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Sample records for focal infection dental

  1. The role of focal infections in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Spałkowska, Magdalena; Podbielska, Magdalena; Chmielewska, Joanna; Wołek, Marta; Malec, Katarzyna; Wojas-Pelc, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Focal Infection Theory, originally presented at the beginning of the 20th century, postulates that systemic diseases can be caused by microorganisms that arise from the focus of infection. Foci of infections have been described as sinuses, adenoids, tonsils, teeth, genitourinary tract, gall bladder and kidneys. A focus of infection is defined as the area that can occur in any part of the body, contains a pathogen (microorganism) and is usually asymptomatic. There are discordant opinions about the role of focal infections in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and urticaria. Aim To establish whether there is a higher incidence of focal infections in patients with chronic urticaria and psoriasis. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed 129 patients with a history of psoriasis and chronic urticaria: 58 women and 71 men treated in the Department of Dermatology of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in Krakow. Results In the analyzed group, 11 patients had a dental consultation, 58 – laryngological consultation and 29 women had a gynecological consultation. The most common examples of focal infection were tonsillitis, upper respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, dental caries and genitourinary tract infections. Aggravating factors were similar to previously described. Conclusions A high incidence of focal infections in patients with psoriasis and urticaria suggests that infections may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders. Treatment of infection foci may play the key role in the remission of skin changes. PMID:24278052

  2. Retrospective analysis of the clinical response of palmoplantar pustulosis after dental infection control and dental metal removal.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Michiyoshi; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Minabe, Masaki; Iguchi, Naohiko; Ukichi, Kenichiro; Nomura, Takeshi; Katakura, Akira; Takahashi, Shinichi

    2017-02-02

    Both metal allergy and dental focal infection have been considered as causative factors for palmoplantar pustulosis, and several case reports described that the skin lesions were ameliorated after dental metal removal or dental infection control. However, limited data are available to evaluate the association of these factors with disease severity of palmoplantar pustulosis. This study is designed to analyze the clinical outcome of 85 palmoplantar pustulosis patients after dental infection control (n = 70), tonsillectomy (n = 6) and dental metal removal (n = 9). More than half of the patients (63%, 44/70) showed positive clinical outcome after dental infection control. The skin lesions of all patients with tonsillitis were improved after tonsillectomy (100%, 6/6). On the other hand, one-third of patients (33%, 3/9) showed positive response after dental metal removal. These results suggest that focal infection is more closely associated with palmoplantar pustulosis than dental metal allergy. According to our findings, palmoplantar pustulosis patients should be preferentially examined for focal infections.

  3. Infection Control in the Dental Office.

    PubMed

    Sebastiani, Francesco R; Dym, Harry; Kirpalani, Tarun

    2017-04-01

    The goal of an infection control program is to provide a safe working environment for dental health care personnel and their patients. Practitioners can achieve this by adopting measures that reduce health care-associated infections among patients and occupational exposures among dental health care personnel. It is crucial for all dental practitioners to be up to date on current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, equipment, and techniques for proper infection control. Continuous evaluation of infection control practices is important. Patients and dental providers should be confident that oral health care can be delivered and received in a safe manner.

  4. Management of infection control in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Creanor, S; Hurrell, D; Bagg, J; McCowan, M

    2009-04-01

    This was an observational study in which the management policies and procedures associated with infection control and instrument decontamination were examined in 179 dental surgeries by a team of trained surveyors. Information relating to the management of a wide range of infection control procedures, in particular the decontamination of dental instruments, was collected by interview and by examination of practice documentation. This study found that although the majority of surgeries (70%) claimed to have a management policy on infection control, only 50% of these were documented. For infection control policies, 79% of surgeries had access to the British Dental Association Advice Sheet A12. Infection control policies were claimed to be present in 89% of surgeries, of which 62% were documented. Seventy-seven per cent of staff claimed to have received specific infection control training, but for instrument decontamination this was provided mainly by demonstration (97%) or observed practice (88%). Many dental nurses (74%) and dental practitioners (57%) did not recognise the symbol used to designate a single-use device. Audit of infection control or decontamination activities was undertaken in 11% of surgeries. The majority of surgeries have policies and procedures for the management of infection control in dental practice, but in many instances these are not documented. The training of staff in infection control and its documentation is poorly managed and consideration should be given to development of quality management systems for use in dental practice.

  5. [Focal infection in children - an underestimated problem].

