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Sample records for focal infection dental

  1. Dental and related infections.

    PubMed

    Hodgdon, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Emergency physicians should be comfortable treating most dental and related infections. In this article, we outline recommended techniques to perform a dental examination, explore common pathologies, recommend pain and antibiotic management strategies and review common pitfalls. How to avoid overprescribing opioid analgesics is discussed in depth, along with recent studies to support this strategy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The role of focal infections in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Spałkowska, Magdalena; Podbielska, Magdalena; Chmielewska, Joanna; Wołek, Marta; Malec, Katarzyna; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Focal Infection Theory, originally presented at the beginning of the 20th century, postulates that systemic diseases can be caused by microorganisms that arise from the focus of infection. Foci of infections have been described as sinuses, adenoids, tonsils, teeth, genitourinary tract, gall bladder and kidneys. A focus of infection is defined as the area that can occur in any part of the body, contains a pathogen (microorganism) and is usually asymptomatic. There are discordant opinions about the role of focal infections in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and urticaria. Aim To establish whether there is a higher incidence of focal infections in patients with chronic urticaria and psoriasis. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed 129 patients with a history of psoriasis and chronic urticaria: 58 women and 71 men treated in the Department of Dermatology of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow. Results In the analyzed group, 11 patients had a dental consultation, 58 – laryngological consultation and 29 women had a gynecological consultation. The most common examples of focal infection were tonsillitis, upper respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, dental caries and genitourinary tract infections. Aggravating factors were similar to previously described. Conclusions A high incidence of focal infections in patients with psoriasis and urticaria suggests that infections may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders. Treatment of infection foci may play the key role in the remission of skin changes. PMID:24278052

  3. Retrospective analysis of the clinical response of palmoplantar pustulosis after dental infection control and dental metal removal.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Michiyoshi; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Minabe, Masaki; Iguchi, Naohiko; Ukichi, Kenichiro; Nomura, Takeshi; Katakura, Akira; Takahashi, Shinichi

    2017-02-02

    Both metal allergy and dental focal infection have been considered as causative factors for palmoplantar pustulosis, and several case reports described that the skin lesions were ameliorated after dental metal removal or dental infection control. However, limited data are available to evaluate the association of these factors with disease severity of palmoplantar pustulosis. This study is designed to analyze the clinical outcome of 85 palmoplantar pustulosis patients after dental infection control (n = 70), tonsillectomy (n = 6) and dental metal removal (n = 9). More than half of the patients (63%, 44/70) showed positive clinical outcome after dental infection control. The skin lesions of all patients with tonsillitis were improved after tonsillectomy (100%, 6/6). On the other hand, one-third of patients (33%, 3/9) showed positive response after dental metal removal. These results suggest that focal infection is more closely associated with palmoplantar pustulosis than dental metal allergy. According to our findings, palmoplantar pustulosis patients should be preferentially examined for focal infections.

  4. [Dental implant-related infections].

    PubMed

    López-Cerero, Lorena

    2008-11-01

    Dental implant-associated infections are expected to be increasingly more common as the number of patients with implants for more than 10 years rises. There are 2 stages of peri-implant infection: early mucositis, consisting of inflammation of the peri-implant soft tissues without loss of supporting bone, and a more advanced form involving a loss of osseointegration, known as peri-implantitis. The estimated prevalence of this latter infection is 10% of 5-year implants and the main risk factor is previous periodontal disease. The etiopathogenesis of peri-implantitis is related with reservoirs of periodontal pathogens; however factors that lead to colonization of the implant surface or increased susceptibility to infection may also have an influence. Treatment should include removal of the bacterial biofilm, debridement of the exposed surface, and surgical regeneration of the peri-implant pocket.

  5. Infection Control in the Dental Office.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Francesco R; Dym, Harry; Kirpalani, Tarun

    2017-04-01

    The goal of an infection control program is to provide a safe working environment for dental health care personnel and their patients. Practitioners can achieve this by adopting measures that reduce health care-associated infections among patients and occupational exposures among dental health care personnel. It is crucial for all dental practitioners to be up to date on current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, equipment, and techniques for proper infection control. Continuous evaluation of infection control practices is important. Patients and dental providers should be confident that oral health care can be delivered and received in a safe manner.

  6. Management of infection control in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Creanor, S; Hurrell, D; Bagg, J; McCowan, M

    2009-04-01

    This was an observational study in which the management policies and procedures associated with infection control and instrument decontamination were examined in 179 dental surgeries by a team of trained surveyors. Information relating to the management of a wide range of infection control procedures, in particular the decontamination of dental instruments, was collected by interview and by examination of practice documentation. This study found that although the majority of surgeries (70%) claimed to have a management policy on infection control, only 50% of these were documented. For infection control policies, 79% of surgeries had access to the British Dental Association Advice Sheet A12. Infection control policies were claimed to be present in 89% of surgeries, of which 62% were documented. Seventy-seven per cent of staff claimed to have received specific infection control training, but for instrument decontamination this was provided mainly by demonstration (97%) or observed practice (88%). Many dental nurses (74%) and dental practitioners (57%) did not recognise the symbol used to designate a single-use device. Audit of infection control or decontamination activities was undertaken in 11% of surgeries. The majority of surgeries have policies and procedures for the management of infection control in dental practice, but in many instances these are not documented. The training of staff in infection control and its documentation is poorly managed and consideration should be given to development of quality management systems for use in dental practice.

  7. [Focal infection in children - an underestimated problem].

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara; Pawlaczyk-Wróblewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the problem of joint inflammation based on the case of a 3 years old girl in whom the changes occurred in the lower limbs. The detailed diagnostic investigations confirmed the existence of the active focus in the oral cavity. The paper presents the case of a 3-year old girl with lower limbs joints inflamation. After their extraction a complete remission of inflammatory markers was achieved, which confirmed the correctness existence of an active focus. Furthermore, the presented case report demonstrates that oral health is a very important factor, which should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of systemic diseases, including rheumathoid arthritis. It proves also that prevention of dental caries and oral hygiene should be implemented from early childhood.

  8. Age, dental infections, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K J; Asikainen, S; Wolf, J; Jousimies-Somer, H; Valtonen, V; Nieminen, M

    2000-02-01

    Epidemiological and intervention studies have suggested that infections are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dental infections have appeared as cardiovascular risk factors in cross-sectional and in follow-up studies, and the association has been independent of the "classic" coronary risk factors. This case-control study aimed at detailed assessment of the dental pathology found in various CHD categories (including elderly patients). Altogether, 85 patients with proven coronary heart disease and 53 random controls, matched for sex, age, geographic area, and socio-economic status, were compared with regard to dental status, assessed blindly with four separate scores, and to the "classic" coronary risk factors (seven of the controls had CHD, and they were not included in the analyses). The dental indices were higher among CHD patients than in the controls, but, contrary to previous studies, the differences were not significant (between the CHD patients and their matched controls or among the different CHD categories). This result could not be explained by potential confounding factors. The participants in the present study were older and had more often undergone recent dental treatment in comparison with subjects in our earlier studies. Age correlated with the severity of dental infections only in the random controls but not in the coronary patients who, although young, already had high dental scores. We believe that the higher age of the participants in the present study is the most likely reason for the results. Other possible explanations include an age-related selection bias among older CHD patients, and the fact that those participating in studies like this may have better general health and thus also less severe dental infections. Thus, the role of dental infections as a coronary risk factor varies according to the characteristics of the population studied.

  9. Dental management of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Aldous, J A

    1990-11-01

    In 1981, a group of male homosexuals was found to have an immunological defect resulting in opportunistic infections. The pattern of symptoms became known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much time and expense have been invested to study the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), prevent its spread, and find a cure for HIV infection. Fear of HIV infection has resulted in implementation of stricter infection control practices. Intervention by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated procedures for infection control and waste disposal. Ethical questions and social problems have surfaced concerning the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Despite reports on infection control, literature concerning management of HIV-infected dental patients is limited. Misinformation has prevented the application of reliable information about the care of HIV-infected individuals. An accurate general knowledge of HIV infection is essential for optimal care of these patients.

  10. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: a multifocal oral human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Flaitz, C M

    2000-01-01

    Widespread, slightly elevated and confluent nodules are observed throughout the oral mucosa in a young Hispanic girl. Repeated irritation of the soft tissues from a compromised occlusion is an aggravating factor for the spread of these lesions. A diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia, a human papillomavirus infection, is made following histopathologic diagnosis and viral typing. Recognition of this specific type of warts is important in order to avoid the mistaken identification of condyloma acuminata, which may have significant repercussions in the life of a young child.

  11. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  12. The relative contribution of co-infection to focal infection risk in children.

    PubMed

    Lello, Joanne; Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Khamis, I Simba; Utzinger, Jürg; Viney, Mark E

    2013-03-07

    Co-infection is ubiquitous in people in the developing world but little is known regarding the potential for one parasite to act as a risk factor for another. Using generalized linear mixed modelling approaches applied to data from school-aged children from Zanzibar, Tanzania, we determined the strength of association between four focal infections (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and self-reported fever, the latter used as a proxy for viral, bacterial or protozoal infections) and the prevalence or intensity of each of the helminth infections. We compared these potential co-infections with additional risk factors, specifically, host sex and age, socioeconomic status and physical environment, and determined what the relative contribution of each risk factor was. We found that the risk of infection with all four focal infections was strongly associated with at least one other infection, and that this was frequently dependent on the intensity of that other infection. In comparison, no other incorporated risk factor was associated with all focal infections. Successful control of infectious diseases requires identification of infection risk factors. This study demonstrates that co-infection is likely to be one of these principal risk factors and should therefore be given greater consideration when designing disease-control strategies. Future work should also incorporate other potential risk factors, including host genetics which were not available in this study and, ideally, assess the risks via experimental manipulation.

  13. Infections Control in North American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Elise; Dhuru, Virendra B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from 1982 and 1987 surveys of dental schools concerning infection control issues found greater recent emphasis on instrument sterilization and barrier use, but some inconsistency and confusion concerning hepatitis B and HIV virus carrier patients and personnel. The information was used to develop guidelines for school policy formation.…

  14. Infections Control in North American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Elise; Dhuru, Virendra B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from 1982 and 1987 surveys of dental schools concerning infection control issues found greater recent emphasis on instrument sterilization and barrier use, but some inconsistency and confusion concerning hepatitis B and HIV virus carrier patients and personnel. The information was used to develop guidelines for school policy formation.…

  15. Infection-Related Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dettmar, Anne Katrin; Oh, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common cause of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. It describes a unique histological picture of glomerular damage resulting from several causes. In the majority of patients the causing agent is still unknown, but in some cases viral association is evident. In adults, the most established FSGS causing virus is the human immune-deficiency virus, which is related to a collapsing variant of FSGS. Nevertheless, other viruses are also suspected for causing a collapsing or noncollapsing variant, for example, hepatitis B virus, parvovirus B19, and Cytomegalovirus. Although the systemic infection mechanism is different for these viruses, there are similarities in the pathomechanism for the induction of FSGS. As the podocyte is the key structure in the pathogenesis of FSGS, a direct infection of these cells or immediate damage through the virus or viral components has to be considered. Although viral infections are a very rare cause for FSGS in children, the treating pediatric nephrologist has to be aware of a possible underlying infection, as this has a relevant impact on therapy and prognosis. PMID:27294131

  16. Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Dental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi-Woong; Yoon, Hyun-Joong; Jung, Da-Woon; Lee, Sang-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is defined as rapidly progressive necrosis of subcutaneous fat and fascia. Although NF of the face is rare, its mortality rate is nearly 30%. It usually originates from dental infection and can lead to involvement of the neck, mediastinum, and chest wall. Complications resulting from pre-existing systemic diseases can increase the mortality rate. Known complication factors for NF include diabetes, malnutrition, advanced age, peripheral vascular disease, renal failure, and obesity. Here, we report a case of NF originating from dental infection in an 88-year-old woman already diagnosed with hypertension, thoracic aortic aneurysm, and renal diseases. Such conditions limited adequate surgical and antibiotic treatment. However, interdisciplinary treatment involving multiple departments was implemented with good results. PMID:27489813

  17. Advancing infection control in dental care settings

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Jennifer L.; Bonito, Arthur J.; Corley, Tammy J.; Foster, Misty; Barker, Laurie; Brown, G. Gordon; Lenfestey, Nancy; Lux, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Overview The authors set out to identify factors associated with implementation by U.S. dentists of four practices first recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings—2003. Methods In 2008, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 6,825 U.S. dentists. The response rate was 49 percent. The authors gathered data regarding dentists’ demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes toward infection control, sources of instruction regarding the guidelines and knowledge about the need to use sterile water for surgical procedures. Then they assessed the impact of those factors on the implementation of four recommendations: having an infection control coordinator, maintaining dental unit water quality, documenting percutaneous injuries and using safer medical devices, such as safer syringes and scalpels. The authors conducted bivariate analyses and proportional odds modeling. Results Responding dentists in 34 percent of practices had implemented none or one of the four recommendations, 40 percent had implemented two of the recommendations and 26 percent had implemented three or four of the recommendations. The likelihood of implementation was higher among dentists who acknowledged the importance of infection control, had practiced dentistry for less than 30 years, had received more continuing dental education credits in infection control, correctly identified more surgical procedures that require the use of sterile water, worked in larger practices and had at least three sources of instruction regarding the guidelines. Dentists with practices in the South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic or East South Central U.S. Census divisions were less likely to have complied. Conclusions Implementation of the four recommendations varied among U.S. dentists. Strategies targeted at raising awareness of the importance of infection control, increasing continuing education

  18. Dental follicle infection following a dog bite.

    PubMed

    Wright, G; Muir, M L; Bryan, R; Smith, A J; Hosey, M T

    2006-03-01

    Animal bite wounds and their subsequent infection are relatively common. Incidence rates for dog bites are significantly higher among children aged 0-9 years, especially among boys. Although bite wounds may initially look innocuous, they frequently lead to serious infection with a potential for life-threatening complications. The microbiology of dog bite wounds is usually polymicrobial, typically including anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella species. A case is described of a 22-month-old boy who, subsequent to a dog bite over the left maxilla, suffered infection of the dental follicle of the primary maxillary canine with Pasteurella multocida. The infection proved difficult to treat, requiring several attempts at incision and drainage of the abscess together with systemic antibiotics, and resulted in the eventual loss of the tooth.

  19. Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11-year-old child: case report.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Christine E; Nguyen, Trang D

    2012-01-01

    A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy. This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child. A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient's medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures. A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging. The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

  20. Displacement of dental implants into the focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Chil; Jeong, Chang-Hwa; Im, Ho-Yong; Kim, Seong-Young; Ryu, Jae-Young; Yeom, Hak-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect (FOBMD) is a radiolucent area corresponding to the presence of hematopoietic tissue rarely found in the jaws. FOBMD is most commonly located in the mandibular edentulous posterior area of a middle-aged female. From November 2011 to November 2012, we experienced three cases involving removal of implants that had accidentally fallen into the FOBMD area. All patients happened to be female, with a mean age of 54 years (range: 51-60 years). One case involved hypoesthesia of the lower lip and chin, while two cases healed without any complication. Displacement of an implant into the FOBMD area is an unusual event, which occurs rarely during placement of a dental fixture. The purpose of this study was to report on three cases of FOBMD and to provide a review of related literature. PMID:24471025

  1. Focal adhesion kinase maintains, but not increases the adhesion of dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuyan; Shao, Meiying; Zou, Wenlin; Wang, Linyan; Cheng, Ran; Hu, Tao

    2017-04-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) functions as a key enzyme in the integrin-mediated adhesion-signalling pathway. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of FAK on adhesion of human dental pulp (HDP) cells. We transfected lentiviral vectors to silence or overexpress FAK in HDP cells ex vivo. Early cell adhesion, cell survival and focal contacts (FCs)-related proteins (FAK and paxillin) were examined. By using immunofluorescence, the formation of FCs and cytoskeleton was detected, respectively. We found that both adhesion and survival of HDP cells were suppressed by FAK inhibition. However, FAK overexpression slightly inhibited cell adhesion and exhibited no change in cell survival compared with the control. A thick rim of cytoskeleton accumulated and smaller dot-shaped FCs appeared in FAK knockdown cells. Phosphorylation of paxillin (p-paxillin) was inhibited in FAK knockdown cells, verifying that the adhesion was inhibited. Less cytoskeleton and elongated FCs were observed in FAK-overexpressed cells. However, p-paxillin had no significant difference compared with the control. In conclusion, the data suggest that FAK maintains cell adhesion, survival and cytoskeleton formation, but excessive FAK has no positive effects on these aspects.

  2. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia arising after delivery of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Woo; Cho, Young-Ah; Kim, Soung-Min; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Suk-Keun

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced alteration of the oral mucosa that presents with a clinically distinct appearance. While other HPV-infected lesions such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum involve the skin, oral mucosa, and genital mucosa, FEH occurs only in the oral mucosa. The affected oral mucosa exhibits multiple papules and nodules with each papule/nodule being flat-topped or sessile. The affected region resembles the normal color of oral mucosa rather than appearing as a white color since the epithelial surface is not hyperkeratinized. Almost all cases present with multiple sites of occurrence. This rare, benign epithelial proliferation is related to low-risk HPV, especially HPV-13 and -32, and is not transformed into carcinoma. We report a case of FEH that arose on the attached gingiva of an East Asian male adult related to prosthesis without detection of any HPV subtype in HPV DNA chip and sequencing.

  4. sup 111 In-labeled nonspecific immunoglobulin scanning in the detection of focal infection

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Keech, F.; Ahmad, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Strauss, H.W. )

    1989-10-05

    We performed radionuclide scanning after the intravenous injection of human IgG labeled with indium-111 in 128 patients with suspected focal sites of inflammation. Localization of 111In-labeled IgG correlated with clinical findings in 51 infected patients (21 with abdominal or pelvic infections, 11 with intravascular infections, 7 with pulmonary infections, and 12 with skeletal infections). Infecting organisms included gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. No focal localization of 111In-labeled IgG was observed in 63 patients without infection. There were five false negative results, and nine results were unusable. Serial scans were carried out in eight patients: continued localization correctly predicted relapse in six, and the absence of localization indicated resolution in two. To determine whether 111In-labeled IgG localization was specific for inflammation, we studied 16 patients with cancer. Focal localization occurred in 13 of these patients (5 with melanomas, 5 with gynecologic cancers, and 1 each with lymphoma, prostate cancer, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma). No localization was seen in patients with renal or colon cancer or metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We conclude that 111In-labeled IgG imaging is effective for the detection of focal infection and that serial scans may be useful in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This technique may also be helpful in the evaluation of certain cancers.

  5. [Dental treatment of HIV-infected and AIDS patients in the dental office in The Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Sjamsoedin, D A; Molendijk, G; Schulten, E A; ten Kate, R W; van der Waal, I

    1991-09-01

    Every dentist should accept the responsibility of treating HIV-infected and AIDS' patients in his own office. By taking the appropriate hygienic measures, the risk of HIV-transmission in the dental office can be almost completely eliminated.

  6. Granulicatella adiacens prosthetic hip joint infection after dental treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Sabapathy; Teferi, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Granulicatella adiacens is a Gram-positive bacteria and a normal component of oral flora. It is also found in dental plaques, endodontic abscesses and can rarely cause more serious infections. Case presentation: We describe a prosthetic hip joint infection in an 81-year-old fit and healthy man due to Granulicatella adiacens who underwent a prolonged dental intervention two days earlier without antibiotic prophylaxis. The infection was successfully treated with surgical intervention and a combination of antibiotics. The patient eventually succumbed to severe community-acquired pneumonia two months later. Conclusion: Current guidelines recommend avoidance of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental treatment in patients who have no co-morbidities and no prior operation on the index prosthetic joint. This case report indicates that infections of prosthetic joints may be associated with dental procedures even in fit and healthy patients without the recognized risk factors. PMID:28348763

  7. Perceived dental needs and attitudes toward dental treatments in HIV-infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2012-01-01

    Despite the advancement in highly active antiretroviral therapy and improved health status of HIV-infected individuals, dental problems are still affecting their life and well-beings. We aimed to establish the prevalence of oral and dental complaints among HIV-infected patients, the prevalence of delayed access to dental service, and factors related with delayed access to dental service. A cross-sectional study using self-report questionnaire completed by the HIV-positive subjects was conducted at the largest HIV research clinic in Thailand during 2009-2010. Of all 299 subjects (28.6% males, 71% females, and 0.4% sex change from male to female: ages ranged from 22 to 59 years [mean 36.7±5.53)]), 84.3% reported of having past or present illnesses or problems related to the dental or oral conditions. The most reported problems were dental hypersensitivity (93.3%), bleeding from the gum (92.1%), and having dental caries (65.9%). Two-hundred and forty-two subjects (80.9%) would not disclose their HIV status when seeing a dentist. The most cited reasons of such behavior were their personal right whether to reveal or not, and being afraid of not receiving dental treatment from the dentists or staffs (51.7 and 40.9%, respectively). It is important to note that HIV-subjects admitted to having fear of being discriminated by the dental staffs even if they trusted their dentists as having high morality. In conclusion, our HIV-subjects had good basic knowledge of oral health with regard to HIV infection, experienced common dental problems, and wished to have accesses to HIV-dental specialist services, if possible.

  8. Focal epithelial hyperplasia arising after delivery of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Woo; Cho, Young-Ah; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Suk-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced alteration of the oral mucosa that presents with a clinically distinct appearance. While other HPV-infected lesions such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum involve the skin, oral mucosa, and genital mucosa, FEH occurs only in the oral mucosa. The affected oral mucosa exhibits multiple papules and nodules with each papule/nodule being flat-topped or sessile. The affected region resembles the normal color of oral mucosa rather than appearing as a white color since the epithelial surface is not hyperkeratinized. Almost all cases present with multiple sites of occurrence. This rare, benign epithelial proliferation is related to low-risk HPV, especially HPV-13 and -32, and is not transformed into carcinoma. We report a case of FEH that arose on the attached gingiva of an East Asian male adult related to prosthesis without detection of any HPV subtype in HPV DNA chip and sequencing. PMID:25558348

  9. General medicine and surgery for dental practitioners: part 4. Infections and infection control.

    PubMed

    Jakubovics, N; Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G

    2014-07-01

    Infection control and knowledge of common infectious agents is a cornerstone of safe dental practice. This paper summarises the measures that need to be taken to control cross infection and discusses some of the infectious agents of concern to dental practitioners.

  10. Dental care access and use among HIV-infected women.

    PubMed Central

    Shiboski, C H; Palacio, H; Neuhaus, J M; Greenblatt, R M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify predictors of dental care use in HIV-infected women. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected women enrolled in the northern California site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, dental care use and unmet need were assessed in relation to selected variables. RESULTS: Among 213 respondents, who were predominantly Black and younger than 45 years, 43% had not seen a dentist and 53% (among dentate women) reported no dental cleaning in more than a year (although 67% had dental insurance coverage, mainly state Medicaid). Nine percent were edentulous. Among nonusers of dental care, 78% reported that they wanted care but failed to get it. Barriers included fear of and discomfort with dentists, not getting around to making an appointment, and not knowing which dentist to visit. Multivariate analysis showed that lack of past-year dental care was associated mainly with unemployment, a perception of poor oral health, and edentulism. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive women appear to be underusing dental care services. Fear and lack of information regarding available resources, in addition to unemployment and perception of poor oral health, may be important barriers. PMID:10358671

  11. Use of dental care by HIV-infected medical patients.

    PubMed

    Coulter, I D; Marcus, M; Freed, J R; Der-Martirosian, C; Cunningham, W E; Andersen, R M; Maas, W R; Garcia, I; Schneider, D A; Genovese, B; Shapiro, M F; Bozzette, S A

    2000-06-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to the use of dental care by HIV patients, the existing studies do not use probability samples, and no accurate population estimates of use can be made from this work. The intent of the present study was to establish accurate population estimates of the use of dental services by patients under medical care. The study, part of the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), created a representative national probability sample, the first of its kind, of HIV-infected adults in medical care. Both bivariate and logistic regressions were conducted, with use of dental care in the preceding 6 months as the dependent variable and demographic, social, behavioral, and disease characteristics as independent variables. Forty-two percent of the sample had seen a dental health professional in the preceding 6 months. The bivariate logits for use of dental care show that African-Americans, those whose exposure to HIV was caused by hemophilia or blood transfusions, persons with less education, and those who were employed were less likely to use dental care (p < 0.05). Sixty-five percent of those with a usual source of care had used dental care in the preceding 6 months. Use was greatest among those obtaining dental care from an AIDS clinic (74%) and lowest among those without a usual source of dental care (12%). We conclude that, in spite of the high rate of oral disease in persons with HIV, many do not use dental care regularly, and that use varies by patient characteristics and availability of a regular source of dental care.

  12. Dental infection control and occupational safety in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Budnyak, Marina A; Gurevich, Konstantin G; Fabrikant, Kate G; Miller, Kierste; Puttaiah, Raghunath

    2012-09-01

    In the recent past, the Russian Federation has seen a considerable increase in HIV caseload. A high level committee was formed to assess the status of dental infection control and safety (IC&S) in Russia. This article is one of the outcomes to assess the status of IC&S and is the research of a doctoral student (PhD) in public health. To assess needs in Dental Infection Control and Occupational Safety in the Moscow Metropolitan Region of the Russian Federation. A survey with variables assessing knowledge, attitude and practice of IC&S was administered to dentists practicing and or teaching in Moscow city and suburban areas on a convenience sample of dental practitioners. The total number of completed questionnaires were 303. Over 67% had up to three significant exposures to blood and potentially infectious materials (OPIM), but less than 30% got tested for HIV in the previous 3 months. Use of personal protective equipment was not based on anticipated exposure. Less than 10% had an understanding of Spaulding's classification with respect to sanitization, disinfection and sterilization. Only about 34% stated that there was a potential for infectious disease transmission through a percutaneous route and about 61% double gloved while treating patients with infectious diseases. Only about 61% disinfected impressions and most (83%) used alcohol for disinfection purposes. While 34% still used glass-bead sterilizers, about 13% did not sterilize handpieces between patients. Results from this study indicated a disparity in the practice of infection control and safety procedures requiring formulation of nationwide dental safety standards. Further, there is a need in implementation of a standardized dental safety curriculum for dental schools and continuing dental education requirements in dental safety for practicing dentists in the Russian Federation.

  13. Identification of focal viral infections by confocal microscopy for subsequent ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, S E; Levenson, R M; Aldridge, C; Hester, S; Kenan, D J; Howell, D N

    1997-01-01

    A correlative microscopy method for the ultrastructural analysis of focal viral tissue infections is presented. Using a confocal scanning laser microscope, foci of infection are identified in tissue sections prior to embedment; a variety of techniques can be employed for viral detection, including staining with standard histochemical reagents and fluorescently labeled antibodies. Areas of infection identified using confocal microscopy are excised from the tissue sections, embedded, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Applications of this technique in both diagnostic and basic research settings are described.

  14. Is dental treatment of an infected tooth a risk factor for locally invasive spread of infection?

    PubMed

    Seppänen, Lotta; Lemberg, Kim K; Lauhio, Anneli; Lindqvist, Christian; Rautemaa, Riina

    2011-04-01

    To determine the impact of antecedent dental procedures and dental health on the course of odontogenic maxillofacial infections requiring hospital care. In this retrospective cohort study in a referral center, we evaluated medical records and panoramic radiographs of all patients admitted because of odontogenic maxillofacial infection (n = 84). The predictor variables were preceding dental treatment, antimicrobial therapy, and dental health. The outcome variables comprised infection parameters, length of stay, need for intensive care, and management during hospitalization. The mean age of the patients was 43.2 ± 16.5 years and 60% were men. Dental procedure preceded the spread of the infection in 49 cases (58%): endodontic treatment (n = 22), tooth extraction (n = 19), and minor first aid (n = 8). Twenty-seven patients had not received any dental or antimicrobial treatment in the recent past. Antimicrobial treatment alone had been given to 8 patients. Patients without preceding treatment had the highest C-reactive protein levels on admission and at maximum (P = .020 and P = .011) and the highest white blood cell counts on admission (P = .011). Their length of stay was also longer, and they needed intensive care more often than the other patients. Maximum C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell counts between treatment groups did not significantly differ from each other. The systemic response to the infection was strongest and the course of the infection most severe in the absence of preceding dental treatment and in patients with poor dental health. All types of dental treatment contributed to a less severe course of infection. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Infection control attitudes and perceptions among dental students in Latin America: implications for dental education.

    PubMed

    Acosta-Gío, A E; Borges-Yáñez, S A; Flores, M; Herrera, A; Jerónimo, J; Martínez, M; Meneses, P; Peralta, H; Pérez, L; Portocarrero, R; Rodríguez, L; Castillo, L; Molina, M; Larrondo, M; Maupomé, G; Soriano, I

    2008-08-01

    Latin American dental schools are at diverse stages in the continuum of implementation of infection control (IC) programmes that comply with evidence-based recommendations. Poor IC training may result in low compliance and negative attitudes against patients infected with blood borne pathogens (BBP). To evaluate students' knowledge on IC and attitudes toward occupational BBP risks, in six dental schools in Latin America. This survey was administered to convenience samples of dental students at one school in Costa Rica; four schools in Mexico, and one in Venezuela. The questionnaire included Likert-type scale evaluations of agreement with statements. Study variables included knowledge about and confidence in recommended IC procedures, degree of concern about HIV and HBV transmission in dental settings, and attitudes toward patients infected with BBP. Possible associations between variables were analysed using Pearson's Chi square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Substantial numbers of students had incomplete knowledge and often lacked confidence on IC and procedures; believed that HIV and HBV could be transmitted during clinical procedures; felt worried about occupational exposure to BBP, and held prejudices towards HIV and HBV infected individuals. Educational efforts are needed to enhance IC teaching and compliance. Diverse educational resources and international networks for research collaboration are available from organisations specialised in IC, hopefully paving the way to harmonising regional standards.

  16. Uniform-related infection control practices of dental students

    PubMed Central

    Aljohani, Yazan; Almutadares, Mohammed; Alfaifi, Khalid; El Madhoun, Mona; Albahiti, Maysoon H; Al-Hazmi, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    Background Uniform-related infection control practices are sometimes overlooked and underemphasized. In Saudi Arabia, personal protective equipment must meet global standards for infection control, but the country’s Islamic legislature also needs to be taken into account. Aim To assess uniform-related infection control practices of a group of dental students in a dental school in Saudi Arabia and compare the results with existing literature related to cross-contamination through uniforms in the dental field. Method A questionnaire was formulated and distributed to dental students at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which queried the students about their uniform-related infection control practices and their methods and frequency of laundering and sanitizing their uniforms, footwear, and name tags. Results There is a significant difference between genders with regard to daily uniform habits. The frequency of uniform washing was below the standard and almost 30% of students were not aware of how their uniforms are washed. Added to this, there is no consensus on a unified uniform for male and female students. Conclusion Information on preventing cross-contamination through wearing uniforms must be supplied, reinforced, and emphasized while taking into consideration the cultural needs of the Saudi society. PMID:28490894

  17. Clam focal and systemic immune responses to QPX infection revealed by RNA-seq technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kailai; del Castillo, Carmelo; Corre, Erwan; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2016-02-27

    The hard clam Mercenaria mercenaria is an important seafood species widely exploited along the eastern coasts of the United States and play a crucial role in coastal ecology and economy. Severe hard clam mortalities have been associated with the protistan parasite QPX (Quahog Parasite Unknown). QPX infection establishes in pallial organs with the lesions typically characterized as nodules, which represent inflammatory masses formed by hemocyte infiltration and encapsulation of parasites. QPX infection is known to induce host changes on both the whole-organism level and at specific lesion areas, which imply systemic and focal defense responses, respectively. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these alterations. RNA-seq was performed using Illumina Hiseq 2000 (641 Million 100 bp reads) to characterize M. mercenaria focal and systemic immune responses to QPX. Transcripts were assembled and the expression levels were compared between nodule and healthy tissues from infected clams, and between these and tissues from healthy clams. De novo assembly reconstructed a consensus transcriptome of 62,980 sequences that was functionally-annotated. A total of 3,131 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed in different tissues. Results allowed the identification of host immune factors implicated in the systemic and focal responses against QPX and unraveled the pathways involved in parasite neutralization. Among transcripts significantly modulated upon host-pathogen interactions, those involved in non-self recognition, signal transduction and defense response were over-represented. Alterations in pathways regulating hemocyte focal adhesion, migration and apoptosis were also demonstrated. Our study is the first attempt to thoroughly characterize M. mercenaria transcriptome and identify molecular features associated with QPX infection. It is also one of the first studies contrasting focal and systemic responses to infections in

  18. Dental caries: from infection to prevention.

    PubMed

    Islam, Barira; Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U

    2007-11-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases in humans, second only to the common cold. It causes irreversible damage to the grinding machinery involved in the intake of food and hence causes great distress. The changes in the homeostasis of the oral cavity with an overgrowth of Streptococcus mutans is recognized as the primary cause of the disease. Most treatments are now aimed at either elimination of this bacterium or suppression of its virulence. S. mutans strongly adheres and releases acids by the fermentation of carbohydrates, leading to the demineralization of the tooth. This attachment is mediated mostly by the interaction of surface proteins and bacterial polysaccharides. Ambiguities in the basic treatment of dental caries, such as the use of fluoride and antibiotics, vitalize the deployment of probiotic therapies for its cure. The growing research in herbal treatments has led to the discovery of various phytochemicals to limit the virulence of S. mutans. This review focuses on the properties of S. mutans in cariogenicity and outlines ways to combat dental caries.

  19. Clinicopathological evaluation of 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts with emphasis on the presence of odontogenic epithelium in the connective tissue. The hypothesis of “focal ameloblastoma”

    PubMed Central

    Meleti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Some ameloblastomas presumably originate from odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue of dental follicles and dentigerous cysts. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to discuss as whether odontogenic epithelium proliferations, frankly displaying ameloblastomatous features (“focal ameloblastoma”), should be considered as an “early” ameloblastoma. Study Design: Histopathological reports from 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology of the VU Free University medical center in Amsterdam, The Ne-therlands, were reviewed. Histopathological slides from 39 cases reporting the presence of odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue were re-evaluated in order to assess the possible presence of focal ameloblastomas. Results: Focal ameloblastomas were detected in one dental follicle and in two dentigerous cysts. During a follow-up period of 6, 8 and 22 years, respectively, no clinical signs of (recurrent) ameloblastoma have occurred in these patients. Conclusions: Focal ameloblastoma possibly represents the early stage of ameloblastoma development. Key words:Ameloblastoma, odontogenic epithelium, dentigerous cyst, dental follicle. PMID:23085710

  20. Infections of cervical disc space after dental extractions

    PubMed Central

    Feigenbaum, J. A.; Stern, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two patients with infections of the cervical intervertebral disc space after dental procedures carried out by the same oral surgeon exhibited similar clinical courses and radiographic appearances. Both had bacteriological confirmation of infection by needle aspiration and were treated with appropriate antibiotics and bracing of the neck. The presumed aetiology and the possible pathogenesis are described. Evidence suggests that the two infections were the result of needle injection of a contaminated solution, the organisms of which haematogenously lodged in the intervertebral discs in the cervical region. Lymph drainage from the gums and teeth is suggested as a possible route of inoculation. Images PMID:4449000

  1. Fatal thalamic abscess secondary to dental infection.

    PubMed

    Basyuni, Shadi; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay; Ferro, Ashley

    2015-12-17

    We present the case of poor neurological recovery and subsequent death secondary to a thalamic abscess in a 53-year-old man. This patient initially presented with sudden dysarthria and left hemiparesis while driving. Neuroimaging showed a multilobular abscess involving the right thalamus with oedema extending to the basal ganglionic region and brainstem. The source of the abscess was initially unknown and it required draining multiple times while the different causes were being explored. The patient's neurological state along with intubation made for a difficult and inconclusive oral examination. It was only after neuroimaging included tooth-bearing areas that it became evident that this patient had extensive periodontal disease with multiple areas of periapical radiolucencies. The patient underwent complete dental clearance alongside repeated drainage of the abscess. Despite initial postoperative improvement, the patient never recovered from the neurological damage and died 3 weeks later.

  2. Dental Procedures and the Risk of Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Chun; Tung, Ying-Chang; Wu, Patricia W.; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Chee-Jen; Kung, Suefang; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon but potentially devastating disease. Recently published data have revealed a significant increase in the incidence of IE following the restriction on indications for antibiotic prophylaxis as recommended by the revised guidelines. This study aims to reexamine the basic assumption behind the rationale of prophylaxis that dental procedures increase the risk of IE. Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of Taiwan, we retrospectively analyzed a total of 739 patients hospitalized for IE between 1999 and 2012. A case-crossover design was conducted to compare the odds of exposure to dental procedures within 3 months preceding hospitalization with that during matched control periods when no IE developed. In the unadjusted model, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.93 for tooth extraction (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54–1.59), 1.64 for surgery (95% CI 0.61–4.42), 0.92 for dental scaling (95% CI 0.59–1.42), 1.69 for periodontal treatment (95% CI 0.88–3.21), and 1.29 for endodontic treatment (95% CI 0.72–2.31). The association between dental procedures and the risk of IE remained insignificant after adjustment for antibiotic use, indicating that dental procedures did not increase the risk of IE. Therefore, this result may argue against the conventional assumption on which the recommended prophylaxis for IE is based. PMID:26512586

  3. Dental Procedures and the Risk of Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Chun; Tung, Ying-Chang; Wu, Patricia W; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chang, Chee-Jen; Kung, Suefang; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2015-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon but potentially devastating disease. Recently published data have revealed a significant increase in the incidence of IE following the restriction on indications for antibiotic prophylaxis as recommended by the revised guidelines. This study aims to reexamine the basic assumption behind the rationale of prophylaxis that dental procedures increase the risk of IE.Using the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of Taiwan, we retrospectively analyzed a total of 739 patients hospitalized for IE between 1999 and 2012. A case-crossover design was conducted to compare the odds of exposure to dental procedures within 3 months preceding hospitalization with that during matched control periods when no IE developed.In the unadjusted model, the odds ratio (OR) was 0.93 for tooth extraction (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.59), 1.64 for surgery (95% CI 0.61-4.42), 0.92 for dental scaling (95% CI 0.59-1.42), 1.69 for periodontal treatment (95% CI 0.88-3.21), and 1.29 for endodontic treatment (95% CI 0.72-2.31). The association between dental procedures and the risk of IE remained insignificant after adjustment for antibiotic use, indicating that dental procedures did not increase the risk of IE.Therefore, this result may argue against the conventional assumption on which the recommended prophylaxis for IE is based.

  4. Prevalence of GBV-C infection among dental personnel.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kirsty M; Bagg, Jeremy; Kennedy, Catherine; Cameron, Sheila; Simmonds, Peter; Lycett, Carol; Hunter, Iain; Taylor, Margie

    2003-05-01

    Healthcare workers who carry out exposure-prone procedures are theoretically at increased risk of acquiring blood-borne virus infections. GB virus C (GBV-C) is a recently described blood-borne virus that is related distantly to hepatitis C virus. The occupational risk of GBV-C infection to healthcare workers is unknown. This study collected detailed occupational and personal risk data in parallel with a blood specimen, to establish the prevalence and determinants of GBV-C infection among dental healthcare workers. The presence of GBV-C antibodies was detected using commercially available ELISA; GBV-C RNA was detected by nested PCR using primers from the conserved 5' noncoding region. The overall prevalence of GBV-C antibodies among the study population was 11.1% (98/880, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1-13.4%) and 4.6% were positive for GBV-C RNA (46/879, 95% CI, 2.5-5.1%), resulting in a cumulative prevalence of 15.7%. These figures are similar to those described in other populations. There was no significant difference in lifetime exposure to GBV-C between dentists (17.7%) and dental nurses/hygienists (14.3%). Significantly more dental nurses/hygienists aged 16-30 years had been exposed to GBV-C compared to dentists of the same age (chi(2) = 13.75; P < 0.001). Conversely, significantly more dentists 46 years or older had evidence of exposure to GBV-C compared to dental nurses/hygienists (chi(2) = 6.79; P = 0.009). The high prevalence of GBV-C infection did not seem to be related to past parenteral exposure, and the data suggest that sexual transmission, rather than occupational transmission, was a more important route for GBV-C infection among this population.

