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Sample records for fmdp mox fresh

  1. Programmatic and technical requirements for the FMDP fresh MOX fuel transport package

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, S. B.; Michelhaugh, R. D.; Pope, R. B.; Shappert, L. B.; Singletary, B. H.; Chae, S. M.; Parks, C. V.; Broadhead, B. L.; Schmid, S. P.; Cowart, C. G.

    1997-12-01

    This document is intended to guide the designers of the package to all pertinent regulatory and other design requirements to help ensure the safe and efficient transport of the weapons-grade (WG) fresh MOX fuel under the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. To accomplish the disposition mission using MOX fuel, the unirradiated MOX fuel must be transported from the MOX fabrication facility to one or more commercial reactors. Because the unirradiated fuel contains large quantities of plutonium and is not sufficient radioactive to create a self-protecting barrier to deter the material from theft, DOE intends to use its fleet of safe secure trailers (SSTs) to provide the necessary safeguards and security for the material in transit. In addition to these requirements, transport of radioactive materials must comply with regulations of the Department of Transportation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). In particular, NRC requires that the packages must meet strict performance requirements. The requirements for shipment of MOX fuel (i.e., radioactive fissile materials) specify that the package design is certified by NRC to ensure the materials contained in the packages are not released and remain subcritical after undergoing a series of hypothetical accident condition tests. Packages that pass these tests are certified by NRC as a Type B fissile (BF) package. This document specifies the programmatic and technical design requirements a package must satisfy to transport the fresh MOX fuel assemblies.

  2. An integrated approach for the verification of fresh mixed oxide fuel (MOX) assemblies at light water reactor MOX recycle reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard O; Lee, Sang - Yoon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated approach for the verification of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to their being loaded into the reactor. There is a coupling of the verification approach that starts at the fuel fabrication plant and stops with the transfer of the assemblies into the thermal reactor. The key measurement points are at the output of the fuel fabrication plant, the receipt at the reactor site, and the storage in the water pool as fresh fuel. The IAEA currently has the capability to measure the MOX fuel assemblies at the output of the fuel fabrication plants using a passive neutron coincidence counting systems of the passive neutron collar (PNCL) type. Also. at the MOX reactor pool, the underwater coincidence counter (UWCC) has been developed to measure the MOX assemblies in the water. The UWCC measurement requires that the fuel assembly be lifted about two meters up in the storage rack to avoid interference from the fuel that is stored in the rack. This paper presents a new method to verify the MOX fuel assemblies that are in the storage rack without the necessity of moving the fuel. The detector system is called the Underwater MOX Verification System (UMVS). The integration and relationship of the three measurements systems is described.

  3. Development of a fresh MOX fuel transport package for disposition of weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, S.B.; Pope, R.B.; Shappert, L.B.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Chae, S.M.

    1998-11-01

    The US Department of Energy announced its Record of Decision on January 14, 1997, to embark on a dual-track approach for disposition of surplus weapons-usable plutonium using immobilization in glass or ceramics and burning plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in reactors. In support of the MOX fuel alternative, Oak Ridge National Laboratory initiated development of conceptual designs for a new package for transporting fresh (unirradiated) MOX fuel assemblies between the MOX fabrication facility and existing commercial light-water reactors in the US. This paper summarizes progress made in development of new MOX transport package conceptual designs. The development effort has included documentation of programmatic and technical requirements for the new package and development and analysis of conceptual designs that satisfy these requirements.

  4. Criticality Calculations of Fresh LEU and MOX Assemblies for Transport and Storage at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Goluoglu, S.

    2001-01-11

    Transportation of low-enriched uranium (LEU) and mixed-oxide (MOX) assemblies to and within the VVER-1000-type Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant is investigated. Effective multiplication factors for fresh fuel assemblies on the railroad platform, fresh fuel assemblies in the fuel transportation vehicle, and fresh fuel assemblies in the spent fuel storage pool are calculated. If there is no absorber between the units, the configurations with all MOX assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors than the configurations with all LEU assemblies when the system is dry. When the system is flooded, the configurations with all LEU assemblies result in higher effective multiplication factors. For normal operating conditions, effective multiplication factors for all configurations are below the presumed upper subcritical limit of 0.95. For an accident condition of a fully loaded fuel transportation vehicle that is flooded with low-density water (possibly from a fire suppression system), the presumed upper subcritical limit is exceeded by configurations containing LEU assemblies.

  5. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2011-01-13

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/ or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  6. An improved characterization method for international accountancy measurements of fresh and irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel: helping achieve continual monitoring and safeguards through the fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Tobin, S. J.; Boyer, B. D.; Menlove, H. O.; Schear, M. A.; Worrall, Andrew

    2010-11-24

    Nuclear fuel accountancy measurements are conducted at several points through the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure continuity of knowledge (CofK) of special nuclear material (SNM). Non-destructive assay (NDA) measurements are performed on fresh fuel (prior to irradiation in a reactor) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) post-irradiation. We have developed a fuel assembly characterization system, based on the novel concept of 'neutron fingerprinting' with multiplicity signatures to ensure detailed CofK of nuclear fuel through the entire fuel cycle. The neutron fingerprint in this case is determined by the measurement of the various correlated neutron signatures, specific to fuel isotopic composition, and therefore offers greater sensitivity to variations in fissile content among fuel assemblies than other techniques such as gross neutron counting. This neutron fingerprint could be measured at the point of fuel dispatch (e.g. from a fuel fabrication plant prior to irradiation, or from a reactor site post-irradiation), monitored during transportation of the fuel assembly, and measured at a subsequent receiving site (e.g. at the reactor site prior to irradiation, or reprocessing facility post-irradiation); this would confirm that no unexpected changes to the fuel composition or amount have taken place during transportation and/or reactor operations. Changes may indicate an attempt to divert material for example. Here, we present the current state of the practice of fuel measurements for both fresh mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and SNF (both MOX and uranium dioxide). This is presented in the framework of international safeguards perspectives from the US and UK. We also postulate as to how the neutron fingerprinting concept could lead to improved fuel characterization (both fresh MOX and SNF) resulting in: (a) assured CofK of fuel across the nuclear fuel cycle, (b) improved detection of SNM diversion, and (c) greater confidence in safeguards of SNF transportation.

  7. Fabrication, inspection, and test plan for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel irradiation project

    SciTech Connect

    Wachs, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) has announced that reactor irradiation of MOX fuel is one of the preferred alternatives for disposal of surplus weapons-usable plutonium (Pu). MOX fuel has been utilized domestically in test reactors and on an experimental basis in a number of Commercial Light Water Reactors (CLWRs). Most of this experience has been with Pu derived from spent low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, known as reactor grade (RG) Pu. The MOX fuel test will be irradiated in the ATR to provide preliminary data to demonstrate that the unique properties of surplus weapons-derived or weapons-grade (WG) plutonium (Pu) do not compromise the applicability of this MOX experience base. In addition, the test will contribute experience with irradiation of gallium-containing fuel to the data base required for resolution of generic CLWR fuel design issues (ORNL/MD/LTR-76). This Fabrication, Inspection, and Test Plan (FITP) is a level 2 document as defined in the FMDP LWR MOX Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan (ORNL/MD/LTR-78).

  8. FMDP reactor alternative summary report: Volume 4, Evolutionary LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] have become surplus to national defense needs both in the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. The purpose of this report is to provide schedule, cost, and technical information that will be used to support the Record of Process (ROD). Following the screening process, DOE/MD via its national laboratories initiated a more detailed analysis activity to further evaluate each of the ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived the screening process. Three ``Alternative Teams,`` chartered by DOE and comprised of technical experts from across the DOE national laboratory complex, conducted these analyses. One team was chartered for each of the major disposition classes (borehole, immobilization, and reactors). During the last year and a half, the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) Reactor Alternative Team (RxAT) has conducted extensive analyses of the cost, schedule, technical maturity, S&S, and other characteristics of reactor-based plutonium disposition. The results of the RxAT`s analyses of the existing LWR, CANDU, and partially complete LWR alternatives are documented in Volumes 1-3 of this report. This document (Volume 4) summarizes the results of these analyses for the ELWR-based plutonium disposition option.

  9. Radiation protection potential of MOX-fuel doped with 231Pa and Cs radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Kryuchkov, E F; Glebov, V B; Apse, V A; Shmelev, A N

    2005-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of MOX-fuel self-protection during full cycle of MOX-fuel management. Under conditions of the closed LWR cycle the proliferation-resistance levels were evaluated for fresh and spent MOX-fuel with 231Pa and Cs feed. As it follows from the paper results, combination of these two admixtures being doped into MOX-fuel is able to enhance the inherent radiation barrier and to weaken shortcomings of both proliferation deterrents.

  10. Shipping Cask Studies with MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-05-17

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  11. All About MOX

    SciTech Connect

    2009-07-29

    In 1999, the Nuclear Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  12. All About MOX

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In 1999, the Nuclear Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  13. MOX: a user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.A.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-03-01

    The MOX computer program was designed to be used as a tool in assessing the relationship of occupational exposure and mortality from several specific causes in a large cohort. This report presents documentation for the program. 16 references. (ACR)

  14. A MOX Fuel Attribute Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-08-21

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252Cf.

  15. A MOX fuel attribute monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Mary; Jordan, David V.; Barnett, Debra S.; Redding, Rebecca L.; Pearce, Stephen K.

    2007-08-01

    Euratom performs safeguards monitoring of Fresh MOX fuel for domestic power production in the European Union. Video cameras monitor the reactor storage ponds. If video surveillance is lost for a certain amount of time a measurement is required to verify that no fuel was diverted. The attribute measurement to verify the continued presence of MOX fuel is neutron emission. Ideally this measurement would be made without moving or handling the fuel rod assembly. A prototype attribute measurement system was made using scintillating neutron sensitive glass waveguides developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Short lengths (5-20 cm) of the neutron sensitive fiber were mechanically spliced to 15 m lengths of commercial high numerical aperture fiber optic cable (Ceramoptec Optran Ultra 0.44). The light detector is a Hamamatsu R7400P photomultiplier tube. An electronics package was built to use the sensors with a GBS Elektronik MCA-166 multichannel analyzer and user interface. The MCA-166 is the system most commonly used by Euratom inspectors. It can also be run from a laptop computer using Maestro (Ortec) or other software. A MCNP model was made to compare to measurements made with several neutron sources including NIST traceable 252Cf.

  16. The MOX mirage

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This article is a discussion of the status of using mixed oxide fuels in the European Nuclear Industry. While the burning of weapons-grade plutonium to generate electricity seemed to be a win-win situation, the most likely candidate to use MOX is not likely to do so any time soon, and the political and economic hurdles are addressed in this article. While there are substantial amounts of weapons grade plutonium available, the fuel fabrication costs alone far exceed the overall cost of ordinary uranium fuel elements. The European Nuclear Industry has established an infrastructure to recycle reactor-grade plutonium (coming from the spent fuel reprocessing cycle), and it is the policy of the largest utility (EdF) to make full use of reprocessing and MOX fuel. By the yeat 2000, 28 (of EdF`s) PWRs should be licensed to use MOX fuel.

  17. Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Characteristics in Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2006-07-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) test capsules prepared with weapons-derived plutonium have been irradiated to a burnup of 50 GWd/t. The MOX fuel was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by a master-mix process and has been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Previous withdrawals of the same fuel have occurred at 9, 21, 30, 40, and 50 GWd/t. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages this test series for the Department of Energy’s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2(MCWO). MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. The fuel burnup analyses presented in this study were performed using MCWO. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations for the ATR small I-irradiation test position. The purpose of this report is to validate both the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) test assembly model and the new fuel burnup analysis methodology by comparing the computed results against the neutron monitor measurements and the irradiated WG-MOX post irradiation examination (PIE) data.

  18. Monte-Carlo Code (MCNP) Modeling of the Advanced Test Reactor Applicable to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Test Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; R. C. Pederson

    2005-07-01

    Mixed oxide (MOX) test capsules prepared with weapons-derived plutonium have been irradiated to a burnup of 50 GWd/t. The MOX fuel was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory by a master-mix process and has been irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Previous withdrawals of the same fuel have occurred at 9, 21, 30, and 40 GWd/t. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) manages this test series for the Department of Energy’s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The fuel burnup analyses presented in this study were performed using MCWO, a welldeveloped tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations for the ATR small I-irradiation test position. The purpose of this report is to validate both the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) test assembly model and the new fuel burnup analysis methodology by comparing the computed results against the neutron monitor measurements.

  19. MOX LTA Fuel Cycle Analyses: Nuclear and Radiation Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    Tasks of nuclear safety assurance for storage and transport of fresh mixed uranium-plutonium fuel of the VVER-1000 reactor are considered in the view of 3 MOX LTAs introduction into the core. The precise code MCU that realizes the Monte Carlo method is used for calculations.

  20. Monte Carlo boundary source approach in MOX fuel test capsule design

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1999-09-01

    To demonstrate that the differences between weapons-grade (WG) mixed oxide (MOX) and reactor-grade MOX fuel are minimal, and therefore the commercial MOX experience base is applicable, an average power test (6 to 10 kW/ft) of WG MOX fuel was inserted into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in January 1998. A high-power test (10 to 15 kW/ft) of WG MOX fuel in ATR is being fabricated as a follow-on to the average-power test. Two MOX capsules with 8.9 GWd/t burnup were removed from ATR on September 13, 1998, and replaced by two fresh WG MOX fuel capsules in regions with less thermal neutron flux (top-1 and bottom-1, which are away from the core center). To compensate for {sup 239}Pu depletion, which causes the linear heat generation rates (LHGRs) to decrease, the INCONEL shield was replaced by an aluminum shield in the phase-II irradiation. The authors describe and compare the results of the detailed MCNP ATR quarter core model (QCM) and isolated box model with boundary source (IBMBS). Physics analysis were performed with these two different models to provide the neutron/fission heat rate distribution data in the WG MOX fuel test assembly, with INCONEL and aluminum shrouds, located in the small I-24 hole of ATR.

  1. Methodology for the Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel Burnup Analysis in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang

    2005-08-01

    A UNIX BASH (Bourne Again SHell) script CMO has been written and validated at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2 (CMO). The new Monte Carlo burnup analysis methodology in this paper consists of MCNP coupling through CMO with ORIGEN-2, and is therefore called the MCWO. MCWO is a fully automated tool that links the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN-2. MCWO is capable of handling a large number of fuel burnup and material loading specifications, Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) lobe powers, and irradiation time intervals. MCWO processes user input that specifies the system geometry, initial material compositions, feed/removal specifications, and other code-specific parameters. Calculated results from MCNP, ORIGEN-2, and data process module calculations are output in succession as MCWO executes. The principal function of MCWO is to transfer one-group cross-section and flux values from MCNP to ORIGEN-2, and then transfer the resulting material compositions (after irradiation and/or decay) from ORIGEN-2 back to MCNP in a repeated, cyclic fashion. The basic requirements of MCWO are a working MCNP input file and some additional input parameters; all interaction with ORIGEN-2 as well as other calculations are performed by CMO. This paper presents the MCWO-calculated results for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiments RERTR-1 and RERTR-2 as well as the Weapons-Grade Mixed Oxide (WG-MOX) fuel testing in ATR. Calculations performed for the WG-MOX test irradiation, which is managed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), supports the DOE Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP). The MCWO-calculated results are compared with measured data.

  2. Thermal conductivity of heterogeneous LWR MOX fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staicu, D.; Barker, M.

    2013-11-01

    was observed for hypostoichiometric fuels, that correspond to the condition used for irradiation. However, if these two formulas are evaluated for O/M = 2.000, the difference between the predictions is negligible (Fig. 1). The difference becomes significant for non-stoichiometric fuels, as shown for O/M = 1.975 in Fig. 1. The microstructure of the FBR fuel with 21.4 wt.% Pu was not described in the paper of Duriez. Taking into account the rigorous experimental methodology used by Duriez (characterisation of the stoichiometry), a possible explanation is an interaction between the plutonium distribution and the stoichiometry. Another parameter having a strong impact on the conductivity is the porosity correction used to obtain the values for 95% TD. This correction is small in the work of Duriez as the samples density is very close to 95% TD. This was also the case for the samples selected by Philipponneau in order to obtain his recommendation. An effect due to differences in the pores shape can also be excluded, as the results are identical for stoichiometric fuels (Fig. 1). Usually the apparent stoichiometry is obtained by heat treatments and checked before and after the measurements, either by XRD or thermogravimetry. However, for non-perfectly homogeneous samples, the gradients in the plutonium distribution induce a non-uniform oxygen distribution, which is difficult to characterise experimentally. It has been proposed by Baron that the deviation from stoichiometry is the main cause for the differences observed between fresh UO2 and MOX [14,15], this effect is quantified in the next section. In the first model ("Model 1"), the effect of Pu is neglected over the entire relevant Pu compositions range (up to 24 wt.% PuO2), and a correlation obtained for non-stoichiometric homogeneous (U,Pu)O2 is used. In the second model ("Model 2", the effect of Pu is supposed to be present at all compositions, with the stoichiometry effect. The thermal conductivity is described by

  3. Fabrication, Inspection, and Test Plan for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) High-Power Mixed-Oxide (MOX) Fuel Irradiation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wachs, G. W.

    1998-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Disposition Program (FMDP) has announced that reactor irradiation of Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel is one of the preferred alternatives for disposal of surplus weapons-usable plutonium (Pu). MOX fuel has been utilized domestically in test reactors and on an experimental basis in a number of Commercial Light Water Reactors (CLWRs). Most of this experience has been with Pu derived from spent low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, known as reactor grade (RG) Pu. The High-Power MOX fuel test will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to provide preliminary data to demonstrate that the unique properties of surplus weapons-derived or weapons-grade (WG) plutonium (Pu) do not compromise the applicability of this MOX experience base. The purpose of the high-power experiment, in conjunction with the currently ongoing average-power experiment at the ATR, is to contribute new information concerning the response of WG plutonium under more severe irradiation conditions typical of the peak power locations in commercial reactors. In addition, the high-power test will contribute experience with irradiation of gallium-containing fuel to the database required for resolution of generic CLWR fuel design issues. The distinction between "high-power" and "average-power" relates to the position within the nominal CLWR core. The high-power test project is subject to a number of requirements, as discussed in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide Fuel Irradiation High-Power Test Project Plan (ORNL/MD/LTR-125).

  4. Differential localization of Mox-1 and Mox-2 proteins indicates distinct roles during development.

    PubMed

    Candia, A F; Wright, C V

    1996-12-01

    Transcript localizations for Mox genes have implicated this homeobox gene subfamily in the early steps of mesoderm formation. We have extended these studies by determining the protein expression profile of Mox-1 and Mox-2 during mouse development. The time of onset of Mox protein expression has been accurately obtained to provide clues as to their roles during gastrulation. Expression of Mox-1 protein is first detected in the newly formed mesoderm of primitive streak stage mouse embryos (7.5 days post-coitum, d.p.c.). In contrast, Mox-2 protein is first detected at 9.0 d.p.c. in thr already formed somites. Additionally, immunostaining reveals new and distinct areas of Mox expression in the branchial arches and limbs that were not reported in our previous mRNA localization analysis. Mouse Mox-2 antibodies cross-react specifically in similar embryonic tissues in chick indicating the conservation of function of Mox genes in vertebrates. These expression data suggest that the Mox genes function transiently in the formation of mesodermal and mesenchymal derivatives, after their initial specification, but before their overt differentiation. Furthermore, while there appears to be some overlap in protein expression between Mox-1 and Mox-2 during somitogenesis, unique areas of expression indicate several distinct roles for the Mox genes during development.

  5. NNSA B-Roll: MOX Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-21

    In 1999, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  6. NNSA B-Roll: MOX Facility

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In 1999, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) signed a contract with a consortium, now called Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC to design, build, and operate a Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. This facility will be a major component in the United States program to dispose of surplus weapon-grade plutonium. The facility will take surplus weapon-grade plutonium, remove impurities, and mix it with uranium oxide to form MOX fuel pellets for reactor fuel assemblies. These assemblies will be irradiated in commercial nuclear power reactors.

  7. Design Studies of ``100% Pu'' Mox Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-01-11

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  8. LTA Physics Design: Description of All MOX Pin LTA Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    In this document issued according to Work Release 02. P. 99-lb the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  9. Creation of Computational Benchmarks for LEU and MOX Fuel Assemblies Under Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A M; Kalashnikov, A G; Kalugin, M A; Lazarenko, A P; Maiorov, L V; Sidorenko, V D

    1999-11-01

    The result of VVER-1000 computational benchmarks, calculations obtained with the use of various Russian codes (such as MCU-RFFI/A, TVS-M and WIMS-ABBN) are presented. List of benchmarks includes LEU and MOX cells with fresh and spent fuel under various conditions (for calculation of kinetic parameters, Doppler coefficient, reactivity effect of decreasing the water density). Calculations results are compared with each other and results of this comparison are discussed.

  10. Design Studies of ''Island'' Type MOX Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-31

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <> type MOX LTA design are presented. The characteristics both for infinite MOX grids and for VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are calculated. the neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  11. MOX and MOX with 237Np/241Am Inert Fission Gas Generation Comparison in ATR

    SciTech Connect

    G. S. Chang; M. Robel; W. J. Carmack; D. J. Utterbeck

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of spent fuel produced in nuclear power generation is one of the most important issues to both the nuclear community and the general public. One of the viable options to long-term geological disposal of spent fuel is to extract plutonium, minor actinides (MA), and potentially long-lived fission products from the spent fuel and transmute them into short-lived or stable radionuclides in currently operating light-water reactors (LWR), thus reducing the radiological toxicity of the nuclear waste stream. One of the challenges is to demonstrate that the burnup-dependent characteristic differences between Reactor-Grade Mixed Oxide (RG-MOX) fuel and RG-MOX fuel with MA Np-237 and Am 241 are minimal, particularly, the inert gas generation rate, such that the commercial MOX fuel experience base is applicable. Under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), developmental fuel specimens in experimental assembly LWR-2 are being tested in the northwest (NW) I-24 irradiation position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The experiment uses MOX fuel test hardware, and contains capsules with MOX fuel consisting of mixed oxide manufactured fuel using reactor grade plutonium (RG-Pu) and mixed oxide manufactured fuel using RG-Pu with added Np/Am. This study will compare the fuel neutronics depletion characteristics of Case-1 RG-MOX and Case-2 RG-MOX with Np/Am.

  12. Mox fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    2001-05-15

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion. characteristics of the assembly.

  13. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    1998-01-01

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  14. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, Mark L.; Rosenstein, Richard G.

    2001-07-17

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly.

  15. MOX fuel arrangement for nuclear core

    DOEpatents

    Kantrowitz, M.L.; Rosenstein, R.G.

    1998-10-13

    In order to use up a stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium, the plutonium is converted into a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel form wherein it can be disposed in a plurality of different fuel assembly types. Depending on the equilibrium cycle that is required, a predetermined number of one or more of the fuel assembly types are selected and arranged in the core of the reactor in accordance with a selected loading schedule. Each of the fuel assemblies is designed to produce different combustion characteristics whereby the appropriate selection and disposition in the core enables the resulting equilibrium cycle to closely resemble that which is produced using urania fuel. The arrangement of the MOX rods and burnable absorber rods within each of the fuel assemblies, in combination with a selective control of the amount of plutonium which is contained in each of the MOX rods, is used to tailor the combustion characteristics of the assembly. 38 figs.

  16. Analyses of Weapons-Grade MOX VVER-1000 Neutronics Benchmarks: Pin-Cell Calculations with SCALE/SAS2H

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.J.

    2001-01-11

    A series of unit pin-cell benchmark problems have been analyzed related to irradiation of mixed oxide fuel in VVER-1000s (water-water energetic reactors). One-dimensional, discrete-ordinates eigenvalue calculations of these benchmarks were performed at ORNL using the SAS2H control sequence module of the SCALE-4.3 computational code system, as part of the Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) of the US DOE. Calculations were also performed using the SCALE module CSAS to confirm the results. The 238 neutron energy group SCALE nuclear data library 238GROUPNDF5 (based on ENDF/B-V) was used for all calculations. The VVER-1000 pin-cell benchmark cases modeled with SAS2H included zero-burnup calculations for eight fuel material variants (from LEU UO{sub 2} to weapons-grade MOX) at five different reactor states, and three fuel depletion cases up to high burnup. Results of the SAS2H analyses of the VVER-1000 neutronics benchmarks are presented in this report. Good general agreement was obtained between the SAS2H results, the ORNL results using HELIOS-1.4 with ENDF/B-VI nuclear data, and the results from several Russian benchmark studies using the codes TVS-M, MCU-RFFI/A, and WIMS-ABBN. This SAS2H benchmark study is useful for the verification of HELIOS calculations, the HELIOS code being the principal computational tool at ORNL for physics studies of assembly design for weapons-grade plutonium disposition in Russian reactors.

  17. New approaches for MOX multi-recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gain, T.; Bouvier, E.; Grosman, R.; Senentz, G.H.; Lelievre, F.; Bailly, F.; Brueziere, J.; Murray, P.

    2013-07-01

    Due to its low fissile content after irradiation, Pu from used MOX fuel is considered by some as not recyclable in LWR (Light Water Reactors). The point of this paper is hence to go back to those statements and provide a new analysis based on AREVA extended experience in the fields of fissile and fertile material management and optimized waste management. This is done using the current US fuel inventory as a case study. MOX Multi-recycling in LWRs is a closed cycle scenario where U and Pu management through reprocessing and recycling leads to a significant reduction of the used assemblies to be stored. The recycling of Pu in MOX fuel is moreover a way to maintain the self-protection of the Pu-bearing assemblies. With this scenario, Pu content is also reduced repetitively via a multi-recycling of MOX in LWRs. Simultaneously, {sup 238}Pu content decreases. All along this scenario, HLW (High-Level Radioactive Waste) vitrified canisters are produced and planned for deep geological disposal. Contrary to used fuel, HLW vitrified canisters do not contain proliferation materials. Moreover, the reprocessing of used fuel limits the space needed on current interim storage. With MOX multi-recycling in LWR, Pu isotopy needs to be managed carefully all along the scenario. The early introduction of a limited number of SFRs (Sodium Fast Reactors) can therefore be a real asset for the overall system. A few SFRs would be enough to improve the Pu isotopy from used LWR MOX fuel and provide a Pu-isotopy that could be mixed back with multi-recycled Pu from LWRs, hence increasing the Pu multi-recycling potential in LWRs.

  18. Probaability of Criticality for MOX SNF

    SciTech Connect

    P. Gottlieb

    1999-09-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a conservative (upper bound) estimate of the probability of criticality for mixed oxide (MOX) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of the Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) design that has been proposed for use. with the Plutonium Disposition Program (Ref. 1, p. 2). This calculation uses a Monte Carlo technique similar to that used for ordinary commercial SNF (Ref. 2, Sections 2 and 5.2). Several scenarios, covering a range of parameters, are evaluated for criticality. Parameters specifying the loss of fission products and iron oxide from the waste package are particularly important. This calculation is associated with disposal of MOX SNF.

  19. MOX recycling in GEN 3 + EPR Reactor homogeneous and stable full MOX core

    SciTech Connect

    Arslan, M.; Villele, E. de; Gauthier, J.C.; Marincic, A.

    2013-07-01

    In the case of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) reactor, 100% MOX core management is possible with simple design adaptations which are not significantly costly. 100% MOX core management offers several highly attractive advantages. First, it is possible to have the same plutonium content in all the rods of a fuel assembly instead of having rods with 3 different plutonium contents, as in MOX assemblies in current PWRs. Secondly, the full MOX core is more homogeneous. Thirdly, the stability of the core is significantly increased due to a large reduction in the Xe effect. Fourthly, there is a potential for the performance of the MOX fuel to match that of new high performance UO{sub 2} fuel (enrichment up to 4.95 %) in terms of increased burn up and cycle length. Fifthly, since there is only one plutonium content, the manufacturing costs are reduced. Sixthly, there is an increase in the operating margins of the reactor, and in the safety margins in accident conditions. The use of 100% MOX core will improve both utilisation of natural uranium resources and reductions in high level radioactive waste inventory.

  20. Isolation and characterization of the moxJ, moxG, moxI, and moxR genes of Paracoccus denitrificans: inactivation of moxJ, moxG, and moxR and the resultant effect on methylotrophic growth.

    PubMed Central

    Van Spanning, R J; Wansell, C W; De Boer, T; Hazelaar, M J; Anazawa, H; Harms, N; Oltmann, L F; Stouthamer, A H

    1991-01-01

    By using the moxF gene encoding the large fragment of methanol dehydrogenase as a probe, a downstream linked chromosomal fragment was isolated from a genomic bank of Paracoccus denitrificans. The nucleotide sequence of the fragment was determined and revealed the 3' part of moxF, four additional open reading frames, and the 5' part of a sixth one. The organization and deduced amino acid sequences of the first three frames downstream from moxF were found to be largely homologous to the moxJ, moxG, and moxI gene products of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1. Directly downstream from these three genes, a new mox gene was identified. The gene is designated moxR. By using the suicide vector pGRPd1, the moxJ, moxG, and moxR genes were inactivated by the insertion of a kanamycin resistance gene. Subsequently, suicide vector pRVS1 was used to replace the marker genes in moxJ and moxG for unmarked deletions made in vitro. As a result, the three insertion strains as well as the two unmarked mutant strains were unable to grow on methanol, even in the presence of pyrroloquinoline quinone. Growth on succinate and on methylamine was not affected. In all five mutant strains, synthesis of the large subunit of methanol dehydrogenase and of inducible cytochrome c553i was observed. The moxJ and moxG insertion mutant strains were unable to synthesize both the cytochrome c551i and the small subunit of methanol dehydrogenase, and this lack of synthesis was attended by the loss of methanol dehydrogenase activity. The moxJ deletion mutant strain partly synthesized the latter two proteins, cytochrome c551i. Partial synthesis of the small subunit of methanol dehydrogenase observed with the latter strain was attended by a corresponding extent of methanol dehydrogenase activity. The moxR insertion mutant strain was shown to synthesize cytochrome c551i as well as the large and small subunits of methanol dehydrogenase, but no methanol dehydrogenase activity was observed. The results show that

  1. Opportunities for the Multi Recycling of Used MOX Fuel in the US - 12122

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, P.; Bailly, F.; Bouvier, E.; Gain, T.; Lelievre, F.; Senentz, G.H.; Collins, E.

    2012-07-01

    are assessed where current US inventory is treated; Pu recycled in LWR MOX fuels, and used MOX fuels themselves are treated in a continuous partitioning-transmutation mode (case 2a) or until the whole current UNF inventory (64,000 MT in 2010) has been treated followed by disposal of the MOX UNF to a geologic repository (case 2b). In the recycling scenario, two cases (2a and 2b) are considered. Benefits achieved are compared with the once through scenario (case 1) where UNF in the current US inventory are disposed directly to a geologic repository. For each scenario, the heat load and radioactivity of the high activity wastes disposed to a geologic repository are calculated and the savings in natural resources quantified, and compared with the once-through fuel cycle. Assuming an initial pilot recycling facility with a capacity of 800 metric tons a year of heavy metal begins operation in 2030, ∼8 metric tons per year of Pu is recovered from the LEUOx UNF inventory, and is used to produce fresh MOX fuels. At a later time, additional treatment and recycling capacities are assumed to begin operation, to accommodate blending and recycling of used MOX Pu, up to 2,400 MT/yr treatment capacity to enable processing UNF slightly faster than the rate of generation. Results of this scenario analysis study show the flexibility of the recycling scenarios so that Pu is managed in a way that avoids accumulating used MOX fuels. If at some future date, the decision is made to dispose of the MOX UNF to a geologic repository (case 2b), the scenario is neutral to final repository heat load in comparison to the direct disposal of all UNF (case 1), while diminishing use of natural uranium, enrichment, UNF accumulation, and the volume of HLW. Further recycling of Pu at the end of the scenario (case 2a) would exhibit further benefits. As expected, Pu-241 and Am-241 are the source of long term HLW heat load and Am-241 and Np-237 are the source of long term radiotoxicity. When advanced

  2. The single amphioxus Mox gene: insights into the functional evolution of Mox genes, somites, and the asymmetry of amphioxus somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, Carolina; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2002-06-15

    Mox genes are members of the "extended" Hox-cluster group of Antennapedia-like homeobox genes. Homologues have been cloned from both invertebrate and vertebrate species, and are expressed in mesodermal tissues. In vertebrates, Mox1 and Mox2 are distinctly expressed during the formation of somites and differentiation of their derivatives. Somites are a distinguishing feature uniquely shared by cephalochordates and vertebrates. Here, we report the cloning and expression of the single amphioxus Mox gene. AmphiMox is expressed in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) during early amphioxus somitogenesis and in nascent somites from the tail bud during the late phase. Once a somite is completely formed, AmphiMox is rapidly downregulated. We discuss the presence and extent of the PSM in both phases of amphioxus somitogenesis. We also propose a scenario for the functional evolution of Mox genes within chordates, in which Mox was co-opted for somite formation before the cephalochordate-vertebrate split. Novel expression sites found in vertebrates after somite formation postdated Mox duplication in the vertebrate stem lineage, and may be linked to the increase in complexity of vertebrate somites and their derivatives, e.g., the vertebrae. Furthermore, AmphiMox expression adds new data into a long-standing debate on the extent of the asymmetry of amphioxus somitogenesis.

  3. BN-600 full MOX core benchmark analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y. I.; Hill, R. N.; Grimm, K.; Rimpault, G.; Newton, T.; Li, Z. H.; Rineiski, A.; Mohanakrishan, P.; Ishikawa, M.; Lee, K. B.; Danilytchev, A.; Stogov, V.; Nuclear Engineering Division; International Atomic Energy Agency; CEA SERCO Assurance; China Inst. of Atomic Energy; Forschnungszentrum Karlsruhe; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research; Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst.; Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst.; Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up of the BN-600 hybrid core benchmark, a full MOX core benchmark was performed within the framework of the IAEA co-ordinated research project. Discrepancies between the values of main reactivity coefficients obtained by the participants for the BN-600 full MOX core benchmark appear to be larger than those in the previous hybrid core benchmarks on traditional core configurations. This arises due to uncertainties in the proper modelling of the axial sodium plenum above the core. It was recognized that the sodium density coefficient strongly depends on the core model configuration of interest (hybrid core vs. fully MOX fuelled core with sodium plenum above the core) in conjunction with the calculation method (diffusion vs. transport theory). The effects of the discrepancies revealed between the participants results on the ULOF and UTOP transient behaviours of the BN-600 full MOX core were investigated in simplified transient analyses. Generally the diffusion approximation predicts more benign consequences for the ULOF accident but more hazardous ones for the UTOP accident when compared with the transport theory results. The heterogeneity effect does not have any significant effect on the simulation of the transient. The comparison of the transient analyses results concluded that the fuel Doppler coefficient and the sodium density coefficient are the two most important coefficients in understanding the ULOF transient behaviour. In particular, the uncertainty in evaluating the sodium density coefficient distribution has the largest impact on the description of reactor dynamics. This is because the maximum sodium temperature rise takes place at the top of the core and in the sodium plenum.

  4. Mox: a novel modifier of the tomato Xa locus.

    PubMed

    Peterson, P W; Yoder, J I

    1995-01-01

    We have isolated a novel mutation that caused variegated leaf color in a tomato plant which had multiple maize Ac transposable elements and the tomato Xa allele. Xa is a previously characterized semi-dominant mutation that causes tomato leaves to be bright yellow when heterozygous (Xa/xa+). The mutation responsible for the new phenotype was named Mox (Modifier of Xa). The Mox mutation modified the Xa/xa+ yellow leaf phenotype in two ways: it compensated for the Xa allele resulting in a plant with a wildtype green color, and it caused somatic variegation which appeared as white and yellow sectors on the green background. Somatic variegation was visible only if the plant contained both the Mox and Xa loci. Genetic studies indicated that the Mox locus was linked in repulsion to Xa and that the Mox locus was genetically transmitted at a reduced frequency through the male gamete. Molecular characterization of the Ac elements in lines segregating for Mox identified an Ac insertion that appeared to cosegregate with Mox variegation. We propose a model in which the Mox mutation consists of a duplication of the xa+ allele and subsequent Ac-induced breakage of the duplicated region causes variegation.

  5. EDF Nuclear Power Plants Operating Experience with MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Thibault, Xavier

    2006-07-01

    EDF started Plutonium recycling in PWR in 1987 and progressively all the 20 reactors, licensed in using MOX fuel, have been loaded with MOX assemblies. At the origin of MOX introduction, these plants operated at full power in base load and the core management limited the irradiation time of MOX fuel assemblies to 3 annual cycles. Since 1995 all these reactors can operate in load follow mode. Since that time, a large amount of experience has been accumulated. This experience is very positive considering: - Receipt, handling, in core behaviour, pool storage and shipment of MOX fuel; - Operation of the various systems of the plant; - Environment impact; - Radioprotection; - Safety file requirements; - Availability for the grid. In order to reduce the fuel cost and to reach a better adequacy between UO{sub 2} fuel reprocessing flow and plutonium consumption, EDF had decided to improve the core management of MOX plants. This new core management call 'MOX Parity' achieves parity for MOX and UO{sub 2} assemblies in term of discharge burn-up. Compared to the current MOX assembly the Plutonium content is increased from 7,08% to 8,65% (equivalent to natural uranium enriched to respectively 3,25% and 3,7%) and the maximum MOX assembly burn-up moves from 42 to 52 GWd/t. This amount of burn-up is obtained from loading MOX assemblies for one additional annual cycle. Some, but limited, adaptations of the plant are necessary. In addition a new MOX fuel assembly has been designed to comply with the safety criteria taking into account the core management performances. These design improvements are based on the results of an important R and D program including numerous experimental tests and post-irradiated fuel examinations. In particular, envelope conditions compared to MOX Parity neutronic solicitations has been extensively investigated in order to get a full knowledge of the in reactor fuel behavior. Moreover, the operating conditions of the plant have been evaluated in many

  6. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  7. Neutron flux and spectrum variation in a MOX fuel experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.; Rogers, J.W.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    In support of potential licensing of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel made from weapons-grade (WG) plutonium and depleted uranium for use in US reactors, an experiment containing WG-MOX fuel has been designed and is being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. A simple, uninstrumented, test assembly containing nine MOX fuel capsules with neutron monitor wires was inserted into the ATR. Important neutronics parameters were computed using novel Monte Carlo methods. The purpose is to show that neutron monitor measurements have validated the new methodology.

  8. Results of Parametric Design Studies of MOX Lead Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.; Bychkov, S.A.; Lazarenko, A.A.; Sidorenko, V.D.; Styrin, Y.A.

    1998-12-01

    The parametric studies of MOX LTA design have been executed to choose plutonium content in assembly zones for two options of MOX LTA: 3-zones and Island. For 3-zones (100% Plutonium) MOX LTA the fissile plutonium content composition of 4.2%/3,0%/2% has been chosen. MOX LTA of the chosen compositions has been studied by using multi-assembly configuration that allows investigating of influence of MOX LTA environment: uranium assemblies of different irradiation. Plutonium Island with 54 plutonium pins in the center of MOX LTA has been considered in two modifications: uniform island; and graded island with lower plutonium content in one peripheral row of pins. It is shown that plutonium content in the uniform island cannot exceed 2.7% because of adopted power peaking limitations and therefore this design seems unreasonable for practical use. For graded island the plutonium content composition 3.8%/2.8% with uranium environment of 3.7% U-235 has been chosen. Evolution of assembly power and burnup distributions, inter-pin power and isotopic distributions while fuel irradiating have been analyzed. In addition to the base uranium environment of 3.7%, a set of calculations has been executed for 4.4%. Most of the studies have been executed by the code TVS-M that is at the final stage of licensing and it is to be used in the nearest future as a base instrument for VVER core calculations while using both uranium and MOX fuel. So the obtained results must be considered as preliminary ones and they demand additional analysis and investigations.

  9. Studies of Flexible MOX/LEU Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Alonso-Vargas, G.

    1999-03-01

    This project was a collaborative effort involving researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and North Carolina State University as well as Texas A and M University. The background, briefly, is that the US is planning to use some of its excess weapons Plutonium (Pu) to make mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel for existing light-water reactors (LWRs). Considerable effort has already gone into designing fuel assemblies and core loading patterns for the transition from full-uranium cores to partial-MOX and full-MOX cores. However, these designs have assumed that any time a reactor needs MOX assemblies, these assemblies will be supplied. In reality there are many possible scenarios under which this supply could be disrupted. It therefore seems prudent to verify that a reactor-based Pu-disposition program could tolerate such interruptions in an acceptable manner. Such verification was the overall aim of this project. The task assigned to the Texas A and M team was to use the HELIOS code to develop libraries of two-group homogenized cross sections for the various assembly designs that might be used in a Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that is burning weapons-grade MOX fuel. The NCSU team used these cross sections to develop optimized loading patterns under several assumed scenarios. Their results are documented in a companion report.

  10. Hot Cell Examination of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Robert Noel; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured with weapons-grade MOX and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg. As part of the fuel qualification process, five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This is the first hot cell examination of weapons-grade MOX fuel. The rods have been examined nondestructively with the ADEPT apparatus and are currently being destructively examined. Examinations completed to date include length measurements, visual examination, gamma scanning, profilometry, eddy-current testing, gas measurement and analysis, and optical metallography. Representative results of these examinations are reviewed and found to be consistent with predictions and with prior experience with reactor-grade MOX fuel. The results will be used to support licensing of weapons-grade MOX for batch use in commercial power reactors.

  11. The Hansenula polymorpha MOX gene presents two alternative transcription start points differentially utilized and sensitive to respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    Genu, Victor; Gödecke, Stefanie; Hollenberg, Cornelis P; Pereira, Gonçalo G

    2003-06-01

    The peroxisomal methanol metabolism of Hansenula polymorpha depends on a group of genes that are coordinately regulated. Methanol oxidase (Mox) plays a key role in this pathway and its synthesis has been shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level. MOX expression is strongly repressed on glucose and activated on glycerol or methanol. In this study we have identified two MOX transcripts that are differentially expressed along MOX derepression. The first one, named l-MOX (for longer MOX), starts at position -425, is only weakly and transiently transcribed and is not translated into the Mox protein. The other is the true MOX mRNA, which initiates around position -25. Using a strain bearing multiple copies of MOX(Q1N) and a reporter gene fused to the MOX promoter, regulation of the two transcripts was investigated. Initiation of the true MOX correlates with repression of l-MOX and conditions that are repressive for MOX transcription, such as the inhibition of mitochondrial activity, lead to higher levels of l-MOX expression. This effect was first observed in a mox mutant (Q1N-M8) unable to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. No function was detected for l-MOX, but its regulation follows a pattern similar to that of catalase, which is essential for methanol metabolism. This suggests that, l-MOX, although precisely regulated, seems to be a remnant of the evolution of the methanol metabolism network.

  12. 78 FR 9431 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Order Approving Indirect...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0081; Docket No. 70-3098; Construction Authorization No. CAMOX-001] Shaw AREVA MOX... Construction Authorization I Shaw AREVA MOX Services, LLC (MOX Services) holds Construction ] Authorization (CA... served as the mechanism under which the NRC staff has overseen the MFFF construction activities....

  13. The Mars oxidant experiment (MOx) for Mars '96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Lane, A. L.; Herring, M.; Bartman, R. K.; Ksendzov, A.; Manning, C. M.; Lamb, J. L.; Williams, R. M.; Ricco, A. J.; Butler, M. A.; Murray, B. C.; Quinn, R. C.; Zent, A. P.; Klein, H. P.; Levin, G. V.

    1998-01-01

    The MOx instrument was developed to characterize the reactive nature of the martian soil. The objectives of MOx were: (1) to measure the rate of degradation of organics in the martian environment; (2) to determine if the reactions seen by the Viking biology experiments were caused by a soil oxidant and measure the reactivity of the soil and atmosphere: (3) to monitor the degradation, when exposed to the martian environment, of materials of potential use in future missions; and, finally, (4) to develop technologies and approaches that can be part of future soil analysis instrumentation. The basic approach taken in the MOx instrument was to place a variety of materials composed as thin films in contact with the soil and monitor the physical and chemical changes that result. The optical reflectance of the thin films was the primary sensing-mode. Thin films of organic materials, metals, and semiconductors were prepared. Laboratory simulations demonstrated the response of thin films to active oxidants.

  14. Technical overview: CANDU MOX fuel dual irradiation experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dimayuga, F.C.; M.R. Floyd, M.R.; Schankula, M.H.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    This Technical Overview describes: the technical objectives and rational for the choice of MOX fuel fabrication parameters that are to be investigated; the pre-irradiation fuel characterization plan; the NRU irradiation plan; the post-irradiation examination plan; and a summary of the evaluations that can be extracted from the Parallex data. This Technical Overview is based on the 37-element reference CANDU MOX fuel design established in the 1994 Pu Dispositioning Study. An extension to this study is currently underway, aimed at increasing the Pu disposition rates of the mission. The results of this new study will likely specify a higher Pu loading for the CANDU MOX fuel. If confirmed, this Technical Overview document will be revised and the Parallex test matrix could be modified accordingly.

  15. ANALYSIS AND EXAMINATION OF MOX FUEL FROM NONPROLIFERATION PROGRAMS

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Kevin; Machut, Dr McLean; Morris, Robert Noel; Blanpain, Patrick; Hemrick, James Gordon

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation s surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. Four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio of less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. The performance of the rods was analyzed with AREVA s next-generation GALILEO code. The results of the analysis confirmed that the fuel rods had performed safely and predictably, and that GALILEO is applicable to MOX fuel with a low 240Pu/239Pu ratio as well as to standard MOX. The results are presented and compared to the GALILEO database. In addition, the fuel cladding was tested to confirm that traces of gallium in the fuel pellets had not affected the mechanical properties of the cladding. The irradiated cladding was found to remain ductile at both room temperature and 350 C for both the axial and circumferential directions.

