RMD lidar systems can use this information as a further aid to minefield...example a CO2 laser- based system can be called a ladar, a lidar , an optical radar, or an infrared radar. The most commonly used expressions are lidar and

  8. Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Given here are extended abstracts of papers presented at the 16th International Laser Radar Conference, held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, July 20-24, 1992. Topics discussed include the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic dust laser observations, global change, ozone measurements, Earth mesospheric measurements, wind measurements, imaging, ranging, water vapor measurements, and laser devices and technology.

  9. Noise sources in laser radar systems.

    PubMed

    Letalick, D; Renhorn, I; Steinvall, O; Shapiro, J H

    1989-07-01

    To understand the fundamental limit of performance with a given laser radar system, the phase noise of a testbed laser radar has been investigated. Apart from the phase noise in the transmitter laser and the local oscillator laser, additional phase noise was introduced by vibrations caused by fans in power supplies and cooling systems. The stability of the mechanical structure of the platform was also found to be of great importance. Furthermore, a model for the signal variations from diffuse targets has been developed. This model takes into account the stray light, the speckle decorrelation, and Doppler shift due to moving targets.

  10. The laser radar above 30 kilometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemesha, B. R.

    1969-01-01

    A short "state of the art' report on laser radar observations of the atmosphere at heights greater than 30 km is presented. Graphs of recent measurements of the Rayleigh backscattering function between 30 and 70 and above 50 kilometers are included.

  11. Three-dimensional laser radar modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Carlsson, Tomas

    2001-09-01

    Laser radars have the unique capability to give intensity and full 3-D images of an object. Doppler lidars can give velocity and vibration characteristics of an objects. These systems have many civilian and military applications such as terrain modelling, depth sounding, object detection and classification as well as object positioning. In order to derive the signal waveform from the object one has to account for the laser pulse time characteristics, media effects such as the atmospheric attenuation and turbulence effects or scattering properties, the target shape and reflection (BRDF), speckle noise together with the receiver and background noise. Finally the type of waveform processing (peak detection, leading edge etc.) is needed to model the sensor output to be compared with observations. We have developed a computer model which models performance of a 3-D laser radar. We will give examples of signal waveforms generated from model different targets calculated by integrating the laser beam profile in space and time over the target including reflection characteristics during different speckle and turbulence conditions. The result will be of help when designing and using new laser radar systems. The importance of different type of signal processing of the waveform in order to fulfil performance goals will be shown.

  12. Counter-sniper 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Orr; LePage, Andrew J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.; Zehnpfennig, Theodore F.; Sackos, John T.; Nellums, Robert O.

    1999-01-01

    Visidyne, Inc., teaming with Sandia National Laboratories, has developed the preliminary design for an innovative scannerless 3-D laser radar capable of acquiring, tracking, and determining the coordinates of small caliber projectiles in flight with sufficient precision, so their origin can be established by back projecting their tracks to their source. The design takes advantage of the relatively large effective cross-section of a bullet at optical wavelengths. Kay to its implementation is the use of efficient, high- power laser diode arrays for illuminators and an imaging laser receiver using a unique CCD imager design, that acquires the information to establish x, y (angle-angle) and range coordinates for each bullet at very high frame rates. The detection process achieves a high degree of discrimination by using the optical signature of the bullet, solar background mitigation, and track detection. Field measurements and computer simulations have been used to provide the basis for a preliminary design of a robust bullet tracker, the Counter Sniper 3-D Laser Radar. Experimental data showing 3-D test imagery acquired by a lidar with architecture similar to that of the proposed Counter Sniper 3-D Lidar are presented. A proposed Phase II development would yield an innovative, compact, and highly efficient bullet-tracking laser radar. Such a device would meet the needs of not only the military, but also federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations.

  13. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1974-01-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse/sec ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f/11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling/recording systems. The basic concept of the laser/radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser range-finding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary range-finding results and expectations.

  14. Laser Docking System Radar flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1986-01-01

    Flight experiments to verify the Laser Docking System Radar are discussed. The docking requirements are summarized, and the breadboarded hardware is described, emphasizing the two major scanning concepts being utilized: a mechanical scanning technique employing galvanometer beamsteerers and an electronic scanning technique using an image dissector. The software simulations used to apply hardware solutions to the docking requirements are briefly discussed, the tracking test bed is described, and the objectives of the flight experiment are reviewed.

  15. FM characteristics and compact modules for coherent semiconductor lasers coupled to an external cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, C.H.; Teshima, M.; Ohtsu, M. ); Imai, T.; Yoshida, J.; Nishide, K. )

    1990-03-01

    FM responses of a semiconductor laser optically coupled off-axis to a confocal Fabry--Perot cavity were measured. It is reported that this cavity acted as a frequency discriminator and as a phase comparator for slow and fast frequency fluctuations, respectively. The crossover between them was determined by a half linewidth of the cavity. Based on these investigations, we made two kinds of coherent semiconductor laser modules. External FP cavities were made by using an optical fiber and a hemispherical micro-lens, respectively. Linewidths of these lasers were less than 25 kHz.

  16. Solid-state coherent laser radar wind shear measuring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. Milton

    1992-01-01

    Coherent Technologies, Inc. (CTI) was established in 1984 to engage in the development of coherent laser radar systems and subsystems with applications in atmospheric remote sensing, and in target tracking, ranging and imaging. CTI focuses its capabilities in three major areas: (1) theoretical performance and design of coherent laser radar system; (2) development of coherent laser radar systems for government agencies such as DoD and NASA; and (3) development of coherent laser radar systems for commercial markets. The topics addressed are: (1) 1.06 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system; (2) wind measurement using 1.06 micron system; and flashlamp-pumped 2.09 micron solid-state coherent laser radar system.

  17. Tenth Biennial Coherent Laser Radar Technology and Applications Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The tenth conference on coherent laser radar technology and applications is the latest in a series beginning in 1980 which provides a forum for exchange of information on recent events current status, and future directions of coherent laser radar (or lidar or lader) technology and applications. This conference emphasizes the latest advancement in the coherent laser radar field, including theory, modeling, components, systems, instrumentation, measurements, calibration, data processing techniques, operational uses, and comparisons with other remote sensing technologies.

  18. Laser radar in a system perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl; Kamerman, Gary; Steinvall, Ove

    2011-06-01

    As a result of recent achievements in the field of laser radars, new options are available for their operation as system components. In addition to complementing and cross-checking one another, system components can generate new synergetic values. In this article, we address various roles and functions that laser radar may perform in a complete system context. Special attention is paid to range-gated imaging ladars operating in conjunction with infrared 2D sensors providing target recognition/identification at long distances and under adverse conditions of natural illumination. The multi- or hyper-spectral features of passive IR or visible sensors may be complemented by multispectral, broadband, tunable or switchable 3D imaging ladar in order to exploit the differences in target reflectance and absorption. This option opens another possibility for multi-spectral, mid-IR ladar to differentiate targets of various types, or to enhance the visualization potential and to facilitate the scene description with small targets like mines or mine-like objects. The recently discovered specificity of Raman scattering in the perturbed sea water makes the long-standing efforts in submarine wake detection more viable. Furthermore, the combination of microwave radar and laser radar, when amplified with new achievements in the fourth generation dual-mode imaging sensors, creates the possibility of single payload configurations suitable for small platforms. Emphasis is also made of the efficiency of Doppler velocimetry for precise vehicle navigation, such as for advance cruise missile control or autonomous landing. Finally, recent advances in coherent micro-ladars for optical coherence tomography now permit the reconstruction of time resolved 3D (i.e., 4D) dynamics of blood flow in heart vessels.

  19. Laser radar measurements of the aerosol content of the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, G. W.

    1969-01-01

    A summary of the results of laser radar observations of atmospheric aerosols is presented along with a description of the laser radar system devised during the study and of the data handling techniques utilized for the analysis of the data of the temporal and spatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols. Current research conducted by the group is directed toward the analysis of the frequency spectrum of laser radar echoes to obtain absolute measurements of the dust content of the atmosphere by resolving the molecular and aerosol contributions to the laser radar echoes.

  20. Ground-based laser radar measurements of satellite vibrations.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K I; Fisher, S

    1992-12-20

    Vibration signatures from the low-power atmospheric compensation (LACE) satellite are obtained by using the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Firepond coherent CO(2) laser radar facility located in Westford, Mass. The LACE satellite is equipped with IR germanium retroreflectors on deployable/retractable booms to enhance ground-based IR laser radar measurements of on-orbit boom vibrations. Analysis of pulsed cw laser radar measurements of the satellite during and subsequent to boom retraction indicates the presence of a complex time-varying model structure. The observed vibration spectra include vibration modes not previously predicted. These data represent the first observations of satellite vibration modes from a ground-based laser radar.

  1. Radio-over-fiber AM-to-FM upconversion using an optically injected semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sze-Chun; Hwang, Sheng-Kwang; Liu, Jia-Ming

    2006-08-01

    A radio-over-fiber system uses light to carry a microwave subcarrier on optical fibers. The microwave is usually frequency modulated for wireless broadcasting. A conventional optical communication system usually operates at the baseband with amplitude modulation. The interface of the two systems thus needs an upconversion from the baseband to the microwave band with AM-to-FM transformation. An all-optical solution employing an optically injected semiconductor laser is investigated. The laser is operated in a dynamic state, where its intensity oscillates at a microwave frequency that varies with the injection strength. When the injection carries AM data, the microwave is frequency modulated accordingly. We demonstrate optical conversion from an OC-12 622-Mbps AM baseband signal to the corresponding FM microwave signal. The microwave is centered at 15.90 GHz. A bit-error rate of less than 10(-9) is measured.

  2. CO2 laser oscillators for laser radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the spectral purity, frequency stability, and long-term stabilization of newly developed CO2 isotope lasers. Extremely high spectral purity, and short-term stability of less than 1.5 x 10 to the -13th have been achieved. A brief description on using CO2 isotope lasers as secondary frequency standards and in optical radar is given. The design and output characteristics of a single frequency, TEM00q mode, variable pulse width, hybrid TE CO2 laser system is also described. The frequency chirp in the output has been measured and almost completely eliminated by means of a novel technique.

  3. Sixteenth International Laser Radar Conference, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. Patrick (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the 16th International Laser Radar Conference. One-hundred ninety-five papers were presented in both oral and poster sessions. The topics of the conference sessions were: (1) Mt. Pinatubo Volcanic Dust Layer Observations; (2) Global Change/Ozone Measurements; (3) GLOBE/LAWS/LITE; (4) Mesospheric Measurements and Measurement Systems; (5) Middle Atmosphere; (6) Wind Measurements and Measurement Systems; (7) Imaging and Ranging; (8) Water Vapor Measurements; (9) Systems and Facilities; and (10) Laser Devices and Technology. This conference reflects the breadth of research activities being conducted in the lidar field. These abstracts address subjects from lidar-based atmospheric investigations relating to global change to the development of new lidar systems and technology.

  4. Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Ismail, Syed (Editor); Schwemmer, Geary K. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, held at Annapolis, Maryland, July 6-10, 1998; 260 papers were presented in both oral and poster sessions. The topics of the conference sessions were Aerosol Clouds, Multiple Scattering; Tropospheric Profiling; Stratospheric/Mesospheric Profiling; Wind Profiling; New Lidar Technology and Techniques; Lidar Applications, including Altimetry and Marine; Space and Future Lidar; and Lidar Commercialization/Eye Safety. This conference reflects the breadth of research activities being conducted in the lidar field. These abstracts address subjects from lidar-based atmospheric investigations, development of new lasers and lidar system technology, and current and future space-based lidar systems.

  5. Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Ismail, Syed (Editor); Schwemmer, Geary K. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains extended abstracts of papers presented at the Nineteenth International Laser Radar Conference, held at Annapolis, Maryland, July 6-10, 1998; 260 papers were presented in both oral and poster sessions. The topics of the conference sessions were Aerosol Clouds, Multiple Scattering; Tropospheric Profiling, Stratospheric/Mesospheric Profiling; Wind Profiling; New Lidar Technology and Techniques; Lidar Applications, Including Altimetry and Marine; Space and Future Lidar; and Lidar Commercialization/Eye Safety. This conference reflects the breadth of research activities being conducted in the lidar field. These abstracts address subjects from lidar-based atmospheric investigations, development of new lasers and lidar system technology, and current and future space-based lidar systems.

  6. Modeling and experiments with a subsea laser radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjarnar, Morten L.; Klepsvik, John O.; Nilsen, Jan E.

    1991-12-01

    Subsea laser radar has a potential for accurate 3-D imaging in water. A prototype system has been developed at Seatex A/S in Norway as a prestudy for the design of an underwater laser radar scanning system. Parallel to the experimental studies, a numerical radiometric model has been developed as an aid in the system design. This model simulates a raster scanning laser radar system for in-water use. Thus this parametric model allows for analysis and predictions of the performance of such a sensor system. Experiments have been conducted to test a prototype laser radar system. The experimental system tested uses a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:YAG solid state laser operating at a wavelength of 532 nm, which is close to optimal for use in water due to the small light attenuation around this wavelength in seawater. The laser has an energy output of 6 (mu) J per pulse 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency (PRF) and the receiver aperture is approximately 17 cm2. The laser radar prototype was mounted onto an accurate pan and tilt unit in order to test the 3-D imaging capabilities. The ultimate goal of the development is to provide an optical 3-D imaging tool for distances comparable to high frequency sonars with a range capability of approximately 30 - 50 m. The results from these experiments are presented. The present implementation of the scanning laser radar model is described and some outputs from the simulation are shown.

  7. Effect of low level laser on ototoxicity prevention of FM1-43 in postnatal organotypic culture of rat utricles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yong Won; Kim, Yong Saeng; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Rhee, Chung-Ku

    2007-02-01

    Backgrounds and Objectives: The styryl pyridinium dye FM1-43 is nontoxic, fluorescent, cationic dye whose fluorescence markedly increases after partitioning into membrane. Rapid entry of FM1-43 is inhibited by drugs that block the mechanically gated transduction channels, suggesting the dye can itself act as a permanent blocker of the channels. In this study, the effects of low level laser (LLL) and FM1-43 on gentiamicin induced ototoxicity in postnatal organotypic culture of rat utricles were investigated. Materials and Methods: An organotypic culture of 2- 7-day-old rat utricular maculae was established. In a series of experiments utricles were exposed to either irradiation of low level laser(LG group)or 10 ?M FM1-43(FG group) or both(LFG group) followed by 1mM of gentamicin treatment for 12 hrs. The results of experimental groups were compared with the control group by confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy. Results: LLL prevented vestibular hair cells ototoxicity. Rapid incubation with FM1-43 dye protected vestibular hair cell damage induced by gentamicin treatment. Substantial additive effect of LLL on ototoxicity prevention was noted in combination therapy with FM1-43. There were statistical significant differences among all groups but between control and LFG group by both confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, caspase-3 activity was hardly found in LFG group after double staining with Phalloidin-FITC by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is an additive protection effect of LLL and FM1-43 against gentamicin ototoxicity in postnatal organotypic culture of rat utricles. LLL may have clinical preventive and therapeutic implications on ototoxicity.

  8. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through

  9. Integrated laser/radar satellite ranging and tracking system.

    PubMed

    Hoge, F E

    1974-10-01

    A laser satellite ranging system that is mounted upon and integrated with a microwave tracking radar is reported. The 1-pulse sec/ruby laser transmitter is attached directly to the radar's elevation axis and radiates through a new opening in the radar's parabolic dish. The laser photomultiplier tube receiver utilizes the radar's existing 20-cm diam f11 boresight telescope and observes through a similar symmetrically located opening in the dish. The laser system possesses separate ranging system electronics but shares the radar's timing, computer, and data handling[equation]recording systems. The basic concept of the laser[equation]radar is outlined together with a listing of the numerous advantages over present singular laser rangefinding systems. The developmental laser hardware is described along with preliminary rangefinding results and expectations. The prototype system was assembled to investigate the feasibility of such systems and aid in the development of detailed specifications for an operational system. Both the feasibility and desirability of such systems integrations have been adequately demonstrated.

  10. The 3D laser radar vision processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebok, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Loral Defense Systems (LDS) developed a 3D Laser Radar Vision Processor system capable of detecting, classifying, and identifying small mobile targets as well as larger fixed targets using three dimensional laser radar imagery for use with a robotic type system. This processor system is designed to interface with the NASA Johnson Space Center in-house Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Retriever robot program and provide to it needed information so it can fetch and grasp targets in a space-type scenario.

  11. Radar Imaging of Non-Uniformly Rotating Targets via a Novel Approach for Multi-Component AM-FM Signal Parameter Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A novel radar imaging approach for non-uniformly rotating targets is proposed in this study. It is assumed that the maneuverability of the non-cooperative target is severe, and the received signal in a range cell can be modeled as multi-component amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated (AM-FM) signals after motion compensation. Then, the modified version of Chirplet decomposition (MCD) based on the integrated high order ambiguity function (IHAF) is presented for the parameter estimation of AM-FM signals, and the corresponding high quality instantaneous ISAR images can be obtained from the estimated parameters. Compared with the MCD algorithm based on the generalized cubic phase function (GCPF) in the authors’ previous paper, the novel algorithm presented in this paper is more accurate and efficient, and the results with simulated and real data demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method. PMID:25806870

  12. Laser radar technology and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Quebec, Canada, June 3-5, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruickshank, James M.; Harney, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Various papers on laser radar technology and applications are presented. The topics considered include: eye-safe solid lasers for lidar applications, practical DF laser for ranging applications, ultrafast surface barrier photodetectors, performance analyses for peak-detecting laser radars, multiple scattering for laser beams propagating in a layered atmosphere, laser radar cross section of objects immersed in the earth's atmosphere, measurements of pulse coherence in mode-locked TEA-CO2 lasers, and single longitudinal mode operation of a continuously tunable high pressure TE-CO2. Also discussed are: amplitude-modulated laser system for distance and displacement measurement, minilaser rangefinder, laser docking system radar flight experiment, improved optical resonator for laser radars, design of frequency-stable TEA-CO2 lasers, HgCdTe photodiodes for heterodyne applications, acoustooptic spectrum analyzer for laser radar applications, laser cloud mapper and its applications, scanning lidar bathymeter for water depth measurement, and fluorescence lidar for land and sea remote sensing.

  13. Laser radar observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Hirasawa, T.; Fukunishi, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Fujii, R.; Miyaoka, H.

    1985-01-01

    The polar stratosphere has been speculated to be an active sink region of various stratospheric materials; ozone, water vapor, NOX, aerosol particles and so on, but this process is not theoretically and/or observationally made clear. The observation of the polar stratospheric aerosol layer using laser radar certainly contributes to the study of the global transport of these stratospheric minor constituents. In addition to this, from the viewpoint of aerosol science, there may be many interesting phenomena which cannot be found in the stratosphere at mid and low latitudes; the effect of precipitation of high energy molecules and atoms, of very cold winter stratosphere, of very cold mesopause in summer. Laser radar observation is one of the main activities of the Antarctic Middle Atmosphere (AMA) project at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica since May 1983. Laser radar measurement at Syowa Station is discussed in detail.

  14. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  15. Clutter discrimination algorithm simulation in pulse laser radar imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-mei; Li, Huan; Guo, Hai-chao; Su, Xuan; Zhu, Fule

    2015-10-01

    Pulse laser radar imaging performance is greatly influenced by different kinds of clutter. Various algorithms are developed to mitigate clutter. However, estimating performance of a new algorithm is difficult. Here, a simulation model for estimating clutter discrimination algorithms is presented. This model consists of laser pulse emission, clutter jamming, laser pulse reception and target image producing. Additionally, a hardware platform is set up gathering clutter data reflected by ground and trees. The data logging is as clutter jamming input in the simulation model. The hardware platform includes a laser diode, a laser detector and a high sample rate data logging circuit. The laser diode transmits short laser pulses (40ns FWHM) at 12.5 kilohertz pulse rate and at 905nm wavelength. An analog-to-digital converter chip integrated in the sample circuit works at 250 mega samples per second. The simulation model and the hardware platform contribute to a clutter discrimination algorithm simulation system. Using this system, after analyzing clutter data logging, a new compound pulse detection algorithm is developed. This new algorithm combines matched filter algorithm and constant fraction discrimination (CFD) algorithm. Firstly, laser echo pulse signal is processed by matched filter algorithm. After the first step, CFD algorithm comes next. Finally, clutter jamming from ground and trees is discriminated and target image is produced. Laser radar images are simulated using CFD algorithm, matched filter algorithm and the new algorithm respectively. Simulation result demonstrates that the new algorithm achieves the best target imaging effect of mitigating clutter reflected by ground and trees.

  16. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Laser Imprint in National Ignition Facility Multi-FM Smoothing by Spectral Dispersion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvydky, A.; Hohenberger, M.; Radha, P. B.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Anderson, K. S.; Goncharov, V. N.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Koning, J. M.; Marinak, M. M.; Masse, L.

    2016-10-01

    Control of shell nonuniformities imprinted by a laser and amplified by hydrodynamic instabilities in an imploding target is critical for the success of direct-drive ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), proposed to provide the required level of smoothing of the laser imprint, has been integrated into one quad of the NIF Laser System and used in recent experiments. The experiments employed flat CH foils driven with a single NIF quad with either the multi-FM or stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression SSD. Face-on x-ray radiography was used to measure optical-depth variations, from which the amplitudes of the foil areal-density modulations were obtained. Results of 3-D, radiation-hydrodynamics code HYDRA simulations of the growth of the imprint seeded perturbations are presented and compared with the experimental data. The effectiveness of the multi-FM SSD in reducing the imprint is evaluated. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  17. The design of infrared laser radar for vehicle initiative safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ping; Xu, Xi-ping; Li, Xiao-yu; Li, Tian-zhi; Liu, Yu-long; Wu, Jia-hui

    2013-09-01

    Laser radar for vehicle is mainly used in advanced vehicle on-board active safety systems, such as forward anti-collision systems, active collision warning systems and adaptive cruise control systems, etc. Laser radar for vehicle plays an important role in the improvement of vehicle active safety and the reduction of traffic accidents. The stability of vehicle active anti-collision system in dynamic environment is still one of the most difficult problems to break through nowadays. According to people's driving habit and the existed detecting technique of sensor, combining the infrared laser range and galvanometer scanning technique , design a 3-D infrared laser radar which can be used to assist navigation, obstacle avoidance and the vehicle's speed control for the vehicle initiative safety. The device is fixed to the head of vehicle. Then if an accident happened, the device could give an alarm to remind the driver timely to decelerate or brake down, by which way can people get the purpose of preventing the collision accidents effectively. To accomplish the design, first of all, select the core components. Then apply Zemax to design the transmitting and receiving optical system. Adopt 1550 nm infrared laser transmitter as emission unit in the device, a galvanometer scanning as laser scanning unit and an InGaAs-APD detector as laser echo signal receiving unit. Perform the construction of experimental system using FPGA and ARM as the core controller. The system designed in this paper can not only detect obstacle in front of the vehicle and make the control subsystem to execute command, but also transfer laser data to PC in real time. Lots of experiments using the infrared laser radar prototype are made, and main performance of it is under tested. The results of these experiments show that the imaging speed of the laser radar can reach up to 25 frames per second, the frame resolution of each image can reach 30×30 pixels, the horizontal angle resolution is about 6. 98

  18. Tunable compensation of GVD-induced FM-AM conversion in the front end of high-power lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Rao; Fan, Wei; Jiang, Youen; Qiao, Zhi; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-02-01

    Group velocity dispersion (GVD) is one of the main factors leading to frequency modulation (FM) to amplitude modulation (AM) conversion in the front end of high-power lasers. In order to compensate the FM-AM modulation, the influence of GVD, which is mainly induced by the phase filter effect, is theoretically investigated. Based on the theoretical analysis, a high-precision, high-stability, tunable GVD compensatory using gratings is designed and experimentally demonstrated. The results indicate that the compensator can be implemented in high-power laser facilities to compensate the GVD of fiber with a length between 200-500 m when the bandwidth of a phase-modulated laser is 0.34 nm or 0.58 nm and the central wavelength is in the range of 1052.3217-1053.6008 nm. Due to the linear relationship between the dispersion and the spacing distance of the gratings, the compensator can easily achieve closed-loop feedback controlling. The proposed GVD compensator promises significant applications in large laser facilities, especially in the future polarizing fiber front end of high-power lasers.

  19. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    laser in the green wavelength region was used for illumination. 3-D Imaging of Partly Concealed Targets by Laser Radar 11 - 8 RTO-MP-SET-094...acknowledge Marie Carlsson and Ann Charlotte Gustavsson for their assistance in some of the experiments. 7.0 REFERENCES [1] U. Söderman, S. Ahlberg...SPIE Vol. 3707, pp. 432-448, USA, 1999. [14] D. Letalick, H. Larsson, M. Carlsson, and A.-C. Gustavsson , “Laser sensors for urban warfare,” FOI

  20. Application of the staring-edge tracking in laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lianhe; Wu, Jian

    1997-04-01

    The extended target that the size is larger that the diameter of the light beam can be tracked in the laser tracking radar designed on the basic of the method and the algorithm of the staring edge tracking. A moving aluminium plate is tracked by a coherent CO2 laser tracking radar facility with transmitter power 5W and the divergent angle of the transmitter light beam less than 0.18 mrad at a n approximate range of 1 km. The error signals of the azimuth and the elevation are generated from the quad detector. This successful experiment results indicates that the question that the traditional tracking method of quad detector is vain to the extended target has been overcome and testifies that our theory of the staring edge tracking is correct. This tracking method has many advantages. For example, is we choose the tracking position at the top of the target, then the ground target is not easy to lose. So it can avoid tracking the ground. On the other hand, the range of the laser radar using this method is longer than the range of the radar using the point tracking, because the target using narrow light beam illumination is taken as an extended Lambertian target.

  1. Small-signal response of a semiconductor laser with inhomogeneous linewidth enhancement factor: Possibilities of a flat carrier-induced FM response

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, O.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1985-02-01

    It is shown that inhomogeneities in the linewidth enhancement factor in a semiconductor laser exert great influence on the injection current modulation FM response. Several phenomena, which have not been explained so far, such as redshift frequency chirping, flat carrier induced FM response, and absence of phase reversal at the thermal cut-off frequency, are explained by the present theoretical model. A flat carrier induced FM response with either redshift or blueshift may be obtained in a semiconductor laser with an inhomogeneous linewidth enhancement factor without the accompanying spurious intensity modulation.

  2. Weak etalon effect in wave plates can introduce significant FM-to-AM modulations in complex laser systems.

    PubMed

    Dangpeng, Xu; Jianjun, Wang; Mingzhong, Li; Honghuan, Lin; Rui, Zhang; Ying, Deng; Qinghua, Deng; Xiaodong, Huang; Mingzhe, Wang; Lei, Ding; Jun, Tang

    2010-03-29

    The conversion of frequency modulation to amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) effect is harmful to the high power laser facility based on the phase modulation technique. The FM-to-AM effect of phase modulation pulse induced by the weak etalon effect in wave plates was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A bulk phase modulator with a modulation frequency of 9.2GHz was employed. The numerical simulation results show that the FM-to-AM effect with a temporal modulation depth of 2.5% and 29.7% on the top of the pulse shape was induced by the weak etalon effect in half-wave plate with thickness of 1mm and residual reflectance ratio of 0.5% for 1 pass and 12 passes respectively. On the same condition, the temporal modulation depth is 3.0% and 23.4% respectively in the experiment. The results are in good agreement with numerical simulation results. To our knowledge, it is the first time to introduce the weak etalon effect in wave plates for a complex phase modulation laser system.

  3. Three-dimensional environment models from airborne laser radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderman, Ulf; Ahlberg, Simon; Elmqvist, Magnus; Persson, Asa

    2004-09-01

    Detailed 3D environment models for visualization and computer based analyses are important in many defence and homeland security applications, e.g. crisis management, mission planning and rehearsal, damage assessment, etc. The high resolution data from airborne laser radar systems for 3D sensing provide an excellent source of data for obtaining the information needed for many of these models. To utilise the 3D data provided by the laser radar systems however, efficient methods for data processing and environment model construction needs to be developed. In this paper we will present some results on the development of laser data processing methods, including methods for data classification, bare earth extraction, 3D-reconstruction of buildings, and identification of single trees and estimation of their position, height, canopy size and species. We will also show how the results can be used for the construction of detailed 3D environment models for military modelling and simulation applications. The methods use data from discrete return airborne laser radar systems and digital cameras.

  4. Compact 625-channel scannerless imaging laser radar receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Hoyt N.; Steiner, Todd D.; Hayden, David R.

    1996-06-01

    In 1995, under a USAF SBIR Phase I program, Burns Engineering Corporation investigated the application of new integrated photonics technologies and hybrid manufacturing processes to the miniaturization of an imaging laser radar receiver which has complete receiving and range counting circuitry for each pixel in a 25-by-25 element avalanche photodiode array. The `parallel multichannel' receiver (PMR) is a compact, robust, and modular laser radar subsystem which can produce high resolution 3D range imagery at 1 kHz frame rates without the use of a scanner. The modular PMR is attractive as a common module solution for a wide variety of high performance, low cost, autonomous laser-guided seeker applications. The system described illustrates one approach to integrating and packaging high-density photonic arrays and associated signal processing electronics to yield a high-performance imaging laser radar receiver using existing technology. Burns Engineering has been selected by the USAF to build a benchtop prototype, proof-of-concept demonstrator in a follow-on, SBIR Phase II program.

  5. Surface emitting distributed feedback laser as a source for laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkapeddi, P.; Macomber, S. H.

    1991-08-01

    The requirements for a diode source for a laser radar system are presented. It is shown how microcollimation of incoherent diode laser arrays can produce a usable beam divergence. A unique diode source under development and the associated technologies required for a compact, efficient, reliable and low divergence source are described.

  6. Novel Doppler laser radar for diagnostics in fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Madhavan; Slotwinski, Anthony

    2004-10-01

    We describe the development of a novel Doppler laser radar (DOLAR) for remote measurement of flow velocity (0-10 m/s) and film thickness of liquid metal walls, currently being studied for their superior heat handling and self-healing characteristics. Small fluctuations in flow velocity({approx}mm/s) and flow thickness ({approx}50 {mu}m) that may arise during plasma discharges can also be measured. The DOLAR is also designed for non intrusive mapping of features of plasma-facing solid surfaces with very high precision ({approx}50 {mu}m). It can also measure the motion of structural components of a fusion reactor during plasma discharges and during plasma disruptions. The device utilizes frequency modulation laser radar principles for precision range measurements. Compensation of Doppler frequency shift is used to measure flow velocity. The DOLAR probe head is designed with acousto-optic and piezoelectric devices for operation in the harsh fusion environment.