  5. Infective endocarditis and dental procedures: evidence, pathogenesis, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiro-O

    2006-08-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious infection occurring on the endothelial surfaces of the heart, especially at the valves. Oral commensal bacteria are the important etiologic agents in this disease. Common dental procedures, even non-surgical dental procedures, can often cause bacteremia of oral commensals. Periodontally diseased patients are at risk from bacteremia even after brushing the teeth. Bacteremia itself rarely affect healthy people but they can result in mortal infective endocarditis in those who have a predisposed risk for this disease, such as those with heart valve diseases, pacemaker implantation, etc. Infective endocarditis is thus established when all the 3 conditions are present simultaneously, i. e., 1) a predisposing impairments in the heart, 2) the introduction of bacteria into the bloodstream, and 3) the virulence of bacteria. Antibiotics have to be adequately used to prevent this infection, however, their frequent uses generates drug-resistant mutant bacteria, which is a serious social problem. The development of novel alternative drugs to be used instead of the current antibiotics is thus highly desired. We are now using several types of combinatorial peptide libraries to search for small size molecular mimetics that can interfere with the adhesion of bacteria to the target organ. The use of such peptides is expected to lead to the development of compounds for a novel preventive drug which does not kill bacteria, thus making it safer and less likely to generate drug-resistant mutants.

  6. Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis among patients infected with hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Stehman-Breen, C; Alpers, C E; Fleet, W P; Johnson, R J

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the occurence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the setting of focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS). All patients with the pathologic diagnosis of idiopathic FSGS between 1992 and 1996 at the University of Washington Hospitals were examined using a retrospective cohort study design. FSGS was determined by renal biopsy in the absence of secondary causes. Demographic, laboratory, and outcome data were collected in a standardized fashion. Six patients (50%) were infected with HCV. Patients with HCV infection and FSGS were primarily Black (67%), hypertensive (100%), had a history of intravenous drug abuse (83%), and had normal liver enzymes. Those with HCV infection and a history of IVDA appeared clinically and histologically similar to previously described cases of 'heroin nephropathy'. We demonstrate that there is a high prevalence of HCV infection in our population of patients with idiopathic FSGS. Although this may simply reflect an epiphenomenon, we propose that HCV infection may play a role in the development of FSGS in a predisposed host.

  7. Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Abe, Elizabeth Oluwatoyin; Agelebe, Efeturi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates. Methods A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons. Results The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study. Conclusion Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs. PMID:26161210

  8. Breaking the Chain of Infection: Dental Unit Water Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Amrita; Mehta, Sonia; Dang, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The air–water syringes, ultrasonic scalers, high speed air turbine handpieces are connected to dental units by a network of small-bore plastic tubes through which water and air travel to activate or cool the instruments and it had been shown that this system is extensively contaminated with microbial biofilms and pose a potential risk of infection for patients as well as dental professionals. Aim To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants in reducing the microbial colony count in water derived from Dental Unit Waterlines. Materials and Methods Five random dental units were selected and samples were collected before and after intervention with 5 disinfectants (0.02% H2O2 continuously, 0.02% H2O2 continuously with shock treatment with 0.25% H2O2 weekly, 0.12% Chlorohexidine and 12% Ethanol overnight, 1:50 Original Listerine overnight, 2% Sodium Perborate and 2% EDTA 5 minutes in morning) using different disinfection methods for 4 weeks. Samples were cultured on Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) agar for microbial counting. Results Results were recorded as Colony forming units/ml (cfu/ml) and were evaluated statistically. Results showed that all the dental unit waterlines were heavily contaminated with microbes before any intervention. After 1 day of disinfection regime the counts reduced significantly and showed progressive reduction in consecutive weeks. Goals set by ADA & CDC were ultimately achieved at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion All the disinfectants were equally effective in reducing the microbial colony count of DUWLs, irrespective of their concentration and method of disinfection. PMID:27630960

  9. Compliance with infection control practices in an university hospital dental clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mutters, Nico T.; Hägele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control

  10. Imaging focal sites of bacterial infection in rats with indium-111-labeled chemotactic peptide analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Pike, M.C.; Kroon, D.; Fucello, A.J.; Rexinger, D.; ten Kate, C.; Wilkinson, R.; Rubin, R.H.; Strauss, H.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Four DTPA-derivatized chemotactic peptide analogs: ForNleLFNleYK-DTPA (P1), ForMLFNH(CH2)6NH-DTPA (P2), ForNleLFK(NH2)-DTPA (P3), and ForNleLFK-DTPA (P4), were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro bioactivity and receptor binding. The peptides were radiolabeled with 111In by transchelation and their biodistribution determined in rats at 5, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection. Localization at sites of infection was determined by scintillation camera imaging in animals with deep-thigh infection due to Escherichia coli. Images were recorded from 5 min to 2 hr after injection. All peptides maintained biologic activity (EC50 for O2-production by human PMN's: 3-150 nM) and the ability to bind to the oligopeptide chemoattractant receptor on human PMN's (EC50 for binding: 7.5-50 nM); biologic activity and receptor binding were highly correlated (r = 0.99). For all the peptides, blood clearance was rapid (half-lives: 21.5, 33.1, 31.6, and 28.7 min for P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively). Biodistributions of the individual peptides were similar with low levels of accumulation in the heart, lung, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. In the kidney, P1 had much greater accumulation than other organs. All peptides yielded high quality images of the infection sites within 1 hr of injection. This study demonstrates that 111In-labeled chemotactic peptide analogs were effective agents for the external imaging of focal sites of infection.

  11. Assessing cross infection prevention measures at the Dental Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, J O; Aderinokun, G A

    2002-09-01

    The dental clinic is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection in the dental clinic is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic workers must adopt certain basic routines while practising. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dental clinic, University College Hospital Ibadan. The sample comprised 77 dental clinic workers, who completed closed-ended questionnaires. The questionnaires enquired into practices of the workers in the clinic as well as in the laboratories Physical inspection of dental equipment, instruments and materials was also carried out. The results highlight poor compliance of workers, especially the dental surgeons and students, with the hepatitis B vaccination programme of the Hospital. History to identify high risk individuals was often overlooked and was practised by less than 50% of the clinic workers. Barrier technique with the exception of the use of eye shield, was well practised by all the clinic workers. Aseptic technique was well practised in the dental clinic. Inadequate number of dental surgery assistants, faulty sterilizing equipment, poor monitoring of sterilization, coupled with inadequate number of instruments contributed to the poor success of prevention of contamination and instrument processing procedures. Less than 30% of dental surgeons and fewer than 50% of students discarded sharp materials into the yellow/sharp bin. Liquid waste was well disposed off through the drain for onward flow into the sewer, whilst the disposal of solid contaminated waste did not conform to stipulated international standard. The study found that successful infection control in the dental clinic was highly dependent on the dental surgery assistants, because highly technological equipment were lacking. The management/administration also plays an important role in the number of physical and human resources available and in the overall surveillance

  12. Assessing Risk in Focal Arboviral Infections: Are We Missing the Big or Little Picture?

    PubMed Central

    Haddow, Andrew D.; Jones, Carl J.; Odoi, Agricola

    2009-01-01

    Background Focal arboviral infections affecting a subset of the overall population present an often overlooked set of challenges in the assessment and reporting of risk and the detection of spatial patterns. Our objective was to assess the variation in risk when using different at-risk populations and geographic scales for the calculation of incidence risk and the detection of geographic hot-spots of infection. We explored these variations using a pediatric arbovirus, La Crosse virus (LACV), as our model. Methods and Findings Descriptive and cluster analyses were performed on probable and confirmed cases of LACV infections reported to the Tennessee Department of Health from 1997 to 2006, using three at-risk populations (the total population, the population 18 years and younger, and the population 15 years and younger) and at two geographic levels (county and census tract) to assess the variation in incidence risk and to investigate evidence of clustering using both global and local spatial statistics. We determined that the most appropriate at-risk population to calculate incidence risk and to assess the evidence of clustering was the population 15 years and younger. Based on our findings, the most appropriate geographical level to conduct spatial analyses and report incidence risk is the census tract level. The incidence risk in the population 15 years and younger at the county level ranged from 0 to 226.5 per 100,000 persons (median 41.5) in those counties reporting cases (n = 14) and at the census tract level it ranged from 50.9 to 673.9 per 100,000 persons (median 126.7) in those census tracts reporting cases (n = 51). To our knowledge, this is the highest reported incidence risk for this population at the county level for Tennessee and at the census tract level nationally. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the possibility of missing disease clusters resulting from performing incidence risk investigations of focal diseases using

  13. Effect of dental plaque control on infection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chun-Ling; Jiang, Guang-Shui; Li, Chun-Hai; Li, Cui-Rong

    2012-10-01

    Data on the role of dental plaque in the transmission of Helicobactor pylori have varied. Furthermore, there has been few reports on the relationship between dental plaque control and H. pylori infection of gastric mucosa. The purpose of this study was to elucidate this potential relationship. The 13C urea breath test was conducted on 56 subjects who received dental plaque control and 51 subjects who did not. The prevalence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa was 19.64% in patients who received dental plaque control, which was significantly lower than in those without dental plaque control (84.31%). Long-term professional dental plaque control was associated with less gastric reinfection by H. pylori, suggesting that dental plaque control may help to prevent H. pylori-induced gastric disease or reinfection.

  14. Effect of dental plaque control on infection of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chun-Ling; Jiang, Guang-Shui; Li, Chun-Hai; Li, Cui-Rong

    2009-10-01

    Data on the role of dental plaque in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori have varied. Furthermore, there has been few reports on the relationship between dental plaque control and H. pylori infection of gastric mucosa. The purpose of this study was to elucidate this potential relationship. The (13)C urea breath test was conducted on 56 subjects who received dental plaque control and 51 subjects who did not. The prevalence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa was 19.64% in patients who received dental plaque control, which was significantly lower than in those without dental plaque control (84.31%). Long-term professional dental plaque control was associated with less gastric reinfection by H. pylori, suggesting that dental plaque control may help to prevent H. pylori-induced gastric disease or reinfection.

  15. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia in Adult Patients With HIV Infection: Clearance With Topical Imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Flores, Silvia; Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Saeb-Lima, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Case 1 A 41-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 diagnosed 16 years prior to his consultation was referred for an 8-month history of multiple painless lumps in his mouth. He had A2 status (CD4 cell count of 273 cells/mm(3) and viral load of 43,000 copies/L) and was taking treatment with lamivudine/zidovudine (combivir) and efavirenz. Physical examination showed multiple small mucosal-colored and lobulated papulonodules located in the palate and lower gingiva and a whitish verrucous plaque on the lower labial mucosa (Figure 1a). The lesions were diagnosed clinically as focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) and further confirmed by classical histopathological findings (Figure 1b). He had previously received unspecified treatment; thus, topical 5% imiquimod cream was initiated every night. Mild erosion and ulceration developed in the upper labial mucosa, which were managed with lubrication (petrolatum ointment). After 2 weeks, all of the small lesions disappeared and the largest plaque resolved 1 week later (Figure 1c). A small residual mass in the area of biopsy, suggesting a scar, remained on the lower lip. The area was removed surgically and corresponded to fibrosis histologically, with no evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. CD4 cell count (694 cells/mm(3)) and viral load (<40 copies/L) did not show remarkable changes after imiquimod administration. No serious side effects were observed and the patient has remained free of disease after 1 year of follow-up.

  16. [Hygiene education in the Laureate Course of Dentistry and Dental Prosthetics: evaluation of student knowledge about the risk of infection in a dental practice environment].

    PubMed

    Minelli, L; Vescarelli, I; Pasquarella, C; Montagna, M T; Castiglia, P; Liguori, G; Annino, I; Bergomi, M; Fabiani, L; Gregorio, P; Majori, S; Petti, S; Stampi, S; Tarsitani, G; Monarca, S

    2003-01-01

    Hygiene education for dental students is crucial in order to control and reduce the risk of infections in their future professional practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement in university students' knowledge of infectious disease prevention, dental instruments and environmental decontamination following the Course in Dental Hygiene and Prevention. 595 questionnaires were submitted to dental students at twelve Italian Universities; 335 were filled out before the Course began and 260 at the end of the same course. The students in both the PRE-course and at the POST-course evaluations demonstrated adequate knowledge regarding the transmission of infections in dental practices, knowledge improved following the Hygiene course.

  17. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  18. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  19. Infection control practices in public dental care services: findings from one South African Province.

    PubMed

    Mehtar, S; Shisana, O; Mosala, T; Dunbar, R

    2007-05-01

    Infection control practices which increase the risk of blood-borne virus transmission with associated dental practice in one South African province were studied. All 24 state dental clinics were observed for adequate provision to carry out good infection prevention and control (IPC) practice, 75 staff including dentists, nurses and dental assistants were interviewed to assess IPC knowledge and 23 dental procedures were observed. Significant findings were the difference between knowledge and practice, despite adequate provisions for safe infection control practice. The lack of protective eye wear during a dental procedure, not washing hands between patients, not disassembling an item prior to disinfection or sterilization, and not using a sterile drill for each patient were identified. A rapid method for detection of occult blood was used as a marker for inadequate IPC practice. Contaminated dental items of equipment just prior to patient use in 25% of equipment tested and 37% of surfaces and surrounding areas in the dental clinics and units were recorded. This study concludes that, despite provision for safe dental practice available in state dental clinics, there was a lack of knowledge application in clinical practice. The risk of blood-borne virus transmission in a population with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence cannot be ignored.

  20. Focal Philophthalmus gralli infection possibly persists in Melanoides tuberculata over two years following the definitive hosts' removal.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr; Rojas, Alicia; Bizos, Jiří; Kocková, Lucie; Malá, Milena; Rojas, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Philophthalmosis is a zoonotic disease associated largely with the spread of the invasive freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata, serving as an intermediate host. Here we examined Philophthalmus gralli focal fenced infection site reported recently as being associated with Tinamus major and M. tuberculata in Alajuela, Costa Rica. Removal of the definitive hosts allowed us to address also the long-term survival strategy of the parasite. Initially, the snail intermediate hosts displayed high prevalence of P. gralli infection across all its age cohorts. Two years following the removal of definitive hosts, the infection rate decreased by one order of magnitude, while the snails aging less than one year displayed zero infection prevalence. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) DNA loci revealed negligible intrasite DNA variability of the specimens obtained at the study site in Costa Rica (but not of those obtained earlier in Peru or New Zealand), supporting strongly the hypothesis on focal origin of the infection. The observed dynamics of infection suggests the explanation for the high variability in P. gralli prevalence in intermediate hosts experienced worldwide. We noticed that the reports claiming >20% prevalence of M. tuberculata infection by P. gralli originated exclusively from foci with known eye infection of the definitive hosts, while the P. gralli infection penetrance <2% is typically associated with sites, where the infection of definitive hosts was not observed, suggesting that the infected definitive hosts were present onsite only in the past, or were present only at a site upstream or downstream of the respective sampling site. Thus, this is the first evidence on the possible persistence of eye-trematode infection site for over two years following the last confirmed outbreak in its adult hosts.

  1. Continuing Progress in Infection Control in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Virginia A.; Molinari, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a 1988 survey of dental school deans concerning infection control instruction and protocols found increased attention to infection control and application of recommended protocols. Findings are contrasted with those of earlier studies, and remaining obstacles to implementation of infection control programs are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  2. Clinical profile of orofacial infections: An experience from two primary care dental practices

    PubMed Central

    Hollinshead, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Orofacial infections are common reasons for dental consultations worldwide. However, there is scarcity of data on clinico-epidemiological profiles reported from primary care dental practices. To address this issue, a study was done to characterize the clinical pattern, age groups affected and sex predilection of orofacial infections in the primary care dental practice. Study design: Clinical data was evaluated from random electronic files of patients for whom antimicrobials were prescribed at two Dental Practices in UK between January 2009 and December 2010. Results: 200 case records were studied. 104 (52%) cases were females. Mean age was 37.2 (+/-15.1) years. 107 (53.5%) cases belonged to age group 21-40 years. Posterior teeth were involved in 112 (56%) cases. Types of disease were as follows: dentoalveolar abscess 63(31.5%), pulpitis 27(13.5%), apical periodontitis 21(10.5%), pericoronitis 21(10.5%), dry socket 13(6.5%), periodontitis 9(4.5%) infected root stump 5(2.5%), facial swelling 5(2.5%) and infections unspecified 36(18%) cases. Conclusions: Orofacial infections affect both sexes equally. 21-40 years is the commonest age-group affected. Dentoalveolar abscess is the commonest infection followed by unspecified infections and pulpitis. Key words:Orofacial infections, primary care dental practice, dentoalveolar abscess and pulpitis. PMID:22322492

  3. [Physical performance in patients with focal infection ergospirometric stress-testing before and after tonsillectomy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reiterer, W; Hrabcik, H; Nissel, H

    1977-12-23

    The diagnosis of a focal infection in 13 patients (6 men and 7 women, aged 18 to 36) was based on the findings of chronic tonsillitis and general complaints interpreted as focal symptoms. The patients underwent symptom-limited maximal stress-testing before and after tonsillectomy to rule out any impairment of physical performance on the basis of computer-assisted processing of ergospirometric data. It can be concluded that the actual data of maximal oxygen uptake (aerobic power), the phenomenon of adaptation to increasing work loads (derived from rating of the increase in oxygen uptake during rectangular-triangular bicycle ergometry), the on-line processed index of anaerobic power and the anaerobic threshold, as well as heart rate and arterial blood pressure regulation did not differ in these patients from findings in healthy subjects. Nor were these parameters altered by tonsillectomy. Tonsillar focal infection is unlikely to cause any impairment of physical performance with respect to parameters of cardio-respiratory and metabolic function.

  4. Secondary focal form of yersinia enterocolitica infection with prolonged polyarthritis in young caucasian male: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sydorchuk, Aniuta S; Holyar, Oksana I; Randiuk, Yurii O; Sorokhan, Vasyl D; Sydorchuk, Leonid I; Bohachyk, Nonna A; Venglovska, Yadviga V; Sokol, Andrii M

    Current issue deals with an interesting clinical case of a rare infectious disease in a Caucasian young male patient, caused by Yersinia enterocоlitica. Infection proceeded in the development of secondary focal form, which was accompanied by prolonged polyarthritis. We described a clinical case of secondary focal form with prolonged polyarthritis caused by Y. enterocolitica O:3 serogroup in young patient with the purpose of focusing on the early clinical and laboratory diagnosistics of Yersiniosis that would minimize the role of medical errors in diagnostics made by general practitioners. This case deserves the attention of internal medicine specialists, physicians of the specialty ≪general practitioners≫, rheumatologists, infectious disease specialists taking into consideration the clinics and immunopathogenesis, as well as a high evidence of a prolonged clinical course and chronicity of this disease. It has accented on the feasibility of early serological diagnostics and etiotropic antibiotic therapy of the disease.

  5. [Inflammatory ocular diseases associated with oro-dental pathology].

    PubMed

    Ignat, F; Bărăscu, D; Mocanu, C; Călăraşu, C

    2001-01-01

    It is presented the correlation between the uveitis and the focal dental disease with infection, irritation or allergic pathogenicity. This study was performed on a set of 54 patients with uveitis and dental diseases patients hospitalized in the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Craiova, during 1998-1999. This correlation was observed in 38-40% of uveitis. There were also mentioned some dental damages associated with uveitis: radicular focal infections, periodontitis under prosthetic works, fights cavities, inclusions dental chronic maxillary osteitis. The correlation uveitis-dental diseases was noticed in 1.2-1.8% of the hospitalized patients, comparing with 3-5% in literature (including the ocular adnexa diseases). This study shows the reality of the correlations between uveitis and dental diseases. It was relieved the importance of correlation ophthalmologist-stomatologist.

  6. Infection control practices in dental school: A patient perspective from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Mohammad Abdul; Rahman, Ghousia; Yassin, Mona Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Routine use of gloves, masks and spectacles are important in infection control. Aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infection control measures among the patients attending clinics of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP) in Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study of a convenient sample of dental patients attending dental clinics of RCsDP. A structured, close ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 patients and a response rate of 86% was obtained. Questionnaireconsisted of series of queries related to knowledge and attitudes of patients towards infection control measures. Data analysis included frequency distribution tables, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Final study sample included 301 patients (147 males and 154 females). Almost 99%, 93.7% and 82.7% of the patients agreed that dentist should wear gloves, face mask and spectacles while providing treatment. However, 60.1%, 30% of the patients said that HIV and hepatitis-B infections can spread in dental clinics. Half of the patients felt that they were likely to contract AIDS and 77.7% refused to attend clinics if they knew that AIDS and Hepatitis-B patients treated there. Only 25.2% said that autoclave is the best method of sterilization. A significantly higher knowledge of infection control was observed among the previous dental visitors compared to the first time visitors to the dental clinics (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns

  7. Modeling Dental Health Care Workers' Risk of Occupational Infection from Bloodborne Pathogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capilouto, Eli; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The brief paper offers a model which permits quantification of the dental health care workers' risk of occupationally acquiring infection from bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. The model incorporates five parameters such as the probability that any individual patient is infected and number of patients…

  8. Modeling Dental Health Care Workers' Risk of Occupational Infection from Bloodborne Pathogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capilouto, Eli; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The brief paper offers a model which permits quantification of the dental health care workers' risk of occupationally acquiring infection from bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. The model incorporates five parameters such as the probability that any individual patient is infected and number of patients…

  9. Maintaining dental education and specialist dental care during an outbreak of a new coronavirus infection. Part 1: a deadly viral epidemic begins.

    PubMed

    Smales, F C; Samaranyake, L P

    2003-11-22

    During the three months from March 2003 the economically vibrant city of Hong Kong was seriously dislocated after becoming 'second port of call' of the new and potentially fatal disease, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The uncertainties during that period had a significant impact on the provision of dental care. However the city's only dental hospital continued to function and to support the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Hong Kong in educating dental students and other members of the dental team. At the time of writing no transmissions of the disease have been attributed to procedures associated with dental healthcare. This article chronicles the sequence of events during the outbreak from a dental perspective. It highlights information that may be useful to dental colleagues who might someday be confronted with similar outbreaks of newly emerged potentially lethal infections.

  10. [A case of liver abscess due to Streptococcus anginosus infection secondary to a dental extraction].

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Hideyuki; Matsui, Noriaki; Tsukamoto, Shinji; Funakoshi, Sadahiro; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kabemura, Teppei; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2015-08-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a high fever. He had undergone a dental extraction about 1 month prior to admission because of apical periodontitis. Imaging study revealed liver abscess lesions. Infection with Streptococcus anginosus was confirmed using both stab and blood culture. An adequate selection of antibiotics was administered, and a good outcome was obtained. There have been no case reports of liver abscess caused by intraoral commensal flora related to dental extraction in healthy adults. This case shows that liver abscesses can occur secondary to dental extractions, even in healthy adults.

  11. Antibiotic prophylaxis is not indicated prior to dental procedures for prevention of periprosthetic joint infections.

    PubMed

    Rademacher, Willem M H; Walenkamp, Geert H I M; Moojen, Dirk Jan F; Hendriks, Johannes G E; Goedendorp, Theo A; Rozema, Frederik R

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - To minimize the risk of hematogenous periprosthetic joint infection (HPJI), international and Dutch guidelines recommended antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental procedures. Unclear definitions and contradictory recommendations in these guidelines have led to unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions. To formulate new guidelines, a joint committee of the Dutch Orthopaedic and Dental Societies conducted a systematic literature review to answer the following question: can antibiotic prophylaxis be recommended for patients (with joint prostheses) undergoing dental procedures in order to prevent dental HPJI? Methods - The Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), reviews, and observational studies up to July 2015. Studies were included if they involved patients with joint implants undergoing dental procedures, and either considered HPJI as an outcome measure or described a correlation between HPJI and prophylactic antibiotics. A guideline was formulated using the GRADE method and AGREE II guidelines. Results - 9 studies were included in this systematic review. All were rated "very low quality of evidence". Additional literature was therefore consulted to address clinical questions that provide further insight into pathophysiology and risk factors. The 9 studies did not provide evidence that use of antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence of dental HPJI, and the additional literature supported the conclusion that antibiotic prophylaxis should be discouraged in dental procedures. Interpretation - Prophylactic antibiotics in order to prevent dental HPJI should not be prescribed to patients with a normal or an impaired immune system function. Patients are recommended to maintain good oral hygiene and visit the dentist regularly.

  12. Nigerian Dental Technology Students and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Knowledge, Misconceptions and Willingness to Care

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Omili, MA; Akeredolu, PA

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students’ knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents was high with some misconceptions. Specifically, the misconceptions about HIV transmission through a mosquito bite (P = 0.02) and shaking of hands (P = 0.03) were higher among respondents in the higher class than those in lower class. However, 10.6% (21/198), 6.1% (12/198) and 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. Conclusion: The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection

  13. Inflammatory Mediators of Leprosy Reactional Episodes and Dental Infections: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cortela, D. C. B.; de Souza Junior, A. L.; Virmond, M. C. L.; Ignotti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Reactional episodes in leprosy are a result of complex interactions between the immune system, Mycobacterium leprae, and predisposing factors, including dental infections. To determine the main inflammatory mediators in the immunopathological process of dental infections and leprosy reactions, we conducted a systematic review of primary literature published between 1996 and 2013. A three-stage literature search was performed (Stage I, “leprosy reactions” and “inflammatory mediators”; Stage II, “dental infections” and “inflammatory mediators”; and Stage III, “leprosy reactions,” “dental infections,” and “inflammatory mediators”). Of the 911 eligible publications, 10 were selected in Stage I, 68 in Stage II, and 1 in Stage III. Of the 27 studied inflammatory mediators, the main proinflammatory mediators were IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17; the main anti-inflammatory mediators were IL-10 and IL-4. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were significant during periodontal and reactional lesion evolution; IFN-γ and IL-1β were associated with types 1 and 2 reactions and chronic periodontal disease. The proinflammatory mediators in dental infections and leprosy reactions, especially IL-6 and TNF-α, were similar across studies, regardless of the laboratory technique and sample type. IFN-γ and IL-1β were significant for leprosy reactions and periodontal diseases. This pattern was maintained in serum. PMID:26339136

  14. Evaluation of Cellular Phones for Potential Risk of Nosocomial Infection amongst Dental Operators and Auxiliary Staff.

    PubMed

    Nasim, V S; Al-Hakami, Ahmed; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Al-Manea, Sulthan Ahmed; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Dahman; Al-Malki, Saleh Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates cellular phones for potential risk of nosocomial infection amongst dental operators and auxiliary staff in a dental school. Each participant's mobile phone was first cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab. Following the cleansing protocol, the partakers were asked to make a short phone call. The mobile phones were then washed aseptically by rotating damp cotton swabs with sterile normal saline. Bacterial growth was identified on sheep blood agar and McConkey's agar plates. Sabouraud dextrose agar media was used for fungi species. Descriptive statistics was established with the data statistically explored with SPSS version 17.0. About 50% of dental professionals had shown active bacterial and fungal growth in which 35% (n=35) were dental operators and 15% (n=15) were dental nurses. 53% Gram-positive organisms, 2% Gram-negative organisms, and 3% fungi were identified growths on cellular phones. Thus, it can be concluded that the cellular phones of dental operators as compared to auxiliaries can act as a potential source of nosocomial infection.

  15. Evaluation of Cellular Phones for Potential Risk of Nosocomial Infection amongst Dental Operators and Auxiliary Staff

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, V S; Al-Hakami, Ahmed; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Al-Manea, Sulthan Ahmed; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Dahman; Al-Malki, Saleh Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates cellular phones for potential risk of nosocomial infection amongst dental operators and auxiliary staff in a dental school. Materials and Methods: Each participant’s mobile phone was first cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab. Following the cleansing protocol, the partakers were asked to make a short phone call. The mobile phones were then washed aseptically by rotating damp cotton swabs with sterile normal saline. Bacterial growth was identified on sheep blood agar and McConkey’s agar plates. Sabouraud dextrose agar media was used for fungi species. Descriptive statistics was established with the data statistically explored with SPSS version 17.0. Results: About 50% of dental professionals had shown active bacterial and fungal growth in which 35% (n=35) were dental operators and 15% (n=15) were dental nurses. 53% Gram-positive organisms, 2% Gram-negative organisms, and 3% fungi were identified growths on cellular phones. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the cellular phones of dental operators as compared to auxiliaries can act as a potential source of nosocomial infection. PMID:25954071

  16. Bone Inflammation, Bone Infection and Dental Implants Failure: Histological and Cytological Aspects Related to Cement Excess

    PubMed Central

    Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Gherlone, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dental implant failure can recognize several causes and many of them are quite preventable with the right knowledge of some clinical critical factors. Aim of this paper is to investigate about the histological aspects related to dental implants failure in such cases related to cement excess, how such histological picture can increase the risk of bacterial infections and how the different type of cement can interact with osteoblasts in-vitro. Methods: We randomly selected 5 patients with a diagnosis of dental implant failure requiring to be surgically removed: in all patients was observed an excess of dental cement around the failed implants. Histological investigations were performed of the perimplant bone. Cell culture of purchased human Osteoblasts was performed in order to evaluate cell proliferation and cell morphology at 3 time points among 3 cement types and a control surface. Results: Dental cement has been related to a pathognomonic histological picture with a foreign body reaction and many areas with black particles inside macrophage cells. Finally, cell culture on different dental cements resulted in a lower osteoblasts survival rate. Conclusions: It is appropriate that the dentist puts a small amount of dental cement in the prosthetic crown, so to avoid the clinical alterations related to the excess of cement. PMID:28529868

  17. Controlling dental enamel-cavity ablation depth with optimized stepping parameters along the focal plane normal using a three axis, numerically controlled picosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Wang, Dangxiao; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a depth-control method in enamel-cavity ablation by optimizing the timing of the focal-plane-normal stepping and the single-step size of a three axis, numerically controlled picosecond laser. Although it has been proposed that picosecond lasers may be used to ablate dental hard tissue, the viability of such a depth-control method in enamel-cavity ablation remains uncertain. Forty-two enamel slices with approximately level surfaces were prepared and subjected to two-dimensional ablation by a picosecond laser. The additive-pulse layer, n, was set to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70. A three-dimensional microscope was then used to measure the ablation depth, d, to obtain a quantitative function relating n and d. Six enamel slices were then subjected to three dimensional ablation to produce 10 cavities, respectively, with additive-pulse layer and single-step size set to corresponding values. The difference between the theoretical and measured values was calculated for both the cavity depth and the ablation depth of a single step. These were used to determine minimum-difference values for both the additive-pulse layer (n) and single-step size (d). When the additive-pulse layer and the single-step size were set 5 and 45, respectively, the depth error had a minimum of 2.25 μm, and 450 μm deep enamel cavities were produced. When performing three-dimensional ablating of enamel with a picosecond laser, adjusting the timing of the focal-plane-normal stepping and the single-step size allows for the control of ablation-depth error to the order of micrometers.

  18. [A survey of preventive measures against infection risk in dental surgery].

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Tatò, Daniela; De Benedittis, Michele; Pastore, Luca; Serpico, Rosario; Quarto, Michele; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2005-01-01

    In dental healthcare surgeries, both workers and patients are regularly exposed to various infectious agents. It is essential therefore that dental healthcare workers have a good knowledge of disinfection systems and that dentists' surgeries be effectively managed so as to reduce or even eliminate the risk of cross infections. In order to evaluate infectious risk prevention methods and describe the procedures used by dental healthcare workers on a daily basis, a sample of dentists who work in public surgeries were asked to anonymously fill up a questionnaire. The results of this survey show that dental healthcare workers are sufficiently well-informed about the infectious hazards present in the workplace and are aware of the high risk of exposure to infections but seem to be especially concerned about blood-borne infections (hepatitis, AIDS). Only 67.5%, however, are immunised against HBV. Individual safety devices are used correctly while there seems to be a lack of knowledge about the proper use of disinfection and sterilization systems. In addition, some dental healthcare workers still today refuse to treat HIV-positive patients.

  19. Cervicofacial infection of dental origin presenting to maxillofacial surgery units in the United Kingdom: a national audit.

    PubMed

    Carter, L M; Layton, S

    2009-01-24

    Local studies have shown an increase in cervicofacial infections of dental origin presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery units in the UK. A lack of access to National Health Service (NHS) primary care dental services has been implicated as a root cause. Cross-sectional national audit.Method Oral and maxillofacial surgery units in the UK were asked to report details of severe cervicofacial infection of dental origin presenting in October and November 2006. Data were collected regarding: patient demographics, referral source, management in primary care, management by maxillofacial surgery, and outcome. Two hundred and sixty-six episodes of cervicofacial infection of dental origin were reported during the audit period. At the time of presentation, 56.4% of patients were registered with a general dental practitioner (GDP). One hundred and forty (52.6%) patients sought treatment from primary care dental services for their episode of cervicofacial infection and only 20 patients were unsuccessful in obtaining treatment. Forty-seven percent of patients did not seek treatment from primary care dental services. Fifty percent of patients were referred by accident and emergency. Sixty-six percent of patients were prescribed oral antibiotics without operative intervention by primary dental care services. Eighty-one percent of patients required hospital admission and 46% of patients required a surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. Eighty-nine percent of patients made a full recovery and 3% recovered with complications. There were no deaths reported during the audit period. This audit provides a benchmark from which future comparisons can be made and by design cannot prove an increase in the presentation of cervicofacial infection of dental origin. Lack of access to NHS primary care dental services may be less significant than originally thought. A significant proportion of patients preferentially present to primary care medical services rather than dental services

  20. Dental problems delaying the initiation of interferon therapy for HCV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been little discussion about the importance of oral management and interferon (IFN) therapy, although management of the side effects of therapy for chronic hepatitis C has been documented. This study determined whether dental problems delayed the initiation of IFN therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. Results We analyzed 570 HCV-infected patients who were admitted to our hospital from December 2003 to June 2010 for treatment consisting of pegylated IFN (Peg-IFN) monotherapy or Peg-IFN/ribavirin combination therapy. The group comprised 274 men and 296 women with a mean age 57.2 years. Of the 570 patients, six could not commence Peg-IFN therapy, despite their admission, because of dental problems such as periodontitis, pupitis, and pericoronitis. The ages of six whose dental problems delayed the initiation of Peg-IFN ranged from 25 to 67 years, with a mean age of 47.3 ± 15.2 years. IFN therapy was deferred for 61.3 ± 47.7 days. Among the six subjects for whom IFN treatment was delayed, only one had a salivary flow that was lower than the normal value. Conclusions Treatment of dental infections is required before IFN therapy for HCV infection can be started. To increase the depth of understanding of oral health care, it is hoped that dentists and medical specialists in all areas will hold discussions to generate cooperation. PMID:20712912

  1. Low occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection among dental professionals.

    PubMed

    Klein, R S; Phelan, J A; Freeman, K; Schable, C; Friedland, G H; Trieger, N; Steigbigel, N H

    1988-01-14

    We studied 1309 dental professionals (1132 dentists, 131 hygienists, and 46 assistants) without behavioral risk factors for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to determine their occupational risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Subjects completed questionnaires on behavior; type, duration, and location of their dental practice; infection-control practices; and estimated numbers of potential occupational exposures to HIV. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to HIV and to hepatitis B surface antigen (unvaccinated subjects). Fifty-one percent of the subjects practiced in locations where many cases of AIDS have been reported. Seventy-two percent treated patients who had AIDS or were at increased risk for it. Ninety-four percent reported accidental puncturing of the skin with instruments used in treating patients. Adherence to recommended infection-control practices was infrequent. Twenty-one percent of unvaccinated subjects had antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. Only one dentist without a history of behavioral risk factors for AIDS had serum antibodies to HIV. We conclude that despite infrequent compliance with recommended infection-control precautions, frequent occupational exposure to persons at increased risk for HIV infection, and frequent accidental puncturing of the skin with sharp instruments, dental professionals are at low occupational risk for HIV infection.

  2. Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among dental patients in a Nigerian secondary healthcare facility.

    PubMed

    Ogbebor, O G; Obisesan, B; Madukwe, I U; Azodo, Clement C

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among patients attending the Dental Clinic of General Hospital Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. The study was a prospective study of 1080 dental patients of General Hospital Minna. Out of the 1080 patients counseled, only 200 gave consent to participate in the study. Of the 200 participants, 8 tested positive for HIV, giving a prevalence of 4.0%. Females and participants in the sixth and fifth decades of life were found to have higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. Corpers and traders had higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. Participants with periodontal complaints (bleeding gums and shaking teeth) also had higher prevalence of undiagnosed HIV. The proportion of participants that reported having knowledge about the actual existence, risk factors, and prevention of HIV/AIDS was high. The proportion of participants who expressed willingness to receive more information on HIV-related issues was high. One out of 25 patients attending this secondary healthcare setting for dental services had undiagnosed HIV infection. This highlights the need for the establishment of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) unit in the dental clinics and also re-emphasizes the strict compliance of standard precaution in dental practices.

  3. Comparing the bacterial diversity of acute and chronic dental root canal infections.

    PubMed

    Santos, Adriana L; Siqueira, José F; Rôças, Isabela N; Jesus, Ederson C; Rosado, Alexandre S; Tiedje, James M

    2011-01-01

    This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic) or chronic (asymptomatic) apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (at 3% divergence) belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%), Fusobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (13%), while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%), Bacteroidetes (14%) and Actinobacteria (10%). Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89%) than in chronic cases (50%). The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165) of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic). This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections.

  4. Comparing the Bacterial Diversity of Acute and Chronic Dental Root Canal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana L.; Siqueira, José F.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Jesus, Ederson C.; Rosado, Alexandre S.; Tiedje, James M.

    2011-01-01

    This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic) or chronic (asymptomatic) apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (at 3% divergence) belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%), Fusobacteria (17%) and Bacteroidetes (13%), while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%), Bacteroidetes (14%) and Actinobacteria (10%). Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89%) than in chronic cases (50%). The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165) of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic). This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections. PMID:22132218

  5. THE INDUCTION OF RHEUMATIC-LIKE CARDIAC LESIONS IN RABBITS BY REPEATED FOCAL INFECTIONS WITH GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, George E.; Swift, Homer F.

    1950-01-01

    Cardiac lesions like those characteristic of rheumatic fever in man have been induced in a small portion of rabbits that were subjected to successive focal infections with group A streptococci of several serological types. Fresh myocardial interstitial granulomata so induced bear striking resemblance to Aschoff bodies, the histologic hallmarks of human active rheumatic fever; and the fresh and healed lesions found in the cardiac valves, endocardia, epicardia, blood vessels, and aortae of some of these rabbits are homologous with those characteristic of rheumatic fever in man. These experimental myocardial and vascular lesions and those of human rheumatic fever differ in several important respects from the lesions of experimental and human serum disease. PMID:15415504

  6. A spectrum of morphologic lesions of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis by Columbia criteria in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Shane M; Kim, Lisa; Chang, Anthony

    2012-04-01

    The Columbia working classification of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) identifies five types of glomerular lesions, designated collapsing (COLL), cellular (CELL), glomerular tip lesion (GTL), perihilar (PH), and not otherwise specified (NOS) variant lesions. FSGS COLL and non-collapsing variants of FSGS are described in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated kidney disease. This study examined the range and relationships of Columbia-type segmental sclerosing lesions in biopsies from patients with HIV infection. We identified 47 renal biopsies from 46 patients with HIV infection obtained over an 8-year period. Twenty-seven biopsies from 26 patients had FSGS. Sixteen biopsies had FSGS COLL (59.3%), 3 had CELL (11.1%), 5 had NOS (18.5%), 2 had PH (7.4%), and 1 had GTL (3.7%) by the Columbia classification. Biopsies had more than one type of Columbia FSGS lesion in 63% and one type in 37%. Single types of FSGS lesions were identified in eight of eight biopsies with ≤10 glomeruli. Combinations of lesions were observed in 17 of 19 (89.5%) with >10 glomeruli, and the coincidence of COLL, CELL, and NOS lesions was not random. NOS, COLL, and CELL morphologic lesions of FSGS frequently coexist in kidney biopsies from HIV+ patients. Combined patterns of FSGS suggest that lesions identified by Columbia criteria may be part of a spectrum of responses to injury in the setting of HIV infection.