  16. Comparison of REMIX vs. MOX fuel characteristics in multiple recycling in VVER reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Dekusar, V.M.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Kapranova, E.N.; Korobitsyn, V.E.; Puzakov, A.Y.

    2013-07-01

    Multiple recycling of regenerated uranium-plutonium fuel in thermal reactors of VVER-1000 type with high enriched uranium feeding (REMIX-fuel) gives a possibility to terminate the accumulation of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) and Pu and decrease the accumulation of irradiated uranium by an order of magnitude. Results of comparison of VVER-1000 nuclear fuel cycle characteristics vs different fuel types such as UOX, MOX and REMIX-fuel have been presented. REMIX fuel (Regenerated Mixture of U-, Pu oxides) is the mixture of plutonium and uranium extracted from SNF and refined from other actinides and fission products with the addition of enriched uranium to provide the power potential necessary. The savings in terms of uranium quantities and separation works in the nuclear energy system (NES) with reactors using REMIX-fuel compared to the NES with uranium-fuelled reactors are shown to be of about 30% and 8%, respectively. For the NES with thermal reactors partially loaded with MOX-fuel, the uranium and separation works saving of about 14% would be obtained. Production of neptunium and americium in reactors with REMIX-fuel in steady state increases by a factor 3, and production of curium - by 10 compared to the reactors with UOX-fuel. This increase of minor actinide buildup is owed to the multiple recycling of plutonium. It should be noted that in this case all fuel assemblies contain high-background plutonium, and their manufacturing involves an expensive technology. Besides, management of REMIX-fuel will require special protection measures even during the fresh fuel manufacturing phase. The above-said gives ground to state that the use of REMIX fuel would be questionable in economic aspect.

  17. Core physics analysis of 100% MOX Core in IRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Franceschini, F.; Petrovic, B.

    2006-07-01

    International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced small-to-medium-size (1000 MWt) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), targeting deployment around 2015. Its reference core design is based on the current Westinghouse UO{sub 2} fuel with less than 5% {sup 235}U, and the analysis has been previously completed confirming good performance. The full MOX fuel core is currently under evaluation as one of the alternatives for the second wave of IRIS reactors. A full 3-D neutronic analysis has been performed to examine main core performance parameters, such as critical boron concentration, peaking factors, discharge burnup, etc. The enhanced moderation of the IRIS fuel lattice facilitates MOX core design, and all the obtained results are within the requirements, confirming viability of this option from the reactor physics standpoint. (authors)

  18. Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Larry J; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Spellman, Donald J; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel rod burnup of ~47.3 GWd/MTHM. As part of the fuel qualification process, five rods with varying burnups and initial plutonium contents were selected from one assembly and shipped to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for hot cell examination. ORNL has provided analytical support for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of these rods via extensive fuel performance modeling which has aided in instrument settings and PIE data interpretation. The results of these fuel performance simulations are compared in this paper with available PIE data.

  19. Isotopic Details of the Spent Catawba-1 MOX Fuel Rods at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Ronald James

    2015-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy funded Shaw/AREVA MOX Services LLC to fabricate four MOX Lead Test Assemblies (LTA) from weapons-grade plutonium. A total of four MOX LTAs (including MX03) were irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station (Unit 1) Catawba-1 PWR which operated at a total thermal power of 3411 MWt and had a core with 193 total fuel assemblies. The MOX LTAs were irradiated along with Duke Energy s irradiation of eight Westinghouse Next Generation Fuel (NGF) LEU LTAs (ref.1) and the remaining 181 LEU fuel assemblies. The MX03 LTA was irradiated in the Catawba-1 PWR core (refs.2,3) during cycles C-16 and C-17. C-16 began on June 5, 2005, and ended on November 11, 2006, after 499 effective full power days (EFPDs). C-17 started on December 29, 2006, (after a shutdown of 48 days) and continued for 485 EFPDs. The MX03 and three other MOX LTAs (and other fuel assemblies) were discharged at the end of C-17 on May 3, 2008. The design of the MOX LTAs was based on the (Framatome ANP, Inc.) Mark-BW/MOX1 17 17 fuel assembly design (refs. 4,5,6) for use in Westinghouse PWRs, but with MOX fuel rods with three Pu loading ranges: the nominal Pu loadings are 4.94 wt%, 3.30 wt%, and 2.40 wt%, respectively, for high, medium, and low Pu content. The Mark-BW/MOX1 (MOX LTA) fuel assembly design is the same as the Advanced Mark-BW fuel assembly design but with the LEU fuel rods replaced by MOX fuel rods (ref. 5). The fabrication of the fuel pellets and fuel rods for the MOX LTAs was performed at the Cadarache facility in France, with the fabrication of the LTAs performed at the MELOX facility, also in France.

  20. MOX Lead Assembly Fabrication at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, R.L.; Spiker, D.L.; Poon, A.P.

    1997-12-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) on the disposition of the nations weapon-usable surplus plutonium.This EIS is tiered from the Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Material Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement issued in December 1996,and the associated Record of Decision issued on January, 1997. The EIS will examine reasonable alternatives and potential environmental impacts for the proposed siting, construction, and operation of three types of facilities for plutonium disposition. The three types of facilities are: a pit disassembly and conversion facility, a facility to immobilize surplus plutonium in a glass or ceramic form for disposition, and a facility to fabricate plutonium oxide into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel.As an integral part of the surplus plutonium program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Fissile Material Disposition(MD) as the technical lead to organize and evaluate existing facilities in the DOE complex which may meet MD`s need for a domestic MOX fuel fabrication demonstration facility. The Lead Assembly (LA) facility is to produce 1 MT of usable test fuel per year for three years. The Savannah River Site (SRS) as the only operating plutonium processing site in the DOE complex, proposes two options to carry out the fabrication of MOX fuel lead test assemblies: an all Category I facility option and a combined Category I and non-Category I facilities option.

  1. Detailed axial power profiles in a MOX fuel experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has chosen two options to dispose of surplus weapons-grade (WG) plutonium (WGPu). One option is to burn the WGPu in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in light water reactors. An average power test (<10 kW/ft) of WG-MOX fuel was inserted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in February 1998. A high power test (<15 kW/ft) of WG-MOX fuel in ATR will follow the average-power test. The ability to accurately predict fuel power is essential in the high-power WG-MOX fuel capsule design for the test in ATR. Detailed fission power and temperature profiles may influence gallium migration in WG-MOX fuel pins. Most of the fission heat generated in the MOX fuel capsules will transfer radially to the water coolant. However, because of the short length (15.24 cm) of the MOX fuel pellet stacks, some of the fission heat will transfer through the end pellets axially. Compounded with peak fission power local-to-average ratios (LTAR) at the ends of MOX fuel stacks, the hot spot created may exceed the design limit. Therefore, the prediction of the axial fission power profiles over the MOX fuel stacks at the beginning of life (BOL) and end of life (EOL) are important for MOX fuel performance analysis and capsule design for testing in ATR. Continuous-energy MCNP linked with ORIGEN2 can generate the burnup-dependent cross sections and fission power distribution for fuel burnup analysis while accurately including the effects of self-shielding. This approach is very important for the prediction of plutonium content and LTAR in MOX fuel pellet stacks with HfO{sub 2} ends. MCWO can accurately determine fuel pin power distributions in the ATR experiment when the MOX fuel and HfO{sub 2} are depleted simultaneously. This is significant because the authors quickly provided the customer with the required detailed power distributions within the MOX pins using the new approach. The MOX fuel pin with HfO{sub 2} can flatten the axial power profiles from BOL to EOL and meet the MOX

  2. The expression pattern of Xenopus Mox-2 implies a role in initial mesodermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Candia, A F; Wright, C V

    1995-07-01

    We have isolated a Xenopus homolog of the murine Mox-2 gene. As is the case for the mouse homolog, mesoderm specific expression of Xenopus Mox-2 (X. Mox-2) expression begins during gastrulation. Using whole mount in situ hybridization, we show that X. Mox-2 is expressed in undifferentiated dorsal, lateral and ventral mesoderm in the posterior of neurula/tailbud embryos, with expression more anteriorly detected in the dermatomes. In the tailbud tadpole, X. Mox-2 is expressed in tissues of the tailbud itself that represent a site of continued gastrulation-like processes resulting in mesoderm formation. X. Mox-2 is not expressed in the marginal zone of blastula, nor in the dorsal lip of gastrula, nor midline tissues (i.e. prospective notochord). Treatments that affect mesodermal patterning during embryonic development, including LiCl and ultraviolet light, and injection of mRNAs encoding BMP-4, or dominant negative activin and FGF receptors, produce changes in X. Mox-2 expression consistent with the types of tissues affected by these manipulations. X. Mox-2 expression is induced more in animal caps treated with FGF than those treated with activin. Together with the fact that X. Mox-2 activation in animal caps requires protein synthesis, our data suggest that X. Mox-2 is involved in initial mesodermal differentiation, downstream of molecules affecting mesoderm induction and determination such as Brachyury and goosecoid, and upstream of factors controlling terminal differentiation such as MyoD and myf5. X. Mox-2, therefore, is another useful marker for understanding the formation of mesoderm in amphibian development.

  3. Mox homeobox expression in muscle lineage of the gastropod Haliotis asinina: evidence for a conserved role in bilaterian myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hinman, V F; Degnan, B M

    2002-04-01

    Mox homeobox genes are expressed during early vertebrate somitogenesis. Here we describe the expression of Has-Mox, a Mox gene from the gastropod Haliotis asinina. Has-Moxis expressed in the trochophore larva in paraxial mesodermal bands. During larval development, Has-Mox expression remains restricted to mesodermal cells destined to form adult muscle in the foot. This restricted expression of Has-Mox in Haliotis is similar to that observed for vertebrate Mox genes, suggesting a conserved role in myogenesis in deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. In contrast, Mox is not expressed in muscle lineages in the ecdysozoan representatives Caenorhabditis elegans or Drosophila; the C. elegansgenome has lost Mox altogether. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00427-002-0223-6.

  4. A Neutronic Analysis of TRU Recycling in PWRs Loaded with MOX-UE Fuel (MOX with U-235 Enriched U Support)

    SciTech Connect

    G. Youinou; S. Bays

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study dealing with the homogeneous recycling of either Pu or Pu+Np or Pu+Np+Am or Pu+Np+Am+Cm in PWRs using MOX-UE fuel, i.e. standard MOX fuel with a U235 enriched uranium support instead of the standard tail uranium (0.25%) for standard MOX fuel. This approach allows to multirecycle Pu or TRU (Pu+MA) as long as U235 is available, by keeping the Pu or TRU content in the fuel constant and at a value ensuring a negative moderator void coefficient (i.e. the loss of the coolant brings imperatively the reactor to a subcritical state). Once this value is determined, the U235 enrichment of the MOX-UE fuel is adjusted in order to reach the target burnup (51 GWd/t in this study).

  5. Issues in the use of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel in VVER-1000 Nuclear Reactors: Comparison of UO2 and MOX Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    2005-05-27

    The purpose of this report is to quantify the differences between mixed oxide (MOX) and low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuels and to assess in reasonable detail the potential impacts of MOX fuel use in VVER-1000 nuclear power plants in Russia. This report is a generic tool to assist in the identification of plant modifications that may be required to accommodate receiving, storing, handling, irradiating, and disposing of MOX fuel in VVER-1000 reactors. The report is based on information from work performed by Russian and U.S. institutions. The report quantifies each issue, and the differences between LEU and MOX fuels are described as accurately as possible, given the current sources of data.

  6. Transportation and packaging issues involving the disposition of surplus plutonium as MOX fuel in commercial LWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, S.B.; Welch, D.E.; Best, R.E.; Schmid, S.P.

    1997-08-01

    This report provides a view of anticipated transportation, packaging, and facility handling operations that are expected to occur at mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication and commercial reactor facilities. This information is intended for use by prospective contractors to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) who plan to submit proposals to DOE to manufacture and irradiate MOX fuel assemblies in domestic commercial light-water reactors. The report provides data to prospective consortia regarding packaging and pickup of MOX nuclear fuel assemblies at a MOX fuel manufacturing plant and transport and delivery of the MOX assemblies to nuclear power plants. The report also identifies areas where data are incomplete either because of the status of development or lack of sufficient information and specificity regarding the nuclear power plant(s) where deliveries will take place.

  7. Monte Carlo minicell approach for a detailed MOX fuel-pin power profile analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1997-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing two options to dispose of surplus weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu). One option is to burn the WGPu in a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel form in light water reactors (LWRs). A significant challenge is to demonstrate that the differences between the WG and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel are minimal, and therefore, the commercial MOX experience base is applicable. MOX fuel will be irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to investigate this assertion. Detailed power distributions throughout the MOX pins are required to determine temperature distributions. The purpose of this work is to develop a new Monte Carlo procedure for accurately determining power distributions in fuel pins located in the ATR reflector. Conventional LWR methods are not appropriate because of the unique ATR geometry.

  8. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of the GFR MOX Fuel Subassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüley, J.; Vrban, B.; Čerba, Š.; Haščík, J.; Nečas, V.; Pelloni, S.

    2014-04-01

    We performed sensitivity and uncertainty analysis as well as benchmark similarity assessment of the MOX fuel subassembly designed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) as a representative material of the core. Material composition was defined for each assembly ring separately allowing us to decompose the sensitivities not only for isotopes and reactions but also for spatial regions. This approach was confirmed by direct perturbation calculations for chosen materials and isotopes. Similarity assessment identified only ten partly comparable benchmark experiments that can be utilized in the field of GFR development. Based on the determined uncertainties, we also identified main contributors to the calculation bias.

  9. [Study on Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine by YAO Tianmin].

    PubMed

    Li, Jianrong; Huang, Longxiang; Du, Guangzhong; Gang, Weijuan

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics and academic thoughts of Chinese Acup-Mox Medicine written by YAO Tianmin during the Republic of China was studied and analyzed in this paper. The academic thoughts of this book were confluence of Chinese and western knowledge, respecting for classics culture but not stubborn, using western science and medicine without worshiping it. The main characteristics were the scientific meridian-acupoint theory, extensive acupoint selection, "qie" method of acupuncture, high recommendation on medicated thread and ironing moxibustion, reinforcing and reducing based on the meridian direction in infantile massage, using acupuncture and cream formula for surgical treatment, and creating his own acupuncture codes.

  10. Calculation Analysis of San Onofre Depletion MOX Fuel Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, AM

    2001-08-31

    The report provides calculation results of isotopic composition of spent MOX fuel irradiated in Sun Onofre PWR reactor. The calculation was performed by means of the MCU/BURNUP Monte Carlo code. The code is developed in Kurchatov Institute, Russia. The predicted isotope contents are compared with the measured ones. A purpose of this work is a verification both the code and the model of experiment description. Predicted plutonium content exceeds the measured one approximately by 3%. It is arise mainly from error of {sup 239}Pu isotope. Isotopic contents of the main plutonium and uranium isotopes are predicted with satisfactory precision.

  11. Melting temperatures of the ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, T.; Hirooka, S.; Kato, M.; Morimoto, K.; Sugata, H.; Shibata, K.; Sato, D.

    2013-07-01

    Severe accidents occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Units 1-3 on March 11, 2011. MOX fuels were loaded in the Unit 3. For the thermal analysis of the severe accident, melting temperature and phase state of MOX corium were investigated. The simulated coriums were prepared from 4%Pu-containing MOX, 8%Pu-containing MOX and ZrO{sub 2}. Then X-ray diffraction, density and melting temperature measurements were carried out as a function of zirconium and plutonium contents. The cubic phase was observed in the 25%Zr-containing corium and the tetragonal phase was observed in the 50% and 75%Zr-containing coria. The lattice parameter and density monotonically changed with Pu content. Melting temperature increased with increasing Pu content; melting temperature were estimated to be 2932 K for 4%Pu MOX corium and 3012 K for 8%Pu MOX corium in the 25%ZrO{sub 2}-MOX system. The lowest melting temperature was observed for 50%Zr-containing corium. (authors)

  12. Temperate Myxococcus xanthus phage Mx8 encodes a DNA adenine methylase, Mox.

    PubMed

    Magrini, V; Salmi, D; Thomas, D; Herbert, S K; Hartzell, P L; Youderian, P

    1997-07-01

    Temperate bacteriophage Mx8 of Myxococcus xanthus encapsidates terminally repetitious DNA, packaged as circular permutations of its 49-kbp genome. During both lytic and lysogenic development, Mx8 expresses a nonessential DNA methylase, Mox, which modifies adenine residues in occurrences of XhoI and PstI recognition sites, CTCGAG and CTGCAG, respectively, on both phage DNA and the host chromosome. The mox gene is necessary for methylase activity in vivo, because an amber mutation in the mox gene abolishes activity. The mox gene is the only phage gene required for methylase activity in vivo, because ectopic expression of mox as part of the M. xanthus mglBA operon results in partial methylation of the host chromosome. The predicted amino acid sequence of Mox is related most closely to that of the methylase involved in the cell cycle control of Caulobacter crescentus. We speculate that Mox acts to protect Mx8 phage DNA against restriction upon infection of a subset of natural M. xanthus hosts. One natural isolate of M. xanthus, the lysogenic source of related phage Mx81, produces a restriction endonuclease with the cleavage specificity of endonuclease BstBI.

  13. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup. The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.

  14. Development of ORIGEN Libraries for Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Assembly Designs

    DOE PAGES

    Mertyurek, Ugur; Gauld, Ian C.

    2015-12-24

    In this research, ORIGEN cross section libraries for reactor-grade mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assembly designs have been developed to provide fast and accurate depletion calculations to predict nuclide inventories, radiation sources and thermal decay heat information needed in safety evaluations and safeguards verification measurements of spent nuclear fuel. These ORIGEN libraries are generated using two-dimensional lattice physics assembly models that include enrichment zoning and cross section data based on ENDF/B-VII.0 evaluations. Using the SCALE depletion sequence, burnup-dependent cross sections are created for selected commercial reactor assembly designs and a representative range of reactor operating conditions, fuel enrichments, and fuel burnup.more » The burnup dependent cross sections are then interpolated to provide problem-dependent cross sections for ORIGEN, avoiding the need for time-consuming lattice physics calculations. The ORIGEN libraries for MOX assembly designs are validated against destructive radiochemical assay measurements of MOX fuel from the MALIBU international experimental program. This program included measurements of MOX fuel from a 15 × 15 pressurized water reactor assembly and a 9 × 9 boiling water reactor assembly. The ORIGEN MOX libraries are also compared against detailed assembly calculations from the Phase IV-B numerical MOX fuel burnup credit benchmark coordinated by the Nuclear Energy Agency within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Finally, the nuclide compositions calculated by ORIGEN using the MOX libraries are shown to be in good agreement with other physics codes and with experimental data.« less

  15. Measurement and analysis of fission gas release from BNFL's SBR MOX fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. J.; Fisher, S. B.; Cook, P. M. A.; Stratton, R.; Walker, C. T.; Palmer, I. D.

    2001-01-01

    Puncture results are presented for seven SBR MOX fuel rods from the first prototypical commercial irradiation that was carried out in the Beznau-1 PWR. The rod average burn-up ranged from 31.2 to 35.6 MWd/kgHM. Comparison is made with the percentage of gas released from French MOX fuels and UO 2 fuel. The results show that in the burn-up range investigated, SBR MOX fuel and MIMAS MOX fuel perform similarly, releasing up to about 1% of the fission gas inventory. Comparisons with the Halden Criterion show that SBR MOX has the same release threshold as UO 2 and this suggests that the mechanisms of release in the two fuels are similar. This is further supported by calculations made with the ENIGMA fuel performance code. It is concluded that the apparent differences in fission gas release between SBR MOX and UO 2 fuel, at least in the early stages of release, can be explained by the higher temperatures experienced by MOX fuel.

  16. Novel plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase (MOX-2) in Klebsiella pneumoniae from Greece.

    PubMed

    Raskine, Laurent; Borrel, Isabelle; Barnaud, Guilène; Boyer, Sophie; Hanau-Berçot, Béatrice; Gravisse, Jérome; Labia, Roger; Arlet, Guillaume; Sanson-Le-Pors, Marie-José

    2002-07-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae KOL, a clinical strain resistant to various beta-lactams, was isolated from the stools of a patient from Greece. This strain harbored a new pI 9.1 plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase with unusually high levels of hydrolytic activity for cefoxitin and cefotetan that we named MOX-2. Sequencing of bla(MOX-2) revealed 93.2, 92.9, 92.7, and 73.1% identities with the deduced amino acid sequences of CMY-8, MOX-1, CMY-1, and the AmpC beta-lactamase of Aeromonas sobria, respectively.

  17. Feedback on the use of the MX6 Mox Fuel transport cask: reduction of the dose uptake during operations

    SciTech Connect

    Blachet, L.; Lallemant, Th.

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of the quality, safety and environment policy of AREVA, TN International has implemented a global management system according to ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001 and ISO 14001 requirements with certification obtained from third part organization (1). The design of the MX6 cask is an example of the implementation of this system in order to guarantee safety and the health of everyone involved and the protection of the environment. The MX6 design has allowed ALARA dose rates for the workers during all the phases of use of the cask, to be significantly reduced compared to previous design. The MX6 cask was developed by TN International for the transport of either BWR or PWR fresh MOX fuel assemblies. Replacing the previous SIEMENS type III and SIEMENS BWR packaging, the MX6 has been firstly used in the German Nuclear Power Plants. Complying with the TS-R-1 (IAEA 1996) regulations, the MX6 cask is based on innovative solutions implemented at each step of the design and the manufacturing. Its design includes an efficient neutron shielding for high Plutonium content and an easy use content restraining system. The large payload of the MX6 cask, 6 PWR MOX fuel assemblies or 16 BWR MOX fuel assemblies, minimizes the doses uptake during its unloading at the NPP. Moreover, new sequences of loading and unloading operations were proposed for testing and implementation in each Nuclear Facility. Concurrently, total dose uptakes by the operators were assessed in order to prove the efficiency of the packaging and the proposed sequences. In this paper, the main contributors to the transports to Germany with the MX6 cask will present their involvement and feedback for the reduction of the dose uptakes by the operators during the loading and unloading operations. Presently in use at GUNDREMMINGEN and ISAR Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the MX6 cask use will be extended to other German and Swiss NPPs from 2006 onwards. (1) AFAQ-AFNOR Certification for ISO 9001, OHSAS 18001 and ISO

  18. Modeling of MOX Fuel Pellet-Clad Interaction Using ABAQUS

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosek, Richard G.; Pedersen, Robert C.; Maple, Amanda

    2002-07-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) has indicated an increase in the outer diameter of fuel pins being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for the MOX irradiation program. The diameter increase is the largest in the region between fuel pellets. The fuel pellet was modeled using PATRAN and the model was evaluated using ABAQUS, version 6.2. The results from the analysis indicate the non-uniform clad diameter is caused by interaction between the fuel pellet and the clad. The results also demonstrate that the interaction is not uniform over the pellet axial length, with the largest interaction occurring in the region of the pellet-pellet interface. Results were obtained for an axisymmetric model and for a 1/8 pie shaped segment, using the coupled temperature-displacement solution technique. (authors)

  19. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4 - Revised Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-06-01

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition (TFRPD) was formed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) to study reactor physics, fuel performance, and fuel cycle issues related to the disposition of weapons-grade (WG) plutonium as mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. To advance the goals of the TFRPD, 10 countries and 12 institutions participated in a major TFRPD activity: a blind benchmark study to compare code calculations to experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code system was used to perform the comprehensive study of pin-cell and MOX core calculations for the VENUS-2 MOX core benchmark study.

  20. LLNL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. LLNL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within a Category 1 area. Building 332 will be used to receive and store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, and assemble fuel rods. Building 334 will be used to assemble, store, and ship fuel bundles. Only minor modifications would be required of Building 332. Uncontaminated glove boxes would need to be removed, petition walls would need to be removed, and minor modifications to the ventilation system would be required.

  1. Variant 22: Spatially-Dependent: Transient Processes in MOX Fueled Core

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    This work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactors and presents the results of spatial kinetics calculational benchmarks. The examinations were carried out with the following purposes: to verify one of spatial neutronic kinetics model elaborated in KI, to understand sensibility of the model to neutronics difference of UOX and MOX cores, and to compare in future point and spatial kinetics models (on the base of a set of selected accidents) in view of eventual creation of RELAP option with 3D kinetics. The document contains input data and results of model operation of three emergency dynamic processes in the VVER-1000 core: (1) Central control rod ejection by pressure drop caused by destroying of the moving mechanism cover. (2) Overcooling of the reactor core caused by steam line rupture and non-closure of steam generator stop valve. (3) The boron dilution of coolant in part of the VVER-1000 core caused by penetration of the distillate slug into the core at start up of non-working loop. These accidents have been applied to: (1) Uranium reference core that is the so-called Advanced VVER-1000 core with Zirconium fuel pins claddings and guide tubes. A number of assemblies contained 18 boron BPRs while first year operating. (2) MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel. At a solving it was supposed that MOX-fuel thermophysical characteristics are identical to uranium fuel ones. The calculations were carried out with the help of the program NOSTRA/1/, simulating VVER dynamics that is briefly described in Chapter 1. Chapter 3 contains the description of reference Uranium and MOX cores that are used in calculations. The neutronics calculations of MOX core with about 30% MOX fuel are named ''Variant 2 1''. Chapters 4-6 contain the calculational results of three above mentioned benchmark accidents that compose in a whole the ''Variant 22''.

  2. Characterization of candidate DOE sites for fabricating MOX fuel for lead assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Holdaway, R.F.; Miller, J.W.; Sease, J.D.; Moses, R.J.; O`Connor, D.G.; Carrell, R.D.; Jaeger, C.D.; Thompson, M.L.; Strasser, A.A.

    1998-03-01

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is directing the program to disposition US surplus weapons-usable plutonium. For the reactor option for disposition of this surplus plutonium, MD is seeking to contract with a consortium, which would include a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabricator and a commercial US reactor operator, to fabricate and burn MOX fuel in existing commercial nuclear reactors. This option would entail establishing a MOX fuel fabrication facility under the direction of the consortium on an existing DOE site. Because of the lead time required to establish a MOX fuel fabrication facility and the need to qualify the MOX fuel for use in a commercial reactor, MD is considering the early fabrication of lead assemblies (LAs) in existing DOE facilities under the technical direction of the consortium. The LA facility would be expected to produce a minimum of 1 metric ton heavy metal per year and must be operational by June 2003. DOE operations offices were asked to identify candidate sites and facilities to be evaluated for suitability to fabricate MOX fuel LAs. Savannah River Site, Argonne National Laboratory-West, Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory were identified as final candidates to host the LA project. A Site Evaluation Team (SET) worked with each site to develop viable plans for the LA project. SET then characterized the suitability of each of the five plans for fabricating MOX LAs using 28 attributes and documented the characterization to aid DOE and the consortium in selecting the site for the LA project. SET concluded that each option has relative advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other options; however, each could meet the requirements of the LA project as outlined by MD and SET.

  3. CHF considerations for highly moderated 100% MOX fuels PWRs

    SciTech Connect

    Saphier, D.; Raymond, P.

    1995-09-01

    A feasibility study on using 100% MOX fuel in a PWR with increased moderating ratio, RMA, was initiated. In the proposed design all the parameters were chosen identical to the French 1450MW PWR, except the fuel pin diameter which was reduced to achieve higher moderating ratios, V{sub M}/V{sub F}, where V{sub M} and V{sub F} are the moderator and fuel volume respectively. Moderating ratios from 2 to 4 were considered. In the present study the thermal-hydraulic feasibility of using fuel assemblies with smaller diameter fuel pins was investigated. The major design constrain in this study was the critical heat flux (CHF). In order to maintain the fuel pin integrity under nominal operating and transient conditions, the minimum DNBR, (Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio given by CHF/q{close_quotes}{sub local}, where q{close_quotes}{sub local} is the local heat flux), has to be above a given value. The limitations of the existing CHF correlations for the present study are outlined. Two designs based on the conventional 17x17 fuel assembly and on the advanced 19x19 assembly meeting the MDNBR criteria and satisfying the control margin requirements, are proposed.

  4. Spatial Kinetics Calculations of MOX Fueled Core: Variant 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-01-11

    This work is part of a Joint US/Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactors and presents the results of spatial kinetics calculational benchmarks. The examinations were carried out with the following purposes: to verify one of spatial neutronic kinetics model elaborated in KI, to understand sensibility of the model to neutronics difference of UOX and MOX cores, to compare in future point and spatial kinetics models (on the base of a set of selected accidents) in view of eventual creation of RELAP option with 3D kinetics. The document contains input data and results of model operation of three emergency dynamic processes in the VVER-1000 core: central control rod ejection by pressure drop caused by destroying of the moving mechanism cover; overcooling of the reactor core caused by steam line rupture and non-closure of steam generator stop valve; and the boron dilution of coolant in part of the VVER-1000 core caused by penetration of the distillate slug into the core at start up of non-working loop.

  5. ATR WG-MOX Fuel Pellet Burnup Measurement by Monte Carlo - Mass Spectrometric Method

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Gray Sen I

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for calculating the burnup of nuclear reactor fuel, the MCWO-MS method, and describes its application to an experiment currently in progress to assess the suitability for use in light-water reactors of Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel that contains plutonium derived from excess nuclear weapons material. To demonstrate that the available experience base with Reactor-Grade Mixed uranium-plutonium OXide (RGMOX) can be applied to Weapons-Grade (WG)-MOX in light water reactors, and to support potential licensing of MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium for use in United States reactors, an experiment containing WG-MOX fuel is being irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Fuel burnup is an important parameter needed for fuel performance evaluation. For the irradiated MOX fuel’s Post-Irradiation Examination, the 148Nd method is used to measure the burnup. The fission product 148Nd is an ideal burnup indicator, when appropriate correction factors are applied. In the ATR test environment, the spectrum-dependent and burnup-dependent correction factors (see Section 5 for detailed discussion) can be substantial in high fuel burnup. The validated Monte Carlo depletion tool (MCWO) used in this study can provide a burnup-dependent correction factor for the reactor parameters, such as capture-to-fission ratios, isotopic concentrations and compositions, fission power, and spectrum in a straightforward fashion. Furthermore, the correlation curve generated by MCWO can be coupled with the 239Pu/Pu ratio measured by a Mass Spectrometer (in the new MCWO-MS method) to obtain a best-estimate MOX fuel burnup. A Monte Carlo - MCWO method can eliminate the generation of few-group cross sections. The MCWO depletion tool can analyze the detailed spatial and spectral self-shielding effects in UO2, WG-MOX, and reactor-grade mixed oxide (RG-MOX) fuel pins. The MCWO-MS tool only

  6. MOXE: An X-ray all-sky monitor for Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Moss, C. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Holt, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A Monitoring Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) is being developed for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to sources as faint as 2 milliCrab (5 sigma) in 1 day, and cover the 2 to 20 KeV band.

  7. Performance of Cladding on MOX Fuel with Low 240Pu/239Pu Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Kevin; Blanpain, Patrick; Morris, Robert Noel

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has decided to dispose of a portion of its surplus plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating it in commercial power reactors. As part of fuel qualification, four lead assemblies were manufactured and irradiated to a maximum fuel rod average burnup of 47.3 MWd/kg heavy metal. This was the world s first commercial irradiation of MOX fuel with a 240Pu/239Pu ratio less than 0.10. Five fuel rods with varying burnups and plutonium contents were selected from one of the assemblies and shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory for hot cell examination. This paper discusses the results of those examinations with emphasis on cladding performance. Exams relevant to the cladding included visual and eddy current exams, profilometry, microscopy, hydrogen analysis, gallium analysis, and mechanical testing. There was no discernible effect of the type of MOX fuel on the performance of the cladding.

  8. Plutonium Consumption Program, CANDU Reactor Project: Feasibility of BNFP Site as MOX Fuel Supply Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    An evaluation was made of the technical feasibility, cost, and schedule for converting the existing unused Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Facility (BNFP) into a Mixed Oxide (MOX) CANDU fuel fabrication plant for disposition of excess weapons plutonium. This MOX fuel would be transported to Ontario where it would generate electricity in the Bruce CANDU reactors. Because CANDU MOX fuel operates at lower thermal load than natural uranium fuel, the MOX program can be licensed by AECB within 4.5 years, and actual Pu disposition in the Bruce reactors can begin in 2001. Ontario Hydro will have to be involved in the entire program. Cost is compared between BNFP and FMEF at Hanford for converting to a CANDU MOX facility.

  9. A Mox homeobox gene in the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens is differentially expressed during larval morphogenesis and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Degnan, B M; Degnan, S M; Fentenany, G; Morse, D E

    1997-07-07

    We have isolated a homeobox-containing cDNA from the gastropod mollusc Haliotis rufescens that is most similar to members of the Mox homeobox gene class. The derived Haliotis homeodomain sequence is 85% identical to mouse and frog Mox-2 homeodomains and 88.9% identical to the partial cnidarian cnox5-Hm homeodomain. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of mRNA accumulation reveals that this gene, called HruMox, is expressed in the larva, but not in the early embryo. Transcripts are most prevalent during larval morphogenesis from trochophore to veliger. There are also transient increases in transcript prevalence 1 and 3 days after the intitiation of metamorphosis from veliger to juvenile. The identification of a molluscan Mox homeobox gene that is more closely related to vertebrate genes than other protostome (e.g. Drosophila) genes suggests the Mox class of homeobox genes may consist of several different families that have been conserved through evolution.

  10. Experience from start-ups of the first ANITA Mox plants.

    PubMed

    Christensson, M; Ekström, S; Andersson Chan, A; Le Vaillant, E; Lemaire, R

    2013-01-01

    ANITA™ Mox is a new one-stage deammonification Moving-Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) developed for partial nitrification to nitrite and autotrophic N-removal from N-rich effluents. This deammonification process offers many advantages such as dramatically reduced oxygen requirements, no chemical oxygen demand requirement, lower sludge production, no pre-treatment or requirement of chemicals and thereby being an energy and cost efficient nitrogen removal process. An innovative seeding strategy, the 'BioFarm concept', has been developed in order to decrease the start-up time of new ANITA Mox installations. New ANITA Mox installations are started with typically 3-15% of the added carriers being from the 'BioFarm', with already established anammox biofilm, the rest being new carriers. The first ANITA Mox plant, started up in 2010 at Sjölunda wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Malmö, Sweden, proved this seeding concept, reaching an ammonium removal rate of 1.2 kgN/m³ d and approximately 90% ammonia removal within 4 months from start-up. This first ANITA Mox plant is also the BioFarm used for forthcoming installations. Typical features of this first installation were low energy consumption, 1.5 kW/NH4-N-removed, low N₂O emissions, <1% of the reduced nitrogen and a very stable and robust process towards variations in loads and process conditions. The second ANITA Mox plant, started up at Sundets WWTP in Växjö, Sweden, reached full capacity with more than 90% ammonia removal within 2 months from start-up. By applying a nitrogen loading strategy to the reactor that matches the capacity of the seeding carriers, more than 80% nitrogen removal could be obtained throughout the start-up period.

  11. Decommissioning the Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX plant: presentation of the project and situation end august 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Cuchet, J.M.; Libon, H.; Verheyen, C.; Boden, S.; Joffroy, F.; Walthery, R.

    2013-07-01

    Belgonucleaire has been operating the Dessel MOX plant at an industrial scale between 1986 and 2006. During this period, 40 metric tons of plutonium (HM) have been processed into 90 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial light water reactors. The decision to stop the production in 2006 and to decommission the MOX plant was the result of the shrinkage of the MOX fuel market due to political and commercial factors. As a significant part of the decommissioning project of the Dessel MOX plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes and about 1.200 metric tons of structure and equipment outside the glove-boxes are planned for dismantling. The license for the dismantling of the MOX plant was granted by Royal Decree in 2008 and the dismantling started in March 2009. The dismantling works are carried out by an integrated organization under leadership and responsibility of Belgonucleaire; this organization includes 3 main contractors, namely Tecnubel N.V., the THV ('Tijdelijke HandelsVereniging') Belgoprocess / SCK-CEN and Studsvik GmbH and Tractebel Engineering as project manager. In this paper, after having described the main characteristics of the project, the authors review the different organizational and technical options considered for the decommissioning of the glove-boxes; thereafter the main decision criteria (qualification of personnel and of processes, confinement, cutting techniques and radiation protection, safety aspects, alpha-bearing waste management) are analyzed as well. Finally the progress, the feedback and the lessons learned at the end of August 2013 are presented, giving the principal's and contractors point of view. (authors)

  12. WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR ASSEMBLY - WASTE PACKAGE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    1996-07-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to compare the criticality potential of Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel with the Design Basis spent nuclear fuel (SNF) analyzed previously (Ref. 5.1, 5.2). The basis of comparison will be the conceptual design Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package concepts. The objectives of this evaluation are to show that the criticality potential of the MOX fuel is equal to or lower than the DBF or, if necessary, indicate what additional measures are required to make it so.

  13. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kudinov, K. G.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Sorokin, Yu. P.; Bondin, V. V.; Manakova, L. F.; Jardine, L. J.

    2002-02-26

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on a production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration in Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is

  14. MOX Average Power Test 30 GWd/MT PIE: Quick Look

    SciTech Connect

    MORRIS, RN

    2001-02-14

    This report summarizes the early results of the post irradiation examination of the 30 GWd/MT MOX Average Power Test Capsules (numbers 3 and 10). The purpose of this preliminary examination is to document and monitor the progress of the MOX Average Power Test Irradiation. The capsules and their fuel pins were found to be in excellent condition. Measurement of the fission gas release fraction (about 1.50 to 2.26%), preliminary fuel stack gamma scan measurements, and preliminary fuel pin diameter measurements indicate that the fuel is behaving as expected.

  15. Isolation of the human MOX2 homeobox gene and localization to chromosome 7p22.1-p21.3

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriou, M.; Theodorakis, K.; Mankoo, B.

    1995-04-10

    We have isolated and characterized cDNA clones encoding a novel human homeobox gene, MOX2, the homologue of the murine mox-2 gene. The MOX2 protein contains all of the characteristic features of Mox-2 proteins of other vertebrate species, namely the homeobox, the polyhistidine stretch, and a number of potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. The homeodomain of MOX2 protein is identical to all other vertebrate species reported so far (rodents and amphibians). Outside the homeodomain, Mox-2 proteins share a high degree of identity, except for a few amino acid differences encountered between the human and the rodent polypeptides. A polyhistidine stretch of 12 amino acids in the N terminal region of the protein is also conserved among humans, rodents, and (only partly) amphibians. The chromosomal position of MOX2 was assigned to 7p22.1-p21.3. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Benchmark of SCALE (SAS2H) isotopic predictions of depletion analyses for San Onofre PWR MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, O.W.

    2000-02-01

    The isotopic composition of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, fabricated with both uranium and plutonium, after discharge from reactors is of significant interest to the Fissile Materials Disposition Program. The validation of the SCALE (SAS2H) depletion code for use in the prediction of isotopic compositions of MOX fuel, similar to previous validation studies on uranium-only fueled reactors, has corresponding significance. The EEI-Westinghouse Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program examined the use of MOX fuel in the San Onofre PWR, Unit 1, during cycles 2 and 3. Isotopic analyses of the MOX spent fuel were conducted on 13 actinides and {sup 148}Nd by either mass or alpha spectrometry. Six fuel pellet samples were taken from four different fuel pins of an irradiated MOX assembly. The measured actinide inventories from those samples has been used to benchmark SAS2H for MOX fuel applications. The average percentage differences in the code results compared with the measurement were {minus}0.9% for {sup 235}U and 5.2% for {sup 239}Pu. The differences for most of the isotopes were significantly larger than in the cases for uranium-only fueled reactors. In general, comparisons of code results with alpha spectrometer data had extreme differences, although the differences in the calculations compared with mass spectrometer analyses were not extremely larger than that of uranium-only fueled reactors. This benchmark study should be useful in estimating uncertainties of inventory, criticality and dose calculations of MOX spent fuel.

  17. A detailed kinetic study of Mox-1, a plasmid-encoded class C beta-lactamase.

    PubMed

    Alba, Jimena; Bauvois, Cedric; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Galleni, Moreno; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Ishiguro, Masaji; Ito, Masahiko; Frere, Jean-Marie; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2003-08-29

    Surveys of beta-lactamases in different parts of the world show an important increase in class C beta-lactamases, thus the study of these enzymes is becoming an important issue. We created an overproduction system for Mox-1, a plasmid class C beta-lactamase, by cloning the gene encoding this enzyme, and placing it under the control of a T7 promoter, using vector pET 28a. The enzyme, purified by ion exchange chromatography, was used to obtain the molecular mass (38246), the N-terminal sequence (GEASPVDPLRPVV), and pI (8.9), and to perform a detailed kinetic study. Cephalotin was used as reporter substrate in the case of poor substrates. The kinetic study showed that benzylpenicillin, cephalotin, cefcapene and moxalactam were good substrates for Mox-1 (k(cat)/K(m) values >2.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). On the other hand, ceftazidime and cefepime were poor substrates for this enzyme (K(m) values >200 microM). Clavulanic acid had no inhibitory effect on Mox-1 (K(m)=30.2 mM), however aztreonam behaved as an inhibitor of Mox-1 (K(i)=2.85 microM).

  18. The MOX promoter in Hansenula polymorpha is ultrasensitive to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Dusny, Christian; Schmid, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Redesigning biology towards specific purposes requires a functional understanding of genetic circuits. We present a quantitative in-depth study on the regulation of the methanol-specific MOX promoter system (PMOX) at the single-cell level. We investigated PMOX regulation in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula (Ogataea) polymorpha with respect to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression. This promoter system is particularly delicate as the glucose as carbon and energy source in turn represses MOX promoter activity. Decoupling single cells from population activity revealed a hitherto underrated ultrasensitivity of the MOX promoter to glucose repression. Environmental control with single-cell technologies enabled quantitative insights into the balance between activation and repression of PMOX with respect to extracellular glucose concentrations. While population-based studies suggested full MOX promoter derepression at extracellular glucose concentrations of ∼1 g L(-1), we showed that glucose-mediated catabolite repression already occurs at concentrations as low as 5 × 10(-4) g L(-1) These findings demonstrate the importance of uncoupling single cells from populations for understanding the mechanisms of promoter regulation in a quantitative manner.

  19. The MOX/SUC precursor strategies: robust ways to construct functionalized oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Polushin, N

    2001-01-01

    The use of phosphoramidites bearing one or more methoxyoxalamido (MOX) or succinimido (SUC) reactive groups for construction of functionalized oligonucleotides is described. The efficiency of the new precursor strategy was demonstrated in the synthesis of oligonucleotide containing up to 16 imidazole residues.

  20. Interaction study between MOX fuel and eutectic lead-bismuth coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Popa, Karin; Tyrpekl, Vaclav; Gardeur, Sébastien; Freis, Daniel; Somers, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of the MYRRHA reactor project, the interaction between fuel pellets and the reactor coolant is essential for safety evaluations, e.g. in case of a pin breach. Therefore, interaction tests between uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) pellets and molten lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) have been performed and three parameters were studied, namely the interaction temperature (500 °C and 800 °C), the oxygen content in LBE and the stoichiometry of the MOX (U0.7Pu0.3O2-x and U0.7Pu0.3O2.00). After 50 h of interaction in closed containers, the pellet integrity was preserved in all cases. Whatever the conditions, neither interaction compounds (crystalline or amorphous) nor lead and bismuth diffusion into the surface regions of the MOX pellets has been detected. In most of the conditions, actinide releases into LBE were very limited (in the range of 0.01-0.15 mg), with a homogeneous release of the different actinides present in the MOX. Detected values were significantly higher in the 800 °C and low LBE oxygen content tests for both U0.7Pu0.3O2-x and U0.7Pu0.3O2.00, with 1-2 mg of actinide released in these conditions.

  1. Improved MOX fuel calculations using new Pu-239, Am-241 and Pu-240 evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguere, G.; Bouland, O.; Bernard, D.; Leconte, P.; Blaise, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Vidal, J. F.; De Saint Jean, C.; Leal, L.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.

    2013-03-01

    Several studies based on the JEFF-3.1.1 nuclear data library show a systematic overestimation of the critical keff for core configurations of MOX fuel assemblies. The present work investigates possible improvements of the C/E results by using new evaluations for Am-241, Pu-239 and Pu-240.

  2. 76 FR 22735 - Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... COMMISSION Shaw AREVA MOX Services, Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility; License Amendment Request, Notice... PDR reference staff at 1-800-397-4209, 301-415-4737, or by e-mail to pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The.... Introduction The NRC has received, by letter dated February 8, 2011, an amendment request from Shaw AREVA...

  3. Microstructure of irradiated SBR MOX fuel and its relationship to fission gas release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, S. B.; White, R. J.; Cook, P. M. A.; Bremier, S.; Corcoran, R. C.; Stratton, R.; Walker, C. T.; Ivison, P. K.; Palmer, I. D.

    2002-12-01

    SEM and EPMA examinations of the microstructure and microchemistry of British Nuclear Fuel's quasi-homogeneous SBR MOX fuel following irradiation suggests behaviour which is very similar to that observed in UO 2. Most significantly, a fission gas release of 1% in three-cycle SBR MOX PWR rods is associated with the development of a well-defined intergranular bubble network, which has not been seen previously in the more heterogeneous MOX fuels irradiated under similar conditions. The contrast between the observations is attributed to the relatively low volume fraction and small size of the Pu rich inhomogeneities in the SBR fuel which generate only 4% of the total fission gas and eject most of this into the surrounding mixed oxide matrix. The resulting perturbation in the Xe distribution has a negligible influence on the evolution of the microstructure. A key observation is made from the results of recent post-irradiation annealing experiments performed on SBR MOX and UO 2. These confirm near identical fission gas behaviour in the two fuel types when the influence of thermal conductivity and rod rating are removed.

  4. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E; Ott, Larry J; Philip, Bobby; Berrill, Mark A; Sampath, Rahul S; Allu, Srikanth; Hamilton, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  5. Study of the IDGS technique for mixed plutonium-uranium (MOX) samples

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T. K.; Vo, Duc T.; Sumi, M.; Suzuki, T.

    2004-01-01

    The isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique has been demonstrated for simultaneously measuring concentrations and isotopic compositions of plutonium in spent-fuel input dissolver solutions. For timely analyzing nuclear materials on the purpose of material accountancy and quality control/assurance, we have performed a feasibility study to implement the IDGS for measuring mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) samples at the Plutonium Fuel Center (PFC) of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC). Proof-of-principle experiments and analysis have been conducted for developing simultaneous plutonium and uranium measurements in MOX samples with wide variation of Pu/U ratios including powder, pellets and process scraps from the MOX fuel fabrication plant at PFC. We have shown that FRAM can be used with the IDGS technique to simultaneously determine plutonium and uranium isotopic compositions and concentrations in MOX samples at PFC, JNC. The uncertainties of the results are somewhat large due to weak statistics. If better statistics are obtained by either using more plutonium in the measurements, acquire the data for longer time, or using higher efficiency detector then the results can be better. The accuracy of the results can also be improved by a factor of 2-3 by using the generalized IDGS technique instead of this traditional IDGS.

  6. Multirecycling of Plutonium from LMFBR Blanket in Standard PWRs Loaded with MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Sonat Sen; Gilles Youinou

    2013-02-01

    It is now well-known that, from a physics standpoint, Pu, or even TRU (i.e. Pu+M.A.), originating from LEU fuel irradiated in PWRs can be multirecycled also in PWRs using MOX fuel. However, the degradation of the isotopic composition during irradiation necessitates using enriched U in conjunction with the MOX fuel either homogeneously or heterogeneously to maintain the Pu (or TRU) content at a level allowing safe operation of the reactor, i.e. below about 10%. The study is related to another possible utilization of the excess Pu produced in the blanket of a LMFBR, namely in a PWR(MOX). In this case the more Pu is bred in the LMFBR, the more PWR(MOX) it can sustain. The important difference between the Pu coming from the blanket of a LMFBR and that coming from a PWR(LEU) is its isotopic composition. The first one contains about 95% of fissile isotopes whereas the second one contains only about 65% of fissile isotopes. As it will be shown later, this difference allows the PWR fed by Pu from the LMFBR blanket to operate with natural U instead of enriched U when it is fed by Pu from PWR(LEU)

  7. Estimate of the Sources of Plutonium-Containing Wastes Generated from MOX Fuel Production in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Kudinov, K.G.; Tretyakov, A.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.; Bondin, V.V.; Manakova, L.F.; Jardine, L.J.

    2001-12-01

    In Russia, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel is produced in a pilot facility ''Paket'' at ''MAYAK'' Production Association. The Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC) has developed plans to design and build a dedicated industrial-scale plant to produce MOX fuel and fuel assemblies (FA) for VVER-1000 water reactors and the BN-600 fast-breeder reactor, which is pending an official Russian Federation (RF) site-selection decision. The design output of the plant is based on production capacity of 2.75 tons of weapons plutonium per year to produce the resulting fuel assemblies: 1.25 tons for the BN-600 reactor FAs and the remaining 1.5 tons for VVER-1000 FAs. It is likely the quantity of BN-600 FAs will be reduced in actual practice. The process of nuclear disarmament frees a significant amount of weapons plutonium for other uses, which, if unutilized, represents a constant general threat. In France, Great Britain, Belgium, Russia, and Japan, reactor-grade plutonium is used in MOX-fuel production. Making MOX-fuel for CANDU (Canada) and pressurized water reactors (PWR) (Europe) is under consideration Russia. If this latter production is added, as many as 5 tons of Pu per year might be processed into new FAs in Russia. Many years of work and experience are represented in the estimates of MOX fuel production wastes derived in this report. Prior engineering studies and sludge treatment investigations and comparisons have determined how best to treat Pu sludges and MOX fuel wastes. Based upon analyses of the production processes established by these efforts, we can estimate that there will be approximately 1200 kg of residual wastes subject to immobilization per MT of plutonium processed, of which approximately 6 to 7 kg is Pu in the residuals per MT of Pu processed. The wastes are various and complicated in composition. Because organic wastes constitute both the major portion of total waste and of the Pu to be immobilized, the recommended treatment of MOX-fuel production waste is incineration

  8. Hanford MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site (SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. Hanford has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 1 facility. In all, a total of three LA MOX fuel fabrication options were identified by Hanford that could accommodate the program. In every case, only minor modification would be required to ready any of the facilities to accept the equipment necessary to accomplish the LA program.

  9. Conformational Change Observed in the Active Site of Class C β-Lactamase MOX-1 upon Binding to Aztreonam.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Takuma; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko

    2015-08-01

    We solved the crystal structure of the class C β-lactamase MOX-1 complexed with the inhibitor aztreonam at 1.9Å resolution. The main-chain oxygen of Ser315 interacts with the amide nitrogen of aztreonam. Surprisingly, compared to that in the structure of free MOX-1, this main-chain carboxyl changes its position significantly upon binding to aztreonam. This result indicates that the interaction between MOX-1 and β-lactams can be accompanied by conformational changes in the B3 β-strand main chain.

  10. Crystal structure of Mox-1, a unique plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamase with hydrolytic activity towards moxalactam.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Takuma; Furuyama, Takamitsu; Okuno, Takashi; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Bonomo, Robert A; Shimizu-Ibuka, Akiko

    2014-07-01

    Mox-1 is a unique plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamase that hydrolyzes penicillins, cephalothin, and the expanded-spectrum cephalosporins cefepime and moxalactam. In order to understand the unique substrate profile of this enzyme, we determined the X-ray crystallographic structure of Mox-1 β-lactamase at a 1.5-Å resolution. The overall structure of Mox-1 β-lactamase resembles that of other AmpC enzymes, with some notable exceptions. First, comparison with other enzymes whose structures have been solved reveals significant differences in the composition of amino acids that make up the hydrogen-bonding network and the position of structural elements in the substrate-binding cavity. Second, the main-chain electron density is not observed in two regions, one containing amino acid residues 214 to 216 positioned in the Ω loop and the other in the N terminus of the B3 β-strand corresponding to amino acid residues 303 to 306. The last two observations suggest that there is significant structural flexibility of these regions, a property which may impact the recognition and binding of substrates in Mox-1. These important differences allow us to propose that the binding of moxalactam in Mox-1 is facilitated by the avoidance of steric clashes, indicating that a substrate-induced conformational change underlies the basis of the hydrolytic profile of Mox-1 β-lactamase.

  11. Analysis of oxygen induced anisotropy crossover in Pt/Co/MOx trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchon, A.; Ducruet, C.; Lombard, L.; Auffret, S.; Rodmacq, B.; Dieny, B.; Pizzini, S.; Vogel, J.; Uhlíř, V.; Hochstrasser, M.; Panaccione, G.

    2008-08-01

    Extraordinary Hall effect and x-ray spectroscopy measurements have been performed on a series of Pt/Co/MOx trilayers (M =Al, Mg, Ta, etc.) in order to investigate the role of oxidation in the onset of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy at the Co/MOx interface. It is observed that varying the plasma oxidation time modifies the magnetic properties of the Co layer, inducing a magnetic anisotropy crossover from in plane to out of plane. We focused on the influence of plasma oxidation on Pt/Co/AlOx perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The interfacial electronic structure is analyzed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. It is shown that the maximum of out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy corresponds to the appearance of a significant density of Co-O bondings at the Co/AlOx interface.

  12. Overcoming the slow recovery of MOX gas sensors through a system modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Javier G; González-Jiménez, Javier; Blanco, Jose Luis

    2012-10-11

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOX) gas transducers are one of the preferable technologies to build electronic noses because of their high sensitivity and low price. In this paper we present an approach to overcome to a certain extent one of their major disadvantages: their slow recovery time (tens of seconds), which limits their suitability to applications where the sensor is exposed to rapid changes of the gas concentration. Our proposal consists of exploiting a double first-order model of the MOX-based sensor from which a steady-state output is anticipated in real time given measurements of the transient state signal. This approach assumes that the nature of the volatile is known and requires a precalibration of the system time constants for each substance, an issue that is also described in the paper. The applicability of the proposed approach is validated with several experiments in real, uncontrolled scenarios with a mobile robot bearing an e-nose.

  13. Overcoming the Slow Recovery of MOX Gas Sensors through a System Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Monroy, Javier G.; González-Jiménez, Javier; Blanco, Jose Luis

    2012-01-01

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOX) gas transducers are one of the preferable technologies to build electronic noses because of their high sensitivity and low price. In this paper we present an approach to overcome to a certain extent one of their major disadvantages: their slow recovery time (tens of seconds), which limits their suitability to applications where the sensor is exposed to rapid changes of the gas concentration. Our proposal consists of exploiting a double first-order model of the MOX-based sensor from which a steady-state output is anticipated in real time given measurements of the transient state signal. This approach assumes that the nature of the volatile is known and requires a precalibration of the system time constants for each substance, an issue that is also described in the paper. The applicability of the proposed approach is validated with several experiments in real, uncontrolled scenarios with a mobile robot bearing an e-nose. PMID:23202015

  14. VENUS-2 MOX Core Benchmark: Results of ORNL Calculations Using HELIOS-1.4

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, RJ

    2001-02-02

    The Task Force on Reactor-Based Plutonium Disposition, now an Expert Group, was set up through the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency to facilitate technical assessments of burning weapons-grade plutonium mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in U.S. pressurized-water reactors and Russian VVER nuclear reactors. More than ten countries participated to advance the work of the Task Force in a major initiative, which was a blind benchmark study to compare code benchmark calculations against experimental data for the VENUS-2 MOX core at SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HELIOS-1.4 code was used to perform a comprehensive study of pin-cell and core calculations for the VENUS-2 benchmark.

  15. Convergence study of Rattlesnake solutions for the two-dimensional C5G7 MOX benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaqi; DeHart, Mark David; Gaston, Derek Ray; Gleicher, Frederick Nathan; Martineau, Richard Charles; Peterson, John William; Schunert, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the convergence study of a specific transport scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with the discrete ordinates (SN) method and continuous finite element method (CFEM), implemented with Rattlesnake, on solving the well known two-dimensional C5G7 MOX benchmark. Both the convergence in space and angle are studied. Numerical results show the convergence of the spatial and angular refinements.

  16. Analysis of a Partial MOX Core Design with Tritium Targets for Light Water Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.; Adams, Marvin L.

    1998-04-19

    This report constitutes tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the task To study the effects of using WG MOX fuel in tritium-producing LWR” of the subproject Water Reactor Options for Disposition of Plutonium. The principal investigators of this subproject are Naeem M. Abdurrahman of the University of Texas at Austin and Marvin L. Adams of Texas A&M University. This work was sponsored by the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium.

  17. Concurrent validity of the MOX activity monitor compared to the ActiGraph GT3X.

    PubMed

    van der Weegen, Sanne; Essers, Hans; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke; Verwey, Renée; Tange, Huibert; de Witte, Luc; Meijer, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    The It's LiFe! monitoring and feedback tool embedded in primary care practice is promising in helping people to achieve an active lifestyle. This new tool consists of an activity monitor (the MOX), which is connected to a smartphone application and to a Web service for patients and care providers. The aim of this study was to develop thresholds for the moderate and vigorous activity categories and examine the concurrent validity of the MOX in relation to the ActiGraph (Pensacola, FL) GT3X in healthy participants and chronically ill patients (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and type 2 diabetes) in a laboratory situation and during daily living. Participants wore the two activity monitors simultaneously on the lower back. An incremental treadmill protocol was executed by 8 healthy adults and 10 patients. For daily living measurements, 15 healthy adults and 12 patients wore the devices for 6-7 days. Daily living data were corrected for non-wear time, using diary information. On the treadmill there was an excellent correlation between the ActiGraph and MOX counts (mean r=0.99 in healthy participants and mean r=0.98 in patients). Correlation during daily living was moderate (mean r=0.72) in healthy adults and good (mean r=0.82) in patients. Bland-Altman plots showed no perfect agreement between the two devices in minutes per category. However, a histogram of misclassified minutes showed that misclassification occurred around category thresholds. The MOX is capable of measuring physical activity and can be used in the It's LiFe!

  18. LANL MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. LANL has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. This includes receipt and storage of PuO{sub 2} powder, fabrication of MOX fuel pellets, assembly of fuel rods and bundles, and shipping of the packaged fuel to a commercial reactor site. Support activities will take place within both Category 1 and 2 areas. Technical Area (TA) 55/Plutonium Facility 4 will be used to store the bulk PuO{sub 2} powder, fabricate MOX fuel pellets, assemble rods, and store fuel bundles. Bundles will be assembled at a separate facility, several of which have been identified as suitable for that activity. The Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Building (at TA-3) will be used for analytical chemistry support. Waste operations will be conducted in TA-50 and TA-54. Only very minor modifications will be needed to accommodate the LA program. These modifications consist mostly of minor equipment upgrades. A commercial reactor operator has not been identified for the LA irradiation. Postirradiation examination (PIE) of the irradiated fuel will take place at either Oak Ridge National Laboratory or ANL-W. The only modifications required at either PIE site would be to accommodate full-length irradiated fuel rods. Results from this program are critical to the overall plutonium distribution schedule.

  19. Application of wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation method to MOX fuel problem

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-07-01

    More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO{sub 2} fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)

  20. Mutations affecting the expression of the MOX gene encoding peroxisomal methanol oxidase in Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Vallini, V; Berardi, E; Strabbioli, R

    2000-11-01

    In this study, aimed at identifying genetic factors acting positively upon the MOX gene, we report the isolation and characterisation of several methanol utilisation-defective (Mut-) mutants of Hansenula polymorpha. These fall into 12 complementation groups, eight of which show significant reductions in alcohol (methanol) oxidase activity in methanol. Three of these groups, identifying the MUT3, MUT5 and MUT10 loci, exhibit extremely low levels of MOX promoter activity, not only in methanol medium, but also during growth in glycerol or methylamine. We suggest that these loci play a significant role in the derepression of the MOX gene expression. One of these genes (MUT10) also seems to be involved in the utilisation of carbon sources other than methanol, and it is apparent that the same gene plays some role in the biogenesis or in the enlargement of the peroxisome. Three other genes (MUT7, MUT8 and MUT9) appear to be involved in peroxisome biogenesis, whereas most other mutants harbour lesions that leave the peroxisome biogenesis and proliferation unaffected.

  1. Irradiation performance of PFBR MOX fuel after 112 GWd/t burn-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkiteswaran, C. N.; Jayaraj, V. V.; Ojha, B. K.; Anandaraj, V.; Padalakshmi, M.; Vinodkumar, S.; Karthik, V.; Vijaykumar, Ran; Vijayaraghavan, A.; Divakar, R.; Johny, T.; Joseph, Jojo; Thirunavakkarasu, S.; Saravanan, T.; Philip, John; Rao, B. P. C.; Kasiviswanathan, K. V.; Jayakumar, T.

    2014-06-01

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) which is in advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam, India, will use mixed oxide (MOX) fuel with a target burnup of 100 GWd/t. The fuel pellet is of annular design to enable operation at a peak linear power of 450 W/cm with the requirement of minimum duration of pre-conditioning. The performance of the MOX fuel and the D9 clad and wrapper material was assessed through Post Irradiation Examinations (PIE) after test irradiation of 37 fuel pin subassembly in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) to a burn-up of 112 GWd/t. Fission product distribution, swelling and fuel-clad gap evolution, central hole diameter variation, restructuring, fission gas release and clad wastage due to fuel-clad chemical interaction were evaluated through non-destructive and destructive examinations. The examinations have indicated that the MOX fuel can safely attain the desired target burn-up in PFBR.

  2. Performance of the MTR core with MOX fuel using the MCNP4C2 code.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2016-08-01

    The MCNP4C2 code was used to simulate the MTR-22 MW research reactor and perform the neutronic analysis for a new fuel namely: a MOX (U3O8&PuO2) fuel dispersed in an Al matrix for One Neutronic Trap (ONT) and Three Neutronic Traps (TNTs) in its core. Its new characteristics were compared to its original characteristics based on the U3O8-Al fuel. Experimental data for the neutronic parameters including criticality relative to the MTR-22 MW reactor for the original U3O8-Al fuel at nominal power were used to validate the calculated values and were found acceptable. The achieved results seem to confirm that the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW will not degrade the safe operational conditions of the reactor. In addition, the use of MOX fuel in the MTR-22 MW core leads to reduce the uranium fuel enrichment with (235)U and the amount of loaded (235)U in the core by about 34.84% and 15.21% for the ONT and TNTs cases, respectively.

  3. Influence of Chemical Composition Variations on Densification During the Sintering of MOX Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudez, S.; Marlot, C.; Lechelle, J.

    2016-06-01

    The mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fabrication process is based on the preparation of UO2 and PuO2 powders. The mixture is pelletized before being sintered at 1973 K (1700 °C) in a reducing atmosphere of Ar/4pctH2/H2O. This paper shows how the densification of MOX fuel is affected during sintering by the moisture content of the gas, the plutonium content of the fuel, and the carbon impurity content in the raw materials. MOX densification can be monitored through dilatometric measurements and gas releases can be continuously analyzed during sintering in terms of their quantity and quality. Variations in the oxygen content in the fuel can be continuously recorded by coupling the dilatometer furnace with an oxygen measurement at the gas outlet. Any carbon-bearing species released, such as CO, can be also linked to densification phenomena when a gas chromatograph is installed at the outlet of the dilatometer. Recommendations on the choice of sintering atmosphere that best optimizes the fuel characteristics have been given on the basis of the results reported in this paper.

  4. Phenotypic characterization of ten methanol oxidation (Mox) mutant classes in methylobacterium AM1

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, D.N.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five methanol oxidation mutants of the facultative methylotroph Methylobacterium strain AM1 have been characterized by complementation analysis and assigned to ten complementation groups, Mox A1,A2,A3 and B-H. We have characterized each of the mutants belonging to the ten Mox complementation groups by PMS-DCPIP dye linked methanol dehydrogenase activity, by methanol-dependent whole cell oxygen consumption, by the presence or absence of methanol dehydrogenase protein by SDS-polyacrylamide gels and Western blotting, by the absorption spectra of purified mutant methanol dehydrogenase proteins and by the presence or absence of the soluble cytochrome c proteins of Methylobacterium AM1. We propose functions for each of the genes deficient in the mutants of the ten Mox complementation groups. These functions include two linked genes that encode the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein and the soluble cytochrome c/sub L/, a gene encoding a secretion function essential for the synthesis and export of methanol dehydrogenase and cytochrome c/sub L/, three gene functions responsible for the proper association of the PQQ prosthetic group with the methanol dehydrogenase apoprotein and four positive regulatory gene functions controlling the expression of the ability to oxidize methanol. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Thermal property change of MOX and UO2 irradiated up to high burnup of 74 GWd/t

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakae, Nobuo; Akiyama, Hidetoshi; Miura, Hiromichi; Baba, Toshikazu; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Kurematsu, Shigeru; Kosaka, Yuji; Yoshino, Aya; Kitagawa, Takaaki

    2013-09-01

    Thermal property is important because it controls fuel behavior under irradiation. The thermal property change at high burnup of more than 70 GWd/t is examined. Two kinds of MOX fuel rods, which were fabricated by MIMAS and SBR methods, and one referenced UO2 fuel rod were used in the experiment. These rods were taken from the pre-irradiated rods (IFA 609/626, of which irradiation test were carried out by Japanese PWR group) and re-fabricated and re-irradiated in HBWR as IFA 702 by JNES. The specification of fuel corresponds to that of 17 × 17 PWR type fuel and the axially averaged linear heat rates (LHR) of MOX rods are 25 kW/m (BOL of IFA 702) and 20 kW/m (EOL of IFA 702). The axial peak burnups achieved are about 74 GWd/t for both of MOX and UO2. Centerline temperature and plenum gas pressure were measured in situ during irradiation. The measured centerline temperature is plotted against LHR at the position where thermocouples are fixed. The slopes of MOX are corresponded to each other, but that of UO2 is higher than those of MOX. This implies that the thermal conductivity of MOX is higher than that of UO2 at high burnup under the condition that the pellet-cladding gap is closed during irradiation. Gap closure is confirmed by the metallography of the postirradiation examinations. It is understood that thermal conductivity of MOX is lower than that of UO2 before irradiation since phonon scattering with plutonium in MOX becomes remarkable. A phonon scattering with plutonium decreases in MOX when burnup proceeds. Thus, thermal conductivity of MOX becomes close to that of UO2. A reverse phenomenon is observed at high burnup region. The phonon scattering with fission products such as Nd and Zr causes a degradation of thermal conductivity of burnt fuel. It might be speculated that this scattering effect causes the phenomenon and the mechanism is discussed here.

  6. Modeling of the structure and interactions of the B. anthracis antitoxin, MoxX: deletion mutant studies highlight its modular structure and repressor function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Nikita; Agarwal, Shivangi; Verma, Shashikala; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2011-03-01

    Our previous report on Bacillus anthracis toxin-antitoxin module (MoxXT) identified it to be a two component system wherein, PemK-like toxin (MoxT) functions as a ribonuclease (Agarwal S et al. JBC 285:7254-7270, 2010). The labile antitoxin (MoxX) can bind to/neutralize the action of the toxin and is also a DNA-binding protein mediating autoregulation. In this study, molecular modeling of MoxX in its biologically active dimeric form was done. It was found that it contains a conserved Ribbon-Helix-Helix (RHH) motif, consistent with its DNA-binding function. The modeled MoxX monomers dimerize to form a two-stranded antiparallel ribbon, while the C-terminal region adopts an extended conformation. Knowledge guided protein-protein docking, molecular dynamics simulation, and energy minimization was performed to obtain the structure of the MoxXT complex, which was exploited for the de novo design of a peptide capable of binding to MoxT. It was found that the designed peptide caused a decrease in MoxX binding to MoxT by 42% at a concentration of 2 μM in vitro. We also show that MoxX mediates negative transcriptional autoregulation by binding to its own upstream DNA. The interacting regions of both MoxX and DNA were identified in order to model their complex. The repressor activity of MoxX was found to be mediated by the 16 N-terminal residues that contains the ribbon of the RHH motif. Based on homology with other RHH proteins and deletion mutant studies, we propose a model of the MoxX-DNA interaction, with the antiparallel β-sheet of the MoxX dimer inserted into the major groove of its cognate DNA. The structure of the complex of MoxX with MoxT and its own upstream regulatory region will facilitate design of molecules that can disrupt these interactions, a strategy for development of novel antibacterials.

  7. Kinetics Parameters of VVER-1000 Core with 3 MOX Lead Test Assemblies To Be Used for Accident Analysis Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-08

    The present work is a part of Joint U.S./Russian Project with Weapons-Grade Plutonium Disposition in VVER Reactor and presents the neutronics calculations of kinetics parameters of VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs. MOX LTA design has been studied in [1] for two options of MOX LTA: 100% plutonium and of ''island'' type. As a result, zoning i.e. fissile plutonium enrichments in different plutonium zones, has been defined. VVER-1000 core with 3 introduced MOX LTAs of chosen design has been calculated in [2]. In present work, the neutronics data for transient analysis codes (RELAP [3]) has been obtained using the codes chain of RRC ''Kurchatov Institute'' [5] that is to be used for exploitation neutronics calculations of VVER. Nowadays the 3D assembly-by-assembly code BIPR-7A and 2D pin-by-pin code PERMAK-A, both with the neutronics constants prepared by the cell code TVS-M, are the base elements of this chain. It should be reminded that in [6] TVS-M was used only for the constants calculations of MOX FAs. In current calculations the code TVS-M has been used both for UOX and MOX fuel constants. Besides, the volume of presented information has been increased and additional explications have been included. The results for the reference uranium core [4] are presented in Chapter 2. The results for the core with 3 MOX LTAs are presented in Chapter 3. The conservatism that is connected with neutronics parameters and that must be taken into account during transient analysis calculations, is discussed in Chapter 4. The conservative parameters values are considered to be used in 1-point core kinetics models of accident analysis codes.

  8. Evaluation of high plutonia (44% PuO 2) MOX as a fuel for fast breeder test reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, A. K.; Khan, K. B.; Panakkal, Jose; Kamath, H. S.; Banerjee, S.

    2009-03-01

    Uranium plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) containing up to 30% plutonia is the conventional fuel for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Use of high plutonia (>30%) MOX fuel in LMFBR had been of interest but not pursued. Of late, it has regained importance for faster disposition of plutonium and also for making compact fast reactors. Some of the issues of high plutonia MOX fuels which are of concern are its chemical compatibility with liquid sodium coolant, dimensional stability and low thermal conductivity. Available literature information for MOX fuel is limited to a plutonium content of 30%. Thermodynamic assessment of mixed oxide fuels indicate that with increasing plutonia oxygen potential of the fuel increases and the fuel become more prone to chemical attack by liquid sodium coolant in case of a clad breach. In the present investigation, some of these issues of MOX fuel have been studied to evaluate this fuel for its use in fast reactor. Extensive work on the out-of-pile thermo-physical properties and fuel-coolant chemical compatibility under different simulated reactor conditions has been carried out. Results of these studies were compared with the available literature information on low plutonia MOX fuel and critically analyzed to predict in reactor behaviour of this fuel containing 44% PuO 2. The results of these out-of-pile studies have been very encouraging and helped in arriving at a suitable and achievable fuel specification for utilization of this fuel in fast breeder test reactor (FBTR). As a first step of test pin irradiation programme in FBTR, eight subassemblies of the MOX fuel are undergoing irradiation in FBTR.

  9. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  10. Fresh Water Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestler, Carol Susan

    1991-01-01

    Describes methodology for a fresh water life study with elementary through college age students with suggestions for proper equipment, useful guides, and other materials. Proposes an activity for the collection and study of plankton. Includes background information.(MCO)

  11. Behavior of Si impurity in Np-Am-MOX fuel irradiated in the experimental fast reactor Joyo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koji; Sasaki, Shinji; Kato, Masato; Kihara, Yoshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    The irradiation behavior of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuels containing a large amount of silicon impurity was examined by post-irradiation examination. Influences of Si impurity on fuel restructuring and cladding attack were investigated in detail. Si impurity, along with Am, Pu and O were transported by spherical pores and cylindrical tubular pores to the fuel center during fuel restructuring of the Np-Am-MOX fuel, where a eutectic reaction of fuel and Si-rich inclusions occurred. After fuel restructuring of the Np-Am-MOX fuel, Si-rich inclusions without fuel constituents were agglomerated at fuel crack openings where shallow attacks on the inner wall of the cladding were seen. Such shallow attacks on the inner wall of the cladding were likewise observed near the location of fuel cracks in long-term steady-state irradiated MOX fuels. Evidence of these shallow attacks on the inner wall of the cladding remained after fuel restructuring in normal MOX fuel. However, grain boundary corrosion of the cladding inner wall at the opening of the fuel cracks was selective and was marked in MOX fuel at higher oxygen potential by the release of reactive fission products such as Cs and Te in comparison with other regions of cladding wall.

  12. MOXE - An X-ray all-sky monitor for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Moss, C. E.; Kelley, R. L.; Holt, S. S.

    1989-01-01

    A Monitoring X-Ray Equipment (MOXE) is being developed for the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma Mission. MOXE is an X-ray all-sky monitor based on array of pinhole cameras, to be provided via a collaboration between Goddard Space Flight Center and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The objectives are to alert other observers on Spectrum-X-Gamma and other platforms of interesting transient activity, and to synoptically monitor the X-ray sky and study long-term changes in X-ray binaries. MOXE will be sensitive to source as faint as 2 milliCrab (5 sigma) in 1 day, and cover the 2 to 20 KeV band.

  13. SRS MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement. This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. Six initial site combinations were proposed: (1) Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) with support from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), (2) Hanford, (3) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with support from Pantex, (4) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), (5) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and (6) Savannah River Site(SRS). After further analysis by the sites and DOE-MD, five site combinations were established as possible candidates for producing MOX LAs: (1) ANL-W with support from INEEL, (2) Hanford, (3) LANL, (4) LLNL, and (5) SRS. SRS has proposed an LA MOX fuel fabrication approach that would be done entirely inside an S and S Category 1 area. An alternate approach would allow fabrication of fuel pellets and assembly of fuel rods in an S and S Category 2 or 3 facility with storage of bulk PuO{sub 2} and assembly, storage, and shipping of fuel bundles in an S and S Category 1 facility. The total Category 1 approach, which is the recommended option, would be done in the 221-H Canyon Building. A facility that was never in service will be removed from one area, and a hardened wall will be constructed in another area to accommodate execution of the LA fuel fabrication. The non-Category 1 approach would require removal of process equipment in the FB-Line metal production and packaging glove boxes, which requires work in a contamination area. The Immobilization Hot Demonstration Program

  14. Detecting changes of a distant gas source with an array of MOX gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J; Trincavelli, Marco

    2012-11-27

    We address the problem of detecting changes in the activity of a distant gas source from the response of an array of metal oxide (MOX) gas sensors deployed in an open sampling system. The main challenge is the turbulent nature of gas dispersion and the response dynamics of the sensors. We propose a change point detection approach and evaluate it on individual gas sensors in an experimental setup where a gas source changes in intensity, compound, or mixture ratio. We also introduce an efficient sensor selection algorithm and evaluate the change point detection approach with the selected sensor array subsets.

  15. Prediction analysis of dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters used at a MOX fuel facility.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, N; Yoshida, T; Takada, C

    2011-07-01

    To predict how accurately neutron dosemeters can measure the neutron dose equivalent (rate) in MOX fuel fabrication facility work environments, the dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters were calculated by the spectral folding method. The dosemeters selected included two types of personal dosemeter, namely a thermoluminescent albedo neutron dosemeter and an electronic neutron dosemeter, three moderator-based neutron survey meters, and one special instrument called an H(p)(10) monitor. The calculations revealed the energy dependences of the responses expected within the entire range of neutron spectral variations observed in neutron fields at workplaces.

  16. Fabrication and characterization of americium, neptunium and curium bearing MOX fuels obtained by powder metallurgy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, Florent; Prieur, Damien; Jankowiak, Aurélien; Tribet, Magaly; Leorier, Caroline; Delahaye, Thibaud; Donnet, Louis; Dehaudt, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    MOX fuel pellets containing up to 1.4 wt% of Minor Actinides (MA), i.e. Am, Np and Cm, were fabricated to demonstrate the technical feasibility of powder metallurgy process involving, pelletizing and sintering in controlled atmosphere. The compounds were then characterized using XRD, SEM and EDX/EPMA. Dense pellets were obtained which closed porosity mean size is equal to 7 μm. The results indicate the formation of (U, Pu)O 2 solid solution. However, microstructure contains some isolated UO 2 grains. The distribution of Am and Cm appears to be homogeneous whereas Np was found to be clustered at some locations.

  17. Electronic and dielectric properties of MoS2-MoX2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Munish; Jamdagni, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-05-01

    We present a comparative study of electronic and dielectric properties of MoS2-MoX2 heteostructures (where X=S, Se, Te) within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Electronic band structure, real & imaginary part of dielectric function, electron energy loss spectra and static dielectric constant have been calculated for each system and compared with one another. A systematic decrease/increase in band gap/static dielectric constant is observed as the X changes from S to Te. These results provide a physical basis for the potential applications of these heterostructures in optoelectronic devices.

  18. Analysis of the IFA-432, IFA-597, and IFA-597 MOX Fuel Performance Experiments by FRAPCON-3.4

    SciTech Connect

    Phillippe, Aaron M; Ott, Larry J; Clarno, Kevin T; Banfield, James E

    2012-08-01

    Validation of advanced nuclear fuel modeling tools requires careful comparison with reliable experimental benchmark data. A comparison to industry-accepted codes, that are well characterized, and regulatory codes is also a useful evaluation tool. In this report, an independent validation of the FRAPCON-3.4 fuel performance code is conducted with respect to three experimental benchmarks, IFA-432, IFA-597, and IFA-597mox. FRAPCON was found to most accurately model the mox rods, to within 2% of the experimental data, depending on the simulation parameters. The IFA-432 and IFA-597 rods were modeled with FRAPCON predicting centerline temperatures different, on average, by 21 percent.

  19. [Study on LUO Zhao-ju's academic thought in the new Chinese Acup-Mox Surgical Therapeutics].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi; Dai, Ming

    2005-07-01

    To probe preliminarily academic thought of New Chinese Acup-Mox Surgical Therapeutics written by LUO Zhao-ju. Read, analyze and study New Chinese Acup-Mox Surgical Therapeutics written by LUO Zhao-ju, and sum up the academic thought. The main academic thought and values of the book embody in the seven aspects: Spreading and popularizing acupuncture and moxibustion medicine; developing surgery of acupuncture and moxibustion; elucidating cause of disease and pathogenesis; advocating treatment in accordance with different symptoms and signs; paying great attention to the furuncle; highly praising the simple and practical prescriptions; initiating acupuncture combined with medication of Chinese drugs.

  20. Fresh Frozen Plasma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    therapeutic means). FFP can be prepared either by separation from whole blood or collection via plasmapheresis . Fresh frozen plasma contains the...FFP can be further separated into cryoprecipitate and what is known as “cryo-poor plasma,” a product rarely used for therapeutic means. Plasma is the

  1. Fresh Copernican Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-21

    A subset of NAC Image M112162602L showing landslides bottom covering impact melt on the floor top of a fresh Copernican-age crater at the edge of Oceanus Procellarum and west of Balboa crater taken by NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  2. Keeping Teaching Fresh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bataineh, Adel; Nur-Awaleh, Mohamed

    This paper discusses how experienced teachers can keep their teaching fresh. Though professional development can help teachers stay current with educational techniques and practices, it is often not prioritized. Instructional changes that can recharge teachers so they provide students with optimal learning include: providing regular teacher…

  3. Strength loss in MA-MOX green pellets from radiation damage to binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessing, Paul A.; Cannon, W. Roger; Egeland, Gerald W.; Zuck, Larry D.; Jewell, James K.; Akers, Douglas W.; Groenewold, Gary S.

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt.% PuO2, 3 wt.% AmO2 and 2 wt.% NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing with the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA-MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed that strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt.% Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt.%, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 days period. It was suggested that the styrene portion present in the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  4. LLNL Site plan for a MOX fuel lead assembly mission in support of surplus plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, M.C.

    1997-10-01

    The principal facilities that LLNL would use to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission are Building 332 and Building 334. Both of these buildings are within the security boundary known as the LLNL Superblock. Building 332 is the LLNL Plutonium Facility. As an operational plutonium facility, it has all the infrastructure and support services required for plutonium operations. The LLNL Plutonium Facility routinely handles kilogram quantities of plutonium and uranium. Currently, the building is limited to a plutonium inventory of 700 kilograms and a uranium inventory of 300 kilograms. Process rooms (excluding the vaults) are limited to an inventory of 20 kilograms per room. Ongoing operations include: receiving SSTS, material receipt, storage, metal machining and casting, welding, metal-to-oxide conversion, purification, molten salt operations, chlorination, oxide calcination, cold pressing and sintering, vitrification, encapsulation, chemical analysis, metallography and microprobe analysis, waste material processing, material accountability measurements, packaging, and material shipping. Building 334 is the Hardened Engineering Test Building. This building supports environmental and radiation measurements on encapsulated plutonium and uranium components. Other existing facilities that would be used to support a MOX Fuel Lead Assembly Mission include Building 335 for hardware receiving and storage and TRU and LLW waste storage and shipping facilities, and Building 331 or Building 241 for storage of depleted uranium.

  5. Full Core 3-D Simulation of a Partial MOX LWR Core

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bays; W. Skerjanc; M. Pope

    2009-05-01

    A comparative analysis and comparison of results obtained between 2-D lattice calculations and 3-D full core nodal calculations, in the frame of MOX fuel design, was conducted. This study revealed a set of advantages and disadvantages, with respect to each method, which can be used to guide the level of accuracy desired for future fuel and fuel cycle calculations. For the purpose of isotopic generation for fuel cycle analyses, the approach of using a 2-D lattice code (i.e., fuel assembly in infinite lattice) gave reasonable predictions of uranium and plutonium isotope concentrations at the predicted 3-D core simulation batch average discharge burnup. However, it was found that the 2-D lattice calculation can under-predict the power of pins located along a shared edge between MOX and UO2 by as much as 20%. In this analysis, this error did not occur in the peak pin. However, this was a coincidence and does not rule out the possibility that the peak pin could occur in a lattice position with high calculation uncertainty in future un-optimized studies. Another important consideration in realistic fuel design is the prediction of the peak axial burnup and neutron fluence. The use of 3-D core simulation gave peak burnup conditions, at the pellet level, to be approximately 1.4 times greater than what can be predicted using back-of-the-envelope assumptions of average specific power and irradiation time.

  6. Strategy for decommissioning of the glove-boxes in the Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergheynst, Alain; Cuchet, Jean-Marie

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: BELGONUCLEAIRE has been operating the Dessel plant from the mid-80's at industrial scale. In this period, over 35 metric tons of plutonium (HM) was processed into almost 100 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial West-European Light Water Reactors. In late 2005, the decision was made to stop the production because of the shortage of MOX fuel market remaining accessible to BELGONUCLEAIRE after the successive capacity increases of the MELOX plant (France) and the commissioning of the SMP plant (UK). As a significant part of the decommissioning project of this Dessel plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes are planned for dismantling. In this paper, after having reviewed the different specifications of {+-}-contaminated waste in Belgium, the authors introduce the different options considered for cleaning, size reduction and packaging of the glove-boxes, and the main decision criteria (process, {alpha}-containment, mechanization and radiation protection, safety aspects, generation of secondary waste, etc) are analyzed. The selected strategy consists in using cold cutting techniques and manual operation in shielded disposable glove-tents, and packaging {alpha}-waste in 200-liter drums for off-site conditioning and intermediate disposal. (authors)

  7. International safeguards for a modern MOX (mixed-oxide) fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.; Stirpe, D.; Picard, R.R.

    1987-03-01

    Bulk-handling facilities that process plutonium for commercial fuel cycles offer considerable challenges to nuclear materials safeguards. Modern fuel fabrication facilities that handle mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium (MOX) often have large inventories of special nuclear materials in their process lines and in storage areas for feed and product materials. In addition, the remote automated processing prevalent at new MOX facilities, which is necessary to minimize radiation exposures to personnel, tends to limit access for measurements and inspections. The facility design considered in this study incorporates all these features as well as state-of-the-art measurement technologies for materials accounting. Key elements of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards for such a fuel-cycle facility have been identified in this report, and several issues of primary importance to materials accountancy and IAEA verifications have been examined. We have calculated detection sensitivities for abrupt and protracted diversions of plutonium assuming a single materials balance area for all processing areas. To help achieve optimal use of limited IAEA inspection resources, we have calculated sampling plans for attributes/variables verification. In addition, we have demonstrated the usefulness of calculating sigma/sub (MUF-D)/ and detection probabilities corresponding to specified material-loss scenarios and resource allocations. The data developed and the analyses performed during this study can assist both the facility operator and the IAEA in formulating necessary safeguards approaches and verification procedures to implement international safeguards for special nuclear materials.

  8. SGMP — an advanced method for fabrication of UO 2 and mox fuel pellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, E.; Ganguly, C.; Borchardt, J.; Langen, H.

    1988-05-01

    The External Gelation of Uranium (EGU) process, though originally developed for preparation of fuel particles for High-Temperature Reactors (HTR), was also found to be attractive for Sol-Gel Microsphere Pelletization (SGMP) of UO 2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. No major changes of the process were necessary. However, for producing "porous microsphere" carbon black was added to the broth and later burnt out from the gel micropheres. Both "porous" and "non-porous" microspheres have been easily pelletized and sintered to high densities (≥ 95% TD) at relatively low temperatures (≤ 1500 ° C) in CO 2 atmosphere. The "porous" microspheres led to sintered pellets having closed pores in the diameter range of 2-5 μm. Such pellets are good for retention of fission gases and are hence recommended for water-cooled reactor fuel pins. The pellets prepared from "non-porous" microspheres had "open pores" and are suitable for LMFBR fuel pins. UO 2—5% CeO 2 and UO 2-30% CeO 2 were chosen to simulate MOX fuels for thermal and fast reactors, respectively.

  9. Strength Loss in MA-MOX Green Pellets from Radiation Damage to Binders

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Lessing; W.R. Cannon; Gerald W. Egeland; Larry D. Zuck; James K. Jewell; Douglas W. Akers; Gary S. Groenewold

    2013-06-01

    The fracture strength of green Minor Actinides (MA)-MOX pellets containing 75 wt.% DUO2, 20 wt. % PuO2, 3 wt. % AmO2 and 2 wt. % NpO2 was studied as a function of storage time, after mixing in the binder and before sintering, to test the effect of radiation damage on binders. Fracture strength degraded continuously over the 10 days of the study for all three binders studied: PEG binder (Carbowax 8000), microcrystalline wax (Mobilcer X) and Styrene-acrylic copolymer (Duramax B1022) but the fracture strength of Duramax B1022 degraded the least. For instance, for several hours after mixing Carbowax 8000 with MA MOX, the fracture strength of a pellet was reasonably high and pellets were easily handled without breaking but the pellets were too weak to handle after 10 days. Strength measured using diametral compression test showed strength degradation was more rapid in pellets containing 1.0 wt. % Carbowax PEG 8000 compared to those containing only 0.2 wt. %, suggesting that irradiation not only left the binder less effective but also reduced the pellet strength. In contrast the strength of pellets containing Duramax B1022 degraded very little over the 10 day period. It was suggested that the styrene portion of the Duramax B1022 copolymer provided the radiation resistance.

  10. A slit aperture for the Monitoring X-ray Experiment (MOXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochner, James C.; Priedhorsky, William C.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated a slit aperture as an alternative to the square pinhole aperture for the MOXE detectors, which are to be put on the Soviet satellite Spectrum X-Gamma. A slit offers advantages for better discrimination of sources in crowded regions, eliminates the need for support structures for the aperture window, and does not compromise the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of a point source. We find that in a single 24 hr pointing of the satellite, MOXE can determine the position of a 10 mCrab source to better than 0.5 degrees with the slit. The structure of a titanium grate which supports the detector's beryllium window constrains the slit to be 0.5 cm x 2.56 cm, oriented at an angle of 26.6 degrees to either side of the center lines of the detector. We illustrate an arrangement of the slits on each of the six detectors which optimizes source localization for a number of pointings.

  11. Irradiated test fuel shipment plan for the LWR MOX fuel irradiation test project

    SciTech Connect

    Shappert, L.B.; Dickerson, L.S.; Ludwig, S.B.

    1998-10-16

    This document outlines the responsibilities of DOE, DOE contractors, the commercial carrier, and other organizations participating in a shipping campaign of irradiated test specimen capsules containing mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The shipments described here will be conducted according to applicable regulations of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and all applicable DOE Orders. This Irradiated Test Fuel Shipment Plan for the LWR MOX Fuel Irradiation Test Project addresses the shipments of a small number of irradiated test specimen capsules and has been reviewed and agreed to by INEEL and ORNL (as participants in the shipment campaign). Minor refinements to data entries in this plan, such as actual shipment dates, exact quantities and characteristics of materials to be shipped, and final approved shipment routing, will be communicated between the shipper, receiver, and carrier, as needed, using faxes, e-mail, official shipping papers, or other backup documents (e.g., shipment safety evaluations). Any major changes in responsibilities or data beyond refinements of dates and quantities of material will be prepared as additional revisions to this document and will undergo a full review and approval cycle.

  12. Conserved regulation of the Hansenula polymorpha MOX promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals insights in the transcriptional activation by Adr1p.

    PubMed

    Pereira, G G; Hollenberg, C P

    1996-05-15

    The Hansenula polymorpha MOX gene encodes a peroxisomal enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the highly specialized methanol metabolism. MOX is strongly transcribed in cells growing in methanol and completely repressed in glucose. We show here that the MOX promoter confers a glucose-repressible expression upon a lacZ reporter gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, an unrelated yeast species that lacks the methanol metabolism. Repression was mediated by a 200-bp region of the MOX promoter, termed MOX-B, and was counteracted by Adr1p, a transcription factor involved in the derepression of S. cerevisiae genes encoding peroxisomal proteins, the class to which MOX belongs. Binding of Adr1p to MOX-B was demonstrated by gel retardation and DNaseI-footprinting, and Adr1p was shown to interact with a DNA region containing only a half of the putative Adr1p consensus binding site. Our findings suggest that Adr1p is a conserved regulator for genes encoding peroxisomal proteins at least in other yeast species, and that its interaction with the DNA is dependent on the promoter context.

  13. 77 FR 70193 - Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Shaw Areva MOX Services (Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and...

  14. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1-xTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Ishida, Yukiaki; ...

    2016-12-05

    Here, the recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topologicalmore » Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.« less

  15. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1-xTe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zheng, Hao; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Neupane, Madhab; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Song, You; Bu, Haijun; Wang, Guanghou; Li, Shisheng; Eda, Goki; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-12-01

    The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.

  16. Ultrasmall PdmMn1-mOx binary alloyed nanoparticles on graphene catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohammad Shamsuddin; Park, Dongchul; Jeon, Seungwon

    2016-03-01

    A rare combination of graphene (G)-supported palladium and manganese in mixed-oxides binary alloyed catalysts (BACs) have been synthesized with the addition of Pd and Mn metals in various ratios (G/PdmMn1-mOx) through a facile wet-chemical method and employed as an efficient anode catalyst for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in alkaline fuel cells. The as prepared G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been characterized by several instrumental techniques; the transmission electron microscopy images show that the ultrafine alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are excellently monodispersed onto the G. The Pd and Mn in G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs have been alloyed homogeneously, and Mn presents in mixed-oxidized form that resulted by X-ray diffraction. The electrochemical performances, kinetics and stability of these catalysts toward EOR have been evaluated using cyclic voltammetry in 1 M KOH electrolyte. Among all G/PdmMn1-mOx BACs, the G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox catalyst has shown much superior mass activity and incredible stability than that of pure Pd catalysts (G/Pd1Mn0Ox, Pd/C and Pt/C). The well dispersion, ultrafine size of NPs and higher degree of alloying are the key factor for enhanced and stable EOR electrocatalysis on G/Pd0.5Mn0.5Ox.

  17. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1-xTe2.

    PubMed

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zheng, Hao; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Neupane, Madhab; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Song, You; Bu, Haijun; Wang, Guanghou; Li, Shisheng; Eda, Goki; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M Zahid

    2016-12-05

    The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1-xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1-xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1-xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1-xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals.

  18. ANL-W MOX fuel lead assemblies data report for the surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, D.G.; Fisher, S.E.; Holdaway, R.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program`s preparation of the draft surplus plutonium disposition environmental impact statement (EIS). This is one of several responses to data call requests for background information on activities associated with the operation of the lead assembly (LA) mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility. The DOE Office of fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD) has developed a dual-path strategy for disposition of surplus weapons-grade plutonium. One of the paths is to disposition surplus plutonium through irradiation of MOX fuel in commercial nuclear reactors. MOX fuel consists of plutonium and uranium oxides (PuO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}), typically containing 95% or more UO{sub 2}. DOE-MD requested that the DOE Site Operations Offices nominate DOE sites that meet established minimum requirements that could produce MOX LAs. The paper describes the following: Site map and the LA facility; process descriptions; resource needs; employment requirements; wastes, emissions, and exposures; accident analysis; transportation; qualitative decontamination and decommissioning; post-irradiation examination; LA fuel bundle fabrication; LA EIS data report assumptions; and LA EIS data report supplement.

  19. Bi-Modal Model for Neutron Emissions from PuO{sub 2} and MOX Holdup

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, Howard; Lafleur, Adrienne

    2015-07-01

    The measurement of uranium and plutonium holdup in plants during process activity and for decommissioning is important for nuclear safeguards and material control. The amount of plutonium and uranium holdup in glove-boxes, pipes, ducts, and other containers has been measured for several decades using both neutron and gamma-ray techniques. For the larger containers such as hot cells and glove-boxes that contain processing equipment, the gamma-ray techniques are limited by self-shielding in the sample as well as gamma absorption in the equipment and associated shielding. The neutron emission is more penetrating and has been used extensively to measure the holdup for the large facilities such as the MOX processing and fabrication facilities in Japan and Europe. In some case the totals neutron emission rates are used to determine the holdup mass and in other cases the coincidence rates are used such as at the PFPF MOX fabrication plant in Japan. The neutron emission from plutonium and MOX has 3 primary source terms: 1) Spontaneous fission (SF) from the plutonium isotopes, 2) The (α,n) reactions from the plutonium alpha particle emission reacting with the oxygen and other impurities, and 3) Neutron multiplication (M) in the plutonium and uranium as a result of neutrons created by the first two sources. The spontaneous fission yield per gram is independent of thickness, whereas, the above sources 2) and 3) are very dependent on the thickness of the deposit. As the effective thickness of the deposit becomes thin relative to the alpha particle range, the (α,n) reactions and neutrons from multiplication (M) approach zero. In any glove-box, there will always be two primary modes of holdup accumulation, namely direct powder contact and non-contact by air dispersal. These regimes correspond to surfaces in the glove-box that have come into direct contact with the process MOX powder versus surface areas that have not had direct contact with the powder. The air dispersal of Pu

  20. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  1. IMPACT OF FISSION PRODUCTS IMPURITY ON THE PLUTONIUM CONTENT IN PWR MOX FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Gilles Youinou; Andrea Alfonsi

    2012-03-01

    This report presents the results of a neutronics analysis done in response to the charter IFCA-SAT-2 entitled 'Fuel impurity physics calculations'. This charter specifies that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies (UOX SNF) is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate PWR MOX fuel assemblies. Only non-gaseous FP have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1). This mixture of Pu and FP is called PuFP. Note that, in this preliminary analysis, the FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  2. Verification analysis of thermoluminescent albedo neutron dosimetry at MOX fuel facilities.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takahiro; Takada, Chie; Tsujimura, Norio

    2011-07-01

    Radiation workers engaging in the fabrication of MOX fuels at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories are exposed to neutrons. Accordingly, thermoluminescent albedo dosemeters (TLADs) are used for individual neutron dosimetry. Because dose estimation using TLADs is susceptible to variation of the neutron energy spectrum, the authors have provided TLADs incorporating solid-state nuclear tracks detectors (SSNTDs) to selected workers who are routinely exposed to neutrons and have continued analysis of the relationship between the SSNTD and the TLAD (T/R(f)) over the past 6 y from 2004 to 2009. Consequently, the T/R(f) value in each year was less than the data during 1991-1993, although the neutron spectra had not changed since then. This decrease of the T/R(f) implies that the ratio of operation time nearby gloveboxes and the total work time has decreased.

  3. Quantitative Ethylene Measurements with MOx Chemiresistive Sensors at Different Relative Air Humidities.

    PubMed

    Krivec, Matic; Mc Gunnigle, Gerald; Abram, Anže; Maier, Dieter; Waldner, Roland; Gostner, Johanna M; Überall, Florian; Leitner, Raimund

    2015-11-06

    The sensitivity of two commercial metal oxide (MOx) sensors to ethylene is tested at different relative humidities. One sensor (MiCS-5914) is based on tungsten oxide, the other (MQ-3) on tin oxide. Both sensors were found to be sensitive to ethylene concentrations down to 10 ppm. Both sensors have significant response times; however, the tungsten sensor is the faster one. Sensor models are developed that predict the concentration of ethylene given the sensor output and the relative humidity. The MQ-3 sensor model achieves an accuracy of ±9.2 ppm and the MiCS-5914 sensor model predicts concentration to ±7.0 ppm. Both sensors are more accurate for concentrations below 50 ppm, achieving ±6.7 ppm (MQ-3) and 5.7 ppm (MiCS-5914).

  4. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactivities for UO2 and MOX fueled PWR cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foad, Basma; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply our improved method for calculating sensitivities and uncertainties of reactivity responses for UO2 and MOX fueled pressurized water reactor cells. The improved method has been used to calculate sensitivity coefficients relative to infinite dilution cross-sections, where the self-shielding effect is taken into account. Two types of reactivities are considered: Doppler reactivity and coolant void reactivity, for each type of reactivity, the sensitivities are calculated for small and large perturbations. The results have demonstrated that the reactivity responses have larger relative uncertainty than eigenvalue responses. In addition, the uncertainty of coolant void reactivity is much greater than Doppler reactivity especially for large perturbations. The sensitivity coefficients and uncertainties of both reactivities were verified by comparing with SCALE code results using ENDF/B-VII library and good agreements have been found.

  5. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactivities for UO2 and MOX fueled PWR cells

    SciTech Connect

    Foad, Basma; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2015-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to apply our improved method for calculating sensitivities and uncertainties of reactivity responses for UO{sub 2} and MOX fueled pressurized water reactor cells. The improved method has been used to calculate sensitivity coefficients relative to infinite dilution cross-sections, where the self-shielding effect is taken into account. Two types of reactivities are considered: Doppler reactivity and coolant void reactivity, for each type of reactivity, the sensitivities are calculated for small and large perturbations. The results have demonstrated that the reactivity responses have larger relative uncertainty than eigenvalue responses. In addition, the uncertainty of coolant void reactivity is much greater than Doppler reactivity especially for large perturbations. The sensitivity coefficients and uncertainties of both reactivities were verified by comparing with SCALE code results using ENDF/B-VII library and good agreements have been found.

  6. Pericles and Attila results for the C5G7 MOX benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wareing, T. A.; McGhee, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Recently the Nuclear Energy Agency has published a new benchmark entitled, 'C5G7 MOX Benchmark.' This benchmark is to test the ability of current transport codes to treat reactor core problems without spatial homogenization. The benchmark includes both a two- and three-dimensional problem. We have calculated results for these benchmark problems with our Pericles and Attila codes. Pericles is a one-,two-, and three-dimensional unstructured grid discrete-ordinates code and was used for the twodimensional benchmark problem. Attila is a three-dimensional unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete-ordinate code and was used for the three-dimensional problem. Both codes use discontinuous finite element spatial differencing. Both codes use diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) for accelerating the inner iterations.

  7. Superconductivity in the system MoxCyGazOδ prepared by focused ion beam induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, P. M.; Schwalb, C. H.; Winhold, M.; Huth, M.

    2014-05-01

    We have prepared the new amorphous superconductor MoxCyGazOδ with a maximum critical temperature Tc of 3.8 K by the direct-write nano-patterning technique of focused (gallium) ion beam induced deposition (FIBID) using Mo(CO)6 as precursor gas. From a detailed analysis of the temperature-dependent resistivity and the upper critical field, we found clear evidence for proximity of the samples to a disorder-induced metal-insulator transition. We observed a strong dependence of Tc on the deposition parameters and identified clear correlations between Tc, the localization tendency visible in the resistance data and the sample composition. By an in-situ feedback-controlled optimization process in the FIB-induced growth, we were able to identify the beam parameters which lead to samples with the largest Tc-value and sharpest transition into the superconducting state.

  8. Specific low temperature release of 131Xe from irradiated MOX fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiernaut, J.-P.; Wiss, T.; Rondinella, V. V.; Colle, J.-Y.; Sasahara, A.; Sonoda, T.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2009-08-01

    A particular low temperature behaviour of the 131Xe isotope was observed during release studies of fission gases from MOX fuel samples irradiated at 44.5 GWd/tHM. A reproducible release peak, representing 2.7% of the total release of the only 131Xe, was observed at ˜1000 K, the rest of the release curve being essentially identical for all the other xenon isotopes. The integral isotopic composition of the different xenon isotopes is in very good agreement with the inventory calculated using ORIGEN-2. The presence of this particular release is explained by the relation between the thermal diffusion and decay properties of the various iodine radioisotopes decaying all into xenon.

  9. Research program for the 660 MeV proton accelerator driven MOX-plutonium subcritical assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashenkov, V. S.; Buttsev, V. S.; Buttseva, G. L.; Dudarev, S. Ju.; Polanski, A.; Puzynin, I. V.; Sissakian, A. N.

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the research program of the Experimental Accelerator Driven System (ADS), which employs a subcritical assembly and a 660 MeV proton accelerator operating in the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (25% PuO2+75% UO2) designed for the BN-600 reactor use will be adopted for the core of the assembly. The present conceptual design of the experimental subcritical assembly is based on a core nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to the multiplication coefficient keff=0.945, energetic gain G=30, and accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW.

  10. Low-power lead-cooled fast reactor loaded with MOX-fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitdikov, E. R.; Terekhova, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Fast reactor for the purpose of implementation of research, education of undergraduate and doctoral students in handling innovative fast reactors and training specialists for atomic research centers and nuclear power plants (BRUTs) was considered. Hard neutron spectrum achieved in the fast reactor with compact core and lead coolant. Possibility of prompt neutron runaway of the reactor is excluded due to the low reactivity margin which is less than the effective fraction of delayed neutrons. The possibility of using MOX fuel in the BRUTs reactor was examined. The effect of Keff growth connected with replacement of natural lead coolant to 208Pb coolant was evaluated. The calculations and reactor core model were performed using the Serpent Monte Carlo code.

  11. Development of an integrated, unattended assay system for LWR-MOX fuel pellet trays

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Hatcher, C.R.; Pollat, L.L.

    1994-08-01

    Four identical unattended plutonium assay systems have been developed for use at the new light-water-reactor mixed oxide (LWR-MOX) fuel fabrication facility at Hanau, Germany. The systems provide quantitative plutonium verification for all MOX pellet trays entering or leaving a large, intermediate store. Pellet-tray transport and storage systems are highly automated. Data from the ``I-Point`` (information point) assay systems will be shared by the Euratom and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Inspectorates. The I-Point system integrates, for the first time, passive neutron coincidence counting (NCC) with electro-mechanical sensing (EMS) in unattended mode. Also, provisions have been made for adding high-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The system accumulates data for every tray entering or leaving the store between inspector visits. During an inspection, data are analyzed and compared with operator declarations for the previous inspection period, nominally one month. Specification of the I-point system resulted from a collaboration between the IAEA, Euratom, Siemens, and Los Alamos. Hardware was developed by Siemens and Los Alamos through a bilateral agreement between the German Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) and the US DOE. Siemens also provided the EMS subsystem, including software. Through the USSupport Program to the IAEA, Los Alamos developed the NCC software (NCC COLLECT) and also the software for merging and reviewing the EMS and NCC data (MERGE/REVIEW). This paper describes the overall I-Point system, but emphasizes the NCC subsystem, along with the NCC COLLECT and MERGE/REVIEW codes. We also summarize comprehensive testing results that define the quality of assay performance.

  12. WIMS/PANTHER analysis of UO{sub 2}/MOX cores using embedded super-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.; Bryce, P.; Hall, S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a method of analysing PWR UO{sub 2}MOX cores with WIMS/PANTHER. Embedded super-cells, run within the reactor code, are used to correct the standard methodology of using 2-group smeared data from single assembly lattice calculations. In many other codes the weakness of this standard approach has been improved for MOX by imposing a more realistic environment in the lattice code, or by improving the sophistication of the reactor code. In this approach an intermediate set of calculations is introduced, leaving both lattice and reactor calculations broadly unchanged. The essence of the approach is that the whole core is broken down into a set of 'embedded' super-cells, each extending over just four quarter assemblies, with zero leakage imposed at the assembly mid-lines. Each supercell is solved twice, first with a detailed multi-group pin-by-pin solution, and then with the standard single assembly approach. Correction factors are defined by comparing the two solutions, and these can be applied in whole core calculations. The restriction that all such calculations are modelled with zero leakage means that they are independent of each other and of the core-wide flux shape. This allows parallel pre-calculation for the entire cycle once the loading pattern has been determined, in much the same way that single assembly lattice calculations can be pre-calculated once the range of fuel types is known. Comparisons against a whole core pin-by-pin reference demonstrates that the embedding process does not introduce a significant error, even after burnup and refuelling. Comparisons against a WIMS reference demonstrate that a pin-by-pin multi-group diffusion solution is capable of capturing the main interface effects. This therefore defines a practical approach for achieving results close to lattice code accuracy, but broadly at the cost of a standard reactor calculation. (authors)

  13. A SCALE 5.0 Reactor Physics Assessment using the Module TRITON against Mixed Oxide (MOX) OECD/NEA Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Saccheri, J.G.B.; Diamond, D.J.

    2006-07-01

    Reactor physics numerical benchmarks have been performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with the software package SCALE 5.0 and its TRITON module to assess their capability to predict neutronics parameters for mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. The results of such calculations are herein presented. Specifically, BNL results for neutron multiplication factors (kINF), neutron fluxes and fuel burnup have been added to published OECD/NEA benchmarks for MOX fuels and particular emphasis has been given to the impact of cross-section libraries and their energy structure on the results. Among the OECD/NEA published benchmarks two have been considered here: the first one models a fuel pin surrounded by moderator, in which two different MOX fuels can be introduced, and for each one of them kINF and neutron fluxes as a function of burnup are calculated. The second one includes both a fuel pin case and a macro-cell case (a heterogeneous 30 by 30 configuration of fuel pins), for which the void coefficient is determined by calculating kINF at zero burnup as a function of moderation. The calculations are repeated for several combinations of MOX and uranium oxide fuels using several different cross-section libraries. The final results have been compared with each other. This study shows that SCALE 5.0 (with TRITON) overall performs in line with the other codes in the benchmark, but the results are dependent on the energy group structure of the cross section libraries used. For instance, when fissile plutonium is increased in the fuel, TRITON results become slightly divergent with burnup (with respect to the other codes in the benchmark) and if the standard 44-group library provided with SCALE 5.0 is used void coefficient calculations become inadequate for very low void (below 10% of the operating value of moderator density). Moreover, the prediction capabilities of the code are shown to be dependent on the MOX fuel enrichment and the MOX isotopic composition. (authors)

  14. Development of expression systems for the production of recombinant human serum albumin using the MOX promoter in Hansenula polymorpha DL-1.

    PubMed

    Kang, H A; Kang, W; Hong, W K; Kim, M W; Kim, J Y; Sohn, J H; Choi, E S; Choe, K B; Rhee, S K

    2001-09-01

    To optimize the secretory expression of recombinant human serum albumin (HSA) under the control of methanol oxidase (MOX) promoter in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha DL-1, we analyzed several parameters affecting the expression of HSA from the MOX promoter. Removal of the 5'-untranslated region derived from HSA cDNA in the expression cassette led to at least a fivefold improvement of HSA expression efficiency at the translational level. With the optimized expression cassette, the gene dosage effect on HSA expression was abolished and thus, a single copy of the expression vector integrated into the MOX locus became sufficient for the maximal expression of HSA. Northern blot analysis revealed that the levels of HSA transcript did not increase any further upon increasing copy number. The mox-disrupted (mox Delta) transformant was constructed, in which the genomic MOX gene was transplaced with the HSA expression cassette, to examine the effect of the methanol oxidase-deficient phenotype of the host on HSA expression. The mox Delta transformant showed higher levels of HSA production in shake-flask cultures than the MOX wild-type transformant, especially at low concentrations of methanol and a twofold higher specific HSA production rate in fed-batch fermentation with an abrupt induction mode. The native prepro signal sequence of HSA secreted in H. polymorpha was correctly processed and the mature recombinant protein had a pI value identical to that of the authentic HSA. Our results suggest that the H. polymorpha expression systems developed in this study are suitable for large-scale production of recombinant albumin.

  15. Irradiation of fresh fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueh-jen, Yen; Jin-lai, Zhou; Shao-chun, Lai

    Occasionally, in China, marine products can not be provided for the markets in good quality, for during the time when they are being transported from the sea port to inland towns or even at the time when they are unloaded from the ship, they are beginning to spoil. Obviously, it is very important that appropiate measures should be taken to prevent them from decay. Our study has proved that the shelf life of fresh Flatfish (Cynoglossue robustus) and Silvery pomfret (stromateoides argenteus), which, packed in sealed containers, are irradiated by 1.5 kGy, 2.2 kGy and 3.0 kGy, can be stored for about 13-26 days at 3° - 5° C.

  16. A Deterministic Study of the Deficiency of the Wigner-Seitz Approximation for Pu/MOX Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-09-27

    The Wigner-Seitz pin-cell approximation has long been applied as a modeling approximation in analysis of UO2 lattice fuel cells. In the past, this approximation has been appropriate for such fuel. However, with increasing attention drawn to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels with significant plutonium content, it is important to understand the implications of the approximation in a uranium-plutonium matrix. The special geometric capabilities of the deterministic NEWT computer code have been used to assess the adequacy of the Wigner-Seitz cell in such an environment, as part of a larger study of computational aspects of MOX fuel modeling. Results of calculations using various approximations and boundary conditions are presented, and are validated by comparison to results obtained using KENO V.a and XSDRNPM.

  17. Multiple Coordination of CO on Molybdenum Nanoparticles: Evidence for Intermediate Mox(CO)y Species by XPS and UPS.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhiquan; Huang, Weixin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Hong; Tan, Dali; Bao, Xinhe

    2006-12-28

    CO chemisorption on the metallic molybdenum nanoparticles supported on the thin alumina film was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). A binary compound of molybdenum and CO is found to be formed on the surface upon CO dose, accompanied with a positive binding energy shift of the Mo 3d doublet and a localized Mo 4d valence band. A loose packing of the metallic molybdenum favors the formation of this intermediate Mox(CO)y species. The formation of the Mox(CO)y species implies that the property of the metallic molybdenum nanoparticles on the thin alumina film is much different from that of the bulk molybdenum, indicating a significant nanometer size effect.

  18. Monte Carlo Modeling of Fast Sub-critical Assembly with MOX Fuel for Research of Accelerator-Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanski, A.; Barashenkov, V.; Puzynin, I.; Rakhno, I.; Sissakian, A.

    It is considered a sub-critical assembly driven with existing 660 MeV JINR proton accelerator. The assembly consists of a central cylindrical lead target surrounded with a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel (PuO2 + UO2) and with reflector made of beryllium. Dependence of the energetic gain on the proton energy, the neutron multiplication coefficient, and the neutron energetic spectra have been calculated. It is shown that for subcritical assembly with a mixed-oxide (MOX) BN-600 fuel (28%PuO 2 + 72%UO2) with effective density of fuel material equal to 9 g/cm 3 , the multiplication coefficient keff is equal to 0.945, the energetic gain is equal to 27, and the neutron flux density is 1012 cm˜2 s˜x for the protons with energy of 660 MeV and accelerator beam current of 1 uA.

  19. Oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX47 fuel subjected to water radiolysis: Solution chemistry and surface characterization by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jégou, C.; Caraballo, R.; De Bonfils, J.; Broudic, V.; Peuget, S.; Vercouter, T.; Roudil, D.

    2010-04-01

    The mechanisms of oxidizing dissolution of spent MOX fuel (MIMAS TU2®) subjected to water radiolysis were investigated experimentally by leaching spent MOX47 fuel samples in pure water at 25 °C under different oxidizing conditions (with and without external gamma irradiation); the leached surfaces were characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The highly oxidizing conditions resulting from external gamma irradiation significantly increased the concentration of plutonium (Pu(V)) and uranium (U(VI)) compared with a benchmark experiment (without external irradiation). The oxidation behavior of the plutonium-enriched aggregates differed significantly from that of the UO 2 matrix after several months of leaching in water under gamma irradiation. The plutonium in the aggregates appears to limit fuel oxidation. The only secondary phases formed and identified to date by Raman spectroscopy are uranium peroxides that generally precipitate on the surface of the UO 2 grains. Concerning the behavior of plutonium, solution analysis results appear to be compatible with a conventional explanation based on an equilibrium with a Pu(OH) 4(am) phase. The fission product release - considered as a general indicator of matrix alteration - from MOX47 fuel also increases under external gamma irradiation and a change in the leaching mode is observed. Diffusive leaching was clearly identified, coinciding with the rapid onset of steady-state actinide concentrations in the bulk solution.

  20. Fresh Veggies from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Professor Marc Anderson of the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed a technology for use in plant-growth experiments aboard the Space Shuttle. Anderson's research and WCSAR's technology were funded by NASA and resulted in a joint technology licensed to KES Science and Technology, Inc. This transfer of space-age technology resulted in the creation of a new plant-saving product, an ethylene scrubber for plant growth chambers. This innovation presents commercial benefits for the food industry in the form of a new device, named Bio-KES. Bio-KES removes ethylene and helps to prevent spoilage. Ethylene accounts for up to 10 percent of produce losses and 5 percent of flower losses. Using Bio-KES in storage rooms and displays will increase the shelf life of perishable foods by more than one week, drastically reducing the costs associated with discarded rotten foods and flowers. The savings could potentially be passed on to consumers. For NASA, the device means that astronauts can conduct commercial agricultural research in space. Eventually, it may also help to grow food in space and keep it fresh longer. This could lead to less packaged food being taken aboard missions since it could be cultivated in an ethylene-free environment.

  1. Oxidative dissolution of unirradiated Mimas MOX fuel (U/Pu oxides) in carbonated water under oxic and anoxic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odorowski, Mélina; Jégou, Christophe; De Windt, Laurent; Broudic, Véronique; Peuget, Sylvain; Magnin, Magali; Tribet, Magaly; Martin, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Few studies exist concerning the alteration of Mimas Mixed-OXide (MOX) fuel, a mixed plutonium and uranium oxide, and data is needed to better understand its behavior under leaching, especially for radioactive waste disposal. In this study, two leaching experiments were conducted on unirradiated MOX fuel with a strong alpha activity (1.3 × 109 Bq.gMOX-1 reproducing the alpha activity of spent MOX fuel with a burnup of 47 GWd·tHM-1 after 60 years of decay), one under air (oxic conditions) for 5 months and the other under argon (anoxic conditions with [O2] < 1 ppm) for one year in carbonated water (10-2 mol L-1). For each experiment, solution samples were taken over time and Eh and pH were monitored. The uranium in solution was assayed using a kinetic phosphorescence analyzer (KPA), plutonium and americium were analyzed by a radiochemical route, and H2O2 generated by the water radiolysis was quantified by chemiluminescence. Surface characterizations were performed before and after leaching using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA) and Raman spectroscopy. Solubility diagrams were calculated to support data discussion. The uranium releases from MOX pellets under both oxic and anoxic conditions were similar, demonstrating the predominant effect of alpha radiolysis on the oxidative dissolution of the pellets. The uranium released was found to be mostly in solution as carbonate species according to modeling, whereas the Am and Pu released were significantly sorbed or precipitated onto the TiO2 reactor. An intermediate fraction of Am (12%) was also present as colloids. SEM and EPMA results indicated a preferential dissolution of the UO2 matrix compared to the Pu-enriched agglomerates, and Raman spectroscopy showed the Pu-enriched agglomerates were slightly oxidized during leaching. Unlike Pu-enriched zones, the UO2 grains were much more sensitive to oxidative dissolution, but the presence of carbonates did not enable observation of an

  2. Report on Evaluation, Verification, and Assessment of Porosity Migration Model in Fast Reactor MOX Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Novascone, Stephen Rhead; Peterson, John William

    2016-09-01

    Abstract This report documents the progress of simulating pore migration in ceramic (UO2 and mixed oxide or MOX) fuel using BISON. The porosity field is treated as a function of space and time whose evolution is governed by a custom convection-di?usion-reaction equation (described here) which is coupled to the heat transfer equation via the temperature field. The porosity is initialized to a constant value at every point in the domain, and as the temperature (and its gradient) are increased by application of a heat source, the pores move up the thermal gradient and accumulate at the center of the fuel in a time-frame that is consistent with observations from experiments. There is an inverse dependence of the fuel’s thermal conductivity on porosity (increasing porosity decreases thermal conductivity, and vice-versa) which is also accounted for, allowing the porosity equation to couple back into the heat transfer equation. Results from an example simulation are shown to demonstrate the new capability.

  3. Low Temperature heat capacity of Uranium-Plutonium MOX single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Eloirdi, Rachel; Caciuffo, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The establishment of the basic properties of actinides based materials is crucial for the understanding of conventional and advanced nuclear fuels. Accessing ground state properties at very low temperature for these systems gives a direct overview of their fundamental features. Moreover, when these materials can be produced as single crystals, side effects due to the presence of grains and impurities phases are drastically reduced, giving a very powerful add-in for theoretical and industrial oriented studies. This clearly ensures the reliability of the parameters determined while existing models of these strategic materials can be probed especially in the purpose of applications/developments and safety concerns. Here we report on heat capacity measurements performed on U-Pu MOX in single crystal form. Tiny crystals with mass of 2 to 15 mg have been produced by solid-solid chemical vapour transport technique with several different compositions ranging from pure UO2 to PuO2. Compositions close to UO2 (U rich) present a persistent signature similarly to the magnetic transition reported for the pure phase TN ~ 31 K while plutonium rich concentrations do not show any hint of the magnetic transition down to the minimum temperature achieved.

  4. TREFEX: trend estimation and change detection in the response of MOX gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J; Schaffernicht, Erik; Trincavelli, Marco

    2013-06-04

    Many applications of metal oxide gas sensors can benefit from reliable algorithms to detect significant changes in the sensor response. Significant changes indicate a change in the emission modality of a distant gas source and occur due to a sudden change of concentration or exposure to a different compound. As a consequence of turbulent gas transport and the relatively slow response and recovery times of metal oxide sensors, their response in open sampling configuration exhibits strong fluctuations that interfere with the changes of interest. In this paper we introduce TREFEX, a novel change point detection algorithm, especially designed for metal oxide gas sensors in an open sampling system. TREFEX models the response of MOX sensors as a piecewise exponential signal and considers the junctions between consecutive exponentials as change points. We formulate non-linear trend filtering and change point detection as a parameter-free convex optimization problem for single sensors and sensor arrays. We evaluate the performance of the TREFEX algorithm experimentally for different metal oxide sensors and several gas emission profiles. A comparison with the previously proposed GLR method shows a clearly superior performance of the TREFEX algorithm both in detection performance and in estimating the change time.

  5. TREFEX: Trend Estimation and Change Detection in the Response of MOX Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pashami, Sepideh; Lilienthal, Achim J.; Schaffernicht, Erik; Trincavelli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Many applications of metal oxide gas sensors can benefit from reliable algorithms to detect significant changes in the sensor response. Significant changes indicate a change in the emission modality of a distant gas source and occur due to a sudden change of concentration or exposure to a different compound. As a consequence of turbulent gas transport and the relatively slow response and recovery times of metal oxide sensors, their response in open sampling configuration exhibits strong fluctuations that interfere with the changes of interest. In this paper we introduce TREFEX, a novel change point detection algorithm, especially designed for metal oxide gas sensors in an open sampling system. TREFEX models the response of MOX sensors as a piecewise exponential signal and considers the junctions between consecutive exponentials as change points. We formulate non-linear trend filtering and change point detection as a parameter-free convex optimization problem for single sensors and sensor arrays. We evaluate the performance of the TREFEX algorithm experimentally for different metal oxide sensors and several gas emission profiles. A comparison with the previously proposed GLR method shows a clearly superior performance of the TREFEX algorithm both in detection performance and in estimating the change time. PMID:23736853

  6. Wastes associated with recycling spent MOX fuel into fast reactor oxide fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Foare, G.; Meze, F.; McGee, D.; Murray, P.; Bader, S.

    2013-07-01

    A study sponsored by the DOE has been performed by AREVA to estimate the process and secondary wastes produced from an 800 MTIHM/yr (initial metric tons heavy metal a year) recycling plant proposed to be built in the U.S. utilizing the COEX process and utilized some DOE defined assumptions and constraints. In this paper, this plant has been analyzed for a recycling campaign that included 89% UO{sub x} and 11% MOX UNF to estimate process and secondary waste quantities produced while manufacturing 28 MTIHM/yr of SFR fuel. AREVA utilized operational data from its backend facilities in France (La Hague and MELOX), and from recent advances in waste treatment technology to estimate the waste quantities. A table lists the volumes and types of the different final wastes for a recycling plant. For instance concerning general fission products the form of the final wastes is vitrified glass and its volume generation rate is 135 l/MTHM, concerning Iodine 129 waste its final form is synthetic rock and its volume generation rate is 0.625 l/MTIHM.

  7. Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Werner; Baumann, Roland

    2007-07-01

    In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

  8. Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, K. L.

    1998-10-01

    Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3-7%, a burnup of 20,000-40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2-6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

  9. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O'Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  10. Options for converting excess plutonium to feed for the MOX fuel fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Joe A; Smith, Paul H; Psaras, John D; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Costa, David A; Joyce, Jr., Edward L

    2009-01-01

    The storage and safekeeping of excess plutonium in the United States represents a multibillion-dollar lifecycle cost to the taxpayers and poses challenges to National Security and Nuclear Non-Proliferation. Los Alamos National Laboratory is considering options for converting some portion of the 13 metric tons of excess plutonium that was previously destined for long-term waste disposition into feed for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). This approach could reduce storage costs and security ri sks, and produce fuel for nuclear energy at the same time. Over the course of 30 years of weapons related plutonium production, Los Alamos has developed a number of flow sheets aimed at separation and purification of plutonium. Flow sheets for converting metal to oxide and for removing chloride and fluoride from plutonium residues have been developed and withstood the test oftime. This presentation will address some potential options for utilizing processes and infrastructure developed by Defense Programs to transform a large variety of highly impure plutonium into feedstock for the MFFF.

  11. In vivo measurement of Pu dissolution parameters of MOX aerosols and related uncertainties in the values of the dose per unit intake.

    PubMed

    Ramounet-Le Gall, B; Rateau, G; Abram, M C; Grillon, G; Ansoborlo, E; Bérard, P; Delforge, J; Fritsch, P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare dissolution parameter values for Pu from industrial MOX with different Pu contents. For this purpose, preliminary results obtained after inhalation exposure of rats to MOX containing 2.5% Pu are reported and compared to those obtained previously with MOX containing 5% Pu. Dissolution parameter values appear to increase when the amount of Pu decreases. Rapid fractions, f(r), of 4 x 10(-3) (s.d. = 2 x 10(-3)) and 1 x 10(-3) (s.d. = 6 x 10(-4)) and slow dissolution rates, s(s) of 2 x 10(-4) d(-1) (standard deviation, sigma = 5 x 10(-5)) and 5 x 10(-5) d(-1) (sigma = 1 x 10(-5)) were derived for MOX containing 2.5 and 5% of Pu, respectively. Simulations were performed to assess uncertainties on dose due to experimental errors. The relative standard deviations of the dose per unit intake (DPUI) due to f(r) (4-8%), are far less than those due to s(s) (about 20%), which is the main parameter altering the dose. Although quite different dissolution parameter values were derived, similar DPUIs were obtained for MOX aerosols containing 2.5 and 5% Pu which appear close to that for default Type S values.

  12. Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of Ag₂(W(1-x)Mox)O₄ heterostructures: Nucleation of Ag, morphology, and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Silva, M D P; Gonçalves, R F; Nogueira, I C; Longo, V M; Mondoni, L; Moron, M G; Santana, Y V; Longo, E

    2016-01-15

    Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 (x=0.0 and 0.50) powders were synthesized by the co-precipitation (drop-by-drop) method and processed using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. We report the real-time in situ formation and growth of Ag filaments on the Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 crystals using an accelerated electron beam under high vacuum. Various techniques were used to evaluate the influence of the network-former substitution on the structural and optical properties, including photoluminescence (PL) emission, of these materials. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the phases obtained by the synthesis methods. Raman spectroscopy revealed significant changes in local order-disorder as a function of the network-former substitution. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the shape as well as dimensions of the Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 heterostructures. The PL spectra showed that the PL-emission intensities of Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 were greater than those of pure Ag2WO4, probably because of the increase of intermediary energy levels within the band gap of the Ag2W(1-x)MoxO4 heterostructures, as evidenced by the decrease in the band-gap values measured by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy.

  13. Foods - fresh vs. frozen or canned

    MedlinePlus

    Frozen foods vs. fresh or canned; Fresh foods vs. frozen or canned; Frozen vegetables versus fresh ... a well-balanced diet. Many people wonder if frozen and canned vegetables are as healthy for you ...

  14. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E. A.; King, W. D.

    2012-07-31

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after ~4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  15. HB-LINE ANION EXCHANGE PURIFICATION OF AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FOR MOX

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E.; King, W.

    2012-04-25

    Non-radioactive cerium (Ce) and radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the feasibility of using either gadolinium nitrate (Gd) or boric acid (B as H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}) as a neutron poison in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Expected typical concentrations of probable impurities were tested and the removal of these impurities by a decontamination wash was measured. Impurity concentrations are compared to two specifications - designated as Column A or Column B (most restrictive) - proposed for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Use of Gd as a neutron poison requires a larger volume of wash for the proposed Column A specification. Since boron (B) has a higher proposed specification and is more easily removed by washing, it appears to be the better candidate for use in the H-Canyon dissolution process. Some difficulty was observed in achieving the Column A specification due to the limited effectiveness that the wash step has in removing the residual B after {approx}4 BV's wash. However a combination of the experimental 10 BV's wash results and a calculated DF from the oxalate precipitation process yields an overall DF sufficient to meet the Column A specification. For those impurities (other than B) not removed by 10 BV's of wash, the impurity is either not expected to be present in the feedstock or process, or recommendations have been provided for improvement in the analytical detection/method or validation of calculated results. In summary, boron is recommended as the appropriate neutron poison for H-Canyon dissolution and impurities are expected to meet the Column A specification limits for oxide production in HB-Line.

  16. Restructuring and redistribution of actinides in Am-MOX fuel during the first 24 h of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Miwa, Shuhei; Sekine, Shin-ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin-ichi

    2013-09-01

    In order to confirm the effect of minor actinide additions on the irradiation behavior of MOX fuel pellets, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% americium-containing MOX (Am-MOX) fuels were irradiated for 10 min at 43 kW/m and for 24 h at 45 kW/m in the experimental fast reactor Joyo. Two nominal values of the fuel pellet oxygen-to-metal ratio (O/M), 1.95 and 1.98, were used as a test parameter. Emphasis was placed on the behavior of restructuring and redistribution of actinides which directly affect the fuel performance and the fuel design for fast reactors. Microstructural evolutions in the fuels were observed by optical microscopy and the redistribution of constituent elements was determined by EPMA using false color X-ray mapping and quantitative point analyses. The ceramography results showed that structural changes occurred quickly in the initial stage of irradiation. Restructuring of the fuel from middle to upper axial positions developed and was almost completed after the 24-h irradiation. No sign of fuel melting was found in any of the specimens. The EPMA results revealed that Am as well as Pu migrated radially up the temperature gradient to the center of the fuel pellet. The increase in Am concentration on approaching the edge of the central void and its maximum value were higher than those of Pu after the 10-min irradiation and the difference was more pronounced after the 24-h irradiation. The increment of the Am and Pu concentrations due to redistribution increased with increasing central void size. In all of the specimens examined, the extent of redistribution of Am and Pu was higher in the fuel of O/M ratio of 1.98 than in that of 1.95.

  17. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER (MPC) WITH ACD DISPOSAL CONTAINER (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-11-13

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Subsystem Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude MPC compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual MPC design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded MPC performance is similar to an MPC loaded with commercial BWR SNF. Future design efforts will focus on specific MPC vendor designs and BWR MOX SNF designs when they become available.

  18. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, P. V.; Caleb, O. J.; Singh, Z.; Watkins, C. B.; Geyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments. PMID:24797137

  19. Postharvest treatments of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Caleb, O J; Singh, Z; Watkins, C B; Geyer, M

    2014-06-13

    Postharvest technologies have allowed horticultural industries to meet the global demands of local and large-scale production and intercontinental distribution of fresh produce that have high nutritional and sensory quality. Harvested products are metabolically active, undergoing ripening and senescence processes that must be controlled to prolong postharvest quality. Inadequate management of these processes can result in major losses in nutritional and quality attributes, outbreaks of foodborne pathogens and financial loss for all players along the supply chain, from growers to consumers. Optimal postharvest treatments for fresh produce seek to slow down physiological processes of senescence and maturation, reduce/inhibit development of physiological disorders and minimize the risk of microbial growth and contamination. In addition to basic postharvest technologies of temperature management, an array of others have been developed including various physical (heat, irradiation and edible coatings), chemical (antimicrobials, antioxidants and anti-browning) and gaseous treatments. This article examines the current status on postharvest treatments of fresh produce and emerging technologies, such as plasma and ozone, that can be used to maintain quality, reduce losses and waste of fresh produce. It also highlights further research needed to increase our understanding of the dynamic response of fresh produce to various postharvest treatments.

  20. Augmented switching linear dynamical system model for gas concentration estimation with MOX sensors in an open sampling system.

    PubMed

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-07-11

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector.

  1. Augmented Switching Linear Dynamical System Model for Gas Concentration Estimation with MOX Sensors in an Open Sampling System

    PubMed Central

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector. PMID:25019637

  2. Mars surface chemistry investigated with the MOx probe: A 1-kg optical microsensor-based chemical analysis instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Grunthaner, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have designed and built the prototype of an instrument that will use fiber optic micromirror-based chemical sensors to investigate the surprising reactivity of martian soil reported by several Viking Lander Experiments in the mid 1970s. The MOx (Mars Oxidant Experiment) Instrument, which will probe the reactivity of the near-surface martian atmosphere as well as soil, utilizes an array of chemically sensitive thin films including metals, organometallics, and organic dyes to produce a pattern of reflectivity changes characteristic of the species interacting with these sensing layers. The 850-g system includes LED light sources, optical fiber light guides, silicon micromachined fixtures, a line-array CCD detector, control-and-measurement electronics, microprocessor, memory, interface, batteries, and housing. This instrument monitors real-time reflectivities from an array of {approximately}200 separate micromirrors. The unmanned Russian Mars 96 mission is slated to carry the MOx Instrument along with experiments from several other nations. The principles of the chemically sensitive micromirror upon which this instrument is based will be described and preliminary data for reactions of micromirrors with oxidant materials believed to be similar to those on Mars will be presented. The general design of the instrument, including Si micromachined components, as well as the range of coatings and the rationale for their selection, will be discussed as well.

  3. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1-xTe2

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; ...

    2016-02-15

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal’s boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in MoxW1₋xTe2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touchingmore » points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Lastly,our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1₋xTe2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed.« less

  4. Accident source terms for light-water nuclear power plants using high-burnup or MOX fuel.

    SciTech Connect

    Salay, Michael; Gauntt, Randall O.; Lee, Richard Y.; Powers, Dana Auburn; Leonard, Mark Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Representative accident source terms patterned after the NUREG-1465 Source Term have been developed for high burnup fuel in BWRs and PWRs and for MOX fuel in a PWR with an ice-condenser containment. These source terms have been derived using nonparametric order statistics to develop distributions for the timing of radionuclide release during four accident phases and for release fractions of nine chemical classes of radionuclides as calculated with the MELCOR 1.8.5 accident analysis computer code. The accident phases are those defined in the NUREG-1465 Source Term - gap release, in-vessel release, ex-vessel release, and late in-vessel release. Important differences among the accident source terms derived here and the NUREG-1465 Source Term are not attributable to either fuel burnup or use of MOX fuel. Rather, differences among the source terms are due predominantly to improved understanding of the physics of core meltdown accidents. Heat losses from the degrading reactor core prolong the process of in-vessel release of radionuclides. Improved understanding of the chemistries of tellurium and cesium under reactor accidents changes the predicted behavior characteristics of these radioactive elements relative to what was assumed in the derivation of the NUREG-1465 Source Term. An additional radionuclide chemical class has been defined to account for release of cesium as cesium molybdate which enhances molybdenum release relative to other metallic fission products.

  5. Prediction of an arc-tunable Weyl Fermion metallic state in MoxW1−xTe2

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Wang, BaoKai; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Neupane, Madhab; Bansil, Arun; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Zahid Hasan, M.

    2016-01-01

    A Weyl semimetal is a new state of matter that hosts Weyl fermions as emergent quasiparticles. The Weyl fermions correspond to isolated points of bulk band degeneracy, Weyl nodes, which are connected only through the crystal's boundary by exotic Fermi arcs. The length of the Fermi arc gives a measure of the topological strength, because the only way to destroy the Weyl nodes is to annihilate them in pairs in the reciprocal space. To date, Weyl semimetals are only realized in the TaAs class. Here, we propose a tunable Weyl state in MoxW1−xTe2 where Weyl nodes are formed by touching points between metallic pockets. We show that the Fermi arc length can be changed as a function of Mo concentration, thus tuning the topological strength. Our results provide an experimentally feasible route to realizing Weyl physics in the layered compound MoxW1−xTe2, where non-saturating magneto-resistance and pressure-driven superconductivity have been observed. PMID:26875819

  6. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen... frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.” The terms defined in this section may be used on the label or in... state and has not been frozen or subjected to any form of thermal processing or any other form...

  7. Pt-Au/MOx-CeO₂ (M = Mn, Fe, Ti) Catalysts for the Co-Oxidation of CO and H₂ at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaowei; Sun, Ye; Zhu, Tianle; Liu, Zhiming

    2017-02-27

    A series of nanostructured Pt-Au/MOx-CeO₂ (M = Mn, Fe, Ti) catalysts were prepared and their catalytic performance for the co-oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H₂) were evaluated at room temperature. The results showed that MOx promoted the CO oxidation of Pt-Au/CeO₂, but only the TiO₂ could enhance co-oxidation of CO and H₂ over Pt-Au/CeO₂. Related characterizations were conducted to clarify the promoting effect of MOx. Temperature-programmed reduction of hydrogen (H₂-TPR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results suggested that MOx could improve the charge transfer from Au sites to CeO₂, resulting in a high concentration of Ce(3+) and cationic Au species which benefits for the CO oxidation. In-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (In-situ DRIFTS) results indicated that TiO₂ could facilitate the oxidation of H₂ over the Pt-Au/TiO₂-CeO₂ catalyst.

  8. Discovery of a new type of topological Weyl fermion semimetal state in MoxW1−xTe2

    PubMed Central

    Belopolski, Ilya; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Ishida, Yukiaki; Pan, Xingchen; Yu, Peng; Xu, Su-Yang; Chang, Guoqing; Chang, Tay-Rong; Zheng, Hao; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Neupane, Madhab; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Song, You; Bu, Haijun; Wang, Guanghou; Li, Shisheng; Eda, Goki; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Kondo, Takeshi; Lin, Hsin; Liu, Zheng; Song, Fengqi; Shin, Shik; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs offers the first Weyl fermion observed in nature and dramatically broadens the classification of topological phases. However, in TaAs it has proven challenging to study the rich transport phenomena arising from emergent Weyl fermions. The series MoxW1−xTe2 are inversion-breaking, layered, tunable semimetals already under study as a promising platform for new electronics and recently proposed to host Type II, or strongly Lorentz-violating, Weyl fermions. Here we report the discovery of a Weyl semimetal in MoxW1−xTe2 at x=25%. We use pump-probe angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (pump-probe ARPES) to directly observe a topological Fermi arc above the Fermi level, demonstrating a Weyl semimetal. The excellent agreement with calculation suggests that MoxW1−xTe2 is a Type II Weyl semimetal. We also find that certain Weyl points are at the Fermi level, making MoxW1−xTe2 a promising platform for transport and optics experiments on Weyl semimetals. PMID:27917858

  9. Integrated Fast Neutron Flux at the End of Phases I, II, III, and IV-1B of the MOX Zr-cladding Tube

    SciTech Connect

    Gray Chang

    2004-03-01

    This report using the detailed ATR quarter core model calculated neutronic tallies, the MCWO-calculated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV and E > 1.0 MeV) distributions at the end of Phase-I, -II, -III, and -IV Irradiation are tabulated in Table 1, 2, 3, and 4. At the end of the Phase-I irradiation, the MCWO-calculated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluences of the removed MOX capsules 1 and 8 are 2.68 and 2.68 x 1020 n/cm2, respectively. At the end of Phase-II Irradiation are tabulated in Table 2. At the end of the Phase-II irradiation, the MCWO-calculated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluences of the removed MOX capsules 9 and 2 are 6.78 and 6.79 x 1020 n/cm2, respectively. At the end of the Phase-III irradiation, the MCWO-calculated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluences of the removed MOX capsules 10 and 3 are 9.82 and 9.70 x 1020 n/cm2, respectively. And, at the end of the Phase-IV part 1B irradiation, the MCWO-calculated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluences of the removed MOX capsules 4 and 13 are 1.41 and 1.39 x 1021 n/cm2, respectively.

  10. FMDP reactor alternative summary report. Volume 1 - existing LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-10-07

    Significant quantities of weapons-usable fissile materials [primarily plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU)] are becoming surplus to national defense needs in both the United States and Russia. These stocks of fissile materials pose significant dangers to national and international security. The dangers exist not only in the potential proliferation of nuclear weapons but also in the potential for environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) consequences if surplus fissile materials are not properly managed. This document summarizes the results of analysis concerned with existing light water reactor plutonium disposition alternatives.

  11. Ferromagnetic contact between Ni and MoX2 (X  =  S, Se, or Te) with Fermi-level pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyung-Ah; Cha, Janghwan; Cho, Kyeongjae; Hong, Suklyun

    2017-06-01

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) layered materials have drawn much attention due to their unique atomic and electronic properties. Among 2D layered materials, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) display metallic or semiconducting properties depending on the structural phase. In particular, MoS2, which is one such TMD, has the most stable structure in the trigonal prismatic phase with a sizable band gap of about 1.8 eV. To utilize this semiconducting property and take advantage of the nature of metal-MoS2 contacts, many efforts have been made to employ MoS2 in electronic devices such as field-effect transistors. Despite various studies of metal-MoS2 contacts, however, understanding of the contact behavior between ferromagnetic metals and MoS2 is insufficient. Additionally, we need to understand the contact nature between metals and various TMDs for various applications. Here, we report on ferromagnetic contacts between Ni(1 1 1) and MoX2 (X  =  S, Se, or Te) with first-principles calculations. In particular, we study the different electronic and spin properties at Ni-MoX2 interfaces, depending on the type of chalcogen atoms. Our calculations show that the Fermi level is not simply aligned by the work function difference between Ni(1 1 1) and MoX2, representing the Fermi-level pinning occurring at metal-semiconductor interfaces, and that Schottky barrier types are varied depending on MoX2. Interestingly, spin splitting occurs at the conduction band offset or valence band offset, depending on the X type in the MoX2, and a spin magnetic moment is induced on MoX2 by Ni(1 1 1) due to the ferromagnetic nature of Ni.

  12. Rapid Testing of Fresh Concrete

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    Board (1962), pp 1-29. 18 Lorman, W. R., "Plastic Concrete Quality Control," Technical Note N-395 (U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, 1961...Fresh Concrete, Presented at the 54th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board , Washington, D.C., January, 1975. 11 30 solution Is...the 54th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board , Washington, D.C., January, 1975. 12 Chadda, L. R., "The Rapiri Determination of

  13. Tuning Dirac points by strain in MoX2 nanoribbons (X = S, Se, Te) with a 1T' structure.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ha-Jun; Choe, Duk-Hyun; Chang, K J

    2016-06-28

    For practical applications of two-dimensional topological insulators, large band gaps and Dirac states within the band gap are desirable because they allow for device operation at room temperature and quantum transport without dissipation. Based on first-principles density functional calculations, we report the tunability of the electronic structure by strain engineering in quasi-one-dimensional nanoribbons of transition metal dichalcogenides with a 1T' structure, MoX2 with X = (S, Se, Te). We find that both the band gaps and Dirac points in 1T'-MoX2 can be engineered by applying an external strain, thereby leading to a single Dirac cone within the bulk band gap. Considering the gap size and the location of the Dirac point, we suggest that, among 1T'-MoX2 nanoribbons, MoSe2 is the most suitable candidate for quantum spin Hall (QSH) devices.

  14. DOSE RATES FOR WESTINGHOUSE 17X17 MOX PWR SNF IN A WASTE PACKAGE (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1997-01-29

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to estimate the dose rate on and near the surface a Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) PWR waste package (WP) which is loaded with Westinghouse 17 x 17 mixed oxide (MOX) PWR fuel. The 21 PWR MPC WP is used to provide an upper bound for waste package designs since the 12 PWR MPC WP will have a smaller source term and an equivalent amount of shielding. the objectives of this evaluation are to calculate the requested dose rate(s) and document the calculation in a fashion to allow comparisons to other waste forms and WP designs at a future time.

  15. Stability and metastability of clusters in a reactive atmosphere: theoretical evidence for unexpected stoichiometries of MgMOx.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Saswata; Levchenko, Sergey V; Ghiringhelli, Luca M; Scheffler, Matthias

    2013-09-27

    By applying a genetic algorithm and ab initio atomistic thermodynamics, we identify the stable and metastable compositions and structures of MgMOx clusters at realistic temperatures and oxygen pressures. We find that small clusters (M≲5) are in thermodynamic equilibrium when x>M. The nonstoichiometric clusters exhibit peculiar magnetic behavior, suggesting the possibility of tuning magnetic properties by changing environmental pressure and temperature conditions. Furthermore, we show that density-functional theory with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional is needed for predicting accurate phase diagrams of metal-oxide clusters. Neither a (sophisticated) force field nor density-functional theory with (semi)local exchange-correlation functionals is sufficient for even a qualitative prediction.

  16. Anomalous vortex motion in the quantum-liquid phase of amorphous MoxSi1-x films.

    PubMed

    Okuma, S; Kobayashi, M; Kamada, M

    2005-02-04

    We measure, in real time (t), the fluctuating component of the flux-flow voltage V(t), deltaV(t) identical withV(t)-V0, about the average V0 in the vortex-liquid phase of amorphous MoxSi1-x films. For the thick film, deltaV(t) originating from the vortex motion is clearly visible in the quantum-liquid phase, where the distribution of deltaV(t) is asymmetric, indicative of large velocity and/or number fluctuations of driven vortices. For the thin film the similar anomalous vortex motion is observed in nearly the same (reduced-)temperature regime. These results suggest that vortex dynamics in the low-temperature liquid phase of thick and thin films is dominated by common physical mechanisms, presumably related to quantum effects.

  17. Evaluation of existing United States` facilities for use as a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Chidester, K.; Eaton, S.L.; Motley, F.E.; Siebe, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    A number of existing US facilities were evaluated for use as a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition. These facilities include the Fuels Material Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, the Washington Power Supply Unit 1 (WNP-1) facility at Hanford, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) at Barnwell, SC, the Fuel Processing Facility (FPF) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the P-reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The study consisted of evaluating each facility in terms of available process space, available building support systems (i.e., HVAC, security systems, existing process equipment, etc.), available regional infrastructure (i.e., emergency response teams, protective force teams, available transportation routes, etc.), and ability to integrate the MOX fabrication process into the facility in an operationally-sound manner that requires a minimum amount of structural modifications.

  18. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âFresh,â âfreshly frozen,â âfresh frozen,â âfrozen fresh.â 101.95 Section 101.95 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Requirements...

  19. Report on Intact and Degraded Criticality for Selected Plutonium Waste Forms in a Geologic Repository, Volume I: MOX SNF

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. McClure

    1998-09-21

    As part of the plutonium waste form development and down-select process, repository analyses have been conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of these forms for repository acceptance. Intact and degraded mode criticality analysis of the mixed oxide (MOX) spent fuel is presented in Volume I, while Volume II presents the evaluations of the waste form containing plutonium immobilized in a ceramic matrix. Although the ceramic immobilization development program is ongoing, and refinements are still being developed and evaluated, this analysis provides value through quick feed-back to this development process, and as preparation for the analysis that will be conducted starting in fiscal year (FY) 1999 in support of the License Application. While no MOX fuel has been generated in the United States using weapons-usable plutonium, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted calculations on Westinghouse-type reactors to determine the expected characteristics of such a fuel. These spent nuclear fuel (SNF) characteristics have been used to determine the long-term potential for criticality in a repository environment. In all instances the methodology and scenarios used in these analyses are compatible with those developed and used for Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF) and Defense High Level Waste (DHLW), as tailored for the particular characteristics of the waste forms. This provides a common basis for comparison of the results. This analysis utilizes dissolution, solubility, and thermodynamic data that are currently available. Additional data on long-term behavior is being developed, and later analyses (FY 99) to support the License Application will use the very latest information that has been generated. Ranges of parameter values are considered to reflect sensitivity to uncertainty. Most of the analysis is focused on those parameter values that produce the worst case results, so that potential licensing issues can be identified.

  20. Remarkable support effect on the reactivity of Pt/In2O3/MOx catalysts for methanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Men, Yong; Wang, Jinguo; He, Rong; Wang, Yuanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Effects of supports over Pt/In2O3/MOx catalysts with extremely low loading of Pt (1 wt%) and In2O3 loadings (3 wt%) are investigated for the hydrogen production of methanol steam reforming (MSR) in the temperature range of 250-400 °C. Under practical conditions without the pre-reduction, the 1Pt/3In2O3/CeO2 catalyst shows the highly efficient catalytic performance, achieving almost complete methanol conversion (98.7%) and very low CO selectivity of 2.6% at 325 °C. The supported Pt/In2O3 catalysts are characterized by means of Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission microscopy (HRTEM), temperature programmed reduction with hydrogen (H2-TPR), CO pulse chemisorption, temperature programmed desorption of methanol and water (CH3OH-TPD and H2O-TPD). These demonstrate that the nature of catalyst support of Pt/In2O3/MOx plays crucial roles in the Pt dispersion associated by the strong interaction among Pt, In2O3 and supporting materials and the surface redox properties at low temperature, and thus affects their capability to activate the reactants and determines the catalytic activity of methanol steam reforming. The superior 1Pt/3In2O3/CeO2 catalyst, exhibiting a remarkable reactivity and stability for 32 h on stream, demonstrates its potential for efficient hydrogen production of methanol steam reforming in mobile and de-centralized H2-fueled PEMFC systems.

  1. Emergence of CTX-M-3, TEM-1 and a new plasmid-mediated MOX-4 AmpC in a multiresistant Aeromonas caviae isolate from a patient with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ying; Xu, Xi-Hai; Li, Jia-Bin

    2010-07-01

    Aeromonas species rarely cause pulmonary infection. We report, for what is believed to be the first time, a case of severe pneumonia in a cancer patient caused by Aeromonas caviae. Detailed microbiological investigation revealed that this isolate carried three beta-lactamase-encoding genes (encoding MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1) conferring resistance to all beta-lactams but imipenem. The beta-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 was transferred by conjugation and associated with a 7.3 kb plasmid, as demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed a new ampC gene that was closely related to those encoding the MOX-1, MOX-2 and MOX-3 beta-lactamases. This new plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase from China was named MOX-4. This is believed to be the first report of MOX-4, CTX-M-3 and TEM-1 beta-lactamases in a multiresistant A. caviae.

  2. Fission product release and microstructure changes of irradiated MOX fuel at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colle, J.-Y.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Wiss, T.; Beneš, O.; Thiele, H.; Papaioannou, D.; Rondinella, V. V.; Sasahara, A.; Sonoda, T.; Konings, R. J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Samples of irradiated MOX fuel of 44.5 GWd/tHM mean burn-up were prepared by core drilling at three different radial positions of a fuel pellet. They were subsequently heated in a Knudsen effusion mass spectrometer up to complete vaporisation of the sample (˜2600 K) and the release of fission gas (krypton and xenon) as well as helium was measured. Scanning electron microscopy was used in parallel to investigate the evolution of the microstructure of a sample heated under the same condition up to given key temperatures as determined from the gas release profiles. A clear initial difference for fission gas release and microstructure was observed as a function of the radial position of the samples and therefore of irradiation temperature. A good correlation between the microstructure evolution and the gas release peaks could be established as a function of the temperature of irradiation and (laboratory) heating. The region closest to the cladding (0.58 < r/r0 < 0.96), designated as sample type A in Fig. 1. It represents the "cooler" part of the fuel pellet. The irradiation temperatures (Tirrad) in this range are from 854 to 1312 K (ΔT: 458 K). The intermediate radial zone of the pellet (0.42 < r/r0 < 0.81), designated sample type B in Fig. 1, has a Tirrad ranging from 1068 to 1434 K (ΔT: 365 K). The central zone of the pellet (0.003 < r/r0 < 0.41), designated sample type C in Fig. 1, which was close to the hottest part of the pellet, has a Tirrad ranging from 1442 to 1572 K (ΔT: 131 K). The sample irradiation temperatures were determined from the calculated temperature profile (exponential function) knowing the core temperature of the fuel (1573 K) [11], the standard temperature for this type of fuel at the inner side of the cladding (800 K). The average burnup was calculated with TRANSURANUS code [12] and the PA burnup is the average burnup multiplied by the ratio of the fissile Pu concentration in PA over average fissile Pu concentration in fuel [11]. Calculated

  3. The synthesis under controlled oxygen partial pressure and the characterization of a layered perovskite system Sr2V1-xMoxO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouno, Shinji; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Umeyama, Norio; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Watanabe, Tsuneo

    2009-07-01

    We have successfully synthesized Sr2V1-xMoxO4 from x = 0.3 to 1.0 by an improved process. The layered compound Sr2VO4 is an antiferromagnetic insulator with S = 1/2, while the isostructural Sr2MoO4 is a Pauli paramagnetic metal. The solid solution Sr2V1-xMoxO4 of these materials is expected to show a metal-insulator transition. In this paper we report the synthetic process and the results of the magnetic susceptibility and the electrical resistivity. The selection of the starting materials and the adjustment of O2 partial pressure of less than 10-12 atm were indispensable for the synthesis. The reducing conditions during the sintering had been determined rationally, according to thermodynamical analysis. Kondo-like behavior in both resistivity and magnetic susceptibility were observed in a limited range of V-containing samples.

  4. Overall Plan for Physics Outlining Steps Necessary for Insertion of the LTA and Operation Using a 1/3 MOX Loaded Core

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-04-09

    Document issued according to Work Release KI-WR04RTP. P. 00-1 describes physics tasks that are included in the current version of ''Roadmap.Level 2'' concerning Reactor tasks of Weapon-grade plutonium disposition problem for VVER-1000. On this base the objective is to identify the physical tasks in FY2000 and in future as a part of global activities on weapon-grade MOX fuel introduction into VVER-1000.

  5. Reactivity-worth estimates of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor R1-MOX, R2-UO2 and MORGANE/R configurations.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Z.; Klann, R. T.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-08-03

    An initial series of calculations of the reactivity-worth of the OSMOSE samples in the MINERVE reactor with the R2-UO2 and MORGANE/R core configuration were completed. The calculation model was generated using the lattice physics code DRAGON. In addition, an initial comparison of calculated values to experimental measurements was performed based on preliminary results for the R1-MOX configuration.

  6. Repression vs. activation of MOX, FMD, MPP1 and MAL1 promoters by sugars in Hansenula polymorpha: the outcome depends on cell's ability to phosphorylate sugar.

    PubMed

    Suppi, Sandra; Michelson, Tiina; Viigand, Katrin; Alamäe, Tiina

    2013-03-01

    A high-throughput approach was used to assess the effect of mono- and disaccharides on MOX, FMD, MPP1 and MAL1 promoters in Hansenula polymorpha. Site-specifically designed strains deficient for (1) hexokinase, (2) hexokinase and glucokinase, (3) maltose permease or (4) maltase were used as hosts for reporter plasmids in which β-glucuronidase (Gus) expression was controlled by these promoters. The reporter strains were grown on agar plates containing varied carbon sources and Gus activity was measured in permeabilized cells on microtitre plates. We report that monosaccharides (glucose, fructose) repress studied promoters only if phosphorylated in the cell. Glucose-6-phosphate was proposed as a sugar repression signalling metabolite for H. polymorpha. Intriguingly, glucose and fructose strongly activated expression from these promoters in strains lacking both hexokinase and glucokinase, indicating that unphosphorylated monosaccharides have promoter-derepressing effect. We also show that maltose and sucrose must be internalized and split into monosaccharides to exert repression on MOX promoter. We demonstrate that at yeast growth on glucose-containing agar medium, glucose-limitation is rapidly created that promotes derepression of methanol-specific promoters and that derepression is specifically enhanced in hexokinase-negative strain. We recommend double kinase-negative and hexokinase-negative mutants as hosts for heterologous protein production from MOX and FMD promoters.

  7. Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia reduces α 7 nicotinic receptor expression and selective α 7 nicotinic receptor stimulation suppresses inflammation and promotes microglial Mox phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sansan; Ek, C Joakim; Mallard, Carina; Johansson, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in neonatal brain injury. During brain inflammation the resident macrophages of the brain, the microglia cells, are rapidly activated. In the periphery, α 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ( α 7R) present on macrophages can regulate inflammation by suppressing cytokine release. In the current study we investigated α 7R expression in neonatal mice after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We further examined possible anti-inflammatory role of α 7R stimulation in vitro and microglia polarization after α 7R agonist treatment. Real-time PCR analysis showed a 33% reduction in α 7R expression 72 h after HI. Stimulation of primary microglial cells with LPS in combination with increasing doses of the selective α 7R agonist AR-R 17779 significantly attenuated TNF α release and increased α 7R transcript in microglial cells. Gene expression of M1 markers CD86 and iNOS, as well as M2 marker CD206 was not influenced by LPS and/or α 7R agonist treatment. Further, Mox markers heme oxygenase (Hmox1) and sulforedoxin-1 (Srx1) were significantly increased, suggesting a polarization towards the Mox phenotype after α 7R stimulation. Thus, our data suggest a role for the α 7R also in the neonatal brain and support the anti-inflammatory role of α 7R in microglia, suggesting that α 7R stimulation could enhance the polarization towards a reparative Mox phenotype.

  8. The use of MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am as burnable absorber actinides for the MTR research reactors.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Ismail; Albarhoum, Mohamad

    2017-07-01

    The MOX (UO2&PuO2) caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am as burnable absorber actinides was proposed as a fuel of the MTR-22MW reactor. The MCNP4C code was used to simulate the MTR-22MW reactor and estimate the criticality and the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors before and after replacing its original fuel (U3O8-Al) by the MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides. The obtained results of the criticality, the neutronic parameters, and the power peaking factors for the MOX caramel fuel mixed with (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides were compared with the same parameters of the U3O8-Al original fuel and a maximum difference is -6.18% was found. Additionally, by recycling 2.65% and 2.71% plutonium and (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides in the MTR-22MW reactor, the level of (235)U enrichment is reduced from 4.48% to 3% and 2.8%, respectively. This also results in the reduction of the (235)U loading by 32.75% and 37.22% for the 2.65%, the 2.71% plutonium and (241)Am, (242m)Am and (243)Am actinides, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. One-dimensional Bi2MoxW1-xO6 sosoloids: controllable synthesis by electrospinning process and enhanced photocatalytic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinyu; Lu, Qifang; Ji, Xueyang; Liu, Zhendong; Wei, Mingzhi; Guo, Enyan

    2017-06-01

    One-dimensional Bi2MoxW1-xO6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.67, and 1) photocatalysts have been successfully synthesized for the first time by a straightforward electrospinning technique with a calcination process. The as-formed Bi2MoxW1-xO6 nanofibers are composed of inter-linked nanosheets of 30-50 nm in size and characterized by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectra, X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, transmission electron microscope, UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence, HPLC, and EIS. The photodegradation behaviors towards organic dyes, including rhodamine B (RhB) and methylene blue (MB) are investigated, and the results illustrate that Bi2Mo0.25W0.75O6 nanofibers exhibit the highest photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation than Bi2MoxW1-xO6 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.67, and 1) samples. The possible mechanisms of the enhanced photocatalytic properties are discussed in detail.

  10. Oxidizing dissolution mechanism of an irradiated MOX fuel in underwater aerated conditions at slightly acidic pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, M.; Jégou, C.; Caraballo, R.; Broudic, V.; Tribet, M.; Peuget, S.; Talip, Z.

    2015-07-01

    The (U,Pu)O2 matrix behavior of an irradiated MIMAS-type (MIcronized MASter blend) MOX fuel, under radiolytic oxidation in aerated pure water at pH 5-5.5 was studied by combining chemical and radiochemical analyses of the alteration solution with Raman spectroscopy characterizations of the surface state. Two leaching experiments were performed on segments of irradiated fuel under different conditions: with or without an external γ irradiation field, over long periods (222 and 604 days, respectively). The gamma irradiation field was intended to be representative of the irradiation conditions for a fuel assembly in an underwater interim storage situation. The data acquired enabled an alteration mechanism to be established, characterized by uranium (UO22+) release mainly controlled by solubility of studtite over the long-term. The massive precipitation of this phase was observed for the two experiments based on high uranium oversaturation indexes of the solution and the kinetics involved depended on the irradiation conditions. External gamma irradiation accelerated the precipitation kinetics and the uranium concentrations (2.9 × 10-7 mol/l) were lower than for the non-irradiated reference experiment (1.4 × 10-5 mol/l), as the quantity of hydrogen peroxide was higher. Under slightly acidic pH conditions, the formation of an oxidized UO2+x phase was not observed on the surface and did not occur in the radiolysis dissolution mechanism of the fuel matrix. The Raman spectroscopy performed on the heterogeneous MOX fuel matrix surface, showed that the fluorite structure of the mainly UO2 phase surrounding the Pu-enriched aggregates had not been particularly impacted by any major structural change compared to the data obtained prior to leaching. For the plutonium, its behavior in solution involved a continuous release up to concentrations of approximately 3 × 10-6 mol L-1 with negligible colloid formation. This data appears to support a predominance of the +V oxidation

  11. The radical trap in atom transfer radical polymerization need not be thermodynamically stable. A study of the MoX(3)(PMe(3))(3) catalysts.

    PubMed

    Maria, Sébastien; Stoffelbach, François; Mata, José; Daran, Jean-Claude; Richard, Philippe; Poli, Rinaldo

    2005-04-27

    The molybdenum(III) coordination complexes MoX(3)(PMe(3))(3) (X = Cl, Br, and I) are capable of controlling styrene polymerization under typical atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) conditions, in conjunction with 2-bromoethylbenzene (BEB) as an initiator. The process is accelerated by the presence of Al(OPr(i))(3) as a cocatalyst. Electrochemical and synthetic studies aimed at identifying the nature of the spin trap have been carried out. The cyclic voltammogram of MoX(3)(PMe(3))(3) (X = Cl, Br, I) shows partial reversibility (increasing in the order Cl < Br < I) for the one-electron oxidation wave. Addition of X(-) changes the voltammogram, indicating the formation of MoX(4)(PMe(3))(3) for X = Cl and Br. On the other hand, I(-) is more easily oxidized than the MoI(3)(PMe(3))(3) complex; thus, the putative MoI(4)(PMe(3))(3) complex is redox unstable. Electrochemical studies of MoI(3)(PMe(3))(3) in the presence of X(-) (X = Cl or Br) reveal the occurrence of facile halide-exchange processes, leading to the conclusion that the MoI(3)X(PMe(3))(3) products are also redox unstable. The oxidation of MoX(3)(PMe(3))(3) with (1)/(2)Br(2) yields MoX(3)Br(PMe(3))(3) (X = Cl, Br), whose molecular nature is confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analyses. On the other hand, the oxidation of MoI(3)(PMe(3))(3) by I(2) slowly yields a tetraiodomolybdate(III) salt of iodotrimethylphosphonium, [Me(3)PI][MoI(4)(PMe(3))(3)], as confirmed by an X-ray study. This product has no controlling ability in radical polymerization. The redox instability of MoI(3)X(PMe(3))(3) can be reconciled with its involvement as a radical trapping species in the MoI(3)(PMe(3))(3)-catalyzed ATRP, given the second-order nature of its decomposition rate.

  12. Systematic Study of the Content of Phytochemicals in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-Flores, María Isabel; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits have beneficial properties for human health, because of the presence of phytochemicals, but their concentration can fluctuate throughout the year. A systematic study of the phytochemical content in tomato, eggplant, carrot, broccoli and grape (fresh and fresh-cut) has been performed at different seasons, using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. It was observed that phenolic acids (the predominant group in carrot, eggplant and tomato) were found at higher concentrations in fresh carrot than in fresh-cut carrot. However, in the case of eggplant, they were detected at a higher content in fresh-cut than in fresh samples. Regarding tomato, the differences in the content of phenolic acids between fresh and fresh-cut were lower than in other matrices, except in winter sampling, where this family was detected at the highest concentration in fresh tomato. In grape, the flavonols content (predominant group) was higher in fresh grape than in fresh-cut during all samplings. The content of glucosinolates was lower in fresh-cut broccoli than in fresh samples in winter and spring sampling, although this trend changes in summer and autumn. In summary, phytochemical concentration did show significant differences during one-year monitoring, and the families of phytochemicals presented different behaviors depending on the matrix studied. PMID:26783709

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy and tunneling spectroscopy of nano-structured H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 (x = 0, 3, 9, 15, 18) Wells-Dawson heteropolyacids.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Ryul; Park, Sunyoung; Song, In Kyu

    2011-07-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tunneling spectroscopy studies of nano-structured H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 (x = 0, 3, 9, 15, 18) Wells-Dawson heteropolyacids (HPAs) were carried out to examine redox properties of the HPAs. STM images of H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 HPAs clearly showed self-assembled and well-ordered 2-dimensional arrays on graphite surface. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements revealed that all H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 HPAs exhibited a negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior in their tunneling spectra. NDR peak voltage of H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 HPAs appeared at less negative applied voltage with increasing molybdenum substitution. Reduction potential of H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 HPAs measured by an electrochemical method increased and absorption edge energy determined by UV-visible spectroscopy shifted to lower value with increasing molybdenum substitution. In other words, NDR peak voltage of H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 HPAs appeared at less negative applied voltage with increasing reduction potential and with decreasing absorption edge energy of the HPAs; more reducible H6P2MoxW(18-x)O62 HPAs showed NDR behavior at less negative applied voltage. These results indicate that NDR peak voltage of nano-structured HPAs measured by STM could be utilized as a correlating parameter for the redox properties of bulk HPAs.

  14. An Assessment of the Attractiveness of Material Associated with a MOX Fuel Cycle from a Safeguards Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, Charles G; Wallace, Richard K; Ireland, John R; Johnson, M W; Hase, Kevin R; Jarvinen, Gordon D; Ebbinghaus, Bartley B; Sleaford, Brad W; Collins, Brian A; Robel, Martin; Bradley, Keith S; Prichard, Andrew W; Smith, Brian W

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, coextraction, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant State and sub-national group capabilities. This study also considers those materials that will be recycled and burned, possibly multiple times, in LWRs [e.g., plutonium in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel]. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a State and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no 'silver bullet' has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of 'attractiveness levels' that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  15. A National Tracking Center for Monitoring Shipments of HEU, MOX, and Spent Nuclear Fuel: How do we implement?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear material safeguards specialists and instrument developers at US Department of Energy (USDOE) National Laboratories in the United States, sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of NA-24, have been developing devices to monitor shipments of UF6 cylinders and other radioactive materials , . Tracking devices are being developed that are capable of monitoring shipments of valuable radioactive materials in real time, using the Global Positioning System (GPS). We envision that such devices will be extremely useful, if not essential, for monitoring the shipment of these important cargoes of nuclear material, including highly-enriched uranium (HEU), mixed plutonium/uranium oxide (MOX), spent nuclear fuel, and, potentially, other large radioactive sources. To ensure nuclear material security and safeguards, it is extremely important to track these materials because they contain so-called “direct-use material” which is material that if diverted and processed could potentially be used to develop clandestine nuclear weapons . Large sources could be used for a dirty bomb also known as a radioactive dispersal device (RDD). For that matter, any interdiction by an adversary regardless of intent demands a rapid response. To make the fullest use of such tracking devices, we propose a National Tracking Center. This paper describes what the attributes of such a center would be and how it could ultimately be the prototype for an International Tracking Center, possibly to be based in Vienna, at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  16. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF MATERIAL ASSOCIATED WITH A MOX FUEL CYCLE FROM A SAFEGUARDS PERSPECTIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, C. G.; Ebbinghaus, B. B.; Sleaford, Brad W.; Wallace, R. K.; Collins, Brian A.; Hase, Kevin R.; Robel, Martin; Jarvinen, G. D.; Bradley, Keith S.; Ireland, J. R.; Johnson, M. W.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Smith, Brian W.

    2009-07-09

    This paper is an extension to earlier studies [1,2] that examined the attractiveness of materials mixtures containing special nuclear materials (SNM) and alternate nuclear materials (ANM) associated with the PUREX, UREX, coextraction, THOREX, and PYROX reprocessing schemes. This study extends the figure of merit (FOM) for evaluating attractiveness to cover a broad range of proliferant State and sub-national group capabilities. This study also considers those materials that will be recycled and burned, possibly multiple times, in LWRs [e.g., plutonium in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel]. The primary conclusion of this study is that all fissile material needs to be rigorously safeguarded to detect diversion by a State and provided the highest levels of physical protection to prevent theft by sub-national groups; no “silver bullet” has been found that will permit the relaxation of current international safeguards or national physical security protection levels. This series of studies has been performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and is based on the calculation of "attractiveness levels" that are expressed in terms consistent with, but normally reserved for nuclear materials in DOE nuclear facilities [3]. The expanded methodology and updated findings are presented. Additionally, how these attractiveness levels relate to proliferation resistance and physical security are discussed.

  17. Striving for safety in fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of fresh produce is a central component of a healthy diet. However, contamination of leafy greens, tomatoes, cantaloupes and other fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with human pathogens is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Industry and regulators have worked together to ...

  18. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh 30 loin quality and with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing two seasons [cold (n = 4,290) and hot (n = 3,394)] and two production focuses [lean (n = 3,627) and quality n = 4,057)] were used....

  19. What determines fresh fish consumption in Croatia?

    PubMed

    Tomić, Marina; Matulić, Daniel; Jelić, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    Although fresh fish is widely available, consumption still remains below the recommended intake levels among the majority of European consumers. The economic crisis affects consumer food behaviour, therefore fresh fish is perceived as healthy but expensive food product. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing fresh fish consumption using an expanded Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) as a theoretical framework. The survey was conducted on a heterogeneous sample of 1151 Croatian fresh fish consumers. The study investigated the relationship between attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, moral obligation, involvement in health, availability, intention and consumption of fresh fish. Structural Equation Modeling by Partial Least Squares was used to analyse the collected data. The results indicated that attitudes are the strongest positive predictor of the intention to consume fresh fish. Other significant predictors of the intention to consume fresh fish were perceived behavioural control, subjective norm, health involvement and moral obligation. The intention to consume fresh fish showed a strong positive correlation with behaviour. This survey provides valuable information for food marketing professionals and for the food industry in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DISPERSIBILITY OF CRUDE OIL IN FRESH WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever consider...

  1. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  2. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.141 Fresh pork sausage. “Fresh Pork Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh pork or frozen...

  3. Physiology of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The idea to pre-process fruits and vegetables in the fresh state started with fresh-cut salads and now has expanded to fresh-cut fruits and other vegetables. The fresh-cut portion of the fresh produce industry includes fruits, vegetables, sprouts, mushrooms and even herbs that are cut, cored, sliced...

  4. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-11-16

    The governments of the United Stated of America and the Russian Federation (RF) signed an Agreement September 1, 2000 to dispose of weapons plutonium that has been designated as no longer required for defense purposes. The Agreement declares that each country will disposition 34MT of excess weapons grade plutonium from their stockpiles. The preferred disposition technology is the fabrication of mixed oxide (MOx) fuel for use or burning in pressurized water reactors to destroy the plutonium. Implementation of this Agreement will require the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide and the fabrication of MOx fuel within the Russian Federation. The MOx fuel fabrication and metal to oxide conversion processes will generate solid and liquid radioactive wastes containing trace amounts of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and uranium requiring treatment, storage, and disposal. Unique to the Russian MOx fuel fabrication facility's flow-sheet is a liquid waste stream with high concentrations ({approx}1 g/l) of {sup 241}Am and non radioactive silver. The silver is used to dissolve PuO{sub 2} feed materials to the MOx fabrication facility. Technical solutions are needed to treat and solidify this liquid waste stream. Alternative treatment technologies for this liquid waste stream are being evaluated by a Russian engineering team. The technologies being evaluated include borosilicate and phosphate vitrification alternatives. The evaluations are being performed at a conceptual design level of detail under a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) contract with the Russian organization TVEL using DOE NA-26 funding. As part of this contract, the RF team is evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the US borosilicate glass vitrification technology based on a Duratek melter to solidify this waste stream into a form acceptable for storage and geologic disposal. The composition of the glass formed from treating the waste is dictated by the concentration of silver and

  5. Advanced MOX Core Design Study of Sodium Cooled Reactors in Current Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuno, T.; Niwa, H.

    2002-07-01

    The Sodium cooled MOX core design studies are performed with the target burnup of 150 GWd/t and measures against the recriticality issues in core disruptive accidents (CDAs). Four types of core are comparatively studied in viewpoints of core performance and reliability. Result shows that all the types of core satisfy the target and that the homogeneous core with axial blanket partial elimination subassembly is the most superior concept in case the effectiveness of measures against recriticality issues by the axial blanket partial elimination is assured. (authors)

  6. Dispersibility of crude oil in fresh water.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, B A; Virkus, A; Mukherjee, B; Venosa, A D

    2009-06-01

    The effects of surfactant composition on the ability of chemical dispersants to disperse crude oil in fresh water were investigated. The objective of this research was to determine whether effective fresh water dispersants can be designed in case this technology is ever considered for use in fresh water environments. Previous studies on the chemical dispersion of crude oil in fresh water neither identified the dispersants that were investigated nor described the chemistry of the surfactants used. This information is necessary for developing a more fundamental understanding of chemical dispersion of crude oil at low salinity. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between surfactant chemistry and dispersion effectiveness. We found that dispersants can be designed to drive an oil slick into the freshwater column with the same efficiency as in salt water as long as the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance is optimum.

  7. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... expressly or implicitly refers to the food on labels or labeling, including use in a brand name and use as a..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). (a) The term “fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food... fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food, mean that the food was quickly frozen...

  8. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... expressly or implicitly refers to the food on labels or labeling, including use in a brand name and use as a..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). (a) The term “fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food... fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food, mean that the food was quickly frozen...

  9. 21 CFR 101.95 - “Fresh,” “freshly frozen,” “fresh frozen,” “frozen fresh.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... expressly or implicitly refers to the food on labels or labeling, including use in a brand name and use as a..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). (a) The term “fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food... fresh,” when used on the label or in labeling of a food, mean that the food was quickly frozen...

  10. Hazardous materials in Fresh Kills landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschhorn, J.S.

    1997-12-31

    No environmental monitoring and corrective action programs can pinpoint multiple locations of hazardous materials the total amount of them in a large landfill. Yet the consequences of hazardous materials in MSW landfills are considerable, in terms of public health concerns, environmental damage, and cleanup costs. In this paper a rough estimation is made of how much hazardous material may have been disposed in Fresh Kills landfill in Staten Island, New York. The logic and methods could be used for other MSW landfills. Fresh Kills has frequently been described as the world`s largest MSW landfill. While records of hazardous waste disposal at Fresh Kills over nearly 50 years of operation certainly do not exist, no reasonable person would argue with the conclusion that large quantities of hazardous waste surely have been disposed at Fresh Kills, both legally and illegally. This study found that at least 2 million tons of hazardous wastes and substances have been disposed at Fresh Kills since 1948. Major sources are: household hazardous waste, commercial RCRA hazardous waste, incinerator ash, and commercial non-RCRA hazardous waste, governmental RCRA hazardous waste. Illegal disposal of hazardous waste surely has contributed even more. This is a sufficient amount to cause serious environmental contamination and releases, especially from such a landfill without an engineered liner system, for example. This figure is roughly 1% of the total amount of waste disposed in Fresh Kills since 1948, probably at least 200 million tons.

  11. Mesoderm patterning and morphogenesis in the polychaete Alitta virens (Spiralia, Annelida): Expression of mesodermal markers Twist, Mox, Evx and functional role for MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Vitaly V; Filimonova, Daria A; Kupriashova, Ekaterina E; Kostyuchenko, Roman P

    2016-05-01

    Mesoderm represents the evolutionary youngest germ layer and forms numerous novel tissues in bilaterian animals. Despite the established conservation of the gene regulatory networks that drive mesoderm differentiation (e.g. myogenesis), mechanisms of mesoderm specification are highly variable in distant model species. Thus, broader phylogenetic sampling is required to reveal common features of mesoderm formation across bilaterians. Here we focus on a representative of Spiralia, the marine annelid Alitta virens, whose mesoderm development is still poorly investigated on the molecular level. We characterize three novel early mesodermal markers for A. virens - Twist, Mox, and Evx - which are differentially expressed within the mesodermal lineages. The Twist mRNA is ubiquitously distributed in the fertilized egg and exhibits specific expression in endomesodermal- and ectomesodermal-founder cells at gastrulation. Twist is expressed around the blastopore and later in a segmental metameric pattern. We consider this expression to be ancestral, and in support of the enterocoelic hypothesis of mesoderm evolution. We also revealed an early pattern of the MAPK activation in A. virens that is different from the previously reported pattern in spiralians. Inhibition of the MAPK pathway by U0126 disrupts the metameric Twist and Mox expression, indicating an early requirement of the MAPK cascade for proper morphogenesis of endomesodermal tissues.

  12. A case study of coupling upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and ANITA™ Mox process to treat high-strength landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; George, Biju; Zhao, Hong; Liu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to study the treatability of high-strength landfill leachate by a combined process including upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), carbon removal (C-stage) moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and ANITA™ Mox process. The major innovation on this pilot study is the patent-pending process invented by Veolia that integrates the above three unit processes with an effluent recycle stream, which not only maintains the low hydraulic retention time to enhance the treatment performance but also reduces inhibiting effect from chemicals present in the high-strength leachate. This pilot study has demonstrated that the combined process was capable of treating high-strength leachate with efficient chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removals. The COD removal efficiency by the UASB was 93% (from 45,000 to 3,000 mg/L) at a loading rate of 10 kg/(m(3)·d). The C-stage MBBR removed an additional 500 to 1,000 mg/L of COD at a surface removal rate (SRR) of 5 g/(m(2)·d) and precipitated 400 mg/L of calcium. The total inorganic nitrogen removal efficiency by the ANITA Mox reactor was about 70% at SRR of 1.0 g/(m(2)·d).

  13. Raman micro-spectroscopy of UOX and MOX spent nuclear fuel characterization and oxidation resistance of the high burn-up structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jegou, C.; Gennisson, M.; Peuget, S.; Desgranges, L.; Guimbretière, G.; Magnin, M.; Talip, Z.; Simon, P.

    2015-03-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy was applied to study the structure and oxidation resistance of UO2 (burnup 60 GWd/tHM) and MOX (burnup 47 GWd/tHM) irradiated fuels. The Raman technique, adapted to working under extreme conditions, enabled structural information to be obtained at the cubic micrometer scale in various zones of interest within irradiated fuel (central and zones like the Rim for UOX60, and the plutonium-enriched agglomerates for MOX47 characterized by a high burn-up structure), and the study of their oxidation resistance. As regards the structural information after irradiation, the spectra obtained make up a set of data consistent with the systematic presence of the T2g band characteristic of the fluorite structure, and of a triplet band located between 500 and 700 cm-1. The existence of this triplet can be attributed to the presence of defects originating in changes to the fuel chemistry occurring in the reactor (presence of fission products) and to the accumulation of irradiation damage. As concerns the oxidation resistance of the different zones of interest, Raman spectroscopy results confirmed the good stability of the restructured zones (plutonium-enriched agglomerates and Rim) rich in fission products compared to the non-restructured UO2 grains. A greater structural stability was noticed in the case of high plutonium content agglomerates, as this element favors the maintenance of the fluorite structure.

  14. New measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at n_TOF-EAR1 for MOX fuels: Preliminary results in the RRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Guerrero, C.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Eberhardt, K.; Junghans, A.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Kalamara, A.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mazzone, A.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Radeck, D.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N. V.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel of current nuclear reactors contains fissile plutonium isotopes that can be combined with 238U to make mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. In this way the Pu from spent fuel is used in a new reactor cycle, contributing to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy. The use of MOX fuels in thermal and fast reactors requires accurate capture and fission cross sections. For the particular case of 242Pu, the previous neutron capture cross section measurements were made in the 70's, providing an uncertainty of about 35% in the keV region. In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency recommends in its "High Priority Request List" and its report WPEC-26 that the capture cross section of 242Pu should be measured with an accuracy of at least 7-12% in the neutron energy range between 500 eV and 500 keV. This work presents a brief description of the measurement performed at n_TOF-EAR1, the data reduction process and the first ToF capture measurement on this isotope in the last 40 years, providing preliminary individual resonance parameters beyond the current energy limits in the evaluations, as well as a preliminary set of average resonance parameters.

  15. Structure, stability, and photoluminescence in the anti-perovskites Na3W1-xMoxO4F (0≤x≤1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Eirin; Avdeev, Maxim; Blom, Douglas A.; Gahrs, Casey J.; Green, Robert L.; Hamaker, Christopher G.; Vogt, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Single-phase ordered oxyfluorides Na3WO4F, Na3MoO4F and their mixed members Na3W1-xMoxO4F can be prepared via facile solid state reaction of Na2MO4·2H2O (M=W, Mo) and NaF. Phases produced from incongruent melts are metastable, but lower temperatures allow for a facile one-step synthesis. In polycrystalline samples of Na3W1-xMoxO4F, the presence of Mo stabilizes the structure against decomposition to spinel phases. Photoluminescence studies show that upon excitation with λ=254 nm and λ=365 nm, Na3WO4F and Na3MoO4F exhibit broad emission maxima centered around 485 nm. These materials constitute new members of the family of self-activating ordered oxyfluoride phosphors with anti-perovskite structures which are amenable to doping with emitters such as Eu3+.

  16. Establishing the Global Fresh Water Sensor Web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to measuring the major components of the water cycle from space using the concept of a sensor-web of satellites that are linked to a data assimilation system. This topic is of increasing importance, due to the need for fresh water to support the growing human population, coupled with climate variability and change. The net effect is that water is an increasingly valuable commodity. The distribution of fresh water is highly uneven over the Earth, with both strong latitudinal distributions due to the atmospheric general circulation, and even larger variability due to landforms and the interaction of land with global weather systems. The annual global fresh water budget is largely a balance between evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff. Although the available volume of fresh water on land is small, the short residence time of water in these fresh water reservoirs causes the flux of fresh water - through evaporation, atmospheric transport, precipitation and runoff - to be large. With a total atmospheric water store of approx. 13 x 10(exp 12)cu m, and an annual flux of approx. 460 x 10(exp 12)cu m/y, the mean atmospheric residence time of water is approx. 10 days. River residence times are similar, biological are approx. 1 week, soil moisture is approx. 2 months, and lakes and aquifers are highly variable, extending from weeks to years. The hypothesized potential for redistribution and acceleration of the global hydrological cycle is therefore of concern. This hypothesized speed-up - thought to be associated with global warming - adds to the pressure placed upon water resources by the burgeoning human population, the variability of weather and climate, and concerns about anthropogenic impacts on global fresh water availability.

  17. Fresh fruit: microstructure, texture, and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Delilah F.; Imam, Syed H.; Orts, William J.; Glenn, Gregory M.

    2009-05-01

    Fresh-cut produce has a huge following in today's supermarkets. The trend follows the need to decrease preparation time as well as the desire to follow the current health guidelines for consumption of more whole "heart-healthy" foods. Additionally, consumers are able to enjoy a variety of fresh produce regardless of the local season because produce is now shipped world-wide. However, most fruits decompose rapidly once their natural packaging has been disrupted by cutting. In addition, some intact fruits have limited shelf-life which, in turn, limits shipping and storage. Therefore, a basic understanding of how produce microstructure relates to texture and how microstructure changes as quality deteriorates is needed to ensure the best quality in the both the fresh-cut and the fresh produce markets. Similarities between different types of produce include desiccation intolerance which produces wrinkling of the outer layers, cracking of the cuticle and increased susceptibility to pathogen invasion. Specific examples of fresh produce and their corresponding ripening and storage issues, and degradation are shown in scanning electron micrographs.

  18. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  19. Irradiation of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: quality and shelf-life

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of ionizing radiation on each quality parameters (appearance, texture, flavor/taste and nutritional values) of fresh produce are reviewed with a focus on recent developments on fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Changes in respiration rate, ethylene production and enzymatic activities are ...

  20. A fresh fruit and vegetable program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for eac...

  1. Decontamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with cold plasma technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  2. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  3. What is a fresh scent in perfumery? Perceptual freshness is correlated with substantivity.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2012-12-28

    Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to 'fresh' (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents) are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = -0.85). 'Fresh' is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as 'cool' and the opposite of 'warm'. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that 'fresh' evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while 'warm' would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents.

  4. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  5. Particular applications of food irradiation fresh produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-12-01

    On fresh fruits and vegetables, irradiation at low and medium dose levels can effectively reduce microbial counts which can enhance safety, inhibit sprouting to extend shelf-life, and eliminate or sterilize insect pests which can serve to facilitate trade between countries. At the dose levels used for these purposes, the impact on quality is negligible. Despite the fact that regulations in many countries allow the use of irradiation for fresh produce, the technology remains under-utilized, even in the light of an increase in produce related disease outbreaks and the economic benefits of extended shelf life and reduced food waste. Putative concerns about consumer acceptance particularly for produce that is labeled as irradiated have deterred many companies from using irradiation and retailers to carry irradiated produce. This section highlights the commercial use of irradiation for fresh produce, other than phytosanitary irradiation which is covered in supplementary sections.

  6. Edible coatings for fresh-cut fruits.

    PubMed

    Olivas, G I; Barbosa-Cánovas, G V

    2005-01-01

    The production of fresh-cut fruits is increasingly becoming an important task as consumers are more aware of the importance of healthy eating habits, and have less time for food preparation. A fresh-cut fruit is a fruit that has been physically altered from its original state (trimmed, peeled, washed and/or cut), but remains in a fresh state. Unfortunately since fruits have living tissue, they undergo enzymatic browning, texture decay, microbial contamination, and undesirable volatile production, highly reducing their shelf life if they are in any way wounded. Edible coatings can be used to help in the preservation of minimally processed fruits, providing a partial barrier to moisture, oxygen and carbon dioxide, improving mechanical handling properties, carrying additives, avoiding volatiles loss, and even contributing to the production of aroma volatiles.

  7. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The latest development in and different aspects of modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are reviewed in the book. This book provides all readers, including fresh-cut academic researchers, fresh-cut R&D personnel, and fresh-cut processing engineers, with unique, essential...

  8. Inheritance of fresh-cut fruit quality attributes in Capsicum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry has expanded rapidly during the past decade, due to freshness, convenience and the high nutrition that fresh-cut produce offers to consumers. The current report evaluates the inheritance of postharvest attributes that contribute to pepper fresh-cut product...

  9. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1990-11-01

    In the ``hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ``Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally.

  10. Cultivable microbiome of fresh white button mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Rossouw, W; Korsten, L

    2017-02-01

    Microbial dynamics on commercially grown white button mushrooms is of importance in terms of food safety assurance and quality control. The purpose of this study was to establish the microbial profile of fresh white button mushrooms. The total microbial load was determined through standard viable counts. Presence and isolation of Gram-negative bacteria including coagulase-positive Staphylococci were performed using a selective enrichment approach. Dominant and presumptive organisms were confirmed using molecular methods. Total mushroom microbial counts ranged from 5·2 to 12·4 log CFU per g, with the genus Pseudomonas being most frequently isolated (45·37% of all isolations). In total, 91 different microbial species were isolated and identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry, PCR and sequencing. Considering current food safety guidelines in South Africa for ready-to-eat fresh produce, coliform counts exceeded the guidance specifications for fresh fruit and vegetables. Based on our research and similar studies, it is proposed that specifications for microbial loads on fresh, healthy mushrooms reflect a more natural microbiome at the point-of-harvest and point-of-sale. Presence and persistence of micro-organisms within the microbiome of fresh produce is important when identifying a potential niche for foodborne pathogens. Most foodborne outbreaks can be attributed to microbial imbalances or lack of diversity within the associated host surface and residing microbial population. Agaricus bisporus samples analysed during this study showed a higher microbial load (5·2 up to 12·4 log CFU per g) compared to known values for other fresh produce. These mushrooms were considered to carry microbial loads representing a healthy and safe product, fit for consumption, despite showing a high indicator incidence. Although foodborne pathogens may be associated on occasion with fresh mushrooms, it remains a low

  11. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golterman, H. L.

    This manual, one of a series prepared for the guidance of research workers conducting studies as part of the International Biological Programme, contains recommended methods for the analysis of fresh water. The techniques are grouped in the following major sections: Sample Taking and Storage; Conductivity, pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential,…

  12. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golterman, H. L.

    This manual, one of a series prepared for the guidance of research workers conducting studies as part of the International Biological Programme, contains recommended methods for the analysis of fresh water. The techniques are grouped in the following major sections: Sample Taking and Storage; Conductivity, pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential,…

  13. Breeding lettuce for fresh-cut processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce is increasingly consumed in fresh-cut packaged salads. New cultivars specifically bred for this use can enhance production and processing efficiency and extend shelf life. Cultivars with novel head architectures and leaf traits are being released by private and public breeding programs with ...

  14. Microbiological quality of fresh nopal juice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n=162) made with nopal cactus in Texcoco, State of Mexico, was evaluated during the summer and spring season. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected...

  15. Global estimates of fresh submarine groundwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luijendijk, Elco; Gleeson, Tom; Moosdorf, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Fresh submarine groundwater discharge, the flow of fresh groundwater to oceans, may be a significant contributor to the water and chemical budgets of the world's oceans. We present new estimates of the flux of fresh groundwater to the world's oceans. We couple density-dependent numerical simulations of generic models of coastal basins with geospatial databases of hydrogeological parameters and topography to resolve the rate of terrestrially-derived submarine groundwater discharge globally. We compare the model results to a new global compilation of submarine groundwater discharge observations. The results show that terrestrially-derived SGD is highly sensitive to permeability. In most watersheds only a small fraction of groundwater recharge contributes to submarine groundwater discharge, with most recharge instead contributing to terrestrial discharge in the form of baseflow or evapotranspiration. Fresh submarine groundwater discharge is only significant in watersheds that contain highly permeable sediments, such as coarse-grained siliciclastic sediments, karstic carbonates or volcanic deposits. Our estimates of global submarine groundwater discharge are much lower than most previous estimates. However, many tropical and volcanic islands are hotspots of submarine groundwater discharge and solute fluxes towards the oceans. The comparison of model results and data highlights the spatial variability of SGD and the difficulty of scaling up observations.

  16. Storytime with Fresh Professor, Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, James

    2016-01-01

    James Miles writes that he wasn't always the Fresh Professor. At one point, he was just another starving actor, trying to make a living. But stories change over time, as do professional desires. This article presents Part One of his story.

  17. Storytime with Fresh Professor, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, James

    2016-01-01

    I wasn't always the Fresh Professor. At one point I was just another starving actor trying to make a living. But stories change over time, as do professional desires. This is "Part Two" of my story. Enjoy the ride. [For "Part One," see EJ1114154.

  18. Storytime with Fresh Professor, Part Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, James

    2016-01-01

    I wasn't always the Fresh Professor. At one point I was just another starving actor trying to make a living. But stories change over time, as do professional desires. This is "Part Two" of my story. Enjoy the ride. [For "Part One," see EJ1114154.

  19. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 'C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from both the Pectoralis major an...

  20. Dielectric Spectroscopy of Fresh Chicken Breast Meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical abstract The dielectric properties of fresh chicken breast meat were measured at temperatures from 5 to 85 degrees °C over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz by dielectric spectroscopy techniques with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer. Samples were cut from ...

  1. Storytime with Fresh Professor, Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, James

    2016-01-01

    James Miles writes that he wasn't always the Fresh Professor. At one point, he was just another starving actor, trying to make a living. But stories change over time, as do professional desires. This article presents Part One of his story.

  2. Preference mapping of frozen and fresh raspberries.

    PubMed

    Villamor, R R; Daniels, C H; Moore, P P; Ross, C F

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify key sensory attributes that influence consumer liking for frozen and fresh red raspberries using preference mapping. Sensory profiling of different raspberry cultivars and selections from the Washington State Univ. and Oregon State Univ. breeding programs was carried out using a trained panel (frozen, n = 12 and fresh, n = 10). In addition, a subset of frozen and fresh raspberries of each cultivar was assessed by consumers for sensory acceptability (n = 105 and n = 100, respectively). Based on overall hedonic ratings, cluster analysis identified 3 clusters of frozen raspberry consumers from day 1 (41% "nondistinguishers," 34% "likers," and 25% "nonlikers") and day 2 (41% "group 1 likers," 26% "nonlikers," and 34% and 33% group 2 likers"). For fresh raspberry consumers, 2 clusters were detected from day 1 (54% "likers" and 46% nondistinguishers") and day 2 (54% "group 1 likers" and 46% "group 2 likers"). Preference mapping was applied on the descriptive sensory and acceptability of clustered consumer data. Partial least squares regression results showed that liking of frozen raspberries was driven by high raspberry flavor, firmness, and sweetness. Conversely, disliking of frozen raspberries was related to high sour and aftertaste intensity. In the case of fresh raspberries, high color uniformity, raspberry aroma, raspberry flavor, floral aroma, green flavor, bitter, astringency, and aftertaste increased the acceptability, whereas high color intensity and green aroma were associated with negative drivers of liking. The information obtained in this study can be a useful guide for breeders in the selection of characteristics for growing superior quality raspberries. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Use of fission track analysis technique for the determination of MicroBequerel level of 239Pu in urine samples from radiation workers handling MOX fuel.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J R; Rao, D D; Kumar, Ranjeet; Aggarwal, S K

    2011-07-01

    Fission track analysis (FTA) technique for the determination of (239)Pu excreted through urine has been standardized using blank samples, tracer and (239)Pu spikes. Double stage anion exchange separation protocol has been applied and an average radiochemical recovery of (239)Pu of 18% was obtained. An average track registration efficiency of 11 tracks per μBq of (239)Pu, irradiated to 0.35×10(17) neutron fluence was established. Reagent blank urine samples from 11 controlled subjects were analyzed by FTA and an average of 149±14 tracks was obtained. Minimum detectable activity of 34μBqL(-1) of urine sample was obtained and will be useful for monitoring chronic exposure cases handling MOX fuel.

  4. Enhanced efficiency of luminescence with stoichiometry control in LiGd(W(1-x)MoxO4)2:Eu3+ red phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavi Rasu, K.; Balaji, D.; Moorthy Babu, S.

    2017-06-01

    A series of LiGd(W(1-x)MoxO4)2 [hereafter LGWM]:Eu3+(x=0.00 to 1.00) red-emitting phosphors were synthesized by sol-gel method. Metal nitrates were used as starting materials with citric acid as chelator and ethylene glycol as binder. Synthesized gel was pre-fired at 523 K and calcined at 1073 K using resistive furnace in air atmosphere. The crystallinity, surface morphology and luminescent properties of the phosphors were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometry respectively. The intensity of the red emission at 615 nm for 5D0→7F2 electric dipole transition increases as the content of Mo6+ was increased and reach a maximum, when the relative ratio of W/Mo is 1:1 under 396 nm excitation.

  5. Integrated Fast Neutron Flux at the End of Phase-IV, Part 2 (50 GWd/t) MOX Zr Cladding Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gray Chang

    2004-10-01

    This report documents the MCWO-calculated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluence (E > 0.1 MeV and E > 1.0 MeV) distributions at the end of each cycle (127C to 132C) during the irradiation Phase-IV-2 (50 GWd/t) using the detailed ATR quarter core model calculated neutronic tallies. The integrated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluence distributions are tabulated in Tables 1 to 9. At the end of the Phase-IV part-2 irradiation, the MCWO-calculated Zr-cladding fast neutron fluences (E > 1.0 MeV) of the removed MOX capsules 5, 6, and 12 are 1.71, 1.68, and 1.68 x 1021 n/cm2, respectively.

  6. Studies on Superchilling of Fresh Skipjack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Yoh; Ogawa, Yutaka

    The freshness and meat colour of fresh skipjack can be retained only 2 or 3 days by ordinary cold storage. This paper deals with a new method, "suprchilling", which was developed by the authers, i. e., immediately after catch live skipjacks were immersed and killed instantly in NaCl brine at -10°C to -15°C for 30 to 40 minuites and thereafter in refrigerated sea water the center of the skipjack muscle was rapidly cooled to -0.5°C within 40 minuites. Form the results of apperance, organoleptic ratings, pH value, K value, metmyoglobin %, salt concentration and microscopic observation, "superchilling" could prolong the shelflife of skipjack 3 days longer than ordinary cold storage.

  7. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, F.S. Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA )

    1990-11-01

    In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

  8. Internalization of fresh produce by foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies addressing the internalization of fresh produce by foodborne pathogens arose in response to the growing number of recent and high profile outbreaks involving fresh produce. Because chemical sanitizing agents used during harvest and minimal processing are unlikely to reach enteric pathogens residing within plant tissue, it is imperative that paths for pathogen entry be recognized and minimized. Using both microscopy and microbial enumeration tools, enteric pathogens have been shown to enter plant tissues through both natural apertures (stomata, lateral junctions of roots, flowers) and damaged (wounds, cut surfaces) tissue. In studies revealing preharvest internalization via plant roots or leaf stomata, experimental conditions have primarily involved exposure of plants to high pathogen concentrations (≥ 6 log g⁻¹ soil or 6 log ml⁻¹ water), but those pathogens internalized appear to have short-term persistence. Postharvest internalization of pathogens via cut surfaces may be minimized by maintaining effective levels of sanitizing agents in waters during harvesting and minimal processing.

  9. Wakata with Fresh Fruit in the Cupola

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-01

    ISS039-E-008095 (1 April 2014) --- Expedition 39 Commander Koichi Wakata, representing the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), seems very elated that three new members of the crew have brought up food and supplies, especially fresh fruit, as depicted in this photo -- among the first sets of imagery documented with all six Expedition 39 crew members onboard the International Space Station. Wakata is in the orbiting outpost's Cupola module.

  10. Spiniferites cruciformis: a fresh water dinoflagellate cyst?

    PubMed

    Kouli, K; Brinkhuis, H; Dale, B

    2001-04-01

    Palynological studies of cored lacustrine sediments from the late Quaternary of Lake Kastoria, northern Greece, revealed a Late Glacial interval with abundant dinoflagellate cysts. Cyst assemblages include two identifiable species, Spiniferites cruciformis and Gonyaulax apiculata. The presence of the fresh water species G. apiculata is consistent with the lacustrine setting of these deposits, but that of S. cruciformis is anomalous. Previously, this species has only been recorded in abundance from presumed brackish marine sediments from the Black Sea and Marmara Sea sediments where geochemical data clearly record brackish salinities. Therefore, it has been regarded as a low salinity cyst type with a wide range of morphological variation that some workers have suggested to reflect salinity fluctuations. Specimens from Greece display only part of the range of morphological variability previously described from these (brackish) marine settings. Encountered morphological variation includes ellipsoidal/pentameral and cruciform endocyst shapes with rare intermediate shapes, and highly variable septa development. Specimens characterized by extremely reduced ornamentation known from (brackish) marine environments have not been recorded. Our records of S. cruciformis indicate that: (1) it could thrive in fresh water conditions; and (2) that apparently most of the strong morphological variations of the cysts are an intrinsic phenomenon for this taxon, and may only partly be linked to salinity variations as suggested earlier. We suggest that S. cruciformis essentially is a fresh water taxon, and that its records in (brackish) marine environments, with the exception of specimens with strongly reduced ornamentation, may be due to transportation, to short-lived fresh water surface conditions in such environments, or to tolerance of the species to brackish conditions.

  11. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination. PMID:27973398

  12. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  13. View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from southwest to northeast of PAR site fresh water pump house - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Fresh Water Pump House, In Limited Access Area, on Patrol Road next to Open Storage Reservoir No. 736, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  14. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record \\1... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would not... are contained in USITC Publication 4303 (February 2012), entitled Fresh and Chilled Atlantic...

  15. 77 FR 26579 - Fresh Garlic From China; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Garlic From China; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on fresh garlic from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4316 (April 2012), entitled Fresh Garlic from China...

  16. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following conditions: (a) The coating is applied in...

  17. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following...

  18. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following...

  19. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following conditions: (a...

  20. 21 CFR 172.210 - Coatings on fresh citrus fruit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. 172.210 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances § 172.210 Coatings on fresh citrus fruit. Coatings may be applied to fresh citrus fruit for protection of the fruit in accordance with the following...

  1. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach jointly...

  2. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces and microbial safety of fresh produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of fresh produce is a central component of a healthy diet. However, contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables such as leafy greens, tomatoes, cantaloupes is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Growers, packers, processors and retailers work to control the incidenc...

  3. What is a Fresh Scent in Perfumery? Perceptual Freshness is Correlated with Substantivity

    PubMed Central

    Zarzo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Perfumes are manufactured by mixing odorous materials with different volatilities. The parameter that measures the lasting property of a material when applied on the skin is called substantivity or tenacity. It is well known by perfumers that citrus and green notes are perceived as fresh and they tend to evaporate quickly, while odors most dissimilar to ‘fresh’ (e.g., oriental, powdery, erogenic and animalic scents) are tenacious. However, studies aimed at quantifying the relationship between fresh odor quality and substantivity have not received much attention. In this work, perceptual olfactory ratings on a fresh scale, estimated in a previous study, were compared with substantivity parameters and antierogenic ratings from the literature. It was found that the correlation between fresh odor character and odorant substantivity is quite strong (r = −0.85). ‘Fresh’ is sometimes interpreted in perfumery as ‘cool’ and the opposite of ‘warm’. This association suggests that odor freshness might be somehow related to temperature. Assuming that odor perception space was shaped throughout evolution in temperate climates, results reported here are consistent with the hypothesis that ‘fresh’ evokes scents typically encountered in the cool season, while ‘warm’ would be evoked by odors found in nature during summer. This hypothesis is rather simplistic but it may provide a new insight to better understand the perceptual space of scents. PMID:23275083

  4. Fresh market carrot inspection by machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, M. Scott; Searcy, Stephen W.

    1991-02-01

    A machine vision system was developed to inspect fresh market carrots. It was designed to grade carrots with an axial and transverse resolution of 0. 5mmper pixel. Hardware consisted of camera digital signal processing (DSP) imaging board host computer and illumination components. Feature extraction methods detect the major defects. A Bayes classification technique was used to construct the decision function which classify carrots as acceptable or cull. The system was able to image and classify in approximately 2. 5carrots/second. 1.

  5. Efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for decorporation of Pu, Am and U from rats injected intramuscularly with high-fired particles of MOX.

    PubMed

    Paquet, F; Chazel, V; Houpert, P; Guilmette, R; Muggenburg, B

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO) for reducing uranium, plutonium and americium in rats after intramuscular injection of (U-Pu)O2 particles (MOX). Sixteen rats were contaminated by intramuscular injection of a 1 mg MOX suspension and then treated daily for 7 d with LIHOPO (30 or 200 micromol kg(-1)) or DTPA (30 micromol kg(-1)). LIHOPO was inefficient for removing Pu, Am and U from the wound site. However, it reduced Pu retention in carcass and liver by factors of 2 and 6 respectively, and Am retention in carcass and liver by factors of 10 and 30. In contrast, the effect of LIHOPO on U was to decrease the retention in kidneys by a factor of 75. These results confirm that LIHOPO is a good candidate for use after contamination with MOX, in combination with localised wound lavage or surgical treatment aimed at removing most of the contaminant at the wound site.

  6. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh loin quality with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons [cold ( = 4,290) and hot ( = 3,394)] and 2 production focuses [lean ( = 3,627) and quality ( = 4,057)] were used. Carcass characteristics and other meat quality data were collected on 7,684 carcasses. All of the carcasses were evaluated for HCW, LM depth, tenth rib fat depth, leg (ham primal) weight, instrumental color on the gluteus medius and gluteus profundus of the ham face, and subjective loin quality. Instrumental loin color and ultimate pH (≥ 22 h postmortem) were collected on the ventral side of loins along with dimensions and firmness scores of fresh bellies from 50% of the carcasses. Ten percent of the boneless loins and fresh hams were evaluated for slice shear force (SSF) or cured ham characteristics. Correlation coefficients between traits were computed using the CORR procedure of SAS and considered significantly different from 0 at ≤ 0.05. Temperature decline, beginning at 31 min postmortem and concluding at 22 h postmortem, for the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated on 10% of the carcasses. Ultimate loin pH was correlated with dimensional belly characteristics ( ≥ |0.07|; < 0.0001) fresh ham instrumental color ( ≥ |0.03|; ≤ 0.05), and semimembranosus ultimate pH ( = 0.33; < 0.0001). Further, ultimate loin pH was correlated ( ≤ 0.01) with pump retention ( = 0.087) and cooked yield ( = 0.156) of cured hams. Instrumental L*on the ventral surface of the loin was related to L* on both muscles of the ham face ( ≤ 0.0001). Even though significant relationships between the loin, belly, and ham were detected, the variability in belly and ham quality explained by variability in loin quality was poor (≤ 22.09%). Compositional differences between the loin and belly may have contributed to those poor relationships. Additionally, differences in

  7. APPLICATION OF COLUMN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR IMPURITIES ANALYSIS ON HB-LINE PLUTONIUM OXIDE IN SUPPORT OF MOX FEED PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.; Diprete, D.; Wiedenman, B.

    2012-03-20

    The current mission at H-Canyon involves the dissolution of an Alternate Feedstocks 2 (AFS-2) inventory that contains plutonium metal. Once dissolved, HB-Line is tasked with purifying the plutonium solution via anion exchange, precipitating the Pu as oxalate, and calcining to form plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed product for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, and the anion exchange raffinate will be transferred to H-Canyon. The results presented in this report document the potential success of the RE resin column extraction application on highly concentrated Pu samples to meet MOX feed product specifications. The original 'Hearts Cut' sample required a 10000x dilution to limit instrument drift on the ICP-MS method. The instrument dilution factors improved to 125x and 250x for the sample raffinate and sample eluent, respectively. As noted in the introduction, the significantly lower dilutions help to drop the total MRL for the analyte. Although the spike recoveries were half of expected in the eluent for several key elements, they were between 94-98% after Nd tracer correction. It is seen that the lower ICD limit requirements for the rare earths are attainable because of less dilution. Especially important is the extremely low Ga limit at 0.12 {mu}g/g Pu; an ICP-MS method is now available to accomplish this task on the sample raffinate. While B and V meet the column A limits, further development is needed to meet the column B limits. Even though V remained on the RE resin column, an analysis method is ready for investigation on the ICP-MS, but it does not mean that V cannot be measured on the ICP-ES at a low dilution to meet the column B limits. Furthermore, this column method can be applicable for ICP-ES as shown in Table 3-2, in that it trims the sample of Pu, decreasing and sometimes eliminating Pu spectral interferences.

  8. Stent Placement on Fresh Venous Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Vorwerk, Dierk; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schuermann, Karl

    1997-09-15

    Purpose: To report on the efficacy of fixing fresh venous thrombus to the venous wall by stent placement. Methods: Seven patients underwent stenting to treat acute venous thrombosis. In two patients, the hemodialysis fistula was thrombosed with the thrombus extending into the brachial veins. In three patients, the hemodialysis fistula was patent but massive swelling of the ipsilateral arm was caused by proximal venous thrombosis. Two patients presented with iliac venous thrombosis within stented pelvic veins. Stent placement was preceded by other mechanical thrombectomy methods in all cases. Results: Attachment of thrombus to the venous wall was successful in all cases treated. Acute rethrombosis did not occur. Follow-up patency in dialysis patients was 7.2 {+-} 2.1 months. One patient had rethrombosis of the dialysis graft 3 months after primary treatment. Three patients developed restenosis within a mean period of 7.7 months. One shunt remained patent for 10 months with no event of reobstruction during follow-up. In both patients with iliac stent placement, the vein remained patent over a follow-up period of 8 and 12 months respectively. Conclusion: Stenting fresh venous thrombus can achieve immediate venous patency. It may be used as an alternative approach when all other percutaneous methods fail. Frequent restenosis within stented veins limits its use to very selected cases.

  9. Global modeling of fresh surface water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierkens, M. F.; Eikelboom, T.; van Vliet, M. T.; Van Beek, L. P.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature determines a range of water physical properties, the solubility of oxygen and other gases and acts as a strong control on fresh water biogeochemistry, influencing chemical reaction rates, phytoplankton and zooplankton composition and the presence or absence of pathogens. Thus, in freshwater ecosystems the thermal regime affects the geographical distribution of aquatic species through their growth and metabolism, tolerance to parasites, diseases and pollution and life history. Compared to statistical approaches, physically-based models of surface water temperature have the advantage that they are robust in light of changes in flow regime, river morphology, radiation balance and upstream hydrology. Such models are therefore better suited for projecting the effects of global change on water temperature. Till now, physically-based models have only been applied to well-defined fresh water bodies of limited size (e.g., lakes or stream segments), where the numerous parameters can be measured or otherwise established, whereas attempts to model water temperature over larger scales has thus far been limited to regression type of models. Here, we present a first attempt to apply a physically-based model of global fresh surface water temperature. The model adds a surface water energy balance to river discharge modelled by the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB. In addition to advection of energy from direct precipitation, runoff and lateral exchange along the drainage network, energy is exchanged between the water body and the atmosphere by short and long-wave radiation and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Also included are ice-formation and its effect on heat storage and river hydraulics. We used the coupled surface water and energy balance model to simulate global fresh surface water temperature at daily time steps on a 0.5x0.5 degree grid for the period 1970-2000. Meteorological forcing was obtained from the CRU data set, downscaled to daily values with ECMWF

  10. Comet whole-core solution to a stylized 3-dimensional pressurized water reactor benchmark problem with UO{sub 2}and MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A stylized pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem contains 125 fuel assemblies and 44,000 fuel pins. The COMET code was used to compute the core eigenvalue and assembly and pin power distributions for three core configurations. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distribution on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the Monte Carlo code MCNP reference solutions using a recently published an 8-group material cross section library. The comparison showed both the core eigenvalues and assembly and pin power distributions predicated by COMET agree very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of the angular flux expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles on the mesh boundaries are 4, 4, 2 and 2. The mean and maximum differences in the pin fission density distribution ranged from 0.28%-0.44% and 3.0%-5.5%, all within 3-sigma uncertainty of the MCNP solution. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo. It was also found that COMET's computational speed is 450 times faster than MCNP. (authors)

  11. The impact of local structure variation on thermal quenching of luminescence in Ca3MoxW1-xO6:Eu3+ solid solution phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhao; Ye, Shi; Li, Ye; Zhang, Qinyuan

    2017-03-01

    Near-ultraviolet (NUV, 365-410 nm) excitable white light emitting diodes require intense absorption in the NUV region for the tri-color phosphors (red, green, and blue). Optional red phosphor Ca3MoO6:Eu3+ meets the requirement of NUV absorption but suffers from severe quenching, while Ca3WO6:Eu3+ has good resistance to thermal quenching but could not absorb NUV light efficiently. It is requisite to investigate the candidate Ca3MoxW1-xO6:Eu3+ to balance the both effects. Results indicate that thermal quenching turns to be worse with an increase in Mo contents in the solid solutions with inevitable distortions or defects, especially when exciting the charge transfer band of WO6 and MoO6 groups. Temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy is utilized to reveal the impact of structural variation in the quenching process since the variations influence the energy transfer between WO6/MoO6 groups and Eu3+ ions or among Eu3+ ions. Results show that the tilting or distortion of the Ca/W/MoO6 octahedral framework and weakened Eu3+-O bonds have large impacts on thermal quenching performance of Eu3+ luminescence in the solid solutions. The research would benefit the design of novel red phosphors.

  12. Irradiation of Argentine (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuels. Post-irradiation results and experimental analysis with the BACO code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Armando Carlos; Pérez, Edmundo; Adelfang, Pablo

    1996-04-01

    The irradiation of the first Argentine prototypes of pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) (U,Pu)O 2 MOX fuels began in 1986. These experiments were carried out in the High Flux Reactor (HFR)-Petten, Holland. The rods were prepared and controlled in the CNEA's α Facility. The postirradiation examinations were performed in the Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany and in the Joint Research Center (JRC), Petten. The first rod has been used for destructive pre-irradiation analysis. The second one as a pathfinder to adjust systems in the HFR. Two additional rods including iodine doped pellets were intended to simulate 15 000 MWd/T(M) burnup. The remaining two rods were irradiated until 15 000 MWd/T(M). One of them underwent a final ramp with the aim of verifying fabrication processes and studying the behaviour under power transients. BACO (BArra COmbustible) code was used to define the power histories and to analyse the experiments. This paper presents a description of the different experiments and a comparison between the results of the postirradiation examinations and the BACO outputs.

  13. Direct transesterification of fresh microalgal cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiao; Liu, Yanan; Wang, Haitao; Xue, Song

    2015-01-01

    Transesterification of lipids is a vital step during the processes of both biodiesel production and fatty acid analysis. By comparing the yields and fatty acid profiles obtained from microalgal oil and dry microalgal cells, the reliability of method for the transesterification of micro-scale samples was tested. The minimum amount of microalgal cells needed for accurate analysis was found to be approximately 300μg dry cells. This direct transesterification method of fresh cells was applied to eight microalgal species, and the results indicate that the efficiency of the developed method is identical to that of conventional method, except for Spirulina whose lipid content is very low, which means the total lipid content should been considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamic headspace analysis of fresh tomato juices.

    PubMed

    Sucan, M K; Russell, G F

    2001-01-01

    The methods used to isolate volatile compounds for GC analyses can cause profound effects on the quantitative and qualitative composition of the injected sample, and exert a great influence in the resultant bioactivity of volatiles. Especially with plant tissues like tomatoes, the isolation of volatile constituents using classical methods may yield results which are not representative of the chemicals present in the natural material. Headspace sampling methods may be advantageous in capturing the same volatile compounds emitted from tomatoes that are detected by the human nose. This study utilized an extremely sensitive dynamic headspace sampling with thermal desorption method to determine volatile components of fresh tomato juices. The method proved very sensitive for the isolation of tomato volatiles and concentrations of flavor compounds were much greater than related literature studies.

  15. Incremental Relaying, Fresh Signal Makes Better Decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tin, Luu Quoc; Kong, Hyung Yun

    In terms of outage behavior, it has been shown that incremental relaying achieves the best performance among cooperative diversity protocols such as: Amplify-And-Forward (AF), Decode-And-Forward (DF), and Selection Decode-And-Forward (SDF). Exploiting a limited feedback from the destination, incremental relaying lets the relay forward the signal received from the source whenever an error happens at the destination, then, the signals from both the source and the relay are combined to make a decision. Noticing that the signal from the source, indicated by the error, is detrimental, we propose a new scheme not using that signal but only making a decision based on the fresh signal from the relay. Large performance improvement and complexity reduction are attained as we show in the analysis and simulation results. Theoretical results are derived and shown to match with the simulation counterparts.

  16. [Microbial indicators and fresh water quality assessment].

    PubMed

    Briancesco, Rossella

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, the microbiological quality of waters has been measured by the analysis of indicator microorganisms. The article reviews the sanitary significance of traditional indicators of faecal contamination (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and points out their limits. For some characteristics Escherichia coli may be considered a more useful indicator then faecal coliforms and recently it has been included in all recent laws regarding fresh, marine and drinking water. A clearer taxonomic definition of faecal streptococci evidenced the difficulty into defining a specific standard methodology of enumeration and suggested the more suitable role of enterococci as indicator microorganisms. Several current laws require the detection of enterococci. The resistance of Clostridium perfringens spores may mean that they would serve as a useful indicator of the sanitary quality of sea sediments.

  17. Outbreaks and factors influencing microbiological contamination of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik A

    2017-03-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are nutritionally well-recognised as healthy components in diets. The microbiological foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have been increasing. Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate fresh produce. This review discusses recent foodborne outbreaks linked to fresh produce, factors that affect microbiological contamination and measures that could be adopted to reduce the foodborne illnesses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Factors affecting quality and safety of fresh-cut produce.

    PubMed

    Francis, G A; Gallone, A; Nychas, G J; Sofos, J N; Colelli, G; Amodio, M L; Spano, G

    2012-01-01

    The quality of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products includes a combination of attributes, such as appearance, texture, and flavor, as well as nutritional and safety aspects that determine their value to the consumer. Nutritionally, fruit and vegetables represent a good source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber, and fresh-cut produce satisfies consumer demand for freshly prepared, convenient, healthy food. However, fresh-cut produce deteriorates faster than corresponding intact produce, as a result of damage caused by minimal processing, which accelerates many physiological changes that lead to a reduction in produce quality and shelf-life. The symptoms of produce deterioration include discoloration, increased oxidative browning at cut surfaces, flaccidity as a result of loss of water, and decreased nutritional value. Damaged plant tissues also represent a better substrate for growth of microorganisms, including spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens. The risk of pathogen contamination and growth is one of the main safety concerns associated with fresh-cut produce, as highlighted by the increasing number of produce-linked foodborne outbreaks in recent years. The pathogens of major concern in fresh-cut produce are Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli mainly O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. This article describes the quality of fresh-cut produce, factors affecting quality, and various techniques for evaluating quality. In addition, the microbiological safety of fresh-cut produce and factors affecting pathogen survival and growth on fresh-cut produce are discussed in detail.

  19. Using density difference to store fresh water in saline subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginkel, M.; Olsthoorn, Th. N.; des Tombe, B.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of fresh water in the subsurface for later recovery and use (Aquifer Storage and Recovery) is becoming more and more important in the coming decades for seasonal or emergency storage, especially in the light of climate change and increasing population. However, fresh water storage in a saline subsurface poses a challenge: the initially vertical interface between injected fresh and native salt water is unstable and tends to rotate. The injected fresh water tends to float upward on top of native salt water, where it becomes hard or impossible to recover at a later stage. A wide body of literature exists about this buoyancy effect that is caused by the density difference between fresh and salt water. Yet, very few papers focus on solutions to this problem. In this paper we propose a storage principle to overcome this buoyancy problem by actually using the density difference to keep the fresh water in place, by combining salt water extraction and impermeable barriers. This technique seems promising and could solve many local fresh water storage problems. It is especially applicable in shallow water table aquifers for the storage of fresh water below parks and arable land or for seasonal storage of desalinated water. We performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical modelling to study the dynamic behaviour of a fresh water bubble stored in saline subsurface using the technique of salt water extraction and impermeable barriers; including effects of operation dynamics, groundwater flow, and diffusion, dispersion and density differences.

  20. Edible coatings enriched with essential oils and their compounds for fresh and fresh-cut fruit.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Maria D; Gago, Custodia M; Cavaco, Ana M; Miguel, Maria G

    2012-08-01

    Fresh fruit and vegetables consumption has increased in the past few years due to the enhanced awareness of consumers for healthy food. However, these products are highly perishable, and losses can be of great significance if postharvest correct management is not provided. Fresh-cut products are of increasing importance, since they are presented to the consumer in a state that allows for direct and immediate consumption. However, those products are even more perishable since cutting can induce a series of senescence associated responses to wounding, and are more susceptible to microbial spoilage. Edible coatings, which intend to reduce ripening processes and protect the fruit from water loss and spoilage may be a good way to enhance the shelf life of these products. More recently, the inclusion of additives into these edible coatings to increase their effectiveness, such as essential oils and their constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidant activities, has been reported and patented.

  1. New morphometric data for fresh lunar craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.; Anderson, L.

    1978-01-01

    Morphometric relations have been determined for 2598 fresh craters on the lunar nearside using data given in the catalog of Wood and Andersson (1978). For each of five principal morphological types, typified by Albategnius C, Biot, Sosigenes, Triesnecker, and Tycho, statistical relations are documented for the following: crater diameter and depth; floor diameter and crater diameter; central peak height and crater diameter; average wall slope and crater depth; central peak occurrence and crater diameter; occurrence of scallops or terraces and crater diameter. The first four relations generally confirm the conclusions of Pike (1977), but the last two differ from results reported by Smith and Sanchez (1973). Small (diameter less than 20 km) flat-floored craters formed in mare terrains are as much as 10% deeper than those formed in the highlands, and the depths of small bowl-shaped craters reflect even greater dependence on terrain. Larger, scalloped-walled craters are deeper in highland terrain than on the maria. Although wall failure does not occur until the crater diameter reaches 13 km, central peaks are found in flat floor craters as small as 2 km.

  2. The technology behind Colgate Total Advanced Fresh.

    PubMed

    Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    In the early 1990s, a breakthrough toothpaste, Colgate Total, was launched with documented long-lasting activity against plaque, gingivitis, calculus, tooth decay, and bad breath. The technology behind this toothpaste is the combination of triclosan, a polyvinylmethylether/maleic acid copolymer, and sodium fluoride. The copolymer ensures maximal oral retention and subsequent release of the antibacterial triclosan. Effective levels of triclosan have been observed in the oral cavity 12 hours after brushing the teeth, allowing prolonged control of oral bacteria that may cause the most common dental problems, including bad breath. Similarly, the enhanced retention of triclosan to oral surfaces after using this revolutionary toothpaste for up to 2 years has led to significantly reduced incremental coronal caries compared to an American Dental Association-Approved anticavity fluoride toothpaste. Furthermore, significantly less calcium remained in dental plaque after brushing the teeth with the triclosan/copolymer toothpaste, resulting in the formation of less tartar. In keeping with the multiple oral health benefits provided by Colgate Total, consumers are now offered a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, which provides the numerous therapeutic and esthetic benefits that are the hallmark of Colgate Total. The new dentifrice, which contains an impactful breath-freshening flavor, has been documented to provide sustained control of bad breath over 12 hours.

  3. Osteoformin accelerates fresh fracture healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Bi, Lian Xiang; Mainous, Elgene G; Zeng, YaPing; Buford, William L

    2007-12-01

    Negatively charged resins have been shown to stimulate bone repair. In previous studies, the negatively charged polypeptide polyaspartate, which has been named Osteoformin, has been shown to stimulate osteoblast differentiation in vitro. The objective of the current study was to investigate the potential effect of Osteoformin on experimental femoral fracture healing in vivo. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The femurs of anesthetized rats were stabilized with intramedullary pins and subjected to closed midshaft transverse facture by bending to failure. In experimental rats, fracture sites were injected with 100 microg of Osteoformin dissolved in 0.1 mL phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at day 1 and day 7 after surgery; in controls groups, fracture sites received 0.1 mL PBS at the intervals indicated above. Between 2 and 4 weeks after fracture, the animals were sacrificed and the healing femurs were removed for radiographic and histologic analysis. Osteoformin decreased the healing time of fresh fractures in rats, as indicated by histologic and radiographic assessments. The results of this study show that Osteoformin improves femoral fracture healing in rats.

  4. A Young, Fresh Crater in Hellespontus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-14

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is of a morphologically fresh and simple impact crater in the Hellespontus region. At 1.3 kilometers in diameter, this unnamed crater is only slightly larger than Arizona's Barringer (aka Meteor) Crater, by about 200 meters. Note the simple bowl shape and the raised crater rim. Rock and soil excavated out of the crater by the impacting meteor -- called ejecta -- forms the ejecta deposit. It is continuous for about one crater radius away from the rim and is likely composed of about 90 percent ejecta and 10 percent in-place material that was re-worked by both the impact and the subsequently sliding ejecta. The discontinuous ejecta deposit extends from about one crater radius outward. Here, high velocity ejecta that was launched from close to the impact point -- and got the biggest kick -- flew a long way, landed, rolled, slid, and scoured the ground, forming long tendrils of ejecta and v-shaped ridges. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20340

  5. The mirror neuron system: a fresh view.

    PubMed

    Casile, Antonino; Caggiano, Vittorio; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons in the monkey premotor and parietal cortices that discharge during the execution and observation of goal-directed motor acts. They are deemed to be at the basis of primates' social abilities. In this review, the authors provide a fresh view about two still open questions about mirror neurons. The first question is their possible functional role. By reviewing recent neurophysiological data, the authors suggest that mirror neurons might represent a flexible system that encodes observed actions in terms of several behaviorally relevant features. The second question concerns the possible developmental mechanisms responsible for their initial emergence. To provide a possible answer to question, the authors review two different aspects of sensorimotor development: facial and hand movements, respectively. The authors suggest that possibly two different "mirror" systems might underlie the development of action understanding and imitative abilities in the two cases. More specifically, a possibly prewired system already present at birth but shaped by the social environment might underlie the early development of facial imitative abilities. On the contrary, an experience-dependent system might subserve perception-action couplings in the case of hand movements. The development of this latter system might be critically dependent on the observation of own movements.

  6. The Mirror Neuron System: A Fresh View

    PubMed Central

    Casile, Antonino; Caggiano, Vittorio; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons in the monkey premotor and parietal cortices that discharge during the execution and observation of goal-directed motor acts. They are deemed to be at the basis of primates’ social abilities. In this review, the authors provide a fresh view about two still open questions about mirror neurons. The first question is their possible functional role. By reviewing recent neurophysiological data, the authors suggest that mirror neurons might represent a flexible system that encodes observed actions in terms of several behaviorally relevant features. The second question concerns the possible developmental mechanisms responsible for their initial emergence. To provide a possible answer to question, the authors review two different aspects of sensorimotor development: facial and hand movements, respectively. The authors suggest that possibly two different “mirror” systems might underlie the development of action understanding and imitative abilities in the two cases. More specifically, a possibly prewired system already present at birth but shaped by the social environment might underlie the early development of facial imitative abilities. On the contrary, an experience-dependent system might subserve perception-action couplings in the case of hand movements. The development of this latter system might be critically dependent on the observation of own movements. PMID:21467305

  7. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... on fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it... and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  8. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  9. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear assessment rate. 927.236 Section 927.236... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Assessment Rate § 927.236 Fresh pear assessment rate. On and after July...

  10. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  11. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEARS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Rules and Regulations Reports § 927.125 Fresh pear reports. (a) Each handler shall furnish to...

  12. Breeding lettuce for improved fresh-cut processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce is a widely grown vegetable that is used to make fresh-cut salads, which are popular with consumers due to their convenience. Production and processing of fresh-cut lettuce is continually evolving, offering more products and becoming more efficient. Breeding new lettuce cultivars specialized...

  13. Fresh Start: A Model for Success and Sustainable Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Susan; Kinchington, Francia

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the rationale and debate of the "Fresh Start" schools policy introduced by the New Labour Government in 1997 as a vehicle for improvement in schools that historically had been classified as "failing". Underpinning the policy is the assumption that Fresh Start can act as a catalytic agent of positive change…

  14. Reuse of fresh water sludge in cement making.

    PubMed

    Pan, R; Huang, C; Lin, S

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing demand for high quality water, a large quantity of chemical agent must be added in the water purification process, which in turn generates enormous amount of fresh water sludge. Of all the options for sludge disposal, sludge reuse has been considered most economical and environmentally sound. This study evaluated the possibility of incorporating fresh water sludge in the making of Portland cement through the sintering process. The goal was to search for the optimal condition to maximize the replacement of clay with the fresh water sludge. Characteristics of fresh water sludge were collected and analyzed. The analysis showed that water source and water treatment process dominate th characteristics, particularly the chemical composition of the fresh water sludge. The fresh water sludge was mixed with the cement clay in various percentages, from 0% to 100%, as raw material for cement-making. The effects of its addition on the sintering condition and the quality of cement were evaluated. The analysis of the clinkers showed that the addition of the fresh water sludge did not change the phase form and the f-CaO content of the cement. The compressive strength of the masonry increased with the increasing addition of fresh water sludge. All cement products made from various replacement ratios met the Chinese National Standard of first degree Portland cement.

  15. Morphology of Fresh Outflow Channel Deposits on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Parker, T. J.; Russell, A. J.; Knudsen, O.

    2002-01-01

    We interpret the channel surface of Athabasca and Marte Valles to be fresh former ice-rich fluvial (hyperconcentrated) deposits rather than volcanic flows. Simply stated, this is what a fresh outflow channel deposit would look like. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Phytosanitary irradiation and fresh fruit quality: Cultivar and maturity effects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irradiation is an effective quarantine treatment for global trade of fresh produce. Variation in cultivars and maturity stages can impact the tolerance of fresh fruits to irradiation for the purposes of quarantine security. Tolerance thresholds for irradiated fruit are lacking for a large number of ...

  17. Chimpanzees can visually perceive differences in the freshness of foods

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Tomoko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji; Tomonaga, Masaki; Okajima, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Colour vision in primates is believed to be an adaptation for finding ripe fruit and young leaves. The contribution of the luminance distribution, which influences how humans evaluate the freshness of food, has not been explored with respect to the detection of subtle distinctions in food quality in non-human primates. We examined how chimpanzees, which are closely related to humans, perceive the freshness of foods. The findings suggest that chimpanzees were able to choose fresher cabbage based on both colour and grey-scale images. Additional tests with images of novel cabbage, spinach, and strawberries revealed that one chimpanzee could detect the freshness of other fruits and vegetables. The critical factor in determining the judgements of freshness made by the chimpanzees was the spatial layout of luminance information. These findings provide the first known evidence that chimpanzees discriminate between images representing various degrees of freshness based solely on luminance information. PMID:27708365

  18. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Min; Gao, Zhongxue; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-06-30

    Fresh foods are perishable, seasonal and regional in nature and their storage, transportation, and preservation of freshness are quite challenging. Smart storage technologies can online detection and monitor the changes of quality parameters and storage environment of fresh foods during storage, so that operators can make timely adjustments to reduce the loss. This article reviews the smart storage technologies from two aspects: online detection technologies and smartly monitoring technologies for fresh foods. Online detection technologies include electronic nose, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), hyperspectral imaging and computer vision. Smartly monitoring technologies mainly include some intelligent indicators for monitoring the change of storage environment. Smart storage technologies applied to fresh foods need to be highly efficient and nondestructive and need to be competitively priced. In this work, we have critically reviewed the principles, applications, and development trends of smart storage technologies.

  19. Application of surface-harmonics code SUHAM-U and Monte-Carlo code UNK-MC for calculations of 2D light water benchmark-experiment VENUS-2 with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Davidenko, V. D.; Nevinitsa, V. A.; Tsibulsky, V. F.