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska, Tamara; Pawlaczyk-Wróblewska, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the problem of joint inflammation based on the case of a 3 years old girl in whom the changes occurred in the lower limbs. The detailed diagnostic investigations confirmed the existence of the active focus in the oral cavity. The paper presents the case of a 3-year old girl with lower limbs joints inflamation. After their extraction a complete remission of inflammatory markers was achieved, which confirmed the correctness existence of an active focus. Furthermore, the presented case report demonstrates that oral health is a very important factor, which should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of systemic diseases, including rheumathoid arthritis. It proves also that prevention of dental caries and oral hygiene should be implemented from early childhood.

  6. Age, dental infections, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K J; Asikainen, S; Wolf, J; Jousimies-Somer, H; Valtonen, V; Nieminen, M

    2000-02-01

    Epidemiological and intervention studies have suggested that infections are risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dental infections have appeared as cardiovascular risk factors in cross-sectional and in follow-up studies, and the association has been independent of the "classic" coronary risk factors. This case-control study aimed at detailed assessment of the dental pathology found in various CHD categories (including elderly patients). Altogether, 85 patients with proven coronary heart disease and 53 random controls, matched for sex, age, geographic area, and socio-economic status, were compared with regard to dental status, assessed blindly with four separate scores, and to the "classic" coronary risk factors (seven of the controls had CHD, and they were not included in the analyses). The dental indices were higher among CHD patients than in the controls, but, contrary to previous studies, the differences were not significant (between the CHD patients and their matched controls or among the different CHD categories). This result could not be explained by potential confounding factors. The participants in the present study were older and had more often undergone recent dental treatment in comparison with subjects in our earlier studies. Age correlated with the severity of dental infections only in the random controls but not in the coronary patients who, although young, already had high dental scores. We believe that the higher age of the participants in the present study is the most likely reason for the results. Other possible explanations include an age-related selection bias among older CHD patients, and the fact that those participating in studies like this may have better general health and thus also less severe dental infections. Thus, the role of dental infections as a coronary risk factor varies according to the characteristics of the population studied.

  7. Dental management of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Aldous, J A

    1990-11-01

    In 1981, a group of male homosexuals was found to have an immunological defect resulting in opportunistic infections. The pattern of symptoms became known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much time and expense have been invested to study the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), prevent its spread, and find a cure for HIV infection. Fear of HIV infection has resulted in implementation of stricter infection control practices. Intervention by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated procedures for infection control and waste disposal. Ethical questions and social problems have surfaced concerning the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Despite reports on infection control, literature concerning management of HIV-infected dental patients is limited. Misinformation has prevented the application of reliable information about the care of HIV-infected individuals. An accurate general knowledge of HIV infection is essential for optimal care of these patients.

  8. Infections Control in North American Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Elise; Dhuru, Virendra B.

    1989-01-01

    Results from 1982 and 1987 surveys of dental schools concerning infection control issues found greater recent emphasis on instrument sterilization and barrier use, but some inconsistency and confusion concerning hepatitis B and HIV virus carrier patients and personnel. The information was used to develop guidelines for school policy formation.…

  9. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: a multifocal oral human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Flaitz, C M

    2000-01-01

    Widespread, slightly elevated and confluent nodules are observed throughout the oral mucosa in a young Hispanic girl. Repeated irritation of the soft tissues from a compromised occlusion is an aggravating factor for the spread of these lesions. A diagnosis of focal epithelial hyperplasia, a human papillomavirus infection, is made following histopathologic diagnosis and viral typing. Recognition of this specific type of warts is important in order to avoid the mistaken identification of condyloma acuminata, which may have significant repercussions in the life of a young child.

  10. Focal Hyperhidrosis Associated with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Madhwapathi, Vidya; Ladoyanni, Evmorfia

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis affects almost 3% of the population and is characterized by sweating that occurs in excess of that needed for normal thermoregulation. It can occur as a primary disease or secondary to underlying clinical conditions. Hyperhidrosis can stem from neurogenic sympathetic over activity involving normal eccrine glands. We report the interesting case of a 75-year-old male patient with a 6-month history of new onset secondary focal hyperhidrosis of buttocks, pelvis, and upper thighs. Each time his symptoms worsened he was found to have culture positive urine samples for Escherichia coli (E. coli). He underwent urological investigation and was found to have urethral strictures and cystitis. The hyperhidrosis improved each time his urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated with antibiotics and continued to remain stable with a course of prophylactic trimethoprim. We hypothesize that the patient's urethral strictures led to inhibition in voiding which in turn increased the susceptibility to UTIs. Accumulation of urine and increased bladder pressure in turn raised sympathetic nerve discharge leading to excessive sweating. We recommend that a urine dip form part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with new onset focal hyperhidrosis of pelvis, buttocks, and upper thighs. Timely urological referral should be made for all male patients with recurrent UTI. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no other reports of UTI-associated focal hyperhidrosis. PMID:27379188