  7. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  8. Detection of HCV Persistent Infections in the Dental Pulp: A Novel Approach for the Detection of Past and Ancient Infections

    PubMed Central

    Siravenha, Layla Gomes; Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão; Madeira, Lucimar Di Paula; Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir B.; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Martins Feitosa, Rosimar Neris; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp. Serum samples were collected from 48 patients whose teeth were clinically recommended for surgical extraction. The group comprised an equal number of males and females, mostly agriculture workers and housewives, respectively. The majority (64.6%) received less than one minimum wage and were ill educated (less than four years of school years). An enzyme immune assay was used to detect antibodies to HCV and the 9 (18.8%) positive samples were submitted to nucleic acid extraction in the blood (using the EXTRAzol) and the pulp (QIAamp DNA Micro Kit e kit RNeasy Plus Micro). The pulp was removed using a modified protocol without the use of liquid nitrogen. Nucleic acid was found in 8 of the dental pulp, but in 7 of the blood samples. Sequencing of one of the samples showed the presence of genotype 1. Conclusions: A novel simplified methodology for the extraction and amplification of HCV nucleic acid was successful to detect the presence of persistent infections of the virus within the dental pulp tissue. The protocol may be helpful to detect past and ancient infections and to better understand the natural history of HCV. PMID:27783693

  9. Evidence summary: what 'cost of illness' evidence is there about cross-infection related infections in dental practice?

    PubMed

    Fox, Chris

    2010-07-24

    Since August 2009, members of the Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) have taken part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which receives the most votes each month forms the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting takes place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.The paper below details a summary of the findings of the seventh critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal identified no evidence on the epidemiological scale of cross-infection caused in dental practices and therefore also of the cost impact of cross-infection caused in primary dental practices. As a result, no 'cost of illness', or cost-benefit assessment, exists or is feasible at this time.

  10. Role of the dental surgeon in the early detection of adults with underlying HIV infection / AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jorge; del Romero, Jorge; Hernando, Victoria; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    A review is made of the late diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a subject of growing interest in public health. It has been estimated that in Europe 30% of all HIV-infected people are unaware of their seropositive condition, and this in turn is associated with a poorer long-term disease prognosis and an increased risk of transmission to other individuals. The role of the dental surgeon in this context could be of great importance, since there are many oral lesions that can suggest the existence of underlying infection. The study also addresses the controversial subject of rapid HIV testing, and whether these tests should be performed on a routine basis in the dental clinic, or whether it is preferable to refer the patient to a specialized center. Key words:HIV in Spain, HIV screening, early diagnosis. PMID:22143719

  11. Group A beta streptococcal infections in children after oral or dental trauma: a case series of 5 patients.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Brittany E; Sulman, Cecile G; Chusid, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) produces a variety of disease processes in children. Severe invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis can result. Traumatic dental injuries are common in the pediatric population, although the role of dental injuries in invasive GAS disease is not well characterized. In this article, we describe our retrospective series of 5 cases of GAS infection following oral or dental trauma in children.

  12. [Impact of HIV infection and AIDS on dental practice].

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, A M

    1990-11-01

    Describing the results of a study on the impact of HIV on practitional dentistry, the author finds out a considerable uncertainty of knowledge among elder practitioners. While 62% are willing to treat HIV-infected persons, a big part of the participants is looking on AIDS as an occupational risk. Regarding infection control procedures, the results show a limited compliance with the generally accepted recommendations.

  13. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  14. Does HIV infection have an impact upon dental implant osseointegration? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ata-Ali, Javier; Ata-Ali, Fadi; Di-Benedetto, Nicolas; Bagán, Leticia; Bagán, José-Vicente

    2015-05-01

    A systematic review is made to determine whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has an impact upon dental implant osseointegration. A PubMed (MEDLINE) literature search was made of articles published up until 14 April 2014. The systematic review was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). The quality of the studies included in the review was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) and levels of evidence (based on the University of Oxford's Center for Evidence Based Medicine criteria). The combinations of search terms resulted in a list of 132 titles. Nine studies finally met the inclusion criteria and were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. A total of 173 dental implants were placed in 80 patients (135 implants in 56 HIV-positive subjects and 38 implants in 24 HIV-negative patients), and a single loss of dental implant osseointegration was recorded in an HIV-positive patient. Our results suggest that dental implant placement in HIV-positive patients does not increase the dental implant failure rate. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment, the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and control of the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts appear to be the main influencing factors in this respect. Given the few studies included in our systematic review, further prospective studies involving larger sample sizes and longer durations of follow-up are required in order to confirm the results obtained.

  15. A national survey of dental hygienists' infection control attitudes and practices.

    PubMed

    King, Tracy B; Muzzin, Kathleen B

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: 1) investigate the infection control practices of practicing dental hygienists, 2) document the attitudes and practices of dental hygienists toward patients with infectious diseases, and 3) determine if professional affiliation affected the attitudes and/or practices of the respondents. A 49-item survey consisting of eight demographic, nine attitudinal, and 32 practice questions was used for this study. A stratified sampling method was used, in which the United States was divided into four regions. Three states were selected from each region according to geographic location and population. Five percent of registered dental hygienists within each selected state were randomly selected for inclusion in the study. All analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS v.10, Chicago, IL). Of the 2,009 surveys mailed, 104 were undeliverable. A total of 856 completed surveys were returned from practicing dental hygienists for a response rate of 44.9%. Overall, this study found an increased use of barriers and personal protective equipment in comparison to previous studies. A majority of respondents (53.9%) felt that treating patients with HIV or AIDS increased their personal risk for contracting the disease. The majority of respondents also reported always using extra precautions with HIV/AIDS patients (63.5%) and hepatitis patients (60.1%). In addition, most respondents reported they would not use an ultrasonic scaler when treating HIV/AIDS (65.8%) or hepatitis (58.9%) patients, indicating an alteration in clinical practice habits. The majority of dental hygienists surveyed reported altering infection control practices and treatment techniques when treating HIV/AIDS or hepatitis patients. While there has been an improvement in compliance with recommended infection control guidelines, practitioners still have misconceptions, and possibly fear, regarding infectious diseases and disease transmission.

  16. Trehalulose does not induce dental caries in rats infected with mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, T; Izumitani, A; Minami, T; Fujiwara, T; Nakajima, Y; Hamada, S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of trehalulose, a structural isomer of sucrose, and a syrup (TP syrup) rich in trehalulose and palatinose on caries development were examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. Streptococcus mutans MT8148R and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 fermented the syrup which resulted in acid production, while both strains were found not to utilize trehalulose. Furthermore, trehalulose did not serve as a substrate for glucosyltransferases of these mutans streptococci to synthesize water-insoluble glucan, and it inhibited the sucrose-dependent adherence of mutans streptococci to a glass surface. Although trehalulose induced no significant dental caries in specific pathogen-free rats infected with either MT8148R or 6715, TP syrup was found to induce significant but low dental caries. Furthermore, replacement of the dietary sucrose content with trehalulose resulted in a significant reduction of caries development in rats infected with strain 6715.

  17. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  18. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  19. Odontogenic infections: an 8-year epidemiologic analysis in a dental emergency outpatient care unit.

    PubMed

    Cachovan, Georg; Phark, Jin-Ho; Schön, Gerhard; Pohlenz, Philipp; Platzer, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze epidemiological patterns, clinical features and the management of odontogenic infections in patients undergoing treatment in a dental emergency outpatient care unit. A retrospective analysis of 58 161 case records of patients presenting to an emergency outpatient unit in Hamburg, Germany between 2000-2007 was performed. From this pool, patients with odontogenic infections were identified using an ICD-10 code, analyzing age, gender, medical co-morbidities, duration of pain, ratio of infiltrates/abscesses, affected teeth, management of infection and administered antibiotics. Of the 58 161 patients, 5357 (9.2%) were identified as having odontogenic infections, with 2689 (50.2%) inflammatory infiltrates and 2668 (49.8%) abscesses. Mean age was 34.8 ± 16.8 years. As the primary site of odontogenic infection, the most significantly affected teeth were the maxillary and mandibular first molars. Patients in age-group 20-29 years (25.1%) utilized the emergency care unit more frequently than other age groups. Clindamycin was the most frequently administered antibiotic. Early recognition, diagnosis and management of odontogenic infections are requisite for avoiding or minimizing the development of potential complications. Strategies and evidence-based protocols should be developed within the dental ambulatory care sector, advancing interdisciplinary cooperation between general dentists and oral or maxillofacial surgeons.

  20. Infective endocarditis caused by Veillonella of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Prpić-Mehicić, G; Marsan, T; Miletić, I; Buntak-Kobler, D

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether Veillonella could cause transitory bacteriemia and endocarditis in both pure and mixed cultures when the port of entrance for infection was made in rats' incisors. Incisors of 54 male Zgr: whistar conventional rats were inoculated with pure culture of Veillonella (18 animals) and with mixed culture of S. mutans and Veillonella (18 animals). Remaining 18 incisors (the control group) were treated with saline solution. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 21 and 52 days respectively. Two positive hemocultures were obtained in mixed infection after 21 days of experimental procedure. Histopatological analysis of endocardial tissue revealed changes in 7 (12.96%) cases. Occurrence of acute endocarditis (one case) and chronical (four cases) ones depended on duration of mixed infections. For chronical endocarditis that appears in two animals with pure Veillonela culture we are at a loss of explanation. In conclusion, on the rats model Veillonella can penetrate into circulation in association with S. mutans via the pulp tissue and could be involved in infective endocarditis.

  1. Basic infection control procedures in dental practice in Khartoum-Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elkarim, I A; Abdulla, Z A; Yahia, N A; Al Qudah, A; Ibrahim, Y E

    2004-12-01

    To survey the infection control procedures used by dental practitioners in Khartoum, Sudan. Questionnaires were distributed to150 randomly sampled dentists practising in Khartoum state. Each questionnaire comprised 17 questions about basic infection control procedures. A 100% response rate to the questionnaire showed that 92% of dentists routinely wore gloves when treating patients, 50% face masks, 61% a gown and 14.7% protective eye wear. Furthermore 52% of the practitioners had been immunised against Hepatitis B. The majority of practitioners (72%) used dry heat as their method of instrument sterilisation, 22% used an autoclave, 2% used boiling water and the remainder used chemical sterilisation. Safe disposal of clinical waste was undertaken by only 23% of dentists although 47% of practitioners stored sharp items in closed containers. All respondents used disposable dental needles, but only a few used other disposable items. There was a significant difference in the implementation of cross infection control procedures between salaried and private dental practitioners, especially with regard to handpiece sterilisation, use of disposables, the wearing of face masks and the availability of additional sets of instruments. There is a clear need to improve the existing situation particularly with regard to immunisation of dentists against Hepatitis B, the safe disposal of clinical waste and instrument sterilisation in Khartoum.

  2. Capturing orthopaedic surgical site infection data and assessing dental recommendations with respect to total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Florschutz, Anthony V; Parsley, Brian S; Shapiro, Irving M

    2015-04-01

    Greater documentation of patient history and clinical course is crucial for identifying factors that can influence surgical outcomes. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have already begun public reporting of hospital data on readmission, complication, and infection rates and will soon launch a website to make physician-specific outcomes data public. The orthopaedic community has the opportunity to lead the way in ensuring that adequate and accurate data is collected to facilitate appropriate comparisons that are based on patients' true risk of complications and the complexity of treatment. Several studies have reported a link between oral pathogens and periprosthetic infection, although it remains unclear whether organisms unique to dental tissues are also present in osteoarthritic joints and tissues affected by periprosthetic joint infection. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American Dental Association are aware of these concerns and have created guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in patients who have undergone total hip or knee arthroplasty and require high-risk dental procedures. Because these guidelines have received considerable criticism, recommendations that are based on scientific and case-controlled clinical studies and provide effective guidance on this important subject are needed.

  3. Does HIV infection have an impact upon dental implant osseointegration? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ata-Ali, Fadi; Di-Benedetto, Nicolas; Bagán, Leticia; Bagán, José-Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background A systematic review is made to determine whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has an impact upon dental implant osseointegration. Material and Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) literature search was made of articles published up until 14 April 2014. The systematic review was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). The quality of the studies included in the review was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) and levels of evidence (based on the University of Oxford’s Center for Evidence Based Medicine criteria). Results The combinations of search terms resulted in a list of 132 titles. Nine studies finally met the inclusion criteria and were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. A total of 173 dental implants were placed in 80 patients (135 implants in 56 HIV-positive subjects and 38 implants in 24 HIV-negative patients), and a single loss of dental implant osseointegration was recorded in an HIV-positive patient. Conclusions Our results suggest that dental implant placement in HIV-positive patients does not increase the dental implant failure rate. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment, the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and control of the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts appear to be the main influencing factors in this respect. Given the few studies included in our systematic review, further prospective studies involving larger sample sizes and longer durations of follow-up are required in order to confirm the results obtained. Key words: Dental implants, implant failure, HIV positive, systematic review, AIDS, HAART. PMID:25662560

  4. Dental school deans' and dentists' perceptions of infection control and HIV/AIDS patient care: a challenge for dental education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mayoral, E E; Sánchez-Pérez, L; Olguín-Barreto, Y; Acosta-Gío, A E

    2009-07-01

    HIV/AIDS patients face unique oral diagnostic and treatment challenges. The aim of this investigation among dental school deans (DSD) and graduate school applicants (GSA) who had qualified from 30 different dental schools was to assess their perceptions on dental education relevant to infection control (IC) and HIV/AIDS patient care. The questionnaire included Likert-type scale evaluations of agreement with statements. Of 158 questionnaires, 23 DSD (68% response rate), and 123 GSA (100% response rate) returned valid questionnaires. Fifteen (65%) DSD and 89 (72%) GSA ranked as "very strong" their perception that infection control prevents the transmission of blood borne viruses. However, the perception prevailed, among DSD and GSA, that HIV infection was a "very strong" to "strong" occupational hazard. Special reprocessing of instruments used on HIV patients was frequently reported. Many considered "very strong" to "strong" that HIV/AIDS patients must be treated in specialized clinics, and nearly half (48%) of the DSD and one third (35%) of the GSA stated that their school does refer HIV/AIDS patients to dental treatment in specialized clinics. These results indicate that many dental schools in Mexico must provide better education on IC and HIV/AIDS patient care to enhance attitudes toward HIV/AIDS patients.

  5. Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by a dental infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gi-Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Hyung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis not only presents with constitutional symptoms including fever, pain and swelling but also with specific findings such as proptosis, chemosis, periorbital swelling, and cranial nerve palsies. It is known to occur secondary to the spread of paranasal sinus infections in the nose, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses. However, paranasal sinus infection of dental origin is rare. The following is a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis due to the spread of an abscess in the buccal and pterygomandibular spaces via buccal mucosal laceration. PMID:25247150

  6. [A survey on infection control practices, knowledge and attitudes toward AIDS/HIV among dental practitioners].

    PubMed

    Aizawa, F; Yonemitsu, M; Aizawa, Y; Hanada, N; Akada, H

    1996-05-01

    A survey was conducted in December 1993 by sending questionnaires to all 566 dentists of the Iwate Dental Association. The questionnaires consisted of 68 items including infection control practices, knowledge, and attitudes towards AIDS/HIV. The response rate was 51.1 percent (N = 289). The average age of dentists in the sample was 43.7 +/- 9.5 (S.D.) (range: 28 to 85). Data was evaluated statistically by Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney's U test and Chi-square test, and significant differences were observed. Gloves, masks, and other protective garments were generally worn, but most dentists did not always use them during the full course of treatment limiting usage to surgical treatment, and when treating patients in "high-risk groups". Other infection control procedures, such as instrument sterilization, did not comply with the guidelines of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. Two dentists responded that they had treated AIDS patients and three dentists treated possible AIDS/HIV patients in their dental offices. Despite 71.3% expressing a belief that they have a moral responsibility as a dentist to treat AIDS/HIV patients only 15.6% were willing to treat AIDS/HIV patients. Over 40% of the respondents were not certain as to whether they had treated AIDS/HIV patients or not, and over 60% believed AIDS/HIV patients would come to their dental offices in the near future. Therefore, to practice dentistry on AIDS/HIV patients safely, dentists must provide effective infection control in their dental offices on the assumption that all patients are AIDS/HIV positive, and additional information about AIDS/HIV and adequate training on procedures in the care of AIDS/HIV patients are needed.

  7. Dental care and HIV-infected individuals: are they equally treated?

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Michele; Lajolo, Carlo; Rezza, Giovanni; Arici, Claudio; Babudieri, Sergio; Grima, Pierfrancesco; Martinelli, Canio; Tamburrini, Enrica; Vecchiet, Jacopo; Mura, Maria Stella; Cauda, Roberto; Mario, Tumbarello

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the problems in seeking dental care faced by HIV-positive individuals in Italy. A multicenter observational study was performed by distributing an anonymous self-administered questionnaire to patients of six public healthcare facilities specialized in the treatment of individuals with HIV infection. The questions concerned personal data potentially correlated with discrimination, the patient-dentist relationship before and after HIV diagnosis, and the reasons for seeking dental care in public facilities. We also evaluated the patients' discomfort in the patient-dentist relationship after HIV diagnosis, performing univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 1,500 questionnaires distributed; 883 were filled-out completely. A total of 630 persons received dental care after HIV diagnosis: 209 (33.2%) did not tell the dentist that they were seropositive. Of those who did, 56 were refused care. For patients treated by a private dentist, having been treated by the same dentist before diagnosis was a risk factor for great discomfort in the patient-dentist relationship (P < 0.002). Being treated in public facilities was associated with having received dental care after HIV diagnosis (P < 0.001) and a primary school education (P < 0.001). There exist episodes of discrimination on the part of some dentists, and a relatively high proportion of HIV-positive persons do not disclose their seropositivity to the dentist. Dentists should be provided with training for promoting both ethically acceptable practices and suitable clinical management of HIV-positive persons.

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and infection control for restorative dental treatment in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Hall, David L

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing home residents now averages 20-35%. This includes both numerous asymptomatic mostly unidentified carriers, and the occasional patient with an active infection. Among the most common sites for positive MRSA colonization are the nares and mouth (saliva). Ohio State University (OSU) dental students perform routine restorative dental care onsite in local nursing homes using portable equipment including handpieces that can generate aerosols. Using a series of cultured test swabs and plates, this pilot study suggests that protection for both dental health care personnel and patients are provided by the following: 1. universal barrier precautions (for example, gloves, gowns, masks, hats, facial shields, glasses), 2. surface disinfectants, 3. pre-op 0.12% chlorhexidene mouth rinses, 4. high volume evacuation, 5. perioral skin scrubs. Additional infection control methods, techniques and equipment were evaluated and compared including rubber dam isolation, hand excavation and bond technique, high-speed air turbine and electric "high" speed handpiece. There was no indication of a special tendency or heightened ability of MRSA to aerosolize.

  9. Improvements in cross-infection control in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Bentley, E M; Sarll, D W

    1995-07-08

    A questionnaire about cross-infection control was sent to all GDPs in five FHSAs in the North Western Region. Replies came from 312 dentists, a response rate of 74%. They worked in 185 practices, a response rate of 85%. Gloves were worn routinely by 86% of dentists and 80% of DSAs. Handpieces were autoclaved between patients in 77% of practices. Much however, remains to be improved. DSAs could be better protected if more ultrasonic cleaners were used, eye protection encouraged and heavy duty gloves were available for cleaning instruments. BDA guidelines were reported as being the most influential factor, though it would appear that the media did persuade many practitioners to use autoclavable handpieces and sterilise them after each use.

  10. Necessity for and control of dental treatment in HIV infected children. Inter-professional relationship between dentist and paediatrician.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Munoz, L; Marin-Castro, I; Aznar-Martin, T; Dominguez-Reyes, A

    2002-01-01

    HIV infected children frequently suffer from buccal-dental lesions needing dental treatment. This treatment should improve their systemic affection, localised pathology, psychological and affective state and their general quality of life. Hardly any of these children are ever treated; sometimes because of lack of family motivation (the most frequent cause) and others because of the lack of a Paediatric Dental Unit in the hospitals they attend. For this reason we present here two cases of HIV infected children, with HIV infected mothers, who, thanks to the relationship between the Paediatric and Dental Units of the hospital, have had access to dental treatment for multiple caries and candidiasis. An anatopathological diagnosis of gingival inflammation, which was also infected by candida, was also carried out. The treatment included extraction of teeth, pulpotomy, pulpectomy and the fitting of prostheses. It should be made clear that a good inter-professional relationship is needed and it must also be taken into account the great difficulty that is encountered when trying to make this group of patients understand the need for, and benefits of, dental treatment.

  11. Indications of antibiotic prophylaxis in dental practice- Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, C; Padmanabhan, TV

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently used in dental practice. Clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors determine the indications of antibiotics in dentistry. Antibiotics are used in addition to appropriate treatment to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. It is indicated when there is evidence of clinical sign involvement and spread of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for treating odontoge nic infections, non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal and local infection. Special care needs to be addressed to patients with organ transplants, poorly controlled diabetes and pregnancy. Antibiotics should be used only as an adjunct to dental treatment and never alone as the first line of care. The present paper reviews the indications of antibiotics in dental practice. PMID:23570007

  12. Dental and oral hygiene student's knowledge of HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, J E; Carstens, I L; Engelbrecht, J J; Hattingh, D

    1994-04-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of 30 oral hygiene (OH I & II) and 79 dental students (BCHD III & VI) on HIV infection and AIDS. A questionnaire consisting of twenty-nine questions based on the 'agree-disagree' format was prepared for this study. Clinical slides were projected to assess students' ability to identify oral manifestations of HIV infection. Most students agreed that HIV-sero-positive people were entitled to the same dignity and respect as those who were suffering from other illnesses. Students were concerned about treating sero-positive patients. They would preferably receive training in the management of these patients in a controlled environment. They had a poor perception of the risk of infection following needle-stick injury and whether HIV could be transmitted through contact with saliva. Most students felt that they had insufficient lectures on HIV/AIDS and had practically no clinical exposure to HIV-sero-positive patients.

  13. Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Monica; Muoio, Maria Rosaria; Westermann, Claudia; Nienhaus, Albert; Arnese, Antonio; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Crispino, Vincenzo; Coppola, Nicola; De Rosa, Alfredo

    2017-03-04

    To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Italian dental students exposed to the same occupational risks as dental health care personnel and to evaluate potential risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate and postgraduate students. After clinical evaluation, students were given a tuberculin skin test; in those found positive, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) was conducted. Of the 281 students enrolled, 10 were only TST positive; 8 were TST or/and IGRA positive. We found that participants testing positive at TST and/or IGRA, a group in which the risk of false LTBI positives is minimal, were older and had been studying longer. Although the prevalence of LTBI among dental students in our study was low, a risk of acquiring a work-related infection exists even in a country with a low incidence of TB. Thus, dental students should be screened to catch LTBI early on.

  14. Dental status, dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and oncological data as potential risk factors for infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw after radiotherapy for oral neoplasms: a retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retrospective evaluation of the dental status of patients with oral cancer before radiotherapy, the extent of dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and radiotherapy data as potential risk factors for development of infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw. Methods A total of 90 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for oral cancer were included into this retrospective evaluation. None of them had distant metastases. After tumour surgery the patients were referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for dental examination and the necessary dental rehabilitation procedures inclusive potential tooth extraction combined with primary soft tissue closure. Adjuvant radiotherapy was started after complete healing of the gingiva (> 7 days after potential extraction). The majority of patients (n = 74) was treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses ranging from 50-70Gy whereas further 16 patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy up to 72Gy. The records of the clinical data were reviewed. Furthermore, questionnaires were mailed to the patients’ general practitioners and dentists in order to get more data concerning tumour status and osteoradionecrosis during follow-up. Results The patients’ dental status before radiotherapy was generally poor. On average 10 teeth were present, six of them were regarded to remain conservable. Extensive dental rehabilitation procedures included a mean of 3.7 tooth extractions. Chronic periodontitis with severe attachment loss was found in 40%, dental biofilm in 56%. An infected osteoradionecrosis (IORN) grade II according to (Schwartz et al., Am J Clin Oncol 25:168-171, 2002) was diagnosed in 11 of the 90 patients (12%), mostly within the first 4 years after radiotherapy. We could not find significant prognostic factors for the occurrence of IORN, but a trendwise correlation with impaired dental status, rehabilitation procedures, fraction size and tumour outcome. Conclusion The

  15. An unusual infection of cervicofacial area caused by dental pathology: flesh-eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozdinc, Serife; Unlu, Ebru; Oruc, Oya; User, Nese Nur; Karakaya, Zeynep

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the cervicofacial area is highly rare, but physicians should be familiar with the presentation of this situation owing to the suddenness of its beginning, the rapidness of its spread, and ending with high mortality and morbidity. In this article, 5 patients with NF admitted to emergency department with dental pathology history were discussed with a review of the literature. The purpose of this case series is to raise awareness about NF of the cervicofacial area caused by dental pathologies. Five patients admitted to our emergency department between January 2012 and March 2015 and diagnosed as having cervicofacial NF were identified. All patients had dental pathologies. The parameters of the study were patients' age, sex, complaints, self- and family histories, physical examinations' findings, routine laboratory-computed tomographic findings, treatment, and complications. Two of the patients were older than 70 years. One of the patients was healthy but he lost time because of an inappropriate treatment. These 3 patients died. The remaining patients were discharged at the end of the prolonged and intensive treatment. Necrotizing fasciitis should always be remembered in the diagnosis of the infection of the cervicofacial area. Because of difficulty in its diagnosis, a delay in the treatment may result in a horrific outcome.

  16. Frequent Dental Scaling Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Periprosthetic Infection following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Ho, Chia-Jung; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Yang, Chyun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Oral bacteremia has been presumed to be an important risk factor for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection. We aimed to investigate whether dental scaling could reduce the risk of TKA infection. A nested case-control study was conducted to compare 1,291 TKA patients who underwent resection arthroplasty for infected TKA and 5,004 matched controls without infection in the TKA cohort of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The frequency of dental scaling was analyzed. Multiple conditional logistic regression was used to assess the frequency of dental scaling and the risk of TKA infection. The percentage of patients who received dental scaling was higher in the control group than in the TKA infection group. The risk for TKA infection was 20% lower for patients who received dental scaling at least once within a 3-year period than for patients who never received dental scaling. Moreover, the risk of TKA infection was reduced by 31% among patients who underwent more frequent dental scaling (5-6 times within 3 years). Frequent and regular dental scaling is associated with a reduced risk of TKA infection.

  17. Frequent Dental Scaling Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Periprosthetic Infection following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Ho, Chia-Jung; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Yang, Chyun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Oral bacteremia has been presumed to be an important risk factor for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection. We aimed to investigate whether dental scaling could reduce the risk of TKA infection. A nested case-control study was conducted to compare 1,291 TKA patients who underwent resection arthroplasty for infected TKA and 5,004 matched controls without infection in the TKA cohort of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The frequency of dental scaling was analyzed. Multiple conditional logistic regression was used to assess the frequency of dental scaling and the risk of TKA infection. The percentage of patients who received dental scaling was higher in the control group than in the TKA infection group. The risk for TKA infection was 20% lower for patients who received dental scaling at least once within a 3-year period than for patients who never received dental scaling. Moreover, the risk of TKA infection was reduced by 31% among patients who underwent more frequent dental scaling (5–6 times within 3 years). Frequent and regular dental scaling is associated with a reduced risk of TKA infection. PMID:27336912

  18. Antibiotic resistance genes in anaerobic bacteria isolated from primary dental root canal infections.

    PubMed

    Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F

    2012-12-01

    Fourty-one bacterial strains isolated from infected dental root canals and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence were screened for the presence of 14 genes encoding resistance to beta-lactams, tetracycline and macrolides. Thirteen isolates (32%) were positive for at least one of the target antibiotic resistance genes. These strains carrying at least one antibiotic resistance gene belonged to 11 of the 26 (42%) infected root canals sampled. Two of these positive cases had two strains carrying resistance genes. Six out of 7 Fusobacterium strains harbored at least one of the target resistance genes. One Dialister invisus strain was positive for 3 resistance genes, and 4 other strains carried two of the target genes. Of the 6 antibiotic resistance genes detected in root canal strains, the most prevalent were blaTEM (17% of the strains), tetW (10%), and ermC (10%). Some as-yet-uncharacterized Fusobacterium and Prevotella isolates were positive for blaTEM, cfxA and tetM. Findings demonstrated that an unexpectedly large proportion of dental root canal isolates, including as-yet-uncharacterized strains previously regarded as uncultivated phylotypes, can carry antibiotic resistance genes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  20. Italian multicenter study on infection hazards during dental practice: Control of environmental microbial contamination in public dental surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; Pasquarella, Cesira; Bergomi, Margherita; Fabiani, Leila; Monarca, Silvano; Petti, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Background The present study assessed microbial contamination in Italian dental surgeries. Methods An evaluation of water, air and surface microbial contamination in 102 dental units was carried out in eight Italian cities. Results The findings showed water microbial contamination in all the dental surgeries; the proportion of water samples with microbial levels above those recommended decreased during working. With regard to Legionella spp., the proportion of positive samples was 33.3%. During work activity, the index of microbial air contamination (IMA) increased. The level of microbial accumulation on examined surfaces did not change over time. Conclusion These findings confirm that some Italian dental surgeries show high biocontamination, as in other European Countries, which highlights the risk of occupational exposure and the need to apply effective measures to reduce microbial loads. PMID:18644099

  1. Dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P O; Lowder, M Q

    1998-08-01

    Dental sepsis or periapical abscess formation constitutes a large percentage of dental conditions that afflict horses. Dental sepsis occurs when the pulp chamber of the tooth is exposed to the oral cavity or external environment, allowing bacterial localization with resulting infection. Although acute, primary, septic pulpitis in horses is rare, dental sepsis often results from colonization of the pulp chamber with pathogenic bacteria secondary to maleruption or impaction of teeth with secondary alveolar bone lysis, primary fractures of the tooth, mandible, or maxilla, periodontal disease, or infundibular necrosis. The sequela to pulpal infection are extensions into the periradicular tissues and mandibular or maxillary periapical abscess formation.

  2. Changes in admission rates for spreading odontogenic infection resulting from changes in government policy about the dental schedule and remunerations.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Richard; Bhandari, Rishi; Bridle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The government changed the system of payment to general dental practitioners on 1 April 2005 from a fee/item to a banding system. The figures collected have shown that there has been a 62% increase in the number of patients who require admission for surgical treatment of spreading odontogenic infections compared with the 3-year period before this date.

  3. A survey of infection control teaching in U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Nuala B; Bizra, Eamon; Cothron, Annaliese; Yeh, Chih-Ko

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the content of infection control (IC) curricula, the extent of IC monitoring and compliance, and the number of bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposures/year in U.S. dental schools. A questionnaire was emailed to persons responsible for predoctoral IC programs. The response rate was 60 percent. Most schools did not have an independent course and used classroom lectures and clinic demonstrations to teach IC. Schools with an IC committee were more likely to use online learning (p<0.05), utilize multiple teaching methods (p<0.05), issue written warnings for IC violations (p<0.0001), and use multiple disciplinary actions (p<0.005) than schools without an IC committee. Schools with an IC coordinator were less likely to issue grade reductions for IC violations than schools with no IC coordinator (p<0.05). Thirty-eight percent reported ≥ 16 BBP exposures/year, and 18 percent reported <5. There was significant correlation between BBP exposure incidents and large class size (p<0.005). Respondents were satisfied with their IC curriculum and perceived that dental students had a high level of IC compliance and satisfaction, along with staff IC promotion and compliance. The findings suggest that schools without an IC committee should consider its benefits. Further investigation of schools with high numbers of BBP exposures is recommended.

  4. Association between maternal dental periapical infections and pregnancy outcomes: results from a cross-sectional study in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Alho, Lotta; Dewey, Kathryn G; Cheung, Yin Bun; Deitchler, Megan; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Klein, Nigel J; Ashorn, Per

    2015-11-01

    Maternal infections are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth (PTB). Dental infections are common in low-income settings, but their contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We studied the epidemiology of dental periapical infections among pregnant women and their association to foetal growth restriction and the duration of pregnancy in a rural sub-Saharan African population. This was a cross-sectional study on the association between maternal dental periapical infections and birth outcomes, in Malawi, Africa. We assessed oral health clinically and radiologically among recently delivered women with known duration of pregnancy and measured birthweight (BW), length and head circumference of their infants. Of 1024 analysed participants, 23.5% had periapical infections. Mean duration of pregnancy was 39.4 weeks, BW 2979 g and length 49.7 cm. Women with periapical infection had mean (95% CI) pregnancy duration 0.4 weeks (0.1-0.8) shorter and delivered infants with 79 g (13-145) lower BW and 0.5 cm (0.2-0.9) shorter neonatal length than women without periapical infection. The incidence of PTB was 10.0% among women with periapical infection and 7.3% among those without (adjusted difference 3.5%, 95% CI -1.1-8.1%). Corresponding prevalences for stunting were 20.9% and 14.2% (adjusted difference 9.0%, 95% CI 2.7%-15.2%). The population-attributable risk fraction attributable to periapical infection was 9.7% for PTB and 12.8% for stunting. Periapical infection was associated with shorter pregnancy duration and IUGR in the study area; interventions addressing this risk factor may improve birth outcomes in low-income settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Survey of Infection Control Policies within Dental/Educational Patient Treatment Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Keith Winfield

    1986-01-01

    The article describes a survey of 36 dental education programs to identify educators' reactive policies and procedures in their patient treatment centers to minimize dental contamination and cross-contamination. (Author/CT)

  6. Dental screening of medical patients for oral infections and inflammation: consideration of risk and benefit.

    PubMed

    Maret, Delphine; Peters, Ove A; Vigarios, Emmanuelle; Epstein, Joel B; van der Sluis, Lucas

    2017-02-01

    The primary purpose of preoperative dental screening of medical patients is to detect acute or chronic oral conditions that may require management prior to planned medical interventions. The aim of this communication is to discuss the background of preoperative dental screening and the link between dental pathologies and systemic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. 18F-FDG PET/CT as a central tool in the shift from chronic Q fever to Coxiella burnetii persistent focalized infection

    PubMed Central

    Eldin, Carole; Melenotte, Cléa; Million, Matthieu; Cammilleri, Serge; Sotto, Albert; Elsendoorn, Antoine; Thuny, Franck; Lepidi, Hubert; Roblot, France; Weitten, Thierry; Assaad, Souad; Bouaziz, Anissa; Chapuzet, Claire; Gras, Guillaume; Labussiere, Anne-Sophie; Landais, Cécile; Longuet, Pascale; Masseau, Agathe; Mundler, Olivier; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Because Q fever is mostly diagnosed serologically, localizing a persistent focus of Coxiella burnetii infection can be challenging. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) could be an interesting tool in this context. We performed a retrospective study on patients diagnosed with C burnetii infection, who had undergone 18F-FDG PET/CT between 2009 and 2015. When positive 18F-FDG PET/CT results were obtained, we tried to determine if it changed the previous diagnosis by discovering or confirming a suspected focus of C burnetii infection. One hundred sixty-seven patients benefited from 18F-FDG PET/CT. The most frequent clinical subgroup before 18F-FDG PET/CT was patients with no identified focus of infection, despite high IgG1 serological titers (34%). For 59% (n = 99) of patients, a hypermetabolic focus was identified. For 62 patients (62.6%), the positive 18F-FDG PET/CT allowed the diagnosis to be changed. For 24 of them, (38.7%), a previously unsuspected focus of infection was discovered. Forty-two (42%) positive patients had more than 1 hypermetabolic focus. We observed 21 valvular foci, 34 vascular foci, and a high proportion of osteoarticular localizations (n = 21). We also observed lymphadenitis (n = 27), bone marrow hypermetabolism (n = 11), and 9 pulmonary localizations. We confirmed that18F-FDG PET/CT is a central tool in the diagnosis of C burnetii focalized persistent infection. We proposed new diagnostic scores for 2 main clinical entities identified using 18F-FDG PET/CT: osteoarticular persistent infections and lymphadenitis. PMID:27559944

  8. 18F-FDG PET/CT as a central tool in the shift from chronic Q fever to Coxiella burnetii persistent focalized infection: A consecutive case series.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Melenotte, Cléa; Million, Matthieu; Cammilleri, Serge; Sotto, Albert; Elsendoorn, Antoine; Thuny, Franck; Lepidi, Hubert; Roblot, France; Weitten, Thierry; Assaad, Souad; Bouaziz, Anissa; Chapuzet, Claire; Gras, Guillaume; Labussiere, Anne-Sophie; Landais, Cécile; Longuet, Pascale; Masseau, Agathe; Mundler, Olivier; Raoult, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Because Q fever is mostly diagnosed serologically, localizing a persistent focus of Coxiella burnetii infection can be challenging. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) could be an interesting tool in this context.We performed a retrospective study on patients diagnosed with C burnetii infection, who had undergone F-FDG PET/CT between 2009 and 2015. When positive F-FDG PET/CT results were obtained, we tried to determine if it changed the previous diagnosis by discovering or confirming a suspected focus of C burnetii infection.One hundred sixty-seven patients benefited from F-FDG PET/CT. The most frequent clinical subgroup before F-FDG PET/CT was patients with no identified focus of infection, despite high IgG1 serological titers (34%). For 59% (n = 99) of patients, a hypermetabolic focus was identified. For 62 patients (62.6%), the positive F-FDG PET/CT allowed the diagnosis to be changed. For 24 of them, (38.7%), a previously unsuspected focus of infection was discovered. Forty-two (42%) positive patients had more than 1 hypermetabolic focus. We observed 21 valvular foci, 34 vascular foci, and a high proportion of osteoarticular localizations (n = 21). We also observed lymphadenitis (n = 27), bone marrow hypermetabolism (n = 11), and 9 pulmonary localizations.We confirmed thatF-FDG PET/CT is a central tool in the diagnosis of C burnetii focalized persistent infection. We proposed new diagnostic scores for 2 main clinical entities identified using F-FDG PET/CT: osteoarticular persistent infections and lymphadenitis.

  9. Cross-infection risks associated with current procedures for using high-speed dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D L; Boe, R K

    1992-02-01

    When a dye solution used to simulate patient material was either injected into high-speed dental handpiece (drill) waterlines or applied to the equipment externally, internal air turbine chambers became contaminated. These chambers served as a reservoir of the material, which was slowly dislodged by air expelled during subsequent handpiece operation and which was diluted by water spray used for cooling the drilling surface. Considering the fact that patient materials could reside in internal parts of the equipment that are not usually disinfected and that the material may be subsequently sprayed into cuts and abrasions in the oral cavity, the common approach to reprocessing handpieces (external wiping in combination with flushing) may pose unacceptably high risks to those individuals treated soon after infected patients. Therefore, unless reliable data on cross-infection frequencies are obtained and prove it unnecessary, heat-treating high-speed handpieces between each patient should be considered an essential component of standard procedures whenever universal precautions are practiced in dentistry.

  10. Dental scaling and risk reduction in infective endocarditis: a nationwide population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su-Jung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Chao, Tze-Fan; Wang, Kang-Ling; Wang, Fu-Der; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chiang, Chern-En

    2013-04-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening disease. Poor oral hygiene has been assumed as an important risk factor for IE. We aimed to investigate whether the improvement of oral hygiene through dental scaling could reduce the risk of IE. From January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009, a total of 736 patients with newly diagnosed IE were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. On the same date of enrollment, 10 patients (without IE) with matched age, sex, and underlying diseases were selected to be the control group for each study patient. The frequency of dental scaling before the enrollment was analyzed and compared between the study and the control groups. The percentages of patients who ever received dental scaling before the enrollment were higher in the control group than that in the study group. For patients who received dental scaling once in 2 years, the risk of IE can be reduced by about 15% (odds ratio, 0.845; 95% confidence interval, 0.693-1.012) with a borderline P value (P = 0.058). Moreover, the risk of IE decreased significantly among patients who received dental scaling at least once per year, with an odds ratio of 0.696 (95% confidence interval, 0.542-0.894; P = 0.005). Improvement of oral hygiene by dental scaling may reduce the risk of IE. More frequent and regular dental scaling (at least once per year) was associated with a significant decrease in IE. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  12. Evans blue staining reveals vascular leakage associated with focal areas of host-parasite interaction in brains of pigs infected with Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

  13. Focal bacterial meningitis following ascending bite wound infection leading to paraparesis in a captive California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Braun, Veronika; Eskens, Ulrich; Hartmann, Antje; Lang, Barbara; Kramer, Martin; Schmidt, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 15-yr-old captive female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a 2-wk history of progressive paraparesis and a 9-mo history of exudative skin lesion on the left thoracic wall. Magnetic resonance images showed a well-defined muscle infiltrating lesion ventrolateral to the seventh cervical to the third thoracic vertebra on the left side, which extended through the left intervertebral foramina C7 to T3 into the vertebral canal, causing spinal cord compression and displacement as well as inflammation of the spinal cord and nerves. This lesion surprisingly caused no forelimb deficits. Differential diagnoses included abscess formation or neoplasia. Pathologic examination revealed chronic focal purulent meningitis associated with widespread paraspinal fistulous inflammation originating from a chronic dermal ulcer. Mainly Escherichia coli var. haemolytica and Clostridium perfringens were identified as the underlying agents.

  14. Antibody testing and counseling of dental patients at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and associated clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Murrah, V A; Scholtes, G A

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred six dental patients were tested between 1985 and 1987 for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) when a review of their medical histories revealed a high risk for infection. Serologic results are correlated with soft tissue and osseous findings recorded during routine head and neck and radiographic examination. Counseling recommendations for use in association with testing are outlined. A more active role for the dentist as a preventive agent is advocated to combat the spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  15. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV infection displayed by Tanzanian operating dental staff in 1988 and 1989: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, R; Ranta, K; Mugonzibwa, E

    1992-03-01

    In many urban areas of Central and Eastern Africa 20-30 per cent of the sexually active population has been infected with HIV. It can be assumed that every member of the operating dental staff in Tanzania frequently treats HIV-positive patients. The knowledge of AIDS and HIV infection was investigated by Tanzanian dental teams in 1988 and 1989. In both years almost one quarter of the dental officers and half the other operating team members chose incorrect information about the methods of transmission of HIV. Several respondents named health care workers as belonging to a high risk group. Fever and loss of weight were known to be early symptoms of AIDS. In 1989, when asked to identify oral manifestations of HIV, one quarter of all the dental staff could not mention any of them. The findings of the study emphasise the need for urgent further education of dental teams in Tanzania.

  16. A Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's disease) with PCR Detection of Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Bora; Gunduz, Kaan; Gunhan, Omer; Ozden, Feyza Otan

    2011-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papillomavirus. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region to another. In Caucasians there have been only few cases reported. This paper reports a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia and demonstrates the association with HPV subtype 32 through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of PCR products. A 7-year-old Caucasian girl was admitted to our clinic for investigation of multiple oral mucosal lesions in the mouth. Lesion was excised under local anesthesia without any complication. The lesion was diagnosed as focal epithelial hyperplasia according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental staff should be aware of these kind of lesions and histopathological examination together with a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  17. Infection prevention and control in dental surgeries in the Pará state prison system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Clelia Maria A; Smith, Andrew J; Fonseca Silva, Almenara S; Flório, Flávia M; Zanin, Luciane

    2016-11-01

    Prison populations have higher levels of bloodborne viruses with consequently higher risks of cross-infection. This study assessed infection prevention and occupational hazards in prison dental surgeries in the Brazilian state of Pará. Investigations were undertaken by a single examiner in 11 prison clinics. Manual washing of instruments with no detergents and dry heat sterilization were the main instrument decontamination methods used. Most surgeries had insufficient instruments for daily clinical work requirements. Half of dentists interviewed worked single-handed with no documented policies or health and safety procedures.

  18. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus.

  19. Equine dental disease part 4: a long-term study of 400 cases: apical infections of cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Tremaine, W H; Pickles, K; Kuhns, L; Hawe, C; McCann, J; McGorum, B C; Railton, D I; Brammer, S

    2000-05-01

    Of 400 horses referred because of equine dental disease, 162 suffered from primary apical infections of their cheek teeth (CT), including 92 with maxillary CT infections and 70 with mandibular CT infections. Maxillary swellings and sinus tracts were more common (82 and 26% incidence, respectively) with infections of the rostral 3 maxillary CT, than with infections of the caudal 3 maxillary CT (39 and 5% incidence, respectively). Nasal discharge was more commonly present with caudal (95%) than rostral (23%) maxillary CT infections. Mandibular CT apical infections commonly had mandibular swellings (91%) and mandibular sinus tracts (59%) and these infections were closely related to eruption of the affected CT. A variety of treatments, including medical treatment, apical curettage, repulsion and oral extraction of affected teeth were utilised in these cases, with oral extraction appearing to be most satisfactory. Infections of caudal maxillary CT with a secondary paranasal sinusitis were most refractory to treatment, with a complete response to the initial treatment achieved in just 33% of these cases. Most other cases responded fully to their initial treatment. The long-term response to treatment was good in most cases.

  20. HIV Infections: A Personal Perspective on the Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    An unidentified dental student who tested positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus offers a personal perspective on the emotions, concerns, and considerations of a seropositive student. He outlines the process by which he made decisions concerning his situation and describes the response of family, fellow students, and dental school…

  1. Utilization of free dental health care services provided to the perinatally infected human immunodeficiency virus children in Bangalore: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Parvathy, Beena Javaregowda

    2014-01-01

    Use of Highly active anti-retroviral therapy have increased the life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and hence it is imperative that all efforts have to be made by Pediatric dentists to provide a better oral health for these children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of utilization of free dental treatment provided to these perinatally infected HIV positive children who were previously screened as a part of oral health survey. Purposive sampling was used. Perinatally infected HIV children screened for oral health status. Patients not screened during the oral health survey. Attendance records of 319 perinatally HIV infected children consisting of 178 males and 141 females attending a specialized pediatric outpatient clinic at Indira Gandhi Institute of Child Health were examined to compare treatment compliance rates. The number of patients in the severe category who completed treatment was significantly less compared with mild and advanced categories (P < 0.001). The difference in the proportion of patients who completed treatment between mild and advanced group was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The results show that children with HIV have significantly lower compliance. Even though all dental treatment provided to them was free of the cost it still had no impetus to encourage them to go through with the treatment.

  2. Versatile molybdenum disulfide based antibacterial composites for in vitro enhanced sterilization and in vivo focal infection therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Shi, Shuo; Wang, Yanru; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhu, Wenxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Daohong; Yang, Baowei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Biologically, MoS2-based nanostructures have been intensely applied for the photothermal therapy of cancer, but rarely for antibacterial uses. In this contribution, a multifunctional chitosan (CS) functionalized magnetic MoS2 (abbreviated to CFM) was constructed to nonspecifically combat bacterial infection by integrating bacterial conjugation and enrichment, and NIR-triggered photothermal sterilization. Owing to the abundant introduced amino groups, the CFM complex offers a significantly enhanced conjugation efficiency without obvious specificity towards both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria compared to amino-free magnetic MoS2. The magnetic properties of CFM obtained from iron oxide facilitate the enrichment of a CFM-bacteria conjugate, improving the photothermal efficiency of CFM as a photothermal antibacterial agent. Specifically, after being trapped together with bacteria cells, CFM shows an enhanced in vitro photothermal sterilization ability. In vivo S. aureus-induced abscess treatment studies show faster healing when CFM is used as subcutaneous nano-localized heating sources with the assistance of an external magnet to concentrate the CFM-bacteria conjugate. This work establishes an innovative solution and a novel antimicrobial agent for combating bacterial infections without the use of antibiotics, which may open a new area of application and research for MoS2-based nanostructures.Biologically, MoS2-based nanostructures have been intensely applied for the photothermal therapy of cancer, but rarely for antibacterial uses. In this contribution, a multifunctional chitosan (CS) functionalized magnetic MoS2 (abbreviated to CFM) was constructed to nonspecifically combat bacterial infection by integrating bacterial conjugation and enrichment, and NIR-triggered photothermal sterilization. Owing to the abundant introduced amino groups, the CFM complex offers a significantly enhanced conjugation efficiency without obvious specificity towards both Gram

  3. Characteristics of Streptococcus milleri and Streptococcus mitior from infected dental root canals.

    PubMed

    Mejàre, B

    1975-01-01

    Morphological and physiological characteristics of 103 streptococcal isolates obtained from positive routine cultures of material from dental root canals at filling, were studied. The majority of the isolates were those which at a primary identification not fullfilled the criteria of enterococci, Strep. sanguis, Strep. mutans or Strep. salivarius. Only a few representative strains of the latter types were included in the study as a control of the method. The resemblance of the 103 isolates to 38 reference strains were assessed with numerical methods. The isolates formed 9 clusters with reference strains occurring in all but one. Of the isolates which it was intended to identify and characterize with numerical taxonomic analysis, all but one joined one of 3 clusters and were identified as Strep. milleri or Strep. mitior (mitis). The most useful cultural characteristics to dfferentiate the two species were growth on the sulphonamide containing MC-agar and 7.5% bile blood agar by Strep. milleri and production of hydrogen peroxide by Strep. mitior. The characteristics of the strains in the nine 80-phenons are given in Table 2. Other characteristics that appeared to be of interest for differentiating Strep. milleri from Strep. mitior and these two species from other viridans streptococci are underlined in Table 2. Strep. milleri seems not earlier to have been reported to occur in infected root canals. The occurrence of Strep. milleri is in agreement with the data given on serological groups found among streptococcal isolates from routine root canal cultures. Little is known about the occurrence and distribution of Strep. milleri in the human oral cavity, which therefore warrant further investigations.

  4. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Yolanda; Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Zambrano, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

  5. Oral infection control to assist infliximab therapy in a Behçet's disease patient with severe eye inflammation in response to dental treatment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Chieko; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Shimoe, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Hiroya; Ito, Takashi; Ohkawa, Toshinori; Isoshima-Nakamura, Arisa; Mineshiba, Junji; Yoshioka, Norie; Nawachi, Kumiko; Maeda, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Makino, Hirofumi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report a case of Behçet's disease which was aggravated by psychological stress and oral infection. The control of oral infection under medical and dental collaboration is important for providing Behçet's disease patients with the optimal medical care and for facilitating the relief of the primary disease. PMID:25548630

  6. Dental Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249

  7. New anionic carbosilane dendrons functionalized with a DO3A ligand at the focal point for the prevention of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Silvia; Sepúlveda-Crespo, Daniel; de la Mata, F Javier; Gómez, Rafael; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2017-08-18

    Novel third-generation polyanionic carbosilane dendrons with sulfonate or carboxylate end-groups and functionalized with a DO3A ligand at the focal point, and their corresponding copper complexes, have been prepared as antiviral compounds to prevent HIV-1 infection. The topology enables the compound to have an excellent chelating agent, DO3A, while keeping anionic peripheral groups for a therapeutic action. In this study, the cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 abilities of carboxylate- (5) or sulfonate-terminated (6) dendrons containing DO3A and their copper complexes (7 or 8) were evaluated. All compounds showed low cytotoxicity and demonstrated potent and broad-spectrum anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. We also assessed the mode of antiviral action on the inhibition of HIV-1 through a panel of different in vitro antiviral assays. Our results show that copper-free dendron 6 protects the epithelial monolayer from short-term cell disruption. Copper-free dendrons 5 and 6 exert anti-HIV-1 activity at an early stage of the HIV-1 lifecycle by binding to the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-1 and by interacting with the CD4 cell receptor and blocking the binding of gp120 to CD4, and consequently HIV-1 entry. These findings show that copper-free dendrons 5 and 6 have a high potency against HIV-1 infection, confirming their non-specific ability and suggesting that these compounds deserve further study as potential candidate microbicides to prevent HIV-1 transmission. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Nontyphoidal Salmonella causing focal infections in patients admitted at a Spanish general hospital during an 11-year period (1991-2001).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mercedes; de Diego, Isabel; Martínez, Noelia; Rosario Rodicio, M; Carmen Mendoza, M

    2006-08-01

    In focal infections (FI) caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes and recorded at a Spanish hospital 1991-2001, clinical and microbiological features were analyzed. Thirty-five revised episodes were related to infections of the digestive (10), urinary (10), pulmonar (4), vascular (4), osteoarticular (3) and central nervous (3) systems, and with a submaxillary lymph node. At least 16 episodes were associated with previous or concomitant gastroenteritis, 19 with primary or secondary bacteremia, and 18 with underlying diseases of different severity. Eighteen patients were male and 14 female (data were not available for three patients), while 1, 4, 12 and 15 patients were, respectively, categorized as children, young adults, senior adults and elderly. Sources of Salmonella strains were urine (13), blood (11), purulent abscess (8), cerebrospinal fluid (3), peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, wound exudates, aneurism (2 of each), ascitic fluid, sputum, tracheal aspirate, needle aspirate, bone and lymph node (1 of each) samples. Only 28 Salmonella strains involved in FIs were available for further analysis. They were discriminated into 6 serotypes, and into 13 XbaI macrorestriction, 6 virulence, 11 antimicrobial resistance, 5 integron and 10 plasmid profiles. Broadly, the pattern of serotype distribution of salmonellas involved in FIs matched that of those causing gastroenteritis, with the pandemic Enteritidis and Typhimurium (18 and 6 strains, respectively) being clearly predominant. Within serotype, the same lineages (as revealed by XbaI-macrorestriction analysis as well as R- and V-profiles) were represented in both disease groups, with host-related factors apparently playing a more critical role than the individual strain in the outcome of the disease.

  9. Technetium-99m-human polyclonal IgG radiolabeled via the hydrazino nicotinamide derivative for imaging focal sites of infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, M.J.; Juweid, M.; tenKate, C.I.; Schwartz, D.A.; Hauser, M.M.; Gaul, F.E.; Fuccello, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Strauss, H.W.; Fischman, A.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The biologic behavior of human polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) radiolabeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) by a novel method, via a nicotinyl hydrazine derivative, was evaluated in rats. Technetium-99m- and indium-111-IgG were co-administered to normal rats and biodistribution was determined at 2, 6, and 16 hr. The inflammation imaging properties of the two reagents were compared in rats with deep-thigh infection due to Escherichia coli. Blood clearance of both antibody preparations was well described by a bi-exponential function: ({sup 99m}Tc-IgG: t1/2 = 3.82 +/- 0.89 and 57.52 +/- 1.70 hr. {sup 111}In-IgG: 3.93 +/- 0.117 and 40.71 +/- 1.26 hr). Biodistributions in the solid organs were similar, however, small but statistically significant differences were detected: {sup 99m}Tc-IgG greater than {sup 111}In-IgG in lung, liver, and spleen; {sup 99m}Tc-IgG less than {sup 111}In-IgG in kidney and skeletal muscle (p less than 0.01). At all three imaging times, target-to-background ratio and percent residual activity for the two compounds were remarkably similar. These studies establish that human polyclonal IgG labeled with {sup 99m}Tc via a nicotinyl hydrazine modified intermediate is equivalent to {sup 111}In-IgG for imaging focal sites of infection in experimental animals.

  10. Fever of unknown origin due to dental infections: cases report and review.

    PubMed

    Karachaliou, Iris G; Karachalios, George N; Kanakis, Konstantinos V; Petrogiannopoulos, Constantinos L; Zacharof, Antonis K

    2007-02-01

    Persistent undiagnosed fever remains a common problem in clinical practice. In a variable number of cases, no definitive diagnosis is made. This lack of a clear etiology indicates that certain disorders are not being detected despite the recently developed technology usually applied in this situation. On occasion, dental disease is one potential cause of persistent fever. Oral symptoms usually are not present, thus allowing the oral cavity to be overlooked during physical examination. We describe three patients with persistent fever due to dental disease and discuss the pathogenesis of this disease.

  11. Cervical Facet Joint Infection and Associated Epidural Abscess with Streptococcus intermedius from a Dental Infection Origin A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Ian David; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S

    2016-09-01

    Pyogenic cervical facet joint infections are rare and such infections from a dental origin are even less common. Of these few cases, none have described infection with Streptococcus intermedius as the pathogen. A 65-year-old orthopaedic surgeon complained of fevers, right-sided radiating neck pain, stiffness, swelling, erythema, and right upper extremity weakness one month after he had broken a crown over his right mandibular premolar, a continued source of pain. Imaging of the cervical spine showed a right C4-C5 facet inflammatory arthropathy and a small epidural abscess that was cultured and initially treated with intravenous antibiotics. The oral maxillofacial surgery team performed an extraction of the infected, symptomatic tooth. For continued right upper extremity weakness, the patient underwent C4-C5 laminoforaminotomy and irrigation and debridement of the right C4-C5 facet joint. After 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, the patient's infectious and inflammatory markers had normalized. By 4 months, he had regained full strength at his upper extremity and a painless and full range of motion of his cervical spine.Pyogenic cervical facet joint infection is very rare and potentially dangerous. A high clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, are important for correct diagnosis. Prompt medical and surgical treatment may avert complications, and although the patient presented made a complete recovery, patients may be left with neurological compromise.

  12. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

    PubMed

    Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

  13. Streptococcus mutans infective endocarditis complicated by vertebral discitis following dental treatment without antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sujata; Bowler, Ian C J W; Bunch, Christopher; Prendergast, Bernard; Webster, Daniel P

    2010-10-01

    We report what we believe is the first reported case of Streptococcus mutans endocarditis complicated by vertebral discitis. The case is particularly interesting and topical as it occurred in a patient with pre-existing cardiac valvular disease who had recently had a dental procedure without antibiotic prophylaxis following a dramatic shift in the UK guidelines.

  14. Attitudes and practices of infection control among senior dental students at college of dentistry, university of Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Betul; Abraham, Sheela Balu; Alsalami, Amna Mohammed; Alkhaja, Fatima Eisa; Najem, Shaikha Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate compliance, awareness and practices of infection control procedures among senior dental students at the College of Dentistry, University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 119 subjects of 4th and 5th year dental students. A questionnaire was developed with 25 open and closed-ended questions related to barrier techniques, vaccination status, infection control practices and awareness. This was distributed among the senior dental students and completed upon signing the consent form. Each questionnaire was coded to ensure the confidentiality of responses. Results: The questionnaire was distributed among 223 senior dental students at the University of Sharjah of which only 119 students (53%) responded. Compliance with the use of protective barriers was high with the exception of protective eye wear, utilized by a mere 27% of students. There was a significant difference between 4th and 5th year dental students’ attitudes (P < 0.05) regarding the treatment of patients with infectious diseases. Compared with 44.4% of the 5th year students, 68.5% of the 4th year students did not mind treating patients with infectious diseases. Owing to this, 61.9% of the 5th year students suffered from non-sterile percutaneous and mucous membrane exposures compared with 44.6% of the 4th year students (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Efforts are needed to improve attitudes, implement information and motivate students in the correct and routine use of infection control measures. With all infection control protocols already implemented in dental schools, the challenge remains on improving compliance with infection control recommendations. PMID:24966723

  15. Early Respiratory Infections and Dental Caries in the First 27 Years of Life: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Näyhä, Simo; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0–1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9–1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0–1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth. PMID:27936203

  16. Association between pacifier use and breast-feeding, sudden infant death syndrome, infection and dental malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Ann; Kendall, Garth; Lock, Christine; Mahony, Anne; Payne, Jan; Verrier, Leanda

    2005-07-01

    To critically review all literature related to pacifier use for full-term healthy infants and young children. The specific review questions addressed are: What is the evidence of adverse and/or positive outcomes of pacifier use in infancy and childhood in relation to each of the following subtopics: • breast-feeding; • sudden infant death syndrome; • infection; • dental malocclusion.  Specific criteria were used to determine which studies would be included in the review: (i) the types of participants; (ii) the types of research design; and (iii) the types of outcome measures. To be included a study has to meet all criteria.  The participants included in the review were healthy term infants and healthy children up to the age of 16 years. Studies that focused on preterm infants, and infants and young children with serious illness or congenital malformations were excluded. However, some total population studies did include these children. Types of research design: It became evident early in the review process that very few randomised controlled trials had been conducted. A decision was made to include observational epidemiological designs, specifically prospective cohort studies and, in the case of sudden infant death syndrome research, case-control studies. Purely descriptive and cross-sectional studies were excluded, as were qualitative studies and all other forms of evidence. A number of criteria have been proposed to establish causation in the scientific and medical literature. These key criteria were applied in the review process and are described as follows: (i) consistency and unbiasedness of findings; (ii) strength of association; (iii) temporal sequence; (iv) dose-response relationship; (v) specificity; (vi) coherence with biological background and previous knowledge; (vii) biological plausibility; and (viii) experimental evidence. Studies that did not meet the requirement of appropriate temporal sequencing of events and studies that did not

  17. A Clinical Practice Update on the Latest AAOS/ADA Guideline (December 2012) on Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Dental Patients.

    PubMed

    Hamedani, Sh

    2013-03-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association (ADA), along with 10 other academic associations and societies recently (December 2012) published their mutual clinical practice guideline "Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures." This evidence-based guideline ,detailed in 325 pages, has three recommendations and substitutes the previous AAOS guideline. The new published clinical guideline is a protocol to prevent patients undertaking dental procedures from orthopaedic implant infection. The guideline is developed on the basis of a collaborative systematic review to provide practical advice for training clinicians, dentists and any qualified physicians who need to consider prevention of orthopaedic implant (prosthesis) infection in their patients. This systematic review found no explicit evidence of cause-and-effect relationship between dental procedures and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). This LTTE wishes to present a vivid summary of AAOS/ADA clinical practice guideline as a clinical update and an academic implementation to inform and assist Iranian competent clinicians and dentists in the course of their treatment decisions, to enrich the value and quality of health care on the latest international basis.

  18. Streptococcus gordonii prosthetic joint infection in the setting of vigorous dental flossing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rick; Dababneh, Ala S; Palraj, Bharath Raj Varatharaj

    2015-08-11

    A 65-year-old woman with osteoarthritis, who underwent knee replacement 5 years prior, developed sudden onset knee pain and swelling. She had voluntarily starting a vigorous dental flossing regimen prior to the onset of symptoms. The patient underwent right knee arthrotomy, irrigation and debridement of right total knee arthroplasty and exchange of polyethylene with retention of the prosthesis. Intraoperative cultures grew Streptococcus gordonii. She was treated with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone and was later placed on oral antibiotic suppression.

  19. Association between pacifier use and breast-feeding, sudden infant death syndrome, infection and dental malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Ann; Kendall, Garth; Lock, Christine; Mahony, Anne; Payne, Jan; Verrier, Leanda

    2005-01-01

    /or using multivariate analysis. Generally, antenatal and postnatal factors, as well as infant care practices, and maternal, family and socioeconomic issues were considered.All five studies reporting multivariate results found significantly fewer sudden infant death syndrome cases used a pacifier compared with controls. That is, pacifier use was associated with a reduced incidence of sudden infant death syndrome. These results indicate that the risk of sudden infant death syndrome for infants who did not use a pacifier in the last or reference sleep was at least twice, and possibly five times, that of infants who did use a pacifier.Three studies reported a moderately sized positive association between pacifier use and a variety of infections. Conversely, one study found no positive association between pacifier use at 15 months of age and a range of infections experienced between the ages of 6 and 18 months. Given the limited number of studies available and the variability of results, no meaningful conclusions could be drawn.Five cohort studies and one case-control study focused on the relationship between pacifier use and dental malocclusion. Not one of these studies reported a measure of association, such as an estimate of relative risk. It was therefore not possible to include these studies in the final review.Implications for practice It is intended that this review be used as the basis of a 'best practice guideline', to make health professionals aware of the research evidence concerning these health and developmental consequences of pacifier use, because parents need clear information on which they can base child care decisions. With regard to the association between pacifier use and infection and dental malocclusion it was found that, due to the paucity of epidemiological studies, no meaningful conclusion can be drawn. There is clearly a need for more epidemiological research with regard to these two outcomes. The evidence for a relationship between pacifier use and

  20. Genotyping, morphology and molecular characteristics of a lytic phage of Neisseria strain obtained from infected human dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2014-07-01

    The lytic bacteriaphage (phage) A2 was isolated from human dental plaques along with its bacterial host. The virus was found to have an icosahedron-shaped head (60±3 nm), a sheathed and rigid long tail (∼175 nm) and was categorized into the family Siphoviridae of the order Caudovirales, which are dsDNA viral family, characterised by their ability to infect bacteria and are nonenveloped with a noncontractile tail. The isolated phage contained a linear dsDNA genome having 31,703 base pairs of unique sequence, which were sorted into three contigs and 12 single sequences. A latent period of 25 minutes and burst size of 24±2 particles was determined for the virus. Bioinformatics approaches were used to identify ORFs in the genome. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the species inter-relationship and its placement in the family.

  1. Focal Choroidal Excavation

    PubMed Central

    Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation. PMID:28050329

  2. Focal Choroidal Excavation.

    PubMed

    Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

    2016-12-01

    Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation.

  3. [Dental biofilms].

    PubMed

    Simain, F; Rompen, E; Heinen, E

    2010-10-01

    Orodental pathologies are generally classified into two main groups: caries and parodontopathies. They result from polymicrobial infections based on the dental plaque's theory which has constantly evolved. Therefore, the concept of acquired biological pellicle or biofilm has been described and largely elaborated.A bacterial biofilm is a unit of bacterial microcolonies embedded within an exopolymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the literature with regard to the formation, and composition of the biofilm, as well as to point out the close link that exists between biofilm and dental medicine.

  4. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in an HIV positive man. An illustrated case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marvan, E; Firth, N

    1998-10-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare but distinctive entity of viral aetiology with characteristic clinical and histopathological features. It is usually seen in children and adolescents of American Indian and Eskimo background; however, it has recently been described in adults who are HIV positive. Suppression of the immune system leaves the individual vulnerable to opportunistic infections. With improved management of immunocompromised patients it is increasingly possible that the general dental practitioner will encounter secondary oral infections such as FEH and must therefore be able to recognize, diagnose and treat these lesions. The following report presents a case of FEH in an HIV-infected man, and is followed by a review of the literature.

  5. Oral and dental health care of oral cancer patients: hyposalivation, caries and infections.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H; Grönroos, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Oral cancer and its treatment can cause a variety of problems to patients, also as regards maintaining their daily oral hygiene. Surgery mutilates tissues which may hamper cleaning the teeth and mucosal surfaces. The patient may have complicated reconstructive structures that also need continuous attention. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation further complicates the situation and decreases the quality of life. Consequently, dental caries, mucosal diseases such as candidosis and sialadenitis become problematic to treat. Hence every effort should be focused on prevention. In caries prevention intensified fluoride therapy together with dietary counseling is needed. Oral cancer patients also need to be frequently referred to dental hygienists for professional cleaning. Drinking enough daily and moisturizing mucosal surfaces with commercial dry-mouth products, vegetable oils, milk products and respective topical agents need to be individually recommended. In addition, patients with severe dry mouth cases may also benefit from the prescription of pilocarpine tablets. In oral candidosis, the microbiological diagnosis must be confirmed before administration of antifungal drugs in order to avoid the selection pressure to resistant strains.

  6. [Dental practice and AIDS].

    PubMed

    Rojanawatsirivej, S

    1991-01-01

    In Thailand nowadays AIDS is not completely under control. This is evident from reports which show an increasing number of HIV-positive patients. Since an unknown number of HIV-infected persons who are either undiagnosed or asymptomatic come to get dental service, fears of getting infected with HIV have been developed among dental professionals. This article summarizes a number of past studies and reports on HIV transmission in dental work and discusses the possibility of AIDS infection and dental occupational risk. It also urges dental professionals to take effective safety precaution against the infection. This is for their own and their patients' well-being and hopefully for Thailand's success in controlling AIDS.

  7. A knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KABP) survey on HIV infection and AIDS among doctors and dental surgeons in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chan, R; Khoo, L; Goh, C L; Lam, M S

    1997-09-01

    An anonymous postal questionnaire survey studying the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was conducted among all registered medical and dental practitioners in Singapore in 1996. In all, 1523 replies were received, yielding a response rate of 29.3%. The level of knowledge regarding transmission and prevention was generally good, although there were a number who believed that HIV could be transmitted by the respiratory and oral routes. However, knowledge regarding diagnosis and medical management was unsatisfactory. Although a large majority felt they had the ethical obligation to treat HIV patients, only half of them indicated their willingness to do so if they were given the choice. The majority (62.3%) supported the idea of routine preoperative HIV testing for patients, but fewer (40%) supported mandatory HIV testing for health care workers. Dentists seemed more sensitive to issues involving transmission in the workplace, and 95% of them practised universal precautions. Continuing medical education on HIV infection is required to improve and maintain the level of knowledge and competency of doctors and dentists in Singapore.

  8. Human dental stem cells suppress PMN activity after infection with the periodontopathogens Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Cathleen; Kriebel, Katja; Engelmann, Robby; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Lang, Hermann; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2016-12-15

    Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation associated with the colonization of different oral pathogens. We here aimed to investigate how bacteria and host cells shape their environment in order to limit inflammation and tissue damage in the presence of the pathogen. Human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs) were co-cultured with gram-negative P. intermedia and T. forsythia and were quantified for adherence and internalization as well as migration and interleukin secretion. To delineate hDFSC-specific effects, gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22) were used as controls. Direct effects of hDFSCs on neutrophils (PMN) after interaction with bacteria were analyzed via chemotactic attraction, phagocytic activity and NET formation. We show that P. intermedia and T. forsythia adhere to and internalize into hDFSCs. This infection decreased the migratory capacity of the hDFSCs by 50%, did not disturb hDFSC differentiation potential and provoked an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion while leaving IL-10 levels unaltered. These environmental modulations correlated with reduced PMN chemotaxis, phagocytic activity and NET formation. Our results suggest that P. intermedia and T. forsythia infected hDFSCs maintain their stem cell functionality, reduce PMN-induced tissue and bone degradation via suppression of PMN-activity, and at the same time allow for the survival of the oral pathogens.

  9. Human dental stem cells suppress PMN activity after infection with the periodontopathogens Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Cathleen; Kriebel, Katja; Engelmann, Robby; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Lang, Hermann; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation associated with the colonization of different oral pathogens. We here aimed to investigate how bacteria and host cells shape their environment in order to limit inflammation and tissue damage in the presence of the pathogen. Human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs) were co-cultured with gram-negative P. intermedia and T. forsythia and were quantified for adherence and internalization as well as migration and interleukin secretion. To delineate hDFSC-specific effects, gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22) were used as controls. Direct effects of hDFSCs on neutrophils (PMN) after interaction with bacteria were analyzed via chemotactic attraction, phagocytic activity and NET formation. We show that P. intermedia and T. forsythia adhere to and internalize into hDFSCs. This infection decreased the migratory capacity of the hDFSCs by 50%, did not disturb hDFSC differentiation potential and provoked an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion while leaving IL-10 levels unaltered. These environmental modulations correlated with reduced PMN chemotaxis, phagocytic activity and NET formation. Our results suggest that P. intermedia and T. forsythia infected hDFSCs maintain their stem cell functionality, reduce PMN-induced tissue and bone degradation via suppression of PMN-activity, and at the same time allow for the survival of the oral pathogens. PMID:27974831

  10. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  11. Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses versus dental implants: a comparison between keratinocyte and gingival epithelial cell adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pendegrass, C J; Lancashire, H T; Fontaine, C; Chan, G; Hosseini, P; Blunn, G W

    2015-04-19

    Infection is the primary failure modality for transcutaneous implants because the skin breach provides a route for pathogens to enter the body. Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) are being developed to overcome this problem by creating a seal at the skin-implant interface. Oral gingival epithelial cell attachment creates an infection-free seal around dental implants. However, this has yet to be achieved consistently outside of the oral environment. Epithelial cells attach to metal substrates by means of hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions. Their density per unit cell is an indicator of attachment strength. We postulate that gingival epithelial cells express more hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions at earlier time points, compared with epidermal keratinocytes, and this increased speed and strength of attachment may be the reason why an infection-free seal is often achieved around dental implants but less frequently around ITAP. The aim of this study was to compare epidermal keratinocyte with oral gingival cell attachment on titanium alloy in vitro, to determine whether these two cell types differ in their speed and strength of attachment. We aimed to test the hypothesis that gingival cells up-regulate focal adhesion and hemidesmosome formation at earlier time points compared with extra-oral keratinocytes. To test this hypothesis we cultured epidermal keratinocytes and oral gingival cells on titanium alloy substrates and assessed cell attachment by focal adhesions and hemidesmosome expression at 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Formation and expression of hemidesmosomes temporally lagged behind that of focal adhesions in both cell types. Gingival derived cells up-regulated focal adhesion and hemidesmosome expression at earlier time points compared with epidermal keratinocytes. Hemidesmosome expression in oral gingival cells was 3 times greater compared with epidermal keratinocytes at 4 hours. Our findings indicate that earlier attachment may be key to the

  12. Acute cervical artery dissection after a dental procedure due to a second inferior molar infection

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Riesco, Nuria; Murias, Eduardo; Calleja, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal infections might represent one of the causative factors for cervical artery dissection. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman admitted due to headache. The patient had been suffering from a right second inferior molar infection with a cervical phlegmon for 1 week prior to admission. On 2 October 2014, the patient went to the dentist and a molar extraction was performed in the morning. In the afternoon, the patient began to experience right hemifacial pain that progressed towards an intense and bilateral headache. Neurological status at the time of admission revealed right miosis, ptosis and conjuntival hyperaemia. A CT angiography showed a right internal carotid artery dissection provoking a high-degree stenosis. The relationship between periodontal infection and vascular disease has been previously presented. Microbial agents may directly, and inflammatory and immunological host response indirectly, influence inflammatory changes in cervical arteries favouring dissections with minor traumas. PMID:26038385

  13. Acute cervical artery dissection after a dental procedure due to a second inferior molar infection.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Montserrat G; Riesco, Nuria; Murias, Eduardo; Calleja, Sergio

    2015-06-02

    Periodontal infections might represent one of the causative factors for cervical artery dissection. We present a case of a 49-year-old woman admitted due to headache. The patient had been suffering from a right second inferior molar infection with a cervical phlegmon for 1 week prior to admission. On 2 October 2014, the patient went to the dentist and a molar extraction was performed in the morning. In the afternoon, the patient began to experience right hemifacial pain that progressed towards an intense and bilateral headache. Neurological status at the time of admission revealed right miosis, ptosis and conjuntival hyperaemia. A CT angiography showed a right internal carotid artery dissection provoking a high-degree stenosis. The relationship between periodontal infection and vascular disease has been previously presented. Microbial agents may directly, and inflammatory and immunological host response indirectly, influence inflammatory changes in cervical arteries favouring dissections with minor traumas. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Effect of gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on nosocomial infections acquired in the intensive care unit: a double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Fourrier, François; Dubois, Didier; Pronnier, Philippe; Herbecq, Patrick; Leroy, Olivier; Desmettre, Thibaut; Pottier-Cau, Elodie; Boutigny, Hervé; Di Pompéo, Christophe; Durocher, Alain; Roussel-Delvallez, Micheline

    2005-08-01

    To document the effect of gingival and dental plaque antiseptic decontamination on the rate of nosocomial bacteremias and respiratory infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy study. Six ICUs: three in university hospitals and three in general hospitals. A total of 228 nonedentulous patients requiring endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, with an anticipated length of stay > or =5 days. Antiseptic decontamination of gingival and dental plaque with a 0.2% chlorhexidine gel or a placebo gel, three times a day, during the entire ICU stay. Demographic and clinical characteristics, organ function data (Logistic Organ Dysfunction score), severity of condition (Simplified Acute Physiologic Score), and dental plaque status were assessed at baseline and until 28 days. Bacteriologic sampling of dental plaque and saliva was done every 5 days, and blood, tracheal aspirate, and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures were performed when appropriate. The primary efficacy end point was the incidence of bacteremia, bronchitis, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, expressed as a percentage and per 1000 ICU days. All baseline characteristics were similar between the treated and the placebo groups. The incidence of nosocomial infections was 17.5% (13.2 per 1000 ICU days) in the placebo group and 18.4% (13.3 per 1000 ICU days) in the plaque antiseptic decontamination group (not significant). No difference was observed in the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia per ventilator or intubation days, mortality, length of stay, and care loads (secondary end points). On day 10, the number of positive dental plaque cultures was significantly lower in the treated group (29% vs. 66%; p < .05). Highly resistant Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, and Enterobacter species identified in late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia and previously cultured from dental plaque were not eradicated by the antiseptic

  15. Hand hygiene in the dental setting: reducing the risk of infection.

    PubMed

    Fluent, Marie T

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene remains the single most important measure for reducing the risk of healthcare-associated infections. In the past 20 years, hand-washing recommendations and guidelines have become increasingly complex, and a plethora of products have become available. This article aims to discuss and clarify the fundamentals of appropriate hand hygiene in dentistry.

  16. Clinical retrospective study of self-reported penicillin allergy on dental implant failures and infections.

    PubMed

    French, David; Noroozi, Mehdi; Shariati, Batoul; Larjava, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether self-reported allergy to penicillin may contribute to a higher rate of postsurgical infection and implant failure. This retrospective, non-interventional, open cohort study reports on implant survival and infection complications of 5,576 implants placed in private practice by one periodontist, and includes 4,132 implants that were followed for at least 1 year. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported allergy to penicillin and implant survival, while controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, implant site, bone augmentation, loading protocol, immediate implantation, and bone level at baseline. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was calculated according to the life table method and the Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to data. Out of 5,106 implants placed in patients taking penicillin it was found that 0.8% failed, while 2.1% failed of the 470 implants placed for patients with self-reported allergy to penicillin (P = .002). Odds of failure for implants placed in penicillin-allergic patients were 3.1 times higher than in non-allergic patients. For immediate implant placement, penicillin-allergic patients had a failure rate 10-times higher than the non-allergic cohort. Timing of implant failure occurring within 6 months following implantation was 80% in the penicillin-allergic group versus 54% in the non-allergic group. From the 48 implant sites showing postoperative infection: penicillin-allergic patients had an infection rate of 3.4% (n = 16/470) versus 0.6% in the non-allergic group (n = 32/5,106) (P < .05). Self-reported penicillin allergy was associated with a higher rate of infection, and primarily affected early implant failure.

  17. "Does this Look Infected to You?" Social Network Predictors of Dental Help-Seeking Among Mexican Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Pullen, Erin; Perry, Brea L; Maupome, Gerardo

    2017-03-30

    Compared to U.S. born Latinos, Mexican immigrants (MAs) have diminished health care access and face substantial barriers to accessing needed dental health services. However, little research has examined how MAs social networks shape their use of dental health services. Using data from 332 Mexican immigrants to the Midwest, this research examines the significance of individual and egocentric network characteristics on two measures of dental health service utilization. Findings reveal that network size, network dental service utilization, and the frequency with which MAs discuss acute problems with network ties, positively correspond to use of oral health services. Conversely, embeddedness in networks where ties hassle egos about dental issues and have low levels of dental health knowledge correspond to lower odds of using these services. This research is among the first to use ego network data and methods to examine the ways network characteristics shape oral health behaviors among this underserved population.

  18. Awareness of droplet and airborne isolation precautions among dental health professionals during the outbreak of corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shahzeb-Hasan; AlShamrani, Sultan-Saleh; Alakras, Abdul-Rahman; Mahrous, Raif; Alenazi, Abdul-Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of airborne and droplet isolation precautions among Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) (dental students, interns, practitioners and auxiliaries) during the outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 406 dental health professionals (DHPs) working in selected dental facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of MERS (April-June 2013). A structured, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire explored the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards droplet and isolation precautions. Collected data was subjected to descriptive statistics to express demographic information, mean knowledge score, mean attitude score and practice score of DHPs. Inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.05) were used to examine differences between study variables. Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge-attitude, knowledge-practice, and attitude-practice. Results A response rate of rate of 90.22% (406 out of 452) was obtained. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 10.61 ± 1.19, 50.54 ± 7.53 and 8.50 ± 2.14 respectively. Spearman’s correlation test revealed a significant linear positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r-0.501, P- 0.01), knowledge and practice (r-0.185, P-0.01) and attitude and practice (r-0.351, P- 0.01) of DHPs about airborne isolation precautions. Conclusions Dental health professionals considered in the present study showed good knowledge, positive attitude and good practice towards droplet and airborne isolation precautions during outbreak of MERS. Key words:Knowledge, attitude, practice, droplet, airborne, precaution, dental professionals. PMID:27703605

  19. Radiographic quantification of chronic dental infection and its relationship to the atherosclerotic process in the carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Arthur H; Sung, Eric C; Chung, Evelyn M; Garrett, Neal R

    2010-04-01

    Atherosclerosis may be initiated/accelerated by chronic dental infection (CDI). Noninvasively visualizing the carotid arteries is an accepted surrogate marker for determining coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA). We hypothesized that 36 individuals with radiographic carotid atheromas would have more radiographic CDI than risk-matched individuals without atheromas. We determined the arithmetic sum of individuals' periapical and furcal lesions, pericoronitis sites, carious roots, teeth with pulpal caries, and vertical bony defects (>4 mm). Individuals with atheromas had a significantly (P < .01) greater mean score of 15.5 +/- 10.4 compared with control subjects (7.9 +/- 8.1). Similarly significant (P < .05) was the difference in the mean numbers of mesial and distal vertical bony defects in the atheroma group (4.1 +/- 3.9 and 4.8 +/- 3.8, respectively) compared with control subjects (1.6 +/- 2.4 and 1.8 +/- 2.7, respectively). Individuals with atheromas on their radiographs (and high probability of CAA) had significantly greater amounts of CDI than individuals without atheromas. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  20. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is used to fill cavities caused by ... tooth structure. Dental amalgam is one type of dental filling material used to repair tooth structure that has been ...

  1. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bayram Kayar, Nuket; Alpay, Nadir; Hamdard, Jamshid; Emegil, Sebnem; Bag Soydas, Rabia; Baysal, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet's disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon. PMID:27847659

  2. Bimaxillary Oral Focal Mucinosis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sunil; Malik, Sunita; Mittal, Hitesh Chander; Singh, Gurdarshan; Kamra, Hemlata

    2016-10-01

    Oral focal mucinosis is considered as oral counterpart of cutaneous focal mucinosis. The preoperative diagnosis of mucinosis is almost impossible because of its rarity and clinical similarity to other lesions of various etiologies. The histological diagnosis of oral mucinosis is important to better understand the etiopathogenesis, treatment modalities, and any recurrence of the lesion besides differentiating from the other soft tissue lesions.The purpose of this paper is to report the first case of bimaxillary involvement with dome-shaped elevated, rounded, asymptomatic, normally colored swelling in left posterior palatal mucosa and left mandibular posterior region in a 25-year old woman who was diagnosed as oral focal mucinosis histopathologically.

  3. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called the glomerulus. The glomeruli serve as filters that help the body get rid of harmful substances. Each kidney has thousands of glomeruli. "Focal" means that some of the glomeruli become scarred. Others ...

  4. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  5. Focal Adhesion of Osteoblastic Cells on Titanium Surface with Amine Functionalities Formed by Plasma Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Heesang; Jung, Sang Chul; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2012-08-01

    To enhance the focal adhesion of osteoblastic cells on a titanium surface, plasma polymerized allyl amine (AAm) thin films were deposited by plasma polymerization. This plasma polymer functionalization of titanium is advantageous for osteoblastic focal adhesion formation. Such Ti surfaces are useful for the fabrication of titanium-based dental implants for enhancement of osseointegration.

  6. Predicting intention to treat HIV-infected patients among Tanzanian and Sudanese medical and dental students using the theory of planned behaviour - a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic poses significant challenges to the low income countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), affecting the attrition rate among health care workers, their level of motivation, and absenteeism from work. Little is known about how to deal with deterioration of human resources in the health care systems. This study aimed to predict the intention to provide surgical treatment to HIV infected patients among medical- and dental students in Tanzania and Sudan using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods Four hundred and seventy five medical- and dental students at the University of Dar es Salaam (mean age, 25 yr) and 642 dental students attending 6 public and private dental faculties in Khartoum (mean age 21.7 yr) completed self-administered TPB questionnaires in 2005 and 2007, respectively. Results Both Tanzanian and Sudanese students demonstrated strong intentions to provide care for people with HIV and AIDS. Stepwise linear regression revealed that the TPB accounted for 51% (43% in Tanzania and Sudan) of the variance in intention across study sites. After having controlled for country and past behaviour, the TPB in terms of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control accounted for 34% and moral norms for an additional 2,3% of the explainable variance in intention. Across both study sites, attitudes were the strongest predictor of intention followed in descending order by subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control. Conclusion The TPB is applicable to students' care delivery intentions in the context of HIV and AIDS across the two SSA countries investigated. It is suggested that attitudes, subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control are key factors in students' willingness to treat AIDS and HIV infected patients and should be targets of interventions aimed at improving the quality of health care delivery in this context. PMID:19930555

  7. Predicting intention to treat HIV-infected patients among Tanzanian and Sudanese medical and dental students using the theory of planned behaviour--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, Anne N; Nasir, Elwalid F

    2009-11-20

    The HIV epidemic poses significant challenges to the low income countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), affecting the attrition rate among health care workers, their level of motivation, and absenteeism from work. Little is known about how to deal with deterioration of human resources in the health care systems. This study aimed to predict the intention to provide surgical treatment to HIV infected patients among medical- and dental students in Tanzania and Sudan using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Four hundred and seventy five medical- and dental students at the University of Dar es Salaam (mean age, 25 yr) and 642 dental students attending 6 public and private dental faculties in Khartoum (mean age 21.7 yr) completed self-administered TPB questionnaires in 2005 and 2007, respectively. Both Tanzanian and Sudanese students demonstrated strong intentions to provide care for people with HIV and AIDS. Stepwise linear regression revealed that the TPB accounted for 51% (43% in Tanzania and Sudan) of the variance in intention across study sites. After having controlled for country and past behaviour, the TPB in terms of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control accounted for 34% and moral norms for an additional 2,3% of the explainable variance in intention. Across both study sites, attitudes were the strongest predictor of intention followed in descending order by subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control. The TPB is applicable to students' care delivery intentions in the context of HIV and AIDS across the two SSA countries investigated. It is suggested that attitudes, subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control are key factors in students' willingness to treat AIDS and HIV infected patients and should be targets of interventions aimed at improving the quality of health care delivery in this context.

  8. Treatment of focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2012-06-01

    Dystonia is characterized by repetitive twisting movements or abnormal postures due to involuntary muscle activity. When limited to a single body region it is called focal dystonia. Examples of focal dystonia include cervical dystonia (neck), blepharospasm (eyes), oromandibular dystonia, focal limb dystonia, and spasmodic dysphonia, which are discussed here. Once the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic plan is discussed with the patients. They are informed that there is no cure for dystonia and treatment is symptomatic. The main therapeutic option for treating focal dystonias is botulinum toxin (BoNT). There have been several attempts to characterize the procedure, the type of toxin, dosage, techniques, and combination with physical measures in each of the focal dystonia forms. The general treatment principles are similar. The affected muscles are injected at muscle sites based on evidence and experience using standard dosages based on the type of toxin used. The injections are repeated after 3 to 6 months based on the individual response duration. In the uncommon event of nonresponse with BoNT, the dose and site are reassessed. Oral drug treatment could be considered as an additional option. Once the condition is thought to be medically refractory, the opinion from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) team for the suitability of the patient for DBS is taken. The successful use of DBS in cervical dystonia has led to increased acceptance for trial in other forms of focal dystonias. DBS surgery in focal dystonias other than cervical is, however, still experimental. The patients may be offered the surgery with adequate explanation of the risks and benefits. Patient education and directing the patients towards dystonia support groups and relevant websites that provide scientific information may be useful for long-term compliance and benefit.

  9. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Clinical Isolates from Initial Stages of Dental Pulp Infection: Identification of a New Exopolysaccharide Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R.; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG). Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED) identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG). Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation from the reference

  10. Comparative genome analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus clinical isolates from initial stages of dental pulp infection: identification of a new exopolysaccharide cluster.

    PubMed

    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG). Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED) identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG). Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation from the reference

  11. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  12. Vitelliform focal choroidal excavation.

    PubMed

    Or, Chris; Forooghian, Farzin

    2014-05-30

    Focal choroidal excavations (FCE) are characterized by foveal or perifoveal choroid excavations seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The authors report a case of FCE associated with a vitelliform lesion within the excavation. A case of FCE associated with a small vitelliform lesion has been described previously, but the larger extent of the vitelliform lesion observed in the current case has not been previously reported. This may represent a novel category of FCE, vitelliform focal choroidal excavation, in which deposition of vitelliform material is associated with its development.

  13. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  14. Variable focal length microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L. G., Commander; Day, S. E.; Selviah, D. R.

    2000-04-01

    Refractive surface relief microlenses (150 μm diameter) are immersed in nematic liquid crystal in a cell. Application of a variable voltage across the cell effectively varies the refractive index of the liquid crystal and results in a change of the focal length by the lensmakers formula (E. Hecht, Optics, 2nd edn., Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1987, p. 138). We describe the cell design and construction and demonstrate a range of focal lengths from +490 to +1000 μm for 2 to 12 V applied. A diverging lens results when the voltage is lower. Theoretical models are developed to account for some of the observed aberrations.

  15. Focal brainstem gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J.; Alaqeel, Ahmed M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved neuronavigation guidance as well as intraoperative imaging and neurophysiologic monitoring technologies have enhanced the ability of neurosurgeons to resect focal brainstem gliomas. In contrast, diffuse brainstem gliomas are considered to be inoperable lesions. This article is a continuation of an article that discussed brainstem glioma diagnostics, imaging, and classification. Here, we address open surgical treatment of and approaches to focal, dorsally exophytic, and cervicomedullary brainstem gliomas. Intraoperative neuronavigation, intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring, as well as intraoperative imaging are discussed as adjunctive measures to help render these procedures safer, more acute, and closer to achieving surgical goals. PMID:25864061

  16. Effectiveness of a dental care intervention in the prevention of lower respiratory tract nosocomial infections among intensive care patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Wanessa T; Menegueti, Mayra G; Gaspar, Gilberto G; Nicolini, Edson A; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Martinez, Roberto; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate whether dental treatment may enhance oral antisepsis, thus preventing more effectively lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) among critically ill patients. Observer-blind randomized clinical trial. General intensive care unit (ICU) for adult patients. We analyzed data from 254 adult patients who stayed for at least 48 hours in the ICU. Patients were randomized by means of rolling dice. The experimental group (n = 127) had access to dental care provided by a dental surgeon, 4-5 times a week. Besides routine oral hygiene, care also included teeth brushing, tongue scraping, removal of calculus, atraumatic restorative treatment of caries, and tooth extraction. The control group (n = 127) had access to routine oral hygiene only, which included the use of chlorhexidine as a mouth rinse, which was performed by the ICU nurse staff. The primary study outcome was the LRTI incidence, which was 8.7% in the experimental group and 18.1% in the control group (adjusted relative risk [RR], 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.96]; P = .04). Ventilator-associated pneumonia rates per 1,000 ventilator-days were 16.5 (95% CI, 9.8-29.5) in the control group and 7.6 (95% CI, 3.3-15.0) in the experimental group (P < .05). Mortality rates were similar between both study groups: 31.5% in the control group versus 29.1% in the experimental group (adjusted RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.52-1.65]; P = .796). No severe adverse events related to oral care were observed during the study. Dental treatment was safe and effective in the prevention of LRTI among critically ill patients who were expected to stay at least 48 hours in the ICU. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry, affiliated with the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Registry Platform: U1111-1152-2671.

  17. [The health professional in the dental/oral field and exposure to risk of infection: epidemiology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Manfredi, R; Calza, L; Verucchi, G

    2007-01-01

    A systematic review of the main infectious pathogens potentially transmissible to health care professionals during odontostomatologic procedures is carried out, with special attention focused on parenteral exposure in the surgical, dental, and stomatological environment. Epidemiological issues and specific risk factors are treated systematically, together with all available, recommended chemoprophylactic and immunological prophylactic strategies.

  18. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... the direction of a dentist . They may prepare materials for dental impressions or to create temporary crowns. All dental ... Nursing assistants, sometimes called nursing aides , help provide basic care for patients in hospitals and residents of ... more information about becoming a dental assistant and for a list of accredited dental ...

  19. Focal dystonia in musicians.

    PubMed

    Aránguiz, R; Chana-Cuevas, P; Alburquerque, D; León, M

    2011-01-01

    A special group of focal dystonia is that known as occupational, which include dystonic disorders triggered by repetitive motor activity, closely associated with the professional activity of a specific task that the affected person performs. In this sense, musicians are a population particularly vulnerable to this disorder, which is presented during the execution of highly trained movements. This article reviews the pathophysiology of focal dystonia and its therapeutic implications. The pathophysiological basis of focal dystonia in the musician is still not well established. However, due to the contribution of neurophysiological studies and functional neuroimaging, there is growing evidence of anomalies in the processing of sensory information, sensory-motor integration, cortical and subcortical inhibitory processes, which underline this disease. Clinically, it is characterised by the appearance of involuntary muscle contractions, and is associated with loss of motor control while practicing music. It is a gradual appearance and sometimes there may be a history of musculoskeletal injuries or non-physiological postures preceding the appearance of the symptoms. The neurological examination is usually normal, although subtle dystonic postures can develop spontaneously or with movements that involve the affected segments. The dystonia remains focal and is not generalised. Treatment is based on using multiple strategies for the management of the dystonia, with variable results. Although a specific therapy has not been defined, there are general principles that are combined in each situation looking for results. This includes, among others, pharmacological interventions, management with botulinum toxin, and sensory re-training techniques. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  1. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among children and their mothers attending for dental care in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Maureen; Bagg, Jeremy; Welbury, Richard; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Hague, Rosie; Geary, Isabella; Roy, Kirsty M

    2016-08-24

    This paper describes a voluntary anonymous survey to investigate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) in children in Glasgow, UK attending a Dental Hospital and the proportion of HCV positive mothers who have a child who is HCV seropositive. The study was undertaken among children and accompanying parents and household contacts attending a general anaesthetic assessment clinic at Glasgow Dental Hospital and School. Children were asked to provide an oral fluid specimen for HCV testing. Accompanying adults were asked to provide demographic data on the child and information on familial risk factors for HCV infection using a standardised questionnaire. Birth mothers were also asked to provide an oral fluid specimen. Specimens and questionnaires were linked by a unique anonymous study number. Between June 2009 and December 2011, samples were collected from 2141 children and 1698 mothers. None of the samples from the children were HCV seropositive but 16 (0.9%, 95% CI 0.6-1.5%) of the specimens from mothers were HCV antibody positive. In summary, the prevalence of HCV seropositivity in the birth mothers of the children was similar to that estimated in the general population served by the hospital and showed no evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HCV.

  2. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Christiana; de Oliveira Lira Ortega, Adriana; Guimarães, Antônio Sérgio; Gonçalves-Bittar, Daniela; Bönecker, Marcelo; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia

    2011-08-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disease affecting tissues derived from the ectoderm and mesoderm. Knowledge and early diagnosis of the craniofacial alterations commonly found in patients with FDH provide oral health care professionals with effective preventive and therapeutic tools. This article aims to review the craniofacial characteristics present in FDH and the main systemic manifestations that have implications for dental management, while presenting a new case of the syndrome with novel oral findings.

  3. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  4. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) associated with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viraben, R; Aquilina, C; Brousset, P; Bazex, J

    1996-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa occurring in a HIV-infected man is described. Molecular biology disclosed an HPV-32 type in oral lesions. The association of FEH and AIDS is uncommon although many HPV subtypes may manifest during HIV infection.

  5. A review of equine dental disorders.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Dacre, I

    2005-03-01

    Equine dentistry is a very important but until recently rather neglected area of equine practice, with many horses suffering from undiagnosed, painful dental disorders. A thorough clinical examination using a full mouth speculum is a pre-requisite to performing any equine dental procedure. Common incisor disorders include: prolonged retention of deciduous incisors, supernumerary incisors and overjet--the latter usually accompanied by cheek teeth (CT) overgrowths. Overjet can be surgically corrected, but perhaps should not be in breeding animals. In younger horses, traumatically fractured incisors with pulpar exposure may survive by laying down tertiary dentine. Loss or maleruption of incisors can cause uneven occlusal wear that can affect mastication. Idiopathic fractures and apical infection of incisors are rare. The main disorder of canine teeth is the development of calculus of the lower canines, and occasionally, developmental displacements and traumatic fractures. The main indications for extraction of "wolf teeth" (Triadan 05s) are the presence of displaced or enlarged wolf teeth, or their presence in the mandible. Developmental abnormalities of the CT include; rostral positioning of the upper CT rows in relation to the lower CT rows--with resultant development of focal overgrowths on the upper 06s and the lower 11s. Displaced CT develop overgrowths on unopposed aspects of the teeth and also develop periodontal disease in the inevitable abnormal spaces (diastemata) that are present between displaced and normal teeth. Diastemata of the CT due to excessive developmental spacing between the CT or to inadequate compression of the CT rows is a common but under diagnosed problem in many horses and causes very painful periodontal disease and quidding. Supernumerary CT mainly occur at the caudal aspect of the CT rows and periodontal disease commonly occurs around these teeth. Eruption disorders of CT include prolonged retention of remnants of deciduous CT ("caps

  6. Dental radiology.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Dental radiology is the core diagnostic modality of veterinary dentistry. Dental radiographs assist in detecting hidden painful pathology, estimating the severity of dental conditions, assessing treatment options, providing intraoperative guidance, and also serve to monitor success of prior treatments. Unfortunately, most professional veterinary training programs provide little or no training in veterinary dentistry in general or dental radiology in particular. Although a technical learning curve does exist, the techniques required for producing diagnostic films are not difficult to master. Regular use of dental x-rays will increase the amount of pathology detected, leading to healthier patients and happier clients who notice a difference in how their pet feels. This article covers equipment and materials needed to produce diagnostic intraoral dental films. A simplified guide for positioning will be presented, including a positioning "cheat sheet" to be placed next to the dental x-ray machine in the operatory. Additionally, digital dental radiograph systems will be described and trends for their future discussed.

  7. DENTAL MATERIALS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The study deals with the determination of characteristic physical and mechanical properties of restorative dental materials, and effect of...manipulative variables on these properties. From the study an entirely new dental gold inlay casting technic was developed, based on the principle of...controlled water added hygroscopic technic. The method has had successful dental applications and is a recognized method of dental inlay casting procedure

  8. Development of Denticap, a matrix based sustained release formulation for treatment of toothache, dental infection and other gum problem.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswajit; Roy, Gopa; Ghosh, Soma

    2009-04-01

    Toothache is a serious problem worldwide. To give relief from this intolerable toothache, doctors prescribe painkillers along with antibiotics. Most of the painkillers, if not all, produce hyperacidity and gastric irritation upon oral administration. Oral antibiotics have slow onset of action and undergo hepatic "first-pass" effect. Moreover, available dental formulations are mostly liquid and last only few hours upon application, before being washed out by saliva. To overcome the above-mentioned problems, a soft polymeric mold containing antibiotic and analgesic drugs and having an appropriate consistency to adhere to the tooth, was developed for sustained drug release to provide better relief in dental patients. Eudragit L 100-55, carbopol 971 P, gum karaya powder and ethyl cellulose were used to prepare the mold "Denticaps" containing Lidocaine hydrochloride and Amoxicillin trihydrate individually and in combination, by mixing and solvent evaporation technique. Different physicochemical characterization studies such as mucoadhesion test, water absorption capacity and swelling index were carried out. In vitro drug release studies showed sustained release of Lidocaine hydrochloride and Amoxicillin trihydrate in simulated saliva for 24 h. Further studies are warranted to succeed with these formulations in humans. Upon success, this type of dosage form may open up new avenues towards dentistry.

  9. Focal plane polarimeter design

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, J.B.

    1983-10-12

    Measurement of polarization transfer or so-called triple-scattering parameters have been made recently for proton-nucleon scattering at TRIUMF, SIN, and LAMPF using carbon polarimeters and have been essential in determining the proton-nucleon amplitudes up to 800 MeV. An extension to the case is described where the scattered proton polarization is analyzed after passage through some type of spectrometer. Most of the experience with this type of focal plane polarimeter (FPP) has been gained in the field of proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies but is certainly not confined to such specific cases. The salient features of an FPP are emphasized by describing a minimal system which includes all the necessary components then go on to a more complete system. 10 references. (WHK)

  10. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  11. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  12. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  13. Electromyogram-evoked focal myositis

    PubMed Central

    Snipes, George; Quan, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rarely reported inflammatory disease of skeletal muscle, particularly of an extremity. It is often misinterpreted as an infectious syndrome, leading to prolonged antibiotic use and a delay in immunosuppressive therapy. Without a confirmed etiology to date, we present a case of recurrent focal myositis following an electromyogram. PMID:28127151

  14. The Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte ratio as a marker of recovery status in patients with severe dental infection

    PubMed Central

    Gonen, Zeynep-Burcin; Gunay-Canpolat, Dilek; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Alkan, Alper

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the value of pretreatment neutrophil/lymphocyte (N/L) ratio and mean platelet volume (MPV) and the correlation between these markers with progression in patients with severe odontogenic infection. Material and Methods A cohort of 100 patients with severe odontogenic infection were divided into 2 groups according to their length of hospital stay. The N/L ratio and MPV was measured in all patients. The correlation in all patients between preoperative fever, preoperative antibiotic doses, postoperative antibiotic doses, total antibiotic doses and hospital stay with N/L ratio and MPV were analyzed. The Youden index was used to identify the optimal cut-off value. Results There were positive and statistically significant correlations between N/L ratio and prolonged hospital stay and postoperative antibiotic doses and total antibiotic doses. The optimum cut –off level of N/L ratio was 5.19 according to ROC analysis. However, there was no correlation between MPV and any of these parameters. Conclusions N/L ratio may be used as a prognostic marker for patients with odontogenic infections. These patients may need a higher dose of antibiotics and stay more than 1 day in hospital for the treatment of odontogenic infection when the N/L ratio is detected to be more than 5.19. Key words:Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, mean platelet volume, odontogenic infection. PMID:28624841

  15. Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Oral ... Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Vaginal Yeast Infections Immunizations Do My Kids Need Vaccines Before ...

  16. The microbiology of the acute dental abscess.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D; Smith, A J

    2009-02-01

    The acute dental abscess is frequently underestimated in terms of its morbidity and mortality. The risk of potential serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess is still relevant today with many hospital admissions for dental sepsis. The acute dental abscess is usually polymicrobial comprising facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group, with predominantly strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella and Fusobacterium species. The use of non-culture techniques has expanded our insight into the microbial diversity of the causative agents, identifying such organisms as Treponema species and anaerobic Gram-positive rods such as Bulleidia extructa, Cryptobacterium curtum and Mogibacterium timidum. Despite some reports of increasing antimicrobial resistance in isolates from acute dental infection, the vast majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment, with antimicrobials limited to spreading and severe infections. The microbiology and treatment of the acute localized abscess and severe spreading odontogenic infections are reviewed.

  17. AIDS and dental practice.

    PubMed

    Gerbert, B; Badner, V; Maguire, B

    1988-01-01

    Dental health care workers (DHCWs) can provide important diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS. They also have a responsibility to protect all patients in their practices, and themselves, from infectious disease transmission through the use of infection control. To determine the extent to which DHCWs are prepared to assume these responsibilities, a randomized survey of California DHCWs was conducted. Responses were obtained from 297 dentists, 128 hygienists, and 177 dental assistants. DHCWs who expressed a greater willingness to treat people with AIDS or HIV infection also practiced more thorough infection control. Respondents in all groups who perceived a greater percent of their patients to be at risk for AIDS were more likely to use infection control procedures (P less than .0001). They also were more willing to treat such patients (P less than .004) and were more likely to assess patients for AIDS by taking a thorough medical history (P less than .02) and sexual history (P less than .04). Since attitudes toward AIDS and perception of the percent of patients at risk in one's practice affect patient assessment and infection control procedures used by dental health care workers, educational programs designed to enhance DHCWs' response to the HIV epidemic should alert them to the extent of the problem and help them cope with their concerns.

  18. Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  19. Kartagener syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Ali; Doroushi, Behzad; Taheri, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is characterized by congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia which is involved in situs inversus associated with chronic respiratory infections. In addition, glomerular disease in KS syndrome is rare and reported cases are limited. We had a 27-year-old female patient with KS who presented with proteinuria, hematuria, normal kidney function, and a family history of systemic lupus erythematosus. Kidney biopsy showed segmental scar with adhesion to Bowman capsule, which was indicative of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

  20. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    PubMed Central

    Shweta; Prakash, S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed. PMID:24348613

  1. Morbidly obese patient with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related cirrhosis who died from sepsis caused by dental infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yuno; Kitamoto, Mikiya; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Yamanoue, Takao; Tada, Yoshihiro; Boku, Noriko; Nishisaka, Takashi; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cerebral vessel disease. While the two-hit hypothesis and, recently, multiple parallel hits hypothesis of NASH pathogenesis were proposed, further details have not emerged. Recently, dental infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has been reported as a critical risk factor for NASH progression, which acts as multiple parallel hits to induce inflammation and fibrogenic responses in steatosis. We describe here a 54-year-old woman who died from sepsis and was diagnosed with NASH. Briefly, her body mass index (BMI) at the age of 35 years old had been 25.6 kg/m(2) , but she became obese after withdrawing into her home at the age of 45 years. Severe obesity continued over 19 years without diabetes mellitus. She was admitted to our hospital due to a sudden disturbance of consciousness. On admission, her BMI was 48.5 kg/m(2) . Computed tomography revealed cirrhotic liver with massive ascites, and laboratory data indicated increased inflammatory responses, renal failure and C grade Child-Pugh classification, suggesting the diagnosis of sepsis. Also, severe periodontal disease was present, because the patient's front teeth fell out easily during intubation. Although the focus of infection was not specified, the oral flora Parvimonas micra, a periodontal pathogen, was detected in venous blood. In spite of intensive care including artificial respiration management and continuous hemodiafiltration, she died on the 43rd day after admission. Surprisingly, P. gingivalis was detected in her hepatocytes. This case may represent the significance of P. gingivalis in the progress to cirrhosis in NASH patients.

  2. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...

  3. Statistical Earthquake Focal Mechanism Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The new whole Earth focal mechanism forecast, based on the GCMT catalog, has been created. In the present forecast, the sum of normalized seismic moment tensors within 1000 km radius is calculated and the P- and T-axes for the focal mechanism are evaluated on the basis of the sum. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms. This average angle shows tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The method was originally proposed by Kagan and Jackson (1994, JGR). Recent interest by CSEP and GEM has motivated some improvements, particularly to extend the previous forecast to polar and near-polar regions. The major problem in extending the forecast is the focal mechanism calculation on a spherical surface. In the previous forecast as our average focal mechanism was computed, it was assumed that longitude lines are approximately parallel within 1000 km radius. This is largely accurate in the equatorial and near-equatorial areas. However, when one approaches the 75 degree latitude, the longitude lines are no longer parallel: the bearing (azimuthal) difference at points separated by 1000 km reach about 35 degrees. In most situations a forecast point where we calculate an average focal mechanism is surrounded by earthquakes, so a bias should not be strong due to the difference effect cancellation. But if we move into polar regions, the bearing difference could approach 180 degrees. In a modified program focal mechanisms have been projected on a plane tangent to a sphere at a forecast point. New longitude axes which are parallel in the tangent plane are corrected for the bearing difference. A comparison with the old 75S-75N forecast shows that in equatorial regions the forecasted focal mechanisms are almost the same, and the difference in the forecasted focal mechanisms rotation angle is close to zero. However, though the forecasted focal mechanisms are similar

  4. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  5. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  6. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  7. Predictability of Dental Emergencies by Panography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    population (recruits with little or no prior dental care) demonstrate a high incidence of 1,2dental disease . Various epidemiologic studies have shown the...Medical Center, Washington, DC 20012 I Abstract: A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of panoramic radiography for...dental complaints ranked second only to upper respiratory infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of

  8. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  9. Hygiene in dental practices.

    PubMed

    Fabiani, L; Mosca, G; Giuliani, A R

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the hygienic quality of dental practices on the basis of the self-awareness expressed by dentists respondents to a self-reported questionnaire about the health/hygiene characteristics of practice, the knowledge of biologic/toxicological risks and the preventive procedures and devices improvements in professional practice. Of the 127 practitioners contacted, 108 (85%) agreed to participate. The knowledge of infective risks was self- evaluated as good only in 24%: even if vaccinated, most of the dentists (57%) considered HBV the main infective agent to fear, not giving the same importance to the air-borne transmission of diseases. The presence of a single dental unit per surgery (90%) was considered an index of good health/hygiene education but, in spite of the use of disposable gloves, caps and masks, the dentists do not always change their coats or wash their hands between patients yet. The management of dental instruments can be considered efficient as long as they are sterilised in an autoclave (97%) and undergo periodic sterilization efficacy tests (76%). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION The results indicate a good structural and organisational status, but there is the need for continuous education concerning the prevention of cross-infections.

  10. Precise Measurement of Effective Focal Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, T. D.; Young, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    Computerized instrument measures effective focal lengths to 0.01 percent accuracy. Laser interferometers measure mirror angle and stage coordinate y in instrument for accurate measurment of focal properties of optical systems. Operates under computer control to measure effective focal length, focal surface shape, modulation transfer function, and astigmatism.

  11. Oral phenotype and variation in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Wright, John Timothy; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Farrington, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz Syndrome (OMIM# 305600) is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein that is involved in processing the embryonically critical WNT signaling proteins. Individuals diagnosed with FDH were recruited to participate in the study through the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Individuals were evaluated to characterize the FDH phenotype. Each participant completed a brief dental survey and oral evaluation using artificial light. To identify the oral soft and hard tissue findings 19 individuals (16 female and 3 male) participated with a median age of 10 years (range 2-56 years). Soft and hard tissue defects were present in 68% (13) and 94% (18) of the patients, respectively. Dental anomalies were highly prevalent with 68% (13) demonstrating vertical enamel grooving, 52% (10) having peg shaped tooth deformities, and 78% (15) having enamel hypoplasia with or without discoloration. Cleft lip and cleft palate presented in 15% (3) of the participants. Other findings included 57% (11) having intra-oral lipoma or papilloma with no site predilection. Dental malocclusions were common with 63% (12) having some degree of malocclusion with 15% (3) of participants having class III malocclusion with an anterior dental cross bite. Participants frequently reported speech problems or difficulty with chewing (73%; N = 14). This study shows there is marked variation in the oral phenotype of individuals with FDH and underscores the important role of WNT signaling in oro-facial development.

  12. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  13. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  14. Registered Dental Hygienists as Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Janet; Shugars, Daniel A.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys conducted to (1) investigate why dental hygienists choose to become dentists, (2) evaluate their success in dental school, (3) assess the experience of those who had entered dental school, and (4) gauge the level of interest among dental hygienists in applying to dental school are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  15. Genetic models of focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Boillot, Morgane; Baulac, Stéphanie

    2016-02-15

    Focal epilepsies were for a long time thought to be acquired disorders secondary to cerebral lesions. However, the important role of genetic factors in focal epilepsies is now well established. Several focal epilepsy syndromes are now proven to be monogenic disorders. While earlier genetic studies suggested a strong contribution of ion channel and neurotransmitter receptor genes, later work has revealed alternative pathways, among which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway with DEPDC5. In this article, we provide an update on the mutational spectrum of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA4, CHRNB2, CHRNA2) and KCNT1 causing autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), and of LGI1 in autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF). We also emphasize, through a review of the current literature, the contribution of in vitro and in vivo models developed to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these two epileptic syndromes.

  16. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  17. From focal sepsis to periodontal medicine: a century of exploring the role of the oral microbiome in systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima S

    2017-01-15

    The oral microbiome is established within a few minutes after birth and consists of stable multi-species communities that engage in a dynamic equilibrium with the host immune system. Dental caries, endodontic infections and periodontal diseases are bacterially driven diseases that are caused by dysbiotic microbiomes. Over a century ago, the focal infection theory implicated these infections in the aetiology of several systemic diseases, ranging from arthritis to neurodegenerative diseases. However, a lack of concrete evidence, combined with the urgency with which clinicians embraced this approach without regard for appropriate case selection, led to its demise within 30 years. In the last decade of the 20th century, the concept of periodontal medicine was introduced to explain the correlations that were being observed between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, pulmonary disease, pre-term delivery of low birth weight infants and metabolic disease. It was proposed that periodontal pathobionts played a causal role in the initiating or exacerbating certain diseases either by direct invasion or by stimulating a florid immune-inflammatory response that extended into the systemic circulation. This review will examine the strength of current evidence in establishing a causal link between oral pathobionts and systemic disease. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  18. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to...

  19. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... few quick steps. There is no drilling or scraping of the molars. Your dentist will: Clean the ... Dental sealants. Updated October 19, 2016. ADA.org Web site. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral- ...

  20. Dental Hygienists

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygienists to be licensed; requirements vary by state. Education Dental hygienists typically need an associate’s degree in ... the skills needed in this occupation. Entry-level Education Typical level of education that most workers need ...

  1. Dental Fluorosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... when children regularly consume fluoride during the teeth-forming years, age 8 and younger. Most dental fluorosis ... over a long period when the teeth are forming under the gums. Only children aged 8 years ...

  2. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  3. Relation between demographic and epidemiological characteristics and permanency under a dental health care program for HIV infected patients.

    PubMed

    Squassi, A; Khaszki, C; Blanco, B; Schnaiderman, M; Scholnik, L; Bonazzi, M; Bordoni, N

    1998-01-01

    The association between factors involved in health care and the health status of the people has been proven. The use of health care services, particularly in the case of patients who suffer from chronic pathologies, has been the object of many studies aimed at establishing factors which contribute to guarantee permanence in treatment and implementation of health care controls. The purpose of the present study was to identify the response of HIV infected or AIDS patients to the oral health care program and establish the association between permanence in treatment and the presence of risk factors, epidemiological or demographic conditions of the users. Ninety patients selected at random from the 300 who attended the Clinic for High Risk Patient Care, School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires (CLAPAR, Spanish acronym) during 1994-1995 were included in this study. The patients were assigned to one of seven groups, according to their permanence in treatment and commitment to the program during the phase of maintenance in health. Each of these categories was characterized in terms of age, sex, educational level, place of residence (CIRFS, 1990), type of job, type of health coverage and place where healthcare was received, risk behavior and date of positive serological diagnosis. The frequency of each variable was established. Contingency tables were employed to establish the statistical significance of the association between the different variables and the patient categories. The data revealed that 24.2% of the patients performed occasional or emergency consultation, 57.1% achieved discharge with or without the assistance of the social worker or are still in treatment and 18.7% abandoned the program. Significant association were found between the response to odontological treatment and the following variables: place of residence, date of positive serological diagnosis, and risk behavior. We may conclude that certain demographic, epidemiological or life

  4. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection and Oral Lesions in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Katia; Kazimiroff, Julie; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Smith, Richard V.; Wiltz, Mauricio; Polanco, Jacqueline; Grossberg, Robert M.; Belbin, Thomas J.; Strickler, Howard D.; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the risk factors associated with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and oral lesions in 161 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients and 128 HIV-negative patients presenting for oral examination at 2 urban healthcare centers. Patients were interviewed on risk factors and provided oral-rinse samples for HPV DNA typing by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical associations were assessed by logistic regression. Oral HPV was prevalent in 32% and 16% of HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative patients, respectively, including high-risk HPV type 16 (8% and 2%, respectively; P = .049) and uncommon HPV types 32/42 (6% and 5%, respectively; P = .715). Among HIV-negative patients, significant risk factors for oral HPV included multiple sex partners (≥21 vs ≤5; odds ratio [OR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–49.3), heavy tobacco smoking (>20 pack-years vs none; OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 1.4–59.4), and marijuana use (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3–12.4). Among HIV-positive patients, lower CD4+ T-cell count only was associated with oral HPV detection (≤200 vs ≥500 cells/mm3; OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.3–15.5). Detection of high-risk HPV was also associated with concurrent detection of potentially cancerous oral lesions among HIV-negative patients but not among HIV-positive patients. The observed risk factor associations with oral HPV in HIV-negative patients are consistent with sexual transmission and local immunity, whereas in HIV-positive patients, oral HPV detection is strongly associated with low CD4+ T-cell counts. PMID:25681375

  5. Infant dental care (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which are essential to overall good health. Poor dental development, dental disease, and dental trauma can result ...

  6. Absence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque determined by immunoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Savoldi, E; Marinone, M G; Negrini, R; Facchinetti, D; Lanzini, A; Sapelli, P L

    1998-12-01

    Attempts to detect Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque have given contrasting results, and the possibility of an oral-oral transmission of the infection remains unclear. In this study, a sensitive and specific immunoperoxidase method has been employed to assess the presence of H. pylori in dental plaque. Dental plaque smears from 80 patients undergoing gastroscopy were analyzed by an indirect immunoperoxidase test, employing a mixture of two monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori. No immunostained bacteria were shown in any of the examined dental plaque samples. H. pylori is not usually present in dental plaque, indicating that oral-oral transmission of the infection could be due to intermittent esophageal reflux only.

  7. Focal fits during chlorambucil therapy

    PubMed Central

    Naysmith, A.; Robson, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    An elderly man receiving chlorambucil for chronic lymphatic leukaemia developed focal fits. The onset and frequency were dose related. There was no evidence of metabolic disturbance or of meningeal leukaemia. Although reported in children and well recognized in animals, chlorambucil-induced fits in an adult have not been previously recorded. PMID:118440

  8. Vermont management in focal areas

    Treesearch

    Judy Rosovsky; Bruce L. Parker; Luke Curtis

    1991-01-01

    Following the 1979 outbreak of gypsy moths Lymantria dispar L. in Vermont, state personnel began monitoring a number of focal areas for signs of increase in gypsy moth populations. In 1986 data from this early warning system indicated an incipient outbreak. We took advantage of this increase to test an experimental management technique. Would...

  9. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2014-04-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

  10. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  11. Dental pathology in Pongo satyrus borneensis.

    PubMed

    Stoner, K E

    1995-11-01

    The Selenka orangutan collection obtained from 1892 to 1896 from wild-shot specimens in West Borneo, provides an excellent opportunity to examine dental pathology in free-ranging primates. Two hundred and twenty-three skulls from this collection were analyzed for dental conditions, including carious lesions, local infections (infra-alveolar and periapical osseous defects), horizontal bone loss, and premortem tooth loss. Specimens were sexed, divided into three broad age groups, and compared to ascertain sex-related or age-related differences in occurrence of dental pathology. None of the subadults displays any evidence of dental disease. One individual (2%) in the young adult group has a periapical osseous defect and evidence of horizontal bone loss, and another (2%) has two adjacent interproximal carious lesions. The old adults have a much higher prevalence of individuals afflicted with dental pathologies, including 6% carious lesions, 26% local infections, 23% horizontal bone loss, and 3% premortem tooth loss. The differences between the young and old adults in number of individuals afflicted with dental pathologies is statistically significant for local infections and horizontal bone loss. When compared by sex, the old adult group reveals that females have a higher occurrence of dental pathologies than males in all types of lesions recorded and these differences are statistically significant for local infections and horizontal bone loss. Considering the importance diet plays in the development of dental disease, it is suggested that ecological separation of the sexes, with the subsequent dietary differences, could be an important factor determining the higher prevalence of dental lesions observed in female orangutans. Additionally, the importance of local ecological factors, which may affect dietary patterns, are recognized as a potential source of variation in dental pathologies among different samples of orangutans.

  12. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  13. Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

    2005-01-01

    HYPERHIDROSIS, A CONDITION CHARACTERIZED by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%–95%. PMID:15632408

  14. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  15. Stigmatic flat focal field spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczyk, T. M.; Gobeli, G. W.

    Advances in two dimensional detectors have created a need for a spectrograph that can produce high fidelity images. Aberrations that detract from image quality in conventional spectrographs are discussed. Ray trace and experimental results obtained for a unique spectrograph designed for use with array detectors, i.e., designed to produce high fidelity images, are presented. The spectrograph employs toroidal mirrors to achieve stigmatic imaging in a flat focal field.

  16. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for curl-ups.…

  17. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for curl-ups.…

  18. Almost Unilateral Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Solam; Choe, Sung Jay

    2017-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia, caused by mutations in PORCN, is an X-linked ectodermal dysplasia, also known as Goltz syndrome. Only seven cases of unilateral or almost unilateral focal dermal hypoplasia have been reported in the English literature and there have been no previously reported cases in the Republic of Korea. A 19-year-old female presented with scalp defects, skin lesions on the right leg and the right trunk, and syndactyly of the right fourth and fifth toes. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple atrophic plaques and a brown and yellow mass with fat herniation and telangiectasia that was mostly located on the lower right leg. She had syndactyly on the right foot and the scalp lesion appeared to be an atrophic, membranous, fibrotic alopecic scar. A biopsy of the calf revealed upper dermal extension of fat cells, dermal atrophy, and loss of dermal collagen. A diagnosis of almost unilateral focal dermal hypoplasia was made on the basis of physical and histologic findings. Henceforth, the patient was referred to a plastic surgeon and an orthopedics department to repair her syndactyly. PMID:28223754

  19. Trends in dental and allied dental education.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Laura M

    2004-09-01

    Educational programs play an important role in preparing a qualified dental work force. This article reviews the current status and trends in dental, advanced dental and allied dental education programs in the United States and examines their impact on the dental work force. This analysis focuses on survey data collected by the American Dental Association during the past 10 to 15 years and compares recent patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation with previous trends. The numbers of educational programs, applicants, enrollees and graduates have increased in dentistry, dental hygiene and dental assisting, while dental laboratory technology has declined in all measures. The proportion of women in dentistry has increased, while the ethnic profile of dental and allied personnel has shown little change. Both the cost of dental education and student debt continue to increase. Despite increases in the number of educational programs and overall numbers of graduates from dental and allied dental education programs, the proportion of underrepresented groups still lags behind their representation in the overall population, and the number of allied personnel falls short of practice needs. Patterns in applications, enrollment and graduation are important determinants of the dental and allied dental work force. The cost and funding of education significantly affect the attractiveness of dental careers and the sustainability of educational programs and should be monitored carefully by the profession.

  20. Dental health status of liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Guggenheimer, James; Eghtesad, Bijan; Close, John M; Shay, Christine; Fung, John J

    2007-02-01

    A prerequisite dental evaluation is usually recommended for potential organ transplant candidates. This is based on the premise that untreated dental disease may pose a risk for infection and sepsis, although there is no evidence that this has occurred in organ transplant candidates or recipients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental disease and oral health behaviors in a sample of liver transplant candidates (LTCs). Oral examinations were conducted on 300 LTCs for the presence of gingivitis, dental plaque, dental caries, periodontal disease, edentulism, and xerostomia. The prevalence of these conditions was compared with oral health data from national health surveys and examined for possible associations with most recent dental visit, smoking, and type of liver disease. Significant risk factors for plaque-related gingivitis included intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004), smoking (P = 0.03), and diuretic therapy (P = 0.005). Dental caries and periodontal disease were also significantly associated with intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004). LTCs with viral hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis had the highest smoking rate (78.8%). Higher rates of edentulism occurred among older LTCs who were less likely to have had a recent dental evaluation (mean 88 months). In conclusion, intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit, smoking, and diuretic therapy appear to be the most significant determinants of dental disease and the need for a pretransplantation dental screening evaluation in LTCs. Edentulous patients should have periodic examinations for oral cancer.

  1. Quality assurance in digital dental radiography--justification and dose reduction in dental and maxillofacial radiology.

    PubMed

    Hellstern, F; Geibel, M-A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of quality assurance requirements for digital dental radiography in routine clinical practice. The results should be discussed by radiation protection authorities in the context of the relevant legal requirements and current debates on radiation protection. Two hundred digital dental radiographs were randomly selected from the digital database of the Department of Dentistry's Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic, Ulm University, and evaluated for various aspects of image quality and compliance with radiographic documentation requirements. The dental films were prepared by different radiology assistants (RAs) using one of two digital intraoral radiographic systems: Sirona Heliodent DS, 60 kV, focal spot size: 0.7 mm (group A) or KaVo Gendex 765 DC, 65 kV, focal spot size: 0.4 mm (group B). Radiographic justification was documented in 70.5% of cases, and the radiographic findings in 76.5%. Both variables were documented in the patient records as well as in the software in 14% of cases. Clinical documentation of the required information (name of the responsible dentist and radiology assistant, date, patient name, department, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, type of radiograph, film size, department and serial number of the dental radiograph) was 100% complete in all cases. Moreover, the department certified according to DIN ISO 9001:2008 specifications demonstrated complete clinical documentation of radiographic justifications and radiographic findings. The entire dentition was visible on 83% of the digital films. The visible area corresponded to the target region on 85.7% of the digital dental radiographs. Seven to 8.5% of the images were classified as "hypometric" or "hypermetric". This study indicates that improvements in radiology training and continuing education fordentists and dental staff performing x-ray examinations are needed to ensure consistent high quality of digital dental radiography. Implementation of

  2. Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) in dental patients.

    PubMed

    Takata, Y; Kurokawa, H; Fukuda, J

    2003-04-01

    Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) is a new DNA virus found in patients with post-transfusion hepatitis. The prevalence of this virus among dental patients has not been reported, therefore, the prevalence of TTV infection in consecutive dental inpatients was evaluated. TTV DNA was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 441 dental inpatients with oral cancer (n=192) or oral cysts (n=249). The serum HBs antigen and HCV antibody as well as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) concentrations were also measured. Of 441 subjects, 137 were infected with TTV (31.1%). This prevalence of TTV was much higher than that of HBV or HCV (HBV 1.2%; HCV 6.0%) in these dental patients. There was no gender or age difference in the prevalence of TTV infection. Of the 192 patients with oral cancer, 57 subjects had TTV in their sera, while 80 of 249 with oral cystic disease had TTV. The prevalence of TTV was similar between the two different disease groups. Neither the serum ALT nor serum AST concentrations were different between the subjects positive and negative for TTV DNA. In hospitalized dental patients, 31.1% were infected with TTV. The prevalence of TTV was much higher than that of HBV or HCV. There was no difference in the prevalence of TTV between subjects with cancer and cysts. Dentists should maintain high standards of infection control when treating any dental patient.

  3. Is treatment under general anaesthesia associated with dental neglect and dental disability among caries active preschool children?

    PubMed

    Kvist, T; Zedrén-Sunemo, J; Graca, E; Dahllöf, G

    2014-10-01

    To study if treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is associated with dental neglect or dental disability. This was a retrospective study. Dental records of all children in the age 0-6 years who underwent GA at a specialist paediatric dentistry clinic during 2006-2011 were studied with regard to decayed-missed-filled teeth, traumatic injuries, emergency visits, behaviour management problems and the history of attendance. The final sample consisted of 134 children. Matched controls were selected among recall patients who had not received treatment under GA. Fishers exact test or Pearson Chi-square test analysed response distribution and comparisons between groups, and for multivariate analyses, logistic regression was used. The results show that children treated under GA had significantly higher caries prevalence, apical periodontitis and infections due to pulpal necrosis. Dental neglect as well as dental disability was significantly more prevalent in the GA group compared to the control group. In a multivariate analysis with dental neglect as independent factor, dental disability was the only significant factor (p = 0.006). Children treated under general anaesthesia were significantly more often diagnosed with both dental neglect and dental disability. Dental disability was the only factor significantly related to dental neglect. There is a need for improved documentation in the dental records to better identify dental neglect and dental disability, and also a continued training of dentists regarding child protection.

  4. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or articles contaminated by them is an important component of infection control and isolation precautions. To help protect exposure to infectious materials, wash your hands: Wear gloves: In addition to ...

  5. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  6. Finding Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finding Dental Care Where can I find low-cost dental care? Dental schools often have clinics that allow dental ... can I find more information? See Finding Low Cost Dental Care . ​​​​ WWNRightboxRadEditor2 Contact Us 1-866-232-4528 nidcrinfo@ ...

  7. Dental education and dental practice.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper relates recent modes of dental practice to changes that the public and government are likely to ask the health care professions to make in the future. As usual they are asking for the best of all worlds. First, that we maintain the clinical model to the highest standards of personal dental care based and tested against the best research at our disposal, whilst we ensure there is no reduction in the high technical standards for which british dentists have a reputation. Second, that the profession is required to consider ways of providing care on the medicosocial model for the whole community at an economic level the country will afford. The broad changes in dental education have been reviewed, from the technical apprenticeship to the establishment of strong university departments in teaching hospitals. The importance of a sound biomedical foundation and of research both to education and the credibility of dental practice as a primary health care profession is stressed if the profession is to retain its position as a sister to medicine and not slide down to that of a technical ancillary. PMID:6374141

  8. Interictal spikes in focal epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Curtis, M; Avanzini, G

    2001-04-01

    Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) potentials in focal epilepsies are sustained by synchronous paroxysmal membrane depolarization generated by assemblies of hyperexcitable neurons. It is currently believed that interictal spiking sets a condition that preludes to the onset of an ictal discharge. Such an assumption is based on little experimental evidence. Human pre-surgical studies and recordings in chronic and acute models of focal epilepsy showed that: (i) interictal spikes (IS) and ictal discharges are generated by different populations of neuron through different cellular and network mechanisms; (ii) the cortical region that generates IS (irritative area) does not coincide with the ictal-onset area; (iii) IS frequency does not increase before a seizure and is enhanced just after an ictal event; (iv) spike suppression is found to herald ictal discharges; and (v) enhancement of interictal spiking suppresses ictal events. Several experimental evidences indicate that the highly synchronous cellular discharge associated with an IS is generated by a multitude of mechanisms involving synaptic and non-synaptic communication between neurons. The synchronized neuronal discharge associated with a single IS induces and is followed by a profound and prolonged refractory period sustained by inhibitory potentials and by activity-dependent changes in the ionic composition of the extracellular space. Post-spike depression may be responsible for pacing interictal spiking periodicity commonly observed in both animal models and human focal epilepsies. It is proposed that the strong after-inhibition produced by IS protects against the occurrence of ictal discharges by maintaining a low level of excitation in a general condition of hyperexcitability determined by the primary epileptogenic dysfunction.

  9. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  10. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  11. Patient and dental student responses to a survey about AIDS in the dental setting.

    PubMed

    Thaker, H J; Gobetti, J P; Green, T G

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain information about patients' and dental students' attitudes concerning AIDS and dentistry. Opinions of patients and students at a Midwestern dental school were surveyed. The dental students' responses were not as consistent as the patient responses. Both groups felt there was a risk to patients and dentists of HIV infection. Both groups had confidence in the CDC infection control guidelines. The patient responses to the testing questions were significantly more positive than the student responses. The patients responded positively to the concept that healthcare professionals had the right to ask patients to be tested and to being required to be tested if a healthcare provider is accidentally stuck by a needle used on a patient. The dental students were more cautious with both issues. Patients would use knowledge about a healthcare provider's HIV status and the office treatment of AIDS patients to determine if they should continue treatment at that dental office.

  12. Dental Implant Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Dental implant surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots ... that look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures ...

  13. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Jason A

    2017-10-01

    Systematic reviews of literature over the period between 2008 and 2017 are discussed regarding clinical evidence for the factors affecting survival and failure of dental implants. The factors addressed include publication bias, tooth location, insertion torque, collar design, implant-abutment connection design, implant length, implant width, bone augmentation, platform switching, surface roughness, implant coatings, and the use of ceramic materials in the implant body and abutment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dental issues in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janas, Anna; Osica, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The advancements in science and technology allowed saving the lives of children, who had no chance of survival before. Hence the problem of so called rare diseases, usually genetically determined. It is a new challenge for both the physicians and the health services. These children require a coordinated multi specialist oriented health care, which includes also dentists. This situation is reflected by the case of an 18 years old girl with Rett Syndrome, described by us. In this patient despite numerous visits to various dental practices, no decision of a radical surgical extraction of the tooth has been conducted. In our Department the extraction of teeth 22, 16 and 14 has been performed, as a part of 1 day surgery procedures, thus eliminating the dental infections and pain. Conclusion: Elaboration and introduction into praxis principles of dental care in children and young adults with rare diseases are needed.

  15. Dental caries.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  16. Dental Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  17. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Beom Jin; Yang, Jae Won; Do, Woo Sung; Fogo, Agnes B.

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs) has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice. PMID:27744657

  18. [Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-03-01

    It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.

  19. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Journal Article PREPRINT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Towards dualband megapixel QWIP focal plane arrays (PREPRINT) 5a...pixel quantum well infrared photodetector ( QWIP ) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array...registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency

  20. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  1. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  2. Primary focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management. .

    PubMed

    Wang, Rena; Solish, Nowell; Murray, Christian A

    2008-12-01

    Primary focal hyperhidrosis is a common and serious medical condition that causes considerable psychosocial morbidity. Diagnostic and effective management strategies can improve patients' quality of living dramatically.

  3. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

  4. Focal properties of geodesic waveguide lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.; Wood, V. E.

    1976-01-01

    The focal properties of uncorrected geodesic lenses in ion-exchanged glass waveguides are reported. A 13.8-mm-focal-length lens resolved beams with an angular separation of 27.6 mrad, while a 28-mm-focal-length lens resolved beams with an angular separation of only 3.3 mrad. Intensity profiles of the focal region of the former lens revealed a 40-micron spot size when the input aperture was 5 mm, and a spot size of 7.7 microns when the aperture was reduced to 1 mm. This value is close to the diffraction-limited spot size of 5.7 microns.

  5. Dental neglect among children in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Deepa; Shanmugaavel, Arunachalam Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Child dental neglect is the failure of a parent or guardian to meet the child's basic oral health needs such that the child enjoys adequate function and freedom from pain and infection, where reasonable resources are available to family or caregiver. The aim of the study is to evaluate the phenomenon of dental neglect among children in Chennai and to associate dental neglect with oral health status of children aged 3-12 years. This is a cross-sectional study involving 478 pairs of parents and children. Dental neglect scale and a questionnaire were used to assess the dental neglect score among parents of the children involved in the study. Oral health status of children was clinically assessed using oral hygiene index, decayed, extracted, filled teeth (def(t)), pulp, ulcers, fistula, abscess (pufa), decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), PUFA as per the World Health Organization criteria and pufa/PUFA index. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used appropriately for statistical analysis using SPSS software version 20.0. A significant higher dental neglect score was reported among the parents who reside in the suburban location (P < 0.001), whose educational qualification was secondary (P < 0.001) and who have not availed any dental service for >3 years (P = 0.001). A significant higher DMFT (P = 0.003), deft (P = 0 < 0.001), pufa (P = 0.011), and debris index (P = 0.002) scores were seen in the higher dental neglect group. Child dental neglect is seen among the parents whose educational qualification was secondary, who reside in the suburban location, and who have not utilized the dental services for more than 3 years in Chennai. This dental neglect results in poorer oral health of children.

  6. Smov Baseline Focal Plane Check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    This test will be executed during the period after the servicing mission and before the extension of the COSTAR assembly. Its purpose is to verify that the FOS, HRS, and FOC focal planes have not been altered by the activities performed by Story and the Astronauts during the servicing mission. A large unknown deviation in aperture position would severly impact subsequent COSTAR alignment activities. If this test reveals a deviation, we may be able to compensate for any offsets prior to the complex and delicate COSTAR alignment calibrations. This enhanced version of the Heptathlon is designed to verify course alignments and measure relative aperture positions to within a few arcsecs. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: ***This test uses pre-servicing parameters for HRS, FOS, and FOC and the Cycle 4 parameters for WFPC2.*** ***This test requires special alignment and special guide stars.** ***This test requires special commanding for telemetry setups.**

  7. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  8. Causes and pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fogo, Agnes B.

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) describes both a common lesion in progressive kidney disease, and a disease characterized by marked proteinuria and podocyte injury. The initial injuries vary widely. Monogenetic forms of FSGS are largely due to alterations in structural genes of the podocyte, many of which result in early onset of disease. Genetic risk alleles in apolipoprotein L1 are especially prevalent in African Americans, and are linked not only to adult-onset FSGS but also to progression of some other kidney diseases. The recurrence of FSGS in some transplant recipients whose end-stage renal disease was caused by FSGS points to circulating factors in disease pathogenesis, which remain incompletely understood. In addition, infection, drug use, and secondary maladaptive responses after loss of nephrons from any cause may also cause FSGS. Varying phenotypes of the sclerosis are also manifest, with varying prognosis. The so-called tip lesion has the best prognosis, whereas the collapsing type of FSGS has the worst prognosis. New insights into glomerular cell injury response and repair may pave the way for possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:25447132

  9. Pathogenetic mechanisms of focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Guerrini, Renzo; Gleeson, Joseph G

    2014-07-01

    Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) constitute a prevalent cause of intractable epilepsy in children, and is one of the leading conditions requiring epilepsy surgery. Despite recent advances in the cellular and molecular biology of these conditions, the pathogenetic mechanisms of FCDs remain largely unknown. The purpose if this work is to review the molecular underpinnings of FCDs and to highlight potential therapeutic targets. A systematic review of the literature regarding the histologic, molecular, and electrophysiologic aspects of FCDs was conducted. Disruption of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling comprises a common pathway underlying the structural and electrical disturbances of some FCDs. Other mechanisms such as viral infections, prematurity, head trauma, and brain tumors are also posited. mTOR inhibitors (i.e., rapamycin) have shown positive results on seizure management in animal models and in a small cohort of patients with FCD. Encouraging progress has been achieved on the molecular and electrophysiologic basis of constitutive cells in the dysplastic tissue. Despite the promising results of mTOR inhibitors, large-scale randomized trials are in need to evaluate their efficacy and side effects, along with additional mechanistic studies for the development of novel, molecular-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Swine-Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection among Dental Professionals in India - A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, Prabh Roohan; Nanda, Tarun; Arora, Gagandeep; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Swine flu or Influenza A (H1N1) flu is the most recent of the pandemic disease that has affected the world’s population. We, as health care providers should feel responsible for reducing the transmission of influenza. Aim To conduct a systematic review of observational studies and to assess dental professionals’ knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu. Materials and Methods Relevant cross-sectional observational studies were included in the systematic review to assess the level of knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu among dental professionals. Three studies out of 28 were finally included in the present review after conducting both electronic and manual search of scientific databases like Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE. No limitation in terms of publication date and language was considered. Potential biases were reported and appropriate data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Descriptive statistics, student t-test were used for analysis. Results Majority of the subjects (92.6%) had heard about swine flu, and 64.3% of them knew about the H1N1 virus in one of the study reports. More than 80% of subjects were aware regarding the availability of swine flu vaccine in one study reports as compared to another study in which only 31.5% had awareness. Majority of the subjects were of the opinion that frequent hand washing and use of sanitizer are one of the effective methods to prevent swine flu in all the three studies. Conclusion The results of the present review showed that some knowledge gaps existed among dental professionals regarding swine flu. Therefore, there is an urgent need for training and continuous education programs regarding infectious diseases. PMID:27790597

  11. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  12. Qualitative assessment of the dental health services provided at a dental school in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rad, Maryam; Haghani, Jahangir; Shahravan, Arash; Khosravifar, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the quality of the services provided in a Dental School can raise the satisfaction level of patients and consequently increase the level of their oral health. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dental care and services provided to patients referred to a Dental School in Kerman, Iran. In this qualitative study, face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 41 participants [25 patients (P), 5 nurses (N), 6 dental academic staff (AS), and 5 dental students (S)]. Then, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed, using content analysis of data. Data analysis in qualitative research involves breaking down the data and searching for codes and categories that are then reassembled to form themes. Both positive and negative themes emerged. Positive themes included: good infection control, service accessibility, patient appointments and visits were not assigned on merit, precise examinations, and comprehensive treatment plans. Negative themes included: long wait time, lack of options to pass waiting time, such as newspapers and television, an insufficient number of nurses, and not enough professors for supervision. In addition, the results of this study show that the patients and dental staff have high expectations in relation to dental services, and that implementation of these expectations would increase the overall satisfaction with and the quality of the level of services. Finally, some recommendations for improving services in the Kerman Dental School were given to the managing team of the Dental School.

  13. Occupational exposures occurring among dental assistants in a UK dental school.

    PubMed

    Stewardson, Dominic A; McHugh, Siobhan; Palenik, Charles J; Burke, F J Trevor

    2003-01-01

    The cross-infection risks for dentists have been well recognised, and much has been published regarding the incidence of occupational exposures to patient body fluids. Less has been reported regarding the risks to dental assistants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of occupational exposures to patient body fluids among dental assistants, to assess the rate of reporting of such incidents, and to evaluate the association of various factors with these exposures. All 84 dental assistants working at Birmingham Dental Hospital were asked to complete a confidential questionnaire to provide retrospective information regarding the nature and incidence of any occupational exposures they had experienced. An overall response rate of 94% was achieved. Dental nurses experienced fewer occupational exposures than dental students at the same institution, and reported incidents more frequently. More injuries occurred after the treatment session. Handling local anaesthetic syringes was associated with more injuries, and percutaneous injuries predominated. Trainee nurses had experienced more occupational injuries in the preceding six months than their qualified colleagues. There was no significant association with any of the other factors evaluated. The general incidence of occupational exposures among the dental assistants in this survey was low in comparison to dental students at the same institution. A further reduction may be possible by increasing the training of unqualified nurses with particular regard to post-treatment handling of sharp dental instruments and equipment.

  14. Dental onlay bridge-like prosthesis in three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus): the use of Premise trimodal composite to prevent interproximal Eucalyptus spp. retention and infection.

    PubMed

    Perry, Sean M; Pye, Geoffrey W; Fagan, David A

    2014-06-01

    Three koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented with moderate to severe interproximal space accumulation with Eucalyptus spp. at the San Diego Zoo. Premise trimodal composite was used to create dental onlay bridge-like prostheses to eliminate open, enlarged interproximal spaces. The prostheses prevented further leaf material accumulation within the interproximal spaces and consequently reduced periodontal disease. Aesthetically, the prosthesis replicates normal tooth coloration and appearance and wears at a similar rate to surrounding teeth. Prosthetic repair or replacement may be required, so periodic examination every 3-6 mo is recommended.

  15. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  16. A case of odontogenic brain abscess arising from covert dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Clifton, T C; Kalamchi, S

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic infections can spread to any organ of the body and in some cases cause life threatening infections. We report a case of multiple odontogenic brain abscesses resulting from undetected tooth decay. Whereas most odontogenic brain abscesses occur following dental treatment, this report documents brain abscesses prior to dental treatment, signifying the dangers of covert dental infections. This case report updates the literature on the topic of odontogenic brain abscesses.

  17. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  18. CJD: update for dental staff.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Smith, Andrew J; Bagg, Jeremy

    2006-10-01

    It is almost a decade since the recognition of the emergence of a new infectious disease termed variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) caused by prions (PrPTSE), abnormal variants of a normal human cell surface protein (PrP). This disease has a number of similarities to other forms of CJD--lethal disorders characterized by a prolonged incubation period, and progressive mental deterioration. In relation to oral tissues, PrPTSE have been found in neural, gingival, pulpal, lingual, lymphoreticular and salivary gland tissue in animal models. In both sporadic and variant CJD, PrPTSE is detectable in the trigeminal ganglion and, in vCJD, in lymphoreticular tissues, but infectivity has not been tested in other human oral tissues. PrPTSE is much more resistant to the common methods of inactivation than conventional pathogens, and it adheres avidly to steel whilst retaining its infectivity. Particular attention must be paid to cleaning and sterilizing re-usable dental instruments. Single-use devices, such as endodontic files and matrix bands, must never be re-used. Advice on the reprocessing of dental instruments used on known CJD patients must be obtained from local infection control teams. Research into effective methods of prion inactivation appears promising, although further work on the applicability to general dental practice is required.

  19. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  20. GABAergic networks jump-start focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    de Curtis, Marco; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Abnormally enhanced glutamatergic excitation is commonly believed to mark the onset of a focal seizure. This notion, however, is not supported by firm evidence, and it will be challenged here. A general reduction of unit firing has been indeed observed in association with low-voltage fast activity at the onset of seizures recorded during presurgical intracranial monitoring in patients with focal, drug-resistant epilepsies. Moreover, focal seizures in animal models start with increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneuronal activity that silences principal cells. In vitro studies have shown that synchronous activation of GABAA receptors occurs at seizure onset and causes sizeable elevations in extracellular potassium, thus facilitating neuronal recruitment and seizure progression. A paradoxical involvement of GABAergic networks is required for the initiation of focal seizures characterized by low-voltage fast activity, which represents the most common seizure-onset pattern in focal epilepsies. PMID:27061793

  1. Endothelial paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) play a critical role in neutrophil transmigration.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sean A; Sharma, Ritu; Roccamatisi, Dawn L; Zhang, Hong; Petri, Björn; Kubes, Paul; Colarusso, Pina; Patel, Kamala D

    2012-02-01

    During an inflammatory response, endothelial cells undergo morphological changes to allow for the passage of neutrophils from the blood vessel to the site of injury or infection. Although endothelial cell junctions and the cytoskeleton undergo reorganization during inflammation, little is known about another class of cellular structures, the focal adhesions. In this study, we examined several focal adhesion proteins during an inflammatory response. We found that there was selective loss of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) from focal adhesions in proximity to transmigrating neutrophils; in contrast the levels of the focal adhesion proteins β1-integrin and vinculin were unaffected. Paxillin was lost from focal adhesions during neutrophil transmigration both under static and flow conditions. Down-regulating endothelial paxillin with siRNA blocked neutrophil transmigration while having no effect on rolling or adhesion. As paxillin dynamics are regulated partly by FAK, the role of FAK in neutrophil transmigration was examined using two complementary methods. siRNA was used to down-regulate total FAK protein while dominant-negative, kinase-deficient FAK was expressed to block FAK signaling. Disruption of the FAK protein or FAK signaling decreased neutrophil transmigration. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel role for endothelial focal adhesion proteins paxillin and FAK in regulating neutrophil transmigration.

  2. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  3. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  4. Report of the Task Force on AIDS and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, John; Gray, Carolyn F.

    1988-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' task force on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dental education recommends that educational strategies stress the necessity for routine infection control procedures in treatment, enhancing the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning all aspects of disease prevention.…

  5. Focal non granulomatous orchitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Piton, Nicolas; Roquet, Marie-Laurence; Sibert, Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-28

    Crohn's disease is a systemic disease and sometimes involves the testicle, usually leading to granulomatous lesions. We report herein a case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis in a 21-year-old patient with active Crohn's disease treated by an anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody. This circumscribed testicular lesion mimicked a tumor, leading to orchiectomy. Pre-operative blood tests (i.e. alpha-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotrophin) were strictly normal Pathological examination of the testicle revealed a focal inflammatory infiltrate predominantly composed of lymphocytes accompanied by few plasma cells, lacking giant cells or granulomas. Importantly, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, atrophy or lithiasis were not observed.After discussing and excluding other plausible causes (burnt-out /regressed germ cell tumor, infection, vascular or traumatic lesions, iatrogenic effects), we concluded that this particular case of orchitis was most likely an extra-digestive manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis associated with Crohn's disease. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2117747284160112.

  6. Bacteremia following dental implant surgery: Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Tayfun; Öksüz, Lütfiye; Gürler, Nezahat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of bacteremia, bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility against to causative bacteria associated with dental implant installation. Study Design: 30 generally healthy patients were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30 minutes after dental implant installation and 24 hours after dental implant surgery. Blood samples were cultured in a BACTEC system. The isolated bacteria were identified using conventional methods. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were performed by disc diffusion. Results: No bacteria were isolated at the baseline and 24 hours after surgery, whereas the prevalence of bacteremia at 30 minutes after dental implant installation was 23%. The isolated bacteria species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Eubacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus viridans. The Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was isolated in three patients, was found to be resistant to penicillin which is first choice of many clinicians. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that installation of dental implants can produce bacteremia. Within the limitations of this study, it can be speculated that the resistance of antibiotics may compromise the routine prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Therefore use of blood cultures and antibiograms may be suggested in risky patients. The outcome of the present study should be verified using a larger patient group with varying conditions. Key words: Dental implant, bacteremia, infective endocarditis, antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:22157668

  7. Natural-focal diseases: mapping experience in Russia.

    PubMed

    Malkhazova, Svetlana M; Mironova, Varvara A; Kotova, Tatiana V; Shartova, Natalia V; Orlov, Dmitry S

    2014-06-14

    Natural-focal diseases constitute a serious hazard for human health. Agents and vectors of such diseases belong to natural landscapes. The aim of this study is to identify the diversity and geography of natural-focal diseases in Russia and to develop cartographic approaches for their mapping, including mathematical-cartographical modeling. Russian medico-geographical mapping of natural-focal diseases is highly developed regionally and locally but extremely limited at the national level. To solve this problem, a scientific team of the Faculty of Geography at Lomonosov Moscow State University has developed and implemented a project of a medico-geographical Atlas of Russia "Natural-Focal Diseases". The mapping is based on medical statistics data. The Atlas contains a series of maps on disease incidence, long-term dynamics of disease morbidity, etc. In addition, other materials available to the authors were used: mapping of the natural environment, field data, archival materials, analyzed satellite images, etc. The maps are processed using ArcGIS (ESRI) software application. Different methods of rendering of mapped phenomena are used (geographical ranges, diagrams, choropleth maps etc.). A series of analytical, integrated, and synthetic maps shows disease incidence in the population at both the national and regional levels for the last 15 years. Maps of the mean annual morbidity of certain infections and maps of morbidity dynamics and nosological profiles allow for a detailed analysis of the situation for each of 83 administrative units of the Russian Federation. The degree of epidemic hazard in Russia by natural-focal diseases is reflected in a synthetic medico-geographical map that shows the degree of epidemic risks due to such diseases in Russia and allows one to estimate the risk of disease manifestation in a given region. This is the first attempt at aggregation and public presentation of diverse and multifaceted information about natural-focal diseases in Russia

  8. Occupational Hazards among Dental Surgeons.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S S; Pandey, S S

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess and increase the level of awareness of occupational hazards among the dental surgeons of Indian Navy. The data was obtained using a self-administrated questionnaire from 17 serving dental surgeons that included questions on personal data, awareness of occupational hazards, safety measures practiced and experience of occupational hazard while in practice. All the respondents were aware of the occupational hazards at workplace and had been vaccinated against Hepatitis B infection. 82.3% had regular exposure to dental amalgam. Backache was the commonest hazard in 70.59% members of the study. This study shows that although there appears to be a high level of awareness of exposure to occupational hazards among the dental surgeons of the Indian Navy, the practical steps to prevent them needs to be reinforced. Increased awareness must be created about the dangers of chronic mercury poisoning, its prevention, the importance of regular monitoring of blood mercury levels and the mercury vapour levels in the clinic.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: familial focal epilepsy with variable foci

    MedlinePlus

    ... familial focal epilepsy with variable foci familial focal epilepsy with variable foci Enable Javascript to view the ... PDF Open All Close All Description Familial focal epilepsy with variable foci (FFEVF) is an uncommon form ...

  10. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  11. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  12. Mosaic focal plane for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

  13. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  14. A Review of Focal Reducer Interferometer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    searches. G.Courtes has also proposed a design for a focal reducer for the E.S.O. 3.6m. Ritchey -Chretien telescope (Fig. 4b). He uses a Schmidt camera...spaced components, with a modified Wynne camera design (Fig. 7). The instrument proposed used folded optics and would operate at the F/8 Ritchey Cretien ...G.Courtes for the 3.6m Ritchey Chretien telescope . a, telescope focal plane and field lens; b, collimator; c, camera. Figure 5 The focal reducer of A.B

  15. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  16. [Relationship between odontogenic infections and infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Jaime

    2012-03-24

    Revised guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis published by national and international associations in the last years do not support the indiscriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. However, some of them still recommend its use in high-risk patients before dental treatments likely to cause bleeding. Given the high prevalence of bacteremia of dental origin due to tooth-brushing, mastication or other daily activities, it appears unlikely that infective endocarditis from oral microorganisms can be completely prevented. A good oral health status and satisfactory level of oral hygiene are sufficient to control the consequences of the systemic spread of oral microorganisms in healthy individuals. However, caution is still needed and prophylactic antibiotics must be administered to susceptible or medically compromised patients. This review briefly outlines the current concepts of odontogenic bacteremia and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental treatment.

  17. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) related to highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-seropositive child. A report of a case, and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Malema, V; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2010-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is increasingly frequently observed in rural South African communities. HIV-seropositive subjects have a higher prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections than immunocompetent subjects; and paradoxically, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-seropositive subjects is associated with increased frequency of focal epithelial hyperplasia. We describe a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in an HIV-seropositive child receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, who was successfully treated by using diode laser ablation.

  19. Focal myositis presenting with radial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Alzagatiti, B I; Bertorini, T E; Horner, L H; Maccarino, V S; O'Brien, T

    1999-07-01

    Focal myositis is a rare inflammatory pseudotumor of skeletal muscle which usually has a benign course. We report a 56-year-old woman with a painful mass in the left arm with a radial nerve palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the left arm showed a mass in the triceps muscle that was suggestive of a soft-tissue sarcoma. Electromyography showed a severe radial neuropathy involving both motor and sensory axons. An open biopsy showed focal myositis. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in complete disappearance of the mass clinically and by MRI, without recurrence for more than 2 years. Radial nerve function also recovered completely. As a treatable cause of focal neuropathy, focal myositis should be included in the differential diagnosis of a muscle mass. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. DENTAL CARIES

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, George O.

    1951-01-01

    The most generally accepted theory as to the cause of dental caries is that certain bacteria in the mouth, in the presence of fermentable sugars, cause the formation of acids which in turn decalcify teeth. Physicians may help reduce the incidence of caries by recommending elimination of refined sugars from the diet, or at least control of the amount consumed. Cleaning the teeth with a well designed tooth brush after each meal will to a certain extent mechanically remove the fermentable sugar and debris from the teeth. One step further in oral hygiene that may be beneficial is to use a dentifrice with 5 per cent dibasic ammonium phosphate and 3 per cent urea to reduce the formation of acid. Anything that will increase salivation will aid in buffering any acids that may be present. A 2 per cent solution of sodium fluoride applied to the thoroughly dried “intact” enamel surface may prevent caries. Sodium fluoride added to drinking water to a concentration of 1 part per million is utilized by the body in formation of an enamel that is particularly resistant to caries. PMID:14801729

  1. Finding the Focal Axes of Offset Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Focal axis of offset paraboloidal reflector antennas determined by direct measurement instead of trial and error. Two feed horns transmit sum or difference pattern to antenna under test, which reflects energy to far-field detector. When axis of feed horns coincides with focal axis of antenna reflector, far-field detector records minimum in amplitude difference and maximum in absolute-magnitude phase difference between sum and difference signals.

  2. Dental Exam for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and thumb sucking Toddlers, school-age children and adolescents During each regular checkup, the dentist or hygienist ... dental hygienist about proper oral health care for adolescents. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/ ...

  3. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    MedlinePlus

    ... a powdered alloy composed of silver, tin, and copper. Approximately 50% of dental amalgam is elemental mercury ... to react with and bind together the silver/copper/tin alloy particles to form an amalgam. Dental ...

  4. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  5. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... centers, and dental providers in the community to foster more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at highest risk of cavities, including those covered ...

  6. AUTHORITARIANISM AND DENTAL CARIES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in particular. If so, dental decay among nonauthoritarians might well progress further than among authoritarians. To determine whether or not there...is any relationship between dental decay and authoritarianism is the purpose of the present study. (Author)

  7. Dental Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview and documents for Dental Office Category regulation (40 CFR Part 441); comprising pretreatment standards for discharges of dental amalgam pollutants, including mercury, into publicly owned treatment works (POTWs).

  8. Dental education in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Bird, William F

    2007-12-01

    There was only one dental school in Malaysia until 1997 but five new schools have been established since 1998. This review provides information about dental education in Malaysia including; the history of dental education, the current dental school system and curriculum, and dental licensure. There are four public and two private dental schools in Malaysia. High school graduates are required to take the nationwide matriculation entrance examination or the Higher School Certificate (HSC) to apply for a dental degree programme. A five-year dental programme leads to the BDS or the DDS degree. National or state examinations are not required to practise dentistry. Currently, there are approximately 2,500 dentists, with a ratio of 1 dentist for every 10,000 people.

  9. Dental laser technology.

    PubMed

    Fasbinder, Dennis J

    2008-10-01

    Dental technology is rapidly affecting the treatment options available to patients. Dental lasers are an innovative technology for both hard- and soft-tissue treatment applications. The ability to recontour soft tissues efficiently and predictably with immediate hemostatsis and minimal postoperative sequelae is of value to both the dentist and the patient. This article reviews the principles of dental lasers, criteria to consider when selecting a dental laser, and some of their clinical applications.

  10. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  11. Utilization of dental health care services in context of the HIV epidemic- a cross-sectional study of dental patients in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV infected patients should be expected in the Sudanese dental health care services with an increasing frequency. Dental care utilization in the context of the HIV epidemic is generally poorly understood. Focusing on Sudanese dental patients with reported unknown HIV status, this study assessed the extent to which Andersen's model in terms of predisposing (socio-demographics), enabling (knowledge, attitudes and perceived risk related to HIV) and need related factors (oral health status) predict dental care utilization. It was hypothesized that enabling factors would add to the explanation of dental care utilization beyond that of predisposing and need related factors. Methods Dental patients were recruited from Khartoum Dental Teaching Hospital (KDTH) and University of Science and Technology (UST) during March-July 2008. A total of 1262 patients (mean age 30.7, 56.5% females and 61% from KDTH) were examined clinically (DMFT) and participated in an interview. Results A total of 53.9% confirmed having attended a dental clinic for treatment at least once in the past 2 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that predisposing factors; travelling inside Sudan (OR = 0.5) were associated with lower odds and females were associated with higher odds (OR = 2.0) for dental service utilization. Enabling factors; higher knowledge of HIV transmission (OR = 0.6) and higher HIV related experience (OR = 0.7) were associated with lower odds, whereas positive attitudes towards infected people and high perceived risk of contagion (OR = 1.3) were associated with higher odds for dental care utilization. Among need related factors dental caries experience was strongly associated with dental care utilization (OR = 4.8). Conclusion Disparity in the history of dental care utilization goes beyond socio-demographic position and need for dental care. Public awareness of HIV infection control and confidence on the competence of dentists should be improved to minimize avoidance

  12. Dental Manpower Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…

  13. Dental Assisting Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Sandra J.

    Compiled to introduce the dental assisting student to various techniques used in the dental office and to present theoretical information essential for the student's professional development, this laboratory guide consists of three units of instruction. The first unit is an introduction to dental assisting and contains five topics of study. The…

  14. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  15. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  16. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  17. Dental transfigurements in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Jones, A

    2001-07-28

    Dental transfigurement, formerly termed dental mutilation, has been practised by many societies worldwide. This article gives many of the forms that have been attributed to the indigenes of the island of Borneo. The method has been performed by review of anthropological books, sparse dental references, Borneo research literature, and popular writing.

  18. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  19. Perspectives from Dental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the Institute of Medicine's 1995 report concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It examines whether real reform is occurring at the National Institute of Dental Research, within the academic dental community, and within the practicing profession. It concludes that very little…

  20. [Dental management in patients with cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martínez, Sandra; Talaván Serna, Julio; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier

    2016-03-01

    The present article makes a brief review about dental management of the patients with cirrhosis. It focus on problems related with infections, haemorrhagic events and treatment with drugs of common use in odontology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  1. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  2. Focal Mechanism determination of local M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vales, Dina; Custório, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    We determine the focal mechanisms of local small (ML<3.9) earthquakes that occurred between 2013 and 2014 in mainland Portugal. These low magnitude events were recorded by several stations that provide first-motion polarity solutions. However, only few stations are located near the epicenter and record a waveform with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) high enough to allow full waveform modelling. To overcome this limitation, we used a new approach called cyclic scanning of the polarity solutions (CSPS) (Fojtíková and Zahradnik, 2014), which performs a joint inversion of full waveform and first motion polarities to retrieve the focal mechanism. This methodology has the advantage of yielding reliable focal mechanism solutions, even when high SNR waveforms are available from only a few near field stations (or in the limiting case, only with one single station). To apply the CSPS method one needs to: i) run the the FOCal MEChanism (FOCMEC) code (Snoke, 2003) to obtain a suite of the DC solutions corresponding to the first motion polarities, and then ii) perform the waveform modelling in order to decrease the uncertainty. The ISOLated Asperities (ISOLA) software (Sokos and Zahradník, 2008, 2013) is used in this second step. We applied this method to weak events recorded by a network of 30 broadband seismic stations that transmit data in real-time to Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. We interpret the obtained fault plane solutions in light of active faults and regional tectonics, and in comparison with focal mechanisms previously inferred for events in the region. The focal mechanisms obtained for small earthquakes allow us to significantly expand the database of available focal mechanisms in mainland Portugal, contributing to the understanding of active deformation in the region.

  3. NMDA receptor binding in focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    McGinnity, C J; Koepp, M J; Hammers, A; Riaño Barros, D A; Pressler, R M; Luthra, S; Jones, P A; Trigg, W; Micallef, C; Symms, M R; Brooks, D J; Duncan, J S

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor availability in patients with focal epilepsies using positron emission tomography (PET) and [(18)F]GE-179, a ligand that selectively binds to the open NMDA receptor ion channel, which is thought to be overactive in epilepsy. Eleven patients (median age 33 years, 6 males) with known frequent interictal epileptiform discharges had an [(18)F]GE-179 PET scan, in a cross-sectional study. MRI showed a focal lesion but discordant EEG changes in two, was non-localising with multifocal EEG abnormalities in two, and was normal in the remaining seven patients who all had multifocal EEG changes. Individual patient [(18)F]GE-179 volume-of-distribution (VT) images were compared between individual patients and a group of 10 healthy controls (47 years, 7 males) using Statistical Parametric Mapping. Individual analyses revealed a single cluster of focal VT increase in four patients; one with a single and one with multifocal MRI lesions, and two with normal MRIs. Post hoc analysis revealed that, relative to controls, patients not taking antidepressants had globally increased [(18)F]GE-179 VT (+28%; p<0.002), and the three patients taking an antidepressant drug had globally reduced [(18)F]GE-179 VT (-29%; p<0.002). There were no focal abnormalities common to the epilepsy group. In patients with focal epilepsies, we detected primarily global increases of [(18)F]GE-179 VT consistent with increased NMDA channel activation, but reduced availability in those taking antidepressant drugs, consistent with a possible mode of action of this class of drugs. [(18)F]GE-179 PET showed focal accentuations of NMDA binding in 4 out of 11 patients, with difficult to localise and treat focal epilepsy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Successful Treatment of Dental Infection-Induced Chronic Cavernous Sinus Thrombophlebitis With Antibiotics and Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Zheng, Bo; Chen, Kangning; Gui, Li

    2015-08-01

    Two patients developed cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis from a tooth infection. A 36-year-old man experienced a severe headache with bilateral third and sixth cranial nerve palsies after extraction of his left upper third molar. Another 53-year-old diabetic man developed fever, headache, and bilateral complete ophthalmoplegia after a tooth infection. The brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of both patients showed bilateral cavernous sinus partial thrombosis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics plus low-molecular-weight heparin successfully resolved all symptoms. Both patients recovered fully without any recurrence at the 3-month follow-up visit. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transparent Meta-Analysis: Does Aging Spare Prospective Memory with Focal vs. Non-Focal Cues?

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Background Prospective memory (ProM) is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM) (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE). The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? Methods and Findings A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. Conclusions The results are consistent with Craik's (1983) proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging. PMID:21304905

  6. "Focal thyroid inferno" on color Doppler ultrasonography: a specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using "focal thyroid inferno" as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. The vascularity type of "focal thyroid inferno" is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Osseoperception in Dental Implants: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Brånemark, Per-Ingvar

    2016-04-01

    Replacement of lost teeth has significant functional and psychosocial effects. The capability of osseointegrated dental implants to transmit a certain amount of sensibility is still unclear. The phenomenon of developing a certain amount of tactile sensibility through osseointegrated dental implants is called osseoperception. The aim of this article is to evaluate the available literature to find osseoperception associated with dental implants. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline and PubMed database. Articles published in English and articles whose abstract is available in English were included. The articles included in the review were based on osseoperception, tactile sensation, and neurophysiological mechanoreceptors in relation to dental implants. Articles on peri-implantitis and infection-related sensitivity were not included. Review articles without the original data were excluded, although references to potentially pertinent articles were noted for further follow-up. The phenomenon of osseoperception remains a matter of debate, so the search strategy mainly focused on articles on osseoperception and tactile sensibility of dental implants. This review presents the histological, neurophysiological, and psychophysical evidence of osseoperception and also the role of mechanoreceptors in osseoperception. The literature on osseoperception in dental implants is very scarce. The initial literature search resulted in 90 articles, of which 81 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. Patients restored with implant-supported prostheses reported improved tactile and motor function when compared with patients wearing complete dentures. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Dental education in Peru.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Sato, Manuel; Rodiguez, Lyly; Sato, Doris; Bird, William F

    2008-09-01

    This paper provides information about Peru's dental history and dental school system, including the curriculum and dental licensure. With the increase in the number of dental schools in Peru, the number of dentists is also increasing. Until 1965, Peru had only three dental schools; currently, there are 14. Four of these dental schools are public, and ten are private. A five- or six-year dental program leads to the B.D.S. degree. After successful completion of a thesis defense or competency examination, the D.D.S. degree is awarded. The D.D.S. is mandatory for practicing dentistry in Peru. Currently, there are approximately 14,000 active dentists, with a dentist-patient ratio of approximately 1:2,000.

  9. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  10. Neuroimaging of focal cortical dysplasia: neuropathological correlations.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Nadia; Citterio, Alberto; Galli, Carlo; Tassi, Laura; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Scialfa, G; Spreafico, Roberto

    2003-09-01

    Focal cortical dysplasia is a well-known cause of intractable epilepsy with early onset of seizures, and is potentially amenable to surgical therapy. It was first described by Taylor in 1971 as a peculiar malformative disorganisation of the neocortex characterised at histology by loss of cortical lamination and accompanied by giant, dysmorphic neurones and, most frequently, by "balloon cells" littered throughout the cortex and sub-cortical white matter. While in the past decades the term "cortical dysplasia" has referred to various malformations of cortical development, such as agyria, pachygyria, polymicrogyria, heterotopia and hemimegalencephaly, it is now widely accepted that the entity identified by Taylor should be considered separately, from both histological and neuroimaging standpoints. More recently, the recognition of various histological subtypes of focal cortical dysplasia characterised by different degrees of cortical disruption with or without cytological abnormalities has generated several classifications that are still unsatisfactory. With better magnetic resonance capability, subtle and very small focal cortical dysplasias may now be visualised and the differential magnetic resonance aspects of the histological subgroups can be established. We will discuss the problem of histopathological classification and magnetic resonance imaging differentiation of the various subtypes of focal cortical dysplasia in the light of personal data collected from a large series of epileptic patients who underwent surgery and had a histological diagnosis of focal cortical dysplasia. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  11. Description and Documentation of the Dental School Dental Delivery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Rosen and Wallace, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    A study was undertaken to describe and document the dental school dental delivery system using an integrated systems approach. In late 1976 and early 1977, a team of systems analysts and dental consultants visited three dental schools to observe the delivery of dental services and patient flow and to interview administrative staff and faculty.…

  12. The Focal Adhesion Analysis Server: a web tool for analyzing focal adhesion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Berginski, Matthew E; Gomez, Shawn M

    2013-01-01

    The Focal Adhesion Analysis Server (FAAS) is a web-based implementation of a set of computer vision algorithms designed to quantify the behavior of focal adhesions in cells imaged in 2D cultures. The input consists of one or more images of a labeled focal adhesion protein. The outputs of the system include a range of static and dynamic measurements for the adhesions present in each image as well as how these properties change over time. The user is able to adjust several parameters important for proper focal adhesion identification. This system provides a straightforward tool for the global, unbiased assessment of focal adhesion behavior common in optical microscopy studies. The webserver is available at: http://faas.bme.unc.edu/.

  13. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  14. Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

    2016-10-06

    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

  15. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  16. [Conditions of dental extractions in areas health centers of Senegal].

    PubMed

    Faye, D; Tine, S D; Cisse, D; Lo, C M; Mbodj, El B; Diouf, M; Diallo, P D

    2009-12-01

    Dental extraction is a surgical act frequently carried out in the African dental structures. It requires the rigorous respect of the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis. Equipments and anaesthetic and avulsional products must be also sufficient. Our study undertaken among 46 dental services in areas health centers of Senegal aimed to determine the conditions under which dental extractions are carried out. The principle results of our study showed that 93% of dental practitioners wore sterilized gloves. 49% of the dentist's care activity consisted in dental extractions. 50% of the practitioners re-use anaesthetic needles, 2% re-use anaesthetic carpules. We noticed that the dental structures were facing a deficit of materials and products of extraction. Face to the outbreak of serious illnesses as infections of HIV and Hepatitis B, the practitioner and his team must be sensitized and trained to struggle against the transmissible infections and to carry out the dental extraction only if the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis are joined together. A pleading towards the medical authorities must be done to support the services in equipments and periodic renewals of the materials and products of extractions.

  17. Expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Emel Uzun; Acikgoz, Aydan; Ozan, Bora; Zengin, Ayse Zeynep; Gunhan, Omer

    2012-01-01

    To present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia and emphasize the importance of differential diagnosis. Cemento-osseous dysplasia is categorized into three subtypes on the basis of the clinical and radiographic features: Periapical, focal and florid. The focal type exhibits a single site of involvement in any tooth-bearing or edentulous area of the jaws. These lesions are usually asymptomatic; therefore, they are frequently diagnosed incidentally during routine radiographic examinations. Lesions are usually benign, show limited growth, and do not require further surgical intervention, but periodic follow-up is recommended because occasionally, this type of dysplasia progresses into florid osseous dysplasia and simple bone cysts are formed. A 24-year-old female patient was referred to our clinic for swelling in the left edentulous mandibular premolarmolar region and felt discomfort when she wore her prosthetics. She had no pain, tenderness or paresthesia. Clinical examination showed that the swelling in the posterior mandible that was firm, nonfluctuant and covered by normal mucosa. On panoramic radiography and computed tomography, a well defined lesion of approximately 1.5 cm in diameter of mixed density was observed. The swelling increased slightly in size over 2 years making it difficult to use prosthetics and, therefore, the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia, and surgical specimens were submitted for histopathological examination. The histopathological diagnosis was focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. In the present case, because of the increasing size of the swelling making it difficult to use prosthetics, young age of the patient and localization of the lesion, in the initial examination, cemento-ossifying fibroma was suspected, and the lesion was excised surgically; the histopathological diagnosis confirmed it as focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. We present a case of expansive focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Differential diagnosis

  18. Achromatic phase shifting focal plane masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kevin

    The search for life on other worlds is an exciting scientific endeavor that could change the way we perceive our place in the universe. Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered using indirect detection techniques. One of the most promising methods for discovering new exoplanets and searching for life is direct imaging with a coronagraph. Exoplanet coronagraphy of Earth-like planets is a challenging task, but we have developed many of the tools necessary to make it feasible. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph is one of the highest-performing architectures for direct exoplanet imaging. With a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask, the PIAA Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) can approach the theoretical performance limit for any direct detection technique. The architecture design is flexible enough to be applied to any arbitrary aperture shape, including segmented and obscured apertures. This is an important feature for compatibility with next-generation ground and space-based telescopes. PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks have been demonstrated in monochromatic light. An important next step for high-performance coronagraphy is the development of broadband phase-shifting focal plane masks. In this dissertation, we present an algorithm for designing the PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks to operate in broadband. We also demonstrate manufacturing of the focal plane masks, and show laboratory results. We use simulations to show the potential performance of the coronagraph system, and the use of wavefront control to correct for mask manufacturing errors. Given the laboratory results and simulations, we show new areas of exoplanet science that can potentially be explored using coronagraph technology. The main conclusion of this dissertation is that we now have the tools required to design and manufacture PIAA and PIAACMC achromatic focal plane masks. These tools can be applied to current and future telescope systems to enable new

  19. Higher prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among dental students.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ruíz, F J; Carrillo-Espíndola, T Y; Bustos-Martínez, J; Hamdan-Partida, A; Sánchez-Pérez, L; Acosta-Gío, A E

    2014-03-01

    In order to test the hypothesis that more dental students are meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers than non-dental students, 100 dental students with five to six years of exposure to patients and 81 non-dental students were tested for nasal and pharyngeal MRSA carriage by polymerase chain reaction. All 181 students were clinically healthy and none had taken antibiotics. Significantly more dental students (20/100) carried MRSA than non-dental students (5/81) (odds ratio: 4.04; 95% confidence interval: 1.6-12.6; P = 0.0033). Also, more dental students' mobile phones (8/100) carried MRSA. All MRSA isolates were distinguished by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from epidemiologically significant strains. The results suggest that dental students are occupationally exposed to MRSA. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Chronic Cutaneous Draining Sinus of Dental Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, N; Manjunath, MK

    2014-01-01

    Extra oral sinus of odontogenic origin occurs when the purulent by-products of dental pulp necrosis spread along the path of least resistance from the root apex to the skin on the face. Patients presenting with cutaneous sinus usually visit a general physician or dermatologist first, as the lesion can mimic various dermatologic pathologies, ranging from an infected sebaceous cysts to a basal cell carcinoma. Despite systemic antibiotics, symptoms often persist causing further confusion, and at times leading to unnecessary surgical interventions. The location of this sinus in the head and neck region should lead the physician to seek a dental opinion in order to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25506495

  1. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

  2. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, R.K.

    1991-04-02

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

  3. Staring Focal Plane Array System Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    C’, DTIC SELECTENI ODEC271 D B mU STARING FOCAL PLANE ARRAY SYSTEM MODELING THESIS John Gerard Murphy Captain, USAF AFIT/GEO/ENP/89D- 3 DEPARTMENT OF...m mmmmmmmm .. \\FlIT/GEO/ENP/89D- 3 STARING FOCAL PLANE ARRAY SYSTEM MODELING THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air...Background. .. .. ... ... .... ... .... ..... 1-2 1.1.1 MRTD .. .. .. ... ... .... .... ..... 1-2 01.1.2 MIRTD in Modeling. .. .. .. ... .... .... 1- 3 113MRTD

  4. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions.

  5. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.

  6. Natural course of symptomatic focal choroidal excavation.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Introini, Ugo; Gagliardi, Marco; Sergenti, Jessica; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was referred to the authors' department for nonspecified macular dystrophy with persistent metamorphopsia in the right eye diagnosed 10 years before and followed using optical coherence tomography. The patient underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, including multimodal imaging evaluation and electrofunctional testing. The diagnosis was consistent with nonconforming focal choroid excavation. Over 10 years, no complications occurred, visual acuity was stable, and optical coherence tomography showed no progression of the lesion during follow-up. In this case, nonconforming symptomatic focal choroid excavation was a nonprogressive condition with good long-term visual outcome.

  7. A simple method for focal length measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hua; Ren, Huan; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Zhengdong; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.

  8. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Phasukthaworn, Ruedee; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies. PMID:27293392

  9. Dental practice implications of prion diseases.

    PubMed

    Bebermeyer, Richard D; Powell, Jonathan F; Hobdell, Martin H; Durban, Elisa M

    2003-01-01

    This review article discusses dental practice implications of prion diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The current universal precautions used for infection control in dentistry do not inactivate infectious prions. There is a theoretical, yet real risk of prion disease transmission through dental treatment, although the magnitude of that risk has not yet been determined. Medical, family, and travel histories can demonstrate the need for implementing improved levels of infection control. Best practices include the following: For certain cases, single-use disposable dental instruments should be used. Those instruments that are not disposable, should have a thorough physical cleaning, be soaked in hot 1N sodium hydroxide solution for 1 hour, and then autoclaved in a vacuum or porous-load autoclave at 134 degrees C to 138 degrees C for 18 to 20 minutes. Dental and other health care professionals need to understand prion diseases, and for best practice, consider implementing recommended changes to infection-control measures, since current practices do not destroy infectious prions.

  10. Biocompatibility of dental amalgams.

    PubMed

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words "dental amalgam" and "toxicity" were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials.

  11. Biocompatibility of Dental Amalgams

    PubMed Central

    Uçar, Yurdanur; Brantley, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this review paper is to review the literature regarding the toxicology of mercury from dental amalgam and evaluate current statements on dental amalgam. Materials and Methods. Two key-words “dental amalgam” and “toxicity” were used to search publications on dental amalgam biocompatibility published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. Manual search was also conducted. The most recent declarations and statements were evaluated using information available on the internet. Case reports were excluded from the study. Results. The literature show that mercury released from dental amalgam restorations does not contribute to systemic disease or systemic toxicological effects. No significant effects on the immune system have been demonstrated with the amounts of mercury released from dental amalgam restorations. Only very rarely have there been reported allergic reactions to mercury from amalgam restorations. No evidence supports a relationship between mercury released from dental amalgam and neurological diseases. Almost all of the declarations accessed by the internet stated by official organizations concluded that current data are not sufficient to relate various complaints and mercury release from dental amalgam. Conclusions. Available scientific data do not justify the discontinuation of amalgam use from dental practice or replacement with alternative restorative dental materials. PMID:22145006

  12. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.

  13. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  14. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected.

  15. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

    2015-01-01

    Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

  16. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  17. Towards Dualband Megapixel QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Salazar, D.; Woolaway, J.; LeVan, P. D.; Tidrow, M. Z.

    2006-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 1024 x 1024 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEDT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEDT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In addition, we have demonstrated MWIR and LWIR pixel co-registered simultaneously readable dualband QWIP focal plane arrays. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NEDT, uniformity, operability, and modulation transfer functions of the 1024 x 1024 pixel arrays and the progress of dualband QWIP focal plane array development work.

  18. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies.

  19. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  20. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

    PubMed

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

    1983-01-01

    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  1. Universities: A Focal Point for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maidique, Modesto A.

    1988-01-01

    Higher education can act as a focal point of economic development. The most widely recognized type of economic development entails an association between a university, its research facilities, and private industry. An example of this partnership is the one between Stanford University and the industries in the "Silicon Valley." (MLW)

  2. Large Format Multicolor QWIP Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soibel, A.; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Ting, D. Z.; Hill, C. J.; Nguyen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) multicolor focal plane array (FPA) cameras are essential for many DoD and NASA applications including Earth and planetary remote sensing. In this paper we summarize our recent development of large format multicolor QWIP FPA that cover MWIR and LWIR bands.

  3. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia. An unusual clinical aspect].

    PubMed

    Bodokh, I; Lacour, J P; Rainero, C; Orth, G; Perrin, C; Hoffman, P; Santini, J; Ortonne, J P

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a child born in France of Algerian parents. The clinical appearance was unusual in that certain lesions were verrucous and pediculate. A virological study revealed the presence of papillomavirus 32, one of the two types of HPV specifically associated with this entity.

  4. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... HYPOPLASIA Sources for This Page Clements SE, Mellerio JE, Holden ST, McCauley J, McGrath JA. PORCN gene ... on PubMed Clements SE, Wessagowit V, Lai-Cheong JE, Arita K, McGrath JA. Focal dermal hypoplasia resulting ...

  6. Sonographic features of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xian-shui; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Hua-bin; Wang, Jin-rui

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic values of gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasound in the diagnosis of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (FHT). The gray-scale and colour Doppler ultrasound data of 120 patients with histopathologically confirmed FHT were retrospectively studied. The background of thyroid parenchyma was subjectively evaluated as absence or presence of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The vascular types of thyroid nodules were determined as follows: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow, and focal thyroid inferno. Among all 120 nodules, 71 (59.2%) were located in normal thyroid parenchyma, 49 (40.8%) in the background of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In the normal thyroid background, hypoechoic nodules accounted for 85.9% (61/71), and only 14.1% (10/71)nodules were isoechoic or hyperechoic. However, in the background of diffuse Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 40.8% were hypoechoic and 59.2% were isoechoic or hyperechoic. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). In terms of the vascular types, the hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow, and focal thyroid inferno accounted for 45 %, 25.9%, 20.8%, and 8.3%, respectively. The "focal inferno" is a relative specific color Doppler feature of FHT.

  7. Estimation of focal and extra-focal radiation profiles based on Gaussian modeling in medical linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Anai, Shigeo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Araki, Fujio; Matsuki, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Nobuo

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray source or focal radiation is one of the factors that can degrade the conformal field edge in stereotactic body radiotherapy. For that reason, it is very important to estimate the total focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators, which consists of X-ray focal-spot radiation and extra-focal radiation profiles. Our purpose in this study was to propose an experimental method for estimating the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators based on triple Gaussian functions. We measured the total X-ray focal radiation profiles of the accelerators by moving a slit in conjunction with a photon field p-type silicon diode. The slit width was changed so that the extra-focal radiation could be optimally included in the total focal radiation. The total focal radiation profiles of an accelerator at 4-MV and 10-MV energies were approximated with a combination of triple Gaussian functions, which correspond to the focal-spot radiation, extra-focal radiation, and radiation transmitted through the slit assembly. As a result, the ratios of the Gaussian peak value of the extra-focal radiation to that of the focal spot for 4 and 10 MV were 0.077 and 0.159, respectively. The peak widths of the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles were 0.57 and 25.0 mm for 4 MV, respectively, and 0.60 and 22.0 mm for 10 MV, respectively. We concluded that the proposed focal radiation profile model based on the triple Gaussian functions may be feasible for estimating the X-ray focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles.

  8. Pathways in dental public health.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven J

    2005-07-01

    Dental public health is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation. Dental public health has been defined as the "science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than as an individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis." This article will describe the many career and educational pathways dentists may follow to become irvolved in the practice of dental public health.

  9. Dental radiology for children

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation.

  10. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  11. Imaging modalities in Focal Therapy: Multiparametric Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wildeboer, R R; Panfilova, A P; Mischi, M; Wijkstra, H

    2016-07-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common form of cancer among men in the US and the second most common cause of death. It has been observed that an increasing number of newly diagnosed patients exhibit low-risk features and that over-treatment with radical prostatectomy is a growing problem. The feasibility of focal therapy as an organsparing alternative, however, depends on the reliability of imaging techniques to identify, localize and monitor clinically relevant PCa lesions. The aim of this review is to investigate the potential of multiparametric ultrasound (mpUS) for focal therapy. We briefly introduce the most common focal therapies and thoroughly discuss the ability of available ultrasound modalities to localize PCa and reflect tissue properties. The imaging requirements of the focal therapies are studied to put the performance of the US techniques into perspective. We found that transrectal greyscale echography, Doppler sonography, elastography, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and computerized ultrasound have been studied for the purpose of prostate imaging. Several of these modalities are already frequently used in current clinical practice; to add to the diagnostic process of PCa, to guide and monitor the application of focal therapy or to perform follow-up after treatment. Despite their capability to detect a large fraction of the PCa lesions, none of these modalities is currently considered sufficiently accurate for stand-alone tumour detection and localization. However, although there are only few studies reporting on a combined use of different ultrasound modalities, the results of an mpUS approach seem promising. Several US modalities have been successfully applied as a viable alternative to monitor tissue destruction during and after treatment. In view of the advantages of US and the promising results of a multiparametric approach in PCa detection and localization, researchers are urged to further investigate mpUS for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Dental conditions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-01-30

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule the proposal to amend its adjudication regulations regarding service connection of dental conditions for treatment purposes. This amendment clarifies that principles governing determinations by VA's Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) for service connection of dental conditions for the purpose of establishing eligibility for dental treatment by VA's Veterans Health Administration (VHA), apply only when VHA requests information or a rating from VBA for those purposes. This amendment also clarifies existing regulatory provisions and reflects the respective responsibilities of VHA and VBA in determinations concerning eligibility for dental treatment.

  13. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  14. Dental erosion, summary.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Imfeld, T

    1996-04-01

    Although reports on dental erosion have always appeared in the dental literature, there is currently a growing interest among researchers and clinicians. Potential risk factors for dental erosion are changed lifestyle and eating patterns, with increased consumption of acidic foods and beverages. Various gastrointestinal and eating disorders expose the dentition to frequent contacts with very acidic gastric content, which may lead to erosion. Whether these factors indeed lead, on a population scale, to a higher prevalence and incidence of erosion is yet to be established. This article summarizes the different aspects of the prevalence, pathology, etiology, assessment, prevention and treatment of dental erosion, and concludes with recommendations for future research.

  15. Dental care in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Karine Cestaro; Teófilo, Carolina Rodrigues; Perdigão, João Paulo Veloso; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; de Negreiros, Wagner Araújo; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima

    2017-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a prothrombotic autoimmune disease that may be classified as primary or secondary. Treatment consists of oral anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and/or immunosuppressant drugs. This report describes the dental treatment of 2 women with APS and multiple dental concerns, including periodontal disease, caries, and missing teeth. The invasive dental procedures were performed in an outpatient setting with hematologic monitoring and use of local hemostatic measures. Neither interruption of anticoagulant medications nor administration of blood products was necessary. All of the procedures were performed without complications. To date, no recommendations for the dental care of patients with APS have been established, demonstrating a need to investigate the risks for bleeding and infection, among other concerns, during dental treatment of these patients.

  16. FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISASE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kiffel, Jeremy; Rahimzada, Yael; Trachtman, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most common forms of acquired glomerular disease leading to end stage kidney disease (ESKD). Its incidence is rising around the world. There is no proven therapy for those patients who do not respond to corticosteroids and it can recur in 20–25% of patients who receive a kidney transplant. The disease can be primary or secondary to various conditions including vesicoureteral reflux, obesity, medications, and infections. Recent advances have demonstrated the important role of genetic mutations in podocyte proteins as a cause of FSGS. There is an urgent need for randomized clinical trials to develop safe and effective therapy for FSGS that occurs in the native or transplanted kidney. PMID:21896374

  17. Characterization of focal muscle compression under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Sory, D. R.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern wars over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome of the extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions.

  18. Can we prevent the spread of focal lung inflammation?

    PubMed

    Marini, John J

    2010-10-01

    By definition, the acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with diffuse cellular infiltration and proteinaceous edema. It is generally believed that the widespread injury that characterizes acute respiratory distress syndrome is a process that is launched almost synchronously throughout the lung, caused by blood-borne mediators of inflammation, voluminous aspiration, or inhalation of noxious gases or infective inoculums. Relatively little attention has been paid to the possibility that inflammatory lung injury may sometimes begin focally and propagate sequentially via the airway network, generalizing as mobile liquids carry their damaging products mouthward from distal to proximal. Were this true, modifications of ventilatory pattern and positioning aimed at geographic containment of the injury process could help prevent generalization and limit disease severity. This seldom-considered mechanism for extending lung injury might further justify implementation of low tidal volume/high positive end-expiratory pressure ventilatory strategies, as well as encourage additional lung protective measures that logically stem from simple mechanics.

  19. Focal malformations of cortical development: new vistas for molecular pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lim, K-C; Crino, P B

    2013-11-12

    Focal malformations of cortical development (FMCD) are highly associated with several neurological disorders including intractable epilepsy and neurocognitive disabilities. Over the past decade, several FMCD subtypes have been linked to hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade. In view of the roles that mTOR plays in cell proliferation, size, motility, and stem cell phenotype, many of the features of FMCD such as cytomegaly, disorganized lamination, and expression of stem cell markers can be explained by enhanced mTOR signaling. FMCD result from several distinct and fascinating molecular mechanisms including biallelic gene inactivation, somatic mutation, and potentially, viral infection. These mechanisms have been directly linked to mTOR activation. Perhaps most compelling, pharmacological inhibition of mTOR has been implemented successfully in clinical trials for select FMCD and provides a new vista for treatment. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Education about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS: the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Seacat, Jason P; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated dental and dental hygiene students' a) perceptions of their education about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS, b) knowledge of universal precautions, c) attitudes towards treating these patients and patients perceived to be at risk for HIV infections, and d) evaluations of potential curricular activities such as discussion groups with HIV-infected patients. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires from 315 dental and 89 dental hygiene students. On average, dental students reported having learned about this topic in fever courses than dental hygiene students. However, dental students answered significantly more knowledge questions about universal precautions correctly than did dental hygiene students. This knowledge increased over the program course. Male students had significantly stronger negative attitudes towards patients at risk for or with HIV infections/AIDS than female students. Overall, dental and dental hygiene students responded positively to the suggested methods for including more material about patients with HIV infections/AIDS such as case studies, discussion groups, and closely supervised clinical experiences. This study shows that dental and dental hygiene students are interested in learning more about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS. It also adds information to previous research on factors involved in the dental healthcare providers' decisions to treat patients at risk for or with HIV infections/AIDS. The implications of these findings for curriculum development efforts are discussed.

  1. Odontogenic Orofacial Infections.

    PubMed

    Bertossi, Dario; Barone, Antonio; Iurlaro, Antonio; Marconcini, Simone; De Santis, Daniele; Finotti, Marco; Procacci, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation. The main signs and symptoms of the acute dental abscess (often referred to as a periapical abscess or infection) are pain, swelling, erythema, and suppuration usually localized to the affected tooth, even if the abscess can eventually spread causing a severe odontogenic infection which is characterized by local and systemic involvement culminating in sepsis syndrome. The vast majority of dental abscesses respond to antibiotic treatment, however, in some patients surgical management of the infection may be indicated. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of the patients with dental orofacial infections referred to the Unit of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Verona from 1991 to 2011 has been performed.

  2. X-ray sources of medical linear accelerators: focal and extra-focal radiation.

    PubMed

    Jaffray, D A; Battista, J J; Fenster, A; Munro, P

    1993-01-01

    A computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction technique has been used to make quantitative measurements of the size and shape of the focal spot in medical linear accelerators. Using this technique, we have measured the focal spots in a total of nine accelerators, including (i) two Varian Clinac 2100c's, (ii) two Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) Therac-25's, (iii) two AECL Therac 6's, (iv) a Siemens KD-2, (v) a Varian Clinac 600c (4 MV), and (vi) an AECL Therac-20. Some of these focal spots were monitored for changes over a 2-yr period. It has been found that (i) the size and shape of the source spot varies greatly between accelerators of different design ranging from 0.5 to 3.4 mm in full width at half maximum (FWHM); and (ii) for accelerators of the same design, the focal spots are very similar. In addition to the measurements of the focal spot, a new technique for measuring the magnitude and distribution of extra-focal radiation originating from the linear accelerator head (flattening filter, primary collimator) has also been developed. The extra-focal radiation produced by a Varian Clinac 2100c accelerator was measured using this technique and it was found that the extra-focal radiation accounts for as much as 8% of the total photon fluence reaching the isocenter. The majority (75%) of this extra-focal radiation originates from within a circle 6 cm in diameter at the target plane. The source MTFs for each of the measured focal spots have been calculated in order to assess their influence on the spatial resolution of verification images. The limiting spatial resolution (i.e., 10% modulation) for all the source MTFs is 1.8 mm-1 or greater when used for transmission radiography at a magnification of 1.2. The extra-focal radiation, which produces a low-frequency drop in the source MTFs of up to 8%, changes with field size. As a result, the source MTFs of linear accelerators depend not only on the design of individual accelerators and image magnification, but also

  3. Attitudes of a group of Mexico City residents toward HIV/AIDS in the dental office.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco Antonio; Maupomé, Gerardo; López-Cámara, Víctor

    2003-06-01

    To ascertain the intention of the public to undergo dental treatment at dental clinics where other patients or a dentist are infected with HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional design was used to interview a stratified sample of persons 18 years and older in Mexico City with use of a standardized questionnaire. Questions included the type of dental service used, the perception of risk for HIV/AIDS contagion in the dental environment, and the reported intention to continue treatment in a dental office where patients or a dentist were affected by HIV/AIDS. Of the 490 participants, 74.9% were concerned about HIV/AIDS transmission in the dental office. Only 21.2% intended to continue treatment at a dental office where HIV/AIDS patients were treated, and only 20.0% intended to continue treatment when the dentist was HIV-positive. The degree of concern about HIV/AIDS contagion and the modality of dental service used were associated with the stated intention to continue dental treatment. There is a need to have good infection control standards in dental practice; to increase public trust in such standards by making them more apparent; and/or to establish educational programs to improve public knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS risks in dental practice.

  4. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.

  5. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  6. Spasmodic torticollis: the dental connection.

    PubMed

    Sims, Anthony B; Stack, Brendan C; Demerjian, G Gary

    2012-07-01

    Spasmodic torticollis or cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of focal dystonia and is characterized by sustained abnormal muscle contractions in the head and neck area resulting in abnormal positioning or posturing of the head. The dystonic muscle spasms associated with spasmodic torticollis may affect any combination of neck muscles. Three cases are reported of spasmodic torticollis that were treated by a dental appliance with individual varying occlusal heights to open the maxillomandibular vertical dimension. Upon increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion, there was a slowing and/or discontinuance of the symptoms of cervical dystonia. The proposed hypothesis for this reversal is that there may be neuritis of the auriculotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve, which has direct input into the reticular formation (RF), and it may activate the cells of the pontine region of the RF known for the control and deviation of head posture. There is growing clinical evidence that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction may be a factor in this neurological and painful disorder when it coexists.

  7. The microbiological quality of water in dental chair units.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, C L; Philpott-Howard, J N

    1993-03-01

    Infection control is an important issue in the dental surgery but the potential hazards associated with contaminated dental water have received relatively little attention in recent years. The complex design of the equipment results in stagnation of water within the dental chair and subsequent amplification of contaminating environmental organisms, including pseudomonads and legionellae, to potentially hazardous levels. Immunocompromised patients may be at particular risk of infection. Very poor water quality with total bacterial counts above 10(4) ml-1 is unpleasant for all patients, and the dental chair supply should be of drinking water quality. In addition to these problems, bacteria and viruses may be aspirated from the oral cavity and contaminate the handpiece. Measures to reduce microbial contamination of dental chairs and equipment include flushing water through the chair's equipment at the beginning of each day; continuous or pulsed water chlorination, or application of biocides other than chlorine; provision of sterile bottled water in the system; and autoclaving handpieces between patients. Future dental chair design must attempt to resolve the problems associated with microbial contamination of the water supply and aerosols generated during dental procedures.

  8. Dental Expression and Role in Palliative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Rajiv; Marawar, PP; Shete, Sujata; Saini, Santosh; Mani, Ameet

    2009-01-01

    World Health Organization defines palliative care as the active total care of patients whose disease is not responding to curative treatment. Palliative care for the terminally ill is based on a multidimensional approach to provide whole-person comfort care while maintaining optimal function; dental care plays an important role in this multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the present study is to review significance of dentist's role to determine whether mouth care was effectively assessed and implemented in the palliative care setting. The oral problems experienced by the hospice head and neck patient clearly affect the quality of his or her remaining life. Dentist plays an essential role in palliative care by the maintenance of oral hygiene; dental examination may identify and cure opportunistic infections and dental disease like caries, periodontal disease, oral mucosal problems or prosthetic requirement. Oral care may reduce not only the microbial load of the mouth but the risk for pain and oral infection as well. This multidisciplinary approach to palliative care, including a dentist, may reduce the oral debilities that influence the patient's ability to speak, eat or swallow. This review highlighted that without effective assessment of the mouth, the appropriate implementation of care will not be delivered. Palliative dental care has been fundamental in management of patients with active, progressive, far-advanced disease in which the oral cavity has been compromised either by the disease directly or by its treatment; the focus of care is quality of life. PMID:20606852

  9. Occupational Hazards Among Dental Surgeons In Karachi.

    PubMed

    Baig, Nabeel Naeem; Aleem, Sajid Atif

    2016-04-01

    To determine the frequency of different occupational hazards among dental surgeons in Karachi. Cross-sectional survey. Amulticenter study conducted at Ameen Diabetic and Dental Hospital, Dental OPD, Karachi Medical and Dental College, and Abbasi Shaheed Hospital, Karachi, from February to March 2014. Dentists, practicing in different areas of Karachi, were given a self-administered questionnaire. It comprised of a form containing information about the socio-demographic profile of dentists and questionnaires regarding occupational hazards experienced in practice. Atotal of 130 dentists, involved in clinical practice, were randomly selected. There were 45 (35%) males and 85 (65%) females. The average age was 39 &plusmn;5.76 years. Out of 130 dentists, 93.8% (122/130) had occupational hazard during practice. Cervical back pain was observed in 81.96% dentists followed by knee / elbow joint pain in 53.27%, eye infection in 44.615%, impaired hearing in 40.98%, psychological stress in 41.80% and material allergy was 12.29%. Various spinal and joint pains, eye infections, impaired hearing, stress and material allergy represented occupational hazard to 93.8% of the surveyed dentists.

  10. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  11. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  12. Clinical feline dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Lemmons, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Dental radiography is a necessary diagnostic modality in small animal practice. It is not possible to accurately assess and diagnose tooth resorption, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, neoplasia and injury without it. Dental radiography is also necessary for treatment and assessment of the patient postoperatively.

  13. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  14. Dental fraud: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Max H

    2003-01-01

    A manager of a dental benefits program defines fraud and abuse in the dental context. Such practices may cost as much as four billion dollars annually and have a damaging effect on the trust the profession places in the profession and on the way dentists relate to each other.

  15. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  16. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  17. Workbook for Dental Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Corinne K.; Volpe, Margaret E.

    This workbook contains l8 units of instruction for dental assistant students, each designed to give students practical experience in completing forms that simulate realistic situations in a dental office. Units are: (1) The Appointment Record, (2) The Recall System, (3) Clinical Records, (4) Estimates, (5) Daily Record Sheet, (6) Patient's…

  18. Dental Fear Among University Employees: Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…

  19. Dental Fear Among University Employees: Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…

  20. Error compensation research on the focal plane attitude measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongfei; Zhang, Feifan; Zhai, Chao; Zhou, Zengxiang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. Combined with the six DOF parallel focal plane attitude measurement instrument that had been already designed, space attitude error compensation of the attitude measurement instrument for the focal plane was studied in order to measure the deformation and surface shape of the focal plane in different space attitude accurately.

  1. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

  2. Dynamic reactive astrocytes after focal ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shinghua

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes are specialized and most numerous glial cell type in the central nervous system and play important roles in physiology. Astrocytes are also critically involved in many neural disorders including focal ischemic stroke, a leading cause of brain injury and human death. One of the prominent pathological features of focal ischemic stroke is reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation associated with morphological changes and proliferation. This review paper discusses the recent advances in spatial and temporal dynamics of morphology and proliferation of reactive astrocytes after ischemic stroke based on results from experimental animal studies. As reactive astrocytes exhibit stem cell-like properties, knowledge of dynamics of reactive astrocytes and glial scar formation will provide important insights for astrocyte-based cell therapy in stroke. PMID:25657720

  3. Line-scan focal modulation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Shilpa; Li, Caixia; Gong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Nanguang

    2017-05-01

    We report the development of a line-scan focal modulation microscope (LSFMM) that is capable of high-speed image acquisition (>40 fps) with uncompromised optical sectioning capability. The improved background rejection and axial resolution of this imaging modality, enabled by focal modulation, are quantified with three-dimensional imaging data obtained from fluorescent beads. The signal-to-background ratio for the LSFMM system is one- to two-orders of magnitude higher than that for line-scanning confocal systems when imaging deep (up to 100 μm) into a turbid medium of optical properties similar to biological tissues. The imaging performance of LSFMM, in terms of both spatial and temporal resolutions, is further demonstrated with in vivo imaging experiments with live zebrafish larvae.

  4. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years.

  5. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years. PMID:25361760

  6. A variable-focal-length telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irkaev, Bahor; Popov, Gennadiy; Nekhaeva, Svetlana

    2005-04-01

    A special additional optical system (AOS) to develop any telescope into a zoom or a variable-focal-length telescope (variotelescope) is proposed. This system permits the telescope optics and detector (charge-couped device) to be matched in order to obtain the best resolution. An analysis of the resolution of the system consisting of the ‘V-telescope and detector’ is performed, and it is shown that the best way to match the optics and detector is to change the focal length, that is to change the image scale. The proposed AOS consists of two spherical mirrors: a large concave mirror and a small convex mirror. The AOS is illustrated by means of figures and tables.

  7. Focal colors are universal after all

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Cook, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely held that named color categories in the world's languages are organized around universal focal colors and that these focal colors tend to be chosen as the best examples of color terms across languages. However, this notion has been supported primarily by data from languages of industrialized societies. In contrast, recent research on a language from a nonindustrialized society has called this idea into question. We examine color-naming data from languages of 110 nonindustrialized societies and show that (i) best-example choices for color terms in these languages cluster near the prototypes for English white, black, red, green, yellow, and blue, and (ii) best-example choices cluster more tightly across languages than do the centers of category extensions, suggesting that universal best examples (foci) may be the source of universal tendencies in color naming. PMID:15923257

  8. Contaminated dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Dickson, M; Aitken, J; Bagg, J

    2002-07-01

    There is current concern in the UK over the possible transmission of prions via contaminated surgical instruments. Some dental instruments (endodontic files) raise particular concerns by virtue of their intimate contact with terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve. A visual assessment using a dissecting light microscope and scanning electron microscopy of endodontic files after clinical use and subsequent decontamination was performed. The instruments examined were collected from general dental practices and from a dental hospital. Seventy-six per cent (22/29) of the files retrieved from general dental practices remained visibly contaminated, compared with 14% (5/37) from the dental hospital. Current methods for decontaminating endodontic instruments used in dentistry may be of an insufficient standard to completely remove biological material. Improved cleaning methods and the feasibility of single use endodontic instruments require further investigation.

  9. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

  10. Focal epileptic seizures mimicking sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Ossola, Maria; Colnaghi, Silvia; Arbasino, Carla

    2009-03-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common parasomnia. The diagnostic criteria for SP, as reported in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, are essentially clinical, as electroencephalography (EEG)-polysomnography (PSG) is not mandatory. We describe a subject whose sleep-related events fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SP, even though her visual hallucinations were elementary, repetitive and stereotyped, thus differing from those usually reported by patients with SP. Video/EEG-PSG documented the focal epileptic nature of the SP-like episodes.

  11. The expanded spectrum of focal choroidal excavation.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Ron; Mukkamala, Sri Krishna; Jampol, Lee M; Spaide, Richard F; Ober, Michael D; Sorenson, John A; Gentile, Ronald C; Miller, Joel A; Sherman, Jerome; Freund, K Bailey

    2011-10-01

    To describe the clinical and imaging findings in patients with focal choroidal excavation. Retrospective observational case series. The medical records of 12 patients (13 eyes) with focal choroidal excavation were reviewed. Clinical histories and imaging findings (including color photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography) were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 45 years (range, 22-62 years). Four patients were Asian. Mean visual acuity was 20/31 (range, 20/20 to 20/100). Mean refractive error was -3.54 diopters (D) (range, 6.00 to -8.00 D). One patient had bilateral involvement. All patients manifested varying degrees of foveal pigmentary changes that were usually hypoautofluorescent on fundus autofluorescence images. Fluorescein angiographic findings varied with degree of retinal pigment epithelial alterations. Indocyanine green angiography revealed relative hypofluorescence. In 7 eyes, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed outer retinal layers conforming to retinal pigment epithelial alterations within the excavation. In the other 6 eyes, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography revealed a separation between the outer retina and the retinal pigment epithelium within the excavation. In 7 eyes studied with enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, there was no evidence of scleral ectasia. Mean choroidal thickness of the uninvolved choroid was thicker than normal at 319 μm (range, 244-439 μm). All lesions remained stable except for in 1 eye, which had findings of central serous chorioretinopathy and secondary type 2 (subretinal) neovascularization. Focal choroidal excavation is a newly described idiopathic entity in eyes having 1 or more focal areas of choroidal excavation. In some patients, there may be an association with central

  12. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2015-06-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. We apply a conventional likelihood method to measure the skill of earthquake focal mechanism orientation forecasts. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. We measure the difference between two double-couple sources as the minimum rotation angle that transforms one into the other. We measure the uncertainty of a focal mechanism forecast (the variability), and the difference between observed and forecasted orientations (the prediction error), in terms of these minimum rotation angles. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random (or equally probable). For 3-D rotation the random rotation angle distribution is not uniform. To better understand the resulting complexities, we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two theoretical rotational distributions (Cauchy and von Mises-Fisher), which are used to approximate earthquake source orientation pattern. We then calculate the likelihood score for earthquake source forecasts and for their validation by future seismicity data. Several issues need to be explored when analyzing observational results: their dependence on forecast and data resolution, internal dependence of scores on forecasted angle and random variability of likelihood scores. Here, we propose a simple tentative solution but extensive theoretical and statistical analysis is needed.

  13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

  14. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2005-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

  15. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen; Clements, Douglas; Beckmann, Sybilla

    2010-01-01

    "Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points" describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 1 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate…

  17. Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen; Clements, Douglas; Beckmann, Sybilla

    2010-01-01

    "Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points" describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 1 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate…

  18. Dynamics of Focal Fibrillation Waves during Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lanters, Eva A H; Allessie, Maurits A; DE Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and appearance of focal fibrillation waves on the right and left atrial epicardial surface were visualized during 10 seconds of persistent atrial fibrillation in a 71-year-old woman with valvular heart disease. The frequent, nonrepetitive, widespread, and capricious distribution of focal waves suggests that transmural conduction of fibrillation waves is most likely the mechanism underlying focal fibrillation waves.

  19. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  20. Intracerebral temperature alterations associated with focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Feng; Chang, Jong Hee; Rothman, Steven M

    2002-12-01

    Because focal seizures produce an increase in local cerebral metabolism and blood flow, we wanted to determine whether they might lead to changes in brain temperature. We induced focal neocortical seizures by microinjection of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) into the rat motor cortex. The temperature on the dura immediately over the injection site, or 8 mm away, was measured with a thermocouple and in some experiments relative blood flow was monitored with a laser Doppler probe. In animals that did not receive 4-AP, brain and rectal temperature remained fairly constant at 33.5 and 37.2 degrees C, respectively, over a 2 h monitoring period. In animals treated with 4-AP, brain temperature over the seizure focus rose an average of 0.3 degrees C, within a few seconds of seizure onset, while rectal temperature remained constant. The seizure-induced temperature rise was preceded by an increase in cortical blood flow. The temperature, but not blood flow, was also elevated 8 mm away from the seizure focus. When blood flow was increased independently of neuronal activity, by elevating pCO(2), brain temperature also rose by about 0.3 degrees C. Focal seizures in anesthetized rats produce a small, but statistically significant increase in local brain temperature, as a result of increased blood flow that brings brain temperature closer to body temperature. In humans, seizures could actually cause a reduction in brain temperature, because brain temperature is normally higher than body temperature.

  1. Smart focal plane technologies for ELT instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Colin R.; Ramsay-Howat, Suzanne K.; Garzon, Francisco; Parry, Ian R.; Prieto, Eric; Robertson, David J.; Zamkotsian, Frederic

    2004-07-01

    Smart Focal Planes are devices that enable the efficient sampling of a telescope's focal plane to feed spectroscopic and imaging instruments. Examples are integral field units (fiber and image slicers), cryogenic beam manipulators, and MOEMS (micro-opto-electromechanical systems) such as miniature slit shutters. These technologies are critical in making best use of the current 8m class telescopes for key science goals such as spectroscopic surveys of high redshift galaxies, and will be even more important for Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) instruments. In fact, the density of pixels in an ELT focal plane with several milliarcsecond resolution will mean that sub-sampling of the field will be needed even for imaging. We have proposed a joint European project to develop these technologies, building on expertise from partners in the UK, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Germany and others, and led by the UK. We describe the current status of these technologies, showing how they will contribute to the feasibility and performance of proposed instruments for ELTs, and concentrating on capabilities within Europe. We then outline the proposed future developments, highlighting the technical challenges, such as the difficulties of manufacturing and verifying complex image slicers with thousands of optical surfaces, and building highly reliable cryogenic mechanisms such as pick-off arms, beam steering mirrors and reconfigurble slit mechanisms.

  2. The Focal Surface of EUSO Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, H. M.; Kawasaki, Y.; Takizawa, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Teshima, M.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Adams, J.; Catalano, O.; Scarisi, L.; hide

    2002-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) is a science mission under conceptual design for the detection of extremely high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos by the observation of time-resolved images of atmospheric fluorescence photons generated along the extensive air shower, in the near ultraviolet wavelength region. A refractive telescope with double-sided double Fresnel lens will be employed to achieve a large field of view of 60 degrees. The energy and arrival direction of the primary particles will be determined by observing the time evolution of the airshower. The focal surface of the EUSO telescope will be segmented to a few hundred thousand pixels to resolve the entire field of view with the angular resolution of the order of 0.1 degree. The time evolution will be observed with the time resolution of 0.8 microsecond. A large scale array of multianode photomultiplier (MAPMT) is being studied as the EUSO focal surface. The MAPMT array is capable of detecting near ultraviolet photons at single photoelectron level. In this contribution, we will report the present status of the focal surface design including the optimization of anode segmentation and the minimization of the dead area and discuss overall experimental performance in detecting extensive airshowers.

  3. Focal intestinal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis in 10 dogs.

    PubMed

    Lecoindre, A; Lecoindre, P; Cadoré, J L; Chevallier, M; Guerret, S; Derré, G; Mcdonough, S P; Simpson, K W

    2016-09-01

    To describe the clinical and pathological features of canine focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis, to evaluate its underlying infectious cause and to compare it with human Crohn's disease. Retrospective review of case records with a histopathological diagnosis of focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis. Bacterial and fungal colonisation was evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and histochemical staining, respectively. A comparison with Crohn's disease was performed by a human pathologist. Ten dogs were evaluated. The historical complaints were predominantly chronic diarrhoea (10/10) and vomiting (5/10). The biochemical abnormalities included hypoalbuminaemia (6/10) and hypocobalaminaemia (4/6). Abdominal sonography revealed a thickened distal ileum±ileocolic junction. Colonoscopy showed a swollen caecal ostium and oedematous caecum in 7/10 dogs. A stenotic ileo-colic opening prevented endoscopic intubation in all dogs. Histology from the resected lesions revealed granulomatous inflammation involving the muscularis and serosa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated invasive bacteria in 2/10 dogs. Post-resection, all dogs received metronidazole and tapering immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Remission (median 17 months) was achieved in 8/10 dogs. Focal lipogranulomatous lymphangitis is a rare and severe form of canine inflammatory bowel disease with preferential localisation to the ileum and the ileocolic junction. An underlying infectious aetiology was not identified. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Dental care access for low-income and immigrant cancer patients in New York City.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jocelyn R; Ramirez, Julia; Li, Yuelin; Gany, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    This exploratory study assesses the dental care needs and access of low-income, mostly immigrant cancer patients enrolled in New York City's Integrated Cancer Care Action Network (ICCAN). A nested cohort of patients from ICCAN responded to a dental needs assessment that surveyed current dental health as well as access to, and use of, dental services. 373 patients participated. Self-report of having a dentist to visit, current dental problems, income, and insurance most significantly predicted a dentist visit in the past year. Discussing treatment-related oral side effects with the oncologist greatly increased the likelihood of seeing a dentist, but few patients reported having had this conversation. There is a lack of oral care information flowing from oncologists to low income patients. We found a high number of reported dental problems: concerning because of potential treatment interference and risk for infection. Finally, ability to pay largely determined dental care access in our study participants.

  5. [Designing dental manpower index to evaluate dental manpower resources].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Ni, Zong-zan

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to find out a method to evaluate dental manpower resources. We selected population, GDP, number of dentist and number of different oral health professionals from certain internet stations, published books and journals from 1996 to 2000 as our investigating data. Data was collected from 100 countries. Our investigation found that the design of dental manpower index to evaluate dental manpower resources was effective and convenient. Dental manpower index is a good method to evaluate dental manpower resources.

  6. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth"…

  7. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth"…

  8. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease): report of two cases with PCR detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, P R; Abeyratne, S; Ranasinghe, A W; Tilakaratne, W M

    2004-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) (Heck's disease) is essentially a benign oral infection produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, it is relatively rare in South-East Asia. The following report is based on two cases of adult FEH with histopathological features in favour of the disease. In addition, polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of HPV DNA in the lesions in order to confirm the histopathological diagnosis.

  9. Zirconia as a Dental Biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Bona, Alvaro Della; Pecho, Oscar E; Alessandretti, Rodrigo

    2015-08-04

    Ceramics are very important in the science of dental biomaterials. Among all dental ceramics, zirconia is in evidence as a dental biomaterial and it is the material of choice in contemporary restorative dentistry. Zirconia has been applied as structural material for dental bridges, crowns, inserts, and implants, mostly because of its biocompatibility, high fracture toughness, and radiopacity. However, the clinical success of restorative dentistry has to consider the adhesion to different substrates, which has offered a great challenge to dental zirconia research and development. This study characterizes zirconia as a dental biomaterial, presenting the current consensus and challenges to its dental applications.

  10. [Dental foreign body sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Thévoz, F; Arza, A; Jaques, B

    2000-01-01

    Unilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis is frequently attributed to dental origin. The goal of this retrospective study is to determine the frequency of maxillary sinusitis due to a foreign body of dental origin and its characteristics. Review of 197 sinusitis cases with maxillary sinus involvement operated in our department from 1991 to 1999. Selection of the 17 cases preoperatively suspect to be due to a foreign body of dental origin. 9% of the 197 maxillary sinusitis were classified "odontogenic". Intra-sinusal foreign bodies were identified in 5%: 2% of dental origin, 1% dental or radicular remnants, 2% of "pseudo" foreign bodies of mycotic origin. Chronic maxillary sinusitis attributable to a dental foreign body is rare and overestimated. There exists an important disproportion between the number of intra-sinusal dental foreign bodies and the number of patients who are symptomatic. Treatment is surgical by oral antrotomy and/or endonasal meatotomy. Only a prospective study could give a real estimation of the proportion of symptomatic cases and determine the predisposing factors.

  11. Oral and dental signs of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID

  12. Dental worm disease.

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2016-12-01

    During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a "dental worm" could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.

  13. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a dental practice.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, C; Marianos, D; Ou, C Y; Dumbaugh, R; Witte, J; Berkelman, R; Gooch, B; Myers, G; Luo, C C; Schochetman, G

    1992-05-15

    To determine if patients of a dentist with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) became infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their dental care and, if so, to identify possible mechanisms of transmission. Retrospective epidemiologic follow-up of the dentist, his office practice, and his former patients. The practice of a dentist with AIDS in Florida. A dentist with AIDS, his health care providers and employees, and former patients of the dentist, including eight HIV-infected patients. Identification of risks for HIV transmission (if present), degree of genetic relatedness of the viruses, and identification of infection control and other office practices. Five of the eight HIV-infected patients had no confirmed exposures to HIV other than the dental practice and were infected with HIV strains that were closely related to those of the dentist. Each of the five had invasive dental procedures, done by the dentist after he was diagnosed with AIDS. Four of these five patients shared visit days (P greater than 0.2). Breaches in infection control and other dental office practices to explain these transmissions could not be identified. Although the specific incident that resulted in HIV transmission to these patients remains uncertain, the epidemiologic evidence supports direct dentist-to-patient transmission rather than a patient-to-patient route.

  14. Changing profile of infective endocarditis: a clinicopathologic study of 220 patients in a single medical center from 1998 through 2009.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Linlin; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Hong

    2014-10-01

    The epidemiologic profile of infective endocarditis has changed substantially over the past few years, especially in industrialized countries. Our study evaluates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of infective endocarditis patients treated by cardiac surgery in China during a 12-year period. We retrospectively evaluated 220 surgically treated infective endocarditis patients and analyzed their changes from the beginning of 1998 through 2009. The mean age of the patients increased from 36.9 to 42.7 years during those 12 years (P=0.036). The chief predisposing disease was congenital heart disease (32.8%), rather than rheumatic heart disease (13.2%); this rate did not change significantly during the 12 years. The prevalent congenital lesion was bicuspid aortic valve, the rate of which (55.6%) increased significantly over the 3 time intervals studied (P=0.016). The frequency of infective endocarditis after non-dental surgical and nonsurgical intervention was significantly greater (23.3%) during 1998 through 2001, compared with the 2 intervals that followed (9%; P=0.019). Streptococcus viridans was the most frequent causative agent overall (25.6%). Forty-seven of the 220 patients (21.4%) carried the clinical diagnosis of some other form of heart disease before surgery, but at surgery they were found to have infective endocarditis as the fundamental disease process. Of 47 patients, 33 (70.2%) had either very small or no vegetations but had focal necrosis and inflammation of valve tissue that supported the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  15. Standing equine dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert A; Easley, Jack

    2014-04-01

    Dental surgeries refer to procedures that affect the dental tissues or their supporting structures. With the development of specific, efficacious, and conservative treatments, morbidity risks have been lowered and chances of benefiting the health of equids improved. Advances in quality of sedation, analgesia, and locoregional anesthesia allow a majority of dental surgeries to be performed in the standing patient. This update focuses on an orthograde endodontic technique, a minimally invasive buccotomy technique, with the potential to combine it with a transbuccal screw extraction technique, and revisits the AO pinless external fixator for fractures of the body of the mandible.

  16. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  17. Feline dental disease.

    PubMed

    Frost, P; Williams, C A

    1986-09-01

    Periodontal disease and chronic gingivitis/stomatitis are the most common feline dental diseases. With routine dental care and increased emphasis on home oral hygiene, these diseases can be controlled. Cats can be seen with a number of other dental disorders, and improved treatment methods such as restorations of early subgingival resorptive lesions, endodontic therapy, and orthodontic therapy can be performed successfully. More study and research are necessary about the gingivitis/stomatitis syndrome and subgingival resorptive lesions so that improved prevention and treatment recommendations can be made.

  18. Optimization of dental implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dol, Aleksandr V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy V.

    2017-02-01

    Modern dentistry can not exist without dental implantation. This work is devoted to study of the "bone-implant" system and to optimization of dental prostheses installation. Modern non-invasive methods such as MRI an 3D-scanning as well as numerical calculations and 3D-prototyping allow to optimize all of stages of dental prosthetics. An integrated approach to the planning of implant surgery can significantly reduce the risk of complications in the first few days after treatment, and throughout the period of operation of the prosthesis.

  19. Dental care during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wrzosek, Tanya; Einarson, Adrienne

    2009-06-01

    Many of my patients have asked me if they should defer dental treatment until after they have given birth. Is there any risk associated with performing dental treatments during pregnancy? Appropriate and timely dental care can lead to improved pregnancy outcomes as well as greater comfort for the woman. The treatment of periodontitis, as well as the use of local anesthetics, amalgams, and x-ray scans, does not pose an increased risk to the developing fetus and is, in fact, important in contributing to maintaining optimal health for mother and baby.

  20. Is endocarditis prophylaxis for dental procedures necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Kathryn A; Wilson, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose is to address whether antimicrobial prophylaxis is necessary before certain dental procedures for patients at increased risk for acquiring infective endocarditis (IE). Methods We reviewed recommendations for IE prophylaxis made by the American Heart Association (AHA) from 1995 to the present time. We also compared and contrasted the current recommendations from the AHA, European Society of Cardiology (ESC), United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and a consortium of French organisations. We further reviewed recent papers that have observed the incidence of IE since these current recommendations were published. Results Beginning in the 1990s, questions were raised about the advisability of using antimicrobial prophylaxis before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. Various groups in Europe and the US were increasingly aware that there were not any clinical trials showing the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such prophylaxis. In the early to mid-2000s, the AHA, ESC and French consortium published guidelines recommending restriction of prophylaxis before dental procedures to patients with highest risk for developing IE and/or the highest risk for an adverse outcome from IE. The NICE guidelines eliminated recommendations for prophylaxis before dental procedures. Studies published after these changes were instituted have generally shown that the incidence of IE has not changed, although two recent reports have observed some increased incidence (but not necessarily related to an antecedent dental procedure). Conclusion A multi-national randomised controlled clinical trial that would include individuals from both developed and developing countries around the world is needed to ultimately define whether there is a role for antibiotic prophylaxis administered before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. PMID:28321267

  1. A kinetic model for RNA-interference of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal adhesions are integrin-based cell-matrix contacts that transduce and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from the environment. They develop from smaller and more numerous focal complexes under the influence of mechanical force and are key elements for many physiological and disease-related processes, including wound healing and metastasis. More than 150 different proteins localize to focal adhesions and have been systematically classified in the adhesome project (http://www.adhesome.org). First RNAi-screens have been performed for focal adhesions and the effect of knockdown of many of these components on the number, size, shape and location of focal adhesions has been reported. Results We have developed a kinetic model for RNA interference of focal adhesions which represents some of its main elements: a spatially layered structure, signaling through the small GTPases Rac and Rho, and maturation from focal complexes to focal adhesions under force. The response to force is described by two complementary scenarios corresponding to slip and catch bond behavior, respectively. Using estimated and literature values for the model parameters, three time scales of the dynamics of RNAi-influenced focal adhesions are identified: a sub-minute time scale for the assembly of focal complexes, a sub-hour time scale for the maturation to focal adhesions, and a time scale of days that controls the siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our model shows bistability between states dominated by focal complexes and focal adhesions, respectively. Catch bonding strongly extends the range of stability of the state dominated by focal adhesions. A sensitivity analysis predicts that knockdown of focal adhesion components is more efficient for focal adhesions with slip bonds or if the system is in a state dominated by focal complexes. Knockdown of Rho leads to an increase of focal complexes. Conclusions The suggested model provides a kinetic description of the effect of RNA

  2. Economic impact of dental hygienists on solo dental practices.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J

    2012-08-01

    The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental practices that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from practices that do not? This article explores differences among dental practices that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental Practice, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in practice characteristics--such as hours spent in the practice and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized.

  3. Integrated focal-plane array /IFPA/ approach to large-area infrared focal plane architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A modular approach to IFPA design is presented which makes it possible to obtain a high-density infrared focal plane amendable to parallel manufacturing techniques as well as to serial plane integration and test. The percent fill factor of the design is dependent on the dimension of the individual detectors; each submodule is manufactured from identical components. The technologies including cables, interconnects, multilayer interconnect structures, and subassembly test requirements, which have direct application to scanning as well as staring integrated focal plane arrays, are discussed.

  4. A systematic review of dental disease management in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Catherine H L; Hu, Shijia; Haverman, Thijs; Stokman, Monique; Napeñas, Joel J; Braber, Jacolien Bos-den; Gerber, Erich; Geuke, Margot; Vardas, Emmanouil; Waltimo, Tuomas; Jensen, Siri Beier; Saunders, Deborah P

    2017-07-22

    This systematic review aims to update on the prevalence of odontogenic-related infections and the efficacy of dental strategies in preventing dental-related complications in cancer patients since the 2010 systematic review. A literature search was conducted in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE for articles published between 1 January 2009 and 30 June 2016. Each study was assessed by 2 reviewers and the body of evidence for each intervention was assigned an evidence level. After examination of the abstracts and full-text articles, 59 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. The weighted prevalence of dental infections and pericoronitis during cancer therapy was 5.4 and 5.3%, respectively. The frequency of dental-related infections during intensive chemotherapy after complete, partial, and minimal pre-cancer dental evaluation/treatment protocols ranged from 0 to 4%. Protocols involving third molars extractions had the highest complications (40%). In view of the low prevalence of infections and the potential for complications after third molar extractions, it is suggested that partial dental evaluation/treatment protocols prior to intensive chemotherapy; whereby minor caries (within dentin), asymptomatic third molars or asymptomatic teeth without excessive probing depth (<8 mm), mobility (mobility I or II) or with periapical lesions of <5 mm were observed; is a viable option when there is insufficient time for complete dental evaluation/treatment protocols. The use of chlorhexidine, fluoride mouth rinses as well as composite resin, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GIC), and amalgam restorations over conventional GIC in post head and neck radiation patients who are compliant fluoride users is recommended.

  5. Exploring Attitudes of White Dental Students Regarding Willingness to Treat People with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanine M.; Hoffman, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    A study found that white dental students' (n=144) perceptions of clinical ability, attitudes toward gay men, and white racial attitudes account for both their willingness to provide dental care to patients with HIV disease and their perception of the risk of occupational infection with the disease. Results suggest attitudes regarding cultural…

  6. Exploring Attitudes of White Dental Students Regarding Willingness to Treat People with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanine M.; Hoffman, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    A study found that white dental students' (n=144) perceptions of clinical ability, attitudes toward gay men, and white racial attitudes account for both their willingness to provide dental care to patients with HIV disease and their perception of the risk of occupational infection with the disease. Results suggest attitudes regarding cultural…

  7. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment.

  8. Prosthetic knee arthritis due to Granulicatella adiacens after dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Mougari, F; Jacquier, H; Berçot, B; Hannouche, D; Nizard, R; Cambau, E; Zadegan, F

    2013-10-01

    We report prosthetic knee arthritis in a 55-year-old diabetic man due to Granulicatella adiacens, a micro-organism present in the oral flora, usually described in endocarditis but rarely in prosthesis joint infection. This patient had undergone a dental extraction without antibiotic prophylaxis one month before, and an aseptic loosening of the prosthesis had been diagnosed previously. If antimicrobial prophylaxis against infective endocarditis for dental procedures is well established, such an approach is still controversial for joint prosthesis and should be considered in some conditions.

  9. Focal Cerebral Arteriopathy: Do Steroids Improve Outcome?

    PubMed

    Steinlin, Maja; Bigi, Sandra; Stojanovski, Belinda; Gajera, Jay; Regényi, Maria; El-Koussy, Marwan; Mackay, Mark T

    2017-09-01

    Focal cerebral arteriopathy accounts for up to 35% of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children and is the most important predictor of stroke recurrence. The study objective was to compare outcomes for children with focal cerebral arteriopathy treated with combined corticosteroid antithrombotic treatment (CAT) to those receiving antithrombotic treatment (AT) alone. This multicenter retrospective Swiss/Australian cohort study analyzed consecutive children, aged 1 month to 18 years, presenting with first AIS because of a focal cerebral arteriopathy from 2000 to 2014. Children with CAT were compared with those treated with AT. Primary outcome was the presence of neurological deficits at 6 months post-AIS as measured by the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure. Secondary outcomes included resolution of stenosis and stroke recurrence. Analysis of covariance was used to adjust for potential confounders (baseline pediatric National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and concomitant acyclovir use). A total of 73 children (51% males) were identified, 21 (29%) of whom received CAT. Mean (SD) age at stroke for the entire group was 7.9 years (4.7). Median (interquartile range) pediatric National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 3 (2.0-8.0) in the CAT group and 5 (3.0-9.0) in the AT group (P=0.098). Median (interquartile range) Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure 6 months post-AIS was 0.5 (0-1.5) in the CAT group compared with 1.0 (0.5-2.0) in the AT group (P=0.035), the finding was sustained after adjusting for potential confounders. Complete resolution of stenosis at last MRI was noted in 17 (81%) in the CAT group compared with 24 (59%) in the AT group (P=0.197). Stroke recurrence occurred in 1 patient in each group. Corticosteroid treatment may provide additional benefit over AT for improved neurological outcome in childhood AIS because of focal cerebral arteriopathy. Larger prospective studies are warranted to further investigate these differences and understand mechanisms by

  10. Focal hepatic infarction with bile lake formation

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, I.M.; Neumann, C.H.

    1984-06-01

    Venous thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives is a well recognized phenomenon. Arterial thrombosis, while less common, is also a known risk, as evidenced by the increased incidence of cerebral vascular accidents and myocardial ischemia or infarction. The liver is relatively protected from the usual consequences of arterial thrombosis because of its dual blood supply. The authors present an unusual case of a young woman with a history of oral contraceptive and cigarette use who developed hepatic artery thrombosis and had focal liver lesions on computed tomography (CT) due to hepatic infarction and bile lake formation despite an intact portal venous system.

  11. Laser skin perforator with focal point detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Cabrera, J. L.; Flores, T.

    2006-02-01

    The development of laser skin perforator device for obtaining blood samples is presented. The use of photoelectric proximity photoelectric sensor permits to determine the focal point eliminating any contact and them avoiding the risk of contamination. Perforation of about 0.2 mm - 0.5 mm in diameter can be obtained in order to take the sample of blood. The method permits to make the blood analysis not only avoiding the contamination risk but also diminishing the pain sensation in comparison with metal lancet.

  12. Focal-plane architectures and signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayadev, T. S.

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of focal plane architectures and signal processing functions currently used in infrared sensors. It then discusses the development of an algorithm derived from the models developed by biologists to explain the functions of insect eyes and the hardware realization of this algorithm using commercially available silicon chips. The conclusion of this study is that there are important lessons to be learned from the architecture of biological sensors, which may lead to new techniques in electro-optic sensor design.

  13. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  14. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

  15. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zakher B, Mitchell JP, Pappas M. Preventing dental caries in children <5 years: systematic review updating USPSTF ... chap 7. Ng MW, Chase I. Early childhood caries: risk-based disease prevention and management. Dent Clin ...

  16. American Dental Education Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADEA Application Services ADEA AADSAS® ADEA CAAPID® ADEA PASS® ADEA DHCAS® Career Resources DentEd Jobs Placing Ads ... Students & Residents Prospective Students Application Services AADSAS CAAPID PASS DHCAS ADEA AADSAS Applicants Prospective applicants to dental ...

  17. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  18. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Working Column Journal of Dental Hygiene Author Guidelines Advertising Subscribe Resources Resources About ADHA About Promo (DO ... Member Benefits Footer Copy Legal Inquiries | Contact Us | Advertising | Media Inquiries | Staff / Board Login ©2012-2017 ADHA. ...

  19. Genes and dental disorders

    PubMed Central

    GHERGIE, MIRCEA; COCÎRLA, ELVIRA; LUPAN, IULIA; KELEMEN, BEATRICE S.; POPESCU, OCTAVIAN

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades with the advancement of molecular research, information regarding specific molecular mechanisms has exploded. In the present review we present the molecular basis of dental pathologies that are of particular interest to clinicians. PMID:26527946

  20. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  1. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  2. Infection Control in Air Force Dental Clinics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    sterilization. Cidex 7 and Sporicidin have twice the shelf life, after activation, as Cidex (Table 7). Sterilization with liquid germi- cides such as...with )henol_ - Example Cidex Cidex 7 Sporicidin Immersion time 10 hr 10 hr 6 hr 45 in Shelf life (after 14 days 28 days 30 days activation...Glutaraldehyde, alkaline 2% $ 8.26/gaib None X (example: Cidex ) Glutaraldehyde, alkaline, 2% 13.87/galc None X longer life (example: Cidex 7

  3. Focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord: Imaging diagnosis and surgical resolution

    PubMed Central

    Morisako, Hiroki; Takami, Toshihiro; Yamagata, Toru; Chokyu, Isao; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord can cause progressive symptoms associated with syringomyelia or myelomalacia, its surgical resolution based on the imaging diagnosis is not well characterized. This study aims to describe the use of imaging for the diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord and its surgical resolution using microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients with symptomatic syringomyelia or myelomalacia caused by focal adhesive arachnoiditis underwent microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Comprehensive imaging evaluation using constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelographic MR imaging using true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) sequences was included before surgery to determine the surgical indication. Results: In all four patients a focal adhesion was identified at the cervical or thoracic level of the spinal cord, a consequence of infection or trauma. Three patients showed modest or minor improvement in neurological function, and one patient was unchanged after surgery. The syringomyelia or myelomalacia resolved after surgery and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period, which ranged from 5 months to 30 months. Conclusions: MRI diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis is critical to determine the surgical indication. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis appears to be a straightforward method for stabilizing the progressive symptoms, though the procedure is technically demanding. PMID:21572630

  4. Focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord: Imaging diagnosis and surgical resolution.

    PubMed

    Morisako, Hiroki; Takami, Toshihiro; Yamagata, Toru; Chokyu, Isao; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2010-07-01

    Although adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord can cause progressive symptoms associated with syringomyelia or myelomalacia, its surgical resolution based on the imaging diagnosis is not well characterized. This study aims to describe the use of imaging for the diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord and its surgical resolution using microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Four consecutive patients with symptomatic syringomyelia or myelomalacia caused by focal adhesive arachnoiditis underwent microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Comprehensive imaging evaluation using constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelographic MR imaging using true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) sequences was included before surgery to determine the surgical indication. In all four patients a focal adhesion was identified at the cervical or thoracic level of the spinal cord, a consequence of infection or trauma. Three patients showed modest or minor improvement in neurological function, and one patient was unchanged after surgery. The syringomyelia or myelomalacia resolved after surgery and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period, which ranged from 5 months to 30 months. MRI diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis is critical to determine the surgical indication. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis appears to be a straightforward method for stabilizing the progressive symptoms, though the procedure is technically demanding.

  5. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  6. Dental physical examination.

    PubMed

    Baker, G J

    1998-08-01

    The objectives of the equine dental physical examination are to detect and quantify oral and dental disorders, to propose and carry out their treatment, and to implement management programs. The veterinarian should be able to offer a prognosis and to detail any future treatment or management plans that may be required. These objectives should take into account the cost of these procedures, and the veterinarian should be prepared to offer a cost-benefit analysis of the problem and the proposed cures.

  7. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  8. TRICARE Dental Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    enrollee – $1,500 lifetime maximum for orthodontics – Contractor: Delta Dental of California 2011 MHS Conference TRICARE Retiree Dental Program...Benefits Comprehensive benefits 12-month waiting period for crowns, prosthetics and orthodontics No waiting period if enroll within 120 days of...retiring from active duty or transfer to Retired Reserve status from National Guard or Reserve  Orthodontics for children and adults Accident coverage

  9. Dental considerations in anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dental trauma as a result of anaesthesia practice is a relevant issue concerning morbidity and litigation. The investigator aimed to consolidate pertinent information on this issue to aid in the redressal of such an occurrence. A review of this relevant literature alongwith the author’s suggestions towards the management of the various kinds of dental trauma sustained as a result of anaesthesia practice is presented. PMID:27974970

  10. Dental (Odontogenic) Pain

    PubMed Central

    Renton, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a simple overview of acute trigeminal pain for the non dentist. This article does not cover oral mucosal diseases (vesiculobullous disorders) that may cause acute pain. Dental pain is the most common in this group and it can present in several different ways. Of particular interest for is that dental pain can mimic both trigeminal neuralgia and other chronic trigeminal pain disorders. It is crucial to exclude these disorders whilst managing patients with chronic trigeminal pain. PMID:26527224

  11. Lasers and pediatric dental care.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    There are several types of lasers that will allow pediatric dentists to remove soft tissue (such as diode or Neodynium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers) or remove both hard and soft tissue (such as the Erbium:YAG laser), in addition to photobiostimulation or therapeutic lasers that produce their healing benefits without producing heat. Lasers allow pediatric dentists to provide optimal care without many of the fear factors that result from conventional dental techniques. Lasers are extremely safe and effective when the user has a proper understanding of laser physics. Using lasers for caries removal, bone removal, and soft tissue treatment can reduce postoperative discomfort and infection and make it possible for dentists to provide safe, simple treatments.

  12. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  13. Dental arch analysis system.

    PubMed

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Cozzani, Mauro; Manfredi, Mario; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to describe a computerized method, which enables orthodontists and researchers to analyze variation of dental arch form and dimension. The analysis system is composed of two independent parts: the database, where the images of scanned dental casts are stored, and the software. The operator uses the software to identify some landmarks on dental cast images. Corresponding distances are calculated (interincisive, intercanine and intermolar widths and the curve axis). Then the software algorithms calculate and draw the curves passing trough the selected landmarks (conics, catenary, cubic spline and polynomial curves). In the chosen curves the arch length is measured. The dental cast data, recorded at different times of the subject's life or in different steps of orthodontic treatment, are compared in order to evaluate the change in dimension (arch length and width) and form (shape). The statistical analysis of the data evaluates the variation in form and in dimension separately. The shape change is defined by Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) and Bootstrap analysis. The computerized method allows orthodontists and researches to evaluate the variation in dimension and form of the dental arch in un-treated subjects and-or orthodontic patients over time. After the analysis of a large sample of patients or subjects, information concerning changes in dental arch dimension and form can be added to previous studies of other authors, distinguishing variation during and after orthodontic treatment, during growth or aging.

  14. Mandibular and Dental Manifestations of Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saranjam, Hamid R.; Sidransky, Ellen; Levine, William Z.; Zimran, Ari; Elstein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Gaucher disease is a systemic lysosomal storage disorder with a high prevalence among Ashkenazi Jews. It is caused by an inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Common signs and symptoms include hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and skeletal involvement. Oral and dental manifestations are less commonly seen. These manifestations are often asymptomatic, although they may be detected by routine dental x-rays. There are several case reports and a few larger series published describing patients with Gaucher disease who have mandibulo-maxillofacial involvement. This review aims to examine the oral manifestations observed in Gaucher disease and to suggest practical guidelines for dealing with these often worrisome signs. Among the critical issues are the benign nature of Gaucher cell infiltration of the mandible and the critical importance of being prepared for post-procedure bleeding and/or infections. Therefore, it is essential that dental practitioners be aware of the possible oral and dental complications of Gaucher disease, as well as the available treatment modalities. PMID:22251146

  15. Biofilm and dental implant: The microbial link

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Sangeeta

    2013-01-01

    Mouth provides a congenial environment for the growth of the microorganisms as compared to any other part of the human body by exhibiting an ideal nonshedding surface. Dental plaque happens to be a diverse community of the microorganisms found on the tooth surface. Periodontal disease and the peri-implant disease are specific infections that are originating from these resident microbial species when the balance between the host and the microbial pathogenicity gets disrupted. This review discusses the biofilms in relation to the peri-implant region, factors affecting its presence, and the associated treatment to manage this complex microbial colony. Search Methodology: Electronic search of the medline was done with the search words: Implants and biofilms/dental biofilm formation/microbiology at implant abutment interface/surface free energy/roughness and implant, periimplantitis/local drug delivery and dental implant. Hand search across the journals – clinical oral implant research, implant dentistry, journal of dental research, international journal of oral implantology, journal of prosthetic dentistry, perioodntology 2000, journal of periodontology were performed. The articles included in the review comprised of in vivo studies, in vivo (animal and human) studies, abstracts, review articles. PMID:23633764

  16. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    PubMed

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  17. Visual function and perinatal focal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E; Atkinson, J; Braddick, O; Anker, S; Nokes, L; Cowan, F; Rutherford, M; Pennock, J; Dubowitz, L

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the visual function of infants with perinatal cerebral infarction in whom the site and size of the lesion has been determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Twelve infants with cerebral infarction on MRI were studied with a battery of tests specifically designed to evaluate visual function in infancy. This included tests: for visual attention (fixation shifts); of cerebral asymmetry (optokinetic nystagmus, visual fields); for assessment of acuity (forced choice preferential looking); and neurophysiological measures of vision (phase reversal and orientation reversal visual evoked potential). RESULTS: A considerable incidence of abnormalities on at least one of the tests for visual function used was observed. The presence or severity of visual abnormalities could not always be predicted by the site and extent of the lesion seen on imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Early focal lesions affecting the visual pathway can, to some extent, be compensated for by the immature developing brain. These data suggest that all the infants presenting with focal lesions need to be investigated with a detailed assessment of various aspects of vision. Images PMID:8949687

  18. Small pixel oversampled IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulfield, John; Curzan, Jon; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir

    2015-06-01

    We report on a new high definition high charge capacity 2.1 Mpixel MWIR Infrared Focal Plane Array. This high definition (HD) FPA utilizes a small 5 um pitch pixel size which is below the Nyquist limit imposed by the optical systems Point Spread Function (PSF). These smaller sub diffraction limited pixels allow spatial oversampling of the image. We show that oversampling IRFPAs enables improved fidelity in imaging including resolution improvements, advanced pixel correlation processing to reduce false alarm rates, improved detection ranges, and an improved ability to track closely spaced objects. Small pixel HD arrays are viewed as the key component enabling lower size, power and weight of the IR Sensor System. Small pixels enables a reduction in the size of the systems components from the smaller detector and ROIC array, the reduced optics focal length and overall lens size, resulting in an overall compactness in the sensor package, cooling and associated electronics. The highly sensitive MWIR small pixel HD FPA has the capability to detect dimmer signals at longer ranges than previously demonstrated.

  19. Musical anhedonia after focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Evans, Erin; Heskje, Jonah; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    People listen to music because it is pleasurable. However, there are individual differences in the reward value of music. At the extreme low end of this continuum, individuals who derive no pleasure from music are said to have 'musical anhedonia.' Cases of acquired musical anhedonia following focal brain damage are rare, with only a handful having been reported in the scientific literature. Here, we surveyed a large sample of patients with focal brain damage to identify the frequency, specificity, and neural correlates of acquired musical anhedonia. Participants completed the Musical anhedonia Questionnaire and the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (Mas-Herrero et al., 2013) to assess changes in musical enjoyment and reward following brain injury. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps. No clear or consistent neuroanatomical correlates of musical anhedonia were identified. One patient with damage to the right-hemisphere putamen and internal capsule displayed specific and severe acquired musical anhedonia. These findings indicate that acquired musical anhedonia is very uncommon, a result which is consistent with the fact that only a small number of such cases have been reported in the literature. This rarity could have positive implications for the therapeutic potentialities of music in patients with severe neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New developments in renal focal therapy.

    PubMed

    Autorino, Riccardo; Haber, Georges-Pascal; White, Michael A; Stein, Robert J; Kaouk, Jihad H

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to review recent advances and to provide future perspectives in renal focal therapy. Most relevant available data from current literature and reports from major urological meetings as well as clinical and experimental experience at our institution have been considered. Effective treatment of incidentally detected small renal masses continues to evolve. Major recent advances have been made toward three main directions: enhancing accuracy of probe positioning, improving ablative energy efficiency, and reducing treatment-related morbidity. Renal focal therapy can offer the advantage of combining a nephron-sparing surgery together with a minimally invasive approach. Technical refinements will include emerging clinical data for radiofrequency and cryoablation. Single-port access renal cryotherapy has been shown to be feasible and safe. Although in its infancy, natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery might represent a further step toward scarless surgery. Radiosurgery is under investigation and oncological outcomes are awaited to determine its role. Stereotactic surgical navigation and robotic needle placement would facilitate and increase the accuracy of percutaneous probe placement.