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Sample records for fmd transmission applied

  1. Host and viral factors responsible for FMD pathogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), an Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae, is one of the most intensely studied viruses yet the mechanisms by which it causes the highly transmissible disease FMD are largely unknown. A summary of current understanding of the molecular basis of FMDV interaction with t...

  2. Global FMD control - Is it an option?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe in 2001 identified the vulnerability of the intensive agricultural industries in Europe and North America to the economic consequences of the introduction of a highly infectious animal disease. The very large illegal international trade in ani...

  3. Transmissivity evolution through interface of composite liners under applied constraint.

    PubMed

    Diagne, M

    2011-08-01

    In landfill liners, geomembranes have defects that constitute preferential passages of leachate from rainwater percolation. Non-woven geotextiles are widely used in wastelandfills as materials having the functions of protection, separation, filtration and drainage. This study seeks to select geotextiles through an investigation conducted among landfill operators who commonly arise a geotextile in the geomembrane-clay interface to facilitate geomembrane welding and to prevent its puncture by angular materials. It also attempts to find out the influence of geotextile in a decimetric transmissivity cell size under 50 kPa stress and smooth ground surface. The results show that the transmissivity in composite liner interface is almost the same as the one calculated with the European standard EN ISO 12958. Transmissivity depends on the mechanical stress applied to the bottom liner, on the geotextile type in the interface and on the ground surface.

  4. FMD vaccines: reflections on quality aspects for applicability in European disease control policy.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, K; Goris, N; Barnett, P V; MacKay, D K

    2008-01-01

    Most foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines used around the world are inactivated vaccines for prophylactic or emergency use, generally manufactured by the same basic methodology outlined in the OIE Manual and, for Europe, in the European Pharmacopoeia, and for the EU Member States in compliance with Directive 2001/82/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 November 2001 on the Community code relating to veterinary medicinal products as amended by Directive 2004/28/EC. Most of the requirements that apply to all immunological veterinary medicinal products apply equally to FMD vaccines. There are, however, some unique features of the disease and vaccines used against it that require a different approach to fulfil the requirements of the relevant legislation, if a vaccinate-to-live policy will be applied with 'authorized' vaccines. Several aspects of vaccine efficacy and safety are elaborated with emphasis on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). The purity of the vaccine in respect of the presence of non-structural protein antibodies could be checked indirectly by serology after vaccination. The viability of a vaccine bank approach was greatly aided by the principle of storing inactivated concentrated FMD viral antigen (Ag) over liquid nitrogen for subsequent formulation into vaccine. A worldwide Ag bank network might be an option for the far future and a solution to the problem of covering many different FMDV serotypes and strains. The producers should respect the strict FMD biosecurity rules worked out by the FAO EUFMD and described in Council Directive 2003/85/EC. Making the experience related to vaccine QA/QC available to all countries will reduce the risk of an FMD outbreak within these countries and consequently will reduce the FMD risk around the world.

  5. The problem of applying information theory to efficient image transmission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakrison, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    The main ideas of Shannon's (1948, 1960) theory of source encoding with a fidelity constraint, more commonly known as rate distortion theory, are summarized. The theory was specifically intended to provide a theoretical basis for efficient transmission of information such as images. What the theory has to contribute to the problem is demonstrated. Difficulties that impeded application of the theory to image transmission, and current efforts to solve these difficulties are discussed.

  6. Signal Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter Transmission Diagnostic Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the transmission of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter transmission.

  7. Signal Detection Theory Applied to Helicopter Transmission Diagnostic Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Keller, Jonathan A.; Wade, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) have potential for providing data to support increasing the service life of a dynamic mechanical component in the transmission of a helicopter. Data collected can demonstrate the HUMS condition indicator responds to a specific component fault with appropriate alert limits and minimal false alarms. Defining thresholds for specific faults requires a tradeoff between the sensitivity of the condition indicator (CI) limit to indicate damage and the number of false alarms. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to assess CI performance was demonstrated using CI data collected from accelerometers installed on several UH60 Black Hawk and AH64 Apache helicopters and an AH64 helicopter component test stand. Results of the analysis indicate ROC curves can be used to reliably assess the performance of commercial HUMS condition indicators to detect damaged gears and bearings in a helicopter transmission.

  8. PDD applied in the dog transmissible venereal tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, Raduan; Duarte, Janaina; Martin, Airton A.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.

    2003-07-01

    The Transmissible Venereal Tumor (TVT) is a very common neoplasic disease in a free-roaming dogs which affects the extern genital and presenting resistance to conventional drugs that promote high toxicity. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is based in tumor cells irradiation after absorption of photosensitizer substance. At present, the protoporphirin IX (PP IX) has been explored in PDT due to be endogen, then it does not present toxicity effect. This substance can be obtained by exogenous way through aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) administration in patient. The aim of this work was establish the optimal conditions for PDD (Phodynamic Diagnosis) to irradiate the tumor after ALA administration through fluorescence spectroscopy to improve the results with PDT. In this research was studied the 5-ALA 20% absorption in TVT of vaginal and penial mucous of a female and a male dog, respectivaly. This drug was administrated topically and after 30 minutes the fluorescence spectra were collected in intervals of 15 minutes during 120 minutes. The results showed that the maximum peak of PP IX in the tumor was between 60 and 105 minutes after the ALA application. In conclusion, the optimum effect will be achieved irradiating the tumor tissue into this period.

  9. Finite element analysis using NASTRAN applied to helicopter transmission vibration/noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howells, R. W.; Sciarra, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A finite element NASTRAN model of the complete forward rotor transmission housing for the Boeing Vertol CH-47 helicopter was developed and applied to reduce transmission vibration/noise at its source. In addition to a description of the model, a technique for vibration/noise prediction and reduction is outlined. Also included are the dynamic response as predicted by NASTRAN, test data, the use of strain energy methods to optimize the housing for minimum vibration/noise, and determination of design modifications which will be manufactured and tested. The techniques presented are not restricted to helicopters but are applicable to any power transmission system. The transmission housing model developed can be used further to evaluate static and dynamic stresses, thermal distortions, deflections and load paths, fail-safety/vulnerability, and composite materials.

  10. New transmission line analogy applied to single and multilayered piezoelectric transducers.

    PubMed

    Dion, J L

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that a piezoelectric element vibrating in an extensional or shear mode can be modeled rigorously by systematic use of the transmission line analogy and the superposition theorem. A schematic representation of such an element which is in a way more intuitive than others representations is introduced. The stresses on the electroded faces are considered as sources of stress applied at the two ends of an acoustic transmission line, since the acoustical perturbations may be considered as originating on these faces. Using transmission line theory, a complete set of expressions is found for electrical impedance, acoustic stresses, and velocities. Computed results are exactly the same as those given by the classical method, even if the computation sequence is almost entirely different. An intuitive graphical model for a piezoelectric element is proposed. It is also shown that the acoustic velocities on opposite faces of an asymmetrical loaded piezoelectric plate are exactly equal at the antiresonance frequency when internal losses are neglected. The programs developed can be used efficiently for practical multilayered transducer design. PMID:18263222

  11. Global situation of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)--a short review.

    PubMed

    Kesy, A

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the actual world FMD situation. In 2000, fifty nine countries officially reported outbreaks of FMD. The disease occurred in Europe (Greece), Asia (Russia, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Japan, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, in Caucasian region--Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan), Africa (Egypt, Kenya, Mauritania, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe) and in South America (Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela). In 2001, FMD was still spreading throughout the endemic regions and appeared in some of the west European countries--Great Britain, The Netherlands, France and Ireland. In South America, FMD occurred in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Colombia. In Asia the FMD spread in Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Mongolia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Yemen, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Iran, Bhutan, Nepal, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Taiwan. The FMD situation in Africa was unclear, but probably most countries in West, East and South Africa were affected. The most recent data of the OIE from May 2002 confirmed FMD outbreaks in population of pigs in Republic of Korea.

  12. Applying AI systems in the T and D arena. [Artificial Intelligence, Transmission and Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Venkata, S.S.; Liu, Chenching ); Sumic, Z. Puget Sound Power and Light Co., Bellevue, WA ); Vadari, S.V.

    1993-04-01

    The power engineering community has capitalized on various computer technologies since the early 1960s, with most successful application to solving well-defined problems that are capable of being modeled. Although computing methods have made notable progress in the power engineering arena, there is still a class of problems that is not easy to define or formulate to apply conventional computerized methods. In addition to being difficult to express in a closed mathematical form, these problems are often characterized by the absence of one or both of the following features: a predetermined decision path from the initial state to goal (ill-structured problem); a well-defined criteria for whether an obtained solution is acceptable (open-ended problem). Power engineers have been investigating the application of AI-based methodologies to power system problems. Most of the work in the past has been geared towards the development of expert systems as an operator's aid in energy control centers for bulk power transmission systems operating under abnormal conditions. Alarm processing, fault diagnosis, system restoration, and voltage/var control are a few key areas where significant research work has progressed to date. Results of this research have effected more than 100 prototype expert systems for power systems throughout the US, Japan, and Europe. The objectives of this article are to: expose engineers to the benefits of using AI methods for a host of transmission and distribution (T and D) problems that need immediate attention; identify problems that could be solved more effectively by applying AI approaches; summarize recent developments and successful AI applications in T and D.

  13. Perspectives on low voltage transmission electron microscopy as applied to cell biology.

    PubMed

    Bendayan, Moise; Paransky, Eugene

    2014-12-01

    Low voltage transmission electron microscopy (LVTEM) with accelerating voltages as low as 5 kV was applied to cell biology. To take advantage of the increased contrast given by LVTEM, tissue preparation was modified omitting all heavy metals such as osmium, uranium, and lead from the fixation, on block staining and counterstaining. Nonstained ultra-thin tissue sections (40 nm thick) generated highly contrasted images. While the aspect of the cells remains similar to that obtained by conventional TEM, some new substructures were revealed. The pancreatic acinar cells granules present a heterogeneous matrix with partitions corresponding to segregation of their different secretory proteins. Microvilli display their core of microfilaments anchored to the dense top membrane. Mitochondria revealed the presence of distinct particles along their cristea membranes that may correspond to the ATP synthase complexes or oxysomes. The dense nuclear chromatin displays a honey-comb appearance while distinct beads aligned along thin threads were seen in the dispersed chromatin. These new features revealed by LVTEM correlate with structures described or predicted through other approaches. Masking effects due to thickness of the tissue sections and to the presence of heavy metals must have prevented their observation by conventional TEM. Furthermore, the immunogold was adapted to LVTEM revealing nuclear lamin-A at the edge of the dense chromatin ribbons. Combining cytochemistry with LVTEM brings additional advantages to this new approach in cell biology.

  14. Improving the Effect and Efficiency of FMD Control by Enlarging Protection or Surveillance Zones

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a FMD-free country with large exports of livestock and livestock products would result in profound economic damage. This could be reduced by rapid and efficient control of the disease spread. The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic impact of a hypothetical FMD outbreak in Denmark based on changes to the economic assumptions of the model, and to investigate whether the control of an FMD epidemic can be improved by combining the enlargement of protection or surveillance zones with pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination. The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark. The control strategies were the basic EU and Danish strategy, pre-emptive depopulation, suppressive or protective vaccination, enlarging protection or surveillance zones, and a combination of pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination with enlarged protection or surveillance zones. Herds are detected either based on basic detection through the appearance of clinical signs, or as a result of surveillance in the control zones. The economic analyses consisted of direct costs and export losses. Sensitivity analysis was performed on uncertain and potentially influential input parameters. Enlarging the surveillance zones from 10 to 15 km, combined with pre-emptive depopulation over a 1-km radius around detected herds resulted in the lowest total costs. This was still the case even when the different input parameters were changed in the sensitivity analysis. Changing the resources for clinical surveillance did not affect the epidemic consequences. In conclusion, an FMD epidemic in Denmark would have a larger economic impact on the agricultural sector than previously anticipated. Furthermore, the control of a potential FMD outbreak in Denmark may be improved by combining pre-emptive depopulation with an enlarged protection or surveillance zone. PMID:26664996

  15. Truncated Bovine Integrin Alpha-v/Beta-6 as a Universal Capture Ligand for FMD Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shimmon, Gareth; Wood, Britta A; Morris, Alison; Mioulet, Valerie; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana; Berryman, Stephen; Tuthill, Toby; King, Donald P; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. FMD affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. Preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of FMD. Many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-FMD virus (FMDV) serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and guinea pigs) that give broad virus coverage. Here we show that soluble, truncated forms of bovine αvβ6 bind FMDV in an authentic RGD and divalent cation dependent interaction and can be used as the trapping reagent in a FMDV sandwich ELISA. In addition, inclusion of FLAG or His tags facilitates simple purification without the loss of virus binding. We also provide evidence that when combined with a guinea pig polyclonal serum, or serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies, the integrin can be used to detect viruses representative of all FMDV serotypes. We also show that recombinant FMDV empty capsids, with stabilising disulphide bonds, can serve as an antigen in the ELISA and can therefore replace inactivated virus antigen as a positive control for the assay. Our results demonstrate the potential use of bovine αvβ6 and FMDV empty capsids in FMD diagnostic assays. PMID:27494135

  16. Truncated Bovine Integrin Alpha-v/Beta-6 as a Universal Capture Ligand for FMD Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Shimmon, Gareth; Wood, Britta A.; Morris, Alison; Mioulet, Valerie; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana; Berryman, Stephen; Tuthill, Toby; King, Donald P.; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. FMD affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. Preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of FMD. Many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-FMD virus (FMDV) serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and guinea pigs) that give broad virus coverage. Here we show that soluble, truncated forms of bovine αvβ6 bind FMDV in an authentic RGD and divalent cation dependent interaction and can be used as the trapping reagent in a FMDV sandwich ELISA. In addition, inclusion of FLAG or His tags facilitates simple purification without the loss of virus binding. We also provide evidence that when combined with a guinea pig polyclonal serum, or serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies, the integrin can be used to detect viruses representative of all FMDV serotypes. We also show that recombinant FMDV empty capsids, with stabilising disulphide bonds, can serve as an antigen in the ELISA and can therefore replace inactivated virus antigen as a positive control for the assay. Our results demonstrate the potential use of bovine αvβ6 and FMDV empty capsids in FMD diagnostic assays. PMID:27494135

  17. Applying an FSK Based Transmission Scheme to Broadband Channels Using Frequency Domain Equalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgi, Sebastian, Dr.; Peissig, Dr. Jürgen, Prof.

    2012-05-01

    Equalization of broadband signals can be efficiently realized in frequency domain. One prominent example is the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission technique. With the introduction of a cyclic prefix and a modulation onto orthogonal subcarriers the equalization can be performed in frequency domain with one tap only. However the extremely high peak to average power ratio of OFDM modulated transmit signals and the demand of linearity inside the signal transmission chain results in a poor energy efficiency at the power amplifier. This paper claims, that as long as a cyclic prefix exists, any receive signal can be equalized in frequency domain. In this paper a transmission scheme with constant envelope is chosen for energy efficiency reasons. Therefore an FSK modulation and gaussian pulse shaping is used to create the transmit signal. Equalization at the receiver is done in frequency domain as known in OFDM. To simplify the equalization, a cyclic prefix is added to the transmit signal as well. This transmission scheme is introduced and evaluated in terms of spectral efficiency and bit error rate (BER) performance in this paper. The comparison is done with a typical OFDM system. In particular the characteristics of a nonlinear power amplifier are considered. It will be shown, that signals with constant envelope such as FSK modulated signals can also make use of an OFDM like equalization procedure with comparable BER performance and spectral requirements.

  18. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  19. Applying an information transmission approach to extract valence electron information from reconstructed exit waves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Zandbergen, Henny W; Van Dyck, Dirk

    2011-06-01

    The knowledge of the valence electron distribution is essential for understanding the properties of materials. However this information is difficult to obtain from HREM images because it is easily obscured by the large scattering contribution of core electrons and by the strong dynamical scattering process. In order to develop a sensitive method to extract the information of valence electrons, we have used an information transmission approach to describe the electron interaction with the object. The scattered electron wave is decomposed in a set of basic functions, which are the eigen functions of the Hamiltonian of the projected electrostatic object potential. Each basic function behaves as a communication channel that transfers the information of the object with its own transmission characteristic. By properly combining the components of the different channels, it is possible to design a scheme to extract the information of valence electron distribution from a series of exit waves. The method is described theoretically and demonstrated by means of computer simulations.

  20. Phase-shifting real-time holographic interferometry applied load transmission evaluation in dried human skull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesualdi, M. R. R.; Mori, M.; Muramatsu, M.; Liberti, E. A.; Munin, E.

    2006-02-01

    This work reports a study of load transmission, evaluation and tension dissipation on dried human skull under loading simulation of isolated contraction (SIC) of some masticatories muscles by the phase-shifting real-time holography using photorefractive Bi 12SiO 20 crystal. The four-frames phase-shifting technique and the unwrapping branch-cut technique were used to obtain the phase map and quantitative results.

  1. Phase-shifting real-time holographic interferometry applied to load transmission evaluation in dried human skull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesualdi, Marcos R. R.; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Mikiya; Liberti, Edson A.; Munin, Egberto

    2007-08-01

    Phase-shifting real-time holography with photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystal as holographic recording medium applied to load transmission evaluation and tension dissipation on a dried human skull under loading is presented. The applied loading stands as a simulation of isolated contraction (SIC) of some masticatories muscles. The four-frames phase-shifting technique and the unwrapping branch-cut technique were used to obtain the phase map. The quantitative results show the feasibility of the employed system in the study of microdisplacements in the skull structure provided by SIC.

  2. Phase-shifting real-time holographic interferometry applied to load transmission evaluation in dried human skull.

    PubMed

    Gesualdi, Marcos R R; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Muramatsu, Mikiya; Liberti, Edson A; Munin, Egberto

    2007-08-01

    Phase-shifting real-time holography with photorefractive Bi(12)SiO(20) crystal as holographic recording medium applied to load transmission evaluation and tension dissipation on a dried human skull under loading is presented. The applied loading stands as a simulation of isolated contraction (SIC) of some masticatories muscles. The four-frames phase-shifting technique and the unwrapping branch-cut technique were used to obtain the phase map. The quantitative results show the feasibility of the employed system in the study of microdisplacements in the skull structure provided by SIC.

  3. New discoveries in the transmission biology of sleeping sickness parasites: applying the basics.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Paula; Matthews, Keith R

    2010-09-01

    The sleeping sickness parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, must differentiate in response to the changing environments that it encounters during its complex life cycle. One developmental form, the bloodstream stumpy stage, plays an important role in infection dynamics and transmission of the parasite. Recent advances have shed light on the molecular mechanisms by which these stumpy forms differentiate as they are transmitted from the mammalian host to the insect vector of sleeping sickness, tsetse flies. These molecular advances now provide improved experimental tools for the study of stumpy formation and function within the mammalian bloodstream. They also offer new routes to therapy via high-throughput screens for agents that accelerate parasite development. Here, we shall discuss the recent advances that have been made and the prospects for future research now available.

  4. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N; Muwanika, Vincent B; Okurut, Anna Rose Ademun; Siegismund, Hans R; Alexandersen, Soren

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001-2008. An assessment of perceived FMD occurrence, risk factors and the associated characteristics was made based on semi-structured questionnaires administered to the DVOs. During this period, a total of 311 FMD outbreaks were reported in 56 (70%) out of Uganda's 80 districts. The number of reported FMD outbreaks changed over time and by geographical regions. Occurrence of FMD was significantly associated with the dry season months (p = 0.0346), the time when animals movements are more frequent. The average number of FMD outbreaks was higher for some sub-counties adjacent to national parks than for other sub-counties, whilst proximity to international border only seemed to play a role at the southern border. DVOs believed that the major risk factor for FMD outbreaks was animal movements (odds ratio OR 50.8, confidence interval CI 17.8-144.6) and that most outbreaks were caused by introduction of sick animals.

  5. Evaluation of the transmission risk of foot-and-mouth disease in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa; Kobayashi, Sota; Muroga, Norihiko; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    The transmission risk of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Japan was evaluated using a mathematical FMD transmission model. The distance-based transmission rate between farms, which was parameterized using the FMD epidemic data in 2010 in Japan, was used to calculate the local-level reproduction numbers-expected numbers of secondary infections caused by one infected farm-for all cattle and pig farms in the country, which were then visualized as a risk map. The risk map demonstrated the spatial heterogeneity of transmission risk in the country and identified risk areas with higher possibility of disease spread. This result suggests that, particularly in high-risk areas, it is important to prepare for the smooth and efficient implementation of control measures against FMD outbreaks.

  6. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.

  7. FMD virus isolates: the candidate strains for polyvalent vaccine development in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ayelet, G; Soressa, M; Sisay, T; Belay, A; Gelaye, E; Jembere, S; Skjerve, E; Asmare, K

    2013-06-01

    The study was conducted on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses with the aim of selecting appropriate vaccinal strain to control of FMD in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in two-dimensional virus neutralization assay to determine the antigenic relationship 'r' value between the candidate vaccine strains and field isolates. A total of 21 serotype O, 7 serotype A, and 8 serotype SAT 2 FMD viruses, which were isolated from cattle and swine. A couple of isolates from each serotype were identified as vaccine candidates in the trial (O-ETH/38/2005, O-ETH/58/2008, A-ETH/7/2008, A-ETH/6/2000, SAT2-ETH/76/2009 and SAT2-ETH/64/2009). The finding revealed all the vaccine candidate depicted high antigenic similarity, above the mean "r" value, to their own serotypes in the studied serotype population except for one serotype A field isolate, A-ETH/13/1981, with "r" value=0.14 and 0.25) which is significantly lower than the minimum requirement. In general, the result indicated that these candidate vaccinal strains can be used for polyvalent vaccine production in the country. PMID:23416124

  8. Transmission and signal loss in mask designs for a dual neutron and gamma imager applied to mobile standoff detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz-Maierhafer, Birsen; Hayward, Jason P.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Blackston, Matthew A.; Fabris, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    In order to design a next-generation, dual neutron and gamma imager for mobile standoff detection which uses coded aperture imaging as its primary detection modality, the following design parameters have been investigated for gamma and neutron radiation incident upon a hybrid, coded mask: (1) transmission through mask elements for various mask materials and thicknesses; and (2) signal attenuation in the mask versus angle of incidence. Each of these parameters directly affects detection significance, as quantified by the signal-to-noise ratio. The hybrid mask consists of two or three layers: organic material for fast neutron attenuation and scattering, Cd for slow neutron absorption (if applied), and one of three of the following photon or photon and slow neutron attenuating materials—Linotype alloy, CLYC, or CZT. In the MCNP model, a line source of gamma rays (100-2500 keV), fast neutrons (1000-10,000 keV) or thermal neutrons was positioned above the hybrid mask. The radiation penetrating the mask was simply tallied at the surface of an ideal detector, which was located below the surface of the last mask layer. The transmission was calculated as the ratio of the particles transmitted through the fixed aperture to the particles passing through the closed mask. In order to determine the performance of the mask considering relative motion between the source and detector, simulations were used to calculate the signal attenuation for incident radiation angles of 0-50°. The results showed that a hybrid mask can be designed to sufficiently reduce both transmission through the mask and signal loss at large angles of incidence, considering both gamma ray and fast neutron radiations. With properly selected material thicknesses, the signal loss of a hybrid mask, which is necessarily thicker than the mask required for either single mode imaging, is not a setback to the system's detection significance.

  9. SAT2 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in a mixed farm in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Byom, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A dairy farm keeping Holstein cattle and buffaloes in the Menoufia Governorate was investigated during and after the last Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) outbreak in Egypt (starting February 2012) to determine the impact of the outbreak on animals as well as to assess some factors that might have helped to spread the disease in the investigated farm. All animals were vaccinated against FMD with the locally produced bivalent vaccine containing O1 and A/Egy/2006 strains two months before the onset of the outbreak. Laboratory examination of the samples collected from diseased and dead animals' revealed detection of a newly emerged serotype of FMD (SAT2). Although, all buffaloes (8/8) in the herd were infected (100%), none of them died, while lactating Holstein cattle showed varying morbidity rates along the period of the outbreak with peak rates in March followed by April, May and June. Crud mortality and case fatality rates among cattle peaked during April 2012 to reach 9.3 and 21.7%, respectively. Calves were the most affected animals with the highest morbidities and mortalities. The high prevalence of the disease among all animal categories in the investigated farm is attributed to the lack of previous immunity through vaccination against the new serotype of the virus. In addition, the hygienic and biosecurity measures in the farm were unsatisfactory with respect to prevention of introduction and spread of the disease between the farm units. The prevalent weather conditions during the outbreak might have played a role in spread of the FMDv, especially ambient temperature, humidity and wind movement.

  10. a Continuous Health Monitoring Guided Wave Fmd System for Retrofit to Existing Offshore Oilrigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mijarez, R.; Solis, L.; Martinez, F.

    2010-02-01

    An automatic health monitoring guided wave flood member detection (FMD) system, for retrofit to existing offshore oilrigs is presented. The system employs a microcontroller piezoelectric (PZT) based transmitter and a receiver instrumentation package composed of a PZT 40 kHz ultrasound transducer and a digital signal processor (DSP) module connected to a PC via USB for monitoring purposes. The transmitter and receiver were attached, non-intrusively, to the external wall of a steel tube; 1 m×27 cm×2 mm. Experiments performed in the laboratory have successfully identified automatically flooded tubes.

  11. Foot-and-mouth Disease Transmission in Africa: Implications for Control, a Review.

    PubMed

    Tekleghiorghis, T; Moormann, R J M; Weerdmeester, K; Dekker, A

    2016-04-01

    In Africa, for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), more information is needed on the spread of the disease at local, regional and inter-regional level. The aim of this review is to identify the role that animal husbandry, trade and wildlife have on the transmission of FMD and to provide a scientific basis for different FMD control measures in Africa. Review of literature, published reports and databases shows that there is more long distance spread of FMD virus serotypes within North, West, Central and East Africa than in southern Africa. In North, West, Central and East Africa migratory animal husbandry systems often related with search for grazing and water as well as trade are practiced to a greater extent than in southern Africa. In southern Africa, the role of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is more extensively studied than in the other parts of Africa, but based on the densities of African buffalo in Central and East Africa, one would assume that buffalo should also play a role in the epidemiology of FMD in this part of Africa. More sampling of buffalo is necessary in West, Central and East Africa. The genetic analysis of virus strains has proven to be valuable to increase our understanding in the spread of FMD in Africa. This review shows that there is a difference in FMD occurrence between southern Africa and the rest of the continent; this distinction is most likely based on differences in animal husbandry and trade systems. Insufficient data on FMD in wildlife outside southern Africa is limiting our understanding on the role wildlife plays in the transmission of FMD in the other buffalo inhabited areas of Africa.

  12. The Reusable Load Cell with Protection Applied for Online Monitoring of Overhead Transmission Lines Based on Fiber Bragg Grating.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoming; Mao, Naiqiang; Li, Yabo; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Hongyang; Li, Chengrong

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ice coating of high-voltage overhead transmission lines may lead to conductor breakage and tower collapse causing the unexpected interrupt of power supply. The optical load cell applied in ice monitoring systems is immune to electromagnetic interference and has no need of a power supply on site. Therefore, it has become a hot research topic in China and other countries. In this paper, to solve the problem of eccentric load in measurement, we adopt the shearing structure with additional grooves to improve the strain distribution and acquire good repeatability. Then, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a permanent weldable package are mounted onto the front/rear groove of the elastic element by spot welding, the direction deviation of FBGs is 90° from each other to achieve temperature compensation without an extra FBG. After that, protection parts are designed to guarantee high sensitivity for a light load condition and industrial safety under a heavy load up to 65 kN. The results of tension experiments indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the load cell is 0.1285 pm/N and 7.782 N in the conventional measuring range (0-10 kN). Heavy load tension experiments prove that the protection structure works and the sensitivity and resolution are not changed after several high load (65 kN) cycles. In addition, the experiment shows that the resolution of the sensor is 87.79 N in the large load range, allowing the parameter to be used in heavy icing monitoring. PMID:27338403

  13. The Reusable Load Cell with Protection Applied for Online Monitoring of Overhead Transmission Lines Based on Fiber Bragg Grating

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Guoming; Mao, Naiqiang; Li, Yabo; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Hongyang; Li, Chengrong

    2016-01-01

    Heavy ice coating of high–voltage overhead transmission lines may lead to conductor breakage and tower collapse causing the unexpected interrupt of power supply. The optical load cell applied in ice monitoring systems is immune to electromagnetic interference and has no need of a power supply on site. Therefore, it has become a hot research topic in China and other countries. In this paper, to solve the problem of eccentric load in measurement, we adopt the shearing structure with additional grooves to improve the strain distribution and acquire good repeatability. Then, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a permanent weldable package are mounted onto the front/rear groove of the elastic element by spot welding, the direction deviation of FBGs is 90° from each other to achieve temperature compensation without an extra FBG. After that, protection parts are designed to guarantee high sensitivity for a light load condition and industrial safety under a heavy load up to 65 kN. The results of tension experiments indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the load cell is 0.1285 pm/N and 7.782 N in the conventional measuring range (0–10 kN). Heavy load tension experiments prove that the protection structure works and the sensitivity and resolution are not changed after several high load (65 kN) cycles. In addition, the experiment shows that the resolution of the sensor is 87.79 N in the large load range, allowing the parameter to be used in heavy icing monitoring. PMID:27338403

  14. The Reusable Load Cell with Protection Applied for Online Monitoring of Overhead Transmission Lines Based on Fiber Bragg Grating.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoming; Mao, Naiqiang; Li, Yabo; Jiang, Jun; Zhou, Hongyang; Li, Chengrong

    2016-06-21

    Heavy ice coating of high-voltage overhead transmission lines may lead to conductor breakage and tower collapse causing the unexpected interrupt of power supply. The optical load cell applied in ice monitoring systems is immune to electromagnetic interference and has no need of a power supply on site. Therefore, it has become a hot research topic in China and other countries. In this paper, to solve the problem of eccentric load in measurement, we adopt the shearing structure with additional grooves to improve the strain distribution and acquire good repeatability. Then, the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a permanent weldable package are mounted onto the front/rear groove of the elastic element by spot welding, the direction deviation of FBGs is 90° from each other to achieve temperature compensation without an extra FBG. After that, protection parts are designed to guarantee high sensitivity for a light load condition and industrial safety under a heavy load up to 65 kN. The results of tension experiments indicate that the sensitivity and resolution of the load cell is 0.1285 pm/N and 7.782 N in the conventional measuring range (0-10 kN). Heavy load tension experiments prove that the protection structure works and the sensitivity and resolution are not changed after several high load (65 kN) cycles. In addition, the experiment shows that the resolution of the sensor is 87.79 N in the large load range, allowing the parameter to be used in heavy icing monitoring.

  15. Preparation of FMD type A87/IRN inactivated vaccine by gamma irradiation and the immune response on guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Khorasani, Akbar; Shafaee, Kamal; Fatolahi, Hadi; Arbabi, Kourosh

    2008-09-01

    FMD is one of the most economically damaging diseases that affect livestock animals. In this study FMD Virus type A87/IRN was multiplied on BHK21 cells. The virus was titrated by TCID50 method, it was 10(7.5)/ml. The FMD virus samples were inactivated by gamma ray from 60Co source at -20°C. Safety test was done by IBRS2 monolayer cell culture method, also antigenicity of irradiated and un-irradiated virus samples were studied by Complement Fixation Test. The Dose/Survival curve for irradiated FMD Virus was drawn, the optimum dose range for inactivation of FMDV type A87/IRN and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 40-44 kGy. The inactivated virus samples by irradiation and ethyleneimine (EI) were formulated respectively as vaccine with Al(OH)3 gel and other substances. The vaccines were inoculated to Guinea pigs and the results of Serum Neutralization Test for the normal vaccine and radio-vaccine showed protective titer after 8 months. The potency test of the inactivated vaccines was done, PD50 Value of the vaccines were calculated 7.06 and 5.6 for inactivated vaccine by EI and gamma irradiation respectively. PMID:23100729

  16. Sero-prevalence of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in large ruminants at peri urban dairy farms near Islamabad, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important, endemic, trans-boundary viral disease affecting livestock in Pakistan and associated with high economic losses. This survey was conducted to estimate sero-prevalence of FMD in large ruminants from peri-urban dairy farms near Islamabad. Serum samples were...

  17. A Characteristic Transmission Spectrum Dominated by H2O Applies to the Majority of HST/WFC3 Exoplanet Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Aishwarya R.; Swain, Mark R.; Zellem, Robert T.; Line, Michael R.; Roudier, Gael; Rocha, Graça; Livingston, John H.

    2016-06-01

    Currently, 19 transiting exoplanets have published transmission spectra obtained with the Hubble/WFC3 G141 near-IR grism. Using this sample, we have undertaken a uniform analysis incorporating measurement-error debiasing of the spectral modulation due to H2O, measured in terms of the estimated atmospheric scale height, {H}s. For those planets with a reported H2O detection (10 out of 19), the spectral modulation due to H2O ranges from 0.9 to 2.9 {H}s with a mean value of 1.8 ± 0.5 {H}s. This spectral modulation is significantly less than predicted for clear atmospheres. For the group of planets in which H2O has been detected, we find the individual spectra can be coherently averaged to produce a characteristic spectrum in which the shape, together with the spectral modulation of the sample, are consistent with a range of H2O mixing ratios and cloud-top pressures, with a minimum H2O mixing ratio of {17}-6+12 ppm corresponding to the cloud-free case. Using this lower limit, we show that clouds or aerosols must block at least half of the atmospheric column that would otherwise be sampled by transmission spectroscopy in the case of a cloud-free atmosphere. We conclude that terminator-region clouds with sufficient opacity to be opaque in slant-viewing geometry are common in hot Jupiters.

  18. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.; Champion, H. J.; Donaldson, A. I.; Dunkerley, F. N.; Gloster, J.; Sørensen, J. H.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    2003-02-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of the virus that can initiate infection. One of the mechanisms of spread is the carriage of droplets and droplet nuclei exhaled in the breath of infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess the potential for atmospheric dispersion of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is primarily to identify premises which may have been exposed so that the human resources for surveillance and disease control purposes are employed most effectively. The paper describes the combined modelling techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm. The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to livestock in the Heddon-on-the Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant role in influencing the pattern of disease spread.

  19. Investigation of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission during low-wind conditions in the early phase of the UK 2001 epidemic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Alexandersen, S.; Astrup, P.; Champion, H. J.; Donaldson, A. I.; Dunkerley, F. N.; Gloster, J.; Sørensen, J. H.; Thykier-Nielsen, S.

    2003-11-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed domesticated and wild animals. The highly contagious nature of FMD is a reflection of the wide range of host species, the enormous quantities of virus liberated by infected animals, the range of excretions and secretions which can be infectious, the stability of the virus in the environment, the multiplicity of routes of infection and the very small doses of the virus that can initiate infection. One of the mechanisms of spread is the carriage of droplets and droplet nuclei exhaled in the breath of infected animals. Such spread can be rapid and extensive, and it is known in certain circumstances to have transmitted disease over a distance of several hundred kilometres. During the 2001 FMD epidemic in the United Kingdom (UK), atmospheric dispersion models were applied in real time in order to assess the potential for atmospheric dispersion of the disease. The operational value of such modelling is primarily to identify premises which may have been exposed so that the human resources for surveillance and disease control purposes are employed most effectively.

    The paper describes the combined modelling techniques and presents the results obtained of detailed analyses performed during the early stages of the UK 2001 epidemic. This paper investigates the potential for disease spread in relation to two outbreaks (Burnside Farm, Heddon-on-the-Wall and Prestwick Hall Farm, Ponteland, Northumberland). A separate paper (Gloster et al., 2002) provides a more detailed analysis of the airborne disease transmission in the vicinity of Burnside Farm.

    The combined results are consistent with airborne transmission of disease to livestock in the Heddon-on-the-Wall area. Local topography may have played a significant role in influencing the pattern of disease spread.

  20. Transmission Line Modeling Applied to Hot Corrosion of Fe-40at.pctAl in Molten LiCl-KCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Espinosa-Medina, Marco Antonio; Castaneda, Homero

    2015-12-01

    The effect of Cu and Li additions to the intermetallic alloy Fe-40at.pctAl on the corrosion performance in an LiCl-55wtpctKCl molten eutectic salt was studied by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, transmission line modeling (TLM), and cathodic polarization. The tests were done at 723 K, 773 K, and 823 K (450 °C, 500 °C, and 550 °C), for 60 and 720 minutes. The element additions could improve the corrosion resistance of Fe-40at.pctAl in molten LiCl-KCl, while TLM could characterize and quantify the interfacial processes in hot corrosion. The polarization curves helped to establish the possible cathodic reactions in the experimental conditions.

  1. Control of transmission of right circularly polarized laser light in overdense plasma by applied magnetic field pulses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guangjin; Yu, Wei; Yu, M Y; Luan, Shixia; Wu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The effect of a transient magnetic field on right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) laser light propagation in overcritical-density plasma is investigated. When the electron gyrofrequency is larger than the wave frequency, RHCP light can propagate along the external magnetic field in an overcritical density plasma without resonance or cutoff. However, when the magnetic field falls to below the cyclotron resonance point, the propagating laser pulse will be truncated and the local plasma electrons resonantly heated. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when applied to a thin slab, the process can produce intense two-cycle light pulses as well as long-lasting self-magnetic fields. PMID:27300997

  2. Control of transmission of right circularly polarized laser light in overdense plasma by applied magnetic field pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guangjin; Yu, Wei; Yu, M. Y.; Luan, Shixia; Wu, Dong

    2016-05-01

    The effect of a transient magnetic field on right-hand circularly polarized (RHCP) laser light propagation in overcritical-density plasma is investigated. When the electron gyrofrequency is larger than the wave frequency, RHCP light can propagate along the external magnetic field in an overcritical density plasma without resonance or cutoff. However, when the magnetic field falls to below the cyclotron resonance point, the propagating laser pulse will be truncated and the local plasma electrons resonantly heated. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when applied to a thin slab, the process can produce intense two-cycle light pulses as well as long-lasting self-magnetic fields.

  3. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of routine vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Chang; Li, Huachun; Edwards, John; Hawkins, Chris; Robertson, Ian D

    2014-08-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been reported in China for many years. Recently, due to the rapid economic development, the price of meat and its demand have grown quickly. This trend has resulted in an increase in the number of livestock moving from south-east Asian countries into China. Foot and mouth disease is becoming one of the most important trans-boundary animal diseases affecting the livelihood of livestock owners in China. To contribute to the long term goal to control and eradicate FMD from China, the Chinese government has adopted a series of control measures which includes compulsory routine vaccination against the disease. In this paper, the surveillance results of the routine vaccination programme were systemically reviewed. The results from 28 published papers were combined and analysed through a meta-analysis approach. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the vaccination programme has been very successful in China with more than 70% of animals protected against serotypes Asia-1 and O.

  4. A probably minor role for land-applied goat manure in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q fever outbreak.