  11. Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Dental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi-Woong; Yoon, Hyun-Joong; Jung, Da-Woon; Lee, Sang-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is defined as rapidly progressive necrosis of subcutaneous fat and fascia. Although NF of the face is rare, its mortality rate is nearly 30%. It usually originates from dental infection and can lead to involvement of the neck, mediastinum, and chest wall. Complications resulting from pre-existing systemic diseases can increase the mortality rate. Known complication factors for NF include diabetes, malnutrition, advanced age, peripheral vascular disease, renal failure, and obesity. Here, we report a case of NF originating from dental infection in an 88-year-old woman already diagnosed with hypertension, thoracic aortic aneurysm, and renal diseases. Such conditions limited adequate surgical and antibiotic treatment. However, interdisciplinary treatment involving multiple departments was implemented with good results. PMID:27489813

  12. The relative contribution of co-infection to focal infection risk in children.

    PubMed

    Lello, Joanne; Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Khamis, I Simba; Utzinger, Jürg; Viney, Mark E

    2013-03-07

    Co-infection is ubiquitous in people in the developing world but little is known regarding the potential for one parasite to act as a risk factor for another. Using generalized linear mixed modelling approaches applied to data from school-aged children from Zanzibar, Tanzania, we determined the strength of association between four focal infections (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and self-reported fever, the latter used as a proxy for viral, bacterial or protozoal infections) and the prevalence or intensity of each of the helminth infections. We compared these potential co-infections with additional risk factors, specifically, host sex and age, socioeconomic status and physical environment, and determined what the relative contribution of each risk factor was. We found that the risk of infection with all four focal infections was strongly associated with at least one other infection, and that this was frequently dependent on the intensity of that other infection. In comparison, no other incorporated risk factor was associated with all focal infections. Successful control of infectious diseases requires identification of infection risk factors. This study demonstrates that co-infection is likely to be one of these principal risk factors and should therefore be given greater consideration when designing disease-control strategies. Future work should also incorporate other potential risk factors, including host genetics which were not available in this study and, ideally, assess the risks via experimental manipulation.

  13. Dental follicle infection following a dog bite.

    PubMed

    Wright, G; Muir, M L; Bryan, R; Smith, A J; Hosey, M T

    2006-03-01

    Animal bite wounds and their subsequent infection are relatively common. Incidence rates for dog bites are significantly higher among children aged 0-9 years, especially among boys. Although bite wounds may initially look innocuous, they frequently lead to serious infection with a potential for life-threatening complications. The microbiology of dog bite wounds is usually polymicrobial, typically including anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella species. A case is described of a 22-month-old boy who, subsequent to a dog bite over the left maxilla, suffered infection of the dental follicle of the primary maxillary canine with Pasteurella multocida. The infection proved difficult to treat, requiring several attempts at incision and drainage of the abscess together with systemic antibiotics, and resulted in the eventual loss of the tooth.

  14. Infection-Related Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dettmar, Anne Katrin; Oh, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common cause of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. It describes a unique histological picture of glomerular damage resulting from several causes. In the majority of patients the causing agent is still unknown, but in some cases viral association is evident. In adults, the most established FSGS causing virus is the human immune-deficiency virus, which is related to a collapsing variant of FSGS. Nevertheless, other viruses are also suspected for causing a collapsing or noncollapsing variant, for example, hepatitis B virus, parvovirus B19, and Cytomegalovirus. Although the systemic infection mechanism is different for these viruses, there are similarities in the pathomechanism for the induction of FSGS. As the podocyte is the key structure in the pathogenesis of FSGS, a direct infection of these cells or immediate damage through the virus or viral components has to be considered. Although viral infections are a very rare cause for FSGS in children, the treating pediatric nephrologist has to be aware of a possible underlying infection, as this has a relevant impact on therapy and prognosis. PMID:27294131

  15. Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11-year-old child: case report.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Christine E; Nguyen, Trang D

    2012-01-01

    A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy. This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child. A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient's medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures. A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging. The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