  7. Precision metrology of NSTX surfaces using coherent laser radar ranging

    SciTech Connect

    H.W. Kugel; D. Loesser; A. L. Roquemore; M. M. Menon; R. E. Barry

    2000-07-13

    A frequency modulated Coherent Laser Radar ranging diagnostic is being used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for precision metrology. The distance (range) between the 1.5 {micro}m laser source and the target is measured by the shift in frequency of the linearly modulated beam reflected off the target. The range can be measured to a precision of < 100{micro}m at distances of up to 22 meters. A description is given of the geometry and procedure for measuring NSTX interior and exterior surfaces during open vessel conditions, and the results of measurements are elaborated.

  8. Holographic frequency modulated continuous wave laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaye, P.; Roosen, G.

    2007-10-01

    We present the operating principle and a first experimental characterization of a holographic rangefinder, that couples a two wave mixing phase demodulation set-up with a frequency modulated laser source. In its first implementation, the system allows millimetre sensitivity on tens of meters measurement range with the ability to work with scattering surfaces. This paper has been presented at “3e colloque interdisciplinaire en instrumentation (C2I 2004)”, École Normale Supérieure de Cachan, 29 30 janvier 2004.

  9. Theoretical distribution of range data obtained by laser radar and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijiao, Jiang; Jiancheng, Lai; Wei, Yan; Chunyong, Wang; Zhenhua, Li

    2013-02-01

    This paper addresses the distribution of range data obtained by laser radar. An analytical solution of the range distribution was obtained for direct detection laser radar using constant threshold discriminator based on the time-of-flight principle. The analytical solution was verified by experiments and simulations. The results show that the derived analytical function can describe the probability density distribution of the range data obtained by laser radar with a constant threshold discriminator. The probability density distribution of the range data is proportional to the probability density function of the noise and to the slope of the rising edge of the laser echo pulse. The probability density distributions of the range data obtained by laser radar with different pulse shapes, amplitudes, widths and thresholds are also presented. These factors are important for improvements in the design of laser radar systems.

  10. Optical smoothing of laser imprinting in planar-target experiments on OMEGA EP using multi-FM 1-D smoothing by spectral dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Fiksel, G.; Bonino, M. J.; Canning, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Dorrer, C.; Kessler, T. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [Marozas et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSD has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ˜50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. The experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.

  11. Coherent laser radar at 1.06 micron using Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Thomas J.; Kozlovsky, W. J.; Byer, Robert L.; Byvik, Charles E.

    1987-01-01

    A coherent laser radar system operating at the 1.06 micron Nd:YAG laser wavelength has been built and operated. A laser-diode-pumped monolithic ring laser served as the master oscillator. A single flash-lamp-pumped zigzag slab amplified the oscillator output to a power of 2.3 kW. Single-mode optical fiber was used to collect and mix the return signal with the local-oscillator output. Signals from clouds at a range of 2.7 km and from atmospheric aerosols at a range of 600 m were detected.

  12. Time and wavelength domain algorithms for chemical analysis by laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, David L.; Gillespie, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) is a promising technique for laser radar applications. Laser radar using LIF has already been applied to algae blooms and oil slicks. Laser radar using LIF has great potential for remote chemical analysis because LIF spectra are extremely sensitive to chemical composition. However, most samples in the real world contain mixtures of fluorescing components, not merely individual components. Multicomponent analysis of laser radar returns from mixtures is often difficult because LIF spectra from solids and liquids are very broad and devoid of line structure. Therefore, algorithms for interpreting LIF spectra from laser radar returns must be able to analyze spectra that overlap in multicomponent systems. This paper analyzes the possibility of using factor analysis-rank annihilation (FARA) to analyze emission-time matrices (ETM) from laser radar returns instead of excitation-emission matrices (EEM). The authors here define ETM as matrices where the rows (or columns) are emission spectra at fixed times and the columns (or rows) are temporal profiles for fixed emission wavelengths. Laser radar usually uses pulsed lasers for ranging purposes, which are suitable for measuring temporal profiles. Laser radar targets are hard instead of diffuse; that is, a definite surface emits the fluorescence instead of an extended volume. A hard target would not broaden the temporal profiles as would a diffuse target. Both fluorescence lifetimes and emission spectra are sensitive to chemical composition. Therefore, temporal profiles can be used instead of excitation spectra in FARA analysis of laser radar returns. The resulting laser radar returns would be ETM instead of EEM.

  13. Off the line-of-sight laser radar.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswami, K; Tilleman, M

    1998-01-20

    The results of field and laboratory experiments of a novel laser radar (ladar) are presented. This ladar was designed to detect objects off the line of sight by deploying a fiber-optic relay between the launch and probe sites by monitoring the retroreflected signals. The apparatus incorporates a pulsed diode laser emitting at 1.55 mum, a wavelength that is ideal for eye safety and bears minimum loss in silica fibers. With its immediate application in transportation safety, the system issues a warning within a millisecond of detecting an obstacle in the path of a vehicle. The results of the field experiments yield signal-to-noise ratios high enough to trigger reliably an alarm with a probability of greater than 0.999 for detecting an obstacle and less than 10(-12) probability of false alarms.

  14. Laser induced x-ray `RADAR' particle physics model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockley, D.; Deas, R.; Moss, R.; Wilson, L. A.; Rusby, D.; Neely, D.

    2016-05-01

    The technique of high-power laser-induced plasma acceleration can be used to generate a variety of diverse effects including the emission of X-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons and radio-frequency radiation. A compact variable source of this nature could support a wide range of potential applications including single-sided through-barrier imaging, cargo and vehicle screening, infrastructure inspection, oncology and structural failure analysis. This paper presents a verified particle physics simulation which replicates recent results from experiments conducted at the Central Laser Facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), Didcot, UK. The RAL experiment demonstrated the generation of backscattered X-rays from test objects via the bremsstrahlung of an incident electron beam, the electron beam itself being produced by Laser Wakefield Acceleration. A key initial objective of the computer simulation was to inform the experimental planning phase on the predicted magnitude of the backscattered X-rays likely from the test objects. This objective was achieved and the computer simulation was used to show the viability of the proposed concept (Laser-induced X-ray `RADAR'). At the more advanced stages of the experimental planning phase, the simulation was used to gain critical knowledge of where it would be technically feasible to locate key diagnostic equipment within the experiment. The experiment successfully demonstrated the concept of X-ray `RADAR' imaging, achieved by using the accurate timing information of the backscattered X-rays relative to the ultra-short laser pulse used to generate the electron beam. By using fast response X-ray detectors it was possible to derive range information for the test objects being scanned. An X-ray radar `image' (equivalent to a RADAR B-scan slice) was produced by combining individual X-ray temporal profiles collected at different points along a horizontal distance line scan. The same image formation process was used to generate

  15. End-to-end laser radar range code for coherent cw lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, M. John; Seliverstov, Dima

    1996-06-01

    A user friendly modular computer code is described for CW coherent laser radar which includes all relevant physical effects needed to evaluate the probability of detection versus time after launch for ballistic missiles or other targets of interest. The beginning point of the code is the conventional laser radar range equation. Atmospheric attenuation is determined from an integral FASCODE calculation, and the laser radar range equation is solved for a curved-earth geometry including free air turbulence induced beam spreading. Several different atmospheric turbulence models are selectable. Target cross-sections can be input into the code as a function of aspect angle Coherence time and transverse coherence length limits are included in the code. Beam jitter effects are also calculated. The carrier-to-noise ratio is calculated including all of these (complicated) variables and degradations. The code then calculates the probability of detection of the target as a function of time using incoherent integration of coherent sub-pulses. The governing equations and practical results are presented for detection and tracking of long range theater ballistic missiles from airborne surveillance platforms. The use of CW lasers requires increased measurement times compared to pulsed lasers and results in an averaging of the target fading statistics.

  16. In-bore chronograph--a laser radar for interior ballistics measurements, part 1: system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Greg; Fowler, Stuart R.; Halsey, Howard W.; Whittle, Kerry B.; Kamerman, Gary W.

    1993-10-01

    An internal research and development program at Teledyne Brown Engineering has produced a laser radar device to measure velocities of projectiles as they travel through the barrel of a gun. The technique measures velocities directly via the Doppler shift imposed on a retro- reflected laser beam. The device, called the In-Bore Chronograph (IBC), is believed to be the first coherent laser radar to be offered commercially. The IBC measures in-bore velocities from 5 to 2500 m/sec.

  17. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-12-31

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution.

  18. Probability of acquisition of three-dimensional imaging laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li-jun; Zhu, Shao-lan; Sun, Chuan-dong; Gao, Cun-xiao; Song, Zhi-yuan

    2011-06-01

    Three-dimensional imaging laser radar (3-D ladar) is widely used in area of modern military, scientific research, agriculture and industry. Because of its many features such as angle-angle-range capturing, high resolution, anti-jamming ability and no multipath effect ,but it has to scan for target searching, acquiring and tracking. This paper presents a novel probability model of target acquiring which provides a theoretical basis for optimizing the scanning mechanism. The model combines space and time, target moving velocity and ladar scanning velocity together. Then the optimum scanning mechanism to obtain the maximum probability of acquisition and associated with different targets can be gained. The result shows that this model provides a method to optimize parameter for designing of the scanner.

  19. Development of Coherent Laser Radar for Space Situational Awareness Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; DiMarcantonio, A.

    2013-09-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is working on an innovative and high performance mobile coherent laser radar (ladar) system known as ExoSPEAR for space situational awareness applications in LEO and beyond. Based on continuously agile pulse doublet technology, the 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser based coherent ladar is being developed for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs). ExoSPEAR system is designed to provide rapid and precision tracking of RSOs over very long ranges. The goal is to demonstrate mm-class range resolution, mm/s class velocity resolution and microrad angular resolution with significantly reduced error-covariance in track accuracy. Precise orbit determination would help in advancing functionality of early warning systems for tracking uncooperative targets for planetary protection applications. Furthermore, improvements in resolution of micromotion measurements would enhance our understanding of astrodymanical properties of resident space objects. In this paper, salient features of the evolution and current experimental status of ExoSPEAR ladar architecture will be discussed. Performance simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar power aperture product will be presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits will be analyzed.

  20. LASERS IN THE UK, PART I: THE ROYAL RADAR ESTABLISHMENT (RRE), GREAT MALVERN, WORCESTERSHIRE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Solid state laser research and development at the Royal Radar Establishment is described. Particular attention is devoted to new crystalline ... materials . Measurement of photon density fluctuation in coherent source is also reported. (Author)

  1. Terahertz Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) Imaging With a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar ( ISAR ) imaging with a quantum cascade laser transmitter Andriy A. Danylov1,*, Thomas M. Goyette1...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar ( ISAR ) imaging with a quantum cascade laser...band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range," Proc. SPIE 5095, 66-74 (2003). 10. M. J. Coulombe, T. Horgan, J

  2. Saturated semiconductor optical amplifier phase modulation for long range laser radar applications.

    PubMed

    Carns, Jennifer L; Duncan, Bradley D; Dierking, Matthew P

    2012-08-20

    We investigate the use of a semiconductor optical amplifier operated in the saturation regime as a phase modulator for long range laser radar applications. The nature of the phase and amplitude modulation resulting from a high peak power Gaussian pulse, and the impact this has on the ideal pulse response of a laser radar system, is explored. We also present results of a proof-of-concept laboratory demonstration using phase-modulated pulses to interrogate a stationary target.

  3. HI-CLASS on AEOS: A Large Aperture Laser Radar for Space Surveillance/ Situational Awareness Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    the ALVA (Applications of Lidars for Vehicles with Analysis) program installed in late 2000 a wideband, 12J, 15Hz CO2 laser radar (ladar) on the 3.67...representative data, and current status of pulsed high-power coherent CO2 laser radar systems at MSSS. The paper reviews the first generation kilowatt...Chemical-biological detection, such as Doppler Shift Scanning Differential Absorption Lidar (DSS DIAL) and remote sensing data 6) Field Ladar tactical

  4. Optical smoothing of laser imprinting in planar-target experiments on OMEGA EP using multi-FM 1-D smoothing by spectral dispersion

    SciTech Connect

    Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Fiksel, G.; Bonino, M. J.; Canning, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Dorrer, C.; Kessler, T. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; McKenty, P. W.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2016-09-07

    Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [J. A. Marozas, J. D. Zuegel, and T. J. B. Collins, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh–Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSD has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ~50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. In conclusion, the experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.

  5. Optical smoothing of laser imprinting in planar-target experiments on OMEGA EP using multi-FM 1-D smoothing by spectral dispersion

    DOE PAGES

    Hohenberger, M.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; ...

    2016-09-07

    Direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires single-beam smoothing to minimize imprinting of laser nonuniformities that can negatively affect implosion performance. One-dimensional, multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) has been proposed to provide the required smoothing [J. A. Marozas, J. D. Zuegel, and T. J. B. Collins, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 55, 294 (2010)]. A prototype multi-FM SSD system has been integrated into the NIF-like beamline of the OMEGA EP Laser System. Experiments have been performed to verify the smoothing performance by measuring Rayleigh–Taylor growth rates in planar targets of laser-imprinted and preimposed surface modulations. Multi-FM 1-D SSDmore » has been observed to reduce imprint levels by ~50% compared to the nominal OMEGA EP SSD system. In conclusion, the experimental results are in agreement with 2-D DRACO simulations using realistic, time-dependent far-field spot-intensity calculations that emulate the effect of SSD.« less

  6. Registration of partially overlapping laser-radar range images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Dan; Sun, Jian-Feng; Li, Qi; Wang, Qi

    2015-10-01

    To register partially overlapping three-dimensional point sets from different viewpoints, it is necessary to remove spurious corresponding point pairs that are not located in overlapping regions. Most variants of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm require users to manually select the rejection parameters for discarding spurious point pairs between the registering views. This requirement often results in unreliable and inaccurate registration. To overcome this problem, we present an improved ICP algorithm that can automatically determine the rejection percentage to reliably and accurately align partially overlapping laser-radar (ladar) range images. The similarity of k neighboring features of each nonplanar point is employed to determine reasonable point pairs in nonplanar regions, and the distance measurement method is used to find reasonable point pairs in planar regions. The rejection percentage can be obtained from these two sets of reasonable pairs. The performance of our algorithm is compared with that of five other algorithms using various models with low and high curvatures. The experimental results show that our algorithm is more accurate and robust than the other algorithms.

  7. A 16-channel CMOS preamplifier for laser ranging radar receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ru-qing; Zhu, Jing-guo; Jiang, Yan; Li, Meng-lin; Li, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A 16-channal front-end preamplifier array has been design in a 0.18um CMOS process for pulse Laser ranging radar receiver. This front-end preamplifier array incorporates transimpedance amplifiers(TIAs) and differential voltage post-amplifier(PAMP),band gap reference and other interface circuits. In the circuit design, the regulated cascade (RGC) input stage, Cherry-Hooper and active inductor peaking were employed to enhance the bandwidth. And in the layout design, by applying the layout isolation structure combined with P+ guard-ring(PGR), N+ guard-ring(NGR),and deep-n-well(DNW) for amplifier array, the crosstalk and the substrate noise coupling was reduced effectively. The simulations show that a single channel receiver front-end preamplifier achieves 95 dBΩ transimpedance gain and 600MHz bandwidth for 3 PF photodiode capacitance. The total power of 16-channel front-end amplifier array is about 800mW for 1.8V supply.

  8. Applications of Tunable Lasers to Laser Radar and 3D Imaging.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The resulting form for U(z) is elliptical in shape: U(z) = &nf(a) cot2a^a2 sin2a - z2 for |z|<|ösina| . (21) This result is intuitive because...the range-resolved laser radar cross section of a disk is proportional to the length of the straight-line integration path, which varies elliptically ...autocorrelation functions of real quantities are even functions, the replicated U(z) curves on either side of the origin are mirror images of each other. If the

  9. An overview of avalanche photodiodes and pulsed lasers as they are used in 3D laser radar type applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Bruno; Bertone, Nick

    2004-08-01

    This paper will examine how Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) and Infrared Pulsed lasers (PL) are used and optimized to provide the "intelligence" to smart weapons. The basics of APD's and PL will be covered and the principle "time of flight ranging" which is the underlining principle of 3D laser radar will be illustrated. The time of flight principle is used for range finding, lidar, 3D laser radar and speed measurements - this information can then be used to provide intelligence to the smart weapon. Examples of such systems are discussed and illustrated, for example: Cluster bombs, Proximity fuses, and how laser range finding systems can be incorporated with GPS to produce effective and lethal weapons. The APD's that are discussed include silicon APD's for cost effective weapons, and 1550nm APDs for eye-safe systems. An overview of the different PL's will be outlined, but the focus will be on 905nm laser pulsars for cost effective laser weapons.

  10. Multiple-return laser radar for three-dimensional imaging through obscurations.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Bradley W; Barr, Dallas N; Templeton, Glen C; Mizerka, Lawrence J; Trussell, C Ward

    2002-05-20

    A compact imaging laser radar was constructed and tested to investigate phenomenological issues in targeting, especially cases involving imaging through obscurations such as foliage and camouflage netting. The laser radar employs a Nd:YAG microchip laser that operates at a wavelength of 1.06 microm and produces pulses of 1.2-ns duration at a 3-kHz rate. The detector is a commercial indium gallium arsenide avalanche photodiode. A single computer controls the scanning mirrors and performs the digitization of the returning signal at 2 giga samples/s. A detailed description of the laser radar is presented as well as results from field experiments that examined its range accuracy capability and its ability to image a target through camouflage. Results of data collected from deciduous tree lines are also discussed to characterize the presence and quantity of multiple returns.

  11. Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Lui, H S; Taimre, T; Bertling, K; Lim, Y L; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Lachab, M; Valavanis, A; Indjin, D; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Rakić, A D

    2014-05-01

    We propose a terahertz (THz)-frequency synthetic aperture radar imaging technique based on self-mixing (SM) interferometry, using a quantum cascade laser. A signal processing method is employed which extracts and exploits the radar-related information contained in the SM signals, enabling the creation of THz images with improved spatial resolution. We demonstrate this by imaging a standard resolution test target, achieving resolution beyond the diffraction limit.

  12. High-frequency scannerless imaging laser radar for industrial inspection and measurement applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, R.L.; Williams, R.J.; Matthews, J.D.

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the development and testing of a high-frequency scannerless imaging laser radar system to evaluate its viability as an industrial inspection and measurement sensor. We modified an existing 5.5-Mhz scannerless laser radar to operate at 150 Mhz, and measured its performance including its spatial resolution and range resolution. We also developed new algorithms that allow rapid data reduction with improved range resolution. The resulting 150-Mhz ladar system demonstrated a range resolution of better than 3 mm, which represents nearly a factor-of-100 improvement in range resolution over the existing scannerless laser radar system. Based on this work, we believe that a scannerless range imager with 1- to 2-mm range resolution is feasible. This work was performed as part of a small-business CRADA between Sandia National Laboratories and Perceptron, Inc.

  13. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  14. Self-contained eye-safe laser radar using an erbium-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Thomas A.; Radecki, Dan J.; Tindal, Nan E.; Corriveau, John P.; Denman, Richard

    2003-07-01

    An Eye-safe Laser Radar has been developed under White Sands Missile Range sponsorship. The SEAL system, the Self-contained Eyesafe Autonomous Laser system, is designed to measure target position within a 0.5 meter box. Targets are augmented with Scotchlite for ranging out to 6 km and augmented with a retroreflector for targets out to 20 km. The data latency is less than 1.5 ms, and the position update rate is 1 kHz. The system is air-cooled, contained in a single 200-lb, 6-cubic-foot box, and uses less than 600 watts of prime power. The angle-angle-range data will be used to measure target dynamics and to control a tracking mount. The optical system is built around a diode-pumped, erbium-doped fiber laser rated at 1.5 watts average power at 10 kHz repetition rate with 25 nsec pulse duration. An 8 inch-diameter, F/2.84 telescope is relayed to a quadrant detector at F/0.85 giving a 5 mrad field of view. Two detectors have been evaluated, a Germanium PIN diode and an Intevac TE-IPD. The receiver electronics uses a DSP network of 6 SHARC processors to implement ranging and angle error algorithms along with an Optical AGC, including beam divergence/FOV control loops.Laboratory measurements of the laser characteristics, and system range and angle accuracies will be compared to simulations. Field measurements against actual targets will be presented.

  15. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) With Applications for Laser Imaging and Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P.; Nicholas, A.; Thomas, L.; Davis, M.; Hoberman, C.; Davis, M.

    The Naval Research Laboratory will provide an orbiting calibration sphere to be used with ground-based laser imaging telescopes and HF radio systems. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) is a practical, reliable, high-performance HF calibration sphere and laser imaging target to orbit at about 600 km altitude. The sphere will be made of a spherical wire frame with aspect independent radar cross section in the 3 to 35 MHz frequency range. The necessary launch vehicle to place the PERCS in orbit will be provided by the Department of Defense Space Test Program. The expandable calibration target has a stowed diameter of 1 meter and a fully deployed diameter of 10.2 meters. A separate deployment mechanism is provided for the sphere. After deployment, the Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) with 180 vertices will be in a high inclination orbit to scatter radio pulses from a number of ground systems, including (1) over-the-horizon (OTH) radars operated by the United States and Australia; (2) high power HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high latitude SuperDARN radars used for auroral region mapping; and (4) HF direction finding for Navy ships. With the PERCS satellite, the accuracy of HF radars can be periodically checked for range, elevation, and azimuth errors. In addition, each of the 360 vertices on the PERCS sphere will support an optical retro-reflector for operations with ground laser facilities used to track satellites. The ground laser systems will be used to measure the precise location of the sphere within one cm accuracy and will provide the spatial orientation of the sphere as well as the rotation rate. The Department of Defense facilities that can use the corner-cube reflectors on the PERCS include (1) the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), (2) the Starfire Optical Range (SOR), and (3) the NRL Optical Test Facility (OTF).

  16. [The error analysis and experimental verification of laser radar spectrum detection and terahertz time domain spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Tao; Li, Jing-Wen; Sun, Zhi-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Terahertz waves (THz, T-ray) lie between far-infrared and microwave in electromagnetic spectrum with frequency from 0.1 to 10 THz. Many chemical agent explosives show characteristic spectral features in the terahertz. Compared with conventional methods of detecting a variety of threats, such as weapons and chemical agent, THz radiation is low frequency and non-ionizing, and does not give rise to safety concerns. The present paper summarizes the latest progress in the application of terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to chemical agent explosives. A kind of device on laser radar detecting and real time spectrum measuring was designed which measures the laser spectrum on the bases of Fourier optics and optical signal processing. Wedge interferometer was used as the beam splitter to wipe off the background light and detect the laser and measure the spectrum. The result indicates that 10 ns laser radar pulse can be detected and many factors affecting experiments are also introduced. The combination of laser radar spectrum detecting, THz-TDS, modern pattern recognition and signal processing technology is the developing trend of remote detection for chemical agent explosives.

  17. A fast 3D image simulation algorithm of moving target for scanning laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jicheng; Shi, Zhiguang; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Dong

    2014-10-01

    Scanning Laser Radar has been widely used in many military and civil areas. Usually there are relative movements between the target and the radar, so the moving target image modeling and simulation is an important research content in the field of signal processing and system design of scan-imaging laser radar. In order to improve the simulation speed and hold the accuracy of the image simulation simultaneously, a novel fast simulation algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, for moving target or varying scene, an inequation that can judge the intersection relations between the pixel and target bins is obtained by deriving the projection of target motion trajectories on the image plane. Then, by utilizing the time subdivision and approximate treatments, the potential intersection relations of pixel and target bins are determined. Finally, the goal of reducing the number of intersection operations could be achieved by testing all the potential relations and finding which of them is real intersection. To test the method's performance, we perform computer simulations of both the new proposed algorithm and a literature's algorithm for six targets. The simulation results show that the two algorithm yield the same imaging result, whereas the number of intersection operations of former is equivalent to only 1% of the latter, and the calculation efficiency increases a hundredfold. The novel simulation acceleration idea can be applied extensively in other more complex application environments and provide equally acceleration effect. It is very suitable for the case to produce a great large number of laser radar images.

  18. Linear FMCW Laser Radar for Precision Range and Vector Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierrottet, Diego; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Petway, Larry; Barnes, Bruce; Lockhard, George; Rubio, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    An all fiber linear frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) coherent laser radar system is under development with a goal to aide NASA s new Space Exploration initiative for manned and robotic missions to the Moon and Mars. By employing a combination of optical heterodyne and linear frequency modulation techniques and utilizing state-of-the-art fiber optic technologies, highly efficient, compact and reliable laser radar suitable for operation in a space environment is being developed. Linear FMCW lidar has the capability of high-resolution range measurements, and when configured into a multi-channel receiver system it has the capability of obtaining high precision horizontal and vertical velocity measurements. Precision range and vector velocity data are beneficial to navigating planetary landing pods to the preselected site and achieving autonomous, safe soft-landing. The all-fiber coherent laser radar has several important advantages over more conventional pulsed laser altimeters or range finders. One of the advantages of the coherent laser radar is its ability to measure directly the platform velocity by extracting the Doppler shift generated from the motion, as opposed to time of flight range finders where terrain features such as hills, cliffs, or slopes add error to the velocity measurement. Doppler measurements are about two orders of magnitude more accurate than the velocity estimates obtained by pulsed laser altimeters. In addition, most of the components of the device are efficient and reliable commercial off-the-shelf fiber optic telecommunication components. This paper discusses the design and performance of a second-generation brassboard system under development at NASA Langley Research Center as part of the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance (ALHAT) project.

  19. Required energy for a laser radar system incorporating a fiber amplifier or an avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overbeck, Jay A.; Salisbury, Michael S.; Mark, Martin B.; Watson, Edward A.

    1995-11-01

    The transmitted energy required for an airborne laser radar system to be able to image a target at 20 km is investigated. Because direct detection is being considered, two methods of using an avalanche photodiode (APD) as the detector and (2) using a commercial fiber amplifier as a preamplifier before a photodetector. For this analysis a specified signal-to-noise ratio was used in conjunction with the radar range equation, which includes the effects of atmospheric transmission and turbulence. Theoretical analysis reveals that a system with a fiber amplifier performs nearly the same as a system incorporating an APD.

  20. Investigation of laser radar systems based on mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybaltowski, Adam

    This dissertation deals with the possibility of utilizing mid-infrared semiconductor lasers in systems of optical remote sensing with range resolution, called laser radar or lidar. The main subject investigated in this dissertation is two-fold: firstly, an analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and related maximum sensing range calculations in this type of lidar based on available system components, and---secondly---improvements in the Random-Modulation Continuous-Wave (RM-CW) lidar technique to better utilize available mid-infrared semiconductor lasers. As far as the SNR analysis is concerned, an appropriate framework has been constructed to analyze post-demodulation noise in mid-infrared direct-detection RM-CW lidar. It is based on a generalization of the Wiener-Khintchine theorem; noise is assumed to be additive, stationary, and have an arbitrary power spectrum. This is in contrast to the SNR analysis in the literature on this subject, which is inadequate for mid-infrared RM-CW lidar as it only considers Poissonian fluctuations of the number of detected photons. In addition to regular SNR analysis, the framework derived in this dissertation allows treatment of singularities such as demodulation with an unbalanced sequence in 1/f noise. To calculate maximum lidar sensing range, the following detection limits have been considered: signal shot noise, background blackbody radiation shot noise based on the Background-Limited Photodetection (BLIP) detectivity limit, and minimum-size detector noise given by diffraction-limited focusing. The latter is found to be of greatest practical interest. Furthermore, a lidar figure of merit has been introduced, and all quantities related to lidar performance and its detection limits have been presented graphically. Since pseudo-random sequences discussed in the literature have been found highly non-optimal for most applications of RM-CW lidar, a framework for the construction of new pseudo-random sequences of desired

  1. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing.

    PubMed

    Beck, Steven M; Buck, Joseph R; Buell, Walter F; Dickinson, Richard P; Kozlowski, David A; Marechal, Nicholas J; Wright, Timothy J

    2005-12-10

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system.

  2. Synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar: laboratory demonstration and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Steven M.; Buck, Joseph R.; Buell, Walter F.; Dickinson, Richard P.; Kozlowski, David A.; Marechal, Nicholas J.; Wright, Timothy J.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial resolution of a conventional imaging laser radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. We investigate a technique known as synthetic-aperture imaging laser radar (SAIL), which employs aperture synthesis with coherent laser radar to overcome the diffraction limit and achieve fine-resolution, long-range, two-dimensional imaging with modest aperture diameters. We detail our laboratory-scale SAIL testbed, digital signal-processing techniques, and image results. In particular, we report what we believe to be the first optical synthetic-aperture image of a fixed, diffusely scattering target with a moving aperture. A number of fine-resolution, well-focused SAIL images are shown, including both retroreflecting and diffuse scattering targets, with a comparison of resolution between real-aperture imaging and synthetic-aperture imaging. A general digital signal-processing solution to the laser waveform instability problem is described and demonstrated, involving both new algorithms and hardware elements. These algorithms are primarily data driven, without a priori knowledge of waveform and sensor position, representing a crucial step in developing a robust imaging system.

  3. Adaptive fused Kalman filter based on imaging laser radar for TAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Junbin; Xu, Hongbo; Tian, Jinwen; Cheng, Hua; Zhang, Jun

    2007-11-01

    Terrain aided navigation (TAN) is an efficient way to periodically correct the error accumulation of INS. The imaging laser radar is an ideal imaging sensor in TAN for the low-flying aircraft and unmanned air vehicles for the high precision multi-dimensional data acquisition capability and concealable attribute. In this paper, a new framework for applying the laser radar to terrain aided navigation is put forward. Then a new adaptive fused Kalman Filter is proposed to improve the accuracy and robustness. At last, the key factors affected the algorithm are analyzed and the comparative experimentations are presented. The simulating experiments show that the proposed algorithm improves the location accuracy, and has good initial error tolerance and fine robustness. It shows that this approach is a valid solution for the application.

  4. HgCdTe photomixers for CO2 laser radar systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratt, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    The Santa Barbara Research Center has developed a variety of high speed HgCdTe photodetectors for use in CO2 laser radar systems. These detectors have outstanding performance and can be made available in production quantities. Many of them have been employed in a variety of systems applications over the past ten years. In this paper, we briefly describe the detector technology, summarize the state-of-the-art, and indicate some practical applications.

  5. Advanced system model for 1574-nm imaging, scannerless, eye-safe laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schael, Ulrich; Rothe, Hendrik

    2002-10-01

    Laser radar based on gated viewing uses narrow laser pulses to illuminate a whole scene for direct (incoherent) detection. Due to the time of flight principle and a very fast shutter with precisely controlled delay time, only light reflected in the range R (range slice ΔR) is detected by a camera. Scattered light which reaches the shutter outside a given exposure time (gate) is suppressed. Hence, it is possible to "look" along the optical axis through changing atmospheric transmissions (rain, haze, fog, snow). For each laser pulse, the grey value image ES(x,y) of the camera is captured by a framegrabber for subsequent evaluation. Image sequences from these laser radar systems are ideally suited to recognize objects, because of the automatic contrast generation of the technology. Difficult object recognition problems, detection, target tracking, or obstacle avoidance at bad weather conditions are favorite applications. In this paper we discuss improvements in the system modelling and simulation of our laser radar system. Formerly the system performance was calculated for the whole system using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), leading to a general estimation of the maximum range of target detection. Changing to a pixel oriented approach, we are now able to study the system response for targets with arbitrary two and even three dimensional form. We take into account different kinds of target reflectivity and the Gaussian nature of the illuminating laser spot. Hence it is possible to simulate gray value images (range slices) and calculate range images. This will lead to a modulation transfer function for the system in future. Finally, the theoretical considerations are compared with experimental results from indoor measurements.

  6. Study of imaging radar using ultra-wideband microwave-modulated infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, Atsushi; Kogi, Yuichiro; Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Inutake, Masaaki; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present an ultra-wideband microwave-modulated laser radar which is designed and fabricated for improvement of the spatial resolution both in the range direction and the azimuth direction. The amplitude modulation in a range of 0.01-18 GHz is applied to an infrared laser source of 1550 nm wavelength. The frequency and the bandwidth are assigned by the Administration of Radio under the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications in Japan. However, there is no bandwidth limitation in the infrared region. Considering the influence of radiation pattern for microwave antennas case, there is no side lobe in laser beam transmission. Ambiguous signal and interferences which are returned from the ground can be suppressed. A prototype of laser-radar system with a fiber collimator for both transmitting and receiving optics has been fabricated. A vector network analyzer is used to obtain S21 signal between the microwave modulation input and that of received signal. The system is, at first, applied to the measurement of the distance (position) of an object. It is proved that the spatial resolution is less than 1 cm during 5-10 m. As an initial experiment, we have succeeded to obtain 3D image of object by scanning a laser beam in two dimensions.

  7. Compact multichannel receiver using InGaAs APDs for single-pulse eye-safe laser radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Hoyt N.; Yun, Steven T.; Dinndorf, Kenneth M.; Hayden, David R.

    1997-08-01

    Active imaging laser radars form 3D images which can be processed to provide target identification and precision aimpoint definition in real time. Earlier raster-scanned and pushbroom-scanned 3D imaging laser radar receivers required multiple laser pulses to assemble a complete 3D image frame. Platform/target motion and atmospheric effects caused tearing and jitter in the assembled 3D images, which complicated the subsequent image processing and necessitated the use of stabilized scanning systems. This paper describes the current status of the parallel/multichannel imaging laser radar receiver (PMR) which is being developed under an SBIR Phaser II program by the USAF Wright Laboratories Armament Directorate. The PMR uses an array of multichannel laser radar receivers to form single-pulse, 3D laser radar images, thus eliminating the complex and costly scanning system, and enabling much higher frame rates than were ever before possible. The heart of the PMR is the multichannel optical receiver photonic hybrid (MORPH), a high performance 16-channel laser radar receiver module which uses an array of InGaAs avalanche photodiodes for eyesafe operation. The MORPH provides high downrange resolution, multihit range data for each detector on a compact circuit card. Optical flux is transferred from the receiver focal plane to each MORPH via a fiber optic ribbon cable. An array of MORPHs are plugged into a compact passive backplane, along with a single digital control card (DCC). The DCC, which is the same form factor as the MORPH, synchronizes the MORPHs and transfers the digital range information to the host processor over a standard parallel data interface cable. The system described here illustrates one approach to integrating and packaging high-density photonic arrays and their associated signal processing electronics to yield a compact, low power, scannerless, high performance imaging laser radar receiver, using existing technology.

  8. An operational theory of laser-radar selenodesy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildey, R.L.; Schlier, R.E.; Hull, J.A.; Larson, G.

    1967-01-01

    A theory of the utilization of laser techniques for ranging from the Earth to the Moon for the purpose of providing control points on the lunar surface at which the figure of the Moon is measured to an accuracy at least an order of magnitude better than that of the present astrometric measurements is presented. This, in turn, increases the accuracy of the horizontal selenocentric coordinates of topographical features measured by present astrometric methods. The improvement in the vertical and horizontal coordinates of control points in the Apollo landing zone will aid in the analysis of Unmanned Lunar Orbiter photographs for the selection of Apollo landing sites. The present discussion proposes the means of obtaining the ground control upon which the Orbiter photogrammetry is to be fastened. In addition, a technique of combining Goldstone tracking data to show where the resulting lunar figure is positioned relative to the Moon's center of mass is presented. If corner reflectors are placed on the lunar surface, as suggested by many members of the scientific community, or on a lunar orbiting vehicle, one or more Earth-based laser ranging systems are essential. These reflectors will give enough enhancement in return signal to allow for an additional increase in range accuracy of one to two orders of magnitude. In addition to the primary data on the figure of the Moon, a number of other measurements of scientific importance are then readily obtainable. As far as the measurement of control points is concerned, however, the use of corner reflectors is not essential for the success of this project. Questions regarding the influence on the present shape of the Moon of the frozen tide, isostasy, and past impacts of large asteroids appear in large part answerable through the data which are indicated to be obtainable under the present theory. ?? 1967.

  9. Multiple target tracking and target attitude determination with a scanning laser radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, T.; Coombes, D.

    1974-01-01

    A scanning laser radar that can acquire and track single or multiple targets has recently been developed. Scan patterns have been designed for acquisition and tracking of one or more targets using a narrow laser beam. A synchronously scanned transmitter-receiver is used to acquire and track targets anywhere in a 376 x 376 element raster covering a 30 x 30 deg field. All scan patterns are electronically programmed, and the system automatically acquires and tracks the target or targets without the aid of an operator. The maximum tracking rate is 1.0 deg/sec (10.0 deg/sec) when used with a 1 kHz (10 kHz) scan rate. The estimated free space range against passive cooperative targets (corner cube reflectors) is 30 nautical miles. The laser radar has an accuracy of 10 cm (range) and 0.05 deg (angle). The developmental system is relatively small (1.5 cu ft), lightweight (60 lbs) and low-power-consuming (60 W).

  10. Comparison of Retracking Algorithms Using Airborne Radar and Laser Altimeter Measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, Ellen J.; Swift, Calvin T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares four continental ice sheet radar altimeter retracking algorithms using airborne radar and laser altimeter data taken over the Greenland ice sheet in 1991. The refurbished Advanced Application Flight Experiment (AAFE) airborne radar altimeter has a large range window and stores the entire return waveform during flight. Once the return waveforms are retracked, or post-processed to obtain the most accurate altitude measurement possible, they are compared with the high-precision Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) altimeter measurements. The AAFE waveforms show evidence of varying degrees of both surface and volume scattering from different regions of the Greenland ice sheet. The AOL laser altimeter, however, obtains a return only from the surface of the ice sheet. Retracking altimeter waveforms with a surface scattering model results in a good correlation with the laser measurements in the wet and dry-snow zones, but in the percolation region of the ice sheet, the deviation between the two data sets is large due to the effects of subsurface and volume scattering. The Martin et al model results in a lower bias than the surface scattering model, but still shows an increase in the noise level in the percolation zone. Using an Offset Center of Gravity algorithm to retrack altimeter waveforms results in measurements that are only slightly affected by subsurface and volume scattering and, despite a higher bias, this algorithm works well in all regions of the ice sheet. A cubic spline provides retracked altitudes that agree with AOL measurements over all regions of Greenland. This method is not sensitive to changes in the scattering mechanisms of the ice sheet and it has the lowest noise level and bias of all the retracking methods presented.

  11. Active laser radar systems with stochastic electromagnetic beams in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangjian; Korotkova, Olga; Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Baykal, Yahya

    2008-09-29

    Propagation of stochastic electromagnetic beams through paraxial ABCD optical systems operating through turbulent atmosphere is investigated with the help of the ABCD matrices and the generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral. In particular, the analytic formula is derived for the cross-spectral density matrix of an electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (EGSM) beam. We applied our analysis for the ABCD system with a single lens located on the propagation path, representing, in a particular case, the unfolded double-pass propagation scenario of active laser radar. Through a number of numerical examples we investigated the effect of local turbulence strength and lens' parameters on spectral, coherence and polarization properties of the EGSM beam.

  12. OWL: an eyesafe 1.5-μm laser radar system for military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibert, Max; Scherbarth, Stefan

    1998-10-01

    The paper reports on current advances in the development of the Dornier Obstacle Warning System (OWS) for helicopters, with particular emphasis on the Obstacle Warning Ladar (OWL). Here both segments, development and application of the 1.5 micrometer imaging laser radar (LADAR) will be represented. It will be shown how advances in the eyesafe LADAR technology resulted in Obstacle Warning Ladar optimized for wire detection leading to a system family platform covering the range from the commercial needs up to the military requirements.

  13. Radiation effects on optical components of a laser radar sensor designed for remote metrology in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Grann, E.B.; Slotwinski, A.

    1997-09-01

    A frequency modulated laser radar is being developed for in-vessel metrology and viewing of plasma-facing surfaces. Some optical components of this sensor must withstand intense gamma radiation (3 {times} 10{sup 6} rad/h) during operation. The authors have tested the effect of radiation on a silica core polarization maintaining optical fiber and on TeO{sub 2} crystals at doses up to {approximately} 10{sup 9} rad. Additional tests are planned for evaluating the performance of a complete acousto-optic (AO) scanning device. The progress made in these tests is also described.

  14. Hardware-in-the-loop testing for the LOCAAS laser radar antimateriel munition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Lawrence Y., III; Thompson, Rhoe A.

    1996-05-01

    The KHILS facility in the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate at Eglin AFB has developed a hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) simulation for the Low Cost Autonomous Attack System. Unique techniques have been developed for real-time closed-loop signal injection testing of this Laser Radar (LADAR) guided munition concept. The overall HWIL layout will be described including discussion of interfaces, real- time 3D LADAR scene generation, flight motion simulation, and real-time graphical visualization. In addition, the practical application of a new simulation Verification, Validation and Accreditation procedure will be described in relation to this HWIL simulation.

  15. Analysis of influential factors on a space target's laser radar cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Sun, Huayan; Guo, Huichao

    2014-03-01

    This paper utilises the idea of theoretical analysis to introduce a fast and visual laser radar cross-section (LRCS) calculation method for space targets that is implemented with OpenGL. We chose the cube, cylinder and cone as targets based on the general characteristics of satellite shapes. The four-parameter mono-station BRDF is used, and we assume the surface materials are either purely diffuse, purely specular or mixed. The degree of influence on a target's total LRCS of the target's shape and size and the surface materials' BRDF are described. We describe the general laws governing influential factors by comparing simulated results. These conclusions can provide a reference for new research directions and methods to determine a target's laser scattering characteristics.

  16. Laser radar range and detection performance for MEMS corner cube retroreflector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Stewart, Hamilton; McDaniel, Robert V.

    2004-12-01

    BAE SYSTEMS reports on a program to characterize the performance of MEMS corner cube retroreflector arrays under laser illumination. These arrays have significant military and commercial application in the areas of: 1) target identification; 2) target tracking; 3) target location; 4) identification friend-or-foe (IFF); 5) parcel tracking, and; 6) search and rescue assistance. BAE SYSTEMS has theoretically determined the feasibility of these devices to learn if sufficient signal-to-noise performance exists to permit a cooperative laser radar sensor to be considered for device location and interrogation. Results indicate that modest power-apertures are required to achieve SNR performance consistent with high probability of detection and low false alarm rates.

  17. Laser radar range and detection performance for MEMS corner cube retroreflector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Jost, Steven R.; Smith, M. J.; McDaniel, Robert V.

    2004-01-01

    BAE SYSTEMS reports on a program to characterize the performance of MEMS corner cube retroreflector arrays under laser illumination. These arrays have significant military and commercial application in the areas of: (1) target identification; (2) target tracking; (3) target location; (4) identification friend-or-foe (IFF); (5) parcel tracking, and; (6) search and rescue assistance. BAE SYSTEMS has theoretically determined the feasibility of these devices to learn if sufficient signal-to-noise performance exists to permit a cooperative laser radar sensor to be considered for device location and interrogation. Results indicate that modest power-apertures are required to achieve SNR performance consistent with high probability of detection and low false alarm rates.

  18. Cloud-base water content measurement using single wavelength laser-radar data.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A

    1975-12-01

    Monochromatic backscattering laser-radar data are used for the determination on the number density of cloud droplets within a cumulus cloud base. The method is based upon general properties of a cloud base as derived from in situ measurements in a large variety of continental cumulus clouds. The backscatter laser profile from the cloud base is analyzed, and points with equal optical-depth values are detected in each profile. The method of detection requires no knowledge of the multiple scattering contribution, even though its effect is not neglected and is allowed to vary as a function of the optical depth. Corrections for general clouds are suggested based upon lidar measurements and analysis of the backscattering profile characteristics.

  19. Integrated multi-channel receiver for a pulsed time-of-flight laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan; Liu, Ruqing; Zhu, Jingguo

    2015-04-01

    An integrated multi-channel receiver for a pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) laser rangefinder has been designed in this paper. The receiver chip as an important component of the laser radar device has been implemented in a 0.18um CMOS process. It consists of sixteen channels and every channel includes preamplifier, amplifier stages, high-pass filter and a timing discriminator which contains a timing comparator and a noise comparator. Each signal paths is independent of other channels. Based on the simulations, the bandwidth and transimpedance of the amplifier channel are 652MHz, 99dBΩ. Under the simulation condition of TT corner and 27°C, the propagation delay of the discriminator is 2.15ns and the propagation delay dispersion is 223ps. The power consumption during continuous measurement is 810mW, and the operating temperature range of the device is -10~60°C.

  20. Comparison of Surface Elevation Changes of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets from Radar and Laser Altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. Jay; Brenner, Anita C.; Barbieri, Kristine; DiMarzio, John P.; Li, Jun; Robbins, John; Saba, Jack L.; Yi, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    A primary purpose of satellite altimeter measurements is determination of the mass balances of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and changes with time by measurement of changes in the surface elevations. Since the early 1990's, important measurements for this purpose have been made by radar altimeters on ERS-l and 2, Envisat, and CryoSat and a laser altimeter on ICESat. One principal factor limiting direct comparisons between radar and laser measurements is the variable penetration depth of the radar signal and the corresponding location of the effective depth of the radar-measured elevation beneath the surface, in contrast to the laser-measured surface elevation. Although the radar penetration depth varies significantly both spatially and temporally, empirical corrections have been developed to account for this effect. Another limiting factor in direct comparisons is caused by differences in the size of the laser and radar footprints and their respective horizontal locations on the surface. Nevertheless, derived changes in elevation, dHldt, and time-series of elevation, H(t), have been shown to be comparable. For comparisons at different times, corrections for elevation changes caused by variations in the rate offrrn compaction have also been developed. Comparisons between the H(t) and the average dH/dt at some specific locations, such as the Vostok region of East Antarctic, show good agreement among results from ERS-l and 2, Envisat, and ICESat. However, Greenland maps of dHidt from Envisat and ICESat for the same time periods (2003-2008) show some areas of significant differences as well as areas of good agreement. Possible causes of residual differences are investigated and described.

  1. Laser- and Radar-based Mission Concepts for Suborbital and Spaceborne Monitoring of Seismic Surface Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Schultz, C A; Tralli, D M

    2004-09-21

    The development of a suborbital or spaceborne system to monitor seismic waves poses an intriguing prospect for advancing the state of seismology. This capability would enable an unprecedented global mapping of the velocity structure of the earth's crust, understanding of earthquake rupture dynamics and wave propagation effects, and event source location, characterization and discrimination that are critical for both fundamental earthquake research and nuclear non-proliferation applications. As part of an ongoing collaboration between LLNL and JPL, an advanced mission concept study assessed architectural considerations and operational and data delivery requirements, extending two prior studies by each organization--a radar-based satellite system (JPL) for earthquake hazard assessment and a feasibility study of space- or UAV-based laser seismometer systems (LLNL) for seismic event monitoring. Seismic wave measurement requirements include lower bounds on detectability of specific seismic sources of interest and wave amplitude accuracy for different levels of analysis, such as source characterization, discrimination and tomography, with a 100 {micro}m wave amplitude resolution for waves nominally traveling 5 km/s, an upper frequency bound based on explosion and earthquake surface displacement spectra, and minimum horizontal resolution (1-5 km) and areal coverage, in general and for targeted observations. For a radar system, corresponding engineering and operational factors include: Radar frequency (dictated by required wave amplitude measurement accuracy and maximizing ranging, Doppler or interferometric sensitivity), time sampling (maximum seismic wave frequency and velocity), and overall system considerations such as mass, power and data rate. Technical challenges include characterization of, and compensation for, phase distortion resulting from atmospheric and ionospheric perturbations and turbulence, and effects of ground scattering characteristics and seismic

  2. High-power pulsed diode laser for automotive scanning radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yuji; Matsushita, Noriyuki; Kato, Hisaya; Abe, Katsunori; Atsumi, Kinya

    2000-02-01

    High performance pulsed AlGaAs/GaAs wide stripe diode laser has been developed for the automotive distance-measuring scanning radar sensor. The laser diode is required high output power of 15 W and a long time reliability in spite of being used in a harsh environment such as wide temperature range, mechanical vibrations at the front bumper and so on. The device is designed by employing a multiple quantum well structure as an active layer for high output power with low drive current and high temperature operations. Moreover we reduce catastrophic optical damage power level and control the beam divergence angle by introducing optimized optical waveguide layers. In the chips bonding part, we developed a new thin film Au-Sn-Ni solder system. The bonding temperature can be lowered by using this system, whereby the thermal damage to the laser diode can be reduced. Furthermore, highly stable bonding is carried out by improving wetting ability in this system. We have achieved more than 22 W light output power at 20A pulse current under room temperature and more than 16 W light output power under 90 degrees Celsius. High reliability over 10,000 hours is performed for automotive use under pulsed operation at 90 degrees Celsius, 50 ns pulse width, 8 kHz frequency and 15 W light output power.

  3. Feasibility study of synthetic aperture infrared laser radar techniques for imaging of static and moving objects.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, S; Aruga, T

    1998-08-20

    Techniques for two types of 10-mum band synthetic aperture infrared laser radar using a hypothetical reference point target (RPT) are presented. One is for imaging static objects with a single two-dimensional scanning aperture. Through the simple manipulation of a reference wave phase, a desired image can be obtained merely by the two-dimensional Fourier transformation of the correlator output between the intermediate frequency signals of the reference and object waves. The other, with a one-dimensional aperture array, is for moving objects that pass across the array direction without attitude change. We performed imaging by using a two-dimensional RPT correlation method. We demonstrate the capability of these methods for imaging and evaluate the necessary conditions for signal-to-noise ratio and random phase errors in signal reception through numerical simulations in terms of feasibility.

  4. Occluded target viewing and identification high-resolution 2D imaging laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Dippel, George F.; Cecchetti, Kristen D.; Wikman, John C.; Drouin, David P.; Egbert, Paul I.

    2007-09-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has developed a high-resolution 2D imaging laser radar (LADAR) system that has proven its ability to detect and identify hard targets in occluded environments, through battlefield obscurants, and through naturally occurring image-degrading atmospheres. Limitations of passive infrared imaging for target identification using medium wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long wavelength infrared (LWIR) atmospheric windows are well known. Of particular concern is that as wavelength is increased the aperture must be increased to maintain resolution, hence, driving apertures to be very larger for long-range identification; impractical because of size, weight, and optics cost. Conversely, at smaller apertures and with large f-numbers images may become photon starved with long integration times. Here, images are most susceptible to distortion from atmospheric turbulence, platform vibration, or both. Additionally, long-range identification using passive thermal imaging is clutter limited arising from objects in close proximity to the target object.

  5. Doppler laser radar for range and speed measurement of road targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yanfang; Mao, Xuesong; Fang, Jianchao; Zhang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A pulsed coherent vehicle laser radar system basing on the measurement of light flight time and Doppler frequency shift is demonstrated for the first time, which features a simple design that uses one photodiode (PD) as its optical detector. Pseudo random noise (PN) code is used for modulating the amplitude of transmitting light. Correlation function of the received echoes and the local modulating codes is calculated for measuring the light flight time. Due to PN code modulation, beat signal output from PD is piecewise continuous, which causes equidistant sampling of Doppler sine wave not feasible. In order that Doppler frequency be correctly measured by using fast Fourier transform (FFT), a simple signal amplitude modification method is derived from the definition of Fourier transform.

  6. Small Objects in Low-Earth Intersecting Ground-Based Laser Radar Operational Envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccio, Dona V.

    2002-01-01

    NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Air Force Research Laboratory/Directed Energy Directorate, is considering a series of experiments to demonstrate small object tracking capability. One such experiment involves a microsatellite, about 25 cm in diameter, which will be deployed from a Space Shuttle Hitchhiker canister or from an Air Force vehicle. The High Performance CO2 Ladar Surveillance Sensor (HI-CLASS) and the Advanced Electro-Optics System (AEOS) will be used to detect the micro-satellite. The goal of this paper is to determine the number of times per day that a micro-satellite orbiting at a known altitude and inclination will be visible to the laser radar, and the length of time that the micro-satellite will be visible on each pass.

  7. SAR processing with non-linear FM chirp waveforms.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-12-01

    Nonlinear FM (NLFM) waveforms offer a radar matched filter output with inherently low range sidelobes. This yields a 1-2 dB advantage in Signal-to-Noise Ratio over the output of a Linear FM (LFM) waveform with equivalent sidelobe filtering. This report presents details of processing NLFM waveforms in both range and Doppler dimensions, with special emphasis on compensating intra-pulse Doppler, often cited as a weakness of NLFM waveforms.

  8. Lidar-radar velocimetry using a pulse-to-pulse coherent rf-modulated Q-switched laser.

    PubMed

    Vallet, M; Barreaux, J; Romanelli, M; Pillet, G; Thévenin, J; Wang, L; Brunel, M

    2013-08-01

    An rf-modulated pulse train from a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser has been generated using an extra-cavity acousto-optic modulator. The rf modulation reproduces the spectral quality of the local oscillator. It leads to a high pulse-to-pulse phase coherence, i.e., phase memory, over thousands of pulses. The potentialities of this transmitter for lidar-radar are demonstrated by performing Doppler velocimetry on indoor moving targets. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model based on elementary signal processing theory. In particular, we show experimentally and theoretically that lidar-radar is a promising technique that allows discrimination between translation and rotation movements. Being independent of the laser internal dynamics, this scheme can be applied to any Q-switched laser.

  9. Error Ellipsoid Analysis for the Diameter Measurement of Cylindroid Components Using a Laser Radar Measurement System

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhengchun; Wu, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS). First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS. PMID:27213385

  10. Simulation of a laser radar to improve visiblity measurements in dense fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streicher, Juergen

    1992-12-01

    Lidar is the short form of light detection and ranging. The first application of a lidar system was, as in the radar technique, the determination of the distance to large-sized particles (target recognition). Nowadays, it is of more interest to measure the structure of the atmosphere in far distances (remote sensing) to get, for example, information about the mass concentration of the industrial pollution or the visibility conditions in dense fog. In this case the action and reaction of the laser light with the particles is made by very small and different scatterers (molecules, atoms, or aerosols) and, therefore, extremely complex. A simulation program that helps to determine the visibility with a lidar has been developed to present the effects of the components of the system (laser, transmitter, receiver) as well as the parameters of the atmosphere (inhomogeneities, fog, clouds) in a convenient way. A change in any parameter is taken into account instantaneously, so this program can be called an almost real time simulator. A computer with a graphic user interface was chosen to realize this as simply as possible: The Commodore Amiga. The simulation is written in `C' to get the best performance for the calculations.

  11. Error Ellipsoid Analysis for the Diameter Measurement of Cylindroid Components Using a Laser Radar Measurement System.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhengchun; Wu, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jianguo

    2016-05-19

    The use of three-dimensional (3D) data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS). First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS.

  12. Development of a high-resolution laser radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordone, Andrea; Ferri De Collibus, Mario; Fantoni, Roberta; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Guarneri, Marianna; Poggi, Claudio; Ricci, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    A high resolution Amplitude Modulation Laser Radar (AM-LR) sensor has recently been developed, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets -- either single objects or complex scenes. The sensor sounding beam can be swept linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotation platform. Both intensity and phase shift of the back-scattered light are then collected and processed, providing respectively a shade-free photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range or depth image, with resolution depending mainly on the laser modulation frequency. Starting from the sample points, with an uncertainty that can be made as small as 100 μm, the complete object surface can be reconstructed by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, bones) and is expected to have significant applications in industrial machining, artwork cataloguing and medical diagnostics. Examples of 3D reconstructions are presented and the relevance of this technology for reverse engineering applied to artwork restoration and conservation is briefly discussed.

  13. Transmitter and receiver antenna gain analysis for laser radar and communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive and fairly self-contained study of centrally obscured optical transmitting and receiving antennas is presented and is intended for use by the laser radar and communication systems designer. The material is presented in a format which allows the rapid and accurate evaluation of antenna gain. The Fresnel approximation to scalar wave theory is reviewed and the antenna analysis proceeds in terms of the power gain. Conventional range equations may then be used to calculate the power budget. The transmitter calculations, resulting in near and far field antenna gain patterns, assumes the antenna is illuminated by a laser operating in the fundamental cavity mode. A simple equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn which display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the outgoing beam as a function of antenna size and central obscuration. The use of telescope defocusing as an approach to spreading the beam for target acquisition is compared to some alternate methods.

  14. Performance of the multifunctional CW CO2-laser radar at the TNO-FEL laboratory and during the BEST TWO field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebers, H.

    1991-06-01

    Measurements performed with the multifunctional CW CO2 (Continuous Wave carbon dioxide) laser radar system are reported. The BEST TWO (Battle field Emmissive Sources Test under European Theatre Weather and Obscurants) trial was held in France, at Camp de Mourmelon, Jul. 26 to Aug. 10 1990, to test battlefield effects on long range target acquisition by electrooptical systems. The results and experience gained from these experiments are described and recommendations for further improvement of the multifunctional laser radar setup are given.

  15. A digital elevation model of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined laser and radar altimetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna; Smith, Ben; Sørensen, Louise S.; Forsberg, René

    2014-05-01

    When estimating elevation changes of ice-covered surfaces from radar altimetry, it is important to correct for slope-induced errors. They cause the reflecting point of the pulse to move up-slope and thus return estimates in the wrong coordinates. Slope-induced errors can be corrected for by introducing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this work, such a DEM is developed for the Greenland Ice Sheet using a combination of Envisat radar and ICESat laser altimetry. If time permits, CryoSat radar altimetry will be included as well. The reference year is 2010 and the spatial resolution 2.5 x 2.5 km. This is in accordance with the results obtained in the ESA Ice Sheets CCI project showing that a 5 x 5 km grid spacing is reasonable for ice sheet-wide change detection (Levinsen et al., 2013). Separate DEMs will be created for the given data sets, and the geostatistical spatial interpolation method collocation will be used to merge them, thus adjusting for potential inter-satellite biases. The final DEM is validated with temporally and spatially agreeing airborne lidar data acquired in the NASA IceBridge and ESA CryoVex campaigns. The motivation for developing a new DEM is based on 1) large surface changes presently being observed, and mainly in margin regions, hence necessitating updated topography maps for accurately deriving and correcting surface elevation changes, and 2) although radar altimetry is subject to surface penetration of the signal into the snowpack, data is acquired continuously in time. This is not the case with e.g. ICESat, where laser altimetry data were obtained in periods of active lasers, i.e. three times a year with a 35-day repeat track. Previous DEMs e.g. have 2007 as the nominal reference year, or they are built merely from ICESat data. These have elevation errors as small as 10 cm, which is lower than for Envisat and CryoSat. The advantage of an updated DEM consisting of combined radar and laser altimetry therefore is the possibility of

  16. FY05 FM Dial Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Warren W.; Strasburg, Jana D.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, Jason S.; Stewart, Timothy L.; Batdorf, Michael T.

    2005-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Infrared Sensors team is focused on developing methods for standoff detection of nuclear proliferation. In FY05, PNNL continued the development of the FM DIAL (frequency-modulated differential absorption LIDAR) experiment. Additional improvements to the FM DIAL trailer provided greater stability during field campaigns which made it easier to explore new locations for field campaigns. In addition to the Hanford Townsite, successful experiments were conducted at the Marine Science Laboratory in Sequim, WA and the Nevada Test Site located outside Las Vegas, NV. The range of chemicals that can be detected by FM DIAL has also increased. Prior to FY05, distributed feedback quantum cascade lasers (DFB-QCL) were used in the FM DIAL experiments. With these lasers, only simple chemicals with narrow (1-2 cm-1) absorption spectra, such as CO2 and N2O, could be detected. Fabry-Perot (FP) QC lasers have much broader spectra (20-40 cm-1) which allows for the detection of larger chemicals and a wider array of chemicals that can be detected. A FP-QCL has been characterized and used during initial studies detecting DMMP (dimethyl methylphosphonate).

  17. Experimental Study into the Performance Impact of the Environmental Noise on Undersea Pulsed Laser Serial Imagers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    iris was removed. Raytrace modeling results and experimental measurements of the FOV for both configurations were in agreement that the FOV was 15...Imaging with a Gated Viewing Laser Radar ,” Opt. Eng. 44, 116001 (2005). 10. F.M. Caimi and F.R. Dalgleish, 2010, “Performance Considerations for

  18. High-resolution laser radar for 3D imaging in artwork cataloging, reproduction, and restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Roberto; Fantoni, Roberta; Ferri de Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Guarneri, Massimiliano; Poggi, Claudio

    2003-10-01

    A high resolution Amplitude Modulated Laser Radar (AM-LR) sensor has recently been developed, aimed at accurately reconstructing 3D digital models of real targets, either single objects or complex scenes. The sensor sounding beam can be swept linearly across the object or circularly around it, by placing the object on a controlled rotating platform, enabling to obtain respectively linear and cylindrical range maps. Both amplitude and phase shift of the modulating wave of back-scattered light are collected and processed, providing respectively a shade-free, high resolution, photographic-like picture and accurate range data in the form of a range image. The resolution of range measurements depends mainly on the laser modulation frequency, provided that the power of the backscattered light reaching the detector is at least a few nW (current best performances are ~100 μm). The complete object surface can be reconstructed from the sampled points by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, alloys, bones), with relevant applications in different fields, ranging from industrial machining to medical diagnostics, to vision in hostile environments. Examples of artwork reconstructed models (pottery, marble statues) are presented and the relevance of this technology for reverse engineering applied to cultural heritage conservation and restoration are discussed. Final 3D models can be passed to numeric control machines for rapid-prototyping, exported in standard formats for CAD/CAM purposes and made available on the Internet by adopting a virtual museum paradigm, thus possibly enabling specialists to perform remote inspections on high resolution digital reproductions of hardly accessible masterpieces.

  19. Verification measurements of the Karoo Array timing system: a laser radar based time transfer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebrits, R.; Bauermeister, E.; Gamatham, R.; Adams, G.; Malan, J. A.; Burger, J. P.; Kapp, F.; Gibbon, T.; Kriel, H.; Abbott, T.

    2016-02-01

    An optical fiber based laser radar time transfer system has been developed for the 64-dish MeerKAT radiointerferometer telescope project to provide accurate atomic time to the receivers of the telescope system. This time transfer system is called the Karoo Array Timing System (KATS). Calibration of the time transfer system is essential to ensure that time is accurately transferred to the digitisers that form part of the receivers. Frequency domain reflectometry via vector network analysers is also used to verify measurements taken using time interval counters. This paper details the progress that is made in the verification measurements of the system in order to ensure that time, accurate to within a few nanoseconds of the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC, is available at the point where radio signals from astronomical sources are received. This capability enables world class transient and timing studies with a compact radio interferometer, which has inherent advantages over large single dish radio-telescopes, in observing the transient sky.

  20. Using a neural networks algorithm for high-resolution imaging in pulsed laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joodaki, Mojtaba; Kompa, Guenter; Golam Arshad, Seyed M.; Ahmadi, Vahid; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammed K.

    2001-11-01

    A new imaging method which can obtain the gray levels directly from the output waveform of Pulsed Laser Radar (PLR) is developed. A simple digital signal processing technique and multi layer perceptrons (MLP) type neural network (NN) have been used to obtain the gray level information from the pulse shapes. The method has been implemented in a real PLR to improve contrast and speed of 2D imaging in PLR. To compare the method with the standard method, a picture consists of 16 gray levels (from 0 for black to 1 for white) with both method has been scanned. Because of the ability of NNs in extracting the information from nonlinear and noisy data and preprocessing of the noisy input pulse shapes to the NN, the average and maximum of errors in the gray levels in comparison with standard method more than 88.5% and 72.6% improved, respectively. Because in this method the effect of the noise is decreased, it is possible to make the imaging with the same resolution as in standard method but with a lower averaging in sampling unit and this dramatically increases speed of the measurements.

  1. Novel eye-safe line scanning 3D laser-radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, B.; Kern, Tobias; Hammer, Marcus; Schwanke, Ullrich; Nowak, Heinrich

    2014-10-01

    Today, the civil market provides quite a number of different 3D-Sensors covering ranges up to 1 km. Typically these sensors are based on single element detectors which suffer from the drawback of spatial resolution at larger distances. Tasks demanding reliable object classification at long ranges can be fulfilled only by sensors consisting of detector arrays. They ensure sufficient frame rates and high spatial resolution. Worldwide there are many efforts in developing 3D-detectors, based on two-dimensional arrays. This paper presents first results on the performance of a recently developed 3D imaging laser radar sensor, working in the short wave infrared (SWIR) at 1.5 μm. It consists of a novel Cadmium Mercury Telluride (CMT) linear array APD detector with 384x1 elements at a pitch of 25 μm, developed by AIM Infrarot Module GmbH. The APD elements are designed to work in the linear (non-Geiger) mode. Each pixel will provide the time of flight measurement, and, due to the linear detection mode, allowing the detection of three successive echoes. The resolution in depth is 15 cm, the maximum repetition rate is 4 kHz. We discuss various sensor concepts regarding possible applications and their dependence on system parameters like field of view, frame rate, spatial resolution and range of operation.

  2. Multi-sensor image interpretation using laser radar and thermal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chen-Chau; Aggarwal, J. K.

    1991-03-01

    A knowledge based system is presented which interprets registered laser radar and thermal images. The object is to detect and recognize man-made objects at kilometer range in outdoor scenes. The multisensor fusion approach is applied to various sensing modalities (range, intensity, velocity, and thermal) to improve both image segmentation and interpretation. The ability to use multiple sensors greatly helps an intelligent platform to understand and interact with its environment. The knowledge-based interpretation system, AIMS, is constructed using KEE and Lisp. Low-level attributes of image segments (regions) are computed by the segmentation modules and then converted into the KEE format. The interpretation system applies forward chaining in a bottom-up fashion to derive object-level interpretations from data bases generated by low-level processing modules. Segments are grouped into objects and then objects are classified into predefined categories. AIMS employs a two tiered software structure. The efficiency of AIMS is enhanced by transferring nonsymbolic processing tasks to a concurrent service manager (program). Therefore, tasks with different characteristics are executed using different software tools and methodologies.

  3. Digital Elevation Models of Greenland based on combined radar and laser altimetry as well as high-resolution stereoscopic imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Smith, B. E.; Sandberg Sorensen, L.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Simonsen, S. B.; Forsberg, R.

    2015-12-01

    A number of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of Greenland exist, each of which are applicable for different purposes. This study presents two such DEMs: One developed by merging contemporary radar and laser altimeter data, and one derived from high-resolution stereoscopic imagery. All products are made freely available. The former DEM covers the entire Greenland. It is specific to the year 2010, providing it with an advantage over previous models suffering from either a reduced spatial/ temporal data coverage or errors from surface elevation changes (SEC) occurring during data acquisition. Radar data are acquired with Envisat and CryoSat-2, and laser data with the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite, the Land, Vegetation, and Ice Sensor, and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Correcting radar data for errors from slope effects and surface penetration of the echoes, and merging these with laser data, yields a DEM capable of resolving both surface depressions as well as topographic features at higher altitudes. The spatial resolution is 2 x 2 km, making the DEM ideal for application in surface mass balance studies, SEC detection from radar altimetry, or for correcting such data for slope-induced errors. The other DEM is developed in a pilot study building the expertise to map all ice-free parts of Greenland. The work combines WorldView-2 and -3 as well as GeoEye1 imagery from 2014 and 2015 over the Disko, Narsaq, Tassilaq, and Zackenberg regions. The novelty of the work is the determination of the product specifications after elaborate discussions with interested parties from government institutions, the tourist industry, etc. Thus, a 10 m DEM, 1.5 m orthophotos, and vector maps are produced. This opens to the possibility of using orthophotos with up-to-date contour lines or for deriving updated coastlines to aid, e.g., emergency management. This allows for a product development directly in line with the needs of parties with specific interests in Greenland.

  4. Characterization of microwave MESFET circuits under laser illumination. Applications to phased array radar, microwave communications, and digital clock control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, Sheryl M.

    1994-10-01

    Optical injection of MESFET's directly affects the operating characteristics of the devices. The MESFET properties, induced by optical injection, can stabilize oscillator operating frequency, control amplifier gain, and open the door for feasible integrated microwave-optical devices. The optical injection of DC MESFET's, oscillators, and amplifiers is explored. Systems applications, including phased array radar, wave division multiplexing (WDM), and computer clock control, are provided. The main contributions of this research are analyzing the modulation properties of the locked laser subsystem, using the locked laser system to inject MESFET devices and characterizing the photo-effects in MESFET circuits, reducing the phase noise in a microwave oscillator via optical injection, and developing a theoretical description of the injection properties of oscillators that can be used to describe an injection locked laser and a microwave oscillator with a change of constants.

  5. Characterization of Microwave Mesfet Circuits Under Laser Illumination: Applications to Phased Array Radar, Microwave Communications and Digital Clock Control.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genco, Sheryl Marie

    Optical injection of MESFETs directly affects the operating characteristics of the devices. The MESFET properties, induced by optical injection, can stabilize oscillator operating frequency, control amplifier gain and open the door for feasible integrated microwave-optical devices. The optical injection of DC MESFETs, oscillators, and amplifiers, is explored. Systems applications, including phased array radar, wave division multiplexing (WDM) and computer clock control, are provided. The main contributions of this research are analyzing the modulation properties of the locked laser subsystem, using the locked laser system to inject MESFET devices and characterizing the photo-effects in MESFET circuits, reducing the phase noise in a microwave oscillator via optical injection and developing a theoretical description of the injection properties of oscillators that can be used to describe an injection locked laser and a microwave oscillator with a change of constants.

  6. Doppler estimation accuracy of linear FM waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, F. E.

    The single-pulse Doppler estimation accuracy of an unweighted linear FM waveform is analyzed in detail. Simple formulas are derived that predict that one-sigma Doppler estimation error for realistic radar applications. The effects of multiple target interference and nonlinearlities in the radar measurements are considered. In addition, a practical method to estimate Doppler frequency is presented. This technique uses the phase data after pulse compression, and it limits the effect of multiple target interference. In contrast, the available literature is based on the Cramer-Rao bound for Doppler accuracy, which ignores the effects of nonlinearities, multiple target interference and the question of practical implementation. A simple formula is derived that predicts the region of validity for the Cramer-Rao bound. This formula provides a criterion for minimum signal-to-noise ratio in terms of time-bandwidth product. Finally, an important concept that is demonstrated in this paper is that: the bulk of the Doppler information in a linear FM pulse is encoded in the range sidelobes after pulse compression.

  7. Frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser radar using dual vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes for real-time measurements of distance and radial velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakuma, Seiichi

    2017-02-01

    A frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) laser radar capable of real-time displaying the distance to a target object and its radial velocity as their corresponding frequency spectra is developed. The system employs a pair of oppositely frequency-swept vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSELs). This makes possible simultaneous detection of beat signals induced by the increment (up-ramp) and decrement (down-ramp) in laser frequencies. By mixing these two beat signals, their sum and difference frequencies are directly obtained without arithmetic processing such as averaging and subtraction. Results of the test experiments adopting axially moving block gauges as target objects show that both the distance and given velocities are accurately determined from the spectrum of the frequency mixer.

  8. The irradiating field of view of imaging laser radar under fog conditions in a controlled laboratory environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wen-Hua; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Lai, Jian-Cheng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yong; Li, Zhen-Hua

    2017-04-01

    This paper theoretically and experimentally investigates the performance of the imaging laser radar (ILR) system under the fog condition. Fog is generated and controlled homogeneously within a dedicated indoor atmospheric chamber. A physical model of the reflected laser pulses due to fog and a standard Lambertian target are developed to determine the width of each echo pulse for different fog concentrations. We show that there is a good agreement between the predicted and measured results for the width of backscattered return pulses. Based on experimental results an empirical model of the horizontal and vertical irradiating field of views (FOVs) of ILR under different visibilities is also developed. Consequently, a new model is proposed to predict the horizontal and vertical irradiating FOVs of ILR by using the width of the backscattered return pulse under different fog conditions. The reported results can be used to dynamically adjust the scanning interval based on the variation of the irradiating FOVs of laser radar and improve the precision of target ranging and imaging.

  9. Breakthrough in multichannel laser-radar technology providing thousands of high-sensitive lidar receivers on a chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarte, Rudolf M.

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a new proved multi-channel laser-radar technology which enables several thousands of high-sensitive laser-radar or lidar receivers to be integrated on a fingernail-sized CMOS-chip for fast 3D-perception and, furthermore, to explain the huge number of resulting applications and to estimate the desirable scientific, economic and society impacts. These extraordinary capabilities rely on the revolutionary improvements introduced by a smart inherently-mixing photodiode with two controllable photo-current outputs [1]. We call it PMD (Photonic Mixer Device) because the opto-electronic mixing process is accomplished directly in the photonic state, followed by an integration process to get OE-correlation and the delay of the optical echo and the modulation signal. The PMD-principle provides an unbelievable simplification, size-reduction and improvement in Multi-Channel Light Detecting and Ranging as a MC-PMD-Lidar or 3D-PMD-camera without scanner. Thanks to the competence and merit of the PMDTechnologies GmbH in cooperation with the INV of the University of Siegen finally brought the PMD in big steps to reliability and to large pixel numbers and to products with today about 20.000 lidar receivers in a 120x160 PMD-matrix, which exhibits homogenous and exquisite specifications like very constant mean value and low standard deviation compared with conventional radar receivers. This innovation may be seen as a breakthrough in the history of camera development. The "3D-camera" of today comprises more 3D-pixels in a PMD-array than, about 1970, the first CCD-cameras contained 2D-pixel in a CCD-array. Both are of similar size aside from the modulated sender with integrated LED's or laser diodes required for a homogenous illumination of the field-of-view.

  10. Experimental evidence of signal-optical noise interferencelike effect in underwater amplitude-modulated laser optical radar systems.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, L; De Dominicis, L; Ferri de Collibus, M; Fornetti, G; Francucci, M; Guarneri, M; Nuvoli, M; Paglia, E; Ricci, R

    2008-11-15

    We report experimental evidence that in an amplitude-modulated laser optical radar system for underwater 3D imaging the observed contrast oscillations as a function of the modulation frequency originate from an interference-like effect between target signal VT and water backscattered radiation VW. The demonstration relies on the ability to perform a direct measurement of VW in a 25 m long test tank. The proposed data processing method enables one to remove the contribution of water backscattering from the detected signal and drastically reduce signal fluctuations due to the medium. Experiments also confirm the possibility to improve the signal to optical noise ratio and contrast by increasing the modulation frequency.

  11. Thermal Distortion Measurements of a Dual Gridded Antenna Reflector with Laser Radar System Integrated to a Thermal Vacuum Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Peter Jens; Doring, Daniel; Ihle, Alexander; Reichmann, Olaf; Maeyaert, Michiel

    2014-06-01

    A dual gridded reflector for Ku-Band applications (KuDGR) with two actually gridded shells made of single and individually shaped CFRP-rods (single carbon fibre reinforced plastic) has been developed by HPS. Due to the fact that these shells are made of CFRP-rods conventional methods for coordinate and thermal-distortion (TD) measuring could not be used. Therefore, the Laser Radar system (LR) was identified as best suitable measurement method for this application.The LR was chosen during the KaDGR study performed by HPS due to its capability to measure points contactless without targets and with high precision and a great number of measurement points in a short time. Furthermore, due to the gridded structure measurement systems using interferometric patterns (ESPI, Shearography) or structured light projection could not be applied.The performance of the Laser Radar system was tested during preliminary measurements on the KuDGR bread- board model. For the first environmental tests on the engineering model, the test methods at IABG were specifically adapted and qualified in order to verify that the Laser Radar system can handle the constrains set by a thermal-vacuum (TV) test facility. During the verification test run the objectives were to verify the compatibility of the LR with the positioning with respect to the chamber, the visibility, the test facilities viewport and setup inside the chamber as well as the achievable measurement accuracy. The general compatibility could be shown and optimisations regarding test setup and better accuracy were identified. Since the active surfaces of the reflector contains a multitude of single rods all with different shapes and lengths the vibration influences of the individual facility systems onto the reflector were investigated.The LR system is widely used in industrial applications but references regarding measuring thermo-elastic distortions in a TV test facility using this method are still rare. IABG has developed and

  12. Airborne laser scan data: a valuable tool with which to infer weather radar partial beam blockage in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2016-10-01

    High-spatial-resolution weather radar observations are of primary relevance for hydrological applications in urban areas. However, when weather radars are located within metropolitan areas, partial beam blockages and clutter by buildings can seriously affect the observations. Standard simulations with simple beam propagation models and digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually not able to evaluate buildings' contribution to partial beam blockages. In recent years airborne laser scanners (ALSs) have evolved to the state-of-the-art technique for topographic data acquisition. Providing small footprint diameters (10-30 cm), ALS data allow accurate reconstruction of buildings and forest canopy heights. Analyzing the three weather C-band radars located in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland, the present study investigates the benefits of using ALS data for quantitative estimations of partial beam blockages. The results obtained applying beam standard propagation models are compared with stratiform 24 h rainfall accumulation to evaluate the effects of partial beam blockages due to constructions and trees. To provide a physical interpretation of the results, the detailed analysis of beam occultations is achieved by open spatial data sets and open-source geographic information systems.

  13. The Precision Expandable Radar Calibration Sphere (PERCS) With Applications for Laser Imaging and Ranging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high latitude SuperDARN radars used for auroral...DF arrays, ground HF transmitters such as the Navy relocatable over the horizon radar (ROTHR) and the Air Force/Navy HAARP system would be employed...United States and Australia; (2) high power HF facilities such as HAARP in Alaska, EISCAT in Norway, and Arecibo in Puerto Rico; (3) the chain of high

  14. Asymmetric corner frequency in the 1/f FM-noise PSD of optical frequency combs generated by quantum-dash mode-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panapakkam, V.; Anthur, A.; Vujicic, V.; Gaimard, Q.; Merghem, K.; Aubin, G.; Lelarge, F.; Viktorov, E.; Barry, L. P.; Ramdane, A.

    2016-10-01

    We experimentally investigate the corner frequency in the 1/f frequency noise of the longitudinal modes of an InAs/InP quantum-dash based single-section passive mode-locked laser. The corner frequency features a strong asymmetry across the optical frequency comb with the values ranging from 10 MHz in the low-frequency side to 180 MHz in the high-frequency side. Actively mode-locking the laser induces a reduction in the corner frequency as it changes from 3 MHz in the low-frequency side to 70 MHz in the high-frequency side and the asymmetry persists.

  15. Laser radar studies: A study of the feasibility of remote measurement of atmospheric density and turbidity by means of rotational Raman scattering of laser light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, N.; Schotland, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    A remote sensing technique is described which utilizes elastic scattering and rotational Raman scattering of laser light in the atmosphere to obtain soundings of turbidity, transmissivity and density. A scheme is devised whereby, through selective weighting of the rotational Raman lines, the effect of atmospheric temperature structure may be eliminated. The close spectral proximity of the elastic and Raman-scattered signals, combined with the fact that the Raman scattering is quite weak, produces special requirements for the spectroscopic and light-gathering components of a rotational Raman laser radar system. These requirements are investigated. A computation of typical signal-to-noise ratios is made. It is shown that daytime signal-to-noise ratios greater than 10 db are to be expected for observation heights of 5 km and below. For nighttime work, 10 db signal-to-noise ratios are achievable to altitudes as high as 15 km.

  16. Nuclear fission of Fm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, T.; Wada, T.; Ohta, M.; Chiba, S.

    2010-06-01

    Multi-modal fission has been systematically investigated for the series of isotopes of Fm and Cf. The multi-dimensional Langevin-type stochastic differential equation is used for the dynamical calculation. The primary fission mode changes from mass-asymmetric fission to mass-symmetric fission with the increase of neutron numbers for both Fm and Cf cases.

  17. A lightweight, rugged, solid state laser radar system enabled by non-mechanical electro-optic beam steerers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Scott R.; Rommel, Scott D.; Gann, Derek; Luey, Ben; Gamble, Joseph D.; Ziemkiewicz, Michael; Anderson, Mike

    2016-05-01

    There is currently a good deal of interest in developing laser radar (ladar) for autonomous navigation and collision avoidance in a wide variety of vehicles. In many of these applications, minimizing size, weight and power (SWaP) is of critical importance, particularly onboard aircraft and spacecraft where advanced imaging systems are also needed for location, alignment, and docking. In this paper, we describe the miniaturization of a powerful ladar system based on an electro-optic (EO) beamsteering device in which liquid crystal birefringence is exploited to achieve a 20° x 5° field of view (FOV) with no moving parts. This FOV will be significantly increased in future versions. In addition to scanning, the device is capable of operating in a "point and hold" mode where it locks onto a single moving object. The nonmechanical design leads to exceptionally favorable size and weight values: 1 L and < 1 kg respectively. Furthermore, these EO scanners operate without mechanical resonances or inertial effects. A demonstration was performed with a 50 kHz, 1 microjoule laser with a 2 mm beam diameter to image at a range of 100 m yielding a 2 fps frame rate limited by the pulse laser repetition rate. The fine control provided by the EO steerer results in an angle precision of 6x10-4 degrees. This FOV can be increased with discreet, non-mechanical polarization grating beamsteerers. In this paper, we will present the design, preliminary results, and planned next generation improvements.

  18. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Tang, Hui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  19. Nonlinear automatic landing control of unmanned aerial vehicles on moving platforms via a 3D laser radar

    SciTech Connect

    Hervas, Jaime Rubio; Tang, Hui; Reyhanoglu, Mahmut

    2014-12-10

    This paper presents a motion tracking and control system for automatically landing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an oscillating platform using Laser Radar (LADAR) observations. The system itself is assumed to be mounted on a ship deck. A full nonlinear mathematical model is first introduced for the UAV. The ship motion is characterized by a Fourier transform based method which includes a realistic characterization of the sea waves. LADAR observation models are introduced and an algorithm to process those observations for yielding the relative state between the vessel and the UAV is presented, from which the UAV's state relative to an inertial frame can be obtained and used for feedback purposes. A sliding mode control algorithm is derived for tracking a landing trajectory defined by a set of desired waypoints. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to account for process and observation noises in the design of a state estimator. The effectiveness of the control algorithm is illustrated through a simulation example.

  20. Exploratory laser experiments. [measurement of atmospheric water vapor via optical radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Experiments are described which were undertaken to explore the application of various dye laser methods for generating laser pulses which could be tuned over H2O absorption lines in the visible and near infrared. Specific topics discussed include: operation of a long pulse dye laser with a tunable, narrow band output at high energies near the 5915 A water vapor absorption bands; assembly and operation of a short duration dye laser near the 5915 A water vapor absorption bands; construction of a dye laser to be pumped to operate in the red and near infrared; and preliminary studies of the beam divergence of the output of the a laser-pumped system. Results are summarized.

  1. Design parameters for a FM/FM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carden, Frank

    Design parameters for a FM/FM telemetry system are determined in terms of the IRIG specifications for proportional bandwidth channels. Three mathematical models used by designers of the above processes are extended and compared. That is, FM multi-tone models are used to establish the relationship between frequency deviations, modulation indices, signal-to-noise and IF bandwidth for the IRIG channels. Since spectral efficiency and signal quality are of major importance, a goal of the design is to have a minimum IF bandwidth, while fixing as large as possible the values of the modulation indices for the subcarriers modulating the carrier in order to achieve as large as needed output signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. GLACIER MONITORING SYSTEM IN COLOMBIA - complementing glaciological measurements with laser-scanning and ground-penetrating radar surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Jorge; Micheletti, Natan; Rabatel, Antoine; Mölg, Nico; Zemp, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Colombia (South America) has six small glaciers (total glacierized area of 45 Km2); their geographical location, close to zero latitude, makes them very sensitive to climate changes. An extensive monitoring program is being performed since 2006 on two glaciers, with international cooperation supports. This presentation summarizes the results of glacier changes in Colombia and includes the latest results obtained within the CATCOS Project - Phase 1 (Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems) signed between Colombia and Switzerland, and within the Joint Mixte Laboratory GREAT-ICE (IRD - France), with the application of LiDAR technology and GPR-based ice thickness measurements at Conejeras Glacier. Conejeras Glacier (Lat. N. 4° 48' 56"; Long. W. 75° 22' 22"; Alt. Max. 4915m.; Alt. Min. 4730m. Area 0.2 Km2) is located on the north-western side of Santa Isabel Volcano. This glacier belongs to global glacier monitoring network of the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS-ID: 2721). The surface mass balance is calculated monthly using the direct glaciological method. Between April 2006 and May 2014, Conejeras Glacier showed a cumulative loss of -21 m w.e. The CATCOS Project allowed to improve the glacier monitoring system in Colombia with two main actions: (1) a terrestrial laser scanner survey (RIEGL VZ-6000 terrestrial laser scanner, property of Universities of Lausanne and Fribourg); and (2) ice thickness measurements (Blue System Integration Ltd. Ice Penetrating Radar of property of IRD). The terrestrial laser-scanning survey allowed to realize an accurate digital terrain model of the glacier surface with 13 million points and a decimetric resolution. Ice thickness measurements showed an average glacier thickness of 22 meters and a maximum of 52 meters.

  3. Passive bistatic radar analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Daniel W.; Kuschel, H.; Schiller, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Passive Bistatic Radar (PBR) research is at its zenith with several notable PBR systems currently operational, or available for deployment. Such PBRs include the Manastash Ridge Radar (MRR) developed for and by academia; Silent Sentry developed as a commercial concern by Lockheed Martin; and Homeland Alerter (HA100) also a commercial system developed by Thales. However at present, despite the existence of numerous PBR prototypes, take up of commercial passive radar technology remains slow. This is due in part to technology immaturity, in part to politics, and particularly due to the fact that monostatic radars perform so well. If PBRs are to enjoy longevity as a viable technology then it is imperative that they address certain niche application areas, with the aforementioned MRR being one prime example of this. The focus of this paper will be an analysis of a PBR system that utilised FM radio signals of opportunity to detect aircraft targets with an RCS generally not lower than 20 m2. The paper will demonstrate the theoretical detection coverage of an FM based PBR operating in a severe interference environment.

  4. 47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... translator or an FM booster station that is 53 or 54 channels removed from an FM radio broadcast station will... radio broadcast station equivalents. FM radio broadcast station equivalents will be determined in... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator...

  5. 47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... translator or an FM booster station that is 53 or 54 channels removed from an FM radio broadcast station will... radio broadcast station equivalents. FM radio broadcast station equivalents will be determined in... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator...

  6. Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging with a quantum cascade laser transmitter.

    PubMed

    Danylov, Andriy A; Goyette, Thomas M; Waldman, Jerry; Coulombe, Michael J; Gatesman, Andrew J; Giles, Robert H; Qian, Xifeng; Chandrayan, Neelima; Vangala, Shivashankar; Termkoa, Krongtip; Goodhue, William D; Nixon, William E

    2010-07-19

    A coherent transceiver using a THz quantum cascade (TQCL) laser as the transmitter and an optically pumped molecular laser as the local oscillator has been used, with a pair of Schottky diode mixers in the receiver and reference channels, to acquire high-resolution images of fully illuminated targets, including scale models and concealed objects. Phase stability of the received signal, sufficient to allow coherent image processing of the rotating target (in azimuth and elevation), was obtained by frequency-locking the TQCL to the free-running, highly stable optically pumped molecular laser. While the range to the target was limited by the available TQCL power (several hundred microwatts) and reasonably strong indoor atmospheric attenuation at 2.408 THz, the coherence length of the TQCL transmitter will allow coherent imaging over distances up to several hundred meters. Image data obtained with the system is presented.

  7. Short-range verification experiment of a trial one-dimensional synthetic aperture infrared laser radar operated in the 10-microm band.

    PubMed

    Yoshikado, S; Aruga, T

    2000-03-20

    A trial one-dimensional (1-D) synthetic aperture infrared laser radar (SAILR) system for imaging static objects, with two CO(2) lasers as a transmitter and a local oscillator for heterodyne detection, was constructed. It has a single receiving aperture mounted on a linearly movable stage with a length of 1 m and a position accuracy of 1 microm. In an indoor short-range experiment to confirm the fundamental functions of the system and demonstrate its unique imaging process we succeeded in obtaining 1-D synthetic aperture images of close specular point targets with theoretically expected resolution.

  8. Recent advances in efficient long-life, eye-safe solid state and CO2 lasers for laser radar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Brockman, P.; Bair, C. H.; Schryer, D. R.; Upchurch, B. T.; Wood, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    The key problems in the development of eye-safe solid-state lasers are discussed, taking into account the energy transfer mechanisms between the complicated energy level manifolds of the Tm, Ho, Er ion dopants in hosts with decreasing crystal fields such as YAG or YLF. Optimization of energy transfer for efficient lasing through choice of dopant concentration, power density, crystal field and temperature is addressed. The tailoring of energy transfer times to provide efficient energy extraction for short pulses used in DIAL and Doppler lidar is considered. Recent advances in Pt/SnO2 oxide catalysts and other noble metal/metal oxide combinations for CO2 lasers are discussed. Emphasis is given to the dramatic effects of small quantities of H2O vapor for increasing the activity and lifetime of Pt/SnO2 catalysts and to increased lifetime operation with rare isotope (C-12)(O-18)2 lasing mixtures.

  9. Study to investigate and evaluate means of optimizing the radar function for the space shuttle. [(pulse radar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results are discussed of a study to define a radar and antenna system which best suits the space shuttle rendezvous requirements. Topics considered include antenna characteristics and antenna size tradeoffs, fundamental sources of measurement errors inherent in the target itself, backscattering crosssection models of the target and three basic candidate radar types. Antennas up to 1.5 meters in diameter are within specified installation constraints, however, a 1 meter diameter paraboloid and a folding, four slot backfeed on a two gimbal mount implemented for a spiral acquisition scan is recommended. The candidate radar types discussed are: (1) noncoherent pulse radar (2) coherent pulse radar and (3) pulse Doppler radar with linear FM ranging. The radar type recommended is a pulse Doppler with linear FM ranging. Block diagrams of each radar system are shown.

  10. Towards Quantitative Optical Cross Sections in Entomological Laser Radar – Potential of Temporal and Spherical Parameterizations for Identifying Atmospheric Fauna

    PubMed Central

    Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the field of remote sensing of birds and insects in the atmosphere (the aerial fauna) has advanced considerably, and modern electro-optic methods now allow the assessment of the abundance and fluxes of pests and beneficials on a landscape scale. These techniques have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of, and ability to quantify and manage, the ecological environment. This paper presents a concept whereby laser radar observations of atmospheric fauna can be parameterized and table values for absolute cross sections can be catalogued to allow for the study of focal species such as disease vectors and pests. Wing-beat oscillations are parameterized with a discrete set of harmonics and the spherical scatter function is parameterized by a reduced set of symmetrical spherical harmonics. A first order spherical model for insect scatter is presented and supported experimentally, showing angular dependence of wing beat harmonic content. The presented method promises to give insights into the flight heading directions of species in the atmosphere and has the potential to shed light onto the km-range spread of pests and disease vectors. PMID:26295706

  11. Eleventh International Laser Radar Conference, Wisconsin University-Madison, 21-25 June 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Jeffrey Keeler, R. Michael Hardesty , and David K. Churchill D6. RM CW LIDAR ....................... ............. 108 Nobuo Takeuchi , Katsumi*Sakurai...COHERENT LIDAR ........ ..................... 172 R. M. Hardesty x G5. A DIRECT LASER DOPPLER ANEMOMETER FOR REMOTE WIND SENSING . ....... 176 F. Kpp G6...enhance the meteorological applications of a scanning Doppler lidar system. 106 REFERENCES 1. Hardesty , R. M., "Measurement of Winds, Backscatter and

  12. Remote chemical monitoring in an industrial environment using eyesafe IR laser radar technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasmanik, Guerman A.; Shklovsky, E. J.; Freidman, Gennady I.; Lozhkarev, Vladimir V.; Matveyev, Alexander Z.; Shilov, Alexander A.; Yakovlev, Ivan V.; Peterson, Darrel G.; Partin, Judy K.

    1997-07-01

    The brief description of new lidar prototype for remote chemical monitoring and profiling in the 8 - 12 micron range is given. The lidar includes a Nd:YAG laser (1 J per pulse) source, optical parametrical oscillator (0.2 J per pulse), and four-wave Raman emitter (20 mJ output per pulse). The receiver consists of the hydrogen SRS cells, pumped by an additional OPO pulse. Sensitivity of this receiver reaches approximately 1000 photons per pixel. The applications of this lidar for remote detection of chemicals in atmosphere will also be discussed.

  13. Detailed spectroscopy of Fm249

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.; Yeremin, A. V.; Belozerov, A. V.; Briançon, Ch.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hanappe, F.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Khalfallah, F.; Korichi, A.; Larsen, A. C.; Malyshev, O. N.; Minkova, A.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Popeko, A. G.; Rousseau, M.; Rowley, N.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Sharo, S.; Shutov, A. V.; Siem, S.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Syed, N. U. H.; Theisen, Ch.

    2006-10-01

    Excited states in Fm249 were populated via the α decay of No253 and the subsequent decay was observed with the GABRIELA detection system installed at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator. The energies, spins, and parities of these states could be established through combined α,γ, and conversion-electron spectroscopy. The first members of the ground-state rotational band were identified. Their excitation energies as well as the observation of a cross-over E2 transition confirm the assignment of 7/2+[624] for the ground state of Fm249. Two excited states were also observed and their decay properties suggest that they correspond to the particle excitation 9/2-[734] and hole excitation 5/2+[622]. The analysis suggests that the 279-keV transition de-exciting the 9/2- state has anomalous E1 conversion coefficients.

  14. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rudd, Van; Shald, Scott; Sandford, Stephen; Dimarcantonio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a long range ladar system known as ExoSPEAR at NASA Langley Research Center for tracking rapidly moving resident space objects is discussed. Based on 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser, this ladar system with coherent detection technique is currently being investigated for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs) in LEO and beyond for space surveillance applications. This unique ladar architecture is configured using a continuously agile doublet-pulse waveform scheme coupled to a closed-loop tracking and control loop approach to simultaneously achieve mm class range precision and mm/s velocity precision and hence obtain unprecedented track accuracies. Salient features of the design architecture followed by performance modeling and engagement simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar parameters are presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits are discussed.

  15. Planetary boundary layer (PBL) monitoring by means of two laser radar systems: experimental results and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Serafini, C.; Ventura, P.

    2010-10-01

    The PBL is the lower layer of the atmosphere that is sensitive to the effect of the Earths surface, it controls the flow of heat and momentum between the surface and the free atmosphere, thus playing a key role in atmospheric circulation. At University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Quantum Electronic and Plasma Laboratories (EQP), two mobile Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems have been developed. With these systems the monitoring of the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) has been performed. The first mobile Lidar system is based on a pulsed Nd:YAG Q-Switched laser source operating at three wavelengths: 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm. Acquiring the elastic backscattered signals, it has been possible to estimate the aerosolitic backscattering coefficient at the aim to reconstruct the vertical aerosol profiles. The second one is a Differential Absorption Lidar system (DIAL), composed by a CO2 laser, working in the window spectral range between 9 and 11μm. With this system it has been estimated the water vapour concentration in the PBL region using the two wavelengths 10R20 (10.591 μm) and 10R18 (10.571 μm), which represent, respectively, the absorbing wavelength and non-absorbing one of the water molecule. The comparison of the backscattered radiation at these wavelengths yields the trace gas number density as a function of distance along the field-of-view of the receiving telescope. Diurnal and nocturnal measurements have been performed simultaneity using the two Lidar/Dial systems. Vertical profiles of the aerosolitic backscattering coefficient and water vapour concentration profiles have been estimated. The results and their comparison will be present in this work.

  16. Miniaturized, multibeam, solid state scanning laser radar in automobile collision avoidance sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Ronald A.

    1995-06-01

    Recent intelligent transportation systems (ITS) initiatives sponsored by commercial transportation companies and the U.S. Department of Transportation include an area dedicated to Automated Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS). AVCS systems are dedicated to improving passenger automobile safety, efficiency, and impact on the environment. Minimizing the number of automobile collisions through automated obstacle detection and vehicle response is vital to this effort. Simple, reliable, low cost sensors installed in automobiles to provide driver warning and/or input to vehicle systems such as braking or cruise control are the key piece to making this technology as common as air bags and seat belts. EPA emission regulations now require specific areas to periodically report the mix of vehicle types. These reports must include in the mix the 13 possible categories for vehicles. Simple low cost senors installed as part of the traffic management system will facilitate the determination of vehicle category. Laser Atlanta has recently developed two distinct types of sensors that utilize a unique multi- beam approach to detect `targets' that are potential hazards. They also provide range and range rate data to automobile control and traffic management systems.

  17. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Orbital Debris Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Rudd, V.,; DiMarcantonio, A.; Sandford, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the development of a long range ladar system known as ExoSPEAR at NASA Langley Research Center for tracking rapidly moving resident space objects is discussed. Based on 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser, this ladar system with coherent detection technique is currently being investigated for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs) in LEO and beyond for space surveillance applications. This unique ladar architecture is configured using a continuously agile doublet-pulse waveform scheme coupled to a closed-loop tracking and control loop approach to simultaneously achieve mm class range precision and mm/s velocity precision and hence obtain unprecedented track accuracies. Salient features of the design architecture followed by performance simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar power aperture product will be presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits will be analyzed. The suitability of this ladar for precision orbit determination will be discussed.

  18. Coherent IR radar technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwendtner, A. B.; Harney, R. C.; Hull, R. J.

    Recent progress in the development of coherent IR radar equipment is reviewed, focusing on the Firepond laser radar installation and the more compact systems derived for it. The design and capabilities of Firepond as a long-range satellite-tracking device are outlined. The technological improvements necessary to make laser radar mobile are discussed: a lightweight, stable 5-10-W transmitter laser for both CW and pulsed operation, a 12-element HgCdTe detector array, an eccentric-pupil Ritchey-Chretien telescope, and a combination of near-field phase modification and anamorphic expansion to produce a fan beam of relatively uniform intensity. Sample images obtained with a prototype system are shown, and the applicability of the mobile system to range-resolved coherent DIAL measurement is found to be similar to that of a baseline DIAL system.

  19. High-resolution laser radar: a powerful tool for 3D imaging with potential applications in artwork restoration and medical prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, Roberta; Bordone, Andrea; Ferri De Collibus, Mario; Fornetti, Giorgio G.; Guarneri, Marianna; Poggi, Claudio; Ricci, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    A high-resolution laser radar has been developed for laboratory applications at an accurate 3D reconstruction of real objects. The laser scanner can be used to produce single cylindrical range image when the object is placed on a controlled rotating platform or, alternatively, 3 or more linear range images, in order to fully characterize the surface of the object as seen from different points of view. From the sample points, characterized by an uncertainty as small as 100 μm, the complete object surface can be reconstructed by using specifically developed software tools. The system has been successfully applied to scan different types of real surfaces (stone, wood, bones) with relevant applications in industrial machining, artwork classification and medical diagnostics. Significant examples of 3D reconstructions are shown and discussed in view of a specific utilization for reverse engineering applied to artwork restoration and medical prosthesis.

  20. Autofocus technique for three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal-plane array.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min Seok; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jo, Sung Eun

    2010-12-15

    An autofocus technique is proposed for a three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar system that uses a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array (GmAPD-FPA). This technique is implemented by pointing laser pulses on a target of interest and observing its scattered photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA. Measuring the standard deviation of the photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA enables the best focus condition to be found. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated experimentally by employing a 1 × 8 pixel GmAPD-FPA. It is shown that the spatial resolution improves when the GmAPD-FPA is located in the best focus position found by the autofocus technique.

  1. Radar return from a continuous vegetation canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    The radar backscatter coefficient, sigma deg, of alfalfa was investigated as a function of both radar parameters and the physical characteristics of the alfalfa canopy. Measurements were acquired with an 8-18 GHz FM-CW mobile radar over an angular range of 0 - 70 deg as measured from nadir. The experimental data indicates that the excursions of sigma deg at nadir cover a range of nearly 18 dB during one complete growing cycle. An empirical model for sigma deg was developed which accounts for its variability in terms of soil moisture, plant moisture and plant height.

  2. Laser Radar Analyses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    back-propagated aperture radius, Rm , in the corresponding expression (Equations (79)-(72)) of Reference 1. It should also be noted that Equation (18...incoherent detection efficiency approaches unity as Rm goes to zero and approaches zero in a limiting fashion as Rm goes to infinity, as required from the...the first two integrations reduce to the case previously treated, Equations (18) and (20), with Rm replaced by Rmi and RMO respectively. For the

  3. Evaluation and assessment of FM systems.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D E; Feigin, J A; Karasek, A E; Stelmachowicz, P G

    1991-08-01

    In the past, frequency modulated (FM) systems were recommended for use only in educational settings for children with severe or profound hearing losses. Recent studies, however, have suggested that FM systems may be appropriate in nonacademic settings and also may benefit children with minimal hearing loss. In addition to the more widespread application of FM use, advances in amplification technology have provided audiologists with a variety of devices and coupling options, resulting in more variables to evaluate in the fitting process. There are three commonly used methods of evaluating FM systems: functional gain measures, probe tube microphone measures, and coupler measures. This paper is intended to provide the audiologist working with FM systems with an overview of the complexities involved in selecting and setting FM systems and the benefits and limitations of each evaluation method. Each evaluation method is examined in view of how well it answers three basic questions related to frequency response, maximum output, and distortion in FM systems. Finally, other issues which may impact on the selection of an FM system for a given individual are discussed.

  4. Spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.; Wild, J.F.; Hoffman, D.C.; Weber, J.; Wilhelmy, J.B.

    1980-03-01

    A 1.5-s spontaneous fission activity has been produced by irradiating /sup 257/Fm with 16-MeV tritons. On the basis of formation cross sections, fission half-life systematics, and the identification of other possible products, this 1.5-s activity has been attributed to /sup 259/Fm formed by the reaction /sup 257/Fm(t,p)/sup 259/Fm. /sup 259/Fm is the heaviest known isotope of Fm and has more neutrons than any other nuclide thus far identified. This measurement of the spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Fm is the first to show a narrow, predominantly symmetric, mass division from spontaneous fission. It is accompanied by a very high kinetic energy, the most probable total kinetic energy being 242 +- 6 MeV. These features show a marked acceleration in the trend toward more symmetric mass division and higher total kinetic energies than have been observed previously for the Fm isotopes as the mass increased.

  5. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  6. Comparative research and its significance of deformation measurements by technologies of laser real-time holographic interferometry and radar differential interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xian-Jin; Xu, Zhao-Young; Qian, Jia-Dong; Hu, Yi-Li; Yang, Run-Hai; Wang, Bin

    2006-05-01

    The principles and applications of laser real-time holographic interferometry (LRTHI) and radar differential interferometry (RDI) technologies are described in this paper, respectively. By using LRTHI, we can observe the deformation of samples under pressure in the lab and study the anomaly characteristics relating to different strain fields in different fracture-developing areas; while by using RDI, we can observe the landform and surface deformation. The results of deformation observed before and after the M S=7.9 Mani earthquake (Tibet) and M S=6.2 Shangyi-Zhangbei earthquake in China are obtained. It is pointed out that LRTHI and RDI are similar, which study the characteristics of anomalous deformation field by fringe variations for both of them. Therefore, the observation of deformation field in the seismogenic process, especially in the period impending an earthquake by RDI, and the comparative study in the lab by LRTHI are of great significance.

  7. Project Echo: FM Demodulators with Negative Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthroff, Clyde L.

    1961-01-01

    The primary experimental objective of Project Echo was the transmission of radio communications between points on the earth by reflection from the balloon satellite. Owing to the large path losses from transmitter to receiver via the satellite, a wide-band frequency modulation technique was used in which bandwidth was traded for signal-to-noise ratio. This paper describes the FM receiving demodulators employed. Negative feedback applied to the local oscillator reduces the FM modulation index in the receiver IF amplifiers, resulting in threshold performance superior to that of conventional FM receivers.

  8. Detector For FM Voice Or Digital Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1989-01-01

    Frequency-modulation (FM) detector operates with either analog audio (usually voice) signals or digital signals sent by differential minimum-shift keying (DMSK). Performance expected similar to conventional limiter/discriminator FM detectors. Detector operates at baseband, obviating need for band-pass filtering at intermediate frequency. Baseband version made in very-large-scale integrated circuit. New detector useful in mobile communications, where trend is toward integrated voice and data service.

  9. Synthetic aperture radar capabilities in development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.

    1994-11-15

    The Imaging and Detection Program (IDP) within the Laser Program is currently developing an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to support the Joint US/UK Radar Ocean Imaging Program. The radar system will be mounted in the program`s Airborne Experimental Test-Bed (AETB), where the initial mission is to image ocean surfaces and better understand the physics of low grazing angle backscatter. The Synthetic Aperture Radar presentation will discuss its overall functionality and a brief discussion on the AETB`s capabilities. Vital subsystems including radar, computer, navigation, antenna stabilization, and SAR focusing algorithms will be examined in more detail.

  10. Suppression of range sidelobes in bistatic radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCue, J. J. G.

    1980-03-01

    A bistatic radar is considered in which linear-FM pulses are employed to obtain the needed range resolution while using a long pulse. Range sidelobes of the pulse received over the direct path from the transmitter tend to interfere with the return from the target. It is shown that conventional weighting schemes give little or no suppression of some of the range sidelobes of a linear-FM rectangular pulse passed through a matched filter. This is explained by the irregular spacing of the sidelobes in the pulse when it passes through the matched filter.

  11. Imaging synthetic aperture radar

    DOEpatents

    Burns, Bryan L.; Cordaro, J. Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A linear-FM SAR imaging radar method and apparatus to produce a real-time image by first arranging the returned signals into a plurality of subaperture arrays, the columns of each subaperture array having samples of dechirped baseband pulses, and further including a processing of each subaperture array to obtain coarse-resolution in azimuth, then fine-resolution in range, and lastly, to combine the processed subapertures to obtain the final fine-resolution in azimuth. Greater efficiency is achieved because both the transmitted signal and a local oscillator signal mixed with the returned signal can be varied on a pulse-to-pulse basis as a function of radar motion. Moreover, a novel circuit can adjust the sampling location and the A/D sample rate of the combined dechirped baseband signal which greatly reduces processing time and hardware. The processing steps include implementing a window function, stabilizing either a central reference point and/or all other points of a subaperture with respect to doppler frequency and/or range as a function of radar motion, sorting and compressing the signals using a standard fourier transforms. The stabilization of each processing part is accomplished with vector multiplication using waveforms generated as a function of radar motion wherein these waveforms may be synthesized in integrated circuits. Stabilization of range migration as a function of doppler frequency by simple vector multiplication is a particularly useful feature of the invention; as is stabilization of azimuth migration by correcting for spatially varying phase errors prior to the application of an autofocus process.

  12. Planetary Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  13. 47 CFR 73.293 - Use of FM multiplex subcarriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of FM multiplex subcarriers. 73.293 Section 73.293 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.293 Use of FM multiplex subcarriers. Licensees of FM...

  14. 47 CFR 73.293 - Use of FM multiplex subcarriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of FM multiplex subcarriers. 73.293 Section 73.293 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.293 Use of FM multiplex subcarriers. Licensees of FM...

  15. 75 FR 13236 - FM Table of Allotments, Port Angeles, Washington

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Port Angeles, Washington AGENCY: Federal Communications... Broadcasting, Inc., the licensee of Station KANY(FM), Ocean Shores, Washington, and the permittee of Station KSWW(FM), Montesano, Washington, to substitute FM Channel 271A for vacant Channel 229A at Port...

  16. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  17. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  18. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  19. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  20. 47 CFR 73.297 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.297... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.297 FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. (a) An FM..., quadraphonic, etc.) sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment under...

  1. Lasers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schewe, Phillip F.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the nature of laser light. Topics include: (1) production and characteristics of laser light; (2) nine types of lasers; (3) five laser techniques including holography; (4) laser spectroscopy; and (5) laser fusion and other applications. (SK)

  2. Spaceborne radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. K.; Eckerman, J.; Meneghini, R.; Atlas, D.; Boerner, W. M.; Cherry, S.; Clark, J. F.; Doviak, R. J.; Goldhirsh, J.; Lhermitte, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    The spaceborne radar panel considered how radar could be used to measure precipitation from satellites. The emphasis was on how radar could be used with radiometry (at microwave, visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) wavelengths) to reduce the uncertainties of measuring precipitation with radiometry alone. In addition, the fundamental electromagnetic interactions involved in the measurements were discussed to determine the key work areas for research and development to produce effective instruments. Various approaches to implementing radar systems on satellites were considered for both shared and dedicated instruments. Finally, a research and development strategy was proposed for establishing the parametric relations and retrieval algorithms required for extracting precipitation information from the radar and associated radiometric data.

  3. Studies on remote sensing method of particle size and water density distribution in mists and clouds using laser radar techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, H.; Kobayasi, T.; Inaba, H.

    1979-01-01

    A method of remote measurement of the particle size and density distribution of water droplets was developed. In this method, the size of droplets is measured from the Mie scattering parameter which is defined as the total-to-backscattering ratio of the laser beam. The water density distribution is obtained by a combination of the Mie scattering parameter and the extinction coefficient of the laser beam. This method was examined experimentally for the mist generated by an ultrasonic mist generator and applied to clouds containing rain and snow. Compared with the conventional sampling method, the present method has advantages of remote measurement capability and improvement in accuracy.

  4. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) Interference to the...

  5. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) An authorized LPFM station...

  6. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.827 Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. (a) Interference to the...

  7. Melanoma incidence and frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Orjan; Johansson, Olle

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has been increasing steadily in many countries since 1960, but the underlying mechanism causing this increase remains elusive. The incidence of melanoma has been linked to the distance to frequency modulation (FM) broadcasting towers. In the current study, the authors sought to determine if there was also a related link on a larger scale for entire countries. Exposure-time-specific incidence was extracted from exposure and incidence data from 4 different countries, and this was compared with reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. Geographic differences in melanoma incidence were compared with the magnitude of this environmental stress. The exposure-time-specific incidence from all 4 countries became almost identical, and they were approximately equal to the reported age-specific incidence of melanoma. A correlation between melanoma incidence and the number of locally receivable FM transmitters was found. The authors concluded that melanoma is associated with exposure to FM broadcasting.

  8. Validation of GPM Ka-Radar Algorithm Using a Ground-based Ka-Radar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kaneko, Yuki; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Furukawa, Kinji; Suzuki, Kenji

    2016-04-01

    GPM led by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of US (NASA) aims to observe global precipitation. The core satellite is equipped with a microwave radiometer (GMI) and a dual-frequency radar (DPR) which is the first spaceborne Ku/Ka-band dual-wavelength radar dedicated for precipitation measurement. In the DPR algorithm, measured radar reflectivity is converted to effective radar reflectivity by estimating the rain attenuation. Here, the scattering/attenuation characteristics of Ka-band radiowaves are crucial, particularly for wet snow. A melting layer observation using a dual Ka-band radar system developed by JAXA was conducted along the slope of Mt. Zao in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. The dual Ka-band radar system consists of two nearly identical Ka-band FM-CW radars, and the precipitation systems between two radars were observed in opposite directions. From this experiment, equivalent radar reflectivity (Ze) and specific attenuation (k) were obtained. The experiments were conducted for two winter seasons. During the data analyses, it was found that k estimate easily fluctuates because the estimate is based on double difference calculation. With much temporal and spatial averaging, k-Ze relationship was obtained for melting layers. One of the results is that the height of the peak of k seems slightly higher than that of Ze. The results are compared with in-situ precipitation particle measurements.

  9. The 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, T. F.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, and accuracy of an 8-18 GHz radar spectrometer, an FM-CW system which employs a dual antenna system, is described. The antennas, transmitter, and a portion of the receiver are mounted at the top of a 26 meter hydraulic boom which is in turn mounted on a truck for system mobility. HH and VV polarized measurements are possible at incidence angles ranging from 0 deg. to 80 deg. Calibration is accomplished by referencing the measurements against a Luneberg lens of known radar cross section.

  10. A lightweight ground penetrating radar

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S.K.; Allen, C.M.; Gardner, D.; Wong, H.R.

    1998-12-31

    The detection of buried objects, particularly unexploded ordnance (UXO), has gained significant interest in the US in the late 1990s. The desire to remediate the thousands of sites worldwide has become an increasing humanitarian concern. The application of radar to this problem has received renewed attention. Bechtel Nevada, Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) has developed several frequency modulated, continuous wave (FM-CW) ground penetrating radar (GPR) units for the US Department of Energy since 1984. To meet these new technical requirements for high resolution data and UXO detection, STL is moving forward with advances to GPR technology, signal processing, and imaging with the development of an innovative system. The goal is to design and fabricate a lightweight, battery operated unit that does not require surface contact and can be operated by a novice user.

  11. Direct Global Measurements of Tropspheric Winds Employing a Simplified Coherent Laser Radar using Fully Scalable Technology and Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Spiers, Gary D.; Lobl, Elena S.; Rothermel, Jeff; Keller, Vernon W.

    1996-01-01

    Innovative designs of a space-based laser remote sensing 'wind machine' are presented. These designs seek compatibility with the traditionally conflicting constraints of high scientific value and low total mission cost. Mission cost is reduced by moving to smaller, lighter, more off-the-shelf instrument designs which can be accommodated on smaller launch vehicles.

  12. Laser doppler and radar interferometer for contactless measurements on unaccessible tie-rods on monumental buildings: Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioffré, M.; Cavalagli, N.; Pepi, C.; Trequattrini, M.

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact measurements can be effectively used in civil engineering to assess the variation of structural performance with time. In the last decades this approach has received considerable interests from researchers working in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Indeed, non-contact measurements are very attractive because it is possible to perform non intrusive and non destructive investigations even being at a significant distance from the targets. Within this context, contactless measurements of the tie-rod vibrations in the Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi (Italy) are presented in this paper. In particular, laser vibrometer and radar interferometer measurements are used to estimate natural frequencies and mode shapes. This information is crucial to obtain the tensile axial force in the tie-rods, which can be used as an indicator of structural integrity or possible failure. Furthermore, a novel approach is proposed where drones (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can be successfully used to improve the effectiveness and the accuracy of the experimental activities.

  13. Non-Commercial FM: Profiles of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clift, Charles; Lee, Varnell

    This paper examines the growth of noncommercial FM radio and the service it provides to various regions of the United States and to large metropolitan areas. It concludes that the service provided does not reflect the policies for noncommercial broadcasting set forth by Congress and the Federal Communications Commission and that it does not…

  14. A novel low-cost targeting system (LCTS) based upon a high-resolution 2D imaging laser radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, Robert J.; Odhner, Jefferson E.; Wikman, John C.; Skaluba, Fred W.; Dippel, George F.; McDaniel, Robert V.; Ferrell, David S.; Seibel, William

    2005-10-01

    BAE SYSTEMS has developed a Low Cost Targeting System (LCTS) consisting of a FLIR for target detection, laser-illuminated, gated imaging for target identification, laser rangefinder and designator, GPS positioning, and auto-tracking capability within a small compact system size. This system has proven its ability to acquire targets, range and identify these targets, and designate or provide precise geo-location coordinates to these targets. The system is based upon BAE Systems proven micro-bolometer passive LWIR camera coupled with Intevac's new EBAPS camera. A dual wavelength diode pumped laser provides eyesafe ranging and target illumination, as well as designation; a custom detector module senses the return pulse for target ranging and to set the range gates for the gated camera. Intevac's camera is a CMOS based device with used selectable gate widths and can read at up to 28 frames/second when operated in VGA mode. The Transferred Electron photocathode enables high performance imaging in the SWIR band by enabling single photon detection at high quantum efficiency. Trials show that the current detectors offer complete extinction of signals outside of the gated range, thus, providing high resolution within the gated region. The images have shown high spatial resolution arising from the use of solid state focal plane array technology. Imagery has been collected in both the laboratory and the field to verify system performance during a variety of operating conditions.

  15. RADAR WARNING SYSTEM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADAR TRACKING, *AIRCRAFT DEFENSE SYSTEMS, RADAR EQUIPMENT, AIR TO AIR, SEARCH RADAR, GUIDED MISSILES, HIGH SPEED BOMBING, EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AIRCRAFT, TIME, CHINA.

  16. 14. Photocopy of drawing showing data flow of radar at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of drawing showing data flow of radar at control area from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1956 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  17. 5. Photocopy of photograph showing target tracking radar from 'Procedures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph showing target tracking radar from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Hercules Missile Battery,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-82 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1959 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  18. 2. Photocopy of photograph showing cable supports for radar equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph showing cable supports for radar equipment from Procedures and Drills for NIKE Ajax System, Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA 1959 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  19. 3. Photocopy of photograph showing acquisition radar from 'Procedures and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph showing acquisition radar from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Hercules Missile Battery,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-82 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1959 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  20. 4. Photocopy of photograph showing battery acquisition radar from 'Procedures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph showing battery acquisition radar from 'Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Hercules Missile Battery,' Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-82 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA, 1959 - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  1. Scanning-Pencil-Beam Radar Scatterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, David G.; Freilich, Michael H.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Noon, Don E.

    1992-01-01

    SCANSCAT conceptual scanning radar scatterometer placed in nearly polar orbit around Earth at altitude of 705 km aboard Spacecraft B of NASA's Earth Observing System. Measures radar backscattering from surface of ocean. Data processed on ground into normalized radar-backscattering cross sections, then processed into velocities of winds near surface of ocean by use of empirical mathematical model of relationship between normalized backscattering cross section, wind vector at scanned spot, and angle of incidence and azimuth angle of radar beam. Accuracy and coverage exceeds those of fan-beam scatterometer. Modified versions of scanning plan useful in laser inspection of surface finishes on machined parts.

  2. GEOS-3 C-Band radar investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    The absolute accuracy of instrumentation radar systems, refined methods of calibrating these systems, and the techniques employed in processing the associated data. A world-wide network of C-Band instrumentation radars augmented by lasers and other tracking instrumentation systems were used. The NASA WFC AN/FPQ-6 instrumentation radar and the AN/FPS-16 instrumentation radar also located at NASA WFC were the primary instruments used in the accuracy and calibration evaluations. The results achieved at WFC were then disseminated to other Ranges where they were verified, augmented and used as part of routine operations.

  3. Principles of the formation of laser radar image being observed through a sea surface and water thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinin, Alexandr G.

    1994-09-01

    A great number of articles, special reference books and monographs are dedicated to the problem of underwater objects visibility. However many important problems remain unsolved. It concerns the underwater objects visibility through rough surface mainly. The present article is dedicated to the main aspects of this problem, exactly to the underwater objects observation with the aid of certain devices using artificial (laser) illumination. The notion of the image signal/noise ratio is introduced which takes into account both shot noises and signal fluctuations caused by a random air/water interface. Various methods of image formation for optic observation systems are considered. It is shown that the best results are obtained with the aid of the system, which has the maximum space and time averaging of fluctuations during the signal formation. Most important is the conclusion that the equivalence of two most popular methods of image formation (known in the theory visibility in turbid media) is violated, when observation is performed through a rough sea surface. In the considered case the best parameters has a system, which uses a pulsed laser beam of illumination with a wide aperture and a multi-unit receiver with time gating. The examples of calculation of the main characteristics of such systems are given.

  4. Principles of the formation of laser radar image being observed through a sea surface and water thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchinin, Alexandr G.

    1994-11-01

    A great number of articles, special reference books and monographs are dedicated to the problem of underwater objects visibility. However many important problems remain unsolved. It concerns the underwater objects visibility through rough surface mainly. The present article is dedicated to the main aspects of this problem, exactly to the underwater objects observation with the aid of certain devices using artificial (laser) illumination. The notion of the image signal/noise ratio is introduced which takes into account both shot noises and signal fluctuations caused by a random air/water interface. Various methods of image formation for optic observation systems are considered. It is shown that the best results are obtained with the aid of the system, which has the maximum space and time averaging of fluctuations during the signal formation. Most important is the conclusion that the equivalence of two most popular methods of image formation (known in the theory visibility in turbid media) is violated, when observation is performed through a rough sea surface. In the considered case the best parameters has a system, which uses a pulsed laser beam of illumination with a wide aperture and a multi-unit receiver with time gating. The examples of calculation of the main characteristics of such systems are given.

  5. An Evaluation of FCC Policy on FM Ownership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Lawrence C.

    1979-01-01

    An examination of data on FM construction permits shows that independent FM broadcasters have obtained construction permits in markets with larger adjusted populations than those where AM licensees were granted same-market permits. (GT)

  6. Detailed spectroscopy of {sup 249}Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Martens, A.; Hauschild, K.; Briancon, Ch.; Korichi, A.; Yeremin, A. V.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Malyshev, O. N.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Popeko, A. G.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shutov, A. V.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B.; Khalfallah, F.

    2006-10-15

    Excited states in {sup 249}Fm were populated via the {alpha} decay of {sup 253}No and the subsequent decay was observed with the GABRIELA detection system installed at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator. The energies, spins, and parities of these states could be established through combined {alpha},{gamma}, and conversion-electron spectroscopy. The first members of the ground-state rotational band were identified. Their excitation energies as well as the observation of a cross-over E2 transition confirm the assignment of 7/2{sup +}624 for the ground state of {sup 249}Fm. Two excited states were also observed and their decay properties suggest that they correspond to the particle excitation 9/2{sup -}734 and hole excitation 5/2{sup +}622. The analysis suggests that the 279-keV transition de-exciting the 9/2{sup -} state has anomalous E1 conversion coefficients.

  7. Cancer versus FM radio polarization types.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, Örjan

    2016-07-01

    In 2002, a detailed analysis of skin melanoma in 289 Swedish municipalities showed a strong association with the number of horizontally polarized main FM transmitters covering a municipality. Basic antenna theory says that body-resonance and standing waves cannot appear above a metal spring mattress unless the electric field is horizontally polarized. To test the hypothesis that body-resonant radiation can cause increased cancer risk in other European countries, I collected and analysed reported data from 24 countries, among which six were using vertical polarization. The results showed a strong association between cancer risk and the use of horizontally polarized FM broadcasting radiation, whereas vertical polarization seemed to cause no health effects. This information should form the basis for initiating relevant corrective actions by responsible authorities.

  8. Radar Range Sidelobe Reduction Using Adaptive Pulse Compression Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Lihua; Coon, Michael; McLinden, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    technique could bring significant impact on future radar development. The novel feature of this innovation is the non-linear FM (NLFM) waveform design. The traditional linear FM has the limit (-20 log BT -3 dB) for achieving ultra-low-range sidelobe in pulse compression. For this study, a different combination of 20- or 40-microsecond chirp pulse width and 2- or 4-MHz chirp bandwidth was used. These are typical operational parameters for airborne or spaceborne weather radars. The NLFM waveform design was then implemented on a FPGA board to generate a real chirp signal, which was then sent to the radar transceiver simulator. The final results have shown significant improvement on sidelobe performance compared to that obtained using a traditional linear FM chirp.

  9. Meaningful FM transmitter modulation linearity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeske, H. O.

    The IM products in the demodulator output in this case are due only to the demodulator's transfer characteristics. IM product levels of the test system greater than 60 dB below the simultaneous modulation level of +300 kHz each by 400 and 450 kHz tones are obtained at Sandia Laboratories. The use of two-tone IM tests for the evaluation and specification of FM transmitter modulation linearity is strongly recommended.

  10. Signal Enhancement in AM-FM Interference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-17

    the short-time linear assumption, it provides a good test of the suppression algorithm. A 10-ms Hamming window, a 4-ms frame, and a 2048-point DFT...complex suppression with a different test signal consisting of the AM-FM interference added to an information signal generated from a closing stapler...1st The results of an informal listening test are also listed in Table 1, based on the judgment of interference reduction and clarity of the information

  11. Automatic frequency control for FM transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honnell, M. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An automatic frequency control circuit for an FM television transmitter is described. The frequency of the transmitter is sampled during what is termed the back porch portion of the horizontal synchronizing pulse which occurs during the retrace interval, the frequency sample compared with the frequency of a reference oscillator, and a correction applied to the frequency of the transmitter during this portion of the retrace interval.

  12. Graphs for Isotopes of 100-Fm (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 100-Fm (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100).

  13. Phase-locked loop FM demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A conventional phase-locked loop is improved by replacing its phase detector with one comprising a linear ramp generator and a sample-and-hold circuit, thus eliminating the need for a lowpass loop filter, although the output of the sample-and-hold circuit may be filtered in the case of a very low level modulating signal on the incoming FM signal, but then filtering is not a difficult problem as in a conventional phase-locked loop. The result is FM demodulation by zero-order estimation. For FM demodulation by first-order estimation, the arithmetic difference between adjacent samples is formed, and using a second sample-and-hold circuit an arithmetic difference signal is produced as an input to a second ramp generator that is reset after each sampling cycle to generate a ramp the slope of which is a function of the arithmetic difference signal stored in the second sample-and-hold circuit. The ramp thus generated by the second ramp generator is arithmetically summed with the zero-estimation signal from the first sample-and-hold circuit to form a first-order estimation signal. Filtering such a first-order estimation signal is less of a problem than filtering a zero-order estimation signal.

  14. 47 CFR 73.599 - NCE-FM engineering charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NCE-FM engineering charts. 73.599 Section 73.599 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.599 NCE-FM engineering charts....

  15. 47 CFR 73.599 - NCE-FM engineering charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NCE-FM engineering charts. 73.599 Section 73.599 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.599 NCE-FM engineering charts....

  16. 47 CFR 73.599 - NCE-FM engineering charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NCE-FM engineering charts. 73.599 Section 73.599 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.599 NCE-FM engineering charts....

  17. 75 FR 65521 - FM Approvals; Expansion of Recognition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration FM Approvals; Expansion of Recognition AGENCY: Occupational... a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory under 29 CFR 1910.7. DATES: The expansion of recognition... (FM) as a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). FM's expansion covers the use of...

  18. 47 CFR 73.599 - NCE-FM engineering charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCE-FM engineering charts. 73.599 Section 73.599 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.599 NCE-FM engineering charts....

  19. 47 CFR 73.310 - FM technical definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM technical definitions. 73.310 Section 73.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.310 FM technical definitions. (a) Frequency modulation. Antenna height above...

  20. 47 CFR 73.295 - FM subsidiary communications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM subsidiary communications services. 73.295 Section 73.295 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.295 FM subsidiary communications services....

  1. 47 CFR 73.515 - NCE FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCE FM transmitter location. 73.515 Section 73.515 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.515 NCE FM transmitter location....

  2. 47 CFR 73.295 - FM subsidiary communications services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM subsidiary communications services. 73.295 Section 73.295 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.295 FM subsidiary communications services....

  3. 75 FR 27977 - FM Table of Allotments, Fairbanks, Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Fairbanks, Alaska AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth a proposal to amend the FM Table of Allotments... allotment of FM Channels 224C2 and 232C2 as the thirteenth and fourteenth local service at Fairbanks,...

  4. 75 FR 43897 - FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, GRANTS PASS, OREGON

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, GRANTS PASS, OREGON AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This document sets forth a proposal to amend the FM Table of... the allotment of FM Channel 257A as the second commercial allotment at Grants Pass, Oregon....

  5. 47 CFR 73.599 - NCE-FM engineering charts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NCE-FM engineering charts. 73.599 Section 73.599 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.599 NCE-FM engineering charts....

  6. 75 FR 4037 - FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, BRACKETTVILLE, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, BRACKETTVILLE, TX AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... proposed deletion of this vacant allotment accommodates the new FM station application, which requests the... Rocksprings, to Brackettville, Texas, modification of the new FM station authorization. See File No....

  7. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal...

  8. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 73.315 - FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM transmitter location. 73.315 Section 73.315 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.315 FM transmitter location. (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so...

  10. 47 CFR 73.310 - FM technical definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM technical definitions. 73.310 Section 73.310 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.310 FM technical definitions. (a) Frequency modulation. Antenna height above...

  11. 47 CFR 73.515 - NCE FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NCE FM transmitter location. 73.515 Section 73.515 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.515 NCE FM transmitter location....

  12. 47 CFR 73.315 - FM transmitter location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM transmitter location. 73.315 Section 73.315 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.315 FM transmitter location. (a) The transmitter location shall be chosen so...

  13. 47 CFR 73.319 - FM multiplex subcarrier technical standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM multiplex subcarrier technical standards. 73.319 Section 73.319 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.319 FM multiplex subcarrier...

  14. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  15. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  16. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  17. 47 CFR 73.317 - FM transmission system requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM transmission system requirements. 73.317 Section 73.317 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.317 FM transmission system requirements. (a)...

  18. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  19. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  20. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  1. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  2. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  3. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  4. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  5. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  6. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  7. 47 CFR 73.597 - FM stereophonic sound broadcasting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound broadcasting. 73.597... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.597 FM stereophonic sound..., transmit stereophonic sound programs upon installation of stereophonic sound transmitting equipment...

  8. Radar measurement of soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture on the radar backscattering coefficient was investigated by measuring the 4-8 GHz spectral response from two types of bare-soil fields: slightly rough and very rough, in terms of the wavelength. An FM-CW radar system was used to measure the return at 10 frequency points across the 4-8 GHz band, at different look angles, and for all polarization combinations. The results indicate that the radar response to soil moisture content is highly dependent on the surface roughness, microwave frequency, and look angle. The response seems to be linear over the range 15%-30% moisture content for all angles, frequencies, polarizations and surface conditions.

  9. Radar measurement of soil moisture content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of soil moisture on the radar backscattering coefficient was investigated by measuring the 4- to 8-GHz spectral response from two types of bare-soil fields: slightly rough and very rough, in terms of the wavelength. An FM-CW radar system mounted atop a 75-ft truck-mounted boom was used to measure the return at ten frequency points across the 4- to 8-GHz band, at eight different look angles (0 through 70 deg), and for all polarization combinations. A total of 17 sets of data were collected covering the range from 4 to 36% soil moisture content by weight. The results indicate that the radar response to soil moisture content is highly dependent on the surface roughness, microwave frequency, and look angle. The response seems to be linear, however, over the range from 15 to 30% moisture content for all angles, frequencies, polarizations and surface conditions.

  10. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) §...

  11. 47 CFR 73.827 - Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference to the input signals of FM translator or FM booster stations. 73.827 Section 73.827 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) §...

  12. Planetary radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The radar astronomy activities supported by the Deep Space Network during June, July, and August 1980 are reported. The planetary bodies observed were Venus, Mercury, and the asteroid Toro. Data were obtained at both S and X band, and the observations were considered successful.

  13. Radars in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of active microwave devices operating from space (typically, radar, scatterometers, interferometers, and altimeters) are discussed. General radar parameters and basic radar principles are explained. Applications of these parameters and principles are also explained. Trends in space radar technology, and where space radars and active microwave sensors in orbit are going are discussed.

  14. TRMM radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, Kenichi

    1993-01-01

    The results of a conceptual design study and the performance of key components of the Bread Board Model (BBM) of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar are presented. The radar, which operates at 13.8 GHz and is designed to meet TRMM mission objectives, has a minimum measurable rain rate of 0.5 mm/h with a range resolution of 250 m, a horizontal resolution of about 4 km, and a swath width of 220 km. A 128-element active phased array system is adopted to achieve contiguous scanning within the swath. The basic characteristics of BBM were confirmed by experiments. The development of EM started with the cooperation of NASDA and CRL.

  15. 47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accepted for filing if the proposed operation would involve overlap of predicted field contours with any... overlap with an LP100 station, as set forth: (1) Commercial Class B FM Stations (Protected Contour: 0.5 mV/m) Frequency separation Interference contour of proposed translator station Protected contour...

  16. 47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accepted for filing if the proposed operation would involve overlap of predicted field contours with any... overlap with an LP100 station, as set forth: (1) Commercial Class B FM Stations (Protected Contour: 0.5 mV/m) Frequency separation Interference contour of proposed translator station Protected contour...

  17. 47 CFR 74.1204 - Protection of FM broadcast, FM Translator and LP100 stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accepted for filing if the proposed operation would involve overlap of predicted field contours with any... overlap with an LP100 station, as set forth: (1) Commercial Class B FM Stations (Protected Contour: 0.5 mV/m) Frequency separation Interference contour of proposed translator station Protected contour...

  18. Radar Sounder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    over the shorter time period (resulting in a multilook SAR ) with the result that spatial resolution, the usual r~ason for using SAR techniques, degrades...Field - - - ALT 21. Sea Surface Topography - - - SAR , ALT 22. Ocean Waves (sea, swell, surf) V. Good Some V. Good SAR , ALT * with additional lower freq...OLS - Operational Line-scan System radiometer (4-6 GHz?) ALT - Altimeter •* good at low microwave SAR - Synthetic Aperture frequencies Radar + over

  19. Simulations of the propagation of multiple-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J. H.; Shvydky, A.; Marozas, J. A.; Guardalben, M. J.; Kruschwitz, B. E.; Waxer, L. J.; Dorrer, C.; Hill, E.; Okishev, A. V.; Di Nicola, J.-M.

    2013-02-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D) smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) system for smoothing focal-spot nonuniformities using multiple modulation frequencies has been commissioned on one long-pulse beamline of OMEGA EP, the first use of such a system in a high-energy laser. Frequency modulation (FM) to amplitude modulation (AM) conversion in the infrared (IR) output, frequency conversion, and final optics affected the accumulation of B-integral in that beamline. Modeling of this FM-to-AM conversion using the code Miró [Morice, O., "Miró: Complete modeling and software for pulse amplification and propagation in high-power laser systems," Opt. Eng. 42(6), 1530-1541 (2003).] was used as input to set the beamline performance limits for picket (short) pulses with multi-FM SSD applied. This article first describes that modeling. The 1-D SSD analytical model of Chuang [Chuang, Y.-H., "Amplification of broad-bandwidth phase-modulated laser counterpropagating light waves in homogeneous plasma," Ph.D. thesis, University of Rochester (September 1991).] is first extended to the case of multiple modulators and then used to benchmark Miró simulations. Comparison is also made to an alternative analytic model developed by Hocquet et al. [Hocquet, S., Penninckx, D., Bordenave, E., Gouédard, C. and Jaouën, Y., "FM-to-AM conversion in high-power lasers," Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3338-3349 (2008).] With the confidence engendered by this benchmarking, Miró results for multi-FM SSD applied on OMEGA EP are then presented. The relevant output section(s) of the OMEGA EP Laser System are described. The additional B-integral in OMEGA EP IR components upstream of the frequency converters due to AM is modeled. The importance of locating the image of the SSD dispersion grating at the frequency converters is demonstrated. Finally, since frequency conversion is not performed in OMEGA EP's target chamber, the additional AM due to propagation to the target chamber's vacuum window is modeled.

  20. Lasers '92; Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers and Applications, 15th, Houston, TX, Dec. 7-10, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles P. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers from the conference are presented, and the topics covered include the following: x-ray lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, high power lasers, blue-green lasers, dye lasers, solid state lasers, semiconductor lasers, gas and discharge lasers, carbon dioxide lasers, ultrafast phenomena, nonlinear optics, quantum optics, dynamic gratings and wave mixing, laser radar, lasers in medicine, optical filters and laser communication, optical techniques and instruments, laser material interaction, and industrial and manufacturing applications.

  1. FINDR: Low-Cost Indoor Positioning Using FM Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papliatseyeu, Andrei; Kotilainen, Niko; Mayora, Oscar; Osmani, Venet

    This paper presents an indoor positioning system based on FM radio. The system is built upon commercially available, short-range FM transmitters. The features of the FM radio which make it distinct from other localisation technologies are discussed. Despite the low cost and off-the-shelf components, the performance of the FM positioning is comparable to that of other positioning technologies (such as Wi-Fi). From our experiments, the median accuracy of the system is around 1.3 m and in 95% of cases the error is below 4.5 m.

  2. Thirteenth International Laser Radar Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    One hundred fifteen papers were presented in both oral and poster sessions. The topics of the conference sessions were: spaceborne lidar applications; extinction/visibility; differential absorption lidar; winds and tropospheric studies; middle atmosphere; clouds and multiple scattering; pollution studies; and new systems.

  3. Coherent Laser Radar Remote Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    studies have not made a coordinated assessment of these effects. There is published workL,Z, 3 on mixing 1. Degnan, J.J., and Klein, B.J., * Optical ... Antenna Gain 2: Receiving Antennas,* Appl. Opt. 13, 2397-2401 (1974). 2. Fink, D., "Coherent Detection Signal-to-Noise.’ Appl. Opt. 14, 689-690 (1975

  4. Forward-looking automotive radar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganci, Paul; Potts, Steven; Okurowski, Frank

    1995-12-01

    For intelligent cruise control (ICC) and forward looking collision warning systems to be successful products they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by dropped tracks and nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by consumers, and would likely result in rejection of these new technologies in the marketplace. The authors report on a low-cost automotive millimeter wave (MMW) radar design which addresses shortcomings associated with previously reported ICC system implementations. The importance of the sensor's ability to identify and separately track all obstacles in the field of view is discussed. The applicability of the MMW's FM-CW sensor implementation to collision warning systems is also discussed.

  5. End-to-end RMS error testing on a constant bandwidth FM/FM system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, G. R.; Salter, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    End-to-end root-mean-square (rms) tests performed on a constant bandwidth FM/FM system with various settings of system parameters are reported. The testing technique employed is that of sampling, digitizing, delaying, and comparing the analog input against the sampled and digitized corresponding output. Total system error is determined by fully loading all channels with band-limited noise and conducting end-to-end rms error tests on one channel. Tests are also conducted with and without a transmission link and plots of rms errors versus receiver signal-to-noise (S/N) values are obtained. The combined effects of intermodulation, adjacent channel crosstalk, and residual system noise are determined as well as the single channel distortion of the system.

  6. Radar applications of gigawatt sources at millimeter wave frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruder, J.A.; Belcher, M.L. . Research Inst.)

    1991-06-01

    The high transmit powers provided by free electron laser (FEL) sources in combination with the narrow antenna beamwidths achievable at millimeter wave (MMW) frequencies offer potential for use in a number of radar applications. Potential applications of high power millimeter wave sources include satellite imaging, low angle radar tracking, radar astronomy, and a number of other possible applications such as atmospheric research, space debris detection, and space vehicle tracking. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  7. SOURCESCAT - A very fine resolution radar scatterometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoughi, R.; Wu, L. K.; Moore, R. K.

    1985-11-01

    A short-range, high resolution FM-CW radar system has been used to investigate the sources of backscatter in various types of crops, trees, surfaces and man-made targets. A transmitted signal bandwidth of 2.0 GHz at 10.0 GHz center frequency provides a range resolution of 11 cm. A focused parabolic antenna, providing narrow effective antenna beamwidths in both the azimuth and the elevation directions, gives a 16 cm illumination area diameter at a target range of 4.0 m. Amplitude weighting of the received signal is implemented to reduce range sidelobe levels due to the internal system reflections and leakage signals from the transmitter into the receiver. Due to this amplitude weighting, the range resolution is 11.0 cm, rather than the 6.6 cm possible with 2 GHz bandwidth. This report discusses the design steps taken in construction of their radar system.

  8. Research of beam conditioning technologies using continuous phase plate, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Jia, Huaiting; Tian, Xiaocheng; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhu, Na; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-10-01

    In the research of inertial confinement fusion, laser plasma interaction (LPI) is becoming a key problem that affects ignition. Here, multi-frequency modulation (Multi-FM) smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS) were experimentally studied and implemented on the SG-III laser facility. After using these techniques, the far field distribution of SG-Ⅲ laser facility can be adjusted, controlled and repeated accurately. The output spectrums of the cascade phase modulators used for Multi-FM SSD were stable and the FM-to-AM effect can be restrained. Experiments on SG-III laser facility indicate that when the number of color cycles adopts 1, imposing SSD with 3.3 times diffraction limit (TDL) did not lead to pinhole closure in the spatial filters of preamplifier and main amplifiers with 30-TDL pinhole size. The nonuniformity of the focal spots using Multi-FM SSD, CPP and PS drops to 0.18, comparing to 0.26 with CPP+SSD, 0.57 with CPP+PS and 0.84 with only CPP and wedged lens. Polarization smoothing using flat birefringent plate in the convergent beam of final optics assembly (FOA) was studied. The PS plates were manufactured and equipped on SG-III laser facility for LPI research. Combined beam smoothing and polarization manipulation were also studied to solve the LPI problem. Results indicate that through adjusting dispersion directions of SSD beams in a quad, two dimensional SSD can be obtained. Using polarization control plate (PCP), polarization on the near field and far field can be manipulated, providing new method to solve LPI problem in indirect drive laser fusion.

  9. Ground penetrating radar and terrestrial laser scanner surveys on deposits of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: insights for dune bedform genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rémi Dujardin, Jean; Amin Douillet, Guilhem; Abolghasem, Amir; Cordonnier, Benoit; Kueppers, Ulrich; Bano, Maksim; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2014-05-01

    Dune bedforms formed by dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDC) are often described or interpreted as antidunes and chute and pools. However, the interpretation remains essentially speculative and is not well understood. This is largely due to the seeming impossibility of in-situ measurements and experimental scaling, as well as the lack of recent, 3D exposures. Indeed, most dune bedform cross-stratifications from the dilute PDC record outcrop in 2D sections. The 2006 eruption of Tungurahua has produced well-developed bedforms that are well-exposed on the surface of the deposits with easy access. We performed a survey of these deposits combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiling with terrestrial laser scanning of the surface. The GPR survey was carried in dense arrays (from 10 to 25 cm spacing between profiles) over ca. 10 m long bedforms. GPR profiles were corrected for topography from photogrammetry data. An in-house software, RadLab (written in matlab), was used for common processing of individual profiles and 2D & 3D topographic migration. Each topography-corrected profile was then loaded into a seismic interpretation software, OpenDtect, for 3D visualization and interpretation. Most bedforms show high lateral stability that is independent of the cross-stratification pattern (that varies between stoss-aggrading bedsets, stoss-erosive bedsets and stoss-depositional lensoidal layers). Anecdotic bedforms have their profiles that evolve laterally (i.e. in a direction perpendicular to the flow direction). Cannibalization of two dune bedforms into a single one on one end of the profile can evolve into growth of a single bedform at the other lateral end. Also, lateral variation in the migration direction occurs, i.e. a single bedform can show upstream aggradation at one lateral end of the bedform, but show downstream migration at the other end. Some bedforms have great variations in their internal structure. Several episodes of growth and erosion can be

  10. Preparing Students to Take SOA/CAS Exam FM/2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides suggestions for preparing students to take the actuarial examination on financial mathematics, SOA/CAS Exam FM/2. It is based on current practices employed at Slippery Rock University, a small public liberal arts university. Detailed descriptions of our Theory of Interest course and subsequent Exam FM/2 prep course are provided…

  11. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose...

  12. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose...

  13. 47 CFR 73.316 - FM antenna systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM antenna systems. 73.316 Section 73.316... Broadcast Stations § 73.316 FM antenna systems. (a) It shall be standard to employ horizontal polarization...) Directional antennas. A directional antenna is an antenna that is designed or altered for the purpose...

  14. 47 CFR 73.4108 - FM transmitter site map submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM transmitter site map submissions. 73.4108 Section 73.4108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4108 FM transmitter site...

  15. 47 CFR 73.4108 - FM transmitter site map submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM transmitter site map submissions. 73.4108 Section 73.4108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4108 FM transmitter site...

  16. 47 CFR 73.4108 - FM transmitter site map submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM transmitter site map submissions. 73.4108 Section 73.4108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4108 FM transmitter site...

  17. 47 CFR 73.4108 - FM transmitter site map submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM transmitter site map submissions. 73.4108 Section 73.4108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4108 FM transmitter site...

  18. 47 CFR 73.4108 - FM transmitter site map submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM transmitter site map submissions. 73.4108 Section 73.4108 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4108 FM transmitter site...

  19. 75 FR 19338 - FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, Milford, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, Milford, Utah AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Group, LLC, authorized assignee of Station KCLS(FM), Channel 269C2, Pioche, Nevada, requesting the... highlight topics or organize text. See DDH, pages 1-12 and 1-13.] List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73...

  20. 75 FR 19340 - FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, Jewett, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, Jewett, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission..., proposing the allotment of FM Channel 232A at Jewett, Texas, as a first local service. The reference... Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal...

  1. 47 CFR 73.4017 - Application processing: Commercial FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application processing: Commercial FM stations... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4017 Application processing: Commercial FM stations. See Report and Order, MM Docket 84-750, FCC 85-125, adopted March 4,...

  2. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  3. Sniper bullet detection by millimeter-wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Uri; Lefevre, Russell J.; Mann, John; Avent, Randy K.; Deo, Naresh

    1999-01-01

    Law enforcement and military operations would clearly benefit from a capability to locate snipers by backtracking the sniper's bullet trajectory. Achieving sufficient backtracking accuracy for bullets is a demanding radar design, requiring good measurement accuracy, high update rate, and detection of very low cross-section objects. In addition, reasonable cost is a driving requirement for law enforcement use. These divergent design requirements are addressed in an experimental millimeter-wave focal plane array radar that uses integrated millimeter-wave receiver technology. The radar is being built for DARPA by Technology Service Corporation, with assistance from M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory and QuinStar Technology. The key element in the radar is a 35-GHz focal plane array receiver. The receiving antenna lens focuses radar signals from a wide field of view onto an array of receivers, each receiver processing a separate element of the field of view. Receiver detections are then combined in a tracking processor. An FM-CW waveform is used to provide high average power, good range resolution, and stationary clutter rejection. TSC will be testing the sniper detection radar, using radar environment simulator technology developed at Lincoln Laboratory. The simulator will retransmit the received signal with the range delay, Doppler shift, and ERP for various simulated bullet trajectories.

  4. Preemphasis for an S-band constant bandwidth FM/FM system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, G. R.; Salter, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Preemphasis schedules are given for 11 constant-bandwidth FM subcarriers modulating an S-band transmitter at various receiver SNRs (9 dB, 15 dB and 25 dB). The criterion for establishing these preemphasis curves is the achievement, at various receiver IF SNR, of equal receiver output SNR for all channels. The empirically derived results are compared with a simplified, analytically derived schedule and the primary differences are explained. The S-band preemphasis schedule is also found to differ from the lower frequency VHF case.

  5. Role of spin polarization in FM/Al/FM trilayer film at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ning; Webb, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of electronic transport in diffusive FM/normal metal/FM trilayer film are performed at temperature ranging from 2K to 300K to determine the behavior of the spin polarized current in normal metal under the influence of quantum phase coherence and spin-orbital interaction. Ten samples of Hall bar with length of 200 micron and width of 20 micron are fabricated through e-beam lithography followed by e-gun evaporation of Ni0.8Fe0.2, aluminum and Ni0.8Fe0.2 with different thickness (5nm to 45nm) in vacuum. At low temperature of 4.2K, coherent backscattering, Rashba spin-orbital interaction and spin flip scattering of conduction electrons contribute to magnetoresistance at low field. Quantitative analysis of magnetoresistance shows transition between weak localization and weak anti-localization for samples with different thickness ratio, which indicates the spin polarization actually affects the phase coherence length and spin-orbital scattering length. However, at temperature between 50K and 300K, only the spin polarization dominates the magnetoresistance.

  6. The proposed flatland radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.; Gage, K. S.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible very high frequency (VHF) stratosphere-troposphere (ST) radar configured for meteorological research is to be constructed near Urbana, Illinois. Measurement of small vertical velocities associated with synoptic-scale meteorology can be performed. A large Doppler microwave radar (CHILL) is located a few km from the site of the proposed ST radar. Since the microwave radar can measure the location and velocity of hydrometeors and the VHF ST radar can measure clear (or cloudy) air velocities, simultaneous observations by these two radars of stratiform or convective weather systems would provide valuable meteorological information.

  7. Diode-quad bridge for reactive transducers and FM discriminators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D. R.; Dimeff, J.

    1972-01-01

    Diode-quad bridge circuit was developed for use with pressure-sensitive capacitive transducers, liquid-level measuring devices, proximity deflection sensors, and inductive displacement sensors. It may also be used as FM discriminator and as universal impedance bridge.

  8. 59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Credit FM. Flood waters on South Battle Creek next to powerhouse. Note height of water in relation to tailraces. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  9. When hearing aids go bad: an FM success story.

    PubMed

    McArdle, Rachel; Abrams, Harvey B; Chisolm, Theresa Hnath

    2005-01-01

    Both clinical and research findings support the effectiveness of frequency-modulated (FM) technology among individuals who continue to encounter significant communication problems despite the use of conventional hearing instruments. The use rate of FM devices throughout the nation, however, remains disappointingly low. The authors present a case of a longtime hearing aid user whose hearing aids provided decreasing benefit as his hearing impairment increased to the extent that cochlear implantation was considered. Through the establishment of patient-specific treatment goals, the provision of appropriate FM technology as verified through real-ear measurements, and careful and deliberate counseling and follow-up, this patient was able to realize significant communication benefits as reported through several self-assessment measures. The cost-benefit implications of FM technology versus cochlear implantation are discussed.

  10. 72. Credit FM. Overview of powerhouse from gallery. Notice cooling ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. Credit FM. Overview of powerhouse from gallery. Notice cooling duct on generator (now removed) and spare gate valve in far corner. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  11. 68. Credit FM. Detail showing operators. Note cooling duct (now ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Credit FM. Detail showing operators. Note cooling duct (now removed), governor (now removed), hand-operated needle valve controls (now removed). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  12. 76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. Credit FM. Detail showing belts running from water wheel to governor and from water wheel to tachometer (foreground). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  13. 56. Credit FM. East elevation taken from along penstock. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Credit FM. East elevation taken from along penstock. Note additions to the east side and the north side of the building. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  14. An Analysis of FM Jamming and Noise Quality Measures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    sequel, 3 this cae will be referred to as NBFM/N became of the corepondece to the rough definition of narrowband FM (29). A full discussion of the... definition of noise quality (30)) actually shows an increase in noise quality with a decrease in peak frequency deviation from WBFM/N towards NBFM/N. An...of the behavior of FM/N from a theoretical standpoint and the provision of further motivation for a standard definition of noise quality which

  15. Lasers '87; Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Lasers and Applications, Lake Tahoe, NV, Dec. 7-11, 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, F. J.

    Various papers on lasers are presented. The general topics addressed include: laser physics and theory, VUV and X-ray lasers, excimer lasers, chemical lasers, nuclear pumped lasers, blue-green and metal-vapor lasers, dye lasers, solid-state lasers, semiconductor and diode lasers, CO2 lasers, FIR lasers, ultrafast phenomena, nonlinear phenomena, wave mixing and dynamic gratings, and phase conjugation. Also considered are: laser radars and remote sensing, adaptive optics and propagation, imaging, fiber optics, laser spectroscopy, laser dyes, lasers in medicine, optical devices and measuring technique, laser industrial applications, lasers in strategic defense.

  16. An Airborne Millimeter-Wave FM-CW Radar for Thickness Profiling of Freshwater Ice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    repeatedly located, given the Thi5 - Tio5 = -5-dB pulse width (ps) natureofthe DSP hardware and software, andwas with- Thilo - T1010 = -10-dB pulse width (ps...from a sheet of natural pond A(%) =(Thil0- Tp)- (Tp- T10 10) (100). (69) ice. Figure 85 illustrates the pertinent components ofthe( Thilo - T1 lol

  17. Weather Radar Technology Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-15

    uelocitV WMs ) data processing systems such as NEXRAD to have a reliable technique for removing ambiguities due to velocity aliasing. Performance of many...intended for automated implementation on radar systems such as the NEXt generation weather RADar ( NEXRAD ) system. Several research areas were addressed...with Doppler radar will soon be realized with the deployment of the NEXRAD radar systems. Some of these large scale storms can have devastating wind

  18. Radar: Human Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritz, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Radar is a technology that can be used to detect distant objects not visible to the human eye. A predecessor of radar, called the telemobiloscope, was first used to detect ships in the fog in 1904 off the German coast. Many scientists have worked on the development and refinement of radar (Hertz with electromagnetic waves; Popov with determining…

  19. Lunar radar backscatter studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    The lunar surface material in the Plato area is characterized using Earth based visual, infrared, and radar signatures. Radar scattering in the lunar regolith with an existing optical scattering computer program is modeled. Mapping with 1 to 2 km resolution of the Moon using a 70 cm Arecibo radar is presented.

  20. Lasers.

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  1. [Lasers].

    PubMed

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients.

  2. Detecting Negative Obstacles by Use of Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittskus, Anthony; Lux, James

    2006-01-01

    Robotic land vehicles would be equipped with small radar systems to detect negative obstacles, according to a proposal. The term "negative obstacles" denotes holes, ditches, and any other terrain features characterized by abrupt steep downslopes that could be hazardous for vehicles. Video cameras and other optically based obstacle-avoidance sensors now installed on some robotic vehicles cannot detect obstacles under adverse lighting conditions. Even under favorable lighting conditions, they cannot detect negative obstacles. A radar system according to the proposal would be of the frequency-modulation/ continuous-wave (FM/CW) type. It would be installed on a vehicle, facing forward, possibly with a downward slant of the main lobe(s) of the radar beam(s) (see figure). It would utilize one or more wavelength(s) of the order of centimeters. Because such wavelengths are comparable to the characteristic dimensions of terrain features associated with negative hazards, a significant amount of diffraction would occur at such features. In effect, the diffraction would afford a limited ability to see corners and to see around corners. Hence, the system might utilize diffraction to detect corners associated with negative obstacles. At the time of reporting the information for this article, preliminary analyses of diffraction at simple negative obstacles had been performed, but an explicit description of how the system would utilize diffraction was not available.

  3. 47 CFR 73.201 - Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.201 Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels. The FM broadcast band consists of that portion of the radio frequency spectrum between 88 MHz and... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numerical designation of FM broadcast...

  4. 75 FR 13235 - FM Table of Allotments, Buffalo and Centerville, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Buffalo and Centerville, Texas AGENCY: Federal... Kaherine Pyeatt, the permittee of Station KKLB(FM), Madisonville, Texas, to substitute FM Channel 278A for... No. BMPH-20090831ADM), Pyeatt proposes the substitution of FM Channel 299A for Channel 267A...

  5. 47 CFR 73.201 - Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.201 Numerical designation of FM broadcast channels. The FM broadcast band consists of that portion of the radio frequency spectrum between 88 MHz and... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Numerical designation of FM broadcast...

  6. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  7. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  8. 2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHWEST, prime search radar tower, height finder radar towards, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  9. Neutron multiplicity measurements of Cf and Fm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.; Ford, G.P.; Balagna, J.P.; Veeser, L.R.

    1980-02-01

    Prompt neutrons in coincidence with the fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of /sup 250,252,254/Cf and /sup 257/Fm were measured inside a 75-cm-diameter, Gd-loaded liquid scintillation counter having a neutron-detection efficiency of about 78%. Measurements for /sup 256/Fm were done just outside the counter with an efficiency of 31%. The kinetic energies of both fission fragments and the number of neutrons for each fission event were recorded. From these data, the fragment kinetic energies and masses and the neutron multiplicity distributions were determined for /sup 250,252,254/Cf and /sup 257/Fm. Variances of neutron multiplicity distributions as a function of total fragment kinetic energy and the ratio of fragment masses have been calculated and are presented for all the nuclides studied.

  10. Radar based autonomous sensor module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styles, Tim

    2016-10-01

    Most surveillance systems combine camera sensors with other detection sensors that trigger an alert to a human operator when an object is detected. The detection sensors typically require careful installation and configuration for each application and there is a significant burden on the operator to react to each alert by viewing camera video feeds. A demonstration system known as Sensing for Asset Protection with Integrated Electronic Networked Technology (SAPIENT) has been developed to address these issues using Autonomous Sensor Modules (ASM) and a central High Level Decision Making Module (HLDMM) that can fuse the detections from multiple sensors. This paper describes the 24 GHz radar based ASM, which provides an all-weather, low power and license exempt solution to the problem of wide area surveillance. The radar module autonomously configures itself in response to tasks provided by the HLDMM, steering the transmit beam and setting range resolution and power levels for optimum performance. The results show the detection and classification performance for pedestrians and vehicles in an area of interest, which can be modified by the HLDMM without physical adjustment. The module uses range-Doppler processing for reliable detection of moving objects and combines Radar Cross Section and micro-Doppler characteristics for object classification. Objects are classified as pedestrian or vehicle, with vehicle sub classes based on size. Detections are reported only if the object is detected in a task coverage area and it is classified as an object of interest. The system was shown in a perimeter protection scenario using multiple radar ASMs, laser scanners, thermal cameras and visible band cameras. This combination of sensors enabled the HLDMM to generate reliable alerts with improved discrimination of objects and behaviours of interest.

  11. Pre-emphasis determination for an S-band constant bandwidth FM/FM station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, G. R.; Salter, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Pre-emphasis schedules are given for 11 constant-bandwidth FM subcarriers modulating an S band transmitter at three receiver signal to noise ratios (i.e., 9, 15, and 25 dB). The criterion for establishing these pre-emphasis curves is the achievement, at various receiver intermediate frequency signal to noise ratios, of equal receiver output signal to noise ratios for all channels. It is realized that these curves may not be the optimum pre-emphasis curves based on overall efficiency or maximum utilization of the allotted spectrum, but they are near-optimum for data with channels which require equal output signal to noise ratios, such as spectral densities. The empirically derived results are compared with a simplified, analytically derived schedule and the primary differences are explained. The S band pre-emphasis schedule differs from the lower frequency VHF case. Since most proportional bandwidth and constant bandwidth systems use ground based recorders and some use flight recorders (as the Saturn systems did on VHF proportional bandwidth telemetry), the effects of these recorders are discussed and a modified pre-emphasis schedule is presented showing the results of this study phase.

  12. The development of a non-contact screening system for rapid medical inspection at a quarantine depot using a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, microwave radar and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Suzuki, S; Ujikawa, K; Usui, T; Gotoh, S; Sugamata, M; Abe, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to conduct fast screening of passengers with infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or pandemic influenza at a quarantine depot, we developed a non-contact screening system with self-produced program to conduct a human screening within five seconds, via a linear discriminant function from non-contact derived variables, i.e. palmer pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and facial temperature measured by thermography. The system evaluation was conducted on seven healthy male subjects (23 +/- 1 years). In order to achieve a pseudo-infection condition, the subjects maintained an ergometer exercise load (100 W, 10 minutes). Before (normal condition) and after (pseudo-infection condition) exercise, a significant linear discriminant function (p < 0.001) was determined to distinguish pseudo-infection condition from normal condition (Mahalanobis D-square = 20.3, classification error rate <5%). The proposed system appears promising for future application in fast screening of infection at a quarantine depot.

  13. Development of a non-contact screening system for rapid medical inspection at a quarantine depot using a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, microwave radar and infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Suzuki, S; Ujikawa, K; Usui, T; Gotoh, S; Sugamata, M; Badarch, Z; Abe, S

    2009-01-01

    In order to conduct fast screening of passengers with infections such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or pandemic influenza at a quarantine depot, we developed a non-contact screening system with a self-produced program to conduct a human screening within five seconds, via a linear discriminant function from non-contact derived variables, i.e. palmer pulse derived from a laser Doppler blood-flow meter, respiration rate determined by a 10-GHz microwave radar, and facial temperature measured by a thermography. The system evaluation was conducted on seven healthy male subjects (23+1 years). In order to achieve a pseudo-infection condition, the subjects maintained an ergo-meter exercise load (100 W, 10 minutes). Before (normal condition) and after (pseudo-infection condition) exercise, a significant linear discriminant function (p50.001) was determined to distinguish the pseudo-infection condition from the normal condition (Mahalanobis D-square 1/4 20.3, classification error rate55%). The proposed system appears promising for future application in fast screening of infection at a quarantine depot.

  14. 30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Perimeter acquisition radar building room #318, showing radar control. Console and line printers - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  15. 3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWEST, height finder radar towers, and radar tower (unknown function) - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  16. Light-charged-particle emission in the spontaneous fission of /sup 250/Cf, /sup 256/Fm, and /sup 257/Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Wild, J.F.; Baisden, P.A.; Dougan, R.J.; Hulet, E.K.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.

    1985-08-01

    We have measured the energy spectra for the emission of long-range ..cap alpha.. particles from the spontaneous fission of /sup 250/Cf, /sup 256/Fm, and /sup 257/Fm, and for tritons and protons from the spontaneous fission of /sup 250/Cf and /sup 256/Fm. We have determined ..cap alpha.., triton, and proton emission probabilities and estimated total light-particle emission probabilities for these nuclides. We compare these and known emission probabilities for five other spontaneously fissioning nuclides with the deformation energy available at scission and show that there is a possible correlation that is consistent with a one-body dissipation mechanism for transferring release energy to particle clusters.

  17. Planetary radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Cutts, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A catalog of lunar and radar anomalies was generated to provide a base for comparison with Venusian radar signatures. The relationships between lunar radar anomalies and regolith processes were investigated, and a consortium was formed to compare lunar and Venusian radar images of craters. Time was scheduled at the Arecibo Observatory to use the 430 MHz radar to obtain high resolution radar maps of six areas of the lunar suface. Data from 1978 observations of Mare Serenitas and Plato are being analyzed on a PDP 11/70 computer to construct the computer program library necessary for the eventual reduction of the May 1981 and subsequent data acquisitions. Papers accepted for publication are presented.

  18. Historical sketch: Radar geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    A chronological assessment is given of the broad spectra of technology associated with radar geology. Particular attention is given to the most recent developments made in the areas of microwave Earth resources applications and geologic remote sensing from aircraft and satellite. The significance of space derived radar in geologic investigations is discussed and the scientific basis for exploiting the sensitivity of radar signals to various aspects of geologic terrain is given.

  19. 75 FR 4036 - FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, DEBEQUE, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, DEBEQUE, CO AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Audio Division seeks comments on a petition filed by Cochise...

  20. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... case of a Class D or an NCE FM reserved band channel station, a major facility change is any change in... community of license or any change in frequency other than to a first-, second-, or third-adjacent channel... this section; (ii) A change to a higher or lower class co-channel, first-, second-, or...

  1. An Inexpensive Group FM Amplification System for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worner, William A.

    1988-01-01

    An inexpensive FM amplification system was developed to enhance auditory learning in classrooms for the hearing impaired. Evaluation indicated that the system equalizes the sound pressure level throughout the room, with the increased sound pressure level falling in the range of 70 to 73 decibels. (Author/DB)

  2. Sound-Field FM Amplification: Theory and Practical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crandell, Carl C.; Smaldino, Joseph J.; Flexer, Carol

    The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive and cohesive guide for the use of small, frequency modulated sound-field FM amplification systems in classrooms. The book addresses both theoretical and practical issues with an emphasis on application of information to real-world situations. Worksheets and checklists are included at the end…

  3. 47 CFR 73.3573 - Processing FM broadcast station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... case of a Class D or an NCE FM reserved band channel station, a major facility change is any change in... in the non-reserved band will be dismissed as set forth in paragraph (f)(2)(i) of this section. (2) An amendment to a non-reserved band application which would effect a major change, as defined...

  4. Thermal Properties of Bazhen fm. Sediments from Thermal Core Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasennykh, Mikhail; Popov, Evgeny; Popov, Yury; Chekhonin, Evgeny; Romushkevich, Raisa; Zagranovskaya, Dzhuliya; Belenkaya, Irina; Zhukov, Vladislav; Karpov, Igor; Saveliev, Egor; Gabova, Anastasia

    2016-04-01

    The Bazhen formation (B. fm.) is the hugest self-contained source-and-reservoir continuous petroleum system covering by more than 1 mln. km2 (West Siberia, Russia). High lithological differentiation in Bazhen deposits dominated by silicic shales and carbonates accompanied by extremely high total organic carbon values (of up to 35%), pyrite content and brittle mineralogical composition deteriorate standard thermal properties assessment for low permeable rocks. Reliable information of unconventional system thermal characteristics is the necessary part of works such as modelling of different processes in reservoir under thermal EOR for accessing their efficiency, developing and optimizing design of the oil recovery methods, interpretation of the well temperature logging data and for the basin petroleum modelling. A unique set of data including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volumetric heat capacity, thermal anisotropy for the B.fm. rocks was obtained from thermal core logging (high resolution continuous thermal profiling) on more than 4680 core samples (2000 of B.fm. samples are among) along seven wells for four oil fields. Some systematic peculiarities of the relation between thermal properties of the B.fm. rocks and their mineralogical composition, structural and texture properties were obtained. The high-resolution data are processed jointly with the standard petrophysical logging that allowed us to provide better separation of the formation. The research work was done with financial support of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science (unique identification number RFMEFI58114X0008).

  5. 75 FR 30756 - FM Table of Allotments, Pacific Junction, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Pacific Junction, Iowa AGENCY: Federal Communications... Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction, Iowa. The reference coordinates for Channel 299C2 at Pacific...

  6. 75 FR 41093 - FM Table of Allotments, Maupin, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Maupin, Oregon AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority...

  7. FM Radio as Observational Access to Wilderness Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    An FM radio service is being proposed for the wilderness environments of western Canada. The purpose of this system is to listen in on the wilderness sound environments. It is hoped that when all problems of transmission and financing have been solved, this radio service will provide valuable information. (MA)

  8. 75 FR 19339 - FM Table of Allotments, Amboy, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Amboy, California AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. For the reasons discussed in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission proposes to amend 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73 - RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 1....

  9. Pocket-sized tone-modulated FM transmitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couvillon, L. A.

    1969-01-01

    Pressure of a button on a crystal-controlled transmitter causes generation of a tone. The tone modulates the FM transmitter which in turn radiates by way of the enclosed loop antenna, through the radio-frequency-transparent wall of the transmitters case to the receiver.

  10. Principles and Limitations of Ultra-Wideband FM Communications Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerrits, John F. M.; Kouwenhoven, Michiel H. L.; van der Meer, Paul R.; Farserotu, John R.; Long, John R.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a novel UWB communications system using double FM: a low-modulation index digital FSK followed by a high-modulation index analog FM to create a constant-envelope UWB signal. FDMA techniques at the subcarrier level are exploited to accommodate multiple users. The system is intended for low (1-10 kbps) and medium (100-1000 kbps) bit rate, and short-range WPAN systems. A wideband delay-line FM demodulator that is not preceded by any limiting amplifier constitutes the key component of the UWBFM receiver. This unusual approach permits multiple users to share the same RF bandwidth. Multipath, however, may limit the useful subcarrier bandwidth to one octave. This paper addresses the performance with AWGN and multipath, the resistance to narrowband interference, as well as the simultaneous detection of multiple FM signals at the same carrier frequency. SPICE and Matlab simulation results illustrate the principles and limitations of this new technology. A hardware demonstrator has been realized and has allowed the confirmation of theory with practical results.

  11. 47 CFR 73.310 - FM technical definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM... antenna height above average terrain must be based upon the height of the radiation of the antenna that... specified for a particular direction, antenna power gain is based on that field strength in the...

  12. Effects of noise reduction on AM and FM perception.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Calcus, Axelle; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Lorenzi, Christian

    2013-02-01

    The goal of noise reduction (NR) algorithms in digital hearing aid devices is to reduce background noise whilst preserving as much of the original signal as possible. These algorithms may increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in an ideal case, but they generally fail to improve speech intelligibility. However, due to the complex nature of speech, it is difficult to disentangle the numerous low- and high-level effects of NR that may underlie the lack of speech perception benefits. The goal of this study was to better understand why NR algorithms do not improve speech intelligibility by investigating the effects of NR on the ability to discriminate two basic acoustic features, namely amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) cues, known to be crucial for speech identification in quiet and in noise. Here, discrimination of complex, non-linguistic AM and FM patterns was measured for normal hearing listeners using a same/different task. The stimuli were generated by modulating 1-kHz pure tones by either a two-component AM or FM modulator with patterns changed by manipulating component phases. Modulation rates were centered on 3 Hz. Discrimination of AM and FM patterns was measured in quiet and in the presence of a white noise that had been passed through a gammatone filter centered on 1 kHz. The noise was presented at SNRs ranging from -6 to +12 dB. Stimuli were left as such or processed via an NR algorithm based on the spectral subtraction method. NR was found to yield small but systematic improvements in discrimination for the AM conditions at favorable SNRs but had little effect, if any, on FM discrimination. A computational model of early auditory processing was developed to quantify the fidelity of AM and FM transmission. The model captured the improvement in discrimination performance for AM stimuli at high SNRs with NR. However, the model also predicted a relatively small detrimental effect of NR for FM stimuli in contrast with the average

  13. Solid state transmitters for spaceborne radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turlington, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The SEASAT-A synthetic aperture radar, the first spaceborne SAR, utilized an all solid state RF signal synthesizer and L-band transmitter to drive a corporately fed flat plate array. The RF signal synthesizer generated a linear FM ""CHIRP'' waveform and provided stable CW reference signals used to upconvert the received signal to a unified S-band downlink channel, and to synchronize satellite control logic. The transmitter generated 1200 watts peak RF power (66 watts average) at a center frequency of 1.275 GHz from 354 watts of DC prime power. Linear FM CHIRP swept symmetrically around the center frequency with a bandwidth of 19.05 MHz and a pulse duration of 33.8 sec. Pulse repetition rate was variable from 1647 to 1944 pps. These transmitter signal parameters combined with the flat plate 34 x 7.5 ft aperture at an orbital altitude of 498 miles and a look angle 20 deg off nadir gave the SAR an 85 foot resolution over a 15.5 mile wide swath.

  14. Radar Sensing for Intelligent Vehicles in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Giulio; Johnson, David; Underwood, James

    2015-01-01

    Radar overcomes the shortcomings of laser, stereovision, and sonar because it can operate successfully in dusty, foggy, blizzard-blinding, and poorly lit scenarios. This paper presents a novel method for ground and obstacle segmentation based on radar sensing. The algorithm operates directly in the sensor frame, without the need for a separate synchronised navigation source, calibration parameters describing the location of the radar in the vehicle frame, or the geometric restrictions made in the previous main method in the field. Experimental results are presented in various urban scenarios to validate this approach, showing its potential applicability for advanced driving assistance systems and autonomous vehicle operations. PMID:26102493

  15. AM/FM development for a small electric utility or form partnerships to minimize AM/FM development costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hahne, R.

    1996-08-01

    Chelan County Public Utility District is a 32,000 customer electric utility in central Washington State. Being a small utility presents unique problems in developing a complex AM/FM system. With only a small staff assigned part-time to this project, partnering and outsourcing became essential for developing an AM/FM system. An incremental approach was also necessary. Our project started in 1992 in partnership with Chelan County and the City of Wenatchee for the development of a common landbase in ARC/INFO. For our AM/FM system, a purchased solution was much more feasible than in-house development. We decided against a big requirements definition phase or a formal RFP, and instead looked at available AM/FM systems to decide what was feasible for us. This paper shares the basics of our partnering strategy and outlines how our approach will allow the project to be completed in a fast-track of 40 months at a minimal cost to the Chelan P.U.D. ratepayers.

  16. Signal Processing Techniques for a Planetary Subsurface Radar Onboard Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagitani, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagano, I.; Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.

    2001-12-01

    We are developing a satellite-borne HF ( ~ 10 MHz) radar system to be used to investigate planetary subsurface layered structures. Before deciding the design of a high-performance subsurface radar system, in this study we calculate the propagation and reflection characteristics of various HF radar pulses through subsurface layer models, in order to examine the wave forms and frequencies of the radar pulses suitable to discriminate and pick up weak subsurface echoes buried in stronger surface reflection and scattering echoes. In the numerical calculations the wave form of a transmitted radar pulse is first Fourier-transformed into a number of elementary plane waves having different frequencies, for each of which the propagation and reflection characteristics through subsurface layer models are calculated by a full wave analysis. Then the wave form of the reflected radar echo is constructed by synthesizing all of the elementary plane waves. As the transmitted pulses, we use several different types of wave form modulation to realize the radar pulse compression to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and time resolution of the subsurface echoes: the linear FM chirp (conventional), the M (maximal-length) sequence and the complementary sequences. We will discuss the characteristics of these pulse compression techniques, such as the improvement in the S/N ratio and the time resolution to identify the subsurface echoes. We will also present the possibility of applying the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method to further improve both the S/N ratio and time resolution to extract the weaker subsurface echoes.

  17. Doppler-radar wind-speed measurements in tornadoes: A comparison of real and simulated spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B.; LaDue, J.G.; Stein, H.; Speheger, D.; Unruh, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    Bluestein and Unruh have discussed the advantages of using a portable doppler radar to map the wind field in tornadoes. during the spring of 1991 a storm-intercept team from the University of Oklahoma (OU) collected data near five supercell tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas. Details about the 1-W, 3-cm, 5-deg half-power beamwidth, CW/FM-CW Doppler radar we used and the methods of data collection and analysis are found in Bluestein and Unruh and Bluestein et al. Using the portable radar, we approximately doubled in only one year the number of tornado spectra that had been collected over a period of almost 20 years by NSSL`s fixed-site Doppler radar. In this paper we will compare observed tornado wind spectra with simulated wind spectra (Zmic and Doviak 1975) in order to learn more about tornado structure.

  18. Doppler-radar wind-speed measurements in tornadoes: A comparison of real and simulated spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bluestein, H.B.; LaDue, J.G.; Stein, H.; Speheger, D. ); Unruh, W.P. )

    1993-01-01

    Bluestein and Unruh have discussed the advantages of using a portable doppler radar to map the wind field in tornadoes. during the spring of 1991 a storm-intercept team from the University of Oklahoma (OU) collected data near five supercell tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas. Details about the 1-W, 3-cm, 5-deg half-power beamwidth, CW/FM-CW Doppler radar we used and the methods of data collection and analysis are found in Bluestein and Unruh and Bluestein et al. Using the portable radar, we approximately doubled in only one year the number of tornado spectra that had been collected over a period of almost 20 years by NSSL's fixed-site Doppler radar. In this paper we will compare observed tornado wind spectra with simulated wind spectra (Zmic and Doviak 1975) in order to learn more about tornado structure.

  19. Radar illusion via metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results.

  20. Metamaterial for Radar Frequencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Circuit Board RAM Radar Absorbing Material RCS Radar Cross Section SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio SNG Single-Negative SRR Split Ring Resonator...although some can be single-negative ( SNG ). DNG refers to material with simultaneous negative real parts of the permittivity r  and permeability

  1. Synchronization in multistatic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubrink, H. G.

    1993-08-01

    This report gives a summary of multistatic radar principles and synchronization methods. Different methods are described using direct and indirect synchronization. The report also presents a general review of synchronization methods for the future. Two LORAN C receivers have been analyzed for use as local reference oscillators in multistatic radar.

  2. The PROUST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertin, F.; Glass, M.; Ney, R.; Petitdidier, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Stratosphere-Troposphere (ST) radar called PROUST works at 935 MHz using the same klystron and antenna as the coherent-scatter radar. The use of this equipment for ST work has required some important modifications of the transmitting system and the development of receiving, data processing and acquisition (1984,1985) equipment. The modifications are discussed.

  3. Noncooperative rendezvous radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A fire control radar system was developed, assembled, and modified. The baseline system and modified angle tracking system are described along with the performance characteristics of the baseline and modified systems. Proposed changes to provide additional techniques for radar evaluation are presented along with flight test data.

  4. Polarization Radar Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Oi"C FILE ( J qII RADC-TR-89-144 In-House Report October 1989 AD-A215 242 POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Kenneth C. Stiefvater, Russell D...NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 62702F 4506 11 58 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) POLARIZATION RADAR PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  5. Determination of radar MTF

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, D.

    1994-11-15

    The ultimate goal of the Current Meter Array (CMA) is to be able to compare the current patterns detected with the array with radar images of the water surface. The internal wave current patterns modulate the waves on the water surface giving a detectable modulation of the radar cross-section (RCS). The function relating the RCS modulations to the current patterns is the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). By comparing radar images directly with co-located CMA measurements the MTF can be determined. In this talk radar images and CMA measurements from a recent experiment at Loch Linnhe, Scotland, will be used to make the first direct determination of MTF for an X and S band radar at low grazing angles. The technical problems associated with comparing radar images to CMA data will be explained and the solution method discussed. The results suggest the both current and strain rate contribute equally to the radar modulation for X band. For S band, the strain rate contributes more than the current. The magnitude of the MTF and the RCS modulations are consistent with previous estimates when the wind is blowing perpendicular to the radar look direction.

  6. Java Radar Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaczek, Mariusz P.

    2005-01-01

    Java Radar Analysis Tool (JRAT) is a computer program for analyzing two-dimensional (2D) scatter plots derived from radar returns showing pieces of the disintegrating Space Shuttle Columbia. JRAT can also be applied to similar plots representing radar returns showing aviation accidents, and to scatter plots in general. The 2D scatter plots include overhead map views and side altitude views. The superposition of points in these views makes searching difficult. JRAT enables three-dimensional (3D) viewing: by use of a mouse and keyboard, the user can rotate to any desired viewing angle. The 3D view can include overlaid trajectories and search footprints to enhance situational awareness in searching for pieces. JRAT also enables playback: time-tagged radar-return data can be displayed in time order and an animated 3D model can be moved through the scene to show the locations of the Columbia (or other vehicle) at the times of the corresponding radar events. The combination of overlays and playback enables the user to correlate a radar return with a position of the vehicle to determine whether the return is valid. JRAT can optionally filter single radar returns, enabling the user to selectively hide or highlight a desired radar return.

  7. Equatorial MU Radar project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, H.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University (RISH) has been studying the atmosphere by using radars. The first big facility was the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar installed in Shiga, Japan in 1984. This is one of the most powerful and multi-functional radar, and is successful of revealing importance of atmospheric waves for the dynamical vertical coupling processes. The next big radar was the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) installed at Kototabang, West Sumatra, Indonesia in 2001. The EAR was operated under close collaboration with LAPAN (Indonesia National Institute for Aeronautics and Space), and conducted the long-term continuous observations of the equatorial atmosphere/ionosphere for more than 10 years. The MU radar and the EAR are both utilized for inter-university and international collaborative research program for long time. National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) joined EISCAT Scientific Association together with Nagoya University, and developed the PANSY radar at Syowa base in Antarctica as a joint project with University of Tokyo. These are the efforts of radar study of the atmosphere/ionosphere in the polar region. Now we can find that Japan holds a global network of big atmospheric/ionospheric radars. The EAR has the limitation of lower sensitivity compared with the other big radars shown above. RISH now proposes a plan of Equatorial MU Radar (EMU) that is to establish the MU-radar class radar next to the EAR. The EMU will have an active phased array antenna with the 163m diameter and 1055 cross-element Yagis. Total output power of the EMU will be more than 500kW. The EMU can detect turbulent echoes from the mesosphere (60-80km). In the ionosphere incoherent-scatter observations of plasma density, drift, and temperature would be possible. Multi-channel receivers will realize radar-imaging observations. The EMU is one of the key facilities in the project "Study of coupling processes in the solar-terrestrial system

  8. Spaceborne weather radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, Robert; Kozu, Toshiaki

    1990-01-01

    The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available estimation methods for backscattering, single- and dual-wavelength attenuation, and polarimetric and climatological characteristics.

  9. Micropower impulse radar imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.S.

    1995-11-01

    From designs developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in radar and imaging technologies, there exists the potential for a variety of applications in both public and private sectors. Presently tests are being conducted for the detection of buried mines and the analysis of civil structures. These new systems use a patented ultra-wide band (impulse) radar technology known as Micropower Impulse Radar (GPR) imaging systems. LLNL has also developed signal processing software capable of producing 2-D and 3-D images of objects embedded in materials such as soil, wood and concrete. My assignment while at LLNL has focused on the testing of different radar configurations and applications, as well as assisting in the creation of computer algorithms which enable the radar to scan target areas of different geometeries.

  10. Intelligent radar data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbaur, Ulrich D.

    The application of artificial intelligence principles to the processing of radar signals is considered theoretically. The main capabilities required are learning and adaptation in a changing environment, processing and modeling information (especially dynamics and uncertainty), and decision-making based on all available information (taking its reliability into account). For the application to combat-aircraft radar systems, the tasks include the combination of data from different types of sensors, reacting to electronic counter-countermeasures, evaluation of how much data should be acquired (energy and radiation management), control of the radar, tracking, and identification. Also discussed are related uses such as monitoring the avionics systems, supporting pilot decisions with respect to the radar system, and general applications in radar-system R&D.

  11. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  12. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  13. Radar Thickness Measurements over the Southern Part of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuah, Teong Sek; Gogineni, Siva Prasad; Allen, Christopher; Wohletz, Brad; Wong, Y. C.; Ng, P. Y.; Ajayi, E.

    1996-01-01

    We performed ice thickness measurements over the southern part of the Greenland ice sheet during June and July 1993. We used an airborne coherent radar depth sounder for these measurements. The radar was operated from a NASA P-3 aircraft equipped with GPS receivers. Radar data were collected in conjunction with laser altimeter and microwave altimeter measurements of ice surface elevation. This report provides radio echograms and thickness profiles from data collected during 1993.

  14. Perimeter surveillance using a miniaturized millimetre-wave radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essen, Helmut; Johannes, Winfried; Stanko, Stephan

    2012-10-01

    An FM-CW radar at 94 GHz has been equipped with antennas with high azimuthal gain and a broad beam in elevation and mounted on a rotating pedestal. The radar covers a range interval of 500 m. A change detection algorithm is used to discriminate invading persons from the background. Tracking of non-stationary target objects is maintained by Kalman filtering. The RCS of detected objects is determined using a pre-calibration against a precision corner reflector at a defined range. The measured RCS is compared with a threshold value to discriminate between dangerous and nondangerous persons. Additional information from a video camera is necessary for a first discrimination between target classes.

  15. Parametric dependence of ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Cross, A.

    1983-01-01

    Microwave techniques at X and L band were used to determine the dependence of ocean-wave radar modulation transfer functions (MTFs) on various environmental and radar parameters during the Marine Remote Sensing experiment of 1979 (MARSEN 79). These MIF are presented, as are coherence functions between the AM and FM parts of the backscattered microwave signal. It is shown that they both depend on several of these parameters. Besides confirming many of the properties of transfer functions reported by previous authors, indications are found that MTFs decrease with increasing angle between wave propagation and antenna-look directions but are essentially independent of small changes in air-sea temperature difference. However, coherence functions are much smaller when the antennas are pointed perpendicular to long waves. It is found that X band transfer functions measured with horizontally polarized microwave radiation have larger magnitudes than those obtained by using vertical polarization.

  16. Trending Technologies for Indoor FM: Looking for "Geo" in Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunduz, M.; Isikdag, U.; Basaraner, M.

    2016-10-01

    Today technological developments in the Architecture Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry provides opportunities to build huge and complex buildings and facilities. In order to operate these facilities and to meet the requirements of the occupants and also to manage energy, waste and to keep all facility services operational, several Facility Management (FM) solutions were developed. This paper starts by presenting a state of art review of research related to Indoor Facility Management Systems. Later, a textual analysis focused to identify the research trends in this field is presented in the paper. The result of the literature review and textual analysis indicates that current research in Indoor FM Systems is underestimating the role of Geoinformation, Geoinformation models and systems.

  17. Simultaneous occupational exposure to FM and UHF transmitters.

    PubMed

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure caused by large broadcasting transmitters exceeds current reference levels. As it is common for different radio and TV transmitters to share the location, we analysed combined exposure on a 40-m high mast. The frequency modulation (FM) transmitter, located between the 10th and 30th metre, had the power of 25 kW, whereas an ultra-high frequency (UHF) transmitter of 5 kW occupied the top 8 m of the mast. Measured and calculated values of the electric field strength exceeded the reference levels up to 10 times; however, the results for the specific absorption rate (SAR) values show that the reference levels are very conservative for FM exposure, i.e., basic restrictions are not exceeded even when the reference levels are exceeded 10 times. However, for UHF exposure the reference levels are not conservative; they give a good prediction of real exposure.

  18. Simulation of error in optical radar range measurements.

    PubMed

    Der, S; Redman, B; Chellappa, R

    1997-09-20

    We describe a computer simulation of atmospheric and target effects on the accuracy of range measurements using pulsed laser radars with p-i-n or avalanche photodiodes for direct detection. The computer simulation produces simulated images as a function of a wide variety of atmospheric, target, and sensor parameters for laser radars with range accuracies smaller than the pulse width. The simulation allows arbitrary target geometries and simulates speckle, turbulence, and near-field and far-field effects. We compare simulation results with actual range error data collected in field tests.

  19. Level structure of sup 256 Fm: Experiment vs theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, M.E.; Starner, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The amount of experimental data on intrinsic states in the even-even isotopes of the transcurium elements is rather limited, providing only a few tests of theoretical models in this region. Thus, it is of interest to determine to what extent the recent results on levels in {sup 256}Fm compare with existing theoretical calculations, such as those of Ivanova et al. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Analytical Approaches to Guide SLS Fault Management (FM) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive analysis is needed to determine the right set of FM capabilities to provide the most coverage without significantly increasing the cost, reliability (FP/FN), and complexity of the overall vehicle systems. Strong collaboration with the stakeholders is required to support the determination of the best triggers and response options. The SLS Fault Management process has been documented in the Space Launch System Program (SLSP) Fault Management Plan (SLS-PLAN-085).

  1. Radar remote sensing in biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard K.; Simonett, David S.

    1967-01-01

    The present status of research on discrimination of natural and cultivated vegetation using radar imaging systems is sketched. The value of multiple polarization radar in improved discrimination of vegetation types over monoscopic radars is also documented. Possible future use of multi-frequency, multi-polarization radar systems for all weather agricultural survey is noted.

  2. Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communications Program (AVLOC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of airborne and ground-based laser communications and laser radar hardware is described in support of the Airborne Visible Laser Optical Communication program. The major emphasis is placed on the development of a highly flexible test bed for the evaluation of laser communications systems techniques and components in an operational environment.

  3. Spaceborne meteorological radar studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.

    1988-01-01

    Various radar designs and methods are studied for the estimation of rainfall parameters from space. An immediate goal is to support the development of the spaceborne radar that has been proposed for the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The effort is divided into two activities: a cooperative airborne rain measuring experiment with the Radio Research Laboratory of Japan (RRL), and the modelling of spaceborne weather radars. An airborne rain measuring experiment was conducted at Wallops Flight Facility in 1985 to 1986 using the dual-wavelength radar/radiometer developed by RRL. The data are presently being used to test a number of methods that are relevant to spaceborne weather radars. An example is shown of path-averaged rain rates as estimated from three methods: the standard reflectivity rain rate method (Z-R), a dual-wavelength method, and a surface reference method. The results from the experiment shows for the first time the feasibility of using attenuation methods from space. The purposes of the modelling are twofold: to understand in a quantitative manner the relationships between a particular radar design and its capability for estimating precipitation parameters and to help devise and test new methods. The models are being used to study the impact of various TRMM radar designs on the accuracy of rain rate estimation as well as to test the performance of range-profiling algorithms, the mirror-image method, and some recently devised graphical methods for the estimation of the drop size distribution.

  4. Real-time windowing in imaging radar using FPGA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Escamilla-Hernandez, Enrique

    2005-02-01

    The imaging radar uses the high frequency electromagnetic waves reflected from different objects for estimating of its parameters. Pulse compression is a standard signal processing technique used to minimize the peak transmission power and to maximize SNR, and to get a better resolution. Usually the pulse compression can be achieved using a matched filter. The level of the side-lobes in the imaging radar can be reduced using the special weighting function processing. There are very known different weighting functions: Hamming, Hanning, Blackman, Chebyshev, Blackman-Harris, Kaiser-Bessel, etc., widely used in the signal processing applications. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offers great benefits like instantaneous implementation, dynamic reconfiguration, design, and field programmability. This reconfiguration makes FPGAs a better solution over custom-made integrated circuits. This work aims at demonstrating a reasonably flexible implementation of FM-linear signal and pulse compression using Matlab, Simulink, and System Generator. Employing FPGA and mentioned software we have proposed the pulse compression design on FPGA using classical and novel windows technique to reduce the side-lobes level. This permits increasing the detection ability of the small or nearly placed targets in imaging radar. The advantage of FPGA that can do parallelism in real time processing permits to realize the proposed algorithms. The paper also presents the experimental results of proposed windowing procedure in the marine radar with such the parameters: signal is linear FM (Chirp); frequency deviation DF is 9.375MHz; the pulse width T is 3.2μs taps number in the matched filter is 800 taps; sampling frequency 253.125*106 MHz. It has been realized the reducing of side-lobes levels in real time permitting better resolution of the small targets.

  5. Indoor localization using FM radio and DTMB signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, Y.; Ma, X.; Yang, M.; Liu, B.; Tang, R.; Xu, X.

    2016-07-01

    Indoor localization systems based on Wi-Fi signal strength fingerprinting techniques are widely used in office buildings. However, a general problem of these systems pertains to Wi-Fi signal degradation due to the environmental factors. And also, these systems cannot be used in the environments not covered with Wi-Fi signals or the environments with only a single Wi-Fi access point. In this paper, a new indoor location fingerprinting system using both FM radio and Digital Television Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) signals is proposed. First, the indoor location fingerprinting using FM radio and DTMB signals is theoretically analyzed to confirm its feasibility. Then, a specially designed combined strength fingerprinting location algorithm is proposed for the location system, which is achieved on the USRP2 platform. Finally, the system is tested in a typical indoor environment. The theoretical analysis and the tests show that the indoor location fingerprinting system using FM radio and DTMB signals has a similar localization accuracy to the Wi-Fi signal strength fingerprinting location system, while it has a wider coverage area, a lower maintenance cost, and more stable signal strength, which makes it a practical indoor positioning method.

  6. New fission valley for /sup 258/Fm and nuclei beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results on the fission properties of nuclei close to /sup 264/Fm show sudden and large changes with a change of only one or two neutrons or protons. The nucleus /sup 258/Fm, for instance, undergoes symmetric fission with a half-life of about 0.4 ms and a kinetic energy peaked at about 235 MeV whereas /sup 256/Fm undergoes asymmetric fission with a half-life of about 3 h and a kinetic energy peaked at about 200 MeV. Qualitatively, these sudden changes hve been postulated to be due to the emergence of fragment shells in symmetric fission products close to /sup 132/Sn. A quantitative calculation that shows where high-kinetic-energy symmetric fission occurs and why it is associated with a sudden and large decrease in fission half-lives. The study is based on calculations of potential-energy surfaces in the macroscopic-microscopic model and a semi-empirical model for the nuclear inertia. The implications of the new fission valley on the stability of the heaviest elements is discussed. 33 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Radar applications overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenspan, Marshall

    1996-06-01

    During the fifty years since its initial development as a means of providing early warning of airborne attacks against allied countries during World War II, radar systems have developed to the point of being highly mobile and versatile systems capable of supporting a wide variety of remote sensing applications. Instead of being tied to stationary land-based sites, radar systems have found their way into highly mobile land vehicles as well as into aircraft, missiles, and ships of all sizes. Of all these applications, however, the most exciting revolution has occurred in the airborne platform arena where advanced technology radars can be found in all shapes and sizes...ranging from the large AWACS and Joint STARS long range surveillance and targeting systems to small millimeter wave multi-spectral sensors on smart weapons that can detect and identify their targets through the use of highly sophisticated digital signal processing hardware and software. This paper presents an overview of these radar applications with the emphasis on modern airborne sensors that span the RF spectrum. It will identify and describe the factors that influence the parameters of low frequency and ultra wide band radars designed to penetrate ground and dense foliage environments and locate within them buried mines, enemy armor, and other concealed or camouflaged weapons of war. It will similarly examine the factors that lead to the development of airborne radar systems that support long range extended endurance airborne surveillance platforms designed to detect and precision-located both small high speed airborne threats as well as highly mobile time critical moving and stationary surface vehicles. The mission needs and associated radar design impacts will be contrasted with those of radar systems designed for high maneuverability rapid acquisition tactical strike warfare platforms, and shorter range cued air-to-surface weapons with integral smart radar sensors.

  8. Radar frequency radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malowicki, E.

    1981-11-01

    A method is presented for the determination of radar frequency radiation power densities that the PAVE PAWS radar system could produce in its air and ground environment. The effort was prompted by the concern of the people in the vicinity of OTIS AFB MA and BEALE AFB CA about the possible radar frequency radiation hazard of the PAVE PAWS radar. The method is based on the following main assumptions that: (a) the total field can be computed as the vector summation of the individual fields due to each antenna element; (b) the individual field can be calculated using distances for which the field point is in the far field of the antenna element. An RFR computer program was coded for the RADC HE 6180 digital computer and exercised to calculate the radiation levels in the air and ground space for the present baseline and the possible Six DB and 10 DB growth systems of the PAVE PAWS radar system at OTIS AFB MA. The average radiation levels due to the surveillance fence were computed for three regions: in the air space in front of the radar, at the radar hazard fence at OTIS AFB MA and at representative ground points in the OTIS AFB vicinity. It was concluded that the radar frequency radiation of PAVE PAWS does not present a hazard to personnel provided there is no entry to the air hazard zone or to the area within the hazard fence. The method developed offers a cost effective way to determine radiation levels from a phased array radar especially in the near field and transition regions.

  9. 47 CFR 73.809 - Interference protection to full service FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... stations. 73.809 Section 73.809 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.809 Interference protection to full service FM stations. (a) If a full service commercial or NCE FM facility application...

  10. 47 CFR 73.809 - Interference protection to full service FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stations. 73.809 Section 73.809 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.809 Interference protection to full service FM stations. (a) If a full service commercial or NCE FM facility application...

  11. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing...

  12. 76 FR 50732 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change..., LLC, Station KOMO-FM, Facility ID 51167, BMPH-20110630AGT, From OAKVILLE, WA, To BELFAIR,...

  13. 47 CFR 73.513 - Noncommercial educational FM stations operating on unreserved channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.513 Noncommercial educational FM stations operating on unreserved channels. (a) Noncommercial... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Noncommercial educational FM stations...

  14. 75 FR 9530 - FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, French Lick, Indiana, and Irvington, Kentucky.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM TABLE OF ALLOTMENTS, French Lick, Indiana, and Irvington, Kentucky. AGENCY... filed by L. Dean Spencer to allot FM Channel 261A at Irvington, Kentucky, as a first local service. To accommodate this new allotment, the staff modifies the license of Station WFLQ(FM), French Lick, Indiana,...

  15. 75 FR 63402 - FM Table of Allotments, Culebra, PR, Charlotte Amalie, and Christiansted, VI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Culebra, PR, Charlotte Amalie, and Christiansted, VI AGENCY... 237B for vacant Channel 271B at Charlotte Amalie, Virgin Islands to enable Station WNVE-FM to obtain an... license of FM Station WJKC to reflect this change. The ultimate permittee of Channel 237B at...

  16. 75 FR 31437 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change..., BPH-20100406AAZ, From SOUTH BEND, WA, To COSMOPOLIS, WA; MOUNT WILSON FM BROADCASTERS, INC.,...

  17. 75 FR 9114 - FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 FM Table of Allotments, Markham, Ganado, and Victoria, Texas AGENCY: Federal... counterproposal filed by Fort Bend Broadcasting Company, licensee of Station KHTZ(FM), Ganado, Texas, to upgrade Station KHTZ(FM) from Channel 284C2 to Channel 235C and to modify its license accordingly....

  18. 47 CFR 73.513 - Noncommercial educational FM stations operating on unreserved channels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.513 Noncommercial educational FM stations operating on unreserved channels. (a) Noncommercial... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noncommercial educational FM stations...

  19. 47 CFR 73.809 - Interference protection to full service FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.809 Interference protection to full service FM stations. (a) If a full service commercial or NCE FM facility application is... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference protection to full service...

  20. 75 FR 20597 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change..., From RESERVE, NM, To CONCHO, AZ; DAILEY CORPORATION, Station WETZ-FM, Facility ID 18534,...

  1. 75 FR 1621 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change... ELDON, MO, To ST. THOMAS, MO; COX RADIO, INC., Station WALR-FM, Facility ID 48728, BPH-20091124ABA,...

  2. 75 FR 51812 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-20912] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM.... SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change the community of license: BRYAN... STATION, TX; CUMULUS LICENSING LLC, Station KNRQ-FM, Facility ID 12501, BMPH-20100805AKO, From...

  3. FM Radio; An Oral Communication Project for Migrants in Palm Beach County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, L. F.

    This report gives a full description of the broadcasting and operation of WHRS-FM, a FM radio station established by federal grant to serve migrant workers and their children in Palm Beach County, Florida. The goal of the project was to evaluate FM radio as a solution to the serious economic and educational problem of communicating with the…

  4. 47 CFR 74.1290 - FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM translator and booster station information... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1290...

  5. 77 FR 57086 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change the community of license: ALEXANDRA COMMUNICATIONS, INC., Station KRKZ- FM, Facility...

  6. 75 FR 13761 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change... BROADCASTING CORPORATION, Station KFFF-FM, Facility ID 6417, BPH-20100126AGR, From BOONE, IA, To JOHNSTON,...

  7. 47 CFR 73.809 - Interference protection to full service FM stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.809 Interference protection to full service FM stations. (a) If a full service commercial or NCE FM facility application is... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection to full service...

  8. 47 CFR 74.1233 - Processing FM translator and booster station applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Processing FM translator and booster station... RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1233 Processing...

  9. 75 FR 63475 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change..., From CRAIGSVILLE, WV, To WEBSTER SPRINGS, WV; ENTRAVISION HOLDINGS, LLC, Station KVVA-FM, Facility...

  10. 77 FR 24954 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals to Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals to Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change... 17227, BPH-20120327ALB, From HUDSON, IA, To EVANSDALE; HOG RADIO, INC., Station KLYR-FM, Facility...

  11. 76 FR 22704 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change..., BMPED-20110302ABD, From DANBURY, NC, To MADISON, NC; COX RADIO, INC., Station WHIO-FM, Facility ID...

  12. 77 FR 75434 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change the Community of License AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM proposals to change... ABERDEEN, WA; MCC RADIO, LLC, Station KDUX-FM, Facility ID 52676, BPH-20121114AGF, From ABERDEEN, WA,...

  13. 47 CFR 74.1290 - FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM translator and booster station information... (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations § 74.1290...

  14. 76 FR 6788 - Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Radio Broadcasting Services; AM or FM Proposals To Change The Community of License. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The following applicants filed AM or FM...-FM, Facility ID 32386, BPH-20101222ABO, From GREAT FALLS, MT, To HIGHWOOD, MT; THE MONTANA...

  15. E-Learning Readiness in Medicine: Turkish Family Medicine (FM) Physicians Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlakkiliç, Alaattin

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates e-learning readiness level of family medicine physicians (FM) in Turkey. The study measures the level of e-learning readiness of Turkish FM physicians by an online e-learning readiness survey. According to results five areas are ready at Turkish FM physicians but need a few improvements:…

  16. Resonant tunneling and the bimodal symmetric fission of sup 258 Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, B.S. )

    1991-02-25

    The concept of resonant tunneling is invoked to explain the sharp drop in the measured spontaneous-fission half-life when going from {sup 256}Fm to {sup 258}Fm. Various consequences of such a suggestion on the other observed characteristics of the bimodal symmetric fission of {sup 258}Fm are briefly discussed.

  17. A comparison of laser-based ranging systems for AR/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Goode, Pleasant W., IV

    1991-01-01

    The three most common types of laser target ranging (time-of-flight, tone modulated, and FM-CW) are discussed in terms of principle of operation. The first, time-of-flight, is shown to depend more on the ability of support electronics than the fundamentals of the concept. Examples in the literature are cited to show the remarkably good performance of time-of-flight systems. A system developed in Finland was shown to have an incremental ranging capability of a few millimeters. The system is not only robust; it does not include additions such as reference legs and the like, which are expected, for improvement in performance. Though not immediately obvious, the second technique, tone modulated ranging is somewhat of an extension of the time-of-flight technique. Finally, the FM-CW technique is presented. This is completely different from the tone or time-of-flight techniques, but is a direct translation of the same-named technique used in radar ranging systems.

  18. A microprogrammable radar controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The Wave Propagation Lab. has completed the design and construction of a microprogrammable radar controller for atmospheric wind profiling. Unlike some radar controllers using state machines or hardwired logic for radar timing, this design is a high speed programmable sequencer with signal processing resources. A block diagram of the device is shown. The device is a single 8 1/2 inch by 10 1/2 inch printed circuit board and consists of three main subsections: (1) the host computer interface; (2) the microprogram sequencer; and (3) the signal processing circuitry. Each of these subsections are described in detail.

  19. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Efforts were focused on: (1) acquisition of radar data at Arecibo; (2) examination of raw data; (3) reduction of the unmodulated data to background-free, calibrated spectra; (4) integration and coherent analyses of the phase-coded data; and (5) calculation of Doppler shifts and preliminary values for echo limb-to-limb bandwidths, radar cross sections, and circular polarization ratios. Asteroids observed to data have radar properties distinct from those of the rocky terrestrial planets and those of the icy Galilean satellites.

  20. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-01-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  1. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The initial radar observations of the mainbelt asteroids 9 Metis, 27 Euterpe, and 60 Echo are examined. For each target, data are taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Estimates of the radar cross sections provide estimates of the circular polarization ratio, and the normalized OC radar cross section. The circular polarization ratio, is comparable to values measured for other large S type asteroids and for a few much smaller, Earth approaching objects, most of the echo is due to single reflection backscattering from smooth surface elements.

  2. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1981-11-01

    Software to support all stages of asteroid radar observation and data analysis is developed. First-order analysis of all data in hand is complete. Estimates of radar cross sections, circular polarization ratios, and limb-to-limb echo spectral bandwidths for asteroids 7 Iris, 16 Psyche, 97 Klotho, 1862 Apollo, and 1915 Quetzalcoatl are reported. Radar observations of two previously unobserved asteroids were conducted. An Aten asteroid, 2100 Ra-Shalom, with the smallest known semimajor axis (0.83) was detected. Preliminary data reduction indicates a circular polarization ratio comparable to those of Apollo, Quetzalcoatl, and Toro.

  3. Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This lecture was just a taste of radar remote sensing techniques and applications. Other important areas include Stereo radar grammetry. PolInSAR for volumetric structure mapping. Agricultural monitoring, soil moisture, ice-mapping, etc. The broad range of sensor types, frequencies of observation and availability of sensors have enabled radar sensors to make significant contributions in a wide area of earth and planetary remote sensing sciences. The range of applications, both qualitative and quantitative, continue to expand with each new generation of sensors.

  4. Fragment mass and kinetic-energy distributions from spontaneous fission of the neutron-deficient isotopes, 1. 2-s /sup 246/Fm and 38-s /sup 248/Fm

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.; Lee, D.; Ghiorso, A.; Nurmia, M.; Aleklett, K.

    1980-10-01

    We have measured the mass and kinetic-energy distributions for fragments from the spontaneous fission of 1.2-s /sup 246/Fm and 38-s /sup 248/Fm. The mass distributions are highly asymmetric and the average total kinetic energies of 199 +- 4 MeV and 198 +- 4 MeV, respectively, are consistent with systematics for lower Z actinides. Their properties are in contrast to those of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, whose spontaneous fission results in narrowly symmetric mass distributions accompanied by unusually high total kinetic energies.

  5. Studies on Radar Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-08

    through-foliage target detection using UWB radar sensor network based on real-world data; 2. Foliage clutter modeling using UWB radars; 3. Outdoor UWB...channel modeling based on field data; 4. Multi-target detection using radar sensor networks (theoretical studies); 5. SVD-QR and graph theory for MIMO...Superimposed code based channel assignment in multi-radio multi-channel wireless mesh networks. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Radar Sensor Network, UWB Radar, Sense

  6. Multispectral imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porcello, L. J.; Rendleman, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A side-looking radar, installed in a C-46 aircraft, was modified to provide it with an initial multispectral imaging capability. The radar is capable of radiating at either of two wavelengths, these being approximately 3 cm and 30 cm, with either horizontal or vertical polarization on each wavelength. Both the horizontally- and vertically-polarized components of the reflected signal can be observed for each wavelength/polarization transmitter configuration. At present, two-wavelength observation of a terrain region can be accomplished within the same day, but not with truly simultaneous observation on both wavelengths. A multiplex circuit to permit this simultaneous observation has been designed. A brief description of the modified radar system and its operating parameters is presented. Emphasis is then placed on initial flight test data and preliminary interpretation. Some considerations pertinent to the calibration of such radars are presented in passing.

  7. Radar investigation of asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostro, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    For 80 Sappho, 356 Liguria, 694 Ekard, and 2340 Hathor, data were taken simultaneously in the same sense of circular polarization as transmitted (SC) as well as in the opposite (OC) sense. Graphs show the average OC and SC radar echo power spectra soothed to a resolution of EFB Hz and plotted against Doppler frequency. Radar observations of the peculiar object 2201 Oljato reveal an unusual set of echo power spectra. The albedo and polarization ratio remain fairly constant but the bandwidths range from approximately 0.8 Hz to 1.4 Hz and the spectral shapes vary dramatically. Echo characteristics within any one date's approximately 2.5-hr observation period do not fluctuate very much. Laboratory measurements of the radar frequency electrical properties of particulate metal-plus-silicate mixtures can be combined with radar albedo estimates to constrain the bulk density and metal weight, fraction in a hypothetical asteroid regolith having the same particle size distribution as lab samples.

  8. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  9. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  10. Downhole pulse radar

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  11. Airborne MIMO GMTI Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    applications [1], [2], [3], [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. Conventional phased array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and...intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION Conventional phased - array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and measure the backscattered response... steering vector for a SI MO array with nr"/? receiver phase centers located at positions xm + y„. This is how the MIMO virtual array arises. The waveforms

  12. Monitoring of Refractory wall recession using radar technique

    SciTech Connect

    University of missouri

    2003-12-30

    Furnaces are the most crucial components in the glass and metallurgical industry. Like any other components in an industry, furnaces require periodic maintenance and repair. Today, furnaces are being operated at higher temperatures and for longer periods of time thus increasing the rate of wear and tear on the furnace refractory lining. As a result of the competitive market facing these industries, longer furnace lifetime with shorter maintenance downtime are increasingly required. Higher fuel consumption, low production and safety are issues that accompany delayed maintenance. Consequently, there is a need to know the state of a refractory wall to prevent premature or unnecessary maintenance shutdowns. For many years the observation skills of an experienced operator has been the primary source of evaluating the wear associated with a refractory wall. The rate of regression of a refractory lining depends on the type of the refractory lining, the materials Monitoring of Refractory Wall Recession Using Frequency-Modulated Continuous-Wave (FM-CW) Radar Techniques: A Proof-of-Concept Study, Final Report, Submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), September 2003. being melted, seepage, mechanical stresses, and temperature. Moreover, the regression of a refractory lining is also not uniform throughout a furnace and it is more prominent at the metal line along the sidewalls as this region is exposed to hot gaseous byproducts and flowing molten material. Hence, more accurate measurement techniques are required to determine the local residual thickness of a refractory lining so as to utilize the refractory lining to the maximum extent possible. The use of isotope radiators, thermocouples and endoscopes has also been investigated for monitoring regression. These techniques are capable of providing scanned thermal images showing the profile of the refractory wall. However, these techniques can only provide relative profile information and cannot provide absolute thickness

  13. Application of particle swarm optimization method to incoherent scatter radar measurement of ionosphere parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-Li; Zhou, Qihou H.; Chen, Tie-Jun; Liang, J. J.; Wu, Xin

    2015-09-01

    Simultaneous derivation of multiple ionospheric parameters from the incoherent scatter power spectra in the F1 region is difficult because the spectra have only subtle differences for different combinations of parameters. In this study, we apply a particle swarm optimizer (PSO) to incoherent scatter power spectrum fitting and compare it to the commonly used least squares fitting (LSF) technique. The PSO method is found to outperform the LSF method in practically all scenarios using simulated data. The PSO method offers the advantages of not being sensitive to initial assumptions and allowing physical constraints to be easily built into the model. When simultaneously fitting for molecular ion fraction (fm), ion temperature (Ti), and ratio of ion to electron temperature (γT), γT is largely stable. The uncertainty between fm and Ti can be described as a quadratic relationship. The significance of this result is that Ti can be retroactively corrected for data archived many years ago where the assumption of fm may not be accurate, and the original power spectra are unavailable. In our discussion, we emphasize the fitting for fm, which is a difficult parameter to obtain. PSO method is often successful in obtaining fm, whereas LSF fails. We apply both PSO and LSF to actual observations made by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar. The results show that PSO method is a viable method to simultaneously determine ion and electron temperatures and molecular ion fraction when the last is greater than 0.3.

  14. PREFACE: Functional materials and nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, Andris; Muzikante, Inta

    2007-06-01

    The International Baltic Sea Region conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT-2007) was held in Riga, 2-4 April 2007 in the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia (ISSP LU). The conference was organized in co-operation with projects ERANET 'MATERA' and EUREKA 'BIONANOCOMPOSITE'. The purpose of the conference was to bring together scientists, engineers and students from universities, research institutes and related industrial companies active in the field of advanced material science and materials technologies trends and future activities. Scientific themes covered in the conference are:

  15. advanced inorganic materials for photonics, energetics and microelectronics
  16. organic materials for photonics and nanoelectronics
  17. advanced methods for investigation of nanostructures
  18. perspective biomaterials and medicine technologies
  19. development of technologies for design of nanostructured materials, nanoparticles, and thin films
  20. design of functional materials and nanocomposites and development of their technologies
  21. The number of registered participants from 14 countries was nearly 110. During three days of the conference 70 oral reports and 58 posters were presented, 50 papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Additional information about FM&NT-2007 is available in its homepage http://fmnt.lu.lv and http://www.fmnt.lv . The Organizing Committee would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and meeting staff for their efforts in making the FM&NT-2007 successful. The local Organization Committee would like to acknowledge and thank our sponsors - Latvian Council of Science and the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. Andris Sternberg Inta Muzikante Guest editors

  22. 50 CFR 660.71 - Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 10-fm (18-m) through 40-fm (73-m) depth contours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 10-fm (18-m) through 40-fm (73-m) depth contours. 660.71 Section 660.71 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  23. 50 CFR 660.74 - Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 180 fm (329 m) through 250 fm (457 m) depth contours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 180 fm (329 m) through 250 fm (457 m) depth contours. 660.74 Section 660.74 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  24. 50 CFR 660.72 - Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 50 fm (91 m) through 75 fm (137 m) depth contours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 50 fm (91 m) through 75 fm (137 m) depth contours. 660.72 Section 660.72 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  25. 50 CFR 660.73 - Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 100 fm (183 m) through 150 fm (274 m) depth contours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Latitude/longitude coordinates defining the 100 fm (183 m) through 150 fm (274 m) depth contours. 660.73 Section 660.73 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  26. Multi channel FM reflection profiler for buried pipeline surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.G.; LeBlanc, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    A towed multi-channel FM acoustic reflection profiler has been developed for locating and generating images of buried objects. One significant application of this sonar is buried pipeline surveying. The multi-channel reflection profiler uses 16 line arrays mounted in a towed vehicle to determine the position and burial depth of an 18 inch steel pipe filled with concrete buried under 1.5 meters of sand. This sonar will allow a survey vessel to continuously track a buried pipeline providing a continuous record of pipe burial depth and position.

  27. New frequency translation technique for FM-CW reflectometrya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneses, Luis; Cupido, Luis; Manso, M. E.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-10-01

    In broadband microwave reflectometry, coherent detection is widely used to obtain the phase information and to improve the systems sensitivity, both in diagnostics measuring the electronic density profile and plasma fluctuations. Coherent detection uses a translated version of the probing signal to guarantee a stable intermediate frequency. Here, a novel technique to generate the frequency translation by double frequency conversion is presented and its advantages over the commonly used single frequency conversion techniques employing image rejection mixers are discussed. The results obtained with the new frequency translator modules developed for the three JET FM-CW reflectometers, operating successfully at JET since mid-2009, are presented.

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-329 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-329 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 329).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-315 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-315 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 315).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-320 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-320 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 320).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-287 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-287 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 287).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-304 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-304 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 304).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-297 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-297 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 297).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-302 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-302 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 302).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-317 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-317 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 317).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-262 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-262 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 262).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-296 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-296 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 296).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-281 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-281 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 281).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-275 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-275 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 275).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-260 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-260 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 260).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-311 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-311 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 311).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-301 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-301 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 301).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-283 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-283 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 283).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-312 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-312 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 312).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-332 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-332 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 332).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-279 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-279 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 279).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-269 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-269 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 269).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-268 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-268 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 268).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-272 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-272 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 272).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-300 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-300 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 300).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-318 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-318 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 318).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-261 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-261 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 261).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-303 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-303 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 303).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-273 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-273 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 273).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-310 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-310 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 310).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-309 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-309 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 309).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-270 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-270 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 270).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-333 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-333 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 333).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-290 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-290 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 290).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-263 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-263 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 263).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-316 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-316 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 316).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-286 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-286 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 286).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-289 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-289 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 289).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-276 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-276 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 276).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-282 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-282 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 282).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-295 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-295 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 295).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-266 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-266 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 266).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-267 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-267 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 267).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-274 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-274 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 274).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-259 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-259 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 259).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-306 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-306 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 306).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-327 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-327 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 327).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-288 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-288 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 288).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-323 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-323 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 323).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-331 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-331 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 331).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-291 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-291 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 291).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-271 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-271 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 271).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-280 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-280 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 280).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-325 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-325 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 325).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-321 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-321 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 321).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-307 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-307 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 307).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-299 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-299 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 299).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-292 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-292 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 292).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-277 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-277 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 277).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-278 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-278 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 278).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-264 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-264 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 264).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Fm-319 (Fermium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Fm-319 (Fermium, atomic number Z = 100, mass number A = 319).