    PubMed

    van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; de Bruin, Arnout; Dercksen, Daan; Santman-Berends, Inge; van der Hoek, Wim; Dinkla, Annemiek; Vellema, Jelmer; Vellema, Piet

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1) to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2) to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3) to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii. PMID:25816149

  5. A Probably Minor Role for Land-Applied Goat Manure in the Transmission of Coxiella burnetii to Humans in the 2007–2010 Dutch Q Fever Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; de Bruin, Arnout; Dercksen, Daan; Santman-Berends, Inge; van der Hoek, Wim; Dinkla, Annemiek; Vellema, Jelmer; Vellema, Piet

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1) to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2) to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3) to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii. PMID:25816149

  6. Transmission Pathways of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in the United Kingdom in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Cottam, Eleanor M.; Wadsworth, Jemma; Shaw, Andrew E.; Rowlands, Rebecca J.; Goatley, Lynnette; Maan, Sushila; Maan, Narender S.; Mertens, Peter P. C.; Ebert, Katja; Li, Yanmin; Ryan, Eoin D.; Juleff, Nicholas; Ferris, Nigel P.; Wilesmith, John W.; Haydon, Daniel T.; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2008-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus causes an acute vesicular disease of domesticated and wild ruminants and pigs. Identifying sources of FMD outbreaks is often confounded by incomplete epidemiological evidence and the numerous routes by which virus can spread (movements of infected animals or their products, contaminated persons, objects, and aerosols). Here, we show that the outbreaks of FMD in the United Kingdom in August 2007 were caused by a derivative of FMDV O1 BFS 1860, a virus strain handled at two FMD laboratories located on a single site at Pirbright in Surrey. Genetic analysis of complete viral genomes generated in real-time reveals a probable chain of transmission events, predicting undisclosed infected premises, and connecting the second cluster of outbreaks in September to those in August. Complete genome sequence analysis of FMD viruses conducted in real-time have identified the initial and intermediate sources of these outbreaks and demonstrate the value of such techniques in providing information useful to contemporary disease control programmes. PMID:18421380

  7. Two-part survival models applied to administrative data for determining rate of and predictors for maternal-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Hauck, W W; McKee, L J; Turner, B J

    1997-08-15

    In analysing maternal-child HIV transmission from Medicaid claims data, we must deal with follow-up that is sometimes so short that we cannot claim that an apparently uninfected infant is actually uninfected as opposed to not yet exhibiting HIV-associated symptoms. To overcome this, we have been using analyses of 'time-to-diagnosis' of HIV infection to estimate transmission rates and predictors of transmission. Such analyses mix the event of transmission with that of our ability to diagnose HIV infection from coded claims data. We would like to separate these two pieces. Also, due to incomplete follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analyses will underestimate transmission rates. In econometrics and biostatistics there are two-part (mixture) models that can serve the goal of separating transmission from the process of diagnosing HIV infection in the newborn. Farewell describes a model that combines a logistic regression for the yes/no event (in our case, HIV transmission) and a Weibull regression model for the survival analysis portion (in our case, time-to-diagnosis). We use this approach to fit models that have potentially separate covariates for transmission and for time-to-diagnosis. The results allow us to identify predictors of transmission and estimate transmission rates with reduced concern for adequacy of follow-up.

  8. Application of latex beads agglutination test for the detection of the antibody against virus-infection-associated (VIA) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, T; Suzuki, T; Chatchawanchonteera, A; Sinuwonkwat, P; Tsuda, T; Murakami, Y

    2000-07-01

    Latex beads agglutination (LA) for the detection of the antibody against virus infection-associated (VIA) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was estimated using experimentally infected animals. The VIA antibody titer by the LA test were compared with the neutralization titer and the titer by agarose gel diffusion (AGD) test, which has been used as a standard method for VIA antibody titration. The latex beads were coated with VIA antigen in carbonate buffer solution (0.5 M, pH 9.6) for the test. The sensitivity of the LA test was clearly higher than that of the AGD test in the results for cattle and swine infected experimentally. The antibody was detected in the bovine serum obtained at the 13th week after inoculation by the LA but not by the AGD test. The LA test appears to be simple, rapid and sensitive for the detection of the antibody of FMD virus in the surveillance of FMD and the FMD quarantine of imported animals.

  9. Sector multipad prototype of the FMD-MCP detector for ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropov, A. E.; Fedotov, A. V.; Feofilov, G. A.; Izrailov, E. K.; Kasatkin, V. A.; Klempt, W.; Kolojvari, A. A.; Larin, M. P.; Lazarev, V.; Novikov, I. A.; Potapov, S. V.; Stolyarov, O. I.; Tsimbal, F. A.; Tulina, T. A.; Valiev, F. F.; Vinogradov, L. I.

    1998-12-01

    We present results of the technology, manufacturing and first tests of a novel MCP-based sector prototype for the forward multiplicity detector for the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The detector provides better than sqrt( M)/ M resolution for high multiplicity events, and about 50 ps timing resolution. Two sector MCPs are mounted on a 200 μm ceramics board with the multipad readout integrated with a passive summator. The setup is baked under 300°C and then sealed into a thin wall (200 μm) stainless-steel vacuum sector chamber with a Ti getter keeping a vacuum of 10 -5 Torr. A new technology of Al coating is applied in order to reduce the hydrogen leakage through the chamber walls. New multichannel ceramics feedthroughs were also developed for the signal readout and voltage supply. The results of the first in-lab and in-beam tests are discussed.

  10. The efficacy of FMD vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mAb against 3B protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Liu, Zai-Xin; Sun, Pu; Li, Yong-Liang; Lu, Zeng-Jun; Tian, Mei-Na; Chen, Ying-Li; Xie, Bao-Xia; Bao, Hui-Fang; Fu, Yuan-Fang; Cao, Yi-Mei; Li, Ping-Hua; Bai, Xin-Wen; Sun, Jia-Chuan; Guo, Jian-Hong; Liu, Xiang-Tao; Xie, Qing-Ge

    2010-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody, 3BIgG, against the prokaryotically expressed foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-structural protein (NSP) 3B was obtained. The 3BIgG-sepharose conjugant (3BmAb-6BFF) was prepared by adding the purified 3BIgG into epoxy-activated sepharose 6BFF, incubating with the inactivated FMDV, and then removing the sepharose by centrifugation. The vaccine was made from the supernatant emulsified with oil-adjuvant ISA206. Ten guinea pigs, 26 pigs and six cattle were vaccinated, and a vaccination control group was included without treatment with 3BmAb-6BFF. After 28 days, 9/10 pigs challenged with FMDV were protected, this result was the same as the control group, indicating that the vaccine potency was not reduced after treatment with 3BmAb-6BFF. The other animals were vaccinated weekly for nine weeks, and serum samples were collected to detect 3ABC-antibody titers. The results showed that 3ABC-antibody production was delayed and the positive antibody rates were lower when vaccination was carried out using vaccines treated with 3BmAb-6BFF compared with untreated vaccines. The findings of this study suggest that it is possible to reduce NSPs using a mAb-sepharose conjugant in FMD vaccines without reducing their efficacy. PMID:20512625

  11. Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus: quantification of whole virus particles during the vaccine manufacturing process by size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Spitteler, Marcelo A; Fernández, Ignacio; Schabes, Erika; Krimer, Alejandro; Régulier, Emmanuel G; Guinzburg, Mariela; Smitsaart, Eliana; Levy, M Susana

    2011-09-22

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease that affects cattle, sheep, goats and swine causing severe economic losses worldwide. The efficacy of inactivated vaccines is critically dependent on the integrity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles. The recommended method to quantify the active ingredient of vaccines is the 140S quantitative sucrose density gradient analysis. This method has been an immensely valuable tool over the past three decades but it is highly operator dependent and difficult to automate. We developed a method to quantify FMDV particles during the vaccine manufacturing process that is based on separation of components by size-exclusion chromatography and measurement of virus by absorption at 254nm. The method is linear in the 5-70μg/mL range, it is applicable to different FMDV strains, and has a good correlation with the 140S test. The proposed method uses standard chromatographic media and it is amenable to automation. The method has potential as a process analytical technology and for control of final product by manufacturers, international vaccine banks and regulatory agencies.

  12. Quantification of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) cytokine expression in response to inactivated foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mingala, Claro N; Konnai, Satoru; Venturina, Fe A; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2009-10-01

    This study describes the quantification of cytokine expression of vaccinated water buffaloes with FMD inactivated vaccine. Using real-time PCR quantification assay, expression of Th1 (IL-2, IL-12p40, IFNgamma); Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) and inflammatory (IL-6, TNFalpha) cytokines were quantified weekly for the entire three-week duration of the experiment. It was noted that IFNgamma, IL-10 and TNFalpha had peaked on week three post-vaccination while the remaining cytokines peaked on the second week and decreased by the third week. The counteraction between IFNgamma and IL-4 was noted as well as the possible suppressive action of IL-10 to that of IL-2 and IL-12, which is a common phenomenon between Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Synergy between TNFa and IL-6 was also observed. These findings suggest that within the immune system of water buffalo there is a dynamic cell-mediated and humoral interaction in response to immunogen. This assessment of the cytokine expressions is vital for the study of water buffalo disease progression and concurring protective immune responses.

  13. Transmission parameters of the 2001 foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Chis Ster, Irina; Ferguson, Neil M

    2007-01-01

    Despite intensive ongoing research, key aspects of the spatial-temporal evolution of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in Great Britain (GB) remain unexplained. Here we develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for estimating epidemiological parameters of the 2001 outbreak for a range of simple transmission models. We make the simplifying assumption that infectious farms were completely observed in 2001, equivalent to assuming that farms that were proactively culled but not diagnosed with FMD were not infectious, even if some were infected. We estimate how transmission parameters varied through time, highlighting the impact of the control measures on the progression of the epidemic. We demonstrate statistically significant evidence for assortative contact patterns between animals of the same species. Predictive risk maps of the transmission potential in different geographic areas of GB are presented for the fitted models. PMID:17551582

  14. Synthesis and in-vitro evaluation of 2-amino-4-arylthiazole as inhibitor of 3D polymerase against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kwi-Wan; Lee, Jung-Hun; Park, Sun-Mi; Choi, Joo-Hyung; Jeong, Dae-Youn; Choi, Dong-Hwa; Nam, Yeonju; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Ku, Jin-Mo

    2015-09-18

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious vesicular disease of livestock caused by a highly variable RNA virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). One of the targets to suppress expansion of and to control FMD is 3D polymerase (FMDV 3Dpol). In this study, 2-amino-4-arylthiazole derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their inhibitory activity against FMDV 3Dpol. Among them, compound 20i exhibited the most potent functional inhibition (IC50 = 0.39 μM) of FMDV 3D polymerase and compound 24a (EC50 = 13.09 μM) showed more potent antiviral activity than ribavirin (EC50 = 1367 μM) and T1105 (EC50 = 347 μM) with IBRS-2 cells infected by the FMDV O/SKR/2010 strain.

  15. Evaluation of the efficacy of a new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG FMD vaccine as a potential vaccine for cattle.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, A; Madadgar, O; Soleimanjahi, H; Keyvanfar, H; Mahravani, H

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Inactivated whole particle virus vaccines are still widely used in prophylactic vaccination campaigns. The choice of adjuvant is a very important factor in enhancing immune responses and the efficacy of inactivated vaccines. Montanide ISA 61 VG is a new ready-to-use mineral oil-based adjuvant developed by SEPPIC Inc. (SEPPIC, France) with high-potential immune responses needed for clinical protection against FMD infection. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two FMD vaccines either formulated with the new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG and saponin, or with aluminum hydroxide gel and saponin. Both vaccines contained the same antigen payloads of O2010/IR. Two groups of 15 naive cattle received a single vaccination with different doses (full dose, 1/3 dose and 1/9 dose) to calculate their PD50 (50% protective dose) after being challenged with the homologous virulent virus. The mean neutralizing antibody titer was determined at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination, measured by a micro neutralization test. The new vaccine improved humoral immune responses by 19%, while inducing a higher geometric mean. The titer for neutralizing antibodies was 2.91 log10 compared to the alum-gel based adjuvant vaccine which was 2.44 log10 (P-value=0.1782). The new vaccine showed a PD50 value of 10.05 as compared to a PD50 value of 4.171, respectively. According to the results, the FMD vaccine formulated with the new oil adjuvant, ISA 61 VG, shows potential as an alternative vaccine for routine and emergency vaccinations in the FMD enzootic region. PMID:27656222

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of a new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG FMD vaccine as a potential vaccine for cattle

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, A.; Madadgar, O.; Soleimanjahi, H.; Keyvanfar, H.; Mahravani, H.

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. Inactivated whole particle virus vaccines are still widely used in prophylactic vaccination campaigns. The choice of adjuvant is a very important factor in enhancing immune responses and the efficacy of inactivated vaccines. Montanide ISA 61 VG is a new ready-to-use mineral oil-based adjuvant developed by SEPPIC Inc. (SEPPIC, France) with high-potential immune responses needed for clinical protection against FMD infection. In this study, we compared the efficacy of two FMD vaccines either formulated with the new oil-based adjuvant ISA 61 VG and saponin, or with aluminum hydroxide gel and saponin. Both vaccines contained the same antigen payloads of O2010/IR. Two groups of 15 naive cattle received a single vaccination with different doses (full dose, 1/3 dose and 1/9 dose) to calculate their PD50 (50% protective dose) after being challenged with the homologous virulent virus. The mean neutralizing antibody titer was determined at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after vaccination, measured by a micro neutralization test. The new vaccine improved humoral immune responses by 19%, while inducing a higher geometric mean. The titer for neutralizing antibodies was 2.91 log10 compared to the alum-gel based adjuvant vaccine which was 2.44 log10 (P-value=0.1782). The new vaccine showed a PD50 value of 10.05 as compared to a PD50 value of 4.171, respectively. According to the results, the FMD vaccine formulated with the new oil adjuvant, ISA 61 VG, shows potential as an alternative vaccine for routine and emergency vaccinations in the FMD enzootic region. PMID:27656222

  17. Novel immunogenic baculovirus expressed virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus protect guinea pigs against challenge.

    PubMed

    Bhat, S A; Saravanan, P; Hosamani, M; Basagoudanavar, S H; Sreenivasa, B P; Tamilselvan, R P; Venkataramanan, R

    2013-12-01

    Vaccination is a well accepted strategy for control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in endemic countries. Currently, chemically inactivated virus antigens are used for preparation of FMD vaccine. To develop a non-infectious and safe recombinant vaccine, we expressed structural polypeptide of FMDV (O/IND/R2/75) using baculovirus expression system. We show that inclusion of mutated viral 3C protease in frame with the polypeptide (P1-2A), enhanced the yield of structural proteins. The structural proteins retained antigenicity and assembled into empty virus-like particles (VLPs). Immunization of guinea pigs with purified fractions of the VLPs resulted in humoral and cell mediated immune response by 4 weeks. The VLPs elicited comparable humoral immune response and relatively higher cell mediated immune response, when compared to conventional vaccine in guinea pigs. Further, up to 70% of the VLP immunized guinea pigs were protected against challenge with homologous guinea pig adapted virus. Our results highlight the application of recombinant FMDV VLPs in FMD vaccination. PMID:23969204

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packing Materials for Flight Medication Dispenser (FMD) Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du, Brian; Daniels, Vernie; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of longer duration space missions, pharmaceutical use in space has increased. During the first 33 space shuttle missions, crew members took more than 500 individual doses of 31 different medications . Anecdotal reports from crew members described medications as generally "well tolerated" and "effective". However, reported use of increased medication doses and discrepancies in ground vs. flight efficacy may result from reduced potency or altered bioavailability due to changes in chemical and/or physical parameters of pharmaceutical stability. Based on preliminary results from a ground-based irradiation and an inflight study on pharmaceutical stability, three susceptible medications, Amoxicillin/Clavulanate and Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim antibiotics tablets and promethazine (PMZ), an antihistamine were selected for testing using two types of Oliver-Tolas bags, TPC-1475(Clear) and TPF-0599B (Foil) for radiation Shielding effectiveness. The material composition of the bags included aluminum coated Mylar sheathing coated with multifunctional nanocomposities based on polyethylene with dispersed boron-rich nanophases. Two bags of each medication were irradiated for different time intervals with 14.6 rad/min to achieve 0.1 Gy, 1 Gy and 10 Gy of cumulative radiation dose. Active pharmaceutical content (API) in each medication was determined and results analyzed. No significant difference in API content was observed between control and irradiated samples for both antibiotic tablets suggesting both types of bags may offer protection against gamma radiation; results with PMZ were inconclusive. These preliminary results suggest that Oliver-Tolas TPL-1475 and TPF-0599B materials may possess characteristics suitable for protection against ionizing radiation and can be considered for designing and further testing of FMD technology.

  19. Rotorcraft transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this presentation outlines that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  20. Transmission of foot and mouth disease at the wildlife/livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa: Can the risk be mitigated?

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Etter, Eric

    2016-04-01

    In Southern Africa, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the natural reservoir of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Contacts between this species and cattle are responsible for most of the FMD outbreaks in cattle at the edge of protected areas, which generate huge economic losses. During the late 1980's and 90's, the erection of veterinary cordon fences and the regular vaccination of cattle exposed to buffalo contact at the interface of the Kruger National Park (KNP), proved to be efficient to control and prevent FMD outbreaks in South Africa. However, since 2000, the efficiency of those measures has deteriorated, resulting in an increased rate of FMD outbreaks in cattle outside KNP, currently occurring more than once a year. Based on retrospective ecological and epidemiological data, we developed a stochastic quantitative model to assess the annual risk of FMD virus (FMDV) transmission from buffalo to cattle herds present at the KNP interface. The model suggests that good immunization of approximately 75% of the cattle population combined with a reduction of buffalo/cattle contacts is an efficient combination to reduce FMDV transmission to one infective event every 5.5 years, emulating the epidemiological situation observed at the end of the 20th century, before current failure of control measures. The model also indicates that an increasing number of buffalo present in the KNP and crossing its boundaries, combined with a reduction in the vaccination coverage of cattle herds at the interface, increases 3-fold the risk of transmission (one infective event per year).The model proposed makes biological sense and provides a good representation of current knowledge of FMD ecology and epidemiology in Southern Africa which can be used to discuss with stakeholders on different management options to control FMD at the wildlife livestock interface and updated if new information becomes available. It also suggests that the control of FMD at the KNP interface is becoming

  1. Transmission of foot and mouth disease at the wildlife/livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa: Can the risk be mitigated?

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Etter, Eric

    2016-04-01

    In Southern Africa, the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the natural reservoir of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Contacts between this species and cattle are responsible for most of the FMD outbreaks in cattle at the edge of protected areas, which generate huge economic losses. During the late 1980's and 90's, the erection of veterinary cordon fences and the regular vaccination of cattle exposed to buffalo contact at the interface of the Kruger National Park (KNP), proved to be efficient to control and prevent FMD outbreaks in South Africa. However, since 2000, the efficiency of those measures has deteriorated, resulting in an increased rate of FMD outbreaks in cattle outside KNP, currently occurring more than once a year. Based on retrospective ecological and epidemiological data, we developed a stochastic quantitative model to assess the annual risk of FMD virus (FMDV) transmission from buffalo to cattle herds present at the KNP interface. The model suggests that good immunization of approximately 75% of the cattle population combined with a reduction of buffalo/cattle contacts is an efficient combination to reduce FMDV transmission to one infective event every 5.5 years, emulating the epidemiological situation observed at the end of the 20th century, before current failure of control measures. The model also indicates that an increasing number of buffalo present in the KNP and crossing its boundaries, combined with a reduction in the vaccination coverage of cattle herds at the interface, increases 3-fold the risk of transmission (one infective event per year).The model proposed makes biological sense and provides a good representation of current knowledge of FMD ecology and epidemiology in Southern Africa which can be used to discuss with stakeholders on different management options to control FMD at the wildlife livestock interface and updated if new information becomes available. It also suggests that the control of FMD at the KNP interface is becoming

  2. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs.

    PubMed

    Orsel, K; de Jong, M C M; Bouma, A; Stegeman, J A; Dekker, A

    2007-08-21

    The aim of this study was to design a transmission experiment that enabled quantification of the effectiveness of vaccination against foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus in groups of pigs. Previous experiments showed that intradermal injection of pigs with FMD virus 14 days after vaccination was not suitable to start an infection chain, as inoculated vaccinated pigs resisted challenge. Therefore, we carried out two experiments in which we used direct contact to a non-vaccinated pig as route of infection. In the first experiment only the vaccine effect on susceptibility was quantified by exposing pigs, either vaccinated 14 days before or not vaccinated, each to a non-vaccinated seeder pig inoculated with FMD virus O/NET/2001. Since no significant differences were observed between contact infections in vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs, we performed a second experiment in which both susceptibility and infectivity were subject to vaccination. We quantified virus transmission in homogenous groups of vaccinated or non-vaccinated pigs in which the infection chain was started by exposure to a third group of non-vaccinated infected pigs. Transmission occurred to all contact-exposed pigs in the non-vaccinated groups and to 9 out of 10 contact-exposed pigs in the vaccinated groups. The rate of transmission (beta) was significantly reduced in the vaccine group. Yet, the estimated reproduction ratio in both groups was still above 1. In conclusion, by adjusting our transmission study design and challenge method, we were able to quantify transmission of FMDV among vaccinated pigs. According to this study a single vaccination was not sufficient to stop pig to pig virus transmission. With these results major outbreaks may still be expected, even in groups of vaccinated pigs. PMID:17658199

  3. On The Use Of Models To Assess Foot-And-Mouth Disease Transmission And Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kostova-Vassilevska, T

    2004-07-12

    The 2001 outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Europe (Ferguson et al. 2001a, 2001b; Bouma et al. 2003) and concern about the possibility of an intentional introduction of a devastating foreign animal disease triggered renewed interest in both theoretical and experimental research related to FMD. Theoretical models of disease transmission, which influenced the tactical decisions of the United Kingdom (UK) government during the epidemic (Taylor 2003), resulted in large numbers of uninfected animals being slaughtered. After the epidemic, the adopted control policies were sharply criticized (Kitching 2004;, Taylor 2003). Still, the role of computationaL modeling for analyzing the scope of the epidemic and devising control strategies was recognized as substantial and necessary.

  4. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAT2 Viruses at the Wildlife–Livestock Interface of Two Major Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Barbara P.; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F.; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango–Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level. PMID:27148217

  5. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAT2 Viruses at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Two Major Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Brito, Barbara P; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level.

  6. Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease SAT2 Viruses at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface of Two Major Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Brito, Barbara P; Jori, Ferran; Dwarka, Rahana; Maree, Francois F; Heath, Livio; Perez, Andres M

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade ago, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) re-emerged in Southern Africa specifically in beef exporting countries that had successfully maintained disease-free areas in the past. FMD virus (FMDV) serotype SAT2 has been responsible for a majority of these outbreaks. Epidemiological studies have revealed the importance of the African buffalo as the major wildlife FMD reservoir in the region. We used phylogeographic analysis to study dynamics of FMD transmission between buffalo and domestic cattle at the interface of the major wildlife protected areas in the region currently encompassing two largest Transfrontier conservation areas: Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) and Great Limpopo (GL). Results of this study showed restricted local occurrence of each FMDV SAT2 topotypes I, II, and III, with occasional virus migration from KAZA to GL. Origins of outbreaks in livestock are frequently attributed to wild buffalo, but our results suggest that transmission from cattle to buffalo also occurs. We used coalescent Bayesian skyline analysis to study the genetic variation of the virus in cattle and buffalo, and discussed the association of these genetic changes in the virus and relevant epidemiological events that occurred in this area. Our results show that the genetic diversity of FMDV SAT2 has decreased in buffalo and cattle population during the last decade. This study contributes to understand the major dynamics of transmission and genetic variation of FMDV SAT2 in Southern Africa, which will could ultimately help in designing efficient strategies for the control of FMD at a local and regional level. PMID:27148217

  7. Use of social network analysis to characterize the pattern of animal movements in the initial phases of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Pelaez, A; Pfeiffer, D U; Soares-Magalhães, R J; Guitian, F J

    2006-09-15

    Aggregated movement data do not take into account the relative position of the units within a higher-level structure. Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory provide a tool to organise and analyse relational data overcoming the limitations of standard methods where the position of individuals/observations does not affect the result of the analysis. Some recorded movements of cattle and sheep during the initial phase of the 2001 foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in the UK, before the ban on animal movements was imposed, are analysed descriptively using SNA. With the data available, a directed dichotomized network with 653 nodes and 797 arches was analysed. Most of the 10 nodes with the highest betweenness (3 farms, 4 markets and 3 dealers) were identified as key players in the initial spread of the infection. Three groups of nodes with distinctive proportion of k < or = 2 neighbours would result in three different theoretical outbreak dimensions assuming that the infection is only disseminated by the movements included in the network: no spread, spread up to 7% and around 25%. There are three hierarchical clusters with 308, 215 and 130 nodes, respectively. Farms in cluster 1 appear to be more similar in their movement patterns to non-farm holdings than to farms in clusters 2 and 3. Relative betweenness, k-neighbours and structural equivalence using hierarchical clustering were able to identify key actors in the evolution of the initial phases of the FMD outbreak such as markets, dealers and farms with atypical movement patterns. Holdings with high betweenness, large number of k < or = 2 neighbours and with movement pattern as in cluster 1 should be targeted in disease control activities once primary actors like markets, dealers and slaughter houses have been contained. PMID:16769142

  8. Shingles Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Shingles Immunization Action Coalition Chickenpox Q&As Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Prevention & Treatment Related Pages Preventing Varicella Zoster Virus Transmission in Healthcare Settings Related Links Medline Plus NIH ...

  9. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-02-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers' knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers' knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; 'under-reporting' was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and 'selling FMD-infected animals' is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should be levied for

  10. Reconstruction of the transmission history of RNA virus outbreaks using full genome sequences: foot-and-mouth disease virus in Bulgaria in 2011.

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Polihronova, Lilyana; Alexandrov, Tsviatko; Normann, Preben; Knowles, Nick J; Hammond, Jef M; Georgiev, Georgi K; Özyörük, Fuat; Sumption, Keith J; Belsham, Graham J; King, Donald P

    2012-01-01

    Improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of RNA viruses in real time. In practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. In the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), these analyses provide important insights into the epidemiology of field outbreaks that can support disease control programmes. This study reconstructs the origin and transmission history of the FMD outbreaks which occurred during 2011 in Burgas Province, Bulgaria, a country that had been previously FMD-free-without-vaccination since 1996. Nineteen full genome sequences (FGS) of FMD virus (FMDV) were generated and analysed, including eight representative viruses from all of the virus-positive outbreaks of the disease in the country and 11 closely-related contemporary viruses from countries in the region where FMD is endemic (Turkey and Israel). All Bulgarian sequences shared a single putative common ancestor which was closely related to the index case identified in wild boar. The closest relative from outside of Bulgaria was a FMDV collected during 2010 in Bursa (Anatolia, Turkey). Within Bulgaria, two discrete genetic clusters were detected that corresponded to two episodes of outbreaks that occurred during January and March-April 2011. The number of nucleotide substitutions that were present between, and within, these separate clusters provided evidence that undetected FMDV infection had occurred. These conclusions are supported by laboratory data that subsequently identified three additional FMDV-infected livestock premises by serosurveillance, as well as a number of antibody positive wild boar on both sides of the border with Turkish Thrace. This study highlights how FGS analysis can be used as an effective on-the-spot tool

  11. Continuously Variable Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Chain slides along two cones, in novel transmission concept. Transmission includes chain drive between two splined shafts. Chain sprockets follow surfaces of two cones. As one chain sprocket moves toward smaller diameter other chain sprocket moves toward larger diameter, thereby changing "gear" ratio. Movement initiated by tension applied to chain by planetary gear mechanism. Device positive, simple, and efficient over wide range of speed ratios.

  12. Facsimile transmissions.

    PubMed

    Grant, A E

    1996-04-01

    Some provincial regulators of nursing are setting out professional standards for the use of facsimile transmissions. While the facsimile machine is a tool that can improve client care through the timely, accurate transmission of vital information, nurses should recognize the potential hazards. Clear policies and procedures for the usage and management of facsimile transmissions are necessary to ensure that legal and professional standards are met.

  13. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  14. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  15. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  16. Antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus in African buffalos (Syncerus caffer) in selected National Parks in Uganda (2001-2003).

    PubMed

    Ayebazibwe, C; Mwiine, F N; Balinda, S N; Tjørnehøj, K; Masembe, C; Muwanika, V B; Okurut, A R A; Siegismund, H R; Alexandersen, S

    2010-08-01

    In East Africa, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) isolates have over time included serotypes O, A, C, Southern African Territories (SAT) 1 and SAT 2, mainly from livestock. SAT 3 has only been isolated in a few cases and only in African buffalos (Syncerus caffer). To investigate the presence of antibodies against FMDV serotypes in wildlife in Uganda, serological studies were performed on buffalo serum samples collected between 2001 and 2003. Thirty-eight samples from African buffalos collected from Lake Mburo, Kidepo Valley, Murchison Falls and Queen Elizabeth National Parks were screened using Ceditest FMDV NS to detect antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins (NSP). The seroprevalence of antibodies against non-structural proteins was 74%. To characterize FMDV antibodies, samples were selected and titrated using serotype-specific solid phase blocking enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISAs). High titres of antibodies (> or =1 : 160) against FMDV serotypes SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were identified. This study suggests that African buffalos in the different national parks in Uganda may play an important role in the epidemiology of SAT serotypes of FMDV.

  17. The impact of within-herd genetic variation upon inferred transmission trees for foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Valdazo-González, Begoña; Kim, Jan T; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Wadsworth, Jemma; Knowles, Nick J; Haydon, Daniel T; King, Donald P

    2015-06-01

    Full-genome sequences have been used to monitor the fine-scale dynamics of epidemics caused by RNA viruses. However, the ability of this approach to confidently reconstruct transmission trees is limited by the knowledge of the genetic diversity of viruses that exist within different epidemiological units. In order to address this question, this study investigated the variability of 45 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome sequences (from 33 animals) that were collected during 2007 from eight premises (10 different herds) in the United Kingdom. Bayesian and statistical parsimony analysis demonstrated that these sequences exhibited clustering which was consistent with a transmission scenario describing herd-to-herd spread of the virus. As an alternative to analysing all of the available samples in future epidemics, the impact of randomly selecting one sequence from each of these herds was used to assess cost-effective methods that might be used to infer transmission trees during FMD outbreaks. Using these approaches, 85% and 91% of the resulting topologies were either identical or differed by only one edge from a reference tree comprising all of the sequences generated within the outbreak. The sequence distances that accrued during sequential transmission events between epidemiological units was estimated to be 4.6 nucleotides, although the genetic variability between viruses recovered from chronic carrier animals was higher than between viruses from animals with acute-stage infection: an observation which poses challenges for the use of simple approaches to infer transmission trees. This study helps to develop strategies for sampling during FMD outbreaks, and provides data that will guide the development of further models to support control policies in the event of virus incursions into FMD free countries.

  18. Transmissible amyloid.

    PubMed

    Tjernberg, L O; Rising, A; Johansson, J; Jaudzems, K; Westermark, P

    2016-08-01

    There are around 30 human diseases associated with protein misfolding and amyloid formation, each one caused by a certain protein or peptide. Many of these diseases are lethal and together they pose an enormous burden to society. The prion protein has attracted particular interest as being shown to be the pathogenic agent in transmissible diseases such as kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Whether similar transmission could occur also in other amyloidoses such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and serum amyloid A amyloidosis is a matter of intense research and debate. Furthermore, it has been suggested that novel biomaterials such as artificial spider silk are potentially amyloidogenic. Here, we provide a brief introduction to amyloid, prions and other proteins involved in amyloid disease and review recent evidence for their potential transmission. We discuss the similarities and differences between amyloid and silk, as well as the potential hazards associated with protein-based biomaterials. PMID:27002185

  19. Prion transmission

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ben C

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases range from being highly infectious, for example scrapie and CWD, which show facile transmission between susceptible individuals, to showing negligible horizontal transmission, such as BSE and CJD, which are spread via food or iatrogenically, respectively. Scrapie and CWD display considerable in vivo dissemination, with PrPSc and infectivity being found in a range of peripheral tissues. This in vivo dissemination appears to facilitate the recently reported excretion of prion through multiple routes such as from skin, feces, urine, milk, nasal secretions, saliva and placenta. Furthermore, excreted scrapie and CWD agent is detected within environmental samples such as water and on the surfaces of inanimate objects. The cycle of “uptake of prion from the environment—widespread in vivo prion dissemination—prion excretion—prion persistence in the environment” is likely to explain the facile transmission and maintenance of these diseases within wild and farmed populations over many years. PMID:20948292

  20. Rotorcraft transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Highlighted here is that portion of the Lewis Research Center's helicopter propulsion systems program that deals with drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase life, reliability, and maintainability, to reduce weight, noise, and vibration, and to maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development, followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for transmission research in the future is presented.

  1. Evaluation of Infectivity, Virulence and Transmission of FDMV Field Strains of Serotypes O and A Isolated In 2010 from Outbreaks in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Juan M.; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Eschbaumer, Michael; Bishop, Elizabeth A.; Hartwig, Ethan J.; Pauszek, Steven J.; Smoliga, George R.; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Tark, Dongseob; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been described in several previously FMD-free Asian nations, including the Republic of Korea (South Korea). One outbreak with FMD virus (FDMV) serotype A and two with serotype O occurred in South Korea in 2010/2011. The causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in South East Asia, far East and East Asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. Most FMDV strains infect ruminants and pigs, as it happened during the outbreaks of FMDV serotype O in South Korea. Contrastingly, the strain of serotype A affected only ruminants. Based upon these findings, the intention of the work described in the current report was to characterize and compare the infectivity, virulence and transmission of both strains under laboratory conditions in cattle and pigs, by direct inoculation and contact exposure. As expected, FMDV serotype O was highly virulent in both cattle and swine by contact exposure and direct inoculation. Surprisingly, FMDV serotype A was highly virulent in swine, but was less infectious in cattle by contact exposure to infected swine or cattle. Interestingly, similar quantities of aerosolized FMDV RNA were detected during experiments with viruses of serotypes O and A. Specific virus-host interaction of A/SKR/2010 could affect the transmission of this strain to cattle, and this may explain in part the limited spread of the serotype A epizootic. PMID:26735130

  2. Evaluation of Infectivity, Virulence and Transmission of FDMV Field Strains of Serotypes O and A Isolated In 2010 from Outbreaks in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Juan M; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Eschbaumer, Michael; Bishop, Elizabeth A; Hartwig, Ethan J; Pauszek, Steven J; Smoliga, George R; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Tark, Dongseob; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been described in several previously FMD-free Asian nations, including the Republic of Korea (South Korea). One outbreak with FMD virus (FDMV) serotype A and two with serotype O occurred in South Korea in 2010/2011. The causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in South East Asia, far East and East Asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. Most FMDV strains infect ruminants and pigs, as it happened during the outbreaks of FMDV serotype O in South Korea. Contrastingly, the strain of serotype A affected only ruminants. Based upon these findings, the intention of the work described in the current report was to characterize and compare the infectivity, virulence and transmission of both strains under laboratory conditions in cattle and pigs, by direct inoculation and contact exposure. As expected, FMDV serotype O was highly virulent in both cattle and swine by contact exposure and direct inoculation. Surprisingly, FMDV serotype A was highly virulent in swine, but was less infectious in cattle by contact exposure to infected swine or cattle. Interestingly, similar quantities of aerosolized FMDV RNA were detected during experiments with viruses of serotypes O and A. Specific virus-host interaction of A/SKR/2010 could affect the transmission of this strain to cattle, and this may explain in part the limited spread of the serotype A epizootic. PMID:26735130

  3. Association of BoLA DRB3 alleles with variability in immune response among the crossbred cattle vaccinated for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD).

    PubMed

    Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Sankar, M; Narayanan, K; Das, Biswajit; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B

    2013-08-01

    Polymorphism of bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) DRB3 gene is being intensively investigated for potential association with economically important diseases of cattle. Accordingly, we investigated the association of DRB3 Exon 2 polymorphism as evidenced by the variation in the binding pockets with variability in immune response to inactivated trivalent (O, A and Asia1) foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine in a closed population of crossbred cattle. Antibody titer of ≥ 1.8 was set as the cut off value to distinguish the protected (≥ 1.8) and unprotected (<1.8) animals. Eleven different alleles of over 3% frequency were detected in the population. We found that DRB3 alleles 0201, 0801 and 1501 always ranked high for protective immune response whereas alleles 0701, 1103 and 1101 consistently ranked low for unprotected immune response for all the three serotypes. Rank correlation of DRB3 alleles among the three serotypes was positive, high in magnitude and statistically significant (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that odds of protection from the vaccine were highest for all the three serotypes if allele (∗)1501 was present and strengthened the results of allele ranking. Predicted amino acid substitution in the peptide binding pockets revealed that all the important sites had high Wu-Kabat index. Similarly, specific residues in pockets were crucial for immune response to FMD vaccine. There were specific substitutions in un-protected alleles such as absence of acidic amino acids substituted by basic amino acid at β71, presence of non-polar cysteine or basic histidine at β30 and presence of polar tyrosine at β37. From the observations, we hypothesize that the substitutions lead to unique conformational changes in the protein products of the studied alleles that would associate with the protective or unprotective antibody response to FMDV vaccine. The knowledge has potential implications in future selection programs if integrated with the

  4. Malaria transmission rates estimated from serological data.

    PubMed Central

    Burattini, M. N.; Massad, E.; Coutinho, F. A.

    1993-01-01

    A mathematical model was used to estimate malaria transmission rates based on serological data. The model is minimally stochastic and assumes an age-dependent force of infection for malaria. The transmission rates estimated were applied to a simple compartmental model in order to mimic the malaria transmission. The model has shown a good retrieving capacity for serological and parasite prevalence data. PMID:8270011

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease in feral swine: susceptibility and transmission.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, F; Swafford, S; Petrowski, H; Bracht, A; Schmit, B; Fabian, A; Pacheco, J M; Hartwig, E; Berninger, M; Carrillo, C; Mayr, G; Moran, K; Kavanaugh, D; Leibrecht, H; White, W; Metwally, S

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in feral swine are limited, and data for clinical manifestations and disease transmissibility are lacking. In this report, feral and domestic swine were experimentally infected with FMDV (A24-Cruzeiro), and susceptibility and virus transmission were studied. Feral swine were proved to be highly susceptible to A-24 Cruzeiro FMD virus by intradermal inoculation and by contact with infected domestic and feral swine. Typical clinical signs in feral swine included transient fever, lameness and vesicular lesions in the coronary bands, heel bulbs, tip of the tongue and snout. Domestic swine exhibited clinical signs of the disease within 24 h after contact with feral swine, whereas feral swine did not show clinical signs of FMD until 48 h after contact with infected domestic and feral swine. Clinical scores of feral and domestic swine were comparable. However, feral swine exhibited a higher tolerance for the disease, and their thicker, darker skin made vesicular lesions difficult to detect. Virus titration of oral swabs showed that both feral and domestic swine shed similar amounts of virus, with levels peaking between 2 to 4 dpi/dpc (days post-inoculation/days post-contact). FMDV RNA was intermittently detectable in the oral swabs by real-time RT-PCR of both feral and domestic swine between 1 and 8 dpi/dpc and in some instances until 14 dpi/12 dpc. Both feral and domestic swine seroconverted 6-8 dpi/dpc as measured by 3ABC antibody ELISA and VIAA assays. FMDV RNA levels in animal room air filters were similar in feral and domestic swine animal rooms, and were last detected at 22 dpi, while none were detectable at 28 or 35 dpi. The FMDV RNA persisted in domestic and feral swine tonsils up to 33-36 dpi/dpc, whereas virus isolation was negative. Results from this study will help understand the role feral swine may play in sustaining an FMD outbreak, and may be utilized in guiding surveillance, epidemiologic and economic

  6. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.

    1988-02-16

    An automatic transmission is described combining a stator reversing type torque converter and speed changer having first and second sun gears comprising: (a) a planetary gear train composed of first and second planetary gears sharing one planetary carrier in common; (b) a clutch and requisite brakes to control the planetary gear train; and (c) a speed-increasing or speed-decreasing mechanism is installed both in between a turbine shaft coupled to a turbine of the stator reversing type torque converter and the first sun gear of the speed changer, and in between a stator shaft coupled to a reversing stator and the second sun gear of the speed changer.

  7. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, N.

    1988-10-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission including a fluid torque converter, a first gear unit having three forward-speed gears and a single reverse gear, a second gear unit having a low-speed gear and a high-speed gear, and a hydraulic control system, the hydraulic control system comprising: a source of pressurized fluid; a first shift valve for controlling the shifting between the first-speed gear and the second-speed gear of the first gear unit; a second shift valve for controlling the shifting between the second-speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; a third shift valve equipped with a spool having two positions for controlling the shifting between the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit; a manual selector valve having a plurality of shift positions for distributing the pressurized fluid supply from the source of pressurized fluid to the first, second and third shift valves respectively; first, second and third solenoid valves corresponding to the first, second and third shift valves, respectively for independently controlling the operation of the respective shift valves, thereby establishing a six forward-speed automatic transmission by combining the low-speed gear and the high-speed gear of the second gear unit with each of the first-speed gear, the second speed gear and the third-speed gear of the first gear unit; and means to fixedly position the spool of the third shift valve at one of the two positions by supplying the pressurized fluid to the third shift valve when the manual selector valve is shifted to a particular shift position, thereby locking the second gear unit in one of low-speed gear and the high-speed gear, whereby the six forward-speed automatic transmission is converted to a three forward-speed automatic transmission when the manual selector valve is shifted to the particular shift position.

  8. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, H.

    1989-03-21

    An automatic transmission is described, comprising: a torque converter including an impeller having a connected member, a turbine having an input member and a reactor; and an automatic transmission mechanism having first to third clutches and plural gear units including a single planetary gear unit with a ring gear and a dual planetary gear unit with a ring gear. The single and dual planetary gear units have respective carriers integrally coupled with each other and respective sun gears integrally coupled with each other, the input member of the turbine being coupled with the ring gear of the single planetary gear unit through the first clutch, and being coupled with the sun gear through the second clutch. The connected member of the impeller is coupled with the ring gear of the dual planetary gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be and ring gear of the dual planetary gear unit is made to be restrained as required, and the carrier is coupled with an output member.

  9. Optical transmission techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasile, Irina B.; Filip, Luminita E.; Vasile, Alexandru

    2005-08-01

    An optical transmission system is a method of transferring information in the shape of bits or symbols for the case of digital systems, and of analogue waves for the case of analogue systems, between fixed points located on a fiber optics cable. Today and in the near future there are numerous such transmission techniques available. The increase of demands for data transfer from phone subscribers can be met only by means of digital techniques applied in the local network, in addition to the use of digital telephone exchange and of the digital transmission systems in the trees network. In order to increase the quantity of information transferred through one fiber, optical multiplexing techniques have been conceived and tested. The optical multiplexing is additional to the electrical signal multiplexing. The requests for the access network will become more and more complex, a larger flexibility and a wider band being needed. For the purpose of complying with these requests, the coherent simultaneous or alternative transmission towards the optical amplifiers represents a factor of technical progress. The multiplexing with wave length division allows for more channels to be transported through the same fiber with different wave lengths, in one or both directions.

  10. Overdrive transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.F.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes an overdrive transmission device for use with a motor vehicle. It consists of: a housing; a driving shaft rotatably mounted within the housing; a planetary gear-train; a driven shaft rotatably mounted in the housing and driven by the planetary gear train; and, a device for selectively connecting the planetary gear carrier to the housing or to the driven shaft for rotation; a hydraulically actuated piston adapted to forcibly contact the clutch friction members of the second clutch; a source of working fluid; a pump in fluid flow communication with the source of working fluid; a first valve downstream of the pump and in fluid flow communication with the pump and the hydraulically activated piston.

  11. Planetary transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Nerstad, K.A.; Windish, W.E.

    1987-04-21

    A planetary transmission is described comprising: an input shaft; a first planetary gear set having a first sun gear driven by the input shaft, a first planet carrier serving as the output, a first ring gear, and first brake means for selectively holding the fist ring gear stationary; a second planetary gear set having a second sun gear driven by the input shaft, a second planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the first ring gear, a second ring gear, and second brake means for selectively holding the second ring gear stationary; a third planetary gear set having a third sun gear connected for joint rotation to the second planet carrier, a third planet carrier connected for joint rotation to the second ring gear, a third ring gear, and third brake means for selectively holding the third ring gear stationary; and clutch means for connecting the third sun gear to the input shaft and providing a direct drive mode of operation.

  12. Transmissivity of a heterogeneous formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykaar, Bruce B.; Kitanidis, Peter K.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to derive the transmissivity of an equivalent homogeneous medium having the same macroscopic flow behavior as the actual heterogeneous formation. We apply generalized Taylor-Ans moment analysis in order to determine the phenomenological coefficient of transmissivity for the case of saturated flow confined in a heterogeneous permeable formation with variable thickness. The generalized Taylor-Aris moment analysis yields a two-step procedure for determining the constant two-dimensional transmissivity tensor from the three-dimensional spatially variable conductivity tensor: solve a flow problem and then perform an integration. For the special case that the conductivity is locally isotropic and the impermeable confining surfaces are parallel, the equations governing transmissivity are discretized using a pseudospectral Fourier-Galerkin scheme. The resultant system of linear algebraic equations is solved efficiently, using preconditioned conjugate gradients, in order Nt In (Nt) operations, where Nt is the number of spatial discretization points. The numerical method is used in several examples to compute the transmissivity of lognormally distributed hydraulic conductivity, and the results are compared with the transmissivity found using the usual depth-averaging approach and another method suggested in the literature. The numerical results show that the averaging volume required to obtain an effective value of transmissivity is about 10 horizontal integral scales. When the flow field has a significant three-dimensional character, the standard method of finding transmissivities by depth averaging can lead to significant errors in the prediction of global scale flows. It is shown that depth averaging consistently overestimates transmissivities. An example illustrates how in the case of tilted strata, anisotropic transmissivities arise and how the degree of transmissivity anisotropy depends on the angle of the dip and the horizontal to

  13. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D.; Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R.; Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  14. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  15. Power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ordo, J.P.; Raszkowski, J.A.; Klemen, D.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a transmission. It comprises a housing having first and second end covers; an input shaft rotatably mounted in the first end cover; an output shaft rotatably supported on the input shaft and in the second end cover; first and second countershafts rotatably supported in the end covers for rotation on respective axis parallel with the input shaft and the output shaft; a first head gear continuously rotatable with the input shaft; second and third head gears meshing with the first head gear and continuously rotatable with the first and second countershafts respectively; ratio gears rotatably supported on each of the countershafts including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first ratio gear on the first countershaft and a second ratio gear on the second countershaft; reverse gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear means including a first member rotatable with the first ratio gear and a second member rotatably supported on the second countershaft; synchronizer clutch means selectively and alternatively connectible with the second ratio gear and the second member of the reverse gear means; output gear means drivingly connected with the output shaft and including a first ratio output gear meshing with the second ratio gear; first selectively engageable friction clutch means for connecting the first ratio gear with the first countershaft for completing a low forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts; and second selectively engageable friction clutch means for selectively connecting the synchronizer clutch means to the second countershaft and cooperating therewith to selectively alternatively complete a reverse drive ratio between the input shaft and the output shaft and another forward drive ratio between the input and output shafts.

  16. Automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Inuzuka, T.

    1986-08-26

    1. An automatic transmission with four forward speeds and one reverse position, is described which consists of: an input shaft; an output member; first and second planetary gear sets each having a sun gear, a ring gear and a carrier supporting a pinion in mesh with the sun gear and ring gear; the carrier of the first gear set, the ring gear of the second gear set and the output member all being connected; the ring gear of the first gear set connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a first clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the first gear set, including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a second clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the sun gear of the second gear set a third clutch means for selectively connecting the input shaft to the carrier of the second gear set including friction elements, a piston selectively engaging the friction elements and a fluid servo in which hydraulic fluid is selectively supplied to the piston; a first drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear of the first gear set and the carrier of the second gear set in only one direction and, alternatively, in any direction; a second drive-establishing means for selectively preventing rotation of the sun gear of the second gear set; and a drum being open to the first planetary gear set, with a cylindrical intermediate wall, an inner peripheral wall and outer peripheral wall and forming the hydraulic servos of the first and third clutch means between the intermediate wall and the inner peripheral wall and between the intermediate wall and the outer peripheral wall respectively.

  17. Intrasperm vertical symbiont transmission

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenji; Yukuhiro, Fumiko; Matsuura, Yu; Fukatsu, Takema; Noda, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria are commonly associated with cells and tissues of diverse animals and other organisms, which affect hosts’ biology in a variety of ways. Most of these symbionts are present in the cytoplasm of host cells and maternally transmitted through host generations. The paucity of paternal symbiont transmission is likely relevant to the extremely streamlined sperm structure: the head consisting of condensed nucleus and the tail made of microtubule bundles, without the symbiont-harboring cytoplasm that is discarded in the process of spermatogenesis. Here, we report a previously unknown mechanism of paternal symbiont transmission via an intrasperm passage. In the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps, a facultative Rickettsia symbiont was found not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus of host cells. In male insects, strikingly, most sperm heads contained multiple intranuclear Rickettsia cells. The Rickettsia infection scarcely affected the host fitness including normal sperm functioning. Mating experiments revealed both maternal and paternal transmission of the Rickettsia symbiont through host generations. When cultured with mosquito and silkworm cell lines, the Rickettsia symbiont was preferentially localized within the insect cell nuclei, indicating that the Rickettsia symbiont itself must have a mechanism for targeting nucleus. The mechanisms underlying the sperm head infection without disturbing sperm functioning are, although currently unknown, of both basic and applied interest. PMID:24799707

  18. Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved α+β core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Das, Debanu; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2_DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfito­bacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23_SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63_THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like α+β core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet flanked by several α-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2_DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63_THEAC and Q2LQ23_SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63_THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23_SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure of Q9HJ63_THEAC is atypical for a treble-cleft zinc finger in that three Cys side chains and an Asp side chain are within coordination distance of the zinc. PMID:20944230

  19. Zika and Sexual Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Zika and Sexual Transmission Language: English Español Português ... Healthcare Providers: Sexual Transmission of Zika Basics of Zika Virus and Sex Transmission Zika can be passed ...

  20. Survey of Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Mudd, C.; Rogers, J.

    2011-02-01

    The report presents transmission cost allocation methodologies for reliability transmission projects, generation interconnection, and economic transmission projects for all Regional Transmission Organizations.

  1. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers’ knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; ‘under-reporting’ was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and ‘selling FMD-infected animals’ is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should

  2. Applied Enzymology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in…

  3. Complexity transmission during replication

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Brian K.

    1979-01-01

    The transmission of complexity during DNA replication has been investigated to clarify the significance of this molecular property in a deterministic process. Complexity was equated with the amount of randomness within an ordered molecular structure and measured by the entropy of a posteriori probabilities for discrete (monomer sequences, atomic bonds) and continuous (torsion angle sequences) structural parameters in polynucleotides, proteins, and ligand molecules. A theoretical analysis revealed that sequence complexity decreases during transmission from DNA to protein. It was also found that sequence complexity limits the attainable complexity in the folding of a polypeptide chain and that a protein cannot interact with a ligand moiety of higher complexity. The analysis indicated, furthermore, that in any deterministic molecular process a cause possesses more complexity than its effect. This outcome broadly complies with Curie's symmetry principle. Results from an analysis of an extensive set of experimental data are presented; they corroborate these findings. It is suggested, therefore, that complexity governs the direction of order—order molecular transformations. Two biological implications are (i) replication of DNA in a stepwise, repetitive manner by a polymerase appears to be a necessary consequence of structural constraints imposed by complexity, and (ii) during evolution, increases in complexity had to involve a nondeterministic mechanism. This latter requirement apparently applied also to development of the first replicating system on earth. PMID:287070

  4. Modulated powershift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Goodbar, E.; Testerman, M.D.

    1986-09-01

    The design and development of a four speed transmission, with special emphasis on the electronic control of clutch pressure during engagement involves many engineering interactions. The case at hand had, as a primary objective, creation of a unit which would perform to specific functional requirements while maintaining costs competitive in present and future marketing environments. Specific functional design requirements included the four forward and reverse ratios (from 4.2 to 0.6), and a baseline design point to be turbine torque and speed of 805 lb-ft (1091 N . m) and 500 rpm. A transmission in-service B-10 life of 9000-10,000 h as applied to a 3.5-4.5 yd/sup 3/ (2.7-3.5 m/sup 3/) rubber-tired wheel loader duty cycle was needed. Limitations were placed on maximum shaft slopes at bearing locations, and spline and shaft capacities for a 350 lb-ft (473 N . m) power take-off. Directional clutch thermal capacities had to survive the vehicle's duty cycle. Adjustable and accurate control of clutch supply pressure during engagements was needed, as were four-wheel drive disconnects, ground driven pump, midship, engine, and remote mount, and converter lock-up. Cost effectiveness considerations were: material and processing, commonality of components, serviceability, and operational reliability.

  5. Applied geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Dohr, G.

    1981-01-01

    This book discusses techniques which play a predominant role in petroleum and natural gas exploration. Particular emphasis has been placed on modern seismics which today claims over 90% of man-power and financial resources in exploration. The processing of geophysical data is the most important factor in applied physics and emphasis is placed on it in the discussion of exploration problems. Chapter titles include: refraction seismics; reflection seismics; seismic field techniques; digital seismics-electronic data processing; digital seismics-practical application; recent developments, special seismic procedures; gravitational methods; magnetic methods; geoelectric methods; well-logging; and miscellaneous methods in applied geophysics (thermal methods, radioactive dating, natural radioactivity surveys, and surface detection of gas. (DMC)

  6. Essays on electricity transmission investment and financial transmission rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Wenzhuo

    The U.S. electric power industry has been going through fundamental restructuring and realignment since the 1990's. Many issues and problems have emerged during the transition, and both economists and engineers have been looking for the solutions fervently. In this dissertation, which consists primarily of three essays, we apply economics theory and techniques to the power industry and address two related issues, transmission investment and financial transmission rights (FTRs). The first essay takes the decentralized perspective and investigates the efficiency attribute of market-based transmission investment under perfect competition. We clarify, for the first time, the nature of the externality created by loop flows that causes transmission investment to be inefficient. Our findings have important implications for better understanding of transmission market design and creating incentives for efficient transmission investment. In the second essay, we define several rules for allocating transmission investment cost within the framework of cooperative game theory. These rules provide fair, stable or efficient cost allocations in theory and are good benchmarks against which the allocation mechanism in practice can be compared and improved upon. In the last essay, we make exploratory efforts in analyzing and assessing empirically the performance of the Midwest independent system operator (MISO) FTR auction market. We reveal some stylized facts about this young market and find that it is not efficient under the risk-neutrality assumption. We also point out and correct the drawbacks in previous related work and suggest about more complete empirical work in future. In all, this dissertation makes both theoretic and empirical analysis of the two hot issues related to the power industry and comes up with findings that have important implications for the development of this industry.

  7. Applied Nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Hobson, David W; Roberts, Stephen M; Shvedova, Anna A; Warheit, David B; Hinkley, Georgia K; Guy, Robin C

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials, including nanoparticles and nanoobjects, are being incorporated into everyday products at an increasing rate. These products include consumer products of interest to toxicologists such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, food packaging, household products, and so on. The manufacturing of products containing or utilizing nanomaterials in their composition may also present potential toxicologic concerns in the workplace. The molecular complexity and composition of these nanomaterials are ever increasing, and the means and methods being applied to characterize and perform useful toxicologic assessments are rapidly advancing. This article includes presentations by experienced toxicologists in the nanotoxicology community who are focused on the applied aspect of the discipline toward supporting state of the art toxicologic assessments for food products and packaging, pharmaceuticals and medical devices, inhaled nanoparticle and gastrointestinal exposures, and addressing occupational safety and health issues and concerns. This symposium overview article summarizes 5 talks that were presented at the 35th Annual meeting of the American College of Toxicology on the subject of "Applied Nanotechnology." PMID:26957538

  8. Method of calibrating clutches in transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Bulgrien, G.H.

    1991-02-05

    This paper describes a microprocessor controlling a shuttle shift transmission programmed to effect a calibration of the final drive clutches in the transmission so that the microprocessor can efficiently effect engagement of each respective clutch by applying the proper hydraulic pressure to cause proper engagement thereof. This method of calibrating the final drive clutches in the transmission includes braking the output shaft of the transmission so that any engagement of the selected final drive clutch being calibrated will cause a load to be applied to the engine. The hydraulic pressure is then incrementally increased until the engine RPM's decrease because of the load being placed on the engine. The value of this engagement hydraulic pressure is stored in the microprocessor for use when effecting engagement of the selected clutch during operation of the transmission. Service indicators are programmed into the microprocessor should the selected clutch not be capable of being calibrated.

  9. Applied Koopmanisma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budišić, Marko; Mohr, Ryan; Mezić, Igor

    2012-12-01

    A majority of methods from dynamical system analysis, especially those in applied settings, rely on Poincaré's geometric picture that focuses on "dynamics of states." While this picture has fueled our field for a century, it has shown difficulties in handling high-dimensional, ill-described, and uncertain systems, which are more and more common in engineered systems design and analysis of "big data" measurements. This overview article presents an alternative framework for dynamical systems, based on the "dynamics of observables" picture. The central object is the Koopman operator: an infinite-dimensional, linear operator that is nonetheless capable of capturing the full nonlinear dynamics. The first goal of this paper is to make it clear how methods that appeared in different papers and contexts all relate to each other through spectral properties of the Koopman operator. The second goal is to present these methods in a concise manner in an effort to make the framework accessible to researchers who would like to apply them, but also, expand and improve them. Finally, we aim to provide a road map through the literature where each of the topics was described in detail. We describe three main concepts: Koopman mode analysis, Koopman eigenquotients, and continuous indicators of ergodicity. For each concept, we provide a summary of theoretical concepts required to define and study them, numerical methods that have been developed for their analysis, and, when possible, applications that made use of them. The Koopman framework is showing potential for crossing over from academic and theoretical use to industrial practice. Therefore, the paper highlights its strengths in applied and numerical contexts. Additionally, we point out areas where an additional research push is needed before the approach is adopted as an off-the-shelf framework for analysis and design.

  10. Direct contact transmission of three different foot-and-mouth disease virus strains in swine demonstrates important strain-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Juan M; Tucker, Meghan; Hartwig, Ethan; Bishop, Elizabeth; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2012-08-01

    A novel direct contact transmission model for the study of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection of swine was utilized to investigate transmission characteristics of three FMDV strains belonging to serotypes A, O and Asia1. Each strain demonstrated distinct transmission characteristics and required different exposure times to achieve successful contact transmission. While a 4h exposure was sufficient for strain A24 Cruzeiro (A24Cru), both O1 Manisa and Asia1 Shamir transmission required 18 h or more. Viral excretion levels from donors (for all three strains) and virus present in room air (for A24Cru and O1 Manisa) were evaluated and associated with clinical signs and observed transmission pattern. Although all directly inoculated donor animals showed acute FMD, A24Cru had the highest levels of viral shedding in saliva and nasal swabs followed by O1 Manisa and Asia1 Shamir. Virus levels in room air were higher and were detected longer for A24Cru than for O1 Manisa. These results provide direct evidence for important strain-specific variation in transmission characteristics and emphasize the need for thorough evaluation of different FMDV viral strains using a well defined contact transmission methodology. This information is critical for vaccine and biotherapeutic efficacy testing, pathogenesis and disease modeling of FMDV transmission.

  11. Sound Transmission at Pipe Joints.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servis, Dimitris C.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. A model was developed using beam and plane wave theory to describe the sound transmission at pipe joints. This approach greatly simplifies the modelling of the pipe joint and the solution is presented in a manner which can be applied in both the Frequency and the Time domain, for the solution of acoustic and fluid dynamics problems related to pipe joint transmission. This form of modelling can be extended to describe a wide range of pipe joints and discontinuities and lend itself to the study of piping networks by incorporating its solution in existing models used to describe the performance of large systems. A variety of experimental techniques have been explored and applied for the measurement of the sound transmission at pipe joints. The model predictions were found to be in good agreement with experimental data and form the basis of a simple and effective method for the study of sound transmission at pipe joints.

  12. Aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus Asia-1 under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Colenutt, C; Gonzales, J L; Paton, D J; Gloster, J; Nelson, N; Sanders, C

    2016-06-30

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. Direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. Transmission of FMDV by aerosol may not be prevented by these control measures and this route of transmission may allow infection of animals at distance from the infection source. Understanding the potential for aerosol spread of specific FMDV strains is important for informing control strategies in an outbreak. Here, the potential for transmission of an FMDV Asia 1 strain between pigs and cattle by indirect aerosol exposure was evaluated in an experimental setting. Four naïve calves were exposed to aerosols emitted from three infected pigs in an adjacent room for a 10h period. Direct contact between pigs and cattle and fomite transfer between rooms was prevented. Viral titres in aerosols emitted by the infected pigs were measured to estimate the dose that calves were exposed to. One of the calves developed clinical signs of FMD, whilst there was serological evidence for spread to cattle by aerosol transmission in the remaining three calves. This highlights the possibility that this FMDV Asia 1 strain could be spread by aerosol transmission given appropriate environmental conditions should an outbreak occur in pigs. Our estimates suggest the exposure dose required for aerosol transmission was higher than has been previously quantified for other serotypes, implying that aerosols are less likely to play a significant role in transmission and spread of this FMDV strain. PMID:27259825

  13. Applied geodesy

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, S.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc.

  14. Transmission of Mumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles Related Links World Health Organization Medline Plus Transmission of Mumps Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Answers for Patients . Top of Page Related Pages Transmission for Healthcare Providers Cover Your Cough Clean Hands ...

  15. Chickenpox (Varicella): Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Medline Plus Healthfinder.gov Shingles Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not shingles. For more information about shingles, see Transmission . When Is a Person Contagious? A person with ...

  16. Value Transmissions between Parents and Children: Gender and Developmental Phase as Transmission Belts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and…

  17. Automated manual transmission controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Bernier, David R.

    1999-12-28

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  18. Hybrid powertrain system including smooth shifting automated transmission

    DOEpatents

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Nellums, Richard A.

    2006-10-24

    A powertrain system is provided that includes a prime mover and a change-gear transmission having an input, at least two gear ratios, and an output. The powertrain system also includes a power shunt configured to route power applied to the transmission by one of the input and the output to the other one of the input and the output. A transmission system and a method for facilitating shifting of a transmission system are also provided.

  19. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission.

  20. Bordetella pertussis transmission.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Elizabeth A; Nicholson, Tracy L; Merkel, Tod J

    2015-11-01

    Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica are Gram-negative bacterial respiratory pathogens. Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough and is considered a human-adapted variant of B. bronchiseptica. Bordetella pertussis and B. bronchiseptica share mechanisms of pathogenesis and are genetically closely related. However, despite the close genetic relatedness, these Bordetella species differ in several classic fundamental aspects of bacterial pathogens such as host range, pathologies and persistence. The development of the baboon model for the study of B. pertussis transmission, along with the development of the swine and mouse model for the study of B. bronchiseptica, has enabled the investigation of different aspects of transmission including the route, attack rate, role of bacterial and host factors, and the impact of vaccination on transmission. This review will focus on B. pertussis transmission and how animal models of B. pertussis transmission and transmission models using the closely related B. bronchiseptica have increased our understanding of B. pertussis transmission. PMID:26374235

  1. Value transmissions between parents and children: gender and developmental phase as transmission belts.

    PubMed

    Roest, Annette M C; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R M

    2010-02-01

    This study applied the gender role model of socialization theory, the developmental aging theory, and the topic salience perspective to the investigation of parent-child value transmissions. Specifically, we examined whether the bi-directionality and selectivity of value transmissions differed as a function of parents' and children's gender and children's developmental phase (adolescence versus emerging adulthood). Transmissions between parents and children from 402 Dutch families on the topics of work as duty and hedonism were studied across a 5-year period using structural equation modeling. As expected, we did not find convincing support for the general models of gender socialization and developmental aging. Instead, parent-child value transmissions appeared to be qualified by value salience. Particularly, high salience of work as duty for fathers was related with great paternal involvement in transmissions on this value orientation and high salience of hedonism for sons and adolescents was linked to transmissions from these groups to parents.

  2. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identify weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.

  3. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool

    2015-06-23

    Developed to solve specific problem: Assist transmission planning for regional transfers in interconnected power systems. This work was originated in a study for the U.S. Department of State, to recommend transmission reinforcements for the Central American regional system that interconnects 6 countries. Transmission planning analysis is currently performed by engineers with domainspecific and systemspecific knowledge without a unique methodology. The software codes of this disclosure assists engineers by defining systematic analysis procedures to help identifymore » weak points and make decisions on transmission planning of regional interconnected power systems. Transmission Planning Analysis Tool groups PSS/E results of multiple AC contingency analysis and voltage stability analysis and QV analysis of many scenarios of study and arrange them in a systematic way to aid power system planning engineers or transmission operators in effective decision]making process or in the off]line study environment.« less

  4. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  5. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus. PMID:25654239

  6. Elective automatic shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Redzinski, G.E.

    1986-09-02

    For use in vehicle of the type having an engine coupled with traction wheels through a driveline including a change-speed transmission, the transmission includes drive direction reversing means, a drive direction selector for manual control of the reversing means and having a forward and reverse position, the transmission including ratio changing means, a manual gear selector for operation of the ratio changing means for shifting the transmission into a selected gear, and control means responsive to a control signal for upshifting and downshifting between first and second gears.

  7. Fermi Molecular Dynamics Applied to Problems in the Atomic Physics of Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaGattuta, Ken

    2002-10-01

    A report on work in progress: The approach to steady state of a partially ionized fluid, in the regime of strong ion-ion coupling, is being simulated with the quasi-classical method known as Fermi Molecular Dynamics (FMD). We begin with a description of FMD, a statement of its advantages and disadvantages, and an overview of past work. We have continued to develop the FMD method as a tool for simulating a variety of inhomogeneous, partially ionized, dense plasma systems.

  8. Passenger car transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings. The Mercedes-Benz 5-speed automatic transmission targets and comparison of concepts. 1991 model year Chrysler mini-van all wheel drive vehicle. Mesh stiffness and transmission error of spur and helical gears. High precision cutting tool system for the manufacture of world class powertrain components.

  9. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  11. Automatic transmission control method

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.; Ishiguro, T.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method of controlling an automatic transmission of an automotive vehicle. The transmission has a gear train which includes a brake for establishing a first lowest speed of the transmission, the brake acting directly on a ring gear which meshes with a pinion, the pinion meshing with a sun gear in a planetary gear train, the ring gear connected with an output member, the sun gear being engageable and disengageable with an input member of the transmission by means of a clutch. The method comprises the steps of: detecting that a shift position of the automatic transmission has been shifted to a neutral range; thereafter introducing hydraulic pressure to the brake if present vehicle velocity is below a predetermined value, whereby the brake is engaged to establish the first lowest speed; and exhausting hydraulic pressure from the brake if present vehicle velocity is higher than a predetermined value, whereby the brake is disengaged.

  12. The Global Transmission Network of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.; Hepler, N. Lance; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Richman, Douglas D.; Smith, Davey M.; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is pandemic, but its contemporary global transmission network has not been characterized. A better understanding of the properties and dynamics of this network is essential for surveillance, prevention, and eventual eradication of HIV. Here, we apply a simple and computationally efficient network-based approach to all publicly available HIV polymerase sequences in the global database, revealing a contemporary picture of the spread of HIV-1 within and between countries. This approach automatically recovered well-characterized transmission clusters and extended other clusters thought to be contained within a single country across international borders. In addition, previously undescribed transmission clusters were discovered. Together, these clusters represent all known modes of HIV transmission. The extent of international linkage revealed by our comprehensive approach demonstrates the need to consider the global diversity of HIV, even when describing local epidemics. Finally, the speed of this method allows for near-real-time surveillance of the pandemic's progression. PMID:24151309

  13. Slowing heterosexual HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Ronald, A R

    1995-06-01

    HIV-1 is spreading rapidly through heterosexual intercourse in many societies. Slowing the transmission of this virus is the most urgent global public health priority. Our understanding of the biologic differences between societies that account for most vacancies in heterosexual HIV transmission are now understood. Effective interventions to slow transmission must be designed, implemented, and evaluated. Human and fiscal resources must be provided through a shared global effort. The consequences of failing to do so will lead to a world catastrophe of unprecedented magnitude. PMID:7673667

  14. Tractor Transmissions. A Teaching Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Agricultural Engineering and Vocational Agriculture, Athens, GA.

    The manual was developed as a reference for teaching students about transmissions in farm tractors. The manual is divided into five sections: (1) transmission history, (2) gears and bearings in transmission, (3) sliding-gear transmissions, (4) planetary gearing, and (5) glossary. The working principles of the sliding-gear transmission, the most…

  15. Transmission Cost Allocation Methodologies for Regional Transmission Organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, S.; Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes transmission cost allocation methodologies for transmission projects developed to maintain or enhance reliability, to interconnect new generators, or to access new resources and enhance competitive bulk power markets, otherwise known as economic transmission projects.

  16. Down hole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy

    2007-07-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. The electrically conducting coil comprises at least two generally fractional loops. In the preferred embodiment, the transmission elements are connected by an electrical conductor. Preferably, the electrical conductor is a coaxial cable. Preferably, the MCEI trough comprises ferrite. In the preferred embodiment, the fractional loops are connected by a connecting cable. In one aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a pair of twisted wires. In one embodiment the connecting cable is a shielded pair of twisted wires. In another aspect of the present invention, the connecting cable is a coaxial cable. The connecting cable may be disposed outside of the MCEI circular trough.

  17. Preselected multiratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, J.E.

    1986-09-09

    A multistep ratio power transmission is described comprising a drive shaft; a driven shaft; three selectively engageable friction clutch means operatively connected with the drive shaft; three transmission input shafts each connected with respective friction clutch means. Three synchronizer clutch means are connected with respective ones of the three transmission input shafts; gear train means operatively connected with the output shaft for selectively providing forward step ratios and a reverse ratio including two ratio gears on each transmission input shaft and being selectively connectible therewith by respective ones of the synchronizer clutch means, and an output ratio gear meshing with each ratio gear; and each of the synchronizer clutch means being operable to selectively connect a pair of gear train means with the respective friction clutch means. At least two of the pairs of gear train means provide forward drive ratio with each pair controlled by the same synchronizer clutch means providing forward drive ratios which are separated by three ratio steps.

  18. Multiplex television transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, W. R.

    1967-01-01

    Time-multiplexing system enables several cameras to share a single commercial television transmission channel. This system is useful in industries for visually monitoring several operating areas or instrument panels from a remote location.

  19. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  20. Downhole transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  1. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  2. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1987-09-01

    A multistate transmission is described having an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears with planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the planetary gear train means connected to the output shaft; b. first bypass means connecting the input shaft to the planetary gear train means; c. differential transmission means for receiving its input from the input shaft and having means to adjust the torque and speed output infinitely variable over its range of operation for each state of the transmission; d. power return means for receiving the output of the differential transmission means; e. means including clutch operated speed reversing means for interconnecting the sun gear in the planetary gear train means with the power return means; f. the power return means including a first gear to receive the output of the differential transmission means; g. first multispeed transmission means connecting the means for supporting the carrier shaft to the first bypass means.

  3. National transmission grid study

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, Spencer

    2003-05-31

    The National Energy Policy Plan directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a study to examine the benefits of establishing a national electricity transmission grid and to identify transmission bottlenecks and measures to address them. DOE began by conducting an independent analysis of U.S. electricity markets and identifying transmission system bottlenecks using DOE’s Policy Office Electricity Modeling System (POEMS). DOE’s analysis, presented in Section 2, confirms the central role of the nation’s transmission system in lowering costs to consumers through increased trade. More importantly, DOE’s analysis also confirms the results of previous studies, which show that transmission bottlenecks and related transmission system market practices are adding hundreds of millions of dollars to consumers’ electricity bills each year. A more detailed technical overview of the use of POEMS is provided in Appendix A. DOE led an extensive, open, public input process and heard a wide range of comments and recommendations that have all been considered.1 More than 150 participants registered for three public workshops held in Detroit, MI (September 24, 2001); Atlanta, GA (September 26, 2001); and Phoenix, AZ (September 28, 2001).

  4. Review of the transmissions of the Soviet helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev I.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the following aspects of Soviet helicopter transmissions is presented: transmitted power, weight, reduction ratio, RPM, design configuration, comparison of different type of manufacturing methods, and a description of the materials and technologies applied to critical transmission components. Included are mechanical diagrams of the gearboxes of the Soviet helicopters and test stands for testing gearbox and main shaft. The quality of Soviet helicopter transmissions and their Western counterparts are assessed and compared.

  5. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  6. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  7. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  8. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  9. 47 CFR 73.322 - FM stereophonic sound transmission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FM stereophonic sound transmission standards... SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.322 FM stereophonic sound transmission... modulation levels apply: (i) When a signal exists in only one channel of a two channel (biphonic)...

  10. Torque feedback transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1987-01-20

    This patent describes an infinitely variable transmission of inline configuration for interconnecting a primer mover with a load for clutch free operation in a range of speed including hydraulic neutral comprising: a. planetary gear train means having a ring gear, planetary gears supported by a planetary gear carrier, and a sun gear, the sun gear being connected mechanically to the load, output shaft means for joining the sun gear to the load; b. variable torque feedback means comprising (i) a variable displacement hydraulic motor whose rotor shaft is in line with the output shaft means and drivingly connected to the prime mover and the planetary gear carrier during the full range of operation of the transmission, and (ii) a fixed displacement hydraulic pump connected hydraulically to the motor, the rotor shaft of the pump being connected mechanically to the ring gear and being axially displaced from the output shaft means; c. means for adjusting the displacement volume within the hydraulic motor for controlling the torque feedback in the transmission to provide infinitely variable coupling between the prime mover and the load over the full range of the transmission including hydraulic neutral; d. a speed reducer between the primer mover and the motor rotor shaft and a speed multiplier between the sun gear and the load; and e. mechanical transmission assembly means between the speed multiplier and the load in line with the motor rotor shaft and the output shaft means for providing selection of drive, reverse, park, and neutral.

  11. Ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J. E.; Ravets, S.; Grover, J. A.; Solano, P.; Kordell, P. R.; Wong-Campos, J. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.

    2014-06-01

    We present a procedure for reproducibly fabricating ultrahigh transmission optical nanofibers (530 nm diameter and 84 mm stretch) with single-mode transmissions of 99.95 ± 0.02%, which represents a loss from tapering of 2.6 × 10-5 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. When controllably launching the next family of higher-order modes on a fiber with 195 mm stretch, we achieve a transmission of 97.8 ± 2.8%, which has a loss from tapering of 5.0 × 10-4 dB/mm when normalized to the entire stretch. Our pulling and transfer procedures allow us to fabricate optical nanofibers that transmit more than 400 mW in high vacuum conditions. These results, published as parameters in our previous work, present an improvement of two orders of magnitude less loss for the fundamental mode and an increase in transmission of more than 300% for higher-order modes, when following the protocols detailed in this paper. We extract from the transmission during the pull, the only reported spectrogram of a fundamental mode launch that does not include excitation to asymmetric modes; in stark contrast to a pull in which our cleaning protocol is not followed. These results depend critically on the pre-pull cleanliness and when properly following our pulling protocols are in excellent agreement with simulations.

  12. Fire retardancy using applied materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, R.

    1971-01-01

    An example of advanced technology transfer from the Little Joe, Surveyor, Comsat, re-entry and Apollo age to everyday fire protection needs is presented. Utilizing the principle of sublimation cooling for thermostatic temperature control, the material meets a wide range of fire retardancy and heat transmission control requirements. Properties vary from flexible tape for conduits and electrical cables to rigid coatings for column protection, with a broad spectrum of sublimation temperatures available. The material can be applied in the field or in the factory, utilizing mass production techniques, yielding a product that is reliable, effective, widely available and low in cost.

  13. Automotive transmission linkage system

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, F.Y.; Ardayfio, D.D.

    1990-10-02

    This patent describes a system for converting a manual multi-speed transmission to operate as an automatic-manual transmission, the system being disposed within a vehicle, the transmission having a conventional gearshift lever and a clutch pedal. It comprises: a gearshift position selection panel, the panel being located apart from the gearshift lever, the panel enabling a driver to select the desired gear position of the gearshift lever by manipulating the panel without the necessity of the driver handling the gearshift lever; a controller which transforms the gearshift selection of the driver to an output signal, the signal corresponding to the gearshift position selected by the driver; and actuating means for mechanically repositioning the gearshift lever automatically in accordance with the output signal.

  14. China's transmission mushrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Defang, C.

    1980-08-01

    Thirty years ago, when the People's Republic of China was founded, there were only three high-voltage transmission grids in the entire country, totaling only 500 km (311 mi.) in length. Today, there are 13 distinct major regional networks, plus a number of smaller ones, with a cumulative length of 230,000 km (142,900 mi) and operating at voltages up to 330 kV. Those transmission lines that did exist in 1949 operated at only 35 kV, with the single exception of one regional grid of 220 kV in northeastern China. Even for those modest voltages, essentially all transmission and distribution equipment had to be imported.

  15. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013–2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  16. Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; McClelland, J.F. )

    1990-10-15

    Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy is a new method that can acquire analytically useful transmission spectra from moving, optically thick solids. No sample preparation is required. The spectra are of sufficient quality for accurate quantitative compositional analysis. The method works by the creation of a thin, short-lived, chilled layer at the sample surface. Blackbody-like thermal emission from the bulk of the sample is selectively absorbed as it passes through the chilled layer, so the transmission spectrum of the layer is superimposed on the observed thermal emission. Spectra of polycarbonate, beeswax, and copolymers of methyl and butyl methacrylate are presented. Compositional analysis of the methacrylate copolymers with a standard error or prediction of only 0.87 mol % is demonstrated.

  17. Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jones, R W; McClelland, J F

    1990-10-15

    Transient infrared transmission spectroscopy is a new method that can acquire analytically useful transmission spectra from moving, optically thick solids. No sample preparation is required. The spectra are of sufficient quality for accurate quantitative compositional analysis. The method works by the creation of a thin, short-lived, chilled layer at the sample surface. Blackbody-like thermal emission from the bulk of the sample is selectively absorbed as it passes through the chilled layer, so the transmission spectrum of the layer is superimposed on the observed thermal emission. Spectra of polycarbonate, beeswax, and copolymers of methyl and butyl methacrylate are presented. Compositional analysis of the methacrylate copolymers with a standard error of prediction of only 0.87 mol % is demonstrated.

  18. Aerosol Transmission of Filoviruses.

    PubMed

    Mekibib, Berhanu; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses have become a worldwide public health concern because of their potential for introductions into non-endemic countries through international travel and the international transport of infected animals or animal products. Since it was first identified in 1976, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) and Sudan, the 2013-2015 western African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest, both by number of cases and geographical extension, and deadliest, recorded so far in medical history. The source of ebolaviruses for human index case(s) in most outbreaks is presumptively associated with handling of bush meat or contact with fruit bats. Transmission among humans occurs easily when a person comes in contact with contaminated body fluids of patients, but our understanding of other transmission routes is still fragmentary. This review deals with the controversial issue of aerosol transmission of filoviruses. PMID:27223296

  19. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1981-01-01

    The testing of a Mercury Lynx automatic transmission is reported. The transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-ninety percent range both for drive performance test and coast performance tests. The torque, speed, and efficiency curves are presented, which provide the complete performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx automatic transmission.

  20. Small passenger car transmission test: Dodge Omni A-404 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This transmission was tested in accordance with a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid eighty percent range for both drive performance test and coast performance tests.

  1. Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    2006-07-07

    We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect.

  2. Advanced rotorcraft transmission program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is an Army-funded, joint Army/NASA program to develop and demonstrate lightweight, quiet, durable drivetrain systems for next generation rotorcraft. ART addresses the drivetrain requirements of two distinct next generation aircraft classes: Future Air Attack Vehicle, a 10,000 to 20,000 lb. aircraft capable of undertaking tactical support and air-to-air missions; and Advanced Cargo Aircraft, a 60,000 to 80,000 lb. aircraft capable of heavy life field support operations. Both tiltrotor and more conventional helicopter configurations are included in the ART program. Specific objectives of ART include reduction of drivetrain weight by 25 percent compared to baseline state-of-the-art drive systems configured and sized for the next generation aircraft, reduction of noise level at the transmission source by 10 dB relative to a suitably sized and configured baseline, and attainment of at least a 5000 hr mean-time-between-removal. The technical approach for achieving the ART goals includes application of the latest available component, material, and lubrication technology to advanced concept drivetrains that utilize new ideas in gear configuration, transmission layout, and airframe/drivetrain integration. To date, candidate drivetrain systems were carried to a conceptual design stage, and tradeoff studies were conducted resulting in selection of an ART transmission configuration for each of the four contractors. The final selection was based on comparative weight, noise, and reliability studies. A description of each of the selected ART designs is included. Preliminary design of each of the four selected ART transmission was completed, as have mission impact studies wherein comparisons of aircraft mission performance and life cycle costs are undertaken for the next generation aircraft with ART and with the baseline transmission.

  3. Heterosexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Laga, M

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments concerning heterosexual transmission of HIV (review of 1988 literature only) suggest improved understanding of the pattern of spread and role of risk behaviors and biological cofactors in its transmission. 3 distinct patterns if HIV infection are known: heterosexual spread in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, spread primarily among homosexuals and injecting drug users in Europe, North American and much of Latin America and Australia, and both homosexual and heterosexual transmission in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where prevalence is low. In Africa an estimated 80% of cases are acquired heterosexually. Important risk factors are number of sex partners, sex with prostitutes, being a prostitute, being a sex partner of an infected person, and having a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Prevalence rates have risen rapidly in Zaire and Kenya. In Africa, acquisition of HIV is related to sexual activity only. In contrast, in the U.S., heterosexual cases make up only 4% of all cases, and in Europe only 6%. Data on types of sexual transmission of HIV are mounting, in aggregate suggestive of a marked heterogeneity in infectivity and possibly susceptibility between individuals. Among couples where the man is positive, in some places individuals appear to be highly infective, notably those from Kinshasa, Zaire and Haiti, while other series of discordant couples the receptive partner remained seronegative for several years. Transmission from women to men appears to be less efficient than from men to women, as has been observed with other STDs such as gonorrhea. Biological cofactors implicated in enhanced HIV transmission appear to be advanced CDC Stage IV AIDS disease, with low T-helper lymphocyte counts and high antigenemia; concomitant STDS, especially those with genital ulceration; lack of circumcision; oral contraceptive use; practice of anal intercourse; inconsistent or no use of condoms. Theoretical models for

  4. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  5. Nosocomial Transmission of SARS.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nelson; Sung, Joseph J.Y.

    2003-12-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome is a newly emerged infectious disease with moderately high transmissibility. Nosocomial outbreaks were responsible for the propagation of the epidemic worldwide. Health care workers (HCW) are at particular high risk because of their close contact with patients, involvement in medical procedures, and handling of excreta/fomites. Good hospital organization and appropriate infection control strategies are essential to prevent/interrupt disease transmission from patients to HCWs (and vice versa) and among inpatients and HCWs themselves. Education and training should target broadly to all HCWs.

  6. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  7. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  8. Transmission overhaul and replacement predictions using Weibull and renewel theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    A method to estimate the frequency of transmission overhauls is presented. This method is based on the two-parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life. A second method is presented to estimate the number of replacement components needed to support the transmission overhaul pattern. The second method is based on renewal theory. Confidence statistics are applied with both methods to improve the statistical estimate of sample behavior. A transmission example is also presented to illustrate the use of the methods. Transmission overhaul frequency and component replacement calculations are included in the example.

  9. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  10. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOEpatents

    Bacon, Larry D.; Ballard, William P.; Clark, M. Collins; Marder, Barry M.

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  11. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  12. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  13. Gear type transmission apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, K.; Shirai, E.; Moriyama, K.; Nagamatsu, H.

    1988-11-15

    This patent describes a gear type transmission apparatus comprising, a transmission case containing a gear train arrangement including gear trains and an output shaft to which an output of an engine is transmitted through the gear train arrangement and provided with an opening at an upper portion thereof, a cover member mounted on the upper portion of the transmission case to cover the opening, a holder member formed separately from the cover member and fixed on an under surface of the cover member to be positioned at the inside of a contacting face of the cover member provided for coming into contact with an upper end face of the transmission case, wherein the holder member is provided with a shift rod supporting portion disposed to be at least partially lower than the level of the contacting face of the cover member, and a shift rod supported by the shift rod supporting portion of the holder member to be movable in a direction along its axis at a position above the output shaft for causing the gear trains to be in operation to transmit the output selectively, and at least a part of one of the holder member and the shift rod is positioned to be higher than the lever of the contacting face.

  14. Dilemmas of Cultural Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kováts-Németh, Mária

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental problem of the 21st century is that in the modern civilization "the transmission of values is not stable." There is nothing, except for the natural sense of justice and some legal traditions, which would exercise selective power on social behavior. At a critical time in 1949 Albert Szent-Györgyi drew the attention to the…

  15. Laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Edmund J.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of previous studies related to laser power transmission is presented. Particular attention is given to the use of solar pumped lasers for space power applications. Three general laser mechanisms are addressed: photodissociation lasing driven by sunlight, photoexcitation lasing driven directly by sunlight, and photoexcitation lasing driven by thermal radiation.

  16. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  17. Categories and Music Transmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatien, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Lucy Green's (2008) "Music, Informal Learning, and the School: A New Classroom Pedagogy" gives rise to an interesting corollary. Does the manner of music's transmission inform one's understanding of a musical category? While categories of music can be difficult to define according to strict musical characteristics, a better understanding of…

  18. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  19. Dynamics of Mechanical Signal Transmission through Prestressed Stress Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yongyun; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of mechanical stimuli through the actin cytoskeleton has been proposed as a mechanism for rapid long-distance mechanotransduction in cells; however, a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of this transmission and the physical factors governing it remains lacking. Two key features of the actin cytoskeleton are its viscoelastic nature and the presence of prestress due to actomyosin motor activity. We develop a model of mechanical signal transmission through prestressed viscoelastic actin stress fibers that directly connect the cell surface to the nucleus. The analysis considers both temporally stationary and oscillatory mechanical signals and accounts for cytosolic drag on the stress fibers. To elucidate the physical parameters that govern mechanical signal transmission, we initially focus on the highly simplified case of a single stress fiber. The results demonstrate that the dynamics of mechanical signal transmission depend on whether the applied force leads to transverse or axial motion of the stress fiber. For transverse motion, mechanical signal transmission is dominated by prestress while fiber elasticity has a negligible effect. Conversely, signal transmission for axial motion is mediated uniquely by elasticity due to the absence of a prestress restoring force. Mechanical signal transmission is significantly delayed by stress fiber material viscosity, while cytosolic damping becomes important only for longer stress fibers. Only transverse motion yields the rapid and long-distance mechanical signal transmission dynamics observed experimentally. For simple networks of stress fibers, mechanical signals are transmitted rapidly to the nucleus when the fibers are oriented largely orthogonal to the applied force, whereas the presence of fibers parallel to the applied force slows down mechanical signal transmission significantly. The present results suggest that cytoskeletal prestress mediates rapid mechanical signal transmission and allows

  20. Discontinuities detection using transmission electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Boyle, Alistair; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of nuclear waste storage, low permeability clays are investigated as potential geological barrier. Discontinuities in such formations might facilitate the radionuclide transport to the environment. The underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) presents the opportunity to perform in-situ experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods to detect and characterize the presence of discontinuities in the sub-surface. In this work, we apply transmission electrical resistivity tomography to image the medium surrounding a regional fault. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault. The objective of a such geometry is to acquire data in transmission across the massif in addition to classical protocol such as Schlumberger or dipole-dipole in order to better cover the sounded medium. 3D models considering the gallery geometry, the topography and the injection of current in transmission through the massif were developed for the analysis of such particular data sets. For the reconstruction of the medium electrical resistivity, the parametrization of the inverse problem was adapted to the geometry of the experience in a scope to reduce the inversion under-determination. The resulting image obtained with classical protocols and transmission current injection is compared to an image obtained using only classical protocols to better highlight the interest of a transmission experiment in terms of resolution and penetration depth. The addition of protocols in transmission allows a better coverage of the sounded medium so the resulting image presents a better resolution at higher depths than the image resulting from a single profile of electrodes. The proposed configuration of electrical resistivity measurements in transmission is then promising for hydrogeophysical studies, in particular for

  1. Transmission Line Adapted Analytical Power Charts Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, Japhet D.; Daka, James S. J.; Setlhaolo, Ditiro; Malichi, Alec Pulu

    2016-08-01

    The performance of a transmission line has been assessed over the years using power charts. These are graphical representations, drawn to scale, of the equations that describe the performance of transmission lines. Various quantities that describe the performance, such as sending end voltage, sending end power and compensation to give zero voltage regulation, may be deduced from the power charts. Usually required values are read off and then converted using the appropriate scales and known relationships. In this paper, the authors revisit this area of circle diagrams for transmission line performance. The work presented here formulates the mathematical model that analyses the transmission line performance from the power charts relationships and then uses them to calculate the transmission line performance. In this proposed approach, it is not necessary to draw the power charts for the solution. However the power charts may be drawn for the visual presentation. The method is based on applying derived equations and is simple to use since it does not require rigorous derivations.

  2. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOEpatents

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  3. Economic analysis for transmission operation and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qun

    2011-12-01

    Restructuring of the electric power industry has caused dramatic changes in the use of transmission system. The increasing congestion conditions as well as the necessity of integrating renewable energy introduce new challenges and uncertainties to transmission operation and planning. Accurate short-term congestion forecasting facilitates market traders in bidding and trading activities. Cost sharing and recovery issue is a major impediment for long-term transmission investment to integrate renewable energy. In this research, a new short-term forecasting algorithm is proposed for predicting congestion, LMPs, and other power system variables based on the concept of system patterns. The advantage of this algorithm relative to standard statistical forecasting methods is that structural aspects underlying power market operations are exploited to reduce the forecasting error. The advantage relative to previously proposed structural forecasting methods is that data requirements are substantially reduced. Forecasting results based on a NYISO case study demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Moreover, a negotiation methodology is developed to guide transmission investment for integrating renewable energy. Built on Nash Bargaining theory, the negotiation of investment plans and payment rate can proceed between renewable generation and transmission companies for cost sharing and recovery. The proposed approach is applied to Garver's six bus system. The numerical results demonstrate fairness and efficiency of the approach, and hence can be used as guidelines for renewable energy investors. The results also shed light on policy-making of renewable energy subsidies.

  4. System for controlling the transmission ratio in an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Miyawaki, M.

    1987-07-21

    A control system is described for an infinitely variable transmission for a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine, the transmission comprising a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a first hydraulic cylinder for shifting the disc. The pressure regulator valve has a second spool responsive to the transmission ratio for increasing line pressure of the hydraulic circuit with an increase of the transmission ratio. The improvement comprises: a plunger coaxial with the spool of the transmission ratio control valve and axially movable provided; a spring provided between the first spool and the plunger; first means for shifting the plunger in dependency on depression of an accelerator pedal of the vehicle, thereby via the spring shifting the first spool in opposition to the force dependent on the first signal; the manual selecting means for applying the line pressure to the actuator for releasing the actuator from the plunger; an actuator for shifting the plunger against the force dependent on the first signal; manual selecting means for operating the actuator for shifting the plunger against the force dependent on the first signal; second means responsive to the movement of the disc of the drive pulley from a predetermined transmission ratio in a transmission ratio increasing direction for disabling the actuator; and the manual selecting means for operating the actuator. When the actuator operates, the first spool is shifted at a predetermined engine speed, so that the transmission ratio begins to increase and the load on the spring is reduced after the predetermined transmission ratio by the operation of the second means.

  5. Advanced transmission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Bill, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command share an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, this paper presents highlights from that portion of the program in drive train technology and the related mechanical components. The major goals of the program are to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability; reduce the weight, noise, and vibration; and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. The current activity emphasizes noise reduction technology and analytical code development followed by experimental verification. Selected significant advances in technology for transmissions are reviewed, including advanced configurations and new analytical tools. Finally, the plan for future transmission research is presented.

  6. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bill, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program is charged with developing and demonstrating a light, quiet, and durable drivetrain for next-generation rotorcraft in two classes: a 10,000-20,000 Future Attack Air Vehicle capable of both tactical ground support and air-to-air missions, and a 60,000-80,000 lb Advanced Cargo Aircraft, for heavy-lift field-support operations. Specific ART objectives encompass a 25-percent reduction in drivetrain weight, a 10-dB noise level reduction at the transmission source, and the achievement of a 5000-hr MTBF. Four candidate drivetrain systems have been carried to a conceptual design stage, together with projections of their mission performance and life-cycle costs.

  7. Drill string transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  8. Video transmission for telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Squibb, N J

    1999-01-01

    The transmission of moving pictures to remote locations is an important part of telemedicine. Although the first videoconferencing demonstrations were performed in the 1930s, the technology is still fragmented and its quality is sometimes too poor for it to be useful. Conventional television technology is analogue (the fundamental television standards were developed before the Second World War) and does not 'fit' the digital world very well. This paper reviews video transmission and videoconferencing technologies and the results that can be expected. While trained professionals may be able to make use of poor-quality video systems, real advances in telemedicine require studio-quality video, which is possible only with high-bandwidth technology.

  9. Free Transmission Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Marcelo D.; Teixeira, Eduardo V.

    2015-08-01

    We study transmission problems with free interfaces from one random medium to another. Solutions are required to solve distinct partial differential equations, and , within their positive and negative sets respectively. A corresponding flux balance from one phase to another is also imposed. We establish existence and bounds of solutions. We also prove that variational solutions are non-degenerate and develop the regularity theory for solutions of such free boundary problems.

  10. Small passenger car transmission test; Ford C4 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1979 Ford C4 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Ford C4 transmission.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  12. Vehicular transmission shift mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Okubo, K.

    1988-12-27

    This patent describes a vehicular transmission having a main speed change mechanism and a sub speed change mechanism both housed within a transmission case. The main speed change mechanism has gear trains in plural shifting stages provided between input and output shafts and capable of being established selectively and also has a plurality of synchronizing mechanisms operable by shift forks to establish the gear trains selectively. The sub speed change mechanism has a reduction gear train for obtaining a still lower speed than the lowest shifting stage in the main speed change mechanism and also has a sub speed gear shifting synchronizing mechanism operable by a sub speed gear shift fork to establish the reduction gear train. This sub speed change mechanism is disposed in parallel with the main speed change mechanism, the sub speed gear shift fork having means connected to one end of a lever pivotably supported at an intermediate part thereof by a pivot pin, the pivot pin being mounted on the transmission case from the outside thereof.

  13. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  14. Analytical transmission electron microscopy in minerals processing

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, H.L.; Hsieh, K.C.; Twigg, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the possibilities of performing microchemical analysis in thin sections using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy of x-rays is given. Particular attention is paid to the factors that limit accurate analysis at the highest spatial resolution. As an example of the use of these techniques applied to a potential problem in minerals processing, the identification of pyrite and pyrrhotite particles in Illinois, Herrin number 6 coal is presented.

  15. 37 CFR 386.2 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transmission by satellite carriers. 386.2 Section 386.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY... SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite... paragraph (b) of this section shall apply to each digital stream that a satellite carrier or...

  16. 37 CFR 386.2 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transmission by satellite carriers. 386.2 Section 386.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY... SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite... paragraph (b) of this section shall apply to each digital stream that a satellite carrier or...

  17. 37 CFR 386.2 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transmission by satellite carriers. 386.2 Section 386.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY... SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite... paragraph (b) of this section shall apply to each digital stream that a satellite carrier or...

  18. 37 CFR 386.2 - Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transmission by satellite carriers. 386.2 Section 386.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY... SECONDARY TRANSMISSIONS BY SATELLITE CARRIERS § 386.2 Royalty fee for secondary transmission by satellite... paragraph (b) of this section shall apply to each digital stream that a satellite carrier or...

  19. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  20. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Axon, Anthony T. R.

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter gastroduodenitis is a serious chronic infectious disease that is responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. An understanding of the way in which it spreads is fundamentally important when considering measures for its control. Its prevalence is highest in the developing world and in individuals with a disadvantaged socio-economic childhood. The disease is believed to be contracted during the early years of life. A faeco-oral mode of transmission is considered by many to be the most likely mode of spread, however, the organism is difficult to culture both from faeces and from the environment and unlike other enteric organisms Helicobacter does not give rise to a diarrhoeal illness that would facilitate its transmission. An orooral route of spread has also been suggested, however, Helicobacter cannot be cultured from saliva, and if it was spread orally there is no reason why childhood should be the most frequent age for its acquisition. A third possibility is that the bacterium is transmitted gastro-orally. In favor of this hypothesis, the infection is easily acquired following gastric intubation with inadequately disinfected equipment. Children have a greater tendency to vomit than adults, and tend to explore with their fingers and place foreign objects in their mouths. Initial Helicobacter infection causes a dyspeptic illness characterised by mucousy vomiting, which may provide a vehicle for transmission. Furthermore, during the acute infection the organism induces achlorhydria in the host, possibly enabling the organism to survive longer in vomited mucus in the absence of acid. This theory fits best with the epidemiological data. Those most at risk are children living in an overcrowded environment who share beds with one another and live in houses that do not possess a fixed hot water supply (thus making cleaning up of vomit more difficult). It is also commoner in institutionalized children and is associated with school catchment areas.

  1. Frictionless continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Korban, J.F.; Korban, N.F.

    1989-07-25

    This patent describes an infinitely variable speed transmission. It comprises: an input shaft; a drive plate having a plurality of radial slots therein, the drive plate fixed to the input shaft; an output shaft parallel to the input shaft; a bevel gear fixed to the output shaft; a plurality if independently rotatable sprocketed pinions freely rotatable about and meshing with the bevel gear. The pinions also engaging the drive plate by projections from the pinions slidably mounted in the radial slots in the drive plate; and clutching means for selectively locking and unlocking the pinions in sequence to effect driving of the bevel gear.

  2. Dynamically prioritized progressive transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanford, Ronald

    1992-04-01

    Retrieval of image data from a centralized database may be subject to bandwidth limitations, whether due to a low-bandwidth communications link or to contention from simultaneous accesses over a high-bandwidth link. Progressive transmission can alleviate this problem by encoding image data so that any prefix of the data stream approximates the complete image at a coarse level of resolution. The longer the prefix, the finer the resolution. In many cases, as little at 1 percent of the image data may be sufficient to decide whether to discard the image, to permit the retrieval to continue, or to restrict retrieval to a subsection of the image. Our approach treats resolution not as a fixed attribute of the image, but rather as a resource which may be allocated to portions of the image at the direction of a user-specified priority function. The default priority function minimizes error by allocating more resolution to regions of high variance. The user may also point to regions of interest requesting priority transmission. More advanced target recognition strategies may be incorporated at the user's discretion. Multispectral imagery is supported. The user engineering implications are profounded. There is immediate response to a query that might otherwise take minutes to complete. The data is transmitted in small increments so that no single user dominates the communications bandwidth. The user-directed improvement means that bandwidth is focused on interesting information. The user may continue working with the first coarse approximations while further image data is still arriving. The algorithm has been implemented in C on Sun, Silicon Graphics, and NeXT workstations, and in Lisp on a Symbolics. Transmission speeds reach as high as 60,000 baud using a Sparc or 68040 processor when storing data to memory; somewhat less if also updating a graphical display. The memory requirements are roughly five bytes per image pixel. Both computational and memory costs may be reduced

  3. Transmissible cancers in an evolutionary context.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is an evolutionary and ecological process in which complex interactions between tumour cells and their environment share many similarities with organismal evolution. Tumour cells with highest adaptive potential have a selective advantage over less fit cells. Naturally occurring transmissible cancers provide an ideal model system for investigating the evolutionary arms race between cancer cells and their surrounding micro-environment and macro-environment. However, the evolutionary landscapes in which contagious cancers reside have not been subjected to comprehensive investigation. Here, we provide a multifocal analysis of transmissible tumour progression and discuss the selection forces that shape it. We demonstrate that transmissible cancers adapt to both their micro-environment and macro-environment, and evolutionary theories applied to organisms are also relevant to these unique diseases. The three naturally occurring transmissible cancers, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT) and Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) and the recently discovered clam leukaemia, exhibit different evolutionary phases: (i) CTVT, the oldest naturally occurring cell line is remarkably stable; (ii) DFTD exhibits the signs of stepwise cancer evolution; and (iii) clam leukaemia shows genetic instability. While all three contagious cancers carry the signature of ongoing and fairly recent adaptations to selective forces, CTVT appears to have reached an evolutionary stalemate with its host, while DFTD and the clam leukaemia appear to be still at a more dynamic phase of their evolution. Parallel investigation of contagious cancer genomes and transcriptomes and of their micro-environment and macro-environment could shed light on the selective forces shaping tumour development at different time points: during the progressive phase and at the endpoint. A greater understanding of transmissible cancers from an evolutionary ecology perspective will provide novel avenues for

  4. The Born transmission eigenvalue problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Colton, David; Rezac, Jacob D.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we study the distribution of transmission eigenvalues in the complex plane for obstacles whose contrast is small in magnitude. We use a first order approximation of the refractive index to derive and study an approximate interior transmission problem. In the case of spherically stratified media, we prove existence and discreteness of transmission eigenvalues and derive a condition under which the complex part of transmission eigenvalues cannot lie in a strip parallel to the real axis. For obstacles with general shape, we demonstrate that if transmission eigenvalues exist then they form a discrete set.

  5. Automated manual transmission clutch controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Jr., Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    1999-11-30

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  6. Colorado Electrical Transmission Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Xcel Energy Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado XcelEnergy NonXcel Transmission Network Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains transmission network of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4540689.017558 m Left: 160606.141934 m Right: 758715.946645 m Bottom: 4098910.893397m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shapefile

  7. Transmission shift control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dzioba, D.L.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a transmission shift control assembly mounted on a steering column having a longitudinal axis comprising: bracket means secured to the steering column; transmission shift cable means having a portion secured to the bracket means and a portion linearly movable relative to the secured portion; mounting means on the bracket cable drive arm means having an axis and being rotatably mounted on the rotary axis on the mounting means oblique to the longitudinal axis and including a cable connecting portion secured to the movable portion of the cable means and lever mounting means adjacent the mounting means; operator control means including lever means, pin means for pivotally mounting the lever means on the lever mounting means on an axis substantially perpendicular to the rotary axis and positioning arm means formed on the lever means and extending from the pin means; and detent gate means disposed on the bracket means in position to abut the positioning arm means for limiting the extent of pivotal movement of the lever means.

  8. Simplified power shift transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, R.A.

    1987-04-21

    A multi-speed transmission is described for transferring power between a first shaft and a second shaft, the transmission comprising: a compound planetary assembly including a sun gear, a ring gear concentric with the sun gear, a reaction gear concentric with the ring gear, a planetary gear carrier rotatably supporting first and second sets of planet gears, the first planet gear set intermeshing with the ring gear. The sun gear and the second planet gear set intermesh with the first planet gear set and the reaction gear, means for selectively coupling the first shaft with the sun gear and the reaction gear, and means for selectively preventing rotation of the ring gear, and reaction gear and the planetary carrier; a simple planetary assembly comprising a sun gear component concentric with the sun gear of the compound planetary assembly, a ring gear component concentric with both of the sun gears, and a planetary gear carrier component rotatably supporting a set of planet gears, the planet gear set meshing with the sun gear and the ring gear of the simple planetary.

  9. A study of methods of prediction and measurement of the transmission of sound through the walls of light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forssen, B.; Wang, Y. S.; Raju, P. K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The acoustic intensity technique was applied to the sound transmission loss of panel structures (single, composite, and stiffened). A theoretical model of sound transmission through a cylindrical shell is presented.

  10. Data Understanding Applied to Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray; Shilman, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore and develop software for supporting visualization and data analysis of search and optimization. Optimization is an ever-present problem in science. The theory of NP-completeness implies that the problems can only be resolved by increasingly smarter problem specific knowledge, possibly for use in some general purpose algorithms. Visualization and data analysis offers an opportunity to accelerate our understanding of key computational bottlenecks in optimization and to automatically tune aspects of the computation for specific problems. We will prototype systems to demonstrate how data understanding can be successfully applied to problems characteristic of NASA's key science optimization tasks, such as central tasks for parallel processing, spacecraft scheduling, and data transmission from a remote satellite.

  11. Within herd transmission and evaluation of the performance of clinical and serological diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease in partially immune cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, J L; Barrientos, M A; Quiroga, J L; Ardaya, D; Daza, O; Martinez, C; Orozco, C; Crowther, J; Paton, D J

    2014-10-29

    The control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in vaccinated populations relies upon surveillance activities such as clinical inspections (CI) and serological monitoring. New evidence to refine current surveillance guidelines has been provided by evaluating (1) the diagnostic performance of CI and serological tests for detection of FMD virus (FMDV) non-structural proteins (NSP), and (2) the within-herd transmission of the virus in partially immune cattle. Data came from 23 affected herds during an epidemic of FMDV type O in Bolivia, in 2007. All cattle (n=957) in these herds were clinically inspected and serum samples were collected one month after the last animal with clinical signs was detected. Samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against NSP using the PANAFTOSA 3ABC-ELISA test and a subset of samples were tested using the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB). Data from clinical and serological diagnoses were analysed using a Bayesian model. The sensitivity Se and specificity Sp of the tests, as well as the prevalence and the within-herd reproduction ratio R of FMDV were estimated. In addition, risk factors for infection were identified. The Se of CI, the 3ABC-ELISA and the EITB tests were estimated to be 0.30, 0.88 and 0.96 respectively. The estimated Sp, in the same order, were 0.88, 0.93 and 0.97. The within-herd prevalence of infected animals ranged from 0.04 to 0.91 and R ranged from 1.02 to 2.68. It was observed that cattle coming from areas with high vaccination coverage had a lower risk of becoming infected than home-bred cattle from the affected herds, where vaccination coverage was thought to be low. Although these estimates come from herds kept under specific conditions, they provide a reference for future surveillance design and can inform simulation models for surveillance and control of FMD in similar cattle populations.

  12. Application of transmission-line super theory to classical transmission lines with risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambousky, R.; Nitsch, J.; Tkachenko, S.

    2015-11-01

    By applying the Transmission-Line Super Theory (TLST) to a practical transmission-line configuration (two risers and a horizontal part of the line parallel to the ground plane) it is elaborated under which physical and geometrical conditions the horizontal part of the transmission-line can be represented by a classical telegrapher equation with a sufficiently accurate description of the physical properties of the line. The risers together with the part of the horizontal line close to them are treated as separate lines using the TLST. Novel frequency and local dependent reflection coefficients are introduced to take into account the action of the bends and their radiation. They can be derived from the matrizant elements of the TLST solution. It is shown that the solution of the resulting network and the TLST solution of the entire line agree for certain line configurations. The physical and geometrical parameters for these corresponding configurations are determined in this paper.

  13. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  14. Small passenger car transmission test: Mercury Lynx ATX transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Bujold, M P

    1981-09-01

    The small passenger car transmission test was initiated to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commercially available transmissions. This information would enable EV manufacturers to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers would be able to estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. This report covers the 1981 Mercury Lynx ATX transaxle. This transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the 93% range for drive performance tests. The major results of this test are the torque, speed and efficiency curves which are located in the data section of this report. These graphs map performance characteristics for the Mercury Lynx ATX transmission.

  15. Nature limits filarial transmission

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Goutam

    2008-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974

  16. Transmission seal development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brien, M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental evaluation was performed on a high-speed (72.9 m/s, 14,349 ft/min) transmission seal of the synergistic type. During testing of the seal, oil leakage occurred at positive bearing cavity pressures. Modifications were made in an attempt to eliminate the leakage but none were completely successful. Leakage appears to be the result of questionable positioning of the sealing elements resulting in inadequate shaft contact by the oil side sealing element. This condition may be related to the nonsymmetrical shape of the elastomeric retainer and to dimensional changes caused by swelling of the elastomeric retainer from exposure to the sealed fluid. Indications of a speed dependent leakage characteristic were also observed.

  17. Television Transmission Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The VKP-7990 Multistage Depressed Collector (MDC) Klystron is a result of cooperative development by Varian Associates, Inc., the National Association of Broadcasters, Lewis Research Center, the Public Broadcasting System and TV transmitter manufacturers. The effort was initiated to make power amplifying devices with efficiencies comparable to VHF available to UHF operators. The klystron is a vacuum tube used to generate and amplify ultrahigh frequencies but at low efficiencies because most of the energy is dissipated as waste heat. Lewis had earlier developed the MDC to enhance the efficiency of communications satellite transmissions. Varian Microwave Power Tube Products, which has since become Communications and Power Industries, and Lewis combined the MDC and the klystron, resulting in a product which increases efficiency by recovering some of the residual energy that normally would be lost as heat. The MDC klystron cuts the electric power consumption of UHF-TV transmitters in half; there are 90 units in operation in 36 UHF-TV stations.

  18. Thrips transmission of tospoviruses.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Dorith; Jacobson, Alana L; Schneweis, Derek J; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    One hundred years ago, the disease tomato spotted wilt was first described in Australia. Since that time, knowledge of this disease caused by Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and transmitted by thrips (insects in the order Thysanoptera) has revealed a complex relationship between the virus, vector, plant host, and environment. Numerous tospoviruses and thrips vectors have been described, revealing diversity in plant host range and geographical distributions. Advances in characterization of the tripartite interaction between the virus, vector, and plant host have provided insight into molecular and ecological relationships. Comparison to animal-infecting viruses in the family Bunyaviridae has enabled the identification of commonalities between tospoviruses and other bunyaviruses in transmission by arthropod vectors and molecular interactions with hosts. This review provides a special emphasis on TSWV and Frankliniella occidentalis, the model tospovirus-thrips pathosystem. However, other virus-vector combinations are also of importance and where possible, comparisons are made between different viruses and thrips vectors. PMID:26340723

  19. Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, James E.; Jungjohann, K. L.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2012-10-12

    Dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM) combines the benefits of high spatial resolution electron microscopy with the high temporal resolution of ultrafast lasers. The incorporation of these two components into a single instrument provides a perfect platform for in situ observations of material processes. However, previous DTEM applications have focused on observing structural changes occurring in samples exposed to high vacuum. Therefore, in order to expand the pump-probe experimental regime to more natural environmental conditions, in situ gas and liquid chambers must be coupled with Dynamic TEM. This chapter describes the current and future applications of in situ liquid DTEM to permit time-resolved atomic scale observations in an aqueous environment, Although this chapter focuses mostly on in situ liquid imaging, the same research potential exists for in situ gas experiments and the successful integration of these techniques promises new insights for understanding nanoparticle, catalyst and biological protein dynamics with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution.

  20. Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Haimei

    2016-05-01

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has attracted significant interest in recent years. With nanofabricated liquid cells, it has been possible to image through liquids using TEM with subnanometer resolution, and many previously unseen materials dynamics have been revealed. Liquid cell TEM has been applied to many areas of research, ranging from chemistry to physics, materials science, and biology. So far, topics of study include nanoparticle growth and assembly, electrochemical deposition and lithiation for batteries, tracking and manipulation of nanoparticles, catalysis, and imaging of biological materials. In this article, we first review the development of liquid cell TEM and then highlight progress in various areas of research. In the study of nanoparticle growth, the electron beam can serve both as the illumination source for imaging and as the input energy for reactions. However, many other research topics require the control of electron beam effects to minimize electron beam damage. We discuss efforts to understand electron beam-liquid matter interactions. Finally, we provide a perspective on future challenges and opportunities in liquid cell TEM.

  1. Stress Transmission within the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Stamenović, Dimitrije; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An outstanding problem in cell biology is how cells sense mechanical forces and how those forces affect cellular functions. During past decades, it has become evident that the deformable cytoskeleton (CSK), an intracellular network of various filamentous biopolymers, provides a physical basis for transducing mechanical signals into biochemical responses. To understand how mechanical forces regulate cellular functions, it is necessary to first understand how the CSK develops mechanical stresses in response to applied forces, and how those stresses are propagated through the CSK where various signaling molecules are immobilized. New experimental techniques have been developed to quantify cytoskeletal mechanics, which together with new computational approaches have given rise to new theories and models for describing mechanics of living cells. In this article, we discuss current understanding of cell biomechanics by focusing on the biophysical mechanisms that are responsible for the development and transmission of mechanical stresses in the cell and their effect on cellular functions. We compare and contrast various theories and models of cytoskeletal mechanics, emphasizing common mechanisms that those theories are built upon, while not ignoring irreconcilable differences. We highlight most recent advances in the understanding of mechanotransduction in the cytoplasm of living cells and the central role of the cytoskeletal prestress in propagating mechanical forces along the cytoskeletal filaments to activate cytoplasmic enzymes. It is anticipated that advances in cell mechanics will help developing novel therapeutics to treat pulmonary diseases like asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:23737186

  2. Liquid Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Haimei

    2016-05-27

    Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has attracted significant interest in recent years. With nanofabricated liquid cells, it has been possible to image through liquids using TEM with subnanometer resolution, and many previously unseen materials dynamics have been revealed. Liquid cell TEM has been applied to many areas of research, ranging from chemistry to physics, materials science, and biology. So far, topics of study include nanoparticle growth and assembly, electrochemical deposition and lithiation for batteries, tracking and manipulation of nanoparticles, catalysis, and imaging of biological materials. In this article, we first review the development of liquid cell TEM and then highlight progress in various areas of research. In the study of nanoparticle growth, the electron beam can serve both as the illumination source for imaging and as the input energy for reactions. However, many other research topics require the control of electron beam effects to minimize electron beam damage. We discuss efforts to understand electron beam-liquid matter interactions. Finally, we provide a perspective on future challenges and opportunities in liquid cell TEM.

  3. Broadband Transmission EPR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2013-01-01

    EPR spectroscopy employs a resonator operating at a single microwave frequency and phase-sensitive detection using modulation of the magnetic field. The X-band spectrometer is the general standard with a frequency in the 9–10 GHz range. Most (bio)molecular EPR spectra are determined by a combination of the frequency-dependent electronic Zeeman interaction and a number of frequency-independent interactions, notably, electron spin – nuclear spin interactions and electron spin – electron spin interactions, and unambiguous analysis requires data collection at different frequencies. Extant and long-standing practice is to use a different spectrometer for each frequency. We explore the alternative of replacing the narrow-band source plus single-mode resonator with a continuously tunable microwave source plus a non-resonant coaxial transmission cell in an unmodulated external field. Our source is an arbitrary wave digital signal generator producing an amplitude-modulated sinusoidal microwave in combination with a broadband amplifier for 0.8–2.7 GHz. Theory is developed for coaxial transmission with EPR detection as a function of cell dimensions and materials. We explore examples of a doublet system, a high-spin system, and an integer-spin system. Long, straigth, helical, and helico-toroidal cells are developed and tested with dilute aqueous solutions of spin label hydroxy-tempo. A detection limit of circa 5 µM HO-tempo in water at 800 MHz is obtained for the present setup, and possibilities for future improvement are discussed. PMID:23555819

  4. Statistical Inference of Biometrical Genetic Model With Cultural Transmission.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaobo; Ji, Tian; Wang, Xueqin; Zhang, Heping; Zhong, Shouqiang

    2013-01-01

    Twin and family studies establish the foundation for studying the genetic, environmental and cultural transmission effects for phenotypes. In this work, we make use of the well established statistical methods and theory for mixed models to assess cultural transmission in twin and family studies. Specifically, we address two critical yet poorly understood issues: the model identifiability in assessing cultural transmission for twin and family data and the biases in the estimates when sub-models are used. We apply our models and theory to two real data sets. A simulation is conducted to verify the bias in the estimates of genetic effects when the working model is a sub-model. PMID:24660046

  5. Temperature dependence of VUV transmission of synthetic fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, St.; Lange, H.; Schoepp, H.; Witzke, H.-D.

    2006-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the VUV transmission of synthetic fused silica is of interest for commercial applications as well as for fundamental research. In this work the transmission properties of Suprasil 2 from Heraeus with an absorption edge at very low wavelengths is investigated. The absorption edge of this quartz glass shifts from 170 to 180 nm between 789 and 1129 K. The Urbach rule is discussed for the characterization of the temperature dependent transmission curves. The results are applied to the diagnostics of the Hg 185 nm line from a high pressure mercury discharge lamp.

  6. On the transmissibilities of nonlinear vibration isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zeqi; Brennan, Michael J.; Chen, Li-Qun

    2016-08-01

    Transmissibility is a key parameter to quantify the effectiveness of a vibration isolation system. Under harmonic excitation, the force transmissibility of a linear vibration isolation system is defined as the ratio between the amplitude of the force transmitted to the host structure and the excitation force amplitude, and the displacement transmissibility is the ratio between the displacement amplitude of the payload and that of the base. For a nonlinear vibration isolation system, the force or the displacement responses usually have more frequency components than the excitation. For a harmonic excitation, the response may be periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. Therefore, the amplitude ratio cannot well define the transmissibility. The root-mean-square ratio of the response to the excitation is suggested to define the transmissibility. The significance of the modified transmissibility is highlighted in a nonlinear two-stage vibration isolation system consisting of two linear spring connected linear vibration isolators with two additional horizontal linear springs. Harmonic balance method (HBM) is applied to determine the responses with the fundamental and third harmonic. Numerical simulations reveal that chaos may occur in the responses. In both cases, the modified transmissibility works while the original definition cannot be applied to chaotic response.

  7. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. FMD has been eradicated from many countries and the consequences of FMD epidemics are, in some cases, devastating. That was the case of Argentina in 2000-2002, where within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of t...

  8. Technology of optical azimuth transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Honggang; Hu, Chunsheng; Wang, Xingshu; Gao, Yang

    2012-11-01

    It often needs transfer a reference from one place to another place in aerospace and guided missile launching. At first, principles of several typical optical azimuth transmission methods are presented. Several typical methods are introduced, such as Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method, Camera series method, Optical apparatus for azimuth method and polarization modulated light transmission method. For these typical azimuth transmission methods, their essential theories are elaborated. Then the devices, the application fields and limitations of these typical methods' are presented. Theodolite (including gyro-theodolite) collimation method is used in the ground assembly of spacecraft. Camera series method and optical apparatus for azimuth method are used in azimuth transmission between different decks of ship. Polarization modulated light transmission method is used in azimuth transmission of rocket and guided missile. At the last, the further developments of these methods are discussed.

  9. Electronic transmission in quasiperiodic serial stub structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Samar; Chakrabarti, Arunava

    2004-01-01

    We present exact results on the electronic transmission through quantum stub waveguides arranged in a Fibonacci quasiperiodic pattern. Discretizing the Schrödinger equation, we map the problem into an equivalent tight binding form and study the transmission spectrum using the transfer matrix method. We emphasize the effect of local positional correlations in a Fibonacci quantum stub array that may lead to resonant eigenstates. Using the real space renormalization group ideas we unravel various local clusters of stubs responsible for resonance. Extended eigenstates have been shown to exist and we find that, under some special circumstances, the electronic charge density exhibits a totally periodic character in such a non-periodic sequence. Our method is completely general and can be applied to any arbitrary sequence of stubs: periodic, quasiperiodic or random. This may lead to a possible experimental verification of the role of positional correlations in the transport behaviour of a class of mesoscopic devices.

  10. Shortcut to nonadiabatic quantum state transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao-Ming; Bishop, C. Allen; Jing, Jun; Gu, Yong-Jian; Garcia, Christian; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2016-06-01

    Techniques for accelerating the evolutionary processes associated with an adiabatic passage have recently been developed. Given that the context for which these speeding-up protocols, such as the shortcut to adiabaticity, have been formulated, their presentation rests on the assumption of the validity of the quantum adiabatic theorem. We investigate here the possibility of extending these methods to a regime in which the adiabatic theorem cannot be applied. Using a spin chain model and a typical nonadiabatic quantum communication protocol, we determine and compare certain indicative aspects of state transfer, such as the fidelity measure of quality and communication latency, associated with both normal and pulse-assisted transmission. The fidelity is found to be effectively enhanced by increasing the pulse strength or pulse duration, indicating a shortcut to nonadiabatic quantum state transmission. Numerical calculations also reveal the inherent reliability and fault tolerance of this method.

  11. Airborne Transmission of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Warfel, Jason M.; Beren, Joel; Merkel, Tod J.

    2012-01-01

    Pertussis is a contagious, acute respiratory illness caused by the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. Although it is widely believed that transmission of B. pertussis occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets, no controlled study has ever documented airborne transmission of pertussis. We set out to determine if airborne transmission occurs between infected and naive animals, utilizing the baboon model of pertussis. Our results showed that 100% of exposed naive animals became infected even when physical contact was prevented, demonstrating that pertussis transmission occurs via aerosolized respiratory droplets. PMID:22807521

  12. Networks and the ecology of parasite transmission: A framework for wildlife parasitology☆

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    Social network analysis has recently emerged as a popular tool for understanding disease transmission in host populations. Although social networks have most extensively been applied to modelling the transmission of diseases through human populations, more recently the method has been applied to wildlife populations. The majority of examples from wildlife involve modelling the transmission of contagious microbes (mainly viruses and bacteria), normally in context of understanding wildlife disease epidemics. However, a growing number of studies have used networks to explore the ecology of parasite transmission in wildlife populations for a range of endemic parasites representing a diversity of life cycles and transmission methods. This review addresses the application of network models in representing the transmission of parasites with more complex life cycles, and illustrates the way in which this approach can be used to answer ecological questions about the transmission of parasites in wildlife populations. PMID:24533342

  13. Transmission policy proposals and the keystone transmission project

    SciTech Connect

    Edelston, B.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the use of the nation's electric transmission systems, not only for the purposes of maintaining reliability, but also for reducing costs of power supply by moving power from low-cost areas of generation to higher-cost areas. The push for increased use of the transmission system has essentially come from two constituency groups - wholesale purchasers of electricity who do not own sufficient transmission themselves to import power, and non-utility generators of power (or NUGs, as they have come to be known) who wish to use the transmission system to sell power from their generation projects to remote utility purchasers. There has been some advocacy for allowing individual retail customers to access transmission to buy power from other than their local utility, but that movement has gained little ground.

  14. Electronically controlled automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, M.; Shiba, H.; Nakamura, K.

    1989-03-28

    This patent describes an electronically controlled automatic transmission having a manual valve working in connection with a manual shift lever, shift valves operated by solenoid valves which are driven by an electronic control circuit previously memorizing shift patterns, and a hydraulic circuit controlled by these manual valve and shift valves for driving brakes and a clutch in order to change speed. Shift patterns of 2-range and L-range, in addition to a shift pattern of D-range, are memorized previously in the electronic control circuit, an operation switch is provided which changes the shift pattern of the electronic control circuit to any shift pattern among those of D-range, 2-range and L-range at time of the manual shift lever being in a D-range position, a releasable lock mechanism is provided which prevents the manual shift lever from entering 2-range and L-range positions, and the hydraulic circuit is set to a third speed mode when the manual shift lever is in the D-range position. The circuit is set to a second speed mode when it is in the 2-range position, and the circuit is set to a first speed mode when it is in the L-range position, respectively, in case where the shift valves are not working.

  15. Transmission of digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showen, Charles R.

    1971-01-01

    The Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, established a pilot project to evaluate equipment that would transmit date recorded on 16-channel paper tapes over voice-grade telephone lines from field offices to the Washington, D.C., Automatic Data Processing Unit (A.D.P. Unit). Such equipment would allow computer-processed data for current-purpose hydrologic data stations to be made available in a more timely manner. The specifications for the equipment were prepared in March 1970; invitations to bid were solicited, a contract was awarded and the equipment was delivered in November 1970. The equipment included two reader/transmitter units, and one receiver/recorder unit. The reader/transmitter units transmit manually entered fixed information, i.e. station number, beginning date and time, and ending date and time, and photoelectrically read and transmit the 16-channel paper tape data. The receiver/recorder unit records the transmitted information on IBM-compatible magnetic tape. This report summarizes the information gained from a year of pilot operation of the equipment, with and without a computer terminal at the field level, and makes recommendations for establishing a data-transmission system in the Water Resources Division.

  16. Automatic transmission system

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, J.S.

    1989-04-25

    An automatic transmission system is described for use in vehicles, which comprises: a clutch wheel containing a plurality of concentric rings of decreasing diameter, the clutch wheel being attached to an engine of the vehicle; a plurality of clutch gears corresponding in size to the concentric rings, the clutch gears being adapted to selectively and frictionally engage with the concentric rings of the clutch wheel; an accelerator pedal and a gear selector, the accelerator pedals being connected to one end of a substantially U-shaped frame member, the other end of the substantially U-shaped frame member selectively engaging with one end of one of wires received in a pair of apertures of the gear selector; a plurality of drive gear controllers and a reverse gear controller; means operatively connected with the gear selector and the plurality of drive gear controllers and reverse gear controller for selectively engaging one of the drive and reverse gear controllers depending upon the position of the gear selector; and means for individually connecting the drive and reverse gear controllers with the corresponding clutch gears whereby upon the selection of the gear selector, friction engagement is achieved between the clutch gear and the clutch wheels for rotating the wheel in the forward or reverse direction.

  17. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  18. Multi-speed transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ashikawa, N.; Nakayama, H.; Sumi, M.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a multi-speed transmission having forward speed gear trains and at least one reverse speed gear train, comprising, a pair of parallel fork shafts, one the shaft being fixed, the other the shaft being slidable along its axial direction, means to selectively engage the gear trains and means to retain the selective engagement means in the selected position. The means selectively engages the gear trains including a first shift fork connected to the fixed fork shaft so as to slide to either side of its disengaged neutral position, a second shift fork connected to the slideable fork shaft so as to slide to either side of its disengaged neutral position, and a third shift fork connected to the slidable fork shaft so as to slide in one direction by motion of the slideable fork shaft to only one side of its disengaged neutral position. Also included is a reverse shift fork connected to the slideable fork shaft and adapted to be actuated by motion of the slideable fork shaft in a direction opposite to the direction of the motion which engages the third shift fork.

  19. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission.

  20. A Quantitative Transmission Line Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, D. C.; Silbernagel, B. G.

    1969-01-01

    Describes modifications of a commercially available strip-type transmission line, which makes possible reproducible measurements of standing waves on the line. Experimental data yield values for the characteristic impedance, phase velocity and line wavelength of radiation in the transmission line, and the dielectric constant of material in the…

  1. Hendra virus ecology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume E

    2016-02-01

    Hendra virus causes acute and highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus, with age and species being risk factors for infection. Urine is the primary route of excretion in flying-foxes, with viral RNA more frequently detected in Pteropus alecto and P. conspicillatus than other species. Infection prevalence in flying-foxes can vary between and within years, with a winter peak of excretion occurring in some regions. Vertical transmission and recrudescing infection has been reported in flying-foxes, but horizontal transmission is evidently the primary mode of transmission. The most parsimonious mode of flying-fox to horse transmission is equine contact (oro-nasal, conjunctival) with infected flying-fox urine, either directly, or via urine-contaminated pasture or surfaces. Horse to horse transmission is inefficient, requiring direct contact with infected body fluids. Flying-fox to human transmission has not been recorded; all human cases have been associated with close and direct contact with infected horses. Canine cases (subclinical) have also been limited to equine case properties. Notwithstanding the recent availability of an effective vaccine for horses, a comprehensive understanding of Hendra virus ecology and transmission is essential to limit inter-species transmission. PMID:26978066

  2. Does horizontal transmission invalidate cultural phylogenies?

    PubMed Central

    Greenhill, Simon J.; Currie, Thomas E.; Gray, Russell D.

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic methods have recently been applied to studies of cultural evolution. However, it has been claimed that the large amount of horizontal transmission that sometimes occurs between cultural groups invalidates the use of these methods. Here, we use a natural model of linguistic evolution to simulate borrowing between languages. The results show that tree topologies constructed with Bayesian phylogenetic methods are robust to realistic levels of borrowing. Inferences about divergence dates are slightly less robust and show a tendency to underestimate dates. Our results demonstrate that realistic levels of reticulation between cultures do not invalidate a phylogenetic approach to cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:19324763

  3. Does horizontal transmission invalidate cultural phylogenies?

    PubMed

    Greenhill, Simon J; Currie, Thomas E; Gray, Russell D

    2009-06-22

    Phylogenetic methods have recently been applied to studies of cultural evolution. However, it has been claimed that the large amount of horizontal transmission that sometimes occurs between cultural groups invalidates the use of these methods. Here, we use a natural model of linguistic evolution to simulate borrowing between languages. The results show that tree topologies constructed with Bayesian phylogenetic methods are robust to realistic levels of borrowing. Inferences about divergence dates are slightly less robust and show a tendency to underestimate dates. Our results demonstrate that realistic levels of reticulation between cultures do not invalidate a phylogenetic approach to cultural and linguistic evolution.

  4. Results of NASA/Army transmission research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Coe, Harold H.

    1988-01-01

    Since 1970 the NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Aviation Systems Command have shared an interest in advancing the technology for helicopter propulsion systems. In particular, that portion of the program that applies to the drive train and its various mechanical components are outlined. The major goals of the program were (and continue to be) to increase the life, reliability, and maintainability, reduce the weight, noise, and vibration, and maintain the relatively high mechanical efficiency of the gear train. Major historical milestones are reviewed, significant advances in technology for bearings, gears, and transmissions are discussed, and the outlook for the future is presented. The reference list is comprehensive.

  5. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  6. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  7. Multistate differential transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.L.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a multistate transmission suitable for a colinear configuration having a stationary housing and an input shaft and an output shaft comprising: a first pair of planetary gear trains comprising a first common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and a planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the output shaft and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; a second pair of planetary a trains comprising a second common ring gear having a torque reducing gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears connected by way of a carrier to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains and a reversing planetary gear train consisting of a sun gear and planetary gears; carrier means connecting the sun gears in the first pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a free wheeling clutch to provide for rotation in one direction only and to one side of a first operational clutch. The other side of the clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear train in the first pair of planetary gear trains; means connecting the planetary gears in the reversing mechanism of the second pair of planetary gear trains to the housing through a second operational clutch and to one side of a third operational clutch. The other side of the third operational clutch is connected to the sun gear in the reversing planetary gear grain in the second pair of planetary gear trains.

  8. Automatic transmission apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Hiketa, M.

    1987-10-06

    An automatic transmission apparatus is described comprising: an input shaft, an output shaft disposed behind and coaxially with the input shaft, a counter shaft disposed substantially parallel to both of the input and output shafts, a first gear train including a first gear provided on the input shaft and a second gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the first gear so as to form a first power transmitting path, first friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the first power transmitting path, a second gear train including a third gear provided through one-way clutch means on a rear end portion of the input shaft and a fourth gear provided on the counter shaft to be meshed with the third gear so as to form a second power transmitting path, second friction clutch means provided at a front end portion of the output shaft, a third gear train including a fifth gear provided on a rear end portion of the counter shaft and a sixth gear provided on the output shaft to be meshed with the fifth gear so as to form a fourth power transmitting path, third friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fourth power transmitting path, fourth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the second power transmitting path, a fourth gear train including a seventh gear provided on the counter shaft and an eighth gear provided on the output shaft and fifth friction clutch means operative selectively to make and break the fifth power transmitting path.

  9. Transmission gearing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Klemen, D.

    1987-08-04

    A gearing arrangement is described for an automotive power transmission comprising: an input shaft and an output shaft; first, second, and third simple planetary gear sets. Each has a sun gear, a ring gear, and a planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the third gear set and the carrier of the second gear set; means rigidly interconnecting the ring gear of the second gear set and the carrier of the first gear set; means rigidly connecting the output shaft and the carrier of the third gear set; a first intermediate shaft rigidly interconnecting the sun gears of the second and the third gear sets for unitary rotation; a second intermediate shaft rigidly connected to the carrier of the second gear set; a third intermediate shaft continuously connected to the input shaft and to the sun gear of the first gear set; first, second, and third brake means operative to selectively brake rotation of the ring gears of the first, the second, and the third gear sets, respectively; a first rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the first intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a second rotating clutch selectively operable to connect the input shaft and the second intermediate shaft for unitary rotation; a fourth simple planetary gear set including a sun gear and a ring gear and planet gears meshing with the sun and the ring gears and rotatably supported on a planet carrier; means rigidly connecting the sun gear of the fourth gear set to the third intermediate shaft; means rigidly connecting the ring gear of the fourth gear set to the carrier of the first gear set; and a fourth brake means selectively operable to brake the carrier of the fourth gear set. The nine forward ratios are obtainable while preserving a single transition shifting over the entire nine forward ratios.

  10. Applied Linguistics: Brazilian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalcanti, Marilda C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present perspectives in Applied Linguistics (AL) against the background of a historical overview of the field in Brazil. I take the stance of looking at AL as a field of knowledge and as a professional area of research. This point of view directs my reflections towards research-based Applied Linguistics carried out from…

  11. What are applied ethics?

    PubMed

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  12. Control system for a continuously variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.

    1987-11-03

    This patent describes a control system for a continuously variable belt-drive transmission having a selector device including a drive range position, a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, and a belt engaged with both the pulleys, an hydraulic control circuit for supplying oil to the servo chambers and for draining the servo chambers, the hydraulic control circuit being provided with a pressure regulator valve for providing a line pressure and a transmission ratio control valve for applying the line pressure to the servo chamber of the drive pulley. The improvement comprises: a first drain passage from the pressure regulator valve; a second drain passage from the transmission ratio control valve; a first check valve provided in the first drain passage and a second check valve provided in the second drain passage for building up supplementary low pressure in both drain passages at upstream of both the check valves; a supplementary oil passage communicating both the first and second drain passages at upstream of the check valves for supplying a part of drain oil to the servo chamber of the drive pulley.

  13. 77 FR 6554 - Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC; Duke-American Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... Renewable Wind Energy, LLC (PWE) and Zephyr may enter into the New Precedent Agreement as an anchor customer... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Zephyr Power Transmission, LLC; Pathfinder Power Transmission, LLC;...

  14. Bovine Tuberculosis Risk Factors for British Herds Before and After the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Epidemic: What have we Learned from the TB99 and CCS2005 Studies?

    PubMed

    Vial, F; Miguel, E; Johnston, W T; Mitchell, A; Donnelly, C A

    2015-10-01

    Over the last couple of decades, the UK experienced a substantial increase in the incidence and geographical spread of bovine tuberculosis (TB), in particular since the epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001. The initiation of the Randomized Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) in 1998 in south-west England provided an opportunity for an in-depth collection of questionnaire data (covering farming practices, herd management and husbandry, trading and wildlife activity) from herds having experienced a TB breakdown between 1998 and early 2006 and randomly selected control herds, both within and outside the RBCT (the so-called TB99 and CCS2005 case-control studies). The data collated were split into four separate and comparable substudies related to either the pre-FMD or post-FMD period, which are brought together and discussed here for the first time. The findings suggest that the risk factors associated with TB breakdowns may have changed. Higher Mycobacterium bovis prevalence in badgers following the FMD epidemic may have contributed to the identification of the presence of badgers on a farm as a prominent TB risk factor only post-FMD. The strong emergence of contact/trading TB risk factors post-FMD suggests that the purchasing and movement of cattle, which took place to restock FMD-affected areas after 2001, may have exacerbated the TB problem. Post-FMD analyses also highlighted the potential impact of environmental factors on TB risk. Although no unique and universal solution exists to reduce the transmission of TB to and among British cattle, there is an evidence to suggest that applying the broad principles of biosecurity on farms reduces the risk of infection. However, with trading remaining as an important route of local and long-distance TB transmission, improvements in the detection of infected animals during pre- and post-movement testing should further reduce the geographical spread of the disease.

  15. System life and reliability modeling for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Brikmanis, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program which simulates life and reliability of helicopter transmissions is presented. The helicopter transmissions may be composed of spiral bevel gear units and planetary gear units - alone, in series or in parallel. The spiral bevel gear units may have either single or dual input pinions, which are identical. The planetary gear units may be stepped or unstepped and the number of planet gears carried by the planet arm may be varied. The reliability analysis used in the program is based on the Weibull distribution lives of the transmission components. The computer calculates the system lives and dynamic capacities of the transmission components and the transmission. The system life is defined as the life of the component or transmission at an output torque at which the probability of survival is 90 percent. The dynamic capacity of a component or transmission is defined as the output torque which can be applied for one million output shaft cycles for a probability of survival of 90 percent. A complete summary of the life and dynamic capacity results is produced by the program.

  16. Transmission Line Series Compensation for Wind Energy Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanichamy, Dr C., Prof; Wong, Y. C.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy has demonstrated to be a clean, copious and absolutely renewable source of energy, and the large penetration of it into the power grid indicates that wind energy is considered an effective means of power generation, Transmission of wind energy from remote locations to load centers necessitates long transmission lines. Series compensation is a proven and economical transmission solution to address system power transfer strength, grid stability, and voltage profile issues of long transmission lines. In this paper, a programmable approach to determine the capacitive reactance of series capacitor and optimum location for its placement to achieve maximum power transfer gas been presented. The respective program with sample solutions has been provided for real-time applications.

  17. Ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography using energy-scaled amplitude ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ting; Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2016-04-01

    Ultrasound attenuation of breast tumors is related to their types and pathological states, and can be used to detect and characterize breast cancer. Particularly, ultrasound scattering attenuation can infer the margin properties of breast tumors. Ultrasound attenuation tomography quantitatively reconstructs the attenuation properties of the breast. Our synthetic-aperture breast ultrasound tomography system with two parallel transducer arrays records both ultrasound reflection and transmission signals. We develop an ultrasound attenuation tomography method using ultrasound energy-scaled amplitude decays of ultrasound transmission signals and conduct ultrasound attenuation tomography using a known sound-speed model. We apply our ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography method to a breast phantom dataset, and compare the ultrasound attenuation tomography results with conventional beamforming ultrasound images obtained using reflection signals. We show that ultrasound transmission attenuation tomography complements beamforming images in identifying breast lesions.

  18. Modeling Malaria Transmission in Thailand and Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Nigro, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Malaria Modeling and Surveillance is a project in the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Applications Program. The main objectives of this project are: 1) identification of the potential breeding sites for major vector species: 2) implementation of a malaria transmission model to identify they key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) implementation of a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. Remote sensing and GIs are the essential elements of this project. The NASA Earth science data sets used in this project include AVHRR Pathfinder, TRMM, MODIS, NSIPP and SIESIP. Textural-contextual classifications are used to identify small larval habitats. Neural network methods are used to model malaria cases as a function of precipitation, temperatures, humidity and vegetation. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records. Examples for spatio-temporal modeling of malaria transmissions in Southeast Asia are given. Discrete event simulations were used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The output of the model includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Results are in good agreement with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired by Coleman et al. over 4.5 years in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in western Thailand. Application of our models is not restricted to Southeast Asia. The model and techniques are equally applicable to other regions of the world, when appropriate epidemiological and vector ecological parameters are used as input.

  19. Midwest Transmission Workshop I Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2001-05-01

    OAK-B135 The meeting was opened with a review of the purposes of the workshop: (1) Present and discuss key studies and assessments of transmission upgrades, additions and related issues for the upper Midwest, including work that addresses the full range of views on these topics; (2) Understand the various transmission issues in the upper Midwest and discuss options for addressing the issues; and (3) Identify the decision makers and entities that need to play an active role if transmission issues are to be resolved, and agree on next steps for engaging these individuals and organizations through education, outreach, and information dissemination.

  20. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  1. Hidden hazards of HCV transmission.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem that has important epidemiological and clinical consequences. It has been well established that exposure to infected blood is the main risk factor for HCV transmission. However, in 20% of cases the agent transmission occurs by unknown route or in the presence of an unidentified source of infection. Understanding of the epidemiology of HCV is needed to help us define future control and preventive strategies. Herein, we discuss about diagnosis of HCV infection and hepatitis C surveillance in the context of its transmission.

  2. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  3. Downhole data transmission system

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe

    2006-06-20

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  4. Downhole Data Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe

    2003-12-30

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  5. Intertwined arbovirus transmission activity: reassessing the transmission cycle paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Flores, Fernando S.; Quaglia, Agustín; Contigiani, Marta S.

    2013-01-01

    Arboviruses are emerging/reemerging infectious agents worldwide. The factors within this scenario include vector and host population fluctuations, climatic changes, anthropogenic activities that disturb ecosystems, an increase in international flights, human mobility, and genetic mutations that allow spill-over phenomenon. Arboviruses are maintained by biologic transmission among vectors and hosts. Sometimes this biological transmission is specific and includes one vector and host species such as Chikungunya (CHIKV), Dengue (DENV), and urban Yellow Fever (YFV). However, most of the arboviruses are generalist and they use many vectors and hosts species. From this perspective, arboviruses are maintained through a transmission network rather than a transmission cycle. This allows us to understand the complexity and dynamics of the transmission and maintenance of arboviruses in the ecosystems. The old perspective that arboviruses are maintained in close and stable transmission cycles should be modified by a new more integrative and dynamic idea, representing the real scenario where biological interactions have a much broader representation, indicating the constant adaptability of the biological entities. PMID:23335900

  6. Geomorphology: Pure and applied

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The book summarizes the history of intellectual debate in geomorphology and describes modern developments both ''pure'' and ''applied.'' The history begins well before W.M. Davis and follows through to such debates as those concerned with the Pleistocene. Modern developments in pure geomorphology are cast in terms of chapters on form, process, materials, and methods analysis. The applied chapters concentrate on environmental hazards and resources, and their management.

  7. Parameterizing Spatial Models of Infectious Disease Transmission that Incorporate Infection Time Uncertainty Using Sampling-Based Likelihood Approximations.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rajat; Deardon, Rob; Kwong, Grace P S

    2016-01-01

    A class of discrete-time models of infectious disease spread, referred to as individual-level models (ILMs), are typically fitted in a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework. These models quantify probabilistic outcomes regarding the risk of infection of susceptible individuals due to various susceptibility and transmissibility factors, including their spatial distance from infectious individuals. The infectious pressure from infected individuals exerted on susceptible individuals is intrinsic to these ILMs. Unfortunately, quantifying this infectious pressure for data sets containing many individuals can be computationally burdensome, leading to a time-consuming likelihood calculation and, thus, computationally prohibitive MCMC-based analysis. This problem worsens when using data augmentation to allow for uncertainty in infection times. In this paper, we develop sampling methods that can be used to calculate a fast, approximate likelihood when fitting such disease models. A simple random sampling approach is initially considered followed by various spatially-stratified schemes. We test and compare the performance of our methods with both simulated data and data from the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the U.K. Our results indicate that substantial computation savings can be obtained--albeit, of course, with some information loss--suggesting that such techniques may be of use in the analysis of very large epidemic data sets. PMID:26731666

  8. Parameterizing Spatial Models of Infectious Disease Transmission that Incorporate Infection Time Uncertainty Using Sampling-Based Likelihood Approximations

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Rajat; Deardon, Rob; Kwong, Grace P. S.

    2016-01-01

    A class of discrete-time models of infectious disease spread, referred to as individual-level models (ILMs), are typically fitted in a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) framework. These models quantify probabilistic outcomes regarding the risk of infection of susceptible individuals due to various susceptibility and transmissibility factors, including their spatial distance from infectious individuals. The infectious pressure from infected individuals exerted on susceptible individuals is intrinsic to these ILMs. Unfortunately, quantifying this infectious pressure for data sets containing many individuals can be computationally burdensome, leading to a time-consuming likelihood calculation and, thus, computationally prohibitive MCMC-based analysis. This problem worsens when using data augmentation to allow for uncertainty in infection times. In this paper, we develop sampling methods that can be used to calculate a fast, approximate likelihood when fitting such disease models. A simple random sampling approach is initially considered followed by various spatially-stratified schemes. We test and compare the performance of our methods with both simulated data and data from the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the U.K. Our results indicate that substantial computation savings can be obtained—albeit, of course, with some information loss—suggesting that such techniques may be of use in the analysis of very large epidemic data sets. PMID:26731666

  9. Applying Evolutionary Genetics to Schistosome Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Steinauer, Michelle L.; Blouin, Michael S.; Criscione, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    We review how molecular markers and evolutionary analysis have been applied to the study of schistosome parasites, important pathogens that infect over 200 million people worldwide. Topics reviewed include phylogenetics and biogeography, hybridization, infection within snails, mating systems, and genetic structure. Some interesting generalizations include that schistosome species hybridize frequently and have switched definitive hosts repeatedly in evolutionary time. We show that molecular markers can be used to infer epidemiologically-relevant processes such as spatial variation in transmission, or to reveal complex patterns of mate choice. Analysis of genetic structure data shows that transmission foci can be structured by watershed boundaries, habitat types, and host species. We also discuss sampling and analytical problems that arise when using larvae to estimate genetic parameters of adult schistosome populations. Finally, we review pitfalls in methodologies such as genotyping very small individuals, statistical methods for identifying clonemates or for identifying sibling groups, and estimating allele frequencies from pooled egg samples. PMID:20176142

  10. Modeling the Transmission of Sound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces a functional model of sound transmission through solids and gases. Describes procedures of an activity to model how sound travels faster through solid materials than gases. Use dominoes to represent the particles of solids and gases. (KHR)

  11. Transmission of Information: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, George R.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the basic principles underlying the transmission of information, including analog and digital modulation, limitations to communications, configurations of communications networks, optical fiber cables, and earth satellites. Six references are cited. (FM)

  12. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes.

    PubMed

    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and reinforces civic returns to education. Our findings are in line with the proposals of civic virtue theorists or grass movements who suggest that citizenship education should be included in the compulsory school curricula since, if not, families or local communities will only transmit their particular view of the world. PMID:27386393

  13. Cultural transmission of civic attitudes.

    PubMed

    Miles-Touya, Daniel; Rossi, Máximo

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical paper we attempt to measure the separate influence on civic engagement of educational attainment and cultural transmission of civic attitudes. Unlike most of the previous empirical works on this issue, we are able to approximate the cultural transmission of civic attitudes. We observe that civic returns to education are overstated when the transmission of civic attitudes is ignored. Moreover, the transmission of civic attitudes significantly enhances civic involvement and reinforces civic returns to education. Our findings are in line with the proposals of civic virtue theorists or grass movements who suggest that citizenship education should be included in the compulsory school curricula since, if not, families or local communities will only transmit their particular view of the world.

  14. Hybrid-Vehicle Transmission System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, G.; Dotti, G.

    1985-01-01

    Continuously-variable transmission system for hybrid vehicles couples internal-combustion engine and electric motor section, either individually or in parallel, to power vehicle wheels during steering and braking.

  15. Transovarial transmission in the microsporidia.

    PubMed

    Dunn, A M; Terry, R S; Smith, J E

    2001-01-01

    The microsporidia are an ancient and diverse group of protists which have many unusual characteristics. These include prokaryotic-like 70s ribosomes, enclosed nuclear division, a lack of mitochondria and complex life cycles which frequently involve vertical transmission. This use of vertical transmission is unparalleled by other protists and is seen only among bacterial endosymbionts and sex ratio distorters and in host cell organelles. Transovarially transmitted microsporidia can have unusual and profound effects on host population sex ratios. We here consider the mechanisms of transovarial transmission and its implications for parasite evolution. We review parasite/host relationships and the evolution of virulence under transovarial transmission and consider the implications of these parasites for host ecology and evolution.

  16. Bearings and gears for advanced turbine engines and transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The improved technology is discussed of engine main-shaft ball bearings, and spur gears in power transmission drive trains. Much of the technology can be applied to other ball and roller bearings, and to other spur and bevel gears throughout the engine, drive train, and accessory systems.

  17. 75 FR 14386 - Interpretation of Transmission Planning Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... each of four classes of contingencies.\\10\\ The principles that planners must apply to the design of the... clearing'' that removes from service either a generator, transmission circuit or transformer;\\11\\ \\11\\ See...) Outage of a single pole (direct current) line with normal clearing. 8. Requirement R1 of...

  18. Flow Impedance in a Uniform Magnetically-Insulated Transmission Line

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W.

    1999-03-23

    In two recent publications relativistic electron flow in cylindrical magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITL) was analyzed and modeled under the assumption of negligible electron pressure. Cylindrical MITLs were used because of their common occurrence, and because they are the simplest case of finite width. The authors show in this report that the models apply equally to MITLs of any cross section.

  19. Free-Space Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center organized a workshop on technology availability for free-space power transmission (beam power). This document contains a collection of viewgraph presentations that describes the effort by academia, industry, and the national laboratories in the area of high-frequency, high-power technology applicable to free-space power transmission systems. The areas covered were rectenna technology, high-frequency, high-power generation (gyrotrons, solar pumped lasers, and free electron lasers), and antenna technology.

  20. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  1. Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, Gregory F.; Bossler, Robert B., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company and Lucas Western, Inc. within the U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program is summarized. The design of a 5000 horsepower transmission for a next generation advanced attack helicopter is described. Government goals for the program were to define technology and detail design the ART to meet, as a minimum, a weight reduction of 25 percent, an internal noise reduction of 10 dB plus a mean-time-between-removal (MTBR) of 5000 hours compared to a state-of-the-art baseline transmission. The split-torque transmission developed using face gears achieved a 40 percent weight reduction, a 9.6 dB noise reduction and a 5270 hour MTBR in meeting or exceeding the above goals. Aircraft mission performance and cost improvements resulting from installation of the ART would include a 17 to 22 percent improvement in loss-exchange ratio during combat, a 22 percent improvement in mean-time-between-failure, a transmission acquisition cost savings of 23 percent of $165K, per unit, and an average transmission direct operating cost savings of 33 percent, or $24K per flight hour. Face gear tests performed successfully at NASA Lewis are summarized. Also, program results of advanced material tooth scoring tests, single tooth bending tests, Charpy impact energy tests, compact tension fracture toughness tests and tensile strength tests are summarized.

  2. 77 FR 26686 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 40 Transmission Planning Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Act, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission remands proposed Transmission Planning (TPL) Reliability... section 215(d) of the Federal Power Act,\\1\\ the Commission remands proposed Transmission Planning...

  3. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed. PMID:27428582

  4. PSYCHOANALYSIS AS APPLIED AESTHETICS.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed.

  5. On applying cognitive psychology.

    PubMed

    Baddeley, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Recent attempts to assess the practical impact of scientific research prompted my own reflections on over 40 years worth of combining basic and applied cognitive psychology. Examples are drawn principally from the study of memory disorders, but also include applications to the assessment of attention, reading, and intelligence. The most striking conclusion concerns the many years it typically takes to go from an initial study, to the final practical outcome. Although the complexity and sheer timescale involved make external evaluation problematic, the combination of practical satisfaction and theoretical stimulation make the attempt to combine basic and applied research very rewarding.

  6. Applied Astronomy: Asteroid Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, M.

    2013-09-01

    In the age of asteroid mining the ability to find promising ore-bearing bodies will be valuable. This will give rise to a new discipline- "Applied Astronomy". Just as most geologists work in industry, not in academia, the same will be true of astronomers. Just how rare or common ore-rich asteroids are likely to be, and the skills needed to assay their value, are discussed here, with an emphasis on remote - telescopic - methods. Also considered are the resources needed to conduct extensive surveys of asteroids for prospecting purposes, and the cost and timescale involved. The longer-term need for applied astronomers is also covered.

  7. Applied Music (Individual Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Background information and resources to help students in grades 9-12 in Texas pursue an individual study contract in applied music is presented. To fulfill a contract students must publicly perform from memory, with accompaniment as specified, three selections from a list of approved music for their chosen field (instrument or voice). Material…

  8. Applying to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This article suggests that unlike their well-off counterparts who apply to college in the fall and know they will go somewhere when the applications have been sent, low-income students face unique challenges that extend the process in a manner entirely different from the wealthy. The notion that college-going is a cultural interpretation is…

  9. Essays on Applied Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia Mantilla, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of this dissertation studies a different question within the field of Applied Microeconomics. The first chapter examines the mid- and long-term effects of the 1998 Asian Crisis on the educational attainment of Indonesian children ages 6 to 18, at the time of the crisis. The effects are identified as deviations from a linear trend for…

  10. Applied Linguistics in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution developments in Applied Linguistics in Europe are linked to major social changes that have taken place over the last decades. These include: The decline of the USSR and the end of the cold war; The development of the EEC and the EU and fading of borders; The economic growth of Western Europe; Labor migration from the south to…

  11. Applied Statistics with SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…

  12. Applied Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapacs, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    Teaching strategies that work for typically developing children often do not work for those diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. However, teaching strategies that work for children with autism do work for typically developing children. In this article, the author explains how the principles and concepts of Applied Behavior Analysis can be…

  13. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba Moyo); "Classroom Code-Switching…

  14. Signals: Applying Academic Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Academic analytics helps address the public's desire for institutional accountability with regard to student success, given the widespread concern over the cost of higher education and the difficult economic and budgetary conditions prevailing worldwide. Purdue University's Signals project applies the principles of analytics widely used in…

  15. Applying Mathematical Processes (AMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kathotia, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    This article provides insights into the "Applying Mathematical Processes" resources, developed by the Nuffield Foundation. It features Nuffield AMP activities--and related ones from Bowland Maths--that were designed to support the teaching and assessment of key processes in mathematics--representing a situation mathematically, analysing,…

  16. Preserving EAPSM Phase and Transmission in the Clean Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Se-Jong; Yoon, Si-Yeul; Kim, Yong-Dae; Lee, Hak-Weon; Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Si-Woo; Lee, Dong-Heok; Kim, Jin-Min; Choi, Sang-Soo; Jeong, Soo Hong

    2002-12-01

    The cleaning of embedded-attenuated phase shift masks (EAPSMs) is one of the most important enabling capabilities in the production of high-quality masks. Particles are commonly generated during Cr and MoSiON etching using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) tools. The cleaning process of EAPSMs requires not only the removal of particles on the phase shifting layer (MoSiON) and glass, but also the ability to leave the phase and transmission properties intact. Megasonic cleaning is a technique commonly used for removing particles on the surfaces of photomasks. However, megasonic processes employing SC-1 chemistry (specifically ammonium hydroxide) cannot be applied to a MoSiON PSM. Chemical erosion of the alkali-soluble phase shifting layer will drive phase and transmission performance outside of customer specifications. Therefore, EAPSM cleaning must balance simultaneously the complete removal of particles with the prevention physical damage. For these reasons, the cleaning process requires a high degree of control. In this paper, a new cleaning method was applied to MoSiON-based masks utilizing megasonic cleaning because it had a little change on phase and transmission. Traditional SC-1 chemistry was not used at all. Results obtained through this method showed a little change on phase and transmission. The particles on glass also can be sufficiently removed using megasonic process with the dilute SC-1 chemistry. The cleaning technique for the fabrication of EAPSMs with no variation in phase and transmission after the cleaning process will be presented.

  17. Sound Transmission through Two Concentric Cylindrical Sandwich Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Yvette Y.; Silcox, Richard J.; Robinson, Jay H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper solves the problem of sound transmission through a system of two infinite concentric cylindrical sandwich shells. The shells are surrounded by external and internal fluid media and there is fluid (air) in the annular space between them. An oblique plane sound wave is incident upon the surface of the outer shell. A uniform flow is moving with a constant velocity in the external fluid medium. Classical thin shell theory is applied to the inner shell and first-order shear deformation theory is applied to the outer shell. A closed form for transmission loss is derived based on modal analysis. Investigations have been made for the impedance of both shells and the transmission loss through the shells from the exterior into the interior. Results are compared for double sandwich shells and single sandwich shells. This study shows that: (1) the impedance of the inner shell is much smaller than that of the outer shell so that the transmission loss is almost the same in both the annular space and the interior cavity of the shells; (2) the two concentric sandwich shells can produce an appreciable increase of transmission loss over single sandwich shells especially in the high frequency range; and (3) design guidelines may be derived with respect to the noise reduction requirement and the pressure in the annular space at a mid-frequency range.

  18. Transmission control method providing overlapped engagement of power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, T.; Ito, H.; Yamada, S.

    1986-10-14

    A method for controlling a transmission mechanism for a vehicle wherein: the transmission mechanism comprises an input shaft; and output shaft; a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio.

  19. 47 CFR 80.104 - Identification of radar transmissions not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification of radar transmissions not... Procedures-General § 80.104 Identification of radar transmissions not authorized. This section applies to all maritime radar transmitters except radar beacon stations. (a) Radar transmitters must not transmit...

  20. 47 CFR 80.104 - Identification of radar transmissions not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification of radar transmissions not... Procedures-General § 80.104 Identification of radar transmissions not authorized. This section applies to all maritime radar transmitters except radar beacon stations. (a) Radar transmitters must not transmit...

  1. 47 CFR 80.104 - Identification of radar transmissions not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification of radar transmissions not... Procedures-General § 80.104 Identification of radar transmissions not authorized. This section applies to all maritime radar transmitters except radar beacon stations. (a) Radar transmitters must not transmit...

  2. 47 CFR 80.104 - Identification of radar transmissions not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification of radar transmissions not... Procedures-General § 80.104 Identification of radar transmissions not authorized. This section applies to all maritime radar transmitters except radar beacon stations. (a) Radar transmitters must not transmit...

  3. 47 CFR 80.104 - Identification of radar transmissions not authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification of radar transmissions not... Procedures-General § 80.104 Identification of radar transmissions not authorized. This section applies to all maritime radar transmitters except radar beacon stations. (a) Radar transmitters must not transmit...

  4. 76 FR 179 - GMPT Warren Transmission, GM Powertrain Division, a Subsidiary of General Motors Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... (75 FR 28300). Workers are engaged in the production of automotive transmissions. At the request of... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-71,374 GMPT Warren Transmission, GM Powertrain Division, a..., Warren, MI; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

  5. Climate change and malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, S W; Birley, M H

    1996-12-01

    There is a consensus among climatologists that our planet is experiencing a progressive rise in surface temperature due to the increased production of "greenhouse" gases. Some of the possible consequences of elevated temperature on malaria transmission are examined in the present review. A simple mathematical model is first used to examine the effect of temperature on the ability of Anopheles maculipennis to transmit vivax malaria. This indicates that small increases in temperature at low temperatures may increase the risk of transmission substantially. This is important, since vulnerable communities, poorly protected by health services, in areas of unstable or no malaria are likely to be at increased risk of future outbreaks. In contrast, areas of stable transmission may be little affected by rising temperature. It is thought that global warming will lead to coastal flooding, changes in precipitation and, indirectly, changes in land use. Just how these changes will effect transmission at a regional level requires an understanding of the ecology of local vectors, since environmental changes which favour malaria transmission in one vector species may reduce it in another. Methods for predicting future changes in malaria in different regions are discussed, highlighting the need for further research in this area. Most importantly, there is a need for researchers to validate the accuracy of the models used for predicting malaria and to confirm the assumptions on which the models are based.

  6. Applied study of optical interconnection link in computer cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ge; Tian, Jindong; Zhang, Nan; Jing, Wencai; Li, Haifeng

    2000-10-01

    In this paper, some study results to apply fiber link to a computer cluster are presented. The research is based on a ring network topology for a cluster system, which is connected by gigabit/s virtual parallel optical fiber link (VPOFLink) and its driver is for Linux Operating System, the transmission protocol of VPOFLink is compliant with Ethernet standard. We have studied the effect of different types of motherboard on transmission rate of the VPOFLink, and have analyzed the influence of optical interconnection network topology and computer networks protocol on the performance of this optical interconnection computer cluster. The round-trip transmission bandwidth of the VPOFLink have been tested, and the factors that limit transmission bandwidth, such as modes of forwarding data packets in the optical interconnection ring networks, and the size of the link buffer etc., are investigated.

  7. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varactor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varactor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process.

  8. Monolithic high voltage nonlinear transmission line fabrication process

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, G.A.

    1994-10-04

    A process for fabricating sequential inductors and varistor diodes of a monolithic, high voltage, nonlinear, transmission line in GaAs is disclosed. An epitaxially grown laminate is produced by applying a low doped active n-type GaAs layer to an n-plus type GaAs substrate. A heavily doped p-type GaAs layer is applied to the active n-type layer and a heavily doped n-type GaAs layer is applied to the p-type layer. Ohmic contacts are applied to the heavily doped n-type layer where diodes are desired. Multiple layers are then either etched away or Oxygen ion implanted to isolate individual varistor diodes. An insulator is applied between the diodes and a conductive/inductive layer is thereafter applied on top of the insulator layer to complete the process. 6 figs.

  9. Midwest Transmission Workshop III Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Bryan

    2003-03-12

    OAK-B135 On March 12-13, 2002, the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), in cooperation with regional stakeholders, held a two-day workshop: Planning for Electrical Transmission Needs in the Upper Midwest. The workshop was the outgrowth of an effort to develop a forum and process for consideration of transmission options that strives for equitable allocation of benefits and impacts among all affected parties. The goal of this workshop was to provide a catalyst for an enhanced, inclusive process for transmission planning with participation of and acceptance by all affected stakeholders. Participants in the meeting included representatives of state and regional regulatory agencies, utilities and power generators, the wind industry, environmental and landowner interests, and other interested parties (see Attachment A for a list of meeting participants).

  10. Remote control apparatus for transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ebina, A.

    1989-01-10

    A remote control apparatus for a transmission is described, comprising: means for sending a signal representing an operation state of a change lever; auxiliary power means, remote-controlled by the change lever, for changing a gear position of the transmission and sending a signal representing the gear position; and control means for controlling an operation of the auxiliary power means in accordance with the change lever operation state signal and gear position signal, the control means being provided with neutral position holding means comprises signal transmission delay means. This comprises means for detecting that the shift path on which the striker presently exists is different from the shift path instructed according to the change lever operating signal, then detecting that the striker has reached the first neutral position according to the neutral position signal and generating a neutral position detection signal.

  11. All optical OFDM transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, June-Koo K.; Lim, Seong-Jin; Kserawi, Malaz

    2011-12-01

    All-optical OFDM data transmission opens up a new realm of advanced optical transmission at extreme data rates, as subcarriers are multiplexed and demultiplexed by all optical discrete Fourier transforms (DFT). This paper reviews the principles of all optical OFDM transmission and its system application techniques, providing the generic ideas and the practical implementation issues to achieve 100Gbps or higher data rates with a spectral efficiency of 1 bps/Hz or better. This paper also include discussions on all-optical OFDM implementation variants such as an AWG-based OFDM multiplexer and demultiplexer, a receiver design without optical sampling, a transmitter design with frequency-locked cw lasers, an OFDM cyclic prefix designs, and a chromatic dispersion mitigation technique.

  12. Clustering, climate and dengue transmission.

    PubMed

    Junxiong, Pang; Yee-Sin, Leo

    2015-06-01

    Dengue is currently the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease, with an increasing burden over recent decades. Currently, neither a licensed vaccine nor an effective anti-viral therapy is available, and treatment largely remains supportive. Current vector control strategies to prevent and reduce dengue transmission are neither efficient nor sustainable as long-term interventions. Increased globalization and climate change have been reported to influence dengue transmission. In this article, we reviewed the non-climatic and climatic risk factors which facilitate dengue transmission. Sustainable and effective interventions to reduce the increasing threat from dengue would require the integration of these risk factors into current and future prevention strategies, including dengue vaccination, as well as the continuous support and commitment from the political and environmental stakeholders.

  13. Clustering, climate and dengue transmission.

    PubMed

    Junxiong, Pang; Yee-Sin, Leo

    2015-06-01

    Dengue is currently the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease, with an increasing burden over recent decades. Currently, neither a licensed vaccine nor an effective anti-viral therapy is available, and treatment largely remains supportive. Current vector control strategies to prevent and reduce dengue transmission are neither efficient nor sustainable as long-term interventions. Increased globalization and climate change have been reported to influence dengue transmission. In this article, we reviewed the non-climatic and climatic risk factors which facilitate dengue transmission. Sustainable and effective interventions to reduce the increasing threat from dengue would require the integration of these risk factors into current and future prevention strategies, including dengue vaccination, as well as the continuous support and commitment from the political and environmental stakeholders. PMID:25872683

  14. Quality in applied science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sten, T.

    1993-12-01

    Science is in many senses a special kind of craft and only skilled craftsmen are able to distinguish good work from bad. Due to the variation in approaches, methods and even philosophical basis, it is nearly impossible to derive a general set of quality criteria for scientific work outside specific research traditions. Applied science introduces a new set of quality criteria having to do with the application of results in practical situations and policy making. A scientist doing basic research relates mainly to the scientific community of which he is a member, while in applied contract research the scientist has to consider the impact of his results both for the immediate users and upon interest groups possibly being affected. Application thus raises a whole new set of requirements having to do with business ethics, policy consequences and societal ethics in general.

  15. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices. PMID:27553759

  16. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices. PMID:27553759

  17. A Generalized Lossy Transmission-Line Model for Tunable Graphene-Based Transmission Lines with Attenuation Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yongle; Qu, Meijun; Liu, Yuanan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the frequency shift phenomenon by inserting graphene, a generalized lossy transmission-line model and the related electrical parameter-extraction theory are proposed in this paper. Three kinds of graphene-based transmission lines with attenuation phenomenon including microstrip line, double-side parallel strip line, and uniplanar coplanar waveguide are analyzed under the common conditions where different chemical potentials are loaded on graphene. The values of attenuation constant and phase constant, and the real and imaginary parts of the characteristic impedance of transmission lines are extracted to analyze in details. When the attenuation constant and the reactance part of the characteristic impedance are approximately equal to zero, this kind of transmission line has low or zero insertion loss. On the contrary, the transmission line is under the radiation mode with obvious insertion loss. The phase constant changes linearly under the transmission mode and can be varied with changing of chemical potentials which attributes to the property of frequency tunability. Furthermore, a bandwidth reconfigurable uniplanar coplanar waveguide power divider is simulated to demonstrate that this theory can be applied to the design of three-port devices. In summary, this work provides a strong potential approach and design theory to help design other kinds of terahertz and mid-infrared reconfigurable devices.

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  19. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Rosalind E.; Reiner Jr., Robert C.; Battle, Katherine E.; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J.; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Smith, David L.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  20. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    PubMed

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  1. Applied science. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Bud, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Such categories as applied science and pure science can be thought of as "ideological." They have been contested in the public sphere, exposing long-term intellectual commitments, assumptions, balances of power, and material interests. This group of essays explores the contest over applied science in Britain and the United States during the nineteenth century. The essays look at the concept in the context of a variety of neighbors, including pure science, technology, and art. They are closely related and connected to contemporary historiographic debate. Jennifer Alexander links the issues raised to a recent paper by Paul Forman. Paul Lucier and Graeme Gooday deal with the debates in the last quarter of the century in the United States and Britain, respectively. Robert Bud deals with the earlier part of the nineteenth century, with an eye specifically on the variety of concepts hybridized under the heading of "applied science." Eric Schatzberg looks at the erosion of the earlier concept of art. As a whole, the essays illuminate both long-term changes and nuanced debate and are themselves intended to provoke further reflection on science in the public sphere.

  2. Intercultural Transmission and Intergenerational Transmission in Immigrant Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nauck, Bernhard

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of intergenerational transmission processes on the intercultural contact and ethnic identification of second generation adolescents from five migrant groups in Germany, distinguishing four possible outcomes of intercultural contact (integration, assimilation, segregation, and marginalization). Data from interviews with same-sex…

  3. The albedo effect on neutron transmission probability.

    PubMed

    Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the albedo effect on the neutron transmission probability through slab shields. For this reason we have considered an infinite homogeneous slab having a fixed thickness equal to 20 lambda (lambda is the mean free path of the neutron in the slab). This slab is characterized by the factor Ps (scattering probability) and contains a vacuum channel which is formed by two horizontal parts and an inclined one (David, M. C. (1962) Duc and Voids in shields. In Reactor Handbook, Vol. III, Part B, p. 166). The thickness of the vacuum channel is taken equal to 2 lambda. An infinite plane source of neutrons is placed on the first of the slab (left face) and detectors, having windows equal to 2 lambda, are placed on the second face of the slab (right face). Neutron histories are sampled by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) using exponential biasing in order to increase the Monte Carlo calculation efficiency (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Abouker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco) and we have applied the statistical weight method which supposes that the neutron is born at the source with a unit statistical weight and after each collision this weight is corrected. For different values of the scattering probability and for different slopes of the inclined part of the channel we have calculated the neutron transmission probability for different positions of the detectors versus the albedo at the vacuum channel-medium interface. Some analytical representations are also presented for these transmission probabilities. PMID:9463883

  4. Auctionable fixed transmission rights for congestion management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomoush, Muwaffaq Irsheid

    Electric power deregulation has proposed a major change to the regulated utility monopoly. The change manifests the main part of engineers' efforts to reshape three components of today's regulated monopoly: generation, distribution and transmission. In this open access deregulated power market, transmission network plays a major role, and transmission congestion is a major problem that requires further consideration especially when inter-zonal/intra-zonal scheme is implemented. Declaring that engineering studies and experience are the criteria to define zonal boundaries or defining a zone based on the fact that a zone is a densely interconnected area (lake) and paths connecting these densely interconnected areas are inter-zonal lines will render insufficient and fuzzy definitions. Moreover, a congestion problem formulation should take into consideration interactions between intra-zonal and inter-zonal flows and their effects on power systems. In this thesis, we introduce a procedure for minimizing the number of adjustments of preferred schedules to alleviate congestion and apply control schemes to minimize interactions between zones. In addition, we give the zone definition a certain criterion based on the Locational Marginal Price (LMP). This concept will be used to define congestion zonal boundaries and to decide whether any zone should be merged with another zone or split into new zones. The thesis presents a unified scheme that combines zonal and FTR schemes to manage congestion. This combined scheme is utilized with LMPs to define zonal boundaries more appropriately. The presented scheme gains the best features of the FTR scheme, which are providing financial certainty, maximizing the efficient use of the system and making users pay for the actual use of congested paths. LMPs may give an indication of the impact of wheeling transactions, and calculations of and comparisons of LMPs with and without wheeling transactions should be adequate criteria to approve

  5. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  6. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  7. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  8. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  9. 47 CFR 80.89 - Unauthorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unauthorized transmissions. 80.89 Section 80.89... transmissions. Stations must not: (a) Engage in superfluous radio-communication. (b) Use telephony on 243 MHz... transmission of distress, alarm, urgency, or safety signals or messages, or to test transmissions. (e)...

  10. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with the... mode and idle modes longer than one minute in length may be run with automatic transmissions in... engine start-up). If an automatic transmission is in “Neutral” during an idle mode, it shall be placed...

  11. 40 CFR 86.528-78 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be conducted with automatic transmissions in “Drive” (highest gear). Automatic clutch-torque... modes shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked, manual transmission... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.528-78 Section...

  12. 40 CFR 86.128-79 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked; manual transmissions shall be in gear with the... mode and idle modes longer than one minute in length may be run with automatic transmissions in... engine start-up). If an automatic transmission is in “Neutral” during an idle mode, it shall be placed...

  13. Control system for an infinitely variable transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Y.

    1986-12-09

    This patent describes a control system for an infinitely variable belt-drive transmission having a selector device including a drive range position and a neutral position, a drive pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc, and a driven pulley having a hydraulically shiftable disc and a servo chamber for shifting the disc. It also has a belt engaged with both the pulleys, a hydraulic control circuit for supplying oil to the servo chambers and for draining the servo chambers. The hydraulic control circuit is provided with a pressure regulator valve for providing a line pressure and a transmission ratio control valve for applying the line pressure to the servo chamber of the drive pulley. The improvement described here comprises: a lubricating oil circuit provided in the hydraulic control circuit for supplying lubricating oil to the drive and driven pulleys; a passage for supplying a part of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber of the drive pulley; a check valve provided in the passage for preventing the reverse flow of the lubricating oil; and a select position detecting valve for enabling the supply of the lubricating oil to the servo chamber at the selection of the neutral position.

  14. Biocompatibility of clinically applied hydroxylapatite ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    van Blitterswijk, C.A.; Grote, J.J. )

    1990-02-01

    The biocompatibility of 11 porous canal wall prostheses and 4 dense incus prostheses, both types made of hydroxylapatite, was studied by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and x-ray microanalysis. The duration of implantation varied between 4 and 40 months, and the 15 retrieved implants constitute 4% of the 375 clinically applied hydroxylapatite prostheses involved in this study. With respect to integration characteristics, coverage by epithelium and fibrous tissue, and biodegradation, the performance of clinically applied hydroxylapatite generally resembled that seen in animal experiments. However, the reactions during chronic infection in the human ear were more severe than those in experimentally induced acute infections in the rat middle ear. One of the canal wall prostheses showed trace element accumulation in the cytoplasm of phagocytes.

  15. Prediction of long-term radiation kinetics of transmission spectra of commerical optical glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarov, Andrei I.; Doyle, Dominic B.; Fruit, Michel; Kinet, Damien P.

    2002-09-01

    We analyze the applicability of a number of exponent-type phenomenological kinetics for transmission degradation prediction in commercial optical glasses during and after irradiation. The analysis is based on post-radiation transmission measurements over a 5 years time interval of a commercial boro-silicate glass (BK7, Schott). A conclusion is drawn that the choice should be made between the stretched-exponential and the multi-exponential functions. We apply those kinetics to simulate kinetics of BK7 glass transmission spectra subject to Co60 gamma-radiation in the framework of the previously developed phenomenological model. Calculated transmission spectra agree well with our experimental data.

  16. Radiometry and the Friis transmission equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    To more effectively tailor courses involving antennas, wireless communications, optics, and applied electromagnetics to a mixed audience of engineering and physics students, the Friis transmission equation—which quantifies the power received in a free-space communication link—is developed from principles of optical radiometry and scalar diffraction. This approach places more emphasis on the physics and conceptual understanding of the Friis equation than is provided by the traditional derivation based on antenna impedance. Specifically, it shows that the wavelength-squared dependence can be attributed to diffraction at the antenna aperture and illustrates the important difference between the throughput (product of area and solid angle) of a single antenna or telescope and the throughput of a transmitter-receiver pair.

  17. Nanometric crystal defects in transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Schäublin, Robin

    2006-05-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is revisited in order to define methods for the identification of nanometric defects. Nanometric crystal defects play an important role as they influence, generally in a detrimental way, physical properties. For instance, radiation-induced damage in metals strongly degrades mechanical properties, rendering the material stronger but brittle. The difficulty in using TEM to identify the nature and size of such defects resides in their small size. TEM image simulations are deployed to explore limits and possible ways to improve on spatial resolution and contrast. The contrast of dislocation loops, cavities, and a stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) are simulated in weak beam, interfering reflections (HRTEM), and scanned condensed electron probe (STEM) mode. Results indicate that STEM is a possible way to image small defects. In addition, a new objective aperture is proposed to improve resolution in diffraction contrast. It is investigated by simulations of the weak beam imaging of SFT and successfully applied in experimental observations.

  18. Transmission Grating Measurements of Undulator K

    SciTech Connect

    Bionta, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    This study was undertaken to understand the practicalities of determine K differences in the undulator modules by measuring single-shot x-ray spectra of the spontaneous radiation with a transmissive grating spectrometer under development to measure FEL spectra. Since the quality of the FEL is dependent on a uniform K value in all the undulator modules, being able to measure the relative undulator K values is important. Preliminary results were presented in a presentation, 'Use of FEL Off-Axis Zone Plate Spectrometer to Measure Relative K by the Pinhole/Centroid Method', at the 'LCLS Beam-Based Undulator K Measurements Workshop' on November 14, 2005 (UCRL-PRES-217281). This study applies equally well to reflective gratings of the appropriate period and inclinations.

  19. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  20. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights the NASA Applied Sciences Program. The goal of the program is to extend the results of scientific research and knowledge beyond the science community to contribute to NASA's partners' applications of national priority, such as agricultural efficiency, energy management and Homeland Security. Another purpose of the program's scientific research is to increase knowledge of the Earth-Sun system to enable improved predictions of climate, weather, and natural hazards. The program primarily optimizes benefits for citizens by contributing to partnering on applications that are used by state, local and tribal governments.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  2. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  3. Nonceramic insulators for transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M. . High Voltage Transmission Research Center); Hall, J.F. ); Karady, G. ); Rendowden, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Progress in development of nonceramic transmission lines insulator technology is reviewed. The results of a survey to utilities in the United States are presented to indicate the range of applications, distribution by voltage class, appraisal of performance, and failure modes. Concerns expressed by utility representatives at a recent workshop are described and future research and standardization needs are presented.

  4. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  5. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOEpatents

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  6. Tornadoes and transmission reliability planning

    SciTech Connect

    Teles, J.E.; Anderson, S.W.; Landgren, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce an analytical approach for predicting overhead transmission line outages that are caused by tornadoes. The method is presently being used to determine the effects of tornadoes on various right-of-way configurations associated with a generating station project or the supply to a major substation. 2 refs.

  7. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  8. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship.

    PubMed

    Isakbaeva, Elmira T; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Beard, R Suzanne; Bulens, Sandra N; Mullins, James; Monroe, Stephan S; Bresee, Joseph; Sassano, Patricia; Cramer, Elaine H; Glass, Roger I

    2005-01-01

    An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis affected passengers on two consecutive cruises of ship X and continued on 4 subsequent cruises despite a 1-week sanitization. We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land.

  9. Transmissivity and conductivity of single fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, P. M.; Thovert, J. F.; Mourzenko, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    A fracture can be seen as a void space between two rough surfaces in partial contact. Transmissivity and conductivity can be determined numerically by solving the Stokes and Laplace equations between these two surfaces. These problems were first solved and published by the same authors between 1995 and 2001. Updated, more complete and precise results are presented here. Each surface of a fracture can be schematized as a random surface oscillating around an average plane, characterized by the probability density and autocorrelation function C(u) of the heights; their standard deviation is the roughness sigma. The two surfaces are separated by a mean distance b_m and their heights are correlated with an intercorrelation coefficient theta. The two major classes for C(u), namely the Gaussian and the self-affine autocorrelations with Hurst exponent H, are both characterized by a length scale l_c, which is a typical scale for the surface features in the Gaussian case and a cut-off length in the self-affine case. Gaussian surfaces are statistically homogeneous while the mean properties in the self-affine case are size-dependent. Systematic calculations were performed for these two classes, with recent emphasis put on the Gaussian fractures. The results are modeled as functions of b_m/sigma, l_c/sigma and theta. Cubic law applies for large b_m/sigma in terms of the aperture reduced by the hydraulic thickness of the surface rugosity. Another cubic law applies in the opposite limit of tight fractures with an offset depending on theta and a prefactor which depends on theta and l_c. A transition takes place between these two regimes. It is also shown that the Reynolds approximation may overestimate the true transmissivity by almost an order of magnitude. Similar calculations were performed for conductivity. The whole work is summarized by a series of master curves and models which can be used to estimate the properties of real fractures.

  10. Gap junction-mediated electrical transmission: regulatory mechanisms and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Pereda, Alberto E.; Curti, Sebastian; Hoge, Gregory; Cachope, Roger; Flores, Carmen E.; Rash, John E.

    2012-01-01

    The term synapse applies to cellular specializations that articulate the processing of information within neural circuits by providing a mechanism for the transfer of information between two different neurons. There are two main modalities of synaptic transmission: chemical and electrical. While most efforts have been dedicated to the understanding of the properties and modifiability of chemical transmission, less is still known regarding the plastic properties of electrical synapses, whose structural correlate is the gap junction. A wealth of data indicates that, rather than passive intercellular channels, electrical synapses are more dynamic and modifiable than was generally perceived. This article will discuss the factors determining the strength of electrical transmission and review current evidence demonstrating its dynamic properties. Like their chemical counterparts, electrical synapses can also be plastic and modifiable. PMID:22659675

  11. Efficient Quantum Transmission in Multiple-Source Networks

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transformations are applied to incoming quantum states using phase shifters such that decoders can distinguish outgoing quantum states. These phase shifters may be precisely controlled using classical chaos synchronization via additional classical channels. Based on this design and the reduction of multiple-source network under the assumption of restricted maximum-flow, the optimal scheme is proposed for specially quantized multiple-source network. In comparison with previous schemes, our scheme can greatly increase the transmission efficiency. PMID:24691590

  12. Determining anisotropic transmissivity using a simplified Papadopulos method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Hsieh, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The straight-line method presented by Papadopulos requires a minimum of three observation wells for determining the transmissivity tensor of a homogeneous and anisotropic aquifer. A simplification of this method was developed for fractured aquifers where the principal directions of the transmissivity tensor are known prior to implementation, such as when fracture patterns on outcropping portions of the aquifer may be used to infer the principal directions. This new method assumes that observation wells are drilled along the two principal directions from the pumped well, thus reducing the required number of observation wells to two. This method was applied for an aquifer test in the fractured Navajo Sandstone of southwestern Utah and yielded minimum and maximum principal transmissivity values of 70 and 1800 m 2/d, respectively, indicating an anisotropy ratio of ???24 to 1.

  13. 360-degree table-top display with rotating transmissive screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Soo; Jeon, Hosung; Lee, Sang Kil; Kim, Hwi; Hahn, Joonku

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display usually provides binocular disparity to observer. To construct 360degree table-top display, lots of views are required. In order to display a large amount of views to observer, time-multiplexing technique is applied. We suggest a new structure for view-sequential 360-degree table-top display system. In my system, a transmissive screen is used and digital micromirror device (DMD) image is projected on it. This system defines the direction of bundle of rays to configure the sequential view. It has some advantages resulting from the transmissive flat screen. When the transmissive screen is used instead of the reflective one, the light power efficiency is improved. Moreover, the arrangement of the pixel is more uniform when the screen is flat instead of a static conic screen. We construct a table-top display with about 288views around 360degree and its feasibilities are confirmed.

  14. Efficient Quantum Transmission in Multiple-Source Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Xu, Gang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yang, Yi-Xian; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-04-01

    A difficult problem in quantum network communications is how to efficiently transmit quantum information over large-scale networks with common channels. We propose a solution by developing a quantum encoding approach. Different quantum states are encoded into a coherent superposition state using quantum linear optics. The transmission congestion in the common channel may be avoided by transmitting the superposition state. For further decoding and continued transmission, special phase transformations are applied to incoming quantum states using phase shifters such that decoders can distinguish outgoing quantum states. These phase shifters may be precisely controlled using classical chaos synchronization via additional classical channels. Based on this design and the reduction of multiple-source network under the assumption of restricted maximum-flow, the optimal scheme is proposed for specially quantized multiple-source network. In comparison with previous schemes, our scheme can greatly increase the transmission efficiency.

  15. An optimization model for long-range transmission expansion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. Jr.; Franca, P.M.; Said, A.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper is presented a static network synthesis method applied to transmission expansion planning. The static synthesis problem is formulated as a mixed-integer network flow model that is solved by an implicit enumeration algorithm. This model considers as the objective function the most productive trade off, resulting in low investment costs and good electrical performance. The load and generation nodal equations are considered in the constraints of the model. The power transmission law of DC load flow is implicit in the optimization model. Results of computational tests are presented and they show the advantage of this method compared with a heuristic procedure. The case studies show a comparison of computational times and costs of solutions obtained for the Brazilian North-Northeast transmission system.

  16. Role of Semen on Vaginal HIV-1 Transmission and Maraviroc Protection

    PubMed Central

    Council, Olivia D.; Swanson, Michael D.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann

    2015-01-01

    We used bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to establish the effect of semen on vaginal HIV infection and on the efficacy of topically applied maraviroc. Our results demonstrate that vaginal transmission of cell-free HIV occurs efficiently in the presence of semen and that topically applied maraviroc efficiently prevents HIV transmission in the presence of semen. We also show that semen has no significant effect on the transmission of transmitted/founder viruses or cell-associated viruses. PMID:26392489

  17. The effects of long delay and transmission errors on the performance of TP-4 implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durst, Robert C.; Evans, Eric L.; Mitchell, Randy C.

    1991-01-01

    A set of tools that allows us to measure and examine the effects of transmission delay and errors on the performance of TP-4 implementations has been developed. The tools give insight into both the large- and small-scale behaviors of an implementation. These tools have been systematically applied to a commercial implementation of TP-4. Measurements show, among other things, that a 2-second one-way transmission delay and an effective bit-error rate of 1 error per 100,000 bits can result in a 95 percent reduction in TP-4 throughput. The detailed statistics give insight into why transmission delay and errors affect this implementations so significantly and support a number of 'lessons learned' that could be applied to TP-4 implementations that operate more robustly across networks with long transmission delays and transmission errors.

  18. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-01-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  19. Applying robotics to HAZMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Richard V.; Edmonds, Gary O.

    1994-02-01

    The use of robotics in situations involving hazardous materials can significantly reduce the risk of human injuries. The Emergency Response Robotics Project, which began in October 1990 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is developing a teleoperated mobile robot allowing HAZMAT (hazardous materials) teams to remotely respond to incidents involving hazardous materials. The current robot, called HAZBOT III, can assist in locating characterizing, identifying, and mitigating hazardous material incidents without risking entry team personnel. The active involvement of the JPL Fire Department HAZMAT team has been vital in developing a robotic system which enables them to perform remote reconnaissance of a HAZMAT incident site. This paper provides a brief review of the history of the project, discusses the current system in detail, and presents other areas in which robotics can be applied removing people from hazardous environments/operations.

  20. Applied Healthspan Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Abstract According to the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, when Eos asked Zeus for Tithonus to be granted immortality, she forgot to ask for eternal youth. Applied Healthspan Engineering (AHE) seeks to address this problem. All organisms have a minimal level of functional reserve required to sustain life that eventually declines to a point incompatible with survival at death. AHE seeks to maintain or restore optimal functional reserve of critical tissues and organs. Tissue reserve correlates with well being. Diet, physical exercise, and currently available small-molecule-based therapeutics may attenuate the rate of decline of specific organs or organ systems, but are unlikely to restore lost reserve. Inherent evolutionary-derived limitations in tissue homeostasis and cell maintenance necessitate the development of therapies to enhance regenerative processes and possibly replace whole organs or tissues. AHE supports the study of cell, tissue, and organ homeostatic mechanisms to derive new regenerative and tissue replacement therapies to extend the period of human health. PMID:20462384

  1. Applied computational aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Henne, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses the original development of the panel method, the mapping solutions and singularity distributions of linear potential schemes, the capabilities of full-potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes schemes, the use of the grid-generation methodology in applied aerodynamics, subsonic airfoil design, inverse airfoil design for transonic applications, the divergent trailing-edge airfoil innovation in CFD, Euler and potential computational results for selected aerodynamic configurations, and the application of CFD to wing high-lift systems. Also discussed are high-lift wing modifications for an advanced-capability EA-6B aircraft, Navier-Stokes methods for internal and integrated propulsion system flow predictions, the use of zonal techniques for analysis of rotor-stator interaction, CFD applications to complex configurations, CFD applications in component aerodynamic design of the V-22, Navier-Stokes computations of a complete F-16, CFD at supersonic/hypersonic speeds, and future CFD developments.

  2. Applied antineutrino physics workshop.

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, James C.

    2008-01-01

    This workshop is the fourth one of a series that includes the Neutrino Geophysics Conference at Honolulu, Hawaii, which I attended in 2005. This workshop was organized by the Astro-Particle and Cosmology laboratory in the recently opened Condoret building of the University of Paris. More information, including copies of the presentations, on the workshop is available on the website: www.apc.univ-paris7.fr/AAP2007/. The workshop aims at opening neutrino physics to various fields such that it can be applied in geosciences, nuclear industry (reactor and spent fuel monitoring) and non-proliferation. The workshop was attended by over 60 people from Europe, USA, Asia and Brazil. The meeting was also attended by representatives of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The workshop also included a workshop dinner on board of a river boat sailing the Seine river.

  3. Methods of applied dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Wilson, H. B.

    1991-01-01

    The monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of dynamics with special consideration given to the dynamic analysis of aerospace systems. It is conceived to be both a desk-top reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject. Beginning with the basic concepts of kinematics and dynamics, the discussion proceeds to treat the dynamics of a system of particles. Both classical and modern formulations of the Lagrange equations, including constraints, are discussed and applied to the dynamic modeling of aerospace structures using the modal synthesis technique.

  4. NASA Applied Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, Sue M.; Haynes, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's strategic Goals: a) Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of human spaceflight program to focus on exploration. b) Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs. NASA's partnership efforts in global modeling and data assimilation over the next decade will shorten the distance from observations to answers for important, leading-edge science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences program will continue the Agency's efforts in benchmarking the assimilation of NASA research results into policy and management decision-support tools that are vital for the Nation's environment, economy, safety, and security. NASA also is working with NOAH and inter-agency forums to transition mature research capabilities to operational systems, primarily the polar and geostationary operational environmental satellites, and to utilize fully those assets for research purposes.

  5. Lessons learned and applied

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Corey Joseph; Hall, Corey M.; Odoms, La’ Nyia J.

    2012-01-01

    Most vaccines available in the United States (US) have been incorporated into vaccination schedules for infants and young children, age groups particularly at risk of contracting infectious diseases. High universal vaccination coverage is responsible for substantially reducing or nearly eliminating many of the diseases that once killed thousands of children each year in the US. Despite the success of infant vaccinations, periods of low vaccination coverage and the limited immunogenicity and duration of protection of certain vaccines have resulted in sporadic outbreaks, allowing some diseases to spread in communities. These challenges suggest that expanded vaccination coverage to younger infants and adolescents, and more immunogenic vaccines, may be needed in some instances. This review focuses on the importance of infant immunization and explores the successes and challenges of current early childhood vaccination programs and how these lessons may be applied to other invasive diseases, such as meningococcal disease. PMID:22617834

  6. Selecting and applying flowmeters

    SciTech Connect

    Belevich, P.

    1996-05-01

    An important aspect of any process control system that requires fluid flow measurement is properly selecting and applying the flow sensor or flowmeter. A bewildering array of terms, factors and concepts that must be considered to ensure optimum design can make this a complex and sometimes confusing process. To select a proper meter for a specific application, a complete understanding of the process operating conditions and equipment performance requirements is necessary. Once these parameters are specified, actual flowmeter selection is greatly simplified. Selection parameters include accuracy, rangeability, and additional characteristics. Commonly used flowmeters include differential pressure devices, variable area meters, vortex shedding flowmeters, displacement meters, magnetic flowmeters, coriolis mass meters, thermal flowmeters, and ultrasonic flowmeters.

  7. A novel exact solution to transmission problem of electron wave in a nonlinear Kronig-Penney superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Chao; Hai, Kuo; Tan, Jintao; Chen, Hao; Hai, Wenhua

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear Kronig-Penney model has been frequently employed to study transmission problem of electron wave in a doped semiconductor superlattice or in a nonlinear electrified chain. Here from an integral equation we derive a novel exact solution of the problem, which contains a simple nonlinear map connecting transmission coefficient with system parameters. Consequently, we propose a scheme to manipulate electronic distribution and transmission by adjusting the system parameters. A new quantum coherence effect is evidenced by the strict expression of transmission coefficient, which results in the aperiodic electronic distributions and different transmission coefficients including the approximate zero transmission and total transmission, and the multiple transmissions. The method based on the concise exact solution can be applied directly to some nonlinear cold atomic systems and a lot of linear Kronig-Penney systems, and also can be extended to investigate electronic transport in different discrete nonlinear systems.

  8. Transmission errors and forward error correction in embedded differential pulse code modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, D. J.; Sundberg, C.-E.

    1983-11-01

    Formulas are derived for the combined effects of quantization and transmission errors on embedded Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) performance. The present analysis, which is both more general and precise than previous work on transmission errors in digital communication of analog signals, includes as its special cases the conventional DPCM and Pulse code Modulation. An SNR formula is obtained in which the effects of source characteristics and the effects of transmission characteristics are clearly distinguishable. Also given in computationally convenient form are specialized formulas applying to uncoded transmission through a random-error channel, transmission through a slowly fading channel, and transmission with all or part of the DCPM signal being protected by an error-correcting code.

  9. Transmission and transmission control device for providing downshifting

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Akashi, T.

    1986-11-18

    This patent describes a transmission for a vehicle, comprising a transmission mechanism, and an automatic control device; the transmission mechanism comprising: an input shaft; an output shaft, a first on-off clutch; a second on-off clutch; a first one way clutch; a second one way clutch; a first gear train having a first reduction gear ratio; a second gear train having a second reduction gear ratio smaller than the first reduction gear ratio; a third gear train having a third reduction gear ratio smaller than the second reduction gear ratio; and a fourth gear train having a fourth reduction gear ratio smaller than the third reduction gear ratio. A first synchronizer connects the input shaft and the output shaft via a series connection of the first on-off clutch, the first one way clutch, and the first gear train when the first synchronizer is shifted to a first side of a neutral position thereof so as to transmit rotational power from the input shaft to the output shaft in a normal rotational direction at a first speed stage and which connects the input shaft and the output shaft via series connection of the first on-off clutch.

  10. Dual Mode Transmission Designs for Motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Kuen-Bao; Yan, Hong-Sen

    This paper presents two types of the dual mode transmission for use in a motorcycle. A motorcycle transmission typically using the discrete speed ratio transmission that works by alternating the gear drive, and the continuously variable transmission (CVT) that transmits power by using the rubber V-belt. The dual mode transmission described in this paper, utilizing a V-belt drive, a fixed ratio mechanism, and a planetary gear train, can provide two operation regimes over the full speed ratio range by means engaged clutches. One is the fixed gear ratio and differential transmission system; the other is the differential and continuously variable transmission system. The kinematics, power flow, and mechanical efficiency of each transmission system are analyzed. An example is employed to illustrate the design procedure. Furthermore, several available design concepts of the dual mode transmissions for motorcycle applications are proposed.

  11. The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways.

    PubMed

    Hamelin, Frédéric M; Allen, Linda J S; Prendeville, Holly R; Hajimorad, M Reza; Jeger, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of plant virus transmission pathways is studied through transmission via seed, pollen, or a vector. We address the questions: under what circumstances does vector transmission make pollen transmission redundant? Can evolution lead to the coexistence of multiple virus transmission pathways? We restrict the analysis to an annual plant population in which reproduction through seed is obligatory. A semi-discrete model with pollen, seed, and vector transmission is formulated to investigate these questions. We assume vector and pollen transmission rates are frequency-dependent and density-dependent, respectively. An ecological stability analysis is performed for the semi-discrete model and used to inform an evolutionary study of trade-offs between pollen and seed versus vector transmission. Evolutionary dynamics critically depend on the shape of the trade-off functions. Assuming a trade-off between pollen and vector transmission, evolution either leads to an evolutionarily stable mix of pollen and vector transmission (concave trade-off) or there is evolutionary bi-stability (convex trade-off); the presence of pollen transmission may prevent evolution of vector transmission. Considering a trade-off between seed and vector transmission, evolutionary branching and the subsequent coexistence of pollen-borne and vector-borne strains is possible. This study contributes to the theory behind the diversity of plant-virus transmission patterns observed in nature. PMID:26908348

  12. [Prevention of HIV transmission (vertical, occupational and non-occupational)].

    PubMed

    Azkune, Harkaitz; Ibarguren, Maialen; Camino, Xabier; Iribarren, José Antonio

    2011-10-01

    In these almost thirty years since the epidemic of HIV infection strategies have been developed to decrease the transmission risk when a non-infected person comes into contact with HIV. One of the key landmarks was the use zidovudine was shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection by vertical transmission from 25% to 8% when given from the second trimester of pregnancy, during partum and for several weeks in the newborn. These strategies have been subsequently perfected until achieving vertical transmission rates less than 1%. Almost at the same time, strategies have been developed in an attempt to reduce the risk of transmission of infection after occupational accidents and, in the last few years prophylaxis after non-occupational exposure has been a field of particular concern. Even in this past year several experiments on pre-exposure prophylaxis have been published, which are generating an intense debate on is applicability. In this article, we analyse the state of the art in the prevention of vertical transmission and occupational and non-occupational prophylaxis, from a perspective of applying this in the developed world. We also review the published data on pre-exposure prophylaxis.

  13. Computational method for transmission eigenvalues for a spherically stratified medium.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Yang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    We consider a computational method for the interior transmission eigenvalue problem that arises in acoustic and electromagnetic scattering. The transmission eigenvalues contain useful information about some physical properties, such as the index of refraction. Instead of the existence and estimation of the spectral property of the transmission eigenvalues, we focus on the numerical calculation, especially for spherically stratified media in R3. Due to the nonlinearity and the special structure of the interior transmission eigenvalue problem, there are not many numerical methods to date. First, we reduce the problem into a second-order ordinary differential equation. Then, we apply the Hermite finite element to the weak formulation of the equation. With proper rewriting of the matrix-vector form, we change the original nonlinear eigenvalue problem into a quadratic eigenvalue problem, which can be written as a linear system and solved by the eigs function in MATLAB. This numerical method is fast, effective, and can calculate as many transmission eigenvalues as needed at a time. PMID:26367151

  14. Transmission diagnostic research at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, J. J.; Townsend, D. P.; Lewicki, D. G.; Decker, H. J.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory are involved in a joint research program to advance the technology of aerospace transmissions. Within the last six years, a transmission diagnostics research team was formed to address current and future technology barriers in transmission diagnostics. The diagnostics team conducted a survey to determine critical needs of the diagnostics community. Survey results indicated that experimental verification of gear and bearing fault detection methods and damage magnitude assessment were considered the two most critical research areas of a highly reliable health and usage monitoring system. A plan was implemented by the diagnostics team to address these key research areas, by in-house research and university grants. A variety of transmission fault detection methods were applied to experimentally obtained fatigue data. Failure modes of the fatigue tests include a variety of gear pitting failures, tooth wear, tooth fracture, and bearing spalling failures. Accomplishments to date include verification of several specific gear diagnostic methods, verification of a new pattern recognition method to determine failure, and development of a new method to model gear tooth damage. This paper presents the results of these accomplishments in transmission diagnostics research at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  15. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severnini, Edson Roberto

    This dissertation consists of three studies analyzing causes and consequences of location decisions by economic agents in the U.S. In Chapter 1, I address the longstanding question of the extent to which the geographic clustering of economic activity may be attributable to agglomeration spillovers as opposed to natural advantages. I present evidence on this question using data on the long-run effects of large scale hydroelectric dams built in the U.S. over the 20th century, obtained through a unique comparison between counties with or without dams but with similar hydropower potential. Until mid-century, the availability of cheap local power from hydroelectric dams conveyed an important advantage that attracted industry and population. By the 1950s, however, these advantages were attenuated by improvements in the efficiency of thermal power generation and the advent of high tension transmission lines. Using a novel combination of synthetic control methods and event-study techniques, I show that, on average, dams built before 1950 had substantial short run effects on local population and employment growth, whereas those built after 1950 had no such effects. Moreover, the impact of pre-1950 dams persisted and continued to grow after the advantages of cheap local hydroelectricity were attenuated, suggesting the presence of important agglomeration spillovers. Over a 50 year horizon, I estimate that at least one half of the long run effect of pre-1950 dams is due to spillovers. The estimated short and long run effects are highly robust to alternative procedures for selecting synthetic controls, to controls for confounding factors such as proximity to transportation networks, and to alternative sample restrictions, such as dropping dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority or removing control counties with environmental regulations. I also find small local agglomeration effects from smaller dam projects, and small spillovers to nearby locations from large dams. Lastly

  16. Transmission of influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-05-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to 'novel' viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  17. Defect tolerant transmission lithography mask

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    A transmission lithography mask that utilizes a transparent substrate or a partially transparent membrane as the active region of the mask. A reflective single layer or multilayer coating is deposited on the membrane surface facing the illumination system. The coating is selectively patterned (removed) to form transmissive (bright) regions. Structural imperfections and defects in the coating have negligible effect on the aerial image of the mask master pattern since the coating is used to reflect radiation out of the entrance pupil of the imaging system. Similarly, structural imperfections in the clear regions of the membrane have little influence on the amplitude or phase of the transmitted electromagnetic fields. Since the mask "discards," rather than absorbs, unwanted radiation, it has reduced optical absorption and reduced thermal loading as compared to conventional designs. For EUV applications, the mask circumvents the phase defect problem, and is independent of the thermal load during exposure.

  18. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  19. Exploiting a Transmission Grating Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald E. Bell

    2004-12-08

    The availability of compact transmission grating spectrometers now allows an attractive and economical alternative to the more familiar Czerny-Turner configuration for many high-temperature plasma applications. Higher throughput is obtained with short focal length refractive optics and stigmatic imaging. Many more spectra can be obtained with a single spectrometer since smaller, more densely packed optical input fibers can be used. Multiple input slits, along with a bandpass filter, can be used to maximize the number of spectra per detector, providing further economy. Curved slits can correct for the strong image curvature of the short focal length optics. Presented here are the governing grating equations for both standard and high-dispersion transmission gratings, defining dispersion, image curvature, and desired slit curvature, that can be used in the design of improved plasma diagnostics.

  20. Cultural transmission of social essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Marjorie; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Tworek, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    Social essentialism entails the belief that certain social categories (e.g., gender, race) mark fundamentally distinct kinds of people. Essentialist beliefs have pernicious consequences, supporting social stereotyping and contributing to prejudice. How does social essentialism develop? In the studies reported here, we tested the hypothesis that generic language facilitates the cultural transmission of social essentialism. Two studies found that hearing generic language about a novel social category diverse for race, ethnicity, age, and sex led 4-y-olds and adults to develop essentialist beliefs about that social category. A third study documented that experimentally inducing parents to hold essentialist beliefs about a novel social category led them to produce more generic language when discussing the category with their children. Thus, generic language facilitates the transmission of essentialist beliefs about social categories from parents to children. PMID:22869722

  1. [Climatic changes and transmissible diseases].

    PubMed

    Amat-Roze, J M

    1998-01-01

    Transmissible disease geography can be defined as the study of the spatial expression of pathogenic processes. The three main elements implicated in this study are environmental conditions affecting biophysical dynamics, political, economic, social, and cultural events, and evolution of pathogenic agents under the influence of the first two factors. A number of pathogenic areas or regions can be delimited in function of different combinations of these factors. These territories are subject to rapid change and variation. Meteorological changes and cycles are contributing factors. However the underlying mechanisms appear to be increasingly affected by human activity. Several disturbing signs have been attributed to man including desertification, drought, and global warming, but the cause-and-effect relationship is unsure. Much research is in progress but resulting data remains contradictory except insofar as to confirm the complexity of atmospheric phenomena. The natural geography of transmissible diseases is affected by these variations but it is mainly the expression of the dialogue between man and nature.

  2. Long-distance optical transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Shigeru

    1995-12-31

    Optical amplifiers, especially, erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, enable optical signals to be transmitted over long distances: several thousands of kilometers or more with the in-line amplifier system configuration. The state of the art, as well as the basic ideas under-lying such long distance transmission, is discussed. Newly discovered critical issues, such as the nonlinear and polarization characteristics of optical fibers, are also discussed with their countermeasures. Shigeru Saito received the B.S., M.S., and Dr. Eng. degrees in electrical communication engineering from Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, in 1974, 1976 and 1979, respectively. In 1979 he joined Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, and commenced researching coherent optical fiber transmission systems. In 1985 he was a Guest Professor at the Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark. He is currently a Senior Research Engineer, NTT Optical Network Systems Laboratories, Kanagawa, Japan, where is engaged in the research of optical in-line amplifier systems.

  3. Applied Linguistics and the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B.; Grabe, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines the complexities and differences involved in granting disciplinary status to the role of applied linguistics, discusses the role of the "Annual Review of Applied Linguistics" as a contributor to the development of applied linguistics, and highlights a set of publications for the future of applied linguistics. (Author/VWL)

  4. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  5. Transmission loss in manatee habitats.

    PubMed

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Miller, James H

    2006-10-01

    The Florida manatee is regularly exposed to high volumes of vessel traffic and other human-related noise because of its coastal distribution. Quantifying specific aspects of the manatee's acoustic environment will allow for a better understanding of how these animals respond to both natural and human-induced changes in their environment. Transmission loss measurements were made in 24 sampling sites that were chosen based on the frequency of manatee presence. The Monterey-Miami Parabolic Equation model was used to relate environmental parameters to transmission loss in two extremely shallow water environments: seagrass beds and dredged habitats. Model accuracy was verified by field tests at all modeled sites. Results indicated that high-use grassbeds have higher levels of transmission loss for frequencies above 2 kHz compared to low-use sites of equal food species composition and density. This also happens to be the range of most efficient sound propagation inside the grassbed habitat and includes the dominant frequencies of manatee vocalizations. The acoustic environment may play a more important role in manatee grassbed selection than seagrass coverage or species composition, as linear regression analysis showed no significant correlation between usage and either total grass coverage, individual species coverage, or aerial pattern. PMID:17069327

  6. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  7. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  8. Synchronizer of transmission for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, N.

    1986-02-25

    A synchronizer of a transmission for vehicles is described comprising: a double-mesh prevention member provided on a shift-and-select lever shaft and adapted to restrict the movement of fork shafts of the transmission. The double-mesh prevention member has at least two engaging portions for engaging first and second forward fork shafts, a first gap between the first engaging portion and the first forward fork shaft is greater than a second gap between the second engaging portion and the second forward fork shaft; a pin carried by the first forward fork shaft and biased substantially radially outwardly from the first forward fork shaft by resilient means; and a cam provided on the shift-and-select lever shaft, the cam is shaped and adapted to engage the pin, when the shift-and-select lever shaft is operated to shift to the reverse position, to press the pin so as to move the first forward fork shaft axially until the first forward fork shaft engages the first engaging portion, and thereafter to press the pin radially into the first forward fork shaft; whereby, upon shifting to the reverse position, the first forward fork shaft is moved by the pin and cam to put a synchronizer for forward gears into effect, thereby to attain synchronization between an input shaft and an output shaft of the transmission, but is prevented by the first engaging portion from moving far enough to engage a forward gear.

  9. Applying evolutionary anthropology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution.

  10. Applying Evolutionary Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Mhairi A; Lawson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary anthropology provides a powerful theoretical framework for understanding how both current environments and legacies of past selection shape human behavioral diversity. This integrative and pluralistic field, combining ethnographic, demographic, and sociological methods, has provided new insights into the ultimate forces and proximate pathways that guide human adaptation and variation. Here, we present the argument that evolutionary anthropological studies of human behavior also hold great, largely untapped, potential to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of social and public health policy. Focusing on the key anthropological themes of reproduction, production, and distribution we highlight classic and recent research demonstrating the value of an evolutionary perspective to improving human well-being. The challenge now comes in transforming relevance into action and, for that, evolutionary behavioral anthropologists will need to forge deeper connections with other applied social scientists and policy-makers. We are hopeful that these developments are underway and that, with the current tide of enthusiasm for evidence-based approaches to policy, evolutionary anthropology is well positioned to make a strong contribution. PMID:25684561

  11. Applied equine genetics

    PubMed Central

    FINNO, C. J.; BANNASCH, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome sequencing of the domestic horse and subsequent advancements in the field of equine genomics have led to an explosion in the development of tools for mapping traits and diseases and evaluating gene expression. The objective of this review is to discuss the current progress in the field of equine genomics, with specific emphasis on assembly and analysis of the reference sequence and subsequent sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare; the genomic tools currently available to researchers and their implications in genomic investigations in the horse; the genomics of Mendelian and non-Mendelian traits; the genomics of performance traits and considerations regarding genetic testing in the horse. The whole-genome sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare has provided additional variants within the equine genome that extend past single nucleotide polymorphisms to include insertions/deletions and copy number variants. Equine single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have allowed for the investigation of both simple and complex genetic traits while DNA microarrays have provided a tool for examining gene expression across various tissues and with certain disease conditions. Recently, next-generation sequencing has become more affordable and both whole-genome DNA sequencing and transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing are methodologies that are being applied to equine genomic research. Research in the field of equine genomics continues to expand rapidly as the cost of genotyping and sequencing decreases, resulting in a need for quality bioinformatics software and expertise to appropriately handle both the size and complexity of these data. PMID:24802051

  12. Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2012-08-01

    The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  13. Hydraulic control device for automatic transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaguchi, Y.; Taga, Y.; Kashihara, Y.

    1989-06-20

    This patent describes a hydraulic control device for an automatic transmission including a control unit, a shift gear mechanism, clutches and brakes for controlling the shift gear mechanism, hydraulic servos for actuating the clutches and brakes to control the shift gear mechanism and having hydraulic servo for a forward clutch, and an electronically operated regulating value for regulating pressure according to signals from the control unit. The control device consists of: a selecting value switched by signals indicating stopping and running condition of a vehicle, the selecting valve being connected to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch for engaging and transmitting torque during the forward running conditon, the selecting valve selectively receiving a line pressure and a control pressure from the regulating valve so that hydraulic pressure just below engaging pressure regulated by the regulating valve is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during stopping, and a line pressure is applied to the hydraulic servo for the forward clutch during running.

  14. 8 CFR 217.7 - Electronic data transmission requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manifest data relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.7b or 19 CFR 122.49a. Upon... relative to that alien passenger in accordance with 19 CFR 4.64 and 19 CFR 122.75a. (b) If a carrier fails... VISA WAIVER PROGRAM § 217.7 Electronic data transmission requirement. (a) An alien who applies...

  15. Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

  16. Characterization of nuclear material by Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradela, C.; Alaerts, G.; Becker, B.; Heyse, J.; Kopecky, S.; Moens, A.; Mondelaers, W.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Wynants, R.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Koizumi, M.; Tsuchiya, H.

    2016-11-01

    The use of Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis for the characterization of nuclear materials is discussed. The method, which relies on resonance structures in neutron-induced reaction cross sections, can be applied as a non-destructive method to characterise complex nuclear materials such as melted fuel resulting from a severe nuclear accident. Results of a demonstration experiment at the GELINA facility reveal that accurate data can be obtained at a compact facility even in the case of strong overlapping resonances.

  17. Quantification of the Information Limit of Transmission Electron Microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.; Thust, A.

    2008-11-14

    The resolving power of high-resolution transmission electron microscopes is characterized by the information limit, which reflects the size of the smallest object detail observable with a particular instrument. We introduce a highly accurate measurement method for the information limit, which is suitable for modern aberration-corrected electron microscopes. An experimental comparison with the traditionally applied Young's fringe method yields severe discrepancies and confirms theoretical considerations according to which the Young's fringe method does not reveal the information limit.

  18. Gas transmission through microporous membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turel, Tacibaht

    2008-10-01

    An ideal protective clothing material should be a good barrier against harmful gases or vapor while allowing moisture vapor and air passage through the material. In the study and design of barrier materials, one of the critical issues is to balance these requirements, which may sometimes be mutually exclusive. Therefore it is critical to understand the macroscopic and microscopic structure of the attack mechanisms as well as the barrier materials and the transport phenomena in such systems. In this study, air and gas transmission through barrier systems consisting of porous membranes was investigated experimentally and a molecular-level probabilistic model was constructed to evaluate the effect of various parameters on the gas flow. The effect of membrane parameters such as porosity, pore size distribution, thickness as well as gas parameters such as molecule diameters were examined at single layer as well as multiple layers. To understand the gas behavior for harmful chemicals and to ensure safety during experimental studies, mimics of such gases were obtained which were comparable to the actual gases in shape, molecular weight and other chemical properties. Air, ammonia and several mimic gases of harmful chemical agents were studied. Beta-pinene was used as a mimic of sarin and prenol was used as a mimic of nitrogen mustard. Gas transmission experiments were conducted on polyester, nylon and polypropylene membranes each of which had different porosity and pore size distributions. Experiments were done at different pressure values and a comparison was made between permeability testing machines based on volumetric and manometric principles as to their ability to accommodate high permeability membranes. Physical and chemical adsorption of such gases on porous membranes was also investigated after the addition of active elements on the membrane surfaces which can interact with the gas molecules. An experimental setup was developed to measure concentration changes

  19. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severnini, Edson Roberto

    This dissertation consists of three studies analyzing causes and consequences of location decisions by economic agents in the U.S. In Chapter 1, I address the longstanding question of the extent to which the geographic clustering of economic activity may be attributable to agglomeration spillovers as opposed to natural advantages. I present evidence on this question using data on the long-run effects of large scale hydroelectric dams built in the U.S. over the 20th century, obtained through a unique comparison between counties with or without dams but with similar hydropower potential. Until mid-century, the availability of cheap local power from hydroelectric dams conveyed an important advantage that attracted industry and population. By the 1950s, however, these advantages were attenuated by improvements in the efficiency of thermal power generation and the advent of high tension transmission lines. Using a novel combination of synthetic control methods and event-study techniques, I show that, on average, dams built before 1950 had substantial short run effects on local population and employment growth, whereas those built after 1950 had no such effects. Moreover, the impact of pre-1950 dams persisted and continued to grow after the advantages of cheap local hydroelectricity were attenuated, suggesting the presence of important agglomeration spillovers. Over a 50 year horizon, I estimate that at least one half of the long run effect of pre-1950 dams is due to spillovers. The estimated short and long run effects are highly robust to alternative procedures for selecting synthetic controls, to controls for confounding factors such as proximity to transportation networks, and to alternative sample restrictions, such as dropping dams built by the Tennessee Valley Authority or removing control counties with environmental regulations. I also find small local agglomeration effects from smaller dam projects, and small spillovers to nearby locations from large dams. Lastly

  20. Applied Historical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  1. Essays in applied microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoting

    In this dissertation I use Microeconomic theory to study firms' behavior. Chapter One introduces the motivations and main findings of this dissertation. Chapter Two studies the issue of information provision through advertisement when markets are segmented and consumers' price information is incomplete. Firms compete in prices and advertising strategies for consumers with transportation costs. High advertising costs contribute to market segmentation. Low advertising costs promote price competition among firms and improves consumer welfare. Chapter Three also investigates market power as a result of consumers' switching costs. A potential entrant can offer a new product bundled with an existing product to compensate consumers for their switching cost. If the primary market is competitive, bundling simply plays the role of price discrimination, and it does not dominate unbundled sales in the process of entry. If the entrant has market power in the primary market, then bundling also plays the role of leveraging market power and it dominates unbundled sales. The market for electric power generation has been opened to competition in recent years. Chapter Four looks at issues involved in the deregulated electricity market. By comparing the performance of the competitive market with the social optimum, we identify the conditions under which market equilibrium generates socially efficient levels of electric power. Chapter Two to Four investigate the strategic behavior among firms. Chapter Five studies the interaction between firms and unemployed workers in a frictional labor market. We set up an asymmetric job auction model, where two types of workers apply for two types of job openings by bidding in auctions and firms hire the applicant offering them the most profits. The job auction model internalizes the determination of the share of surplus from a match, therefore endogenously generates incentives for an efficient division of the matching surplus. Microeconomic

  2. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment

  3. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Risk Factors and Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... the brain and spinal cord) Who smoke cigarettes Transmission Pneumococcal bacteria spread from person-to-person by ...

  4. Assessment of worm gearing for helicopter transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaiko, Lev

    1990-01-01

    A high-efficiency hydrostatic worm gear drive for helicopter transmissions is assessed. The example given is for a large cargo helicopter with three 4000-kW engines and transmission reduction ratio of 110. Also contained are: an efficiency calculation, a description of the test stand for evaluating the feasibility of worm gear hydrostatic mesh, a weight calculation, and a comparison with conventional helicopter transmissions of the same power and transmission reduction ratio.

  5. Orbiting transmission source for positron tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Moses, W.W.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1988-02-01

    Accidental suppression and effective data rates have been measured for the orbiting transmission source as implemented in the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph. A mechanical description of the orbiting source and a description of the electronics used to discard scattered and accidental events is included. Since accidental coincidences were the rate-limiting factor in transmission data acquisition, the new method allows us to acquire sufficient transmission data in a shorter time with a more active transmission source.

  6. Essays in Applied Microeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qi

    This dissertation consists of three self-contained applied microeconomics essays on topics related to behavioral economics and industrial organization. Chapter 1 studies how sentiment as a result of sports event outcomes affects consumers' tipping behavior in the presence of social norms. I formulate a model of tipping behavior that captures consumer sentiment following a reference-dependent preference framework and empirically test its relevance using the game outcomes of the NBA and the trip and tipping data on New York City taxicabs. While I find that consumers' tipping behavior responds to unexpected wins and losses of their home team, particularly in close game outcomes, I do not find evidence for loss aversion. Coupled with the findings on default tipping, my empirical results on the asymmetric tipping responses suggest that while social norms may dominate loss aversion, affect and surprises can result in freedom on the upside of tipping. Chapter 2 utilizes a novel data source of airline entry and exit announcements and examines how the incumbent airlines adjust quality provisions as a response to their competitors' announcements and the role of timing in such responses. I find no evidence that the incumbents engage in preemptive actions when facing probable entry and exit threats as signaled by the competitors' announcements in either short term or long term. There is, however, evidence supporting their responses to the competitors' realized entry or exit. My empirical findings underscore the role of timing in determining preemptive actions and suggest that previous studies may have overestimated how the incumbent airlines respond to entry threats. Chapter 3, which is collaborated with Benjamin Ho, investigates the habit formation of consumers' thermostat setting behavior, an often implicitly made decision and yet a key determinant of home energy consumption and expenditures. We utilize a high frequency dataset on household thermostat usage and find that

  7. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  8. Essays in applied economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  9. Applied physiology of swimming.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J M; Montpetit, R R

    1986-01-01

    Scientific research in swimming over the past 10 to 15 years has been oriented toward multiple aspects that relate to applied and basic physiology, metabolism, biochemistry, and endocrinology. This review considers recent findings on: 1) specific physical characteristics of swimmers; 2) the energetics of swimming; 3) the evaluation of aerobic fitness in swimming; and 4) some metabolic and hormonal aspects related to swimmers. Firstly, the age of finalists in Olympic swimming is not much different from that of the participants from other sports. They are taller and heavier than a reference population of the same age. The height bias in swimming may be the reason for lack of success from some Asian and African countries. Experimental data point toward greater leanness, particularly in female swimmers, than was seen 10 years ago. Overall, female swimmers present a range of 14 to 19% body fat whereas males are much lower (5 to 10%). Secondly, the relationship between O2 uptake and crawl swimming velocity (at training and competitive speeds) is thought to be linear. The energy cost varies between strokes with a dichotomy between the 2 symmetrical and the 2 asymmetrical strokes. Energy expenditure in swimming is represented by the sum of the cost of translational motion (drag) and maintenance of horizontal motion (gravity). The cost of the latter decreases as speed increases. Examination of the question of size-associated effects on the cost of swimming using Huxley's allometric equation (Y = axb) shows an almost direct relationship with passive drag. Expressing energy cost in litres of O2/m/kg is proposed as a better index of technical swimming ability than the traditional expression of VO2/distance in L/km. Thirdly, maximal direct conventional techniques used to evaluate maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) in swimming include free swimming, tethered swimming, and flume swimming. Despite the individual peculiarities of each method, with similar experimental conditions

  10. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  11. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The... electronically to on and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic prescription application may print...

  12. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The... electronically to on and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic prescription application may print...

  13. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  14. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  15. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section 86... Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1228-85 Transmissions. (a) All test conditions, except as noted... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels...

  16. 21 CFR 1311.170 - Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission requirements. 1311.170 Section 1311... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.170 Transmission requirements. (a) The... electronically to on and that transmission failed. (c) The electronic prescription application may print...

  17. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  18. 47 CFR 97.111 - Authorized transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Authorized transmissions. 97.111 Section 97.111... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.111 Authorized transmissions. (a) An amateur station may transmit the following types of two-way communications: (1) Transmissions necessary to exchange messages...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked... and idle modes longer than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Neutral... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1228-85 - Transmissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Drive” and the wheels braked... and idle modes longer than one minute in length shall be run with automatic transmissions in “Neutral... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transmissions. 86.1228-85 Section...

  1. The real problem with Merchant transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Blumsack, Seth; Lave, Lester B.; Ilic, Marija

    2008-03-15

    Current regulatory policy distinguishes transmission investments that have primarily economic benefits from those that primarily enhance reliability. But no such dichotomy exists; congestion and reliability are inter-related in complex ways. Thus, solving the transmission investment problem is more complex than ''fixing'' merchant transmission; investment in the grid must be treated as a systems problem. (author)

  2. Hydraulic control system for automatic transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Sugano, K.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes an automatic transmission consisting of: fluid operated friction units, including a first clutch, a second clutch and a brake, which are selectively made operative and inoperative to produce first, second, third and fourth speed ratios, the first clutch having a first chamber and being engaged when the first chamber is pressurized, the second clutch having a second chamber and being engaged when the second chamber is pressurized, the brake having a servo apply chamber and a servo release chamber, the brake being released when the servo release chamber is pressurized and being applied when the servo release chamber is discharged with the servo apply chamber being pressurized; means for generating an actuating fluid pressure; a 2-3 shift valve communicating with the actuating fluid pressure generating means and the first chamber, the 2-3 shift valve having an upshift position wherein it supplies the actuating fluid pressure to the first chamber; a 3-4 shift valve communicating with the actuating fluid pressure generating means and the first, second and servo release chambers, and 3-4 shift valve having a downshift position wherein it supplies the actuating fluid pressure to the second chamber and provides communication between the first and servo release chambers, the 3-4 shift valve having an upshift position wherein it discharges the second servo release chambers; and means for defining a drain passage which allows the fluid discharged from the servo release chamber to pass there-through when the 3-4 shift valve is moved to the upshift position thereof, wherein the drain passage defining means includes an orifice and a 3-4 timing valve means for providing a passage portion bypassing the orifice.

  3. APPLIED OPTICS. Overcoming Kerr-induced capacity limit in optical fiber transmission.

    PubMed

    Temprana, E; Myslivets, E; Kuo, B P-P; Liu, L; Ataie, V; Alic, N; Radic, S

    2015-06-26

    Nonlinear optical response of silica imposes a fundamental limit on the information transfer capacity in optical fibers. Communication beyond this limit requires higher signal power and suppression of nonlinear distortions to prevent irreversible information loss. The nonlinear interaction in silica is a deterministic phenomenon that can, in principle, be completely reversed. However, attempts to remove the effects of nonlinear propagation have led to only modest improvements, and the precise physical mechanism preventing nonlinear cancellation remains unknown. We demonstrate that optical carrier stability plays a critical role in canceling Kerr-induced distortions and that nonlinear wave interaction in silica can be substantially reverted if optical carriers possess a sufficient degree of mutual coherence. These measurements indicate that fiber information capacity can be notably increased over previous estimates.

  4. The evolution of trophic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    1999-01-01

    Parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) is one of the more fascinating tales of parasite evolution. The implications of this go beyond cocktail party anecdotes and science fiction plots as the phenomenon is pervasive and likely to be ecologically and evolutionarily important. Although the subject has already received substantial review, Kevin Lafferty here focuses on evolutionary aspects that have not been fully explored, specifically: (1) How strong should PITT be? (2) How might sexual selection and limb autotomy facilitate PITT? (3) How might infrapopulation regulation in final hosts be important in determining avoidance of infected prey? And (4) what happens when more than one species of parasite is in the same intermediate host?

  5. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  6. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  7. FPL's Christmas 1991 transmission outages

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, J.T.; Busch, D.W.; Renowden, J.D. . Transmission Line Dept.)

    1993-10-01

    A record number of contamination related outages occurred on FPL transmission lines during Christmas of 1991 and resulted in an investigation of inservice insulator performance. The field investigation process used was enhanced by recent improvements in outage data recording. Also used in the analysis were weather information, the results of recently completed accelerated aging tests of polymers, and specially conducted tests on the effects of weathering steel stain on porcelain insulators. Specific insulator problems were identified and actions taken to reduce the possibility of recurrence.

  8. Atmospheric transmission computer program CP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Barnett, T. L.; Korb, C. L.; Hanby, W.; Dillinger, A. E.

    1974-01-01

    A computer program is described which allows for calculation of the effects of carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, ozone, carbon monoxide, and nitrous oxide on earth resources remote sensing techniques. A flow chart of the program and operating instructions are provided. Comparisons are made between the atmospheric transmission obtained from laboratory and spacecraft spectrometer data and that obtained from a computer prediction using a model atmosphere and radiosonde data. Limitations of the model atmosphere are discussed. The computer program listings, input card formats, and sample runs for both radiosonde data and laboratory data are included.

  9. CT scanner x-ray spectrum estimation from transmission measurements

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xinhui; Wang, Jia; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In diagnostic CT imaging, multiple important applications depend on the knowledge of the x-ray spectrum, including Monte Carlo dose calculations and dual-energy material decomposition analysis. Due to the high photon flux involved, it is difficult to directly measure spectra from the x-ray tube of a CT scanner. One potential method for indirect measurement involves estimating the spectrum from transmission measurements. The expectation maximization (EM) method is an accurate and robust method to solve this problem. In this article, this method was evaluated in a commercial CT scanner. Methods: Two step-wedges (polycarbonate and aluminum) were used to produce different attenuation levels. Transmission measurements were performed on the scanner and the measured data from the scanner were exported to an external computer to calculate the spectra. The EM method was applied to solve the equations that represent the attenuation processes of polychromatic x-ray photons. Estimated spectra were compared to the spectra simulated using a software provided by the manufacturer of the scanner. To test the accuracy of the spectra, a verification experiment was performed using a phantom containing different depths of water. The measured transmission data were compared to the transmission values calculated using the estimated spectra. Results: Spectra of 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp from a dual-source CT scanner were estimated. The estimated and simulated spectra were well matched. The differences of mean energies were less than 1 keV. In the verification experiment, the measured and calculated transmission values were in excellent agreement. Conclusions: Spectrum estimation using transmission data and the EM method is a quantitatively accurate and robust technique to estimate the spectrum of a CT system. This method could benefit studies relying on accurate knowledge of the x-ray spectra from CT scanner. PMID:21452736

  10. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar and planetary exploration has required the development of new techniques of cartographic portrayal. Conventional photo-interpretive methods employing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer-processed satellite television images. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The portrayal of tonal densities in a relief illustration is performed using a unique airbrush technique derived from hill-shading of contour maps. The control of tone and line quality is essential because the mid-gray to dark tone densities must be finalized prior to the addition of highlights to the drawing. This is done with an electric eraser until the drawing is completed. The drawing density is controlled with a reflectance-reading densitometer to meet certain density guidelines. The versatility of planetary photo-interpretive methods for airbrushed map portrayals is demonstrated by the application of these techniques to the synthesis of nonrelief data.

  11. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

  12. 77 FR 55207 - Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 16, 2012, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC (FGT... & Tariffs, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, 5051 Westheimer Road, Houston, Texas, 77056, or call...

  13. Caustics in asymptotic Green Function transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    Green Function-based beam transmission models are attractive due to their ability to explicitly handle transmission through complicated geometrical surfaces, such as flat-to-circular arc compound profiles. The beam model considered in this paper integrates the field generated by a point source positioned within a solid body over a radiating aperture surface (transducer face) in a fluid medium exterior to the solid body. In full generality, evaluation of the Green function at a point on the aperture surface requires an integration over the component surface (solid-water interface). For geometries of practical interest, this integration can be effectively evaluated by applying high-frequency asymptotic techniques (stationary phase analysis=ray theory). However, first-order asymptotic methods fail at focusing caustics, that is, when the component surface curvature focuses the field generated by the interior point source onto the aperture surface. Uniform asymptotic methods are available to treat such problems. However, implementation of uniform expansion methods in an algorithm applicable to arbitrarily curved component surfaces entails a complexity that outweighs algorithm utility. Past algorithms have therefore evaluated the Green function in these anomalous cases by performing an explicit numerical integration over the component surface. Work reported here hypothesizes that the singularity in the Green function amplitude from first-order analysis is an integrable singularity, and hence can be handled in the aperture surface integration through appropriate integration variable transformation. It is shown that an effective transformation of variables is provided by the ray coordinates which map the interior source location to points on the component surface, then onto points on the aperture surface. It is seen that zeros in the Jacobian of the surface aperture coordinate-to-ray coordinate mapping mollify the singularities in the first-order analysis Green function

  14. Automated manual transmission mode selection controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.

    1999-11-09

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  15. Automated manual transmission shift sequence controller

    DOEpatents

    Lawrie, Robert E.; Reed, Richard G.; Rausen, David J.

    2000-02-01

    A powertrain system for a hybrid vehicle. The hybrid vehicle includes a heat engine, such as a diesel engine, and an electric machine, which operates as both, an electric motor and an alternator, to power the vehicle. The hybrid vehicle also includes a manual-style transmission configured to operate as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver. The engine and the electric machine drive an input shaft which in turn drives an output shaft of the transmission. In addition to driving the transmission, the electric machine regulates the speed of the input shaft in order to synchronize the input shaft during either an upshift or downshift of the transmission by either decreasing or increasing the speed of the input shaft. When decreasing the speed of the input shaft, the electric motor functions as an alternator to produce electrical energy which may be stored by a storage device. Operation of the transmission is controlled by a transmission controller which receives input signals and generates output signals to control shift and clutch motors to effect smooth launch, upshift shifts, and downshifts of the transmission, so that the transmission functions substantially as an automatic transmission from the perspective of the driver, while internally substantially functioning as a manual transmission.

  16. Vibration measurements on a car transmission housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Wolfram; Plieske, Marco; Brauchle, Gerhard

    1994-09-01

    In view of stricter future statutory requirements concerning noise emissions by motor vehicles, the acoustic optimization of noise emitting components will become increasingly important. Customers complain about transmission noise when for example gears excite individual resonances (eigenfrequencies) of the transmission housing. Normally the eigenfrequencies and also the excitation frequencies are not moveable out of narrow limits. Therefore, in addition to optimizing gear geometry, the transmission housing must be designed so that dynamic forces acting through the gears onto the shaft bearing points lead to minimum level of radiated sound power from the transmission housing. For this reason, the resonance vibration shapes induced on a car transmission under operating conditions were measured using the laser-transmission test rig. Additionally, a comparison was made between the inspection of an empty transmission housing (using finite element calculation and experimental modal analysis).

  17. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission. PMID:27465431

  18. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission.

  19. Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, K.

    1996-09-01

    In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

  20. Wildlife and electric power transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Goodwin, J.G.; Hunt, J.R.; Fletcher, John L.; Busnel, R.G.

    1978-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of miles of transmission lines have been introduced into our natural environment. These lines and their corridors can be damaging or beneficial to wildlife communities depending on how they are designed, where they are placed, and when they are constructed and maintained. With the current trend toward UHV systems, new problems (associated with additional increments in audible noise, electric and magnetic force fields, etc.) must be addressed. We recommend the following areas for careful study: (1) the response of wilderness species to transmission lines and line construction and maintenance activities (2) the magnitude of bird collision and electrocution mortality, (3) the response of power corridor and power tower in habiting wildlife to laboratory and field doses of electro-chemical oxidants, corona noise, electric and magnetic fields, etc., (4) the productivity of tower inhabiting birds compared with nearby non-tower nesters, and (5) the influence of powerline corridors on mammalian and avian migration patterns. It is our hope that the questions identified in this study will help stimulate further research so that we can maximize wildlife benefits and minimize wildlife detriments.

  1. Mucosal transmission of HIV-1: first stop dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, John; Cunningham, Anthony L

    2006-12-01

    Worldwide the heterosexual route is the prevalent mode of transmission of HIV, increasing the demand for measures that block the sexual spread of HIV infection. Vaccines designed to prevent mucosal transmission of HIV should be considered a component of vaccine strategies against HIV (in addition to cytotoxic T cells required for clearance and to prevent viral dissemination) and include antibodies, which are capable of blocking HIV entry at mucosal epithelial barriers, and prevent initial infection of target cells in the mucosa. However, in the interim and in the absence of an effective vaccine, the development of microbicides, topical preparations that block the early steps of HIV infection and transmission, may represent a more viable alternative to condom use in many HIV infected regions of the world especially by empowering women. To date there has been some success with antiviral antibodies applied as a microbicide capable of preventing SIV infection in macaques and reports of vaccines capable of preventing intravaginal and intrarectal inoculated SIV. However, for such success in humans a much greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in the very early stages of mucosal transmission in HIV infection are required. These may lead to additional strategies to inactivate or inhibit viral uptake and replication before a potentially life threatening acute infection develops. Such measures will lead to the development of effective microbicides and vaccines that will diminish the global spread of HIV. PMID:17168831

  2. Computer controlled synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roy I.; Patil, Prabhakar B.

    1989-01-01

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements.

  3. Computer controllable synchronous shifting of an automatic transmission

    DOEpatents

    Davis, R.I.; Patil, P.B.

    1989-08-08

    A multiple forward speed automatic transmission produces its lowest forward speed ratio when a hydraulic clutch and hydraulic brake are disengaged and a one-way clutch connects a ring gear to the transmission casing. Second forward speed ratio results when the hydraulic clutch is engaged to connect the ring gear to the planetary carrier of a second gear set. Reverse drive and regenerative operation result when an hydraulic brake fixes the planetary and the direction of power flow is reversed. Various sensors produce signals representing the torque at the output of the transmission or drive wheels, the speed of the power source, and the hydraulic pressure applied to a clutch and brake. A control algorithm produces input data representing a commanded upshift, a commanded downshift, a commanded transmission output torque, and commanded power source speed. A microprocessor processes the inputs and produces a response to them in accordance with the execution of a control algorithm. Output or response signals cause selective engagement and disengagement of the clutch and brake at a rate that satisfies the requirements for a short gear ratio change and smooth torque transfer between the friction elements. 6 figs.

  4. Mapping the Transmission Functions of Single-Molecule Junctions.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Brian; Low, Jonathan Z; Xia, Jianlong; Liu, Zhen-Fei; Neaton, Jeffrey B; Campos, Luis M; Venkataraman, Latha

    2016-06-01

    Charge transport phenomena in single-molecule junctions are often dominated by tunneling, with a transmission function dictating the probability that electrons or holes tunnel through the junction. Here, we present a new and simple technique for measuring the transmission functions of molecular junctions in the coherent tunneling limit, over an energy range of 1.5 eV around the Fermi energy. We create molecular junctions in an ionic environment with electrodes having different exposed areas, which results in the formation of electric double layers of dissimilar density on the two electrodes. This allows us to electrostatically shift the molecular resonance relative to the junction Fermi levels in a manner that depends on the sign of the applied bias, enabling us to map out the junction's transmission function and determine the dominant orbital for charge transport in the molecular junction. We demonstrate this technique using two groups of molecules: one group having molecular resonance energies relatively far from EF and one group having molecular resonance energies within the accessible bias window. Our results compare well with previous electrochemical gating data and with transmission functions computed from first principles. Furthermore, with the second group of molecules, we are able to examine the behavior of a molecular junction as a resonance shifts into the bias window. This work provides a new, experimentally simple route for exploring the fundamentals of charge transport at the nanoscale. PMID:27186894

  5. Broadband enhanced transmission of acoustic waves through serrated metal gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Dong-Xiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Deng, Yu-Qiang; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Jiangnan University Collaboration

    In this talk, we present our studies on broadband properties of acoustic waves through metal gratings. We have demonstrated that serrated metal gratings, which introduce gradient coatings, can give rise to broadband transmission enhancement of acoustic waves. Here, we have experimentally and theoretically studied the acoustic transmission properties of metal gratings with or without serrated boundaries. The average transmission is obviously enhanced for serrated metal gratings within a wide frequency range, while the Fabry-Perot resonance is significantly suppressed. An effective medium hypothesis with varying acoustic impedance is proposed to analyze the mechanism, which was verified through comparison with finite-element simulation. The serrated boundary supplies gradient mass distribution and gradient normal acoustic impedance, which could efficiently reduce the boundary reflection. Further, by increasing the region of the serrated boundary, we present a broadband high-transmission grating for wide range of incident angle. Our results may have potential applications to broadband acoustic imaging, acoustic sensing and new acoustic devices. References: [1] Dong-Xiang Qi, Yu-Qiang Deng, Di-Hu Xu, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Ze-Guo Chen, Ming-Hui Lu, X. R. Huang and Mu Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 011906 (2015); [2] Dong-Xiang Qi, Ren-Hao Fan, Ru-Wen Peng, Xian-Rong Huang, Ming-Hui Lu, Xu Ni, Qing Hu, and Mu Wang, Applied Physics Letters 101, 061912 (2012).