  16. Displacement of dental implants into the focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect: a report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Chil; Jeong, Chang-Hwa; Im, Ho-Yong; Kim, Seong-Young; Ryu, Jae-Young; Yeom, Hak-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Focal osteoporotic bone marrow defect (FOBMD) is a radiolucent area corresponding to the presence of hematopoietic tissue rarely found in the jaws. FOBMD is most commonly located in the mandibular edentulous posterior area of a middle-aged female. From November 2011 to November 2012, we experienced three cases involving removal of implants that had accidentally fallen into the FOBMD area. All patients happened to be female, with a mean age of 54 years (range: 51-60 years). One case involved hypoesthesia of the lower lip and chin, while two cases healed without any complication. Displacement of an implant into the FOBMD area is an unusual event, which occurs rarely during placement of a dental fixture. The purpose of this study was to report on three cases of FOBMD and to provide a review of related literature. PMID:24471025

  17. Focal adhesion kinase maintains, but not increases the adhesion of dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yuyan; Shao, Meiying; Zou, Wenlin; Wang, Linyan; Cheng, Ran; Hu, Tao

    2017-02-25

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) functions as a key enzyme in the integrin-mediated adhesion-signalling pathway. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of FAK on adhesion of human dental pulp (HDP) cells. We transfected lentiviral vectors to silence or overexpress FAK in HDP cells ex vivo. Early cell adhesion, cell survival and focal contacts (FCs)-related proteins (FAK and paxillin) were examined. By using immunofluorescence, the formation of FCs and cytoskeleton was detected, respectively. We found that both adhesion and survival of HDP cells were suppressed by FAK inhibition. However, FAK overexpression slightly inhibited cell adhesion and exhibited no change in cell survival compared with the control. A thick rim of cytoskeleton accumulated and smaller dot-shaped FCs appeared in FAK knockdown cells. Phosphorylation of paxillin (p-paxillin) was inhibited in FAK knockdown cells, verifying that the adhesion was inhibited. Less cytoskeleton and elongated FCs were observed in FAK-overexpressed cells. However, p-paxillin had no significant difference compared with the control. In conclusion, the data suggest that FAK maintains cell adhesion, survival and cytoskeleton formation, but excessive FAK has no positive effects on these aspects.

  18. [Outcomes of Infection Control Team Inspections at the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Okihata, Rie; Tsuruoka, Hiromi; Yamada, Yuichi; Adachi, Toshiko; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-07-01

    In the Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, an infection control team (ICT) has been formed to inspect each diagnosis department of clinics and wards in order to identify problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In this study, we analyzed the inspection reports and highlighted the following serious problems: 1) inadequate hygienic hand-washing for out- and in-patient treatment, 2) incomplete wearing of personal protective equipment (PPE) by dental health care workers, 3) necessity of environmental improvement in the clinics, and 4) cross-infection risk induced by. the continuous use of treatment devices without appropriate disinfection. The ICT provided feedback to the inspected departments, suggesting solutions to problems regarding nosocomial infection control. In order to enhance infection control in our hospital, dental healthcare practitioners must make further efforts on nosocomial infection control and prevention, and act according to their position by continuously educating students and enlightening hospital staff about the importance of infection control.

  19. Granulicatella adiacens prosthetic hip joint infection after dental treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sundararajan, Sabapathy; Teferi, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Granulicatella adiacens is a Gram-positive bacteria and a normal component of oral flora. It is also found in dental plaques, endodontic abscesses and can rarely cause more serious infections. Case presentation: We describe a prosthetic hip joint infection in an 81-year-old fit and healthy man due to Granulicatella adiacens who underwent a prolonged dental intervention two days earlier without antibiotic prophylaxis. The infection was successfully treated with surgical intervention and a combination of antibiotics. The patient eventually succumbed to severe community-acquired pneumonia two months later. Conclusion: Current guidelines recommend avoidance of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to dental treatment in patients who have no co-morbidities and no prior operation on the index prosthetic joint. This case report indicates that infections of prosthetic joints may be associated with dental procedures even in fit and healthy patients without the recognized risk factors. PMID:28348763

  20. Perceived dental needs and attitudes toward dental treatments in HIV-infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2012-01-01

    Despite the advancement in highly active antiretroviral therapy and improved health status of HIV-infected individuals, dental problems are still affecting their life and well-beings. We aimed to establish the prevalence of oral and dental complaints among HIV-infected patients, the prevalence of delayed access to dental service, and factors related with delayed access to dental service. A cross-sectional study using self-report questionnaire completed by the HIV-positive subjects was conducted at the largest HIV research clinic in Thailand during 2009-2010. Of all 299 subjects (28.6% males, 71% females, and 0.4% sex change from male to female: ages ranged from 22 to 59 years [mean 36.7±5.53)]), 84.3% reported of having past or present illnesses or problems related to the dental or oral conditions. The most reported problems were dental hypersensitivity (93.3%), bleeding from the gum (92.1%), and having dental caries (65.9%). Two-hundred and forty-two subjects (80.9%) would not disclose their HIV status when seeing a dentist. The most cited reasons of such behavior were their personal right whether to reveal or not, and being afraid of not receiving dental treatment from the dentists or staffs (51.7 and 40.9%, respectively). It is important to note that HIV-subjects admitted to having fear of being discriminated by the dental staffs even if they trusted their dentists as having high morality. In conclusion, our HIV-subjects had good basic knowledge of oral health with regard to HIV infection, experienced common dental problems, and wished to have accesses to HIV-dental specialist services, if possible.