    2006-07-01

    Verification of the SUHAM-U code has been carried out by the calculation of two-dimensional benchmark-experiment on critical light-water facility VENUS-2. Comparisons with experimental data and calculations by Monte-Carlo code UNK with the same nuclear data library B645 for basic isotopes have been fulfilled. Calculations of two-dimensional facility were carried out with using experimentally measured buckling values. Possibility of SUHAM code application for computations of PWR reactor with uranium and MOX fuel has been demonstrated. (authors)

  20. Improving the microbiological safety and quality of fresh and fresh-cut produce in the U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our research priorities are to understand how pathogens become associated with fresh and fresh-cut produce, and to develop and validate effective, safe and commercially applicable antimicrobial processes and interventions (“kill steps”) suitable for use on these fragile, high-value commodities. Our ...

  1. Cold plasma as an antimicrobial intervention for fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: an ERRC research update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research at the Eastern Regional Research Center into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. ...

  2. Effects of fresh Aloe vera gel coating on browning alleviation of fresh cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangenese) fruit cv. Taaptimjaan.

    PubMed

    Supapvanich, S; Mitrsang, P; Srinorkham, P; Boonyaritthongchai, P; Wongs-Aree, C

    2016-06-01

    The effect of natural coating by using fresh Aloe vera (A. vera) gel alleviating browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits cv. Taaptimjaan was investigated. The fresh-cut fruits were dipped in fresh A. vera gel at various concentrations of 0, 25, 75 or 100 % (v/v) for 2 min at 4 ± 1 °C for 6 days. Lightness (L*), whiteness index (WI), browning index (BI), total color difference (ΔE*), sensorial quality attributes, total phenolic (TP) content, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined. During storage, L* and WI of the fresh-cut fruits surface decreased whilst their BI and ΔE* increased. A. vera coating maintained the L* and WI and delayed the increase in BI and ΔE*, especially at 75 % A. vera dip. The fresh-cut fruits dipped in 75 % A. vera had the lowest browning score, the highest acceptance score and delayed the increase in TP content and PPO activity. However POD activity was induced by A. vera coating. Antioxidant activity had no effect on browning incidence of the fresh-cut fruits. Consequently, A. vera gel coating could maintain quality and retarded browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits during storage.

  3. A Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program improves high school students' consumption of fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elaine M; Cullen, Karen Weber; Watson, Kathleen B; Konarik, Melanie; Radcliffe, John

    2009-07-01

    Low fruit and vegetable intake may be associated with overweight. The United States Department of Agriculture implemented the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in 2006-2007. One Houston-area high school was selected and received funding to provide baskets of fresh fruits and vegetables daily for each classroom during this period. This study assessed the impact of the program on students' fruit and vegetable intake. At program end (May 2007), fruit and vegetable intake surveys were distributed to students at the intervention school as well as at a comparison high school that did not receive the program. Surveys, which were completed anonymously, were received from 34% of intervention and 42% of comparison school students. The students were classified as to whether they met the recommended daily intake of fruit, 100% fruit juice, and vegetables. The probability of meeting the recommendations was assessed with logistic regression analyses, controlling for sex, age, and ethnicity. Compared with the comparison control school students, intervention school students were more likely to report eating fruit and drinking 100% fruit juice at least two times per day (39.3% vs 27.3%; P<0.05) and consuming total fruit, juice, and vegetables (22% vs 18.4%; P<0.05) five or more times per day in the preceding 7 days. More intervention school students (59.1%) than comparison school students (40.9%) reported eating fruit at least one time per day (P<0.05). There were no group differences in vegetable intake. Fresh fruit and vegetable distribution programs provide the opportunity for students to taste a variety of fruits and vegetables, and may improve consumption of these foods by adolescents.

  4. Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Grigolo, Brunella; Bevoni, Roberto; Di Caprio, Francesco; Ruffilli, Alberto; Cavallo, Marco; Desando, Giovanna; Vannini, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Severe post-traumatic ankle arthritis poses a reconstructive challenge in the young and active patient. Bipolar fresh osteochondral allograft (BFOA) may represent an intriguing alternative to arthrodesis and prosthetic replacement. The aim of this study was to describe a lateral trans-malleolar technique for BFOA, and to evaluate the results in a case series. From 2004 to 2006, 32 patients, mean age of 36.8 +/- 8.4 years, affected by ankle arthritis underwent BFOA with a mean followup of 31.2 months. The graft was prepared by specifically designed jigs, including the talus and the tibia with the medial malleolus. The host surfaces were prepared by the same jigs through a lateral approach. The graft was placed and fixed with twist-off screws. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically at 2, 4, and 6 month after operation, and at a minimum 24 months followup. A biopsy of the grafted areas was obtained from 7 patients at 1-year followup for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Preoperative AOFAS score was 33.1 +/- 10.9 and postoperatively 69.5 +/- 19.4 (p < 0.0005). Six failures occurred. Cartilage harvests showed hyaline-like histology with a normal collagen component but low proteoglycan presence and a disorganized structure. Samples were positive for MMP-1, MMP-13 and Capsase-3. The use of BFOA represents an intriguing alternative to arthrodesis or arthroplasty. We believe precise allograft sizing, stable fitting and fixation and delayed weightbearing were key factors for a successful outcome. Further research regarding the immunological behavior of transplanted cartilage is needed.

  5. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  6. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 2 - CANDU heavy water reactor alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, S.R.; Spellman, D.J.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 2 of a four volume report, summarizes the results of these analyses for the CANDU reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  7. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qi; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce–associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges. PMID:28282938

  8. Polyphasic characterization of bacterial community in fresh cut salads.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Scifò, Giovanna Ombretta; Tomaselli, Filippo; Caggia, Cinzia

    2009-01-15

    In the present work we describe a polyphasic study of bacterial community in fresh cut salads packaged under ordinary and modified atmospheres. Samples of fresh cut salads were aseptically collected at 0, 3, and 6 days of storage and analysed both by culture-dependent and -independent methods. DNA extracted from fresh cut salad samples was used as a template for PCR amplification of 16 S rRNA gene; the PCR products were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE); finally, clone libraries of 16 S rRNA gene from the fresh cut salad was constructed. Results of plating count revealed a significant increase of all microbial loads in fresh-cut salad samples packaged in OA and that the microbial growth of the different groups was significantly affected by the conditions applied for MA packaging. A constant presence, throughout storage, of the pathogenic bacteria in all the fresh-cut salads samples was highlighted by PCR-DGGE analysis. Therefore, the polyphasic approach used in the present study allowed us to characterize the main species involved in the fresh cut salad products and to better understand their dynamics throughout storage.

  9. Luminance distribution modifies the perceived freshness of strawberries

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Lopera, Carlos; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Okajima, Katsunori

    2012-01-01

    Material perception studies focus on the analysis of visual cues that may underlie the ability to distinguish between the different properties of an object. Herein, we investigated the effects of luminance distribution on the perceived freshness of a strawberry independent from its colour information. We took photographs of the degradation of a strawberry over 169 hours in a controlled environment, then presented cropped square patches of the original images to subjects who then rated the perceived freshness using a visual analogue scale. Freshness ratings were significantly highly correlated with statistical measures of the luminance and colour channels. To clarify which of these visual cues affects freshness perception, we created artificial images by modifying only the luminance distribution and keeping the colour information unchanged. The modification of luminance resulted in a highly correlated change in freshness perception, suggesting that luminance visual cues are essential to the freshness perception of strawberries. Finally, by eliminating the colour information from the images, we examined the contribution of luminance distribution independent of colour information and found that luminance information suffices for accurate estimation of strawberry freshness. PMID:23145288

  10. Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Produce: Outbreaks, Prevalence and Contamination Levels.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Gooneratne, Ravi; Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2017-03-09

    Listeria monocytogenes, a member of the genus Listeria, is widely distributed in agricultural environments, such as soil, manure and water. This organism is a recognized foodborne pathogenic bacterium that causes many diseases, from mild gastroenteritis to severe blood and/or central nervous system infections, as well as abortion in pregnant women. Generally, processed ready-to-eat and cold-stored meat and dairy products are considered high-risk foods for L. monocytogenes infections that cause human illness (listeriosis). However, recently, several listeriosis outbreaks have been linked to fresh produce contamination around the world. Additionally, many studies have detected L. monocytogenes in fresh produce samples and even in some minimally processed vegetables. Thus L. monocytogenes may contaminate fresh produce if present in the growing environment (soil and water). Prevention of biofilm formation is an important control measure to reduce the prevalence and survival of L. monocytogenes in growing environments and on fresh produce. This article specifically focuses on fresh produce-associated listeriosis outbreaks, prevalence in growing environments, contamination levels of fresh produce, and associated fresh produce safety challenges.

  11. Composition of sulfited potatoes: comparison with fresh and frozen potatoes.

    PubMed

    Chalom, S; Elrezzi, E; Peña, P; Astiarsarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-02-01

    The content in moisture, fat, protein, carbohydrate, fibre and vitamin C was analyzed in three commercial types of potatoes: sulfited (treated with E223), frozen potatoes (pre-fried) and fresh potatoes (not processed). The composition of sulfited potatoes does not usually appear in food composition tables. Our results showed significant differences in the content of carbohydrates and fibre between sulfited and fresh potatoes. The content of vitamin C in sulfited potatoes, which is similar to that of frozen potatoes, was shown to be approximately half of that found in fresh potatoes.

  12. C-Cl activation by group IV metal oxides in solid argon matrixes: matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and theoretical investigations of the reactions of MOx (M = Ti, Zr; x = 1, 2) with CH3Cl.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanying

    2013-07-11

    Reactions of the ground-state titanium and zirconium monoxide and dioxide molecules with monochloromethane in excess argon matrixes have been investigated in solid argon by infrared absorption spectroscopy and density functional theoretical calculations. The results show that the ground-state MOx (M = Ti, Zr; x = 1, 2) molecules react with CH3Cl to first form the weakly bound MO(CH3Cl) and MO2(CH3Cl) complexes. The MO(CH3Cl) complexes can rearrange to the CH3M(O)Cl isomers with the Cl atom of CH3Cl coordination to the metal center of MO upon UV light irradiation (λ < 300 nm). Theoretical calculations indicate that the electronic state crossings exist from the MO + CH3Cl reaction to the more stable CH3M(O)Cl molecules via the MO(CH3Cl) complexes traversing their corresponding transition states. The MO2(CH3Cl) complexes can isomerize to the more stable CH3OM(O)Cl molecules with the addition of the C-Cl bond of CH3Cl to one of the O═M bonds of MO2 upon annealing after broad-band light irradiation. The C-Cl activation by the MOx mechanism was interpreted by the calculated potential energy profiles.

  13. Sets of Reports and Articles Regarding Cement Wastes Forms Containing Alpha Emitters that are Potentially Useful for Development of Russian Federation Waste Treatment Processes for Solidification of Weapons Plutonium MOX Fuel Fabrication Wastes for

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J

    2003-06-12

    This is a set of nine reports and articles that were kindly provided by Dr. Christine A. Langton from the Savannah River Site (SRS) to L. J. Jardine LLNL in June 2003. The reports discuss cement waste forms and primarily focus on gas generation in cement waste forms from alpha particle decays. However other items such as various cement compositions, cement product performance test results and some cement process parameters are also included. This set of documents was put into this Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) releasable report for the sole purpose to provide a set of documents to Russian technical experts now beginning to study cement waste treatment processes for wastes from an excess weapons plutonium MOX fuel fabrication facility. The intent is to provide these reports for use at a US RF Experts Technical Meeting on: the Management of Wastes from MOX Fuel Fabrication Facilities, in Moscow July 9-11, 2003. The Russian experts should find these reports to be very useful for their technical and economic feasibility studies and the supporting R&D activities required to develop acceptable waste treatment processes for use in Russia as part of the ongoing Joint US RF Plutonium Disposition Activities.

  14. Interaction of Salmonella enterica with Fresh Produce Leaves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attachment and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovars to fresh produce leaves was investigated. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Salmonella Tennessee and Salmonella Thompson produced stronger biofilms compared to Salmonella Newpor...

  15. 50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of hold, starboard side looking aft at fresh water tank; note bilge ceiling, hanging knees, and pointer beam; electrical conduit above installed for exhibition lighting - Schooner WAWONA, 1018 Valley Street, Seattle, King County, WA

  16. 7 CFR 944.700 - Fresh prune import regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....700 Fresh prune import regulation. (a) Pursuant to section 8e of the Agricultural Marketing Agreement... consumption by charitable institutions, distribution by relief agencies, or commercial processing...

  17. Genetic regulation of health beneficial phytonutrients in fresh produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Compelling evidence in literature supports the hypothesis that dietary phytonutrients, especially antioxidants, maintain human health and prevent chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, cardiovascular and age-related disorders, including dementia. Fresh fruits and vegetables are die...

  18. 77 FR 13015 - Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 211 and 235 RIN 0584-AD96 Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program Correction In proposed rule document 2012-4181 appearing on pages 10981-10997 in the issue...

  19. Breast augmentation with fresh-frozen homologous fat grafts.

    PubMed

    Haik, J; Talisman, R; Tamir, J; Frand, J; Gazit, E; Schibi, J; Glicksman, A; Orenstein, A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a patient who underwent breast augmentation with fresh-frozen fat homografts in Russia 10 years ago, despite the publication of major complications following this procedure.

  20. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America

    PubMed Central

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2015-01-01

    Objective To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. Design The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Results Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months’ follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D’Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months’ follow-up. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program. PMID:27375837

  1. Fresh Groundwater Resources in Georgia and Management Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaprindashvili, George; Gaprindashvili, Merab

    2015-04-01

    Fresh water represents conditioned factor for human body's life. That's why the superiority of drinking water is recognized as human body's priority according to the international declarations. World is experiencing deficit of quality water. Natural Disasters caused by the pollution of the fresh groundwater is also very painful and acute, because it needed more time, more material and financial means for the liquidation of their results, and what the most important practically is, it is impossible to renew the initial natural conditions completely. All these conditions that the rational use of fresh groundwater passed by the interests of separate countries and became worldwide, international problem - fresh water became as considerable raw material for the worlds import and export. The fresh groundwater place the important role among the water recourses of Georgia. Their existing is considerably connected to the development of industry and agriculture, also with water supply issue of populated area. Groundwater management requires precise knowledge of sources (aquifers). Monitoring of Georgia's most important aquifers started many years ago and has provided large amount of data. This was interrupted at the beginning of the 1990s. It could be noted that fresh water existing in the country is distinguished with high quality. According to the mineralization and temperature parameters groundwater is generally divided into the following groups: 1) Fresh drinking waters (mineralization not exceeding 1.0 g/l); 2) Mineral waters (mineralization over 1.0 g/l); 3) Thermal waters -- healing (20˚C - 35˚C), Geothermal (40˚C - 108˚C). Below we present briefly review about the situation of fresh groundwater resources, started recovery of groundwater monitoring network and the analysis of the management problems.

  2. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Keneally, Ryan J; Parsons, Andrew M; Willett, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001). When controlling for covariates, transfusion of warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382). Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to those who received component therapy alone when controlling for covariates.

  3. Development of a Fresh Osteochondral Allograft Program Outside North America.

    PubMed

    Tírico, Luís Eduardo Passarelli; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Santos, Luiz Augusto Ubirajara; de Rezende, Márcia Uchoa; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Pécora, José Ricardo; Croci, Alberto Tesconi; Bugbee, William Dick

    2016-07-01

    To standardize and to develop a fresh osteochondral allograft protocol of procurement, processing and surgical utilization in Brazil. This study describes the steps recommended to make fresh osteochondral allografts a viable treatment option in a country without previous fresh allograft availability. The process involves regulatory process modification, developing and establishing procurement, and processing and surgical protocols. Legislation: Fresh osteochondral allografts were not feasible in Brazil until 2009 because the law prohibited preservation of fresh grafts at tissue banks. We approved an amendment that made it legal to preserve fresh grafts for 30 days from 2°C to 6°C in tissue banks. Procurement: We changed the protocol of procurement to decrease tissue contamination. All tissues were procured in an operating room. Processing: Processing of the grafts took place within 12 hours of tissue recovery. A serum-free culture media with antibiotics was developed to store the grafts. Surgeries: We have performed 8 fresh osteochondral allografts on 8 knees obtaining grafts from 5 donors. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 31.99 ± 13.4, improving to 81.26 ± 14.7 at an average of 24 months' follow-up. Preoperative Knee Injury and Oseoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) score was 46.8 ± 20.9 and rose to 85.24 ± 13.9 after 24 months. Mean preoperative Merle D'Aubigne-Postel score was 8.75 ± 2.25 rising to 16.1 ± 2.59 at 24 months' follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first report of fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation in South America. We believe that this experience may be of value for physicians in countries that are trying to establish an osteochondral allograft transplant program.

  4. Designed synthesis of MOx (M = Zn, Fe, Sn, Ni, Mn, Co, Ce, Mg, Ag), Pt, and Au nanoparticles supported on hierarchical CuO hollow structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zailei; Jung, Ji Chul; Yan, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Despite intensive research into support substrates for the dispersal of nanoparticles and their applications, there has been a lack of general methods to produce metal oxide hollow substrates supporting a wide range of metal and metal oxides. Herein, a synthetic protocol for the preparation of CuO hollow structure-supported MOx (M = Zn, Fe, Ni, Sn, Mn, Co, Ce, Mg, and Ag) and noble metals (Pt and Au) with the desired properties and shell structure, such as CuO/Fe2O3, CuO/ZnO, CuO/SnO2, CuO/MgO, CuO/NiO, CuO/Mn2O3, CuO/CoO, CuO/CeO2, CuO/Ag2O, CuO/Pt, CuO/Au hollow cubes, CuO/ZnO double-shell hollow cubes, CuO/SnO2 double-shell hollow octahedra, CuO/SnO2/Fe2O3 and CuO/Mn2O3/NiO double-shell hollow cubes, was developed based on controlled calcination and etching. These hybrid hollow structures were employed not only as support substrates but also as active constituents for catalytic reactions. As an example, we demonstrated that CuO/ZnO hollow cubes are remarkably efficient in converting solid chitin biomass to liquid chemicals in methanol. In addition, CuO/ZnO double-shell hollow cubes were highly effective in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol in the presence of H2O2, whereas CuO/Pt and CuO/Au hollow cubes promoted the oxidation of benzyl alcohol in pure O2. The strategy developed in this work extends the controllable fabrication of high-quality CuO hollow structure-supported nanoparticles using various compositions and shell structures, paving the way to the exploration and systematic comparison of these materials in a wider range of applications.

  5. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the

  6. Wrinkle Ridges and Young Fresh Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 May 2002) The Science Wrinkle ridges are a very common landform on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon. These ridges are linear to arcuate asymmetric topographic highs commonly found on smooth plains. The origin of wrinkle ridges is not certain and two leading hypotheses have been put forth by scientists over the past 40 years. The volcanic model calls for the extrusion of high viscosity lavas along linear conduits. This thick lava accumulated over these conduits and formed the ridges. The other model is tectonic and advocates that the ridges are formed by compressional faulting and folding. Today's THEMIS image is of the ridged plains of Lunae Planum located between Kasei Valles and Valles Marineris in the northern hemisphere of the planet. Wrinkle ridges are found mostly along the eastern side of the image. The broadest wrinkle ridges in this image are up to 2 km wide. A 3 km diameter young fresh crater is located near the bottom of the image. The crater's ejecta blanket is also clearly seen surrounding the sharp well-defined crater rim. These features are indicative of a very young crater that has not been subjected to erosional processes. The Story The great thing about the solar system is that planets are both alike and different. They're all foreign enough to be mysterious and intriguing, and yet familiar enough to be seen as planetary 'cousins.' By comparing them, we can learn a lot about how planets form and then evolve geologically over time. Crinkled over smooth plains, the long, wavy raised landforms seen here are called 'wrinkle ridges,' and they've been found on Mars, Mercury, Venus, and the Moon - that is, on rocky bodies that are a part of our inner solar system. We know from this observation that planets (and large-enough moons) follow similar processes. What we don't know for sure is HOW these processes work. Scientists have been trying to understand how wrinkle ridges form for 40 years, and they still haven't reached a conclusion. That

  7. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion: Military and Civilian Implications.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Carl W; Tranberg, John W; Boyer, Phillip; Silvestri, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage and exsanguination are the leading cause of preventable death, and resuscitative therapy is a critical component for survival. In various combinations, fresh whole blood, blood components, colloids, and crystalloids have all been staples of trauma care. The use of fresh whole blood is a well-established military practice that has saved the lives of thousands of American and coalition military personnel. Civilian use of fresh whole blood is far less established owing to the wide availability of individual blood components. However, this highly tailored blood supply is vulnerable to both natural and man-made disasters. In the event of such disruption, such as a major hurricane, it may be necessary for civilian hospitals to rapidly enact a fresh whole blood program. Therefore, the aim of this article is to review the current use of blood therapy for trauma resuscitation, the US military's approach to fresh whole blood, and how maintaining a civilian capacity for fresh whole blood collection in the event of future man-made and natural disasters is key to promoting survival from trauma. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. [New index for crop canopy fresh biomass estimation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Nicolas, Tremblay; Wang, Ji-Hua; Philippe, Vigneault; Huang, Wen-Jiang; Li, Bao-Guo

    2010-02-01

    The objective of the present study is to propose a new vegetation index for corn canopy fresh biomass estimation, which improves the ability to accurately estimate high biomass levels by remote sensing technology. For this purpose, hyperspectral reflectance data of corn canopies were collected using a ground-based spectroradiometer during different field campaigns in a region of Quebec (Canada), from 2004 to 2008. Corresponding fresh biomass values were obtained by destructive measurements, and a hyperspectral image was also acquired using the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) in 2005. A new biomass index named red-edge triangular vegetation index (RTVI) was designed and compared to existing indices used for fresh biomass estimation. The results showed that RTVI was the best vegetation index for predicting canopy fresh biomass, with sustained sensitivity at high fresh biomass levels. The best regression model between RTVI and canopy fresh biomass was the power fit, with determination coefficient (R2) of 0.96. With the validation by CASI imagery in 2005, good results were obtained. The relationship between CASI predicted biomass and actual biomass was 0.58 (R2), with the RMSE of 0.44 kg x m(-2).

  9. Cryo-electron microscopy of extracellular vesicles in fresh plasma.

    PubMed

    Yuana, Yuana; Koning, Roman I; Kuil, Maxim E; Rensen, Patrick C N; Koster, Abraham J; Bertina, Rogier M; Osanto, Susanne

    2013-12-31

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles recognized as new mediators in intercellular communication and potential biomarkers of disease. They are found in many body fluids and mainly studied in fractions isolated from blood plasma in view of their potential in medicine. Due to the limitations of available analytical methods, morphological information on EV in fresh plasma is still rather limited. To image EV and determine the morphology, structure and size distribution in fresh plasma by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Fresh citrate- and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-anticoagulated plasma or EV isolated from these plasmas were rapidly cryo-immobilized by vitrification and visualized by cryo-EM. EV isolated from fresh plasma were highly heterogeneous in morphology and size and mostly contain a discernible lipid bilayer (lipid vesicles). In fresh plasma there were 2 types of particles with a median diameter of 30 nm (25-260 nm). The majority of these particles are electron dense particles which most likely represent lipoproteins. The minority are lipid vesicles, either electron dense or electron lucent, which most likely represent EV. Lipid vesicles were occasionally observed in close proximity of platelets in citrate and EDTA-anticoagulated platelet-rich plasma. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) was employed to determine the 3D structure of platelet secretory granules. Cryo-EM is a powerful technique that enables the characterization of EV in fresh plasma revealing structural details and considerable morphological heterogeneity. Only a small proportion of the submicron structures in fresh plasma are lipid vesicles representing EV.

  10. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  11. Melting icebergs to produce fresh water and mechanical energy

    SciTech Connect

    Camirand, W.M.; Hautala, E.; Randall, J.M.

    1981-10-20

    Fresh water and mechanical energy are obtained from melting of icebergs. Warm surface seawater is contacted with a fluid, which is vaporized. The resulting vapor is used to generate mechanical energy and then is condensed by contacting it with cold melt water from the iceberg. The fluid is regenerated with a concomitant elevation in the temperature of the melt water. The warmer melt water is cycled to the body of the iceberg to facilitate its melting and produce additional cold melt water, which is apportioned as fresh water and water cycled to condense the aforesaid vapor. In an alternate embodiment of the invention warm seawater is evaporated at reduced pressure. Mechanical energy is generated from the vapor, which is then condensed by direct and intimate contact with cold melt water from the iceberg. The resultant fresh water is a mixture of condensed vapor and melt water from the iceberg and has a temperature greater than the cold melt water. This fresh water mixture is contacted with the body of the iceberg to further melt it; part of the cold melt water is separated as fresh water and the remainder is cycled for use in condensing the vapor from the warm surface seawater.

  12. Natural recharge and localization of fresh ground water in Kuwait

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstrom, R.E.; Aten, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Fresh ground water (200 parts per million total dissolved solids and upwards) occurs in portions of Pleistocene sandstone aquifers beneath basins and wadis in north Kuwait where the mean rainfall is about five inches per year. The fresh water is surrounded and underlain by brackish water (> 4000 ppm TDS). Drilling and testing show that fresh water saturation is restricted to wadis and basin areas; in Rawdatain basin it attains a maximum thickness of about 110 feet and a lateral extent of about seven miles. The fresh ground water represents recharge localized, during infrequent, torrential rain storms, in areas of concentrated runoff where sediments in the vadose zone are moderately permeable and depth to the water table is generally less than a hundred feet. Concentration of runoff appears to be the primary control in the localization of recharge. The fresh water percolates downward to the ground-water reservoir following rare storms, then flows in the direction of hydraulic gradient and gradually becomes brackish. Theoretical delineation of the recharge area and ground-water flow pattern in Rawdatain was confirmed by tritium and C14 dating of the water. Brackish ground-water conditions prevail from water table downward in areas where rainfall infiltrates essentially where it falls, permeability of sediments in the vadose zone is low, or the water table is several hundred feet below land surface. In these areas, rainfall is retained and lost within the soil zone or becomes mineralized during deep percolation. ?? 1964.

  13. Viable cells survive in fresh frozen human bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, David; Kakarala, Gopikrishna; Hampson, Karen; Steele, Niall; Ashton, Brian

    2007-02-01

    Fresh frozen bone allograft is available for human recipients after at least 6 months of quarantine at -80 degrees C. It is assumed that cryopreservation without cryoprotectant removes all viable donor cells. We studied the in vitro cell growth from samples of fresh frozen human femoral head allografts after they had been released for patient use, and compared it with cell growth from a control group of fresh cancellous bone specimens from excised femoral heads (8 samples in each group). Cell outgrowths were seen in all of the fresh cancellous bone specimens (100% of replicates, 48 replicates per specimen) but only in a small minority of replicates from 4 of the allograft samples (mean 3.1%). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) investigations revealed that cell outgrowths from both groups contained mRNA for transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix, and also for matrix proteins collagen type I, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein. This is consistent with the cells being osteoblast-related. This study confirms that fresh frozen human bone allograft cells have the potential to grow in vitro, but the significance of this in recipients is currently unknown.

  14. Examination of Behavior of Fresh Concrete Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, K. T.

    2012-05-01

    Transporting fresh concrete constitutes a significant part of the production process. Transferring ready-mixed concrete on-site is done using concrete pumps. Recent developments in concrete technology, and in mineral and chemical additives, have resulted in new developments in pumping techniques and the use of different concrete mixtures and equipment. These developments required further knowledge of the behavior of fresh concrete under pressure. Two criteria were determined for the pumpability of concrete: the power required to move the concrete or of the repulsive force; and the cohesion of the fresh concrete. It would be insufficient to relate pumpability to these two criteria; the values of segregation pressure, diffusion ability, water retention capacity, and side friction of the mixture are significant parameters in ensuring that concrete is pumped freely along the pipe. To solve the pumpability problem, friction stresses should be determined as a function of the linear pressure gradient, the pressure leading to segregation of the fresh concrete should be determined, and tests for the bleeding of concrete under pressure should be examined. The scope of the research is the examination of the behavior of fresh concrete under pressure. To determine the segregation pressures, a test apparatus was designed for the bleeding of concrete under pressure. The main purpose of the study is to determine whether the concrete can be pumped easily and whether it will lose its cohesion during the pumping, based on tests of concrete workability and bleeding of concrete under pressure.

  15. Successful fresh whole ovarian autotransplantation without vascular anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuki; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Kawagoe, Yasuyuki

    2010-11-01

    To report a case of successful orthotopic autotransplantation of fresh whole ovaries without vascular anastomosis. Teaching hospital. A 34-year-old pregnant woman underwent emergency Cesarean hysterectomy during which both ovaries were accidentally removed. We performed fresh whole ovarian autotransplantation in the retroperitoneum, without vascular anastomosis. Serial hormonal measurement of E2, P4, LH, and FSH serum levels. Follow-up during the 4.5 years since transplantation has shown that the patient's hormonal levels have remained functional. Our case reveals that the retroperitoneal cavity provides an effective vascular bed for ovarian grafts. This is the first report of orthotopic autotransplantation of fresh whole ovaries without vascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Power, fresh water, and food from cold, deep sea water.

    PubMed

    Othmer, D F; Roels, O A

    1973-10-12

    Many times more solar heat energy accumulates in the vast volume of warm tropic seas than that produced by all of our power plants. The looming energy crisis causes a renewal of interest in utilizing this stored solar heat to give, in addition to electric power, vast quantities of fresh water. Warm surface water, when evaporated, generates steam, to power a turbine, then fresh water when the steam is condensed by the cold water. A great increase in revenues over that from power and fresh water is shown by a substantial mariculture pilot plant. Deep sea water contains large quantities of nutrients. These feed algae which feed shellfish, ultimately shrimps and lobsters, in shallow ponds. Wastes grow seaweed of value; and combined revenues from desalination, power generation, and mariculture will give substantial profit.

  17. Accumulation of enteric bacteriophage in fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Skraber, Sylvain; Schijven, Jack; Italiaander, Ronald; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2009-09-01

    Our study aimed to assess the accumulation of bacteriophages in sandy and clayey fresh water sediments. All of the 24 natural fresh water sediments were positive for somatic and F-specific phages, though their concentrations in the overlying water were undetectable in 1 and 11 samples, respectively, out of 24, corresponding to 4 and 46% for somatic and F-specific phages, respectively. Based on the sediment-to-water ratios, F-specific phages accumulate over 100 times more than the somatic coliphages in clayey sediments. Inactivation of bacteriophages in clayey and sandy sediments over a 1-month period at 15 degrees C was negligible. Our data suggest that persistence of deposited viruses in fresh water sediments leads to accumulation and the findings call for additional investigations on the fate of entrapped pathogenic viruses.

  18. A comparison of processed and fresh squeezed ‘Hamlin’ orange juice - nutrients and phytonutrients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Hamlin’ orange juices were extracted using one of following methods: 1) freshly squeezed with a commercial food service squeezer (fresh), 2) freshly squeezed + pasteurized (fresh/pasteurized), and 3) processed with industrial extractor and pasteurized (processed). Samples were taken directly after ...

  19. Fibrin sealants from fresh or fresh/frozen plasma as scaffolds for in vitro articular cartilage regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dare, Emma V; Griffith, May; Poitras, Philippe; Wang, Tao; Dervin, Geoffrey F; Giulivi, Antonio; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2009-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate human CryoSeal fibrin glue derived from single units of plasma as scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering. Human articular chondrocytes were encapsulated into genipin cross-linked fibrin glue derived from individual units of fresh or frozen plasma using the CryoSeal fibrin sealant (FS) system. The constructs were cultured for up to 7 weeks in vitro under low (5%) or normal (21%) oxygen. Chondrocyte viability was >90% within the fibrin gels. Hypoxia induced significant increases in collagen II and Sox9 gene expression and a significant decrease in collagen I. A significant increase in collagen II was detected in fresh plasma-derived cultures, while only collagen I was significantly increased in frozen plasma cultures. Significant increases in total glycosaminoglycan and collagen were detected in the extracellular matrix secreted by the encapsulated chondrocytes. A significant increase in compression modulus was only observed for fresh plasma-derived gels, which is likely explained by a greater amount of collagen type I detected after 7 weeks in frozen compared to fresh plasma gels. Our results indicate that CryoSeal fibrin glue derived from fresh plasma is suitable as a tissue engineering scaffold for human articular chondrocytes, and therefore should be evaluated for autologous articular cartilage regeneration.

  20. Hyperspectral imaging technique for determination of pork freshness attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongyu; Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Tang, Xiuying; Chao, Kuanglin; Dhakal, Sagar

    2011-06-01

    Freshness of pork is an important quality attribute, which can vary greatly in storage and logistics. The specific objectives of this research were to develop a hyperspectral imaging system to predict pork freshness based on quality attributes such as total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters (L*,a*,b*). Pork samples were packed in seal plastic bags and then stored at 4°C. Every 12 hours. Hyperspectral scattering images were collected from the pork surface at the range of 400 nm to 1100 nm. Two different methods were performed to extract scattering feature spectra from the hyperspectral scattering images. First, the spectral scattering profiles at individual wavelengths were fitted accurately by a three-parameter Lorentzian distribution (LD) function; second, reflectance spectra were extracted from the scattering images. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) method was used to establish prediction models to predict pork freshness. The results showed that the PLSR models based on reflectance spectra was better than combinations of LD "parameter spectra" in prediction of TVB-N with a correlation coefficient (r) = 0.90, a standard error of prediction (SEP) = 7.80 mg/100g. Moreover, a prediction model for pork freshness was established by using a combination of TVB-N, pH and color parameters. It could give a good prediction results with r = 0.91 for pork freshness. The research demonstrated that hyperspectral scattering technique is a valid tool for real-time and nondestructive detection of pork freshness.

  1. Thermography and machine learning techniques for tomato freshness prediction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Hsieh, Sheng-Jen; Wang, Hong-Jin; Tan, Zuojun

    2016-12-01

    The United States and China are the world's leading tomato producers. Tomatoes account for over $2 billion annually in farm sales in the U.S. Tomatoes also rank as the world's 8th most valuable agricultural product, valued at $58 billion dollars annually, and quality is highly prized. Nondestructive technologies, such as optical inspection and near-infrared spectrum analysis, have been developed to estimate tomato freshness (also known as grades in USDA parlance). However, determining the freshness of tomatoes is still an open problem. This research (1) illustrates the principle of theory on why thermography might be able to reveal the internal state of the tomatoes and (2) investigates the application of machine learning techniques-artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs)-in combination with transient step heating, and thermography for freshness prediction, which refers to how soon the tomatoes will decay. Infrared images were captured at a sampling frequency of 1 Hz during 40 s of heating followed by 160 s of cooling. The temperatures of the acquired images were plotted. Regions with higher temperature differences between fresh and less fresh (rotten within three days) tomatoes of approximately uniform size and shape were used as the input nodes for ANN and SVM models. The ANN model built using heating and cooling data was relatively optimal. The overall regression coefficient was 0.99. These results suggest that a combination of infrared thermal imaging and ANN modeling methods can be used to predict tomato freshness with higher accuracy than SVM models.

  2. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  3. Smart packaging for the monitoring of fish freshness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacquit, Alexis; Lau, King Tong; Diamond, Dermot

    2005-06-01

    The development of chromo-reactive sensor spots for real time monitoring of fish freshness is described. The on-package sensor spots incorporating an immobilized pH sensitive dye, respond through visible colour change to basic volatile spoilage compounds collectively known as Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N). Trials on fresh fish filets have verified that the sensor can be employed for real time monitoring of fish spoilage. The sensor response can be interrogated with a simple, inexpensive reflectance colorimeter that we have developed based on two LEDs and a photodetector.

  4. PHASE EVOLUTION AND MICROWAVE DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF (Li0.5Bi0.5)(W1-xMox)O4(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) CERAMICS WITH ULTRA-LOW SINTERING TEMPERATURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di; Guo, Jing; Yao, Xi; Pang, Li-Xia; Qi, Ze-Ming; Shao, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The (Li0.5Bi0.5)(W1-xMox)O4(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) ceramics were prepared via the solid state reaction method. The sintering temperature decreased almost linearly from 755°C for (Li0.5Bi0.5)WO4 to 560°C for (Li0.5Bi0.5)MoO4. When the x≤0.3, a wolframite solid solution can be formed. For x = 0.4 and x = 0.6 compositions, both the wolframite and scheelite phases can be formed from the X-ray diffraction analysis, while two different kinds of grains can be revealed from the scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer results. High performance of microwave dielectric properties were obtained in the (Li0.5Bi0.5)(W0.6Mo0.4)O4 ceramic sintered at 620°C with a relative permittivity of 31.5, a Qf value of 8500 GHz (at 8.2 GHz), and a temperature coefficient value of +20 ppm/°C. Complex dielectric spectra of pure (Li0.5Bi0.5)WO4 ceramic gained from the infrared spectra were extrapolated down to microwave range, and they were in good agreement with the measured values. The (Li0.5Bi0.5)(W1-xMox)O4(0.0 ≤ x ≤ 1.0) ceramics might be promising for low temperature co-fired ceramic technology.

  5. Photons and electrons: advances in using cold plasma, irradiation, UV and other energy-based treatments for fresh and fresh-cut produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional antimicrobial treatments for fresh produce rely on chemical compounds and physical contact to inactivate and remove bacterial contamination. Recent research has identified a number of energy-based alternative technologies to improve the safety of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetable...

  6. Stop and reverse salinization by simultaneously pumping (and using) fresh and brackish groundwater: The fresh keeper in practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raat, K. J.; Oosterhof, A. T.; Van de Wetering, S.; Kooiman, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In coastal areas, abstraction of fresh groundwater may result in intrusion of underlying or nearby brackish and saline groundwater and subsequent salinization of water well fields. We developed and applied an innovative 3-way solution to these problems: 1. Intercept (pump) intruding brackish groundwater, to prevent salinization of fresh water resources and water well fields ('fresh keeper concept'); 2. Use the abstracted brackish water as an additional drinking water source, by desalting it with reverse osmosis (brackish water RO); 3. Dispose the BWRO membrane concentrate through deep well injection into a deeper, more saline aquifer. The approach was tested at two locations in the Netherlands. At Noardburgum, the full approach was applied (fresh keeper, BWRO, deep well injection), while at Zevenbergen the latter two steps were tested. The simultaneous abstraction of upper fresh and lower brackish groundwater led to a lowering of the fresh-brackish water interface in Noardburgum. Moreover, we found that the brackish water abstraction resulted in a freshening of the brackish (lower) part of the source aquifer as well. Likewise, at Zevenbergen brackish water abstraction led to freshening of the pumped aquifer, as indicated by the decrease in salinity levels of the abstracted brackish water in the first months of the pilot. These results provoked a shift in our thinking towards brackish water and salinization: instead of lowering production by keeping away from brackish groundwater, brackish water should be pumped and used. The abstracted anoxic, brackish water was an excellent feed water for the RO installations, being of constant quality and of relatively low salinity. Energy costs for desalination were thus lower than for seawater reverse osmosis. At both locations, concentrate injection was technically feasible, as long as the RO recovery levels were not higher than 50% (Zevenbergen) or 70% (Noardburgum). At higher levels, injection well clogging due to mineral

  7. Internet Usage In The Fresh Produce Supply Chainin China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Liu, Xue

    Although effective implementation of the Internet technologies has a great potential for improving efficiency and reducing wastage within the fresh produce supply chain. the situation of the Internet usage by SMEs (small and medium sized enterprises) in the fresh produce supply chain is still unclear in China. As the main players, SMEs haven't been given enough attention from both academics and governments. Therefore, this research attempts to address this issue by, first, investigating the current usage of the Internet and related software by Chinese SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain, and then, by identifying enablers and barriers faced by SMEs to call government's attention. As a part of an EU-Asia IT&C funded project, a survey was carried out with SMEs in this industry from five major cities in China. The results reveal that in the relatively developed areas of China, SMEs in the fresh produce supply chain are rapidly adopting the Internet and software packages, but the level of adoption varies greatly and there is a significant lack of integration among the supply chain partners. Chinese SMEs are keen to embrace emerging technologies and have acted to adopt new software and tools. Given that cost of implementation is not a barrier, their concern over legal protection and online security must be addressed for further development.

  8. Low pressure treatments for codling moth on fresh fruits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary phytosanitary treatment used for fresh fruits exported to markets requiring quarantine protocols is fumigation with methyl bromide. Quarantine and pre-shipment (QPS) treatments are currently allowable under the Montreal Protocol, but there is growing concern that the QPS exemption will e...

  9. Low toxic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in fresh water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, T. S.

    1978-01-01

    Combinations of chemical compounds that reportedly reduce the corrosion of aluminum in fresh water were evaluated. These included combinations of borates, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, silicates, and mercaptobenzothiazole. Eight of fifty inhibitor combinations evaluated gave excellent corrosion protection and compared favorably with sodium chromate, which has generally been considered standard for many years.

  10. Incidence of chilling injury in fresh-cut 'Kent' mangoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The preferred storage temperature for fresh-cut fruits in terms of visual quality retention is around 5 °C, which is considered to be a chilling temperature for chilling sensitive tropical fruits like mango (Mangifera indica L.). Changes in visual and compositional quality factors, aroma volatile pr...

  11. Substituting KCl for NaCl in fresh Queso Fresco

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing the sodium level in cheese is challenging when a signature salty flavor is expected, such as in high-moisture Queso Fresco (QF). Fresh starter-free QF was fine milled and dry salted at different levels of NaCl and KCl to obtain total salt levels of 1.5 to 2.0%. The treatments contained 1....

  12. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  13. A "Fresh Start" for a "Failing School"? A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines "Fresh Start," a New Labour flagship initiative to raise education "standards" in a radical and innovative way. Drawing on a qualitative study of a comprehensive school in England, I argue that the initiative added to the problems faced by the "failing school" and promoted rather traditional ways…

  14. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... destination by city and state or city and country; (5) The name and address of such handler; and (6) Other...

  15. 7 CFR 927.125 - Fresh pear reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pear reports. 927.125 Section 927.125 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... destination by city and state or city and country; (5) The name and address of such handler; and (6) Other...

  16. Osmotic Power: A Fresh Look at an Old Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from osmotic pressure might seem a far-fetched idea but this article describes a prototype in Norway where the osmotic pressure generated between salt and fresh water drives a turbine. This idea was applied in a student investigation, where they were tasked with researching which alternative materials could be used for the…

  17. Availability of Fresh Produce in Nutrition Assistance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Alexandria, VA. Office of Analysis and Evaluation.

    Noting that fruit and vegetable consumption is an important component of a balanced diet consistent with the "Dietary Guidelines for Americans" and the Food Guide Pyramid, this report fulfills a request from the Appropriations Committee Directives to analyze current levels of fresh produce in Department of Agriculture (USDA) nutritional…

  18. Osmotic Power: A Fresh Look at an Old Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Pam

    2014-01-01

    Electricity from osmotic pressure might seem a far-fetched idea but this article describes a prototype in Norway where the osmotic pressure generated between salt and fresh water drives a turbine. This idea was applied in a student investigation, where they were tasked with researching which alternative materials could be used for the…

  19. The use of fresh whole blood in massive transfusion.

    PubMed

    Repine, Thomas B; Perkins, Jeremy G; Kauvar, David S; Blackborne, Lorne

    2006-06-01

    Most indications for whole blood transfusion are now well managed exclusively with blood component therapy, yet the use of fresh whole blood for resuscitating combat casualties has persisted in the U.S. military. Published descriptions of whole blood use in military and civilian settings were compared with use of whole blood at the 31st Combat Support Hospital (31st CSH) stationed in Baghdad in 2004-2005. Concerns about logistics, safety, and relative efficacy of whole blood versus component therapy have argued against the use of whole blood in most settings. However, military physicians have observed some distinct advantages in fresh warm whole blood over component therapy during the massive resuscitation of acidotic, hypothermic, and coagulopathic trauma patients. In this critical role, fresh whole blood was eventually incorporated as an adjunct into a novel whole-blood-based massive transfusion protocol. Under extreme and austere circumstances, the risk:benefit ratio of whole blood transfusion favors its use. Fresh whole blood may, at times, be advantageous even when conventional component therapy is available.

  20. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  1. Nitrogen Availability in Fresh and Aged Douglas Fir Bark

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine if there are growth differences in geranium (Pelargonium ×hortorum Bailey 'Maverick Red') produced in either fresh or aged Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). A second objective was to document nitrogen immobilization and deco...

  2. D0 Collision Hall Outdoor Fresh Air Makeup

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, D.; /Fermilab

    1992-03-27

    This note will briefly describe the collision hall ventilation system and how D0 will monitor outside air makeup and what actions occur in the event of system failures. The Dzero collision hall has two different fresh air makeup conditions it must meet. They are: (1) Tunnel Barriers removed-Fresh air makeup = 4500 CFM; and (2) Tunnel Barriers in place-Fresh air makeup = 2800 CFM. This note demonstrates how the fresh air minimums are met and guaranteed. The air flow paths and ducts at D0 for both AHU1 and EF-7 are fixed. The blower throughputs are not variable. The software stops on AHU1's dampers will be set for a minimum of 2800 cfm or 4500 cfm of outdoor air continuously added to the HVAC flow stream depending on the tunnel barrier state. AHU1 and EF-7 both have monitoring that can determine reliably as to whether the respective blower is on or off. Since the outside air makeup is fixed as long as the blowers are running, and the software AHU1 damper limits are set, we can rely on the blower status indicators to determine as to whether the collision hall is receiving the proper amount of outside makeup air.

  3. Fluorescence based spectral assessment of pork meat freshness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of sensitive, nondestructive measurement methods for meat freshness is necessary to ensure safe distribution of meat products in the continually growing meat market. Fluorescence spectral technology has been shown to be a promising measurement method for quality and safety evaluation of ...

  4. Taste and aroma of fresh and stored mandarins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the last decade, there has been a continuous rise in consumption of fresh easy-to-peel mandarins. However, mandarins are much more perishable than other citrus fruit, mainly due to rapid deterioration in sensory acceptability after harvest. In the current review, we discuss the biochemical co...

  5. Classification of organic beef freshness using VNIR hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Stuart O J; Kirchner, Sascha M; Porley, Victoria; Retz, Stefanie; von Gersdorff, Gardis; Hensel, Oliver; Weygandt, Martin; Sturm, Barbara

    2017-07-01

    Consumer trust in the food industry is heavily reliant upon accurate labelling of meat products. As such, methods, which can verify whether meat is correctly labelled are of great value to producers, retailers, and consumers. This paper illustrates two approaches to classify between, fresh and frozen thawed, and in a novel manner matured and matured frozen-thawed, as well as fresh and matured beef using the 500-1010nm waveband, captured using hyperspectral imaging, and CIELAB measurements. The results show successful classification based upon CIELAB between 1) fresh and frozen-thawed (CCR=0.93), and 2) fresh and matured (CCR=0.92). With successful classification between matured and matured frozen-thawed beef using the entire spectral range (CCR=1.00). The performance of reduced spectral models is also investigated. Overall it was found that CIELAB co-ordinates can be used for successful classification for all comparisons except between matured and matured frozen-thawed. Biochemical and physical changes of the meat are thoroughly discussed for each condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR HAND LEVELING FRESHLY DEPOSITED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JOHNNY TAYLOR HAND LEVELING FRESHLY DEPOSITED SAND INTO A FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Modified atmosphere packaging for fresh-cut 'Kent' mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A modified atmosphere package (MAP) was designed to optimize the quality and shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Kent’ mango during exposure to common retail display conditions. Synergism of the MAP system with an antioxidant treatment (calcium ascorbate + citric acid) was also investigated. Mango slices in tr...

  8. Cyanide-resistant Respiration in Freshly Cut Potato Slices.

    PubMed

    Rychter, A; Janes, H W; Frenkel, C

    1978-04-01

    Treating intact white potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber with ethylene in air or O(2) made it possible to obtain freshly cut slices which exhibit cyanide-resistant respiration. The cyanide-resistant path requires induction in whole tubers. The data also indicate that high O(2) concentration is necessary for the full development of cyanide-resistant respiration.

  9. Evaluation of phytotoxicty of quinoxyfen on fresh market tomatoes, 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment was conducted inTifton, Georgia to evaluate the phytotoxicity of quinoxyfen on fresh market tomatoes in 2011 for the control of bacterial spot and powdery mildew. Four directed foliar applications were applied on a 6-8 day schedule beginning on 19 May and ending on 8 Jun 2011at rate...

  10. Machine vision system for online inspection of freshly slaughtered chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...

  11. Fresh frozen cadaver workshops for advanced vascular surgical training.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Shirley; Cowie, Margaret; Linehan, John; Hamdorf, Jeffery M

    2014-11-01

    Reduction in working hours, streamlined training schemes and increasing use of endovascular techniques has meant a reduction in operative experience for newer vascular surgical trainees, especially those exposures which are not routinely performed such as thoracoabdominal, thoracotomy and retroperitoneal aortic, for example. This paper describes an Advanced Anatomy of Exposure course which was designed and convened at the Clinical Training & Evaluation Centre in Western Australia and uses fresh frozen cadavers. Feedback was obtained from the participants who attended over three courses by questionnaire. Feedback was strongly positive for the course meeting both its learning outcomes and personal learning objectives, and in addition, making a significant contribution to specialty skills. Most participants thought the fresh frozen cadaveric model significantly improved the learning objectives for training. The fresh frozen cadaver is an excellent teaching model highly representative of the living open surgical scenario where advanced trainees and newly qualified consultants can improve their operative confidence and consequently patient safety in vascular surgery. An efficient fresh frozen cadaver teaching programme can benefit many health professionals simultaneously maximizing the use of donated human tissue. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.366 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.501 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all...

  13. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.366 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.501 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all...

  14. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.449 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.449 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all...

  15. 7 CFR 927.236 - Fresh pear assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Committee: (a) $0.366 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all varieties or subvarieties of fresh pears classified as “summer/fall”; (b) $0.471 per 44-pound net weight... “winter”; and (c) $0.000 per 44-pound net weight standard box or container equivalent for any or all...

  16. Potato development and skin set in fresh market red varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A bright, attractive, uniformly pigmented skin is critically important for fresh market red-skinned potatoes. We will summarize what is known about the potato skin development, with an emphasis on pigment accumulation and loss. We will provide some insight into what may be responsible for changes in...

  17. Recovering fresh water stored in saline limestone aquifers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical modeling techniques are used to examine the hydrogeologic, design, and management factors governing the recovery efficiency of subsurface fresh-water storage. The modeling approach permitted many combinations of conditions to be studied. A sensitivity analysis was used that consisted of varying certain parameters while keeping constant as many other parameters or processes as possible. The results show that a loss of recovery efficiency resulted from: 1) processes causing mixing of injected fresh water with native saline water (hydrodynamic dispersion); 2) processes or conditions causing the irreversible displacement of the injected fresh water with respect to the well (buoyancy stratification and background hydraulic gradients); or 3) processes or procedures causing injection and withdrawal flow patterns to be dissimilar (dissimilar injection and withdrawal schedules in multiple-well systems). Other results indicated that recovery efficiency improved considerably during the first several successive cycles, provided that each recovery phase ended whgen the chloride concentration of withdrawn water exceeded established criteria for potability (usually 250 milligrams per liter). Other findings were that fresh water injected into highly permeable or highly saline aquifers would buoy rapidly with a deleterious effect on recovery efficiency. -Author

  18. Discrimination of storage conditions and freshness in virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Kalua, Curtis M; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D

    2006-09-20

    Virgin olive oil samples stored in the light at ambient temperature, in the dark at ambient temperature, and at low temperature in the dark for 12 months both with and without headspace were separated into recognizable patterns with stepwise linear discriminant analysis. The discrimination with variables volatile and phenolic compounds, free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide values, K232, and K270 revealed a departure of stored oil from freshness and showed significant (p < 0.01) differences between storage conditions. Virgin olive oil stored at low temperature had characteristics closest to fresh oil while oil stored in the light showed the largest departure from freshness. Parameters that exclusively and significantly (p < 0.01) discriminated storage conditions were identified as potential markers of the storage condition. In the presence of oxygen, hexanal was a marker of storage in the light, FFA was a marker for dark storage, and markers of low-temperature storage were acetic acid and pentanal. In the absence of oxygen, octane was the marker for storage in the light whereas tyrosol and hexanol were markers of virgin olive oil stored in the dark, with no marker indicative of low-temperature storage. E-2-Hexenal, K232, and K270 were identified as markers of virgin olive oil freshness.

  19. Preharvest measures for postharvest improvement in marketable fresh citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Citrus canker caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri supsp. citri, (Xcc), was once the scourge of the Florida citrus industry from the early 1900’s on and off until the early 1990’s. It has been replaced, for the most part, by citrus greening but still continues to be a problem for Florida fresh ...

  20. Management of Fresh Wheat Residue for Irrigated Winter Canola Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter canola is popular with many irrigated growers as it provides excellent disease control benefits for potatoes grown in rotation. There is a belief among irrigated canola growers that fresh wheat residue must be burned and the soil then heavily tilled before winter canola is planted. These grow...

  1. Microbial safety and quality of Irradiated fresh produce

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The lack of a broadly applicable bactericidal process (a “kill step”) is hampering the food safety efforts of the fresh produce industry. Irradiation in the form of electron beams, x-rays or gamma rays was recently approved by FDA for use on iceberg lettuce and spinach. This nonthermal process kills...

  2. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  3. Electronic Nose Evaluation of Storage Days of Fresh and Thawed Trout Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Natale, Corrado; Macagnano, Antonella; Nardis, Sara; Paolesse, Roberto; Mantini, Alessandro; Martinelli, Eugenio; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2000-12-01

    Fish freshness is one of the major concerns in food analysis. Several methods are currently employed to get information about freshness of samples, while many of these methods give sufficient information for freshly stored fish they are not reliable in case of thawed fishes. In this paper an electronic nose is applied to the analysis of trout fishes both freshly stored and thawed. Results show a good capability of the electronic nose to discriminate among the different storage days (93% of correct classification) and between freshly stored and thawed fishes, disregarding the freshness degree (84% of correct classification).

  4. Fog as a fresh-water resource: overview and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Klemm, Otto; Schemenauer, Robert S; Lummerich, Anne; Cereceda, Pilar; Marzol, Victoria; Corell, David; van Heerden, Johan; Reinhard, Dirk; Gherezghiher, Tseggai; Olivier, Jana; Osses, Pablo; Sarsour, Jamal; Frost, Ernst; Estrela, María J; Valiente, José A; Fessehaye, Gebregiorgis Mussie

    2012-05-01

    The collection of fog water is a simple and sustainable technology to obtain fresh water for afforestation, gardening, and as a drinking water source for human and animal consumption. In regions where fresh water is sparse and fog frequently occurs, it is feasible to set up a passive mesh system for fog water collection. The mesh is directly exposed to the atmosphere, and the foggy air is pushed through the mesh by the wind. Fog droplets are deposited on the mesh, combine to form larger droplets, and run down passing into a storage tank. Fog water collection rates vary dramatically from site to site but yearly averages from 3 to 10 l m(-2) of mesh per day are typical of operational projects. The scope of this article is to review fog collection projects worldwide, to analyze factors of success, and to evaluate the prospects of this technology.

  5. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M.; Likens, Gene E.; Belt, Kenneth T.; Stack, William P.; Kelly, Victoria R.; Band, Lawrence E.; Fisher, Gary T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. PMID:16157871

  6. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  7. Morphometric analysis of a fresh simple crater on the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivaldi, V.; Ninfo, A.; Massironi, M.; Martellato, E.; Cremonese, G.

    In this research we are proposing an innovative method to determine and quantify the morphology of a simple fresh impact crater. Linné is a well preserved impact crater of 2.2 km in diameter, located at 27.7oN 11.8oE, near the western edge of Mare Serenitatis on the Moon. The crater was photographed by the Lunar Orbiter and the Apollo space missions. Its particular morphology may place Linné as the most striking example of small fresh simple crater. Morphometric analysis, conducted on recent high resolution DTM from LROC (NASA), quantitatively confirmed the pristine morphology of the crater, revealing a clear inner layering which highlight a sequence of lava emplacement events.

  8. Increased salinization of fresh water in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Groffman, Peter M; Likens, Gene E; Belt, Kenneth T; Stack, William P; Kelly, Victoria R; Band, Lawrence E; Fisher, Gary T

    2005-09-20

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century.

  9. Method for Differentiation between Fresh and Frozen-thawed Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamikado, Manabu; Yoshioka, Keiko

    In Japan fresh fish has a much higher market price than that for frozen-thawed fish. However, a large number of frozen-thawed fish are sold without being differentiated from fresh fish. We discuss here the differentiation methods described in literatures and our works in the search for such a method. We used the opacity of crystalline lens and the destruction of red blood cells as the index for the differentiation, in addition to the activity of neutral β-N-acetylglucosaminidase in blood. Thus, a fluorometric method and a rapid paper test method were developed based on measurement of the activity of this enzyme. This enzyme, found in fish red blood cells, was inactive in intact cells but was activated when cells were disrupted by freezing, and thawing. Both methods were applicable for testing most commom edible fish prior to filleting and required about 20 min using a UV-lamp.

  10. Copper toxicity to the fresh water snail, Lymnaea luteola

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, N.M.; Rao, P.V.

    1987-07-01

    Haemocyanins are found in arthropoda and mollusca and show a copper content characteristic for each phylum. Heavy metal accumulation by mollusks is widely reported. Approximately one third of the enzymes either required addition of a metal ion as a cofactor in order to exhibit maximum activity or contained a slightly bound metal ion which appeared to be involved in the catalytic process. Copper is the only metal which has been detected in significant amounts in amino oxidase. The present study is designed to evaluate the influence of such copper, which is of such common occurrence in biological material, on some of the lipolytic enzymes of fresh water pulmonate snail, Lymnaea luteola when added to ambient medium. The present study also highlights the possible detoxification mechanism prevailing in this fresh water mollusk.

  11. Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion: A Controversial Military Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    for the integration of FWB into a resuscitation algorithm, its use has proven invaluable and indeed lifesaving in many situations. Platelet apheresis is...conditions that often coincide. During the first Gulf War, FWB was used to treat several coagulopathic patients when platelet supplies ran short. It became the... platelet function.18–20 In ad- dition, compared with fresh blood cells, stored platelets dem- onstrate decreased thrombotic function. This is primarily

  12. Survival and growth of fresh and stored planting stock.

    Treesearch

    Robert H. Ruth

    1953-01-01

    Does planting stock that has been kept in storage survive and grow as well as freshly dug stock? This question is important because the ground at a forest nursery may still be frozen when spring planting time arrives in the warmer parts of the region. This means that seedlings for spring planting need to be dug in the fall, kept in cold storage over winter, and shipped...

  13. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  14. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  15. Colonisation of freshly deposited volcanic tephra by soil fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, Inga; Opfergelt, Sophie; Stenuit, Benoît; Daily, Hélène; Bonneville, Steeve; Müller, Dirk; Delmelle, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    In active volcanic regions, soils are repeatedly exposed to eruption products, notably tephra emissions. Deposition of volcanic tephra on soil may modify water and gas exchanges between the soil surface and the atmosphere. Through chemical weathering, the silicate glass and mineral components of freshly deposited tephra act as a source of bioavailable potassium and phosphorus. In addition, opportunist fungi may be able to enhance access to these elements via physical and biochemical processes. Altogether, tephra deposition has the potential to affect biological activity and hence, nutrient cycling in the buried soil. Here we present the preliminary results of an ongoing investigation aimed at shedding light on the interaction of soil fungi with freshly deposited tephra. The study site (elevation - 1755 m a.s.l.) is a coniferous forest on the northeastern slope of Etna volcano, Sicily, which received about 20 cm of tephra in November 2013. Soil and tephra samples were collected in September 2014 and October 2015. A variety of biological, chemical and mineralogical analyses were carried out to determine fungal biomass, fungi species and tephra weathering stage. Colonisation of the fresh tephra by fungi is evidenced by the high fungal biomass measured in this material. DNA analyses further indicate that these fungi originate from the soil beneath the tephra layer. While chemical weathering of the tephra material has started, there is no clear indication that fungi colonisation is enhancing this process. We will continue to monitor fungi-tephra interaction on Etna during the next few years.

  16. [Study of microbial contamination of processed fresh vegetables and lettuce].

    PubMed

    efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Batishcheva, S Iu; Minaeva, L P; Markova, Iu M; Korotkevich, Iu V; Shilov, G Iu; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of microbial contamination and species composition of the Enterobacteriaceae family in fresh vegetables and lettuce has been conducted. The objects of study were new types of fresh ready-to-eat vegetable foods - salads, sliced vegetables and mixtures thereof, sampled at the main stages of production, including washing, antimicrobial treatment with sodium hypochlorite, and packaging in the film under vacuum. Quantitative analysis of Enterobacteriaceae levels in fresh and packaged vegetables and salads showed that their part in the total amount of microbial contaminants is large enough. Average Enterobacteriaceae content ranged from 2,14 to 3,34 lg cfu/g, reaching in some samples values 4,38-4,74 lg, comparable with the levels of total bacteria. Considerable species diversity of microflora contaminating ready-to-eat vegetable products has been found. Bacteria of the genera Enterobactel; Pantoea, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Kluyvera, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Rahnella, Acinetobacter were found in the salads and sliced vegetables. In the tested samples most frequently detected Enterobacter spp. - 37% of identified strains and Pantoea spp - 25% of strains. The data on the composition and levels of microbial contaminants in vegetable and salad products highlight not only the need to monitor coliform bacteria - traditional indicators of faecal contamination of raw materials, but also the need to introduce criteria for the amount of Enterobacteriaceae.

  17. Is Shape of a Fresh and Dried Leaf the Same?

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Dominik; Górzkowska, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Plants kept as dried herbarium specimens share many characteristics with their living counterparts, but there are some substantial differences between them. Due to dehydration, leaves of herbarium specimens change not only their mass and colour, but in many cases change their dimensions, too. The present study aimed to determine whether leaf shape changes during the drying process. A total of 794 pairs of fresh and dried leaves or leaflets of 22 plant taxa were studied. The shape of the blades was quantified using elliptic Fourier analysis combined with principal component analysis. In addition, area and mass of the leaves were measured. Statistical tests were applied for comparing fresh and dried leaves. The results indicate that the preservation process of pressing and drying plants for herbarium purposes causes changes in leaf shape. In general, the shape changes were directional. As the shape of fresh and dried plants is different, it is strongly recommended that shape analyses should be performed on datasets containing either of the leaf types. PMID:27045956

  18. Efficacy of fresh packed red blood transfusion in organophosphate poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hang-xing; Tong, Pei-jian; Li, Cai-xia; Du, Jing; Chen, Bing-yu; Huang, Zhi-hui; Wang, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate caused by organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot. To search for alternative therapies, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in acute OP poisoning, and compare the therapeutic effects of RBCs at different storage times. Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included in this prospective study. Fresh RBCs (packed RBCs stored less than 10 days) and longer-storage RBCs (stored more than 10 days but less than 35 days) were randomly transfused or not into OP poisoning patients. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in blood, atropine usage and durations, pralidoxime durations were measured. We found that both fresh and longer-storage RBCs (200–400 mL) significantly increased blood ChE levels 6 hours after transfusion, shortened the duration for ChE recovery and length of hospital stay, and reduced the usage of atropine and pralidoxime. In addition, fresh RBCs demonstrated stronger therapeutic effects than longer-storage RBCs. Packed RBCs might be an alternative approach in patients with OP poisoning, especially during early stages. PMID:28296779

  19. Evaluation of Food Freshness and Locality by Odor Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takayuki; Shimada, Koji; Kamimura, Hironobu; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food freshness and locality can be classified using a food evaluation system consisting four SnO2-semiconductor gas sensors and a solid phase column, into which collecting aroma materials. The temperature of sensors was periodically changed to be in unsteady state and thus, the sensor information was increased. The parameters (in quefrency band) were extracted from sensor information using cepstrum analysis that enable to separate superimposed information on sinusoidal wave. The quefrency was used as parameters for principal component and discriminant analyses (PCA and DCA) to detect food freshness and food localities. We used three kinds of strawberries, people can perceive its odors, passed from one to three days after harvest, and kelps and Ceylon tea, people are hardly to perceive its odor, corrected from five areas as sample. Then, the deterioration of strawberries and localities of kelps and Ceylon teas were visually evaluated using the numerical analyses. While the deteriorations were classified using PCA or DCA, the localities were classified only by DCA. The findings indicate that, although odorant intensity influenced the method detecting food quality, the quefrency obtained from odorant information using cepstrum analysis were available to detect the difference in the freshness and the localities of foods.

  20. Effect of alternatives to chlorine washing for sanitizing fresh coriander.

    PubMed

    Gao, Haiyan; Fang, Xiangjun; Li, Yunlong; Chen, Hangjun; Zhao, Qi Fa; Jin, Tony Z

    2017-01-01

    Fresh coriander leaves are highly perishable in nature and their sensory quality and nutritional value decreases without proper processing or preservation. In the present study, three aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite (SH, 100 mg/L), chlorine dioxide (CD, 10 mg/L), and sodium butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (SBPH, 12 mg/L), and tap water, were used to treat fresh coriander for 15 min. The treated samples were packed in PVC boxes with ambient air under packaged under passive modified atmosphere packaging conditions and stored at 4 °C for 10 days. Effects of washing treatments on color, total chlorophyll contents, ascorbic acid contents, total contents of phenolic compounds, and total aerobic bacterial counts (APC) were investigated. CD treatment has the least detrimental effects on color, total chlorophyll contents and ascorbic acid contents of fresh coriander, followed by SH treatment. In addition, CD treatment showed a greater reduction in APC and maintained the microbial load at lower levels than other treatments during the 10-day storage period.

  1. Factors influencing the microbial safety of fresh produce: a review.

    PubMed

    Olaimat, Amin N; Holley, Richard A

    2012-10-01

    Increased consumption, larger scale production and more efficient distribution of fresh produce over the past two decades have contributed to an increase in the number of illness outbreaks caused by this commodity. Pathogen contamination of fresh produce may originate before or after harvest, but once contaminated produce is difficult to sanitize. The prospect that some pathogens invade the vascular system of plants and establish "sub-clinical" infection needs to be better understood to enable estimation of its influence upon risk of human illness. Conventional surface sanitation methods can reduce the microbial load, but cannot eliminate pathogens if present. Chlorine dioxide, electrolyzed water, UV light, cold atmospheric plasma, hydrogen peroxide, organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite show promise, but irradiation at 1 kGy in high oxygen atmospheres may prove to be the most effective means to assure elimination of both surface and internal contamination of produce by pathogens. Pathogens of greatest current concern are Salmonella (tomatoes, seed sprouts and spices) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on leafy greens (spinach and lettuce). This review considers new information on illness outbreaks caused by produce, identifies factors which influence their frequency and size and examines intervention effectiveness. Research needed to increase our understanding of the factors influencing microbial safety of fresh produce is addressed.

  2. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, Gualbert H. P.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2016-08-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) - also called sand replenishment or nourishment - was placed on the Dutch coast. The intention is that the sand is redistributed by wind, current, and tide, reinforcing local coastal defence structures and leading to a unique, dynamic environment. In this study we investigated the potential effect of the long-term morphological evolution of the large sand replenishment and climate change on fresh groundwater resources. The potential effects on the local groundwater system were quantified with a calibrated three-dimensional (3-D) groundwater model, in which both variable-density groundwater flow and salt transport were simulated. Model simulations showed that the long-term morphological evolution of the Sand Engine results in a substantial growth of fresh groundwater resources, in all adopted climate change scenarios. Thus, the application of a local sand replenishment could provide coastal areas the opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of the local fresh groundwater availability.

  3. Stereo digital image correlation for characterization of fresh biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Megan E.; Cortes, Marisol; Solt, Kristin J.; Siadat, Mohammad; Yang, Lianxiang

    2010-02-01

    In this study a whole field, non-contact optical method, Stereo Digital Image Correlation (SDIC), was used to determine the strain distribution and mechanical properties of fresh bone in Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution. Knowing the whole-surface strain distribution of bone is useful for understanding the effects of normal physiological loading, disease, drugs and aging. In addition, knowing the mechanical properties of bone will aid in the design of new biomaterials. Although there currently are methods for measuring the mechanical properties of bone, these methods have some limitations. Many miss areas of strain concentration, especially because of the inhomogeneous nature of bone. SDIC overcomes these limitations by being able to precisely measure whole-surface 3D contour and strain of samples in solution over a wide range of deformations. In this study, SDIC was used to measure the axial strain of fresh chicken tibia. A setup which has the capability to apply force axially was designed. This paper describes the methodology of SDIC for measuring fresh bone in a PBS solution. The effect of drying time on strain distribution was investigated. The usefulness of the SDIC system is demonstrated by examples of deformation and strain measurements for different chicken tibia in PBS solution.

  4. Fresh Water Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Proshutinsky, Andrey

    2003-01-01

    Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability. This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice. The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase. Our focus is to investigate the competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the Arctic basin-wide fresh water balance. We find that changes in the Atlantic water inflow can explain almost all of the simulated fresh water anomalies in the main Arctic basin. The Atlantic water inflow anomalies are an essential part of AOO, which is the wind driven barotropic response to the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The baroclinic response to AO, such as Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre, and ice meldfreeze anomalies in response to AO are less significant considering the whole Arctic fresh water balance.

  5. Identification of Corrosion Products Due to Seawater and Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gismelseed, A.; Elzain, M.; Yousif, A.; Al Rawas, A.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Widatallah, H.; Rais, A.

    2004-12-01

    Mössbauer and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed on corrosion products extracted from the inner surface of two different metal tubes used in a desalination plant in Oman. One of the tubes corroded due to the seawater while the second was corroded due to fresh water. The corrosion products thus resulted due to seawater were scrapped off in to two layers, the easily removable rust from the top is termed outer surface corrosion product and the strongly adhered rust as internal corrosion product. The Mössbauer spectra together with the XRD pattern of the outer surface showed the presence of magnetite (Fe3O4), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (Fe2O3). The inner surface however showed the presence of akaganite, goethite, and magnetite. On the other hand, the corrosion products due to the fresh water showed only the presence of goethite and magnetite. The mechanism of the corrosion process will be discussed based on the significant differences between the formation of the iron components of the corrosion products due to seawater and the fresh water.

  6. Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 ... diverticulitis. I once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of ...

  7. Fresh, Frozen or Canned Fruits and Vegetables: All Can Be Healthy Choices!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recipes Fresh, Frozen or Canned Fruits and Vegetables: All Can Be Healthy Choices! Last Updated: 6/25/ ... and vegetables today? The good news is that all produce counts, which means canned, fresh and frozen ...

  8. 75 FR 343 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Doc No: E9-31316] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic... fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the statutory and regulatory requirements... INFORMATION: [[Page 344

  9. Development of Artificial Lenses of Fresh Groundwater in Desert Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakirevich, A.; Kuznetsov, M.; Sorek, S.; Mamiyeva, I.

    2004-12-01

    A significant proportion of the world's deserts is covered by soils characterized by low hydraulic conductivity, high runoff coefficient and high levels of salinity. The groundwater is usually also saline in such regions. It has been proposed to use clayey watersheds for collecting runoff water during seasonal precipitation and infiltrating it into the saline water table, thus creating an artificial lens of fresh groundwater (ALFGW). The National Institute of Deserts, Flora and Fauna of Turkmenistan constructed in the Kara-Kum Desert a pilot system for ALFGW formation (infiltration basin with recharging wells). It was found that over 3-4 years (with a mean annual runoff of 10,000-15,000 m3/km), about 20,000-25,000 m3 of surface water could be infiltrated. This created a lens of maximum 7 m thickness that could be used as a fresh water reservoir. To understand the process associated with ALFGW formation and its pumping, we applied a mathematical model of density driven flow and transport in the unsaturated-saturated zones. The FEFLOW code was used for simulations and the model was calibrated with available field data. It was found that there is a relatively sharp interface between the ALFGW bottom and the saline groundwater, while changes in water salinity are minor within the ALFGW. Simulations of the ALFGW indicated that, with time, a vortex flow develops under the lens edges. This leads to an increase in mixing between the fresh and saline water zones, thus increasing the lens areal extent while decreasing its thickness. The process mainly depends on the hydraulic parameters and the water infiltration regime. Lowering the hydraulic conductivity and the infiltration rate, leads to an increase in the ALFGW; however, increasing the infiltration time raises water losses by evaporation. During pumping of the ALFGW, up-coning of saline water occurs, which depends on the pumping rate, the well screen parameters, well location, and ALFGW characteristics. Using two

  10. Fresh Fruit Consumption and Major Cardiovascular Disease in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Huaidong; Li, Liming; Bennett, Derrick; Guo, Yu; Key, Timothy J; Bian, Zheng; Sherliker, Paul; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Yiping; Yang, Ling; Chen, Junshi; Wang, Shanqing; Du, Ranran; Su, Hua; Collins, Rory; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming

    2016-04-07

    In Western populations, a higher level of fruit consumption has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, but little is known about such associations in China, where the consumption level is low and rates of stroke are high. Between 2004 and 2008, we recruited 512,891 adults, 30 to 79 years of age, from 10 diverse localities in China. During 3.2 million person-years of follow-up, 5173 deaths from cardiovascular disease, 2551 incident major coronary events (fatal or nonfatal), 14,579 ischemic strokes, and 3523 intracerebral hemorrhages were recorded among the 451,665 participants who did not have a history of cardiovascular disease or antihypertensive treatments at baseline. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios relating fresh fruit consumption to disease rates. Overall, 18.0% of participants reported consuming fresh fruit daily. As compared with participants who never or rarely consumed fresh fruit (the "nonconsumption" category), those who ate fresh fruit daily had lower systolic blood pressure (by 4.0 mm Hg) and blood glucose levels (by 0.5 mmol per liter [9.0 mg per deciliter]) (P<0.001 for trend for both comparisons). The adjusted hazard ratios for daily consumption versus nonconsumption were 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.67) for cardiovascular death, and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.75), 0.75 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.79), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.74), respectively, for incident major coronary events, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. There was a strong log-linear dose-response relationship between the incidence of each outcome and the amount of fresh fruit consumed. These associations were similar across the 10 study regions and in subgroups of participants defined by baseline characteristics. Among Chinese adults, a higher level of fruit consumption was associated with lower blood pressure and blood glucose levels and, largely independent of these and other dietary and nondietary factors, with significantly lower

  11. Innovative processes and technologies for modified atmosphere packaging of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: A review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew Deas; Stanley, Roger A; Eyles, Alieta; Ross, Tom

    2017-09-11

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) technology has been commercially viable since the 1970s. Currently, MAP is extensively used worldwide to preserve the quality and extend the shelf-life of whole fresh fruits and vegetables, but is also increasingly used to extend the shelf-life of minimally processed fresh fruit and vegetables. This review discusses new processes and technologies that can be used to improve quality preservation and consumer acceptability of minimally processed produce where high respiration rates and challenging degradation processes operate. New packaging innovations are enabling producers and retailers to further maintain quality for longer. Innovative approaches to extend shelf-life include active MAP with differentially permeable films, films that incorporate antimicrobial properties, edible coatings that confer barriers properties, and the use of non-traditional gases to modify respiration. Intelligent packaging using integrated sensor technologies that can indicate maturity, ripeness, respiration rate and spoilage are also appearing. This review demonstrates that preservation technologies and associated packaging developments that can be combined with modified atmosphere are constantly evolving technology platforms. Adoption of combinations of technology improvements will be critical in responding to commercial trends towards more minimally processed fresh-cut and ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable products, which require specialized packaging solutions.

  12. On-line fresh-cut lettuce quality measurement system using hyperspectral imaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lettuce, which is a main type of fresh-cut vegetable, has been used in various fresh-cut products. In this study, an online quality measurement system for detecting foreign substances on the fresh-cut lettuce was developed using hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The online detection system with a s...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that are...

  14. 77 FR 31829 - Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Importation of Fresh Bananas From the Philippines Into the... the importation of fresh bananas from the Philippines into the continental United States. The... INFORMATION: Background In a proposed rule \\1\\ titled ``Importation of Fresh Bananas from the Philippines into...

  15. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.129 Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. The fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions for the 2008...

  16. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  17. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  18. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  19. 77 FR 21623 - Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 927 Pears Grown in Oregon and Washington; Assessment Rate Decrease for Fresh Pears... decreased the assessment rate established for the Fresh Pear Committee (Committee) for the 2011-2012 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.501 to $0.471 per standard box or equivalent of fresh winter pears...

  20. Novel technologies for decontamination of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complex challenges facing producers and processors of fresh produce require creative applications of conventional treatments and innovative approaches to develop entirely novel treatments. The varied nature of fresh and fresh-cut produce demands solutions that are adapted and optimized for each ...

  1. 7 CFR 1560.3 - Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. 1560.3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES TO MONITOR CANADIAN FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLE IMPORTS § 1560.3 Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. The specific group of articles that will be monitored...

  2. 7 CFR 1560.3 - Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. 1560.3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES TO MONITOR CANADIAN FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLE IMPORTS § 1560.3 Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. The specific group of articles that will be monitored...

  3. 7 CFR 1560.3 - Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. 1560.3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES TO MONITOR CANADIAN FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLE IMPORTS § 1560.3 Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. The specific group of articles that will be monitored...

  4. 7 CFR 1560.3 - Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. 1560.3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES TO MONITOR CANADIAN FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLE IMPORTS § 1560.3 Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. The specific group of articles that will be monitored...

  5. 7 CFR 1560.3 - Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. 1560.3... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROCEDURES TO MONITOR CANADIAN FRESH FRUIT AND VEGETABLE IMPORTS § 1560.3 Determination of fresh fruit or vegetable. The specific group of articles that will be monitored...

  6. 78 FR 6834 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Revised Schedule for the Subject Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Revised Schedule for the Subject Review AGENCY: United States... concerning the suspended antidumping duty investigation on fresh tomatoes from Mexico (77 FR 71629, December... institution in its review of fresh tomatoes from Mexico, as well as Mexican Respondents' December 5, 2012...

  7. 7 CFR 457.139 - Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance...) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.139 Fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop insurance provisions. The fresh market tomato (dollar plan) crop...

  8. 9 CFR 327.21 - Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. 327.21 Section 327.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD....21 Inspection procedures for chilled fresh and frozen boneless manufacturing meat. (a) Definitions; sampling; standards. (1) Frozen boneless manufacturing meat is meat, frozen in the fresh state from...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56... Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta) may be imported into the continental...) of Chile. Harvested baby kiwi must be placed in field cartons or containers that are marked to show...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56... Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta) may be imported into the continental...) of Chile. Harvested baby kiwi must be placed in field cartons or containers that are marked to show...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56... Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta) may be imported into the continental...) of Chile. Harvested baby kiwi must be placed in field cartons or containers that are marked to show...

  12. 77 FR 73980 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... administrative review (AR) of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... withdrawn. See Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the...

  13. 77 FR 28355 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the...

  14. 75 FR 38986 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC... the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC was published on November 16, 1994....

  15. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... International Trade Administration Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper...) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the People's Republic of China (PRC), meet the... published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from the PRC in the Federal Register on November...

  16. 78 FR 16530 - Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Suspension of Antidumping Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Fresh Tomatoes From Mexico; Suspension of Antidumping Investigation AGENCY: United States... 3, 2012, to determine whether termination of the suspended investigation on fresh tomatoes from... February 28, 2013, Mexican tomato growers/exporters accounting for a significant percentage of all fresh...

  17. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop... § 457.128 Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions. The Guaranteed Production Plan of Fresh Market Tomato Crop Insurance FCIC Policies Department of Agriculture Federal Crop...

  18. 7 CFR 457.128 - Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop... § 457.128 Guaranteed production plan of fresh market tomato crop insurance provisions. The Guaranteed Production Plan of Fresh Market Tomato Crop Insurance FCIC Policies Department of Agriculture Federal Crop...

  19. Comparative in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide to study TNFalpha gene expression in fresh whole blood, fresh and frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiwang; Bruns, Anke H; Donnelly, Helen K; Wunderink, Richard G

    2010-05-31

    In vitro stimulation with fresh and frozen peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or fresh whole blood has been widely used in animal studies and clinical trials to study the immunological features of a number of human diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in response to stimulation of fresh PBMCs, frozen PBMCs, and fresh whole blood by change of TNFalpha gene expression levels after 4-hour in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results demonstrate that TNFalpha gene expression significantly increases in both fresh PBMCs and fresh whole blood when 1 microg/ml or 10 microg/ml LPS was used but only after stimulation with 10 microg/ml LPS in frozen PBMCs. Mean fold change of TNFalpha gene expression levels after 1 microg/ml LPS stimulation was significantly higher using fresh whole blood (51.01+/-7.91) as compared to fresh PBMCs (8.92+/-2.16) or frozen PBMCs (3.04+/-0.55) (pfresh whole blood is the best choice for in vitro stimulation studies.

  20. DNA integrity of fresh and frozen canine epididymal spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Varesi, Sara; Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate: (1) the effect of cryopreservation on DNA fragmentation of canine epididymal spermatozoa, and (2) the potential protective effect of melatonin on post-thaw sperm quality (motility, morphology, acrosomal and DNA integrity). Epididymal spermatozoa were collected after orchiectomy of ten dogs. Sperm samples were frozen in the presence or absence of melatonin (1mM). DNA fragmentation index (percentage of spermatozoa with fragmented DNA) was similar in fresh samples (3.3±3.6) and samples frozen with (4.2±3.8) or without (3.6±3.7) melatonin. Sperm motility was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in fresh compared to frozen samples. The presence of melatonin in the freezing extender did not affect the sperm motility. Proportions of spermatozoa with normal morphology were similar in fresh and frozen samples, irrespective of the presence of melatonin in the extender. Acrosome integrity was significantly decreased (p<0.01) by cryopreservation, and melatonin did not exert any beneficial effects. In conclusion, DNA fragmentation of canine epididymal spermatozoa was not affected by the freezing procedure, and the presence of melatonin did not preserve motility and acrosome integrity which were adversely affected by cryopreservation. The evaluation of DNA status of thawed gametes is particularly relevant for epididymal spermatozoa since these spermatozoa are usually stored and used in assisted reproductive techniques. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  1. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples.

  3. A Fresh Shallow Valley Transitions to an Inverted Channel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-29

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a portion of a long valley system in northern Arabia Terra. The valley must be relatively young because it cuts through the ejecta of an impact crater that still retains it entire ejecta blanket, indicating the crater is also fairly young and fresh. The valley is interesting because it transitions to an inverted channel near its end point. Inverted channels form when a valley fills with materials. Later, erosion removes the surrounding terrain leaving behind higher standing and more resistant material that filled the valley. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19861

  4. Fresh Whole Blood transfusions in the austere environment.

    PubMed

    Bowling, F; Kerr, Win

    2011-01-01

    The use of Fresh Whole Blood (FWB) transfusions can be a powerful tool for the Special Operations Forces (SOF) medic to treat uncontrolled hemorrhage. In fact, it may be the only tool currently available for hemostatic resuscitation, which along with hypotensive resuscitation, forms the basis for Damage Control Resuscitation (DCR). Until now, no comprehensive protocol has existed for conducting FWB transfusions in austere environments. The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) sponsored Curriculum Evaluation Board (CEB), which is responsible for authoring the Tactical Emergency Medical Protocols (TMEPs) has produced a protocol. This article serves as its introduction. 2011.

  5. Screening Vaccine Formulations in Fresh Human Whole Blood.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Jalil; Aboutorabian, Sepideh; To, Frederick; Ausar, Salvador F; Rahman, Nausheen; Brookes, Roger H

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring the immunological functionality of vaccine formulations is critical for vaccine development. While the traditional approach using established animal models has been relatively effective, the use of animals is costly and cumbersome, and animal models are not always reflective of a human response. The development of a human-based approach would be a major step forward in understanding how vaccine formulations might behave in humans. Here, we describe a platform methodology using fresh human whole blood (hWB) to monitor adjuvant-modulated, antigen-specific responses to vaccine formulations, which is amenable to analysis by standard immunoassays as well as a variety of other analytical techniques.

  6. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, Vincent E. A.; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W. Mike

    2013-12-01

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  7. Characterisation of the surface of freshly prepared precious metal catalysts.

    PubMed

    Parker, Stewart F; Adroja, Devashibhai; Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica; Tischer, Markus; Möbus, Konrad; Wieland, Stefan D; Albers, Peter

    2016-07-14

    A combination of electron microscopy, X-ray and neutron spectroscopies and computational methods has provided new insights into the species present on the surface of freshly prepared precious metal catalysts. The results show that in all cases, at least half of the surface is metallic or nearly so, with the remainder covered by oxygen, largely as hydroxide. Water is also present and is strongly held; weeks of pumping under high vacuum is insufficient to remove it. The hydroxyls are reactive as shown by their reaction with or displacement by CO and can be removed by hydrogenation. This clearly has implications for how precious metal catalysts are activated after preparation.

  8. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  9. Fresh lunar impact craters - Review of variations with size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-three morphologic characteristics are reviewed for fresh lunar impact craters wider than 1 km. Bar graphs express the way each characteristic varies with crater size. The features are grouped as crater structure, ejecta, and downhill flow features. Major structural transitions occur at diameters of about 15 and 200 km. Details of the ejecta blanket, which include several kinds of lineations, dunelike ridges, troughs, and lobes, reflect different transport regimes in the ejecta. Some materials at larger craters flowed downhill in lavalike fashion after the ejecta was deposited; the lavalike materials are probably impact melt.

  10. Simulation of salt water-fresh water interface motion

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrer Polo, J.; Ramos, F.J.

    1983-02-01

    A mathematic model is presented which describes the salt water-fresh water motion with a sharp interface, assuming the validity of the Dupuit approximation. This model is used as a base to derive a numeric-model (finite difference method) which is unconditionally convergent and stable. A method for solving the equations is selected together with a convergence accelerating procedure. The treatment of the boundary conditions in the interface is discussed, and a general and automatic solution for that problem is presented. Several tests with analytic solutions have been performed with good results. 13 references.

  11. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue. PMID:27456312

  12. New glucose esters from the fresh leaves of Jacaranda mimosaefolia.

    PubMed

    Elusiyan, Christianah A; Olugbade, Tiwalade A

    2011-12-01

    From the fresh leaves of Jacaranda mimosaefolia were isolated Phytoquinoids 1-4 established as beta-D-glucopyranose 2-benzeneacetatel,6-bis(1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-acetate), for which the name Jacaranoside is proposed; beta-D-glucopyranose 2-(4-hydroxybenzeneacetate) 1,6-bis(1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-acetate), for which the name Jacarandol is proposed; beta-D-glucopyranose 2-benzeneacetate 1-(1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-acetate) and beta-D-glucopyranose 1,6-bis (1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-acetate) respectively.

  13. Thermoacoustic imaging of fresh prostates up to 6-cm diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Hanson, E.; Thomas, M.; Kelly, H.; Jacobsohn, K.; See, W. A.

    2013-03-01

    Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging provides a novel contrast mechanism that may enable visualization of cancerous lesions which are not robustly detected by current imaging modalities. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most notorious example. Imaging entire prostate glands requires 6 cm depth penetration. We therefore excite TA signal using submicrosecond VHF pulses (100 MHz). We will present reconstructions of fresh prostates imaged in a well-controlled benchtop TA imaging system. Chilled glycine solution is used as acoustic couplant. The urethra is routinely visualized as signal dropout; surgical staples formed from 100-micron wide wire bent to 3 mm length generate strong positive signal.

  14. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  15. The extraction of pigments from fresh Laminaria japonica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liqun; Li, Pengcheng; Fan, Shoujin

    2008-05-01

    The pigments in Laminaria japonica was extracted with six organic solvents and analyzed in spectroscopy analysis. The extractions conditions were screened by an orthogonal test and the quantity of extracted pigments was determined spectroscopically. The results show that: (1) among the six organic solvents, acetone was the most effective one for the extraction; (2) the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of S/M (solvent volume/ material weight) was 30 ml/g; fresh seaweed was extracted 2 times in 2 h; (3) the average total content of pigments was 1.85 mg/g (calculated with dry L. japonica).

  16. Striped bass: environmental risks in fresh and salt water

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    At the 112th Annual meeting of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, the society held a 1-day symposium Striped Bass: Environmental Risks in Fresh and Salt Water. This issue of the Transactions contains some of the papers from that symposium. This symposium explored several hypotheses about sources of environmental risks that could cause problems for striped bass populations: (1) habitat squeeze on adults stemming from their thermal and dissolved oxygen requirements; (2) stress from toxic materials; and (3) meteorological controls of living space and food. A nonenvironmental factor, fishing pressure, also was raised as an alternative hypothesis.

  17. Clinicopathologic correlate of a fresh eyelid pigment implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, D.T.; Folberg, R.; Moore, K.

    1985-10-01

    An eyelid with freshly applied black eyeliner pigment was examined histologically. X-ray microanalysis of the pigment suspension from the manufacturer's vial indicated that its composition was 98% iron and 2% titanium. Transmission electron microscopic examination disclosed that particles were in the extracellular matrix; intracellular particles were not seen. By light microscopy, implant material was detected in various levels of the dermis and was found in dermal lymphatics as well as within and surrounding a hair follicle. This study suggests that systemic exposure to the implant material is possible and offers explanations for permanent eyelash loss, which the authors have seen following this procedure.

  18. Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Post, Vincent E A; Groen, Jacobus; Kooi, Henk; Person, Mark; Ge, Shemin; Edmunds, W Mike

    2013-12-05

    The flow of terrestrial groundwater to the sea is an important natural component of the hydrological cycle. This process, however, does not explain the large volumes of low-salinity groundwater that are found below continental shelves. There is mounting evidence for the global occurrence of offshore fresh and brackish groundwater reserves. The potential use of these non-renewable reserves as a freshwater resource provides a clear incentive for future research. But the scope for continental shelf hydrogeology is broader and we envisage that it can contribute to the advancement of other scientific disciplines, in particular sedimentology and marine geochemistry.

  19. Study on storage efficiency of the fresh food e-commerce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Jie; Li, Huihui

    2017-06-01

    As the last cake in the area of e-commerce industry, the temperature of fresh food e-commerce is always rising starting from about 2014. This paper is based on the imperfection that the existing study about fresh food e-commerce is lack of studies on storage efficiency. And we took some variables in this paper such as consumers’ satisfaction and length for preservation and storage time. On this basis we built the model of storage efficiency of fresh food e-commerce. We find that as the development of fresh food e-commerce, the fresh food e-commerce enterprise will pay more attention to the consumers’ satisfaction. They can take some effective ways like reducing the wastage of fresh food and lengthening the refreshing time of fresh food and so on.

  20. Recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Cheng; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Adhikari, Benu

    2017-09-02

    Due to the increased awareness of consumers in sensorial and nutritional quality of frozen foods, the freezing technology has to seek new and innovative technologies for better retaining the fresh like quality of foods. In this article, we review the recent developments in smart freezing technology applied to fresh foods. The application of these intelligent technologies and the associated underpinning concepts have greatly improved the quality of frozen foods and the freezing efficiency. These technologies are able to automatically collect the information in-line during freezing and help control the freezing process better. Smart freezing technology includes new and intelligent technologies and concepts applied to the pretreatment of the frozen product, freezing processes, cold chain logistics as well as warehouse management. These technologies enable real-time monitoring of quality during the freezing process and help improve product quality and freezing efficiency. We also provide a brief overview of several sensing technologies used to achieve automatic control of individual steps of freezing process. These sensing technologies include computer vision, electronic nose, electronic tongue, digital simulation, confocal laser, near infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance technology and ultrasound. Understanding of the mechanism of these new technologies will be helpful for applying them to improve the quality of frozen foods.