  6. Update: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Friedman, Allison; Kachur, Rachel E; Petersen, Emily E; Jamieson, Denise J; Cohn, Amanda C; Brooks, John T

    2016-04-01

    CDC issued interim guidance for the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016. The following recommendations apply to men who have traveled to or reside in areas with active Zika virus transmission and their female or male sex partners. These recommendations replace the previously issued recommendations and are updated to include time intervals after travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission or after Zika virus infection for taking precautions to reduce the risk for sexual transmission. This guidance defines potential sexual exposure to Zika virus as any person who has had sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission. This guidance will be updated as more information becomes available.

  7. Novel binary PSO algorithm based optimization of transmission expansion planning considering power losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuty; Haryono, T.

    2016-04-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is one of the issue that have to be faced caused by addition of large scale power generation into the existing power system. Optimization need to be conducted to get optimal solution technically and economically. Several mathematic methods have been applied to provide optimal allocation of new transmission line such us genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization and tabu search. This paper proposed novel binary particle swarm optimization (NBPSO) to determine which transmission line should be added to the existing power system. There are two scenerios in this simulation. First, considering transmission power losses and the second is regardless transmission power losses. NBPSO method successfully obtain optimal solution in short computation time. Compare to the first scenario, the number of new line in second scenario which regardless power losses is less but produces high power losses that cause the cost becoming extremely expensive.

  8. Numerical and experimental analysis of structure-borne sound transmission in coupled systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiaodong; Backhaus, Stefan-Georg; Scheidl, Rudolf; Rembe, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The vibration-power transmission is often applied as a quantity to describe the structure-borne sound transmission in a vibration system and is, therefore, of major interest for machine manufactures. Well-developed theories about power transfer for multi-point coupled systems exist, especially, for structure-borne sound characterization. However, a theoretic analysis of area coupled systems is still a research topic because a direct measurement of vibration-power transmission in the contact interface for such systems is not possible. This paper introduces a strategy to investigate the vibration power transmission in such systems by using a finite element model which is updated by the so-called "model updating technique" based on experimental modal analysis, which is performed by a laser scanning Doppler vibrometer, in opposite to conventionally by accelerometer. The strategy is demonstrated on a simple test assembly and the estimated power transmission is derived.

  9. Comparison of the transmission properties of self-similar, periodic, and random multilayers at normal incidence.

    PubMed

    Ponge, Marie-Fraise; Jacob, Xavier; Gibiat, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The effect of self-similarity on acoustic and elastic wave propagation at normal incidence is investigated using Classical Cantor and Fibonacci multilayered structures. They are made of two sorts of orthotropic plies having differently oriented orthotropic axes with respect to the propagation direction. The properties of their transmission coefficient are presented using a unidirectional numerical model based on a transfer matrix formalism. It was found that stack self-similarity influences the acoustic transmission properties. Transmission coefficients of self-similar stacks present a self-similar shape and behavior. A self-similar process, applied to layer orientation allows multilayered stacks to be created. A thickness-equivalent model was developed to compare these structures with standard self-similar multilayers which are finally compared to periodic and random stacks. The transmission coefficient of a deterministic self-similar Fibonacci structure is similar to that of an averaged transmission coefficient of random stacks. PMID:24907802

  10. Update: Interim Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Friedman, Allison; Kachur, Rachel E; Petersen, Emily E; Jamieson, Denise J; Cohn, Amanda C; Brooks, John T

    2016-01-01

    CDC issued interim guidance for the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus on February 5, 2016. The following recommendations apply to men who have traveled to or reside in areas with active Zika virus transmission and their female or male sex partners. These recommendations replace the previously issued recommendations and are updated to include time intervals after travel to areas with active Zika virus transmission or after Zika virus infection for taking precautions to reduce the risk for sexual transmission. This guidance defines potential sexual exposure to Zika virus as any person who has had sex (i.e., vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who has traveled to or resides in an area with active Zika virus transmission. This guidance will be updated as more information becomes available. PMID:27032078

  11. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  12. Prevention of SHIV transmission by topical IFN-β treatment

    PubMed Central

    Veazey, Ronald S.; Pilch Cooper, Heather A.; Hope, Thomas J.; Alter, Galit; Carias, Ann M.; Sips, Magdalena; Wang, Xiaolei; Rodriguez, Benigno; Sieg, Scott F.; Reich, Adrian; Wilkinson, Peter; Cameron, Mark J.; Lederman, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding vaginal and rectal HIV transmission and protective cellular and molecular mechanisms is critical for designing new prevention strategies, including those required for an effective vaccine. The determinants of protection against HIV infection are, however, poorly understood. Increasing evidence suggest that innate immune defenses may help protect mucosal surfaces from HIV transmission in highly exposed, uninfected subjects 1. More recent studies suggest that systemically administered type 1 interferon protects against simian immunodeficiency virus infection of macaques 2. Here we hypothesized that topically applied type 1 interferons might stimulate vaginal innate responses that could protect against HIV transmission. We therefore applied a recombinant human type 1 interferon (IFN-β) to the vagina of rhesus macaques and vaginally challenged them with pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). Vaginal administration of IFN-β resulted in marked local changes in immune cell phenotype, increasing immune activation and HIV coreceptor expression, yet provided significant protection from SHIV acquisition as interferon response genes (IRGs) were also upregulated. These data suggest that protection from vaginal HIV acquisition may be achieved by activating innate mucosal defenses. PMID:26838048

  13. [Usefulness of attenuation correction with transmission source in myocardial SPECT].

    PubMed

    Murakawa, Keizo; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Enomoto, Naoyuki; Sago, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi

    2006-01-20

    Attenuation correction in SPECT has been used for uniformly absorptive objects like the head. On the other hand, it has seldom been applied to nonuniform absorptive objects like the heart and surrounding lungs because of the difficulty and inaccuracy of data processing. However, since attenuation correction using a transmission source recently became practical, we were able to apply this method to a nonuniform absorptive object. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of this attenuation correction system with a transmission source in myocardial SPECT. The dose linearity, defect/normal ratio using a myocardial phantom, and myocardial count distribution in clinical cases was examined with and without the attenuation correction system. We found that all data processed with attenuation correction were better than those without attenuation correction. For example, in myocardial count distribution, while there was a difference between men and women without attenuation correction, which was considered to be caused by differences in body shape, after processing with attenuation correction, myocardial count distribution was almost the same in all cases. In conclusion, these results suggested that attenuation correction with a transmission source was useful in myocardial SPECT.

  14. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding. PMID:26210495

  15. FEL system for energy transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, R.J.; Curtin, M.S.; Lampel, M.C.; Cover, R.A.

    1994-12-01

    The use of a Free Electron Laser (FEL) as the power source for transmission from Earth stations to space assets is discussed. Considerations of requirements including net power transmitted, of system reliability, of system availability, of costs, and of technical maturity are addressed to determine a reasonable development path to an optimal system. Various applications of transmitted power are examined such as supplementary power to communications satellites, orbit raising through the use of electric and thermal thrusters, and supplementary power to manned orbiters and space stations. It is seen that each of these applications leads to different stages of infrastructure development, and that a program following a near optimal development path can lead to a system that has justifiable investments for the services delivered at each stage past the initial technology demonstration. 13 refs.

  16. Volume transmission signalling via astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hirase, Hajime; Iwai, Youichi; Takata, Norio; Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Mishima, Tsuneko

    2014-01-01

    The influence of astrocytes on synaptic function has been increasingly studied, owing to the discovery of both gliotransmission and morphological ensheathment of synapses. While astrocytes exhibit at best modest membrane potential fluctuations, activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a prominent elevation of intracellular calcium which has been reported to correlate with gliotransmission. In this review, the possible role of astrocytic GPCR activation is discussed as a trigger to promote synaptic plasticity, by affecting synaptic receptors through gliotransmitters. Moreover, we suggest that volume transmission of neuromodulators could be a biological mechanism to activate astrocytic GPCRs and thereby to switch synaptic networks to the plastic mode during states of attention in cerebral cortical structures. PMID:25225097

  17. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  18. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  19. Transmission of information at criticality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luković, Mirko; Vanni, Fabio; Svenkeson, Adam; Grigolini, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    We study the problem of information transmission in complex cooperative systems to prove that adaptivity rather than diffusion is the main source of information transport at criticality. We adopt two different cooperative models, the two-dimensional Decision Making Model (DMM), and the one-dimensional Flock Model (FM) inspired by the cooperation between birds. The criticality-induced consensus is intermittently broken by the occurrence of moments of high susceptibility, which we call free-will states. We construct a network A based on the DMM and FM that is perturbed by a similar network B. Some units of A, called lookout birds, follow the directions of the mean field generated by B, while the rest are blind to B. When both networks are at criticality a small percentage of lookout birds establish the synchronization between B and A as a result of the nonergodic nature of the free-will state dynamics.

  20. Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, D.B.

    1997-03-01

    The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 a level with <300 observations. 57 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Transmissible encephalopathies: speculations and realities.

    PubMed

    Manuelidis, Laura

    2003-01-01

    Virtually all transmissible encephalopathies (TSEs), such as scrapie, CJD, and BSE, are caused by a type of infectious particle that remains enigmatic. The language of prion theory supersedes the reality of what is, and what is not known. This review questions the predictive value, consistency and accuracy of this now dominant assumption. Many people believe the normal cellular prion protein (PrP) self-converts into an infectious amyloid protein or prion. Although the amyloidogenic capacity of proteins is well established, the concept of an infectious protein without nucleic acid was "revolutionary." Diverse experiments have repeatedly shown, however, that this protein alone, in any form, is incapable of reproducing transmissible infection. In contrast, the infectious agent copurifies with many other molecules, including nucleic acids, while it separates from the majority of PrP. The infectious particle has a homogeneous viral size of ~25 nm, and infectivity is markedly reduced by conditions that disrupt viral core components but do not disrupt multimers of PrP amyloid. Additionally, the infectious agent replicates to high levels before any PrP abnormalities can be detected. Hence, we initially proposed that PrP changes are part of the host's pathologic response to high levels of infectious agent, but not the agent itself. Newer data clarifying a role for myeloid cells in the spread of infection, the unique character of two different agent strains propagated in a single animal, and the demonstration of long nucleic acids in a variety of simplified high titer preparations continue to raise serious questions for the prion hypothesis. Moreover, the epidemic spread of TSEs, and the activation of host innate immune mechanisms by infection, further indicate these agents are recognizably foreign, and probably viral.

  2. Modeling and simulation of a transcutaneous energy transmission system used in artificial organ implants.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wan; Liu, Wei; Qian, Jie; Tang, Houjun; Ye, Pengsheng

    2009-12-01

    We present a mathematical model to simulate transcutaneous energy transmission systems. Treating such systems as resonant power electronic converters, we develop the equivalent circuit equations, for which the circuit variables are then expanded as Fourier series and a multi-frequency averaging method was applied. Keeping terms up to first-order, the analysis produces a dynamic and harmonic model describing these energy transmission systems. With appropriate values for the circuit parameters, numerical results are compared with those of the exact time domain model. This comparison verifies that our model can adequately represent to first-order such energy-transmission systems.

  3. Wireless image transmission using turbo codes and optimal unequal error protection.

    PubMed

    Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

    2005-11-01

    A novel image transmission scheme is proposed for the communication of set partitioning in hierarchical trees image streams over wireless channels. The proposed scheme employs turbo codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with burst errors. An algorithm for the optimal unequal error protection of the compressed bitstream is also proposed and applied in conjunction with an inherently more efficient technique for product code decoding. The resulting scheme is tested for the transmission of images over wireless channels. Experimental evaluation clearly demonstrates the superiority of the proposed transmission system in comparison to well-known robust coding schemes.

  4. The evolutionary ecology of transmissible cancers.

    PubMed

    Ujvari, Beata; Gatenby, Robert A; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Transmissible tumours, while rare, present a fascinating opportunity to examine the evolutionary dynamics of cancer as both an infectious agent and an exotic, invasive species. Only three naturally-occurring transmissible cancers have been observed so far in the wild: Tasmanian devil facial tumour diseases, canine transmissible venereal tumour, and clam leukaemia. Here, we define four conditions that are necessary and sufficient for direct passage of cancer cells between either vertebrate or invertebrate hosts. Successful transmission requires environment and behaviours that facilitate transfer of tumour cells between hosts including: tumour tissue properties that promote shedding of large numbers of malignant cells, tumour cell plasticity that permits their survival during transmission and growth in a new host, and a 'permissible' host or host tissue. This rare confluence of multiple host- and tumour cell-traits both explains the rarity of tumour cell transmission and provides novel insights into the dynamics that both promote and constrain their growth. PMID:26861618

  5. Optical nonreciprocal transmission in an asymmetric silicon photonic crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zheng; Chen, Juguang; Ji, Mengxi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong; Wu, Ying; Wang, Yi

    2015-11-01

    An optical nonreciprocal transmission (ONT) is realized by employing the nonlinear effects in a compact asymmetric direct-coupled nanocavity-waveguide silicon photonic crystal structure with a high loaded quality factor (QL) of 42 360 and large extinction ratio exceeding 30 dB. Applying a single step lithography and successive etching, the device can realize the ONT in an individual nanocavity, alleviating the requirement to accurately control the resonance of the cavities. A maximum nonreciprocal transmission ratio of 21.1 dB as well as a working bandwidth of 280 pm in the telecommunication band are obtained at a low input power of 76.7 μW. The calculated results by employing a nonlinear coupled-mode model are in good agreement with the experiment.

  6. Characterization of nanoparticles by scanning electron microscopy in transmission mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhr, E.; Senftleben, N.; Klein, T.; Bergmann, D.; Gnieser, D.; Frase, C. G.; Bosse, H.

    2009-08-01

    A conventional scanning electron microscope operated in transmission mode (TSEM) was used for imaging silica, gold and latex nanoparticles. Particles were applied to conventional transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids with different supporting films. A semiconductor detector capable of accomplishing both bright-field and dark-field imaging was used to record transmitted electrons. Particle diameter was determined from the images by comparing measured data with the results of corresponding Monte Carlo simulations which took into account particle and instrument properties. Measured and simulated line profiles agreed well; the method is sensitive to changes in diameter in the nano- and sub-nanometre range. It is concluded that TSEM imaging is a promising tool for dimensional characterization of nanoparticles. Necessary extensions to the technique in order to achieve traceable measurements are discussed.

  7. Waterborne transmission and the evolution of virulence among gastrointestinal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are primary contributors to millions of deaths annually. Yet, little is known about the evolutionary reasons for the differences in virulence among gastrointestinal pathogens. Applying the comparative, cost/benefit approach of evolutionary biology this paper proposes that waterborne transmission should favour evolution towards high virulence. This hypothesis is supported by a cross-specific test, which shows that waterborne transmission is strongly correlated with the virulence of bacterial gastrointestinal pathogens of humans. Alternative explanations of this correlation are not supported by available data. These findings bear on public health policy because they draw attention to a previously unrecognized long-range benefit gained from purification of water supplies; diarrhoeal pathogens may evolve to lower levels of virulence. PMID:1993456

  8. Optical nonreciprocal transmission in an asymmetric silicon photonic crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zheng; Chen, Juguang; Ji, Mengxi; Huang, Qingzhong; Xia, Jinsong; Wang, Yi E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wu, Ying E-mail: ywangwnlo@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2015-11-30

    An optical nonreciprocal transmission (ONT) is realized by employing the nonlinear effects in a compact asymmetric direct-coupled nanocavity-waveguide silicon photonic crystal structure with a high loaded quality factor (Q{sub L}) of 42 360 and large extinction ratio exceeding 30 dB. Applying a single step lithography and successive etching, the device can realize the ONT in an individual nanocavity, alleviating the requirement to accurately control the resonance of the cavities. A maximum nonreciprocal transmission ratio of 21.1 dB as well as a working bandwidth of 280 pm in the telecommunication band are obtained at a low input power of 76.7 μW. The calculated results by employing a nonlinear coupled-mode model are in good agreement with the experiment.

  9. Norovirus Genotype Profiles Associated with Foodborne Transmission, 1999�?"2012

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Joanne; Barclay, Leslie; Ahmed, Sharia; Lake, Rob; Hall, Aron J.; Lopman, Ben; Kroneman, Annelies; Vennema, Harry; VinjA(c), Jan; Koopmans, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis. They can be transmitted from person to person directly or indirectly through contaminated food, water, or environments. To estimate the proportion of foodborne infections caused by noroviruses on a global scale, we used norovirus transmission and genotyping information from multiple international outbreak surveillance systems (Noronet, CaliciNet, EpiSurv) and from a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature. The proportion of outbreaks caused by food was determined by genotype and/or genogroup. Analysis resulted in the following final global profiles: foodborne transmission is attributed to 10% (range 9%%�?"11%) of all genotype GII.4 outbreaks, 27% (25%�?"30%) of outbreaks caused by all other single genotypes, and 37% (24%%�?"52%) of outbreaks caused by mixtures of GII.4 and other noroviruses. When these profiles are applied to global outbreak surveillance data, results indicate that �%^14% of all norovirus outbreaks are attributed to food. PMID:25811368

  10. GOPEX laser transmission and monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okamoto, G.; Masters, K.

    1993-01-01

    The laser transmission and monitoring system for the Galileo Optical Experiment (GOPEX) at the Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in Wrightwood, California is described. The transmission system configuration and the data measurement techniques are described. The calibration procedure and the data analysis algorithm are also discussed. The mean and standard deviation of the laser energy transmitted each day of GOPEX show that the laser transmission system performed well and within the limit established in conjunction with the Galileo Project for experiment concurrence.

  11. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy and Meat Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Hester J. T.; Knight, Richard S. G.

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) comprise a wide-ranging group of neurodegenerative diseases found in animals and humans. They have diverse causes and geographical distributions, but have similar pathological features, transmissibility and, are ultimately, fatal. Central to all TSEs is the presence of an abnormal form of a normal host protein, namely the prion protein. Because of their potential transmissibility, these diseases have wide public health ramifications.

  12. Evaluating the evidence for transmission distortion in human pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wynn K; Arbeithuber, Barbara; Ober, Carole; Ebner, Thomas; Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Hudson, Richard R; Przeworski, Molly

    2012-05-01

    Children of a heterozygous parent are expected to carry either allele with equal probability. Exceptions can occur, however, due to meiotic drive, competition among gametes, or viability selection, which we collectively term "transmission distortion" (TD). Although there are several well-characterized examples of these phenomena, their existence in humans remains unknown. We therefore performed a genome-wide scan for TD by applying the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) genome-wide to three large sets of human pedigrees of European descent: the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), a founder population of European origin (HUTT), and a subset of the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). Genotyping error is an important confounder in this type of analysis. In FHS and HUTT, despite extensive quality control, we did not find sufficient evidence to exclude genotyping error in the strongest signals. In AGRE, however, many signals extended across multiple SNPs, a pattern highly unlikely to arise from genotyping error. We identified several candidate regions in this data set, notably a locus in 10q26.13 displaying a genome-wide significant TDT in combined female and male transmissions and a signature of recent positive selection, as well as a paternal TD signal in 6p21.1, the same region in which a significant TD signal was previously observed in 30 European males. Neither region replicated in FHS, however, and the paternal signal was not visible in sperm competition assays or as allelic imbalance in sperm. In maternal transmissions, we detected no strong signals near centromeres or telomeres, the regions predicted to be most susceptible to female-specific meiotic drive, but we found a significant enrichment of top signals among genes involved in cell junctions. These results illustrate both the potential benefits and the challenges of using the TDT to study transmission distortion and provide candidates for investigation in future studies. PMID:22377632

  13. Symbiote transmission and maintenance of extra-genomic associations.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotes can be transmitted from parents to offspring or horizontally from unrelated hosts or the environment. A key question is whether symbiote transmission is similar enough to Mendelian gene transmission to generate and maintain coevolutionary associations between host and symbiote genes. Recent papers come to opposite conclusions, with some suggesting that any horizontal transmission eliminates genetic association. These studies are hard to compare owing to arbitrary differences in modeling approach, parameter values, and assumptions about selection. I show that associations between host and symbiote genes (extra-genomic associations) can be described by the same dynamic model as conventional linkage disequilibria between genes in the same genome. Thus, covariance between host and symbiote genomes depends on population history, geographic structure, selection, and co-transmission rate, just as covariance between genes within a genome. The conclusion that horizontal transmission rapidly erodes extra-genomic associations is equivalent to the conclusion that recombination rapidly erodes associations between genes within a genome. The conclusion is correct in the absence of population structure or selection. However, population structure can maintain spatial associations between host and symbiote traits, and non-additive selection (interspecific epistasis) can generate covariances between host and symbiote genotypes. These results can also be applied to cultural or other non-genetic traits. This work contributes to a growing consensus that genomic, symbiotic, and gene-culture evolution can be analyzed under a common theoretical framework. In terms of coevolutionary potential, symbiotes can be viewed as lying on a continuum between the intimacy of genes and the indifference of casually co-occurring species.

  14. Symbiote transmission and maintenance of extra-genomic associations

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotes can be transmitted from parents to offspring or horizontally from unrelated hosts or the environment. A key question is whether symbiote transmission is similar enough to Mendelian gene transmission to generate and maintain coevolutionary associations between host and symbiote genes. Recent papers come to opposite conclusions, with some suggesting that any horizontal transmission eliminates genetic association. These studies are hard to compare owing to arbitrary differences in modeling approach, parameter values, and assumptions about selection. I show that associations between host and symbiote genes (extra-genomic associations) can be described by the same dynamic model as conventional linkage disequilibria between genes in the same genome. Thus, covariance between host and symbiote genomes depends on population history, geographic structure, selection, and co-transmission rate, just as covariance between genes within a genome. The conclusion that horizontal transmission rapidly erodes extra-genomic associations is equivalent to the conclusion that recombination rapidly erodes associations between genes within a genome. The conclusion is correct in the absence of population structure or selection. However, population structure can maintain spatial associations between host and symbiote traits, and non-additive selection (interspecific epistasis) can generate covariances between host and symbiote genotypes. These results can also be applied to cultural or other non-genetic traits. This work contributes to a growing consensus that genomic, symbiotic, and gene-culture evolution can be analyzed under a common theoretical framework. In terms of coevolutionary potential, symbiotes can be viewed as lying on a continuum between the intimacy of genes and the indifference of casually co-occurring species. PMID:24605109

  15. Evaluating the Evidence for Transmission Distortion in Human Pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wynn K.; Arbeithuber, Barbara; Ober, Carole; Ebner, Thomas; Tiemann-Boege, Irene; Hudson, Richard R.; Przeworski, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Children of a heterozygous parent are expected to carry either allele with equal probability. Exceptions can occur, however, due to meiotic drive, competition among gametes, or viability selection, which we collectively term “transmission distortion” (TD). Although there are several well-characterized examples of these phenomena, their existence in humans remains unknown. We therefore performed a genome-wide scan for TD by applying the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) genome-wide to three large sets of human pedigrees of European descent: the Framingham Heart Study (FHS), a founder population of European origin (HUTT), and a subset of the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE). Genotyping error is an important confounder in this type of analysis. In FHS and HUTT, despite extensive quality control, we did not find sufficient evidence to exclude genotyping error in the strongest signals. In AGRE, however, many signals extended across multiple SNPs, a pattern highly unlikely to arise from genotyping error. We identified several candidate regions in this data set, notably a locus in 10q26.13 displaying a genome-wide significant TDT in combined female and male transmissions and a signature of recent positive selection, as well as a paternal TD signal in 6p21.1, the same region in which a significant TD signal was previously observed in 30 European males. Neither region replicated in FHS, however, and the paternal signal was not visible in sperm competition assays or as allelic imbalance in sperm. In maternal transmissions, we detected no strong signals near centromeres or telomeres, the regions predicted to be most susceptible to female-specific meiotic drive, but we found a significant enrichment of top signals among genes involved in cell junctions. These results illustrate both the potential benefits and the challenges of using the TDT to study transmission distortion and provide candidates for investigation in future studies. PMID:22377632

  16. Explosives detection studies using Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, C.L.; Micklich, B.J.; Sagalovsky, L.; Smith, D.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    Fast-Neutron Transmission Spectroscopy (FNTS) is being investigated for detection of explosives in luggage or air cargo. We present here the principle results of a two-year study of a few-view tomographic FNTS system using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP to simulate neutron transmission through simple luggage phantoms and Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves to determine system performance. Elemental distributions along projections through the interrogated object are obtained by analyzing MCNP generated neutron transmission data. Transmission data for few (3-5) angles and relatively coarse resolution ({approximately}2 cm) are used to create a tomographic reconstruction of elemental distributions within the object. The elemental unfolding and tomographic reconstruction algorithms and the concept of transmission-derived cross sections for use in elemental analysis have been validated by application to experimental data. Elemental distributions are combined in an explosives detection algorithm to provide an indication of the presence or absence of explosives. The algorithm in current use, termed the ``equivalent explosive`` algorithm, determines the quantity of explosive that can be formed using the measured amount of the constituent elements in each pixel. Reconstruction and explosives detection algorithms have been applied to a series of randomly packed suitcases to generated ROC that describe system performance in terms of the probability of detection and of false alarms. System studies have been performed to study the operational characteristics and limitations of a FNTS system, and to determine the system`s sensitivity to several important parameters such as neutron source reaction and incident particle energy, flight path length, and the position of the interrogated object.

  17. The impact of transmission mode on the evolution of benefits provided by microbial symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jason W; Turner, Paul E

    2014-01-01

    While past work has often examined the effects of transmission mode on virulence evolution in parasites, few studies have explored the impact of horizontal transmission on the evolution of benefits conferred by a symbiont to its host. Here, we identify three mechanisms that create a positive covariance between horizontal transmission and symbiont-provided benefits: pleiotropy within the symbiont genome, partner choice by the host, and consumption of host waste by-products by symbionts. We modify a susceptible-infected model to incorporate the details of each mechanism and examine the evolution of symbiont benefits given variation in either the immigration rate of susceptible hosts or the rate of successful vertical transmission. We find conditions for each case under which greater opportunity for horizontal transmission (higher migration rate) favors the evolution of mutualism. Further, we find the surprising result that vertical transmission can inhibit the evolution of benefits provided by symbionts to hosts when horizontal transmission and symbiont-provided benefits are positively correlated. These predictions may apply to a number of natural systems, and the results may explain why many mutualisms that rely on partner choice often lack a mechanism for vertical transmission. PMID:25535552

  18. 1993 Wholesale Power and Transmission Rate Schedules.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1993-10-01

    Bonneville Power Administration 1993 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and 1993 Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions, contained herein, were approved on an interim basis effective October 1, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions were approved by the Federal Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, in September, 1993. These rate schedules and provisions supersede the Administration`s Wholesale Power Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions and Transmission Rate Schedules and General Transmission Rate Schedule Provisions effective October 1, 1991.

  19. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  20. Cross-species transmission of CWD prions.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Timothy D; Sigurdson, Christina J

    2016-01-01

    Prions cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals and can be transmitted zoonotically. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a highly transmissible prion disease of wild deer and elk that affects cervids over extensive regions of the United States and Canada. The risk of cross-species CWD transmission has been experimentally evaluated in a wide array of mammals, including non-human primates and mouse models expressing human cellular prion protein. Here we review the determinants of cross-species CWD transmission, and propose a model that may explain a structural barrier for CWD transmission to humans. PMID:26809254

  1. Final Report Navajo Transmission Project (NTP)

    SciTech Connect

    Bennie Hoisington; Steven Begay

    2006-09-14

    The Diné Power Authority is developing the Navajo Transmission Project (NTP) to relieve the constraints on the transmission of electricity west of the Four Corners area and to improve the operation flexibility and reliability of the extra-high-voltage transmission system in the region. The NTP creates the wholesale transmission capacity for more economical power transfers, sales, and purchases in the region. It will facilitate the development of Navajo energy resources, improve economic conditions on the Navajo Nation as well as allow DPA to participate in the western electrical utility industry.

  2. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  3. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  4. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. (a) Except as otherwise provided by this part, criteria...

  5. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. (a) Except as otherwise provided by this part, criteria...

  6. 47 CFR 25.212 - Narrowband analog transmissions, digital transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmissions, and video transmissions in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. 25.212 Section 25.212 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... in the GSO Fixed-Satellite Service. (a) Except as otherwise provided by this part, criteria...

  7. Noise transmission properties and control strategies for composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silcox, Richard J.; Beyer, Todd B.; Lester, Harold C.

    1991-01-01

    A study of several component technologies required to apply active control techniques to reduce interior noise in composite aircraft structures is described. The mechanisms of noise transmission in an all composite, large-scale, fuselage model are studied in an experimental program and found similar to mechanisms found in conventional aircraft construction. Two primary conditions of structural acoustic response are found to account for the dominant interior acoustic response. A preliminary study of active noise control in cylinders used piezoceramic actuators as force inputs for a simple aluminum fuselage model. These actuators provided effective control for the same two conditions of noise transmission found in the composite fuselage structure. The use of piezoceramic actuators to apply force inputs overcomes the weight and structural requirements of conventional shaker actuators. Finally, in order to accurately simulate these types of actuators in a cylindrical shell, two analytical models are investigated that apply either in-plane forces or bending moments along the boundaries of a finite patch. It is shown that the bending model may not be as effective as the force model for exciting the low order azimuthal modes that typically dominate the structural acoustic response in these systems. This result will affect the arrangement and distribution of actuators required for effective active control systems.

  8. Generation and Transmission Maximization Model

    2001-04-05

    GTMax was developed to study complex marketing and system operational issues facing electric utility power systems. The model maximizes the value of the electric system taking into account not only a single system''s limited energy and transmission resources but also firm contracts, independent power producer (IPP) agreements, and bulk power transaction opportunities on the spot market. GTMax maximizes net revenues of power systems by finding a solution that increases income while keeping expenses at amore » minimum. It does this while ensuring that market transactions and system operations are within the physical and institutional limitations of the power system. When multiple systems are simulated, GTMax identifies utilities that can successfully compete on the market by tracking hourly energy transactions, costs, and revenues. Some limitations that are modeled are power plant seasonal capabilities and terms specified in firm and IPP contracts. GTMax also considers detaile operational limitations such as power plant ramp rates and hydropower reservoir constraints.« less

  9. Needlestick transmission of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sulkowski, Mark S; Ray, Stuart C; Thomas, David L

    2002-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission following a needlestick is an important threat to health care workers. We present the case of a 29-year-old medical intern who sustained a needlestick injury from a source patient known to be infected with both human immunodeficiency virus and HCV. The case patient subsequently developed acute HCV infection. The optimal strategy for diagnosing HCV infection after occupational exposures has not been defined. At a minimum, HCV antibody and alanine aminotransferase testing should be done within several days of exposure (to assess if the health care worker is already infected with HCV) and 6 months after percutaneous, mucosal, or nonintact skin exposure to blood or infectious body fluids from an HCV-infected patient. Currently, it is not possible to prevent HCV infection after exposure. However, recent data suggest that early treatment of acute HCV infection with interferon alpha may be highly effective in preventing chronic HCV infection. These data underscore the importance of identifying persons with acute HCV infection and promptly referring them to experienced clinicians who can provide updated counseling and treatment. PMID:11988061

  10. Prioritizing Scientific Data for Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Anderson, Robert; Estlin, Tara; DeCoste, Dennis; Gaines, Daniel; Mazzoni, Dominic; Fisher, Forest; Judd, Michele

    2004-01-01

    A software system has been developed for prioritizing newly acquired geological data onboard a planetary rover. The system has been designed to enable efficient use of limited communication resources by transmitting the data likely to have the most scientific value. This software operates onboard a rover by analyzing collected data, identifying potential scientific targets, and then using that information to prioritize data for transmission to Earth. Currently, the system is focused on the analysis of acquired images, although the general techniques are applicable to a wide range of data modalities. Image prioritization is performed using two main steps. In the first step, the software detects features of interest from each image. In its current application, the system is focused on visual properties of rocks. Thus, rocks are located in each image and rock properties, such as shape, texture, and albedo, are extracted from the identified rocks. In the second step, the features extracted from a group of images are used to prioritize the images using three different methods: (1) identification of key target signature (finding specific rock features the scientist has identified as important), (2) novelty detection (finding rocks we haven t seen before), and (3) representative rock sampling (finding the most average sample of each rock type). These methods use techniques such as K-means unsupervised clustering and a discrimination-based kernel classifier to rank images based on their interest level.

  11. Low cost Image Transmission System

    SciTech Connect

    Skogmo, D.

    1994-06-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, sites protect themselves with intrusion detection systems. Some of these systems have sensors in remote areas. These sensors frequently alarm -- not because they have detected a terrorist skulking around the area, but because they have detected a horse, or a dog, or a bush moving in the breeze. Even though the local security force is 99% sure there is no real threat, they must assess each of these nuisance or false alarms. Generally, the procedure consists of dispatching an inspector to drive to the area and make an assessment. This is expensive in terms of manpower and the assessment is not timely. Often, by the time the inspector arrives, the cause of the alarm has vanished. A television camera placed to view the area protected by the sensor could be used to help in this assessment, but this requires the installation of high-quality cable, optical fiber, or a microwave link. Further, to be of use at the present time, the site must have had the foresight to have installed these facilities in the past and have them ready for use now. What is needed is a device to place between the television camera and a modem connecting to a low-bandwidth channel such as radio or a telephone line. This paper discusses the development of such a device: an Image Transmission System, or ITS.

  12. Hydromechanical transmission with hydrodynamic drive

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    This transmission has a first planetary gear assembly having first input means connected to an input shaft, first output means, and first reaction means, and a second planetary gear assembly having second input means connected to the first input means, second output means, and second reaction means connected directly to the first reaction means by a reaction shaft. First clutch means, when engaged, connect the first output means to an output shaft in a high driving range. A hydrodynamic drive is used; for example, a torque converter, which may or may not have a stationary case, has a pump connected to the second output means, a stator grounded by an overrunning clutch to the case, and a turbine connected to an output member, and may be used in a starting phase. Alternatively, a fluid coupling or other type of hydrodynamic drive may be used. Second clutch means, when engaged, for connecting the output member to the output shaft in a low driving range. A variable-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the input shaft, and a fixed-displacement hydraulic unit is mechanically connected to the reaction shaft. The hydraulic units are hydraulically connected together so that when one operates as a pump the other acts as a motor, and vice versa. Both clutch means are connected to the output shaft through a forward-reverse shift arrangement. It is possible to lock out the torque converter after the starting phase is over.

  13. Gear assembly for automobile transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Ikemoto, K.; Tera Kura, Y.; Miyake, T.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a gear assembly including a pair of driving and driven gears permanently in meshing engagement with each other to provide a torque transmission therebetween. The driven gear is formed at one side thereof with a boss portion, and an additional gear axially slidable and rotatable on the boss portion of the driven gear and is permanently in meshing engagement with the driving gear to rotate at a gear ratio different from that of the driving and driven gears, additional gear is also resiliently in contact with a synchronizer mechanism assembled adjaecnt to the additional gear and having a spline piece fixed to the boss portion of the driven gear. The improvement wherein a toothed portion of the driven gear is formed at one end thereof with an annual stepped portion for provision of a predetermined annular gap between the additional gear and the one end face of the toothed portion of the driven gear. The resilient means is a waveshaped ring spring arranged in surrounding relationship with the boss portion of the driven gear and is engaged at its one end face with the additional gear and at its other end face with the spline piece of the synchronizer mechanism.

  14. Transmission ratio distortion in mice.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Mary F

    2003-01-01

    The most studied example of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in mice is that of the t-complex. This is a variant region of Chromosome 17 which exists as a polymorphism in wild mice. Males heterozygous for a t-haplotype and a normal Chr 17 transmit the t-haplotype to >50% of their young, up to 99%. Homozygous males are sterile. The TRD produced by the t-complex is due to the action of three or more distorter genes (Tcd) on a responder gene (Tcr). t-Haplotypes are maintained intact by crossover suppression induced by four neighboring inversions, the Tcd and Tcr loci lying in different inversions. Sperm formation is normal in t/t males, but sperm function is impaired through gross defects in sperm motility. The responder gene has been identified as a fusion gene formed from a sperm motility kinase and a ribosomal S6 kinase. Three candidate distorter genes have also been identified as genes coding for dynein chains, and thus possibly involved in sperm flagellar function. PMID:14616067

  15. Continuous variable transmission and regenerative braking devices in bicycles utilizing magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2013-04-01

    The use of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in vehicles has been gaining popular recently due to its controllable nature, which gives automotive designers more dimensions of freedom in functional designs. However, not much attention has been paid to apply it to bicycles. This paper is aimed to study the feasibility of applying MR fluids in different dynamic parts of a bicycle such as the transmission and braking systems. MR continuous variable transmission (CVT) and power generator assisted in braking systems were designed and analyzed. Both prototypes were fabricated and tested to evaluate their performances. Experimental results showed that the proposed designs are promising to be used in bicycles.

  16. A Survey of Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardhaugh, Ronald, Ed.; Brown, H. Douglas, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the major areas of applied linguistics with original contributions by fourteen scholars. The following chapters are included: (1) "What is Applied Linguistics?" by H. Douglas Brown; (2) "Language Development," by Lois Bloom; (3) "First Language Teaching," by Jean Malmstrom (discusses the teaching of…

  17. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  18. Writing, Literacy, and Applied Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leki, Ilona

    2000-01-01

    Discusses writing and literacy in the domain of applied linguistics. Focus is on needs analysis for literacy acquisition; second language learner identity; longitudinal studies as extensions of identity work; and applied linguistics contributions to second language literacy research. (Author/VWL)

  19. Applied Communication. Florida Teaching Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    The information in this supplementary notebook is intended to provide teachers with additional materials, ideas, suggestions, and activities to help in implementing the Applied Communication modules that combine language arts skills with vocational applications. The Applied Communication instructional materials were funded and developed by a…

  20. Cultural variant interaction in teaching and transmission.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Marshall

    2015-01-01

    Focus on the way in which cultural variants affect other variants' probabilities of transmission in modeling and empirical work can enrich Kline's conceptualization of teaching. For example, the problem of communicating complex cumulative culture is an adaptive problem; teaching methods that manage transmission so that acquisition of some cultural variants increases the probability of acquiring others, provide a partial solution. PMID:26786769