  1. Focal epithelial hyperplasia arising after delivery of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Woo; Cho, Young-Ah; Kim, Soung-Min; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Suk-Keun

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced alteration of the oral mucosa that presents with a clinically distinct appearance. While other HPV-infected lesions such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum involve the skin, oral mucosa, and genital mucosa, FEH occurs only in the oral mucosa. The affected oral mucosa exhibits multiple papules and nodules with each papule/nodule being flat-topped or sessile. The affected region resembles the normal color of oral mucosa rather than appearing as a white color since the epithelial surface is not hyperkeratinized. Almost all cases present with multiple sites of occurrence. This rare, benign epithelial proliferation is related to low-risk HPV, especially HPV-13 and -32, and is not transformed into carcinoma. We report a case of FEH that arose on the attached gingiva of an East Asian male adult related to prosthesis without detection of any HPV subtype in HPV DNA chip and sequencing.

  2. General medicine and surgery for dental practitioners: part 4. Infections and infection control.

    PubMed

    Jakubovics, N; Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G

    2014-07-01

    Infection control and knowledge of common infectious agents is a cornerstone of safe dental practice. This paper summarises the measures that need to be taken to control cross infection and discusses some of the infectious agents of concern to dental practitioners.

  3. sup 111 In-labeled nonspecific immunoglobulin scanning in the detection of focal infection

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.H.; Fischman, A.J.; Callahan, R.J.; Khaw, B.A.; Keech, F.; Ahmad, M.; Wilkinson, R.; Strauss, H.W. )

    1989-10-05

    We performed radionuclide scanning after the intravenous injection of human IgG labeled with indium-111 in 128 patients with suspected focal sites of inflammation. Localization of 111In-labeled IgG correlated with clinical findings in 51 infected patients (21 with abdominal or pelvic infections, 11 with intravascular infections, 7 with pulmonary infections, and 12 with skeletal infections). Infecting organisms included gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Candida albicans. No focal localization of 111In-labeled IgG was observed in 63 patients without infection. There were five false negative results, and nine results were unusable. Serial scans were carried out in eight patients: continued localization correctly predicted relapse in six, and the absence of localization indicated resolution in two. To determine whether 111In-labeled IgG localization was specific for inflammation, we studied 16 patients with cancer. Focal localization occurred in 13 of these patients (5 with melanomas, 5 with gynecologic cancers, and 1 each with lymphoma, prostate cancer, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma). No localization was seen in patients with renal or colon cancer or metastatic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. We conclude that 111In-labeled IgG imaging is effective for the detection of focal infection and that serial scans may be useful in assessing therapeutic efficacy. This technique may also be helpful in the evaluation of certain cancers.

  4. Focal epithelial hyperplasia arising after delivery of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Woo; Cho, Young-Ah; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Suk-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced alteration of the oral mucosa that presents with a clinically distinct appearance. While other HPV-infected lesions such as squamous papilloma, verruca vulgaris, and condyloma acuminatum involve the skin, oral mucosa, and genital mucosa, FEH occurs only in the oral mucosa. The affected oral mucosa exhibits multiple papules and nodules with each papule/nodule being flat-topped or sessile. The affected region resembles the normal color of oral mucosa rather than appearing as a white color since the epithelial surface is not hyperkeratinized. Almost all cases present with multiple sites of occurrence. This rare, benign epithelial proliferation is related to low-risk HPV, especially HPV-13 and -32, and is not transformed into carcinoma. We report a case of FEH that arose on the attached gingiva of an East Asian male adult related to prosthesis without detection of any HPV subtype in HPV DNA chip and sequencing. PMID:25558348

  5. Infections of cervical disc space after dental extractions

    PubMed Central

    Feigenbaum, J. A.; Stern, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Two patients with infections of the cervical intervertebral disc space after dental procedures carried out by the same oral surgeon exhibited similar clinical courses and radiographic appearances. Both had bacteriological confirmation of infection by needle aspiration and were treated with appropriate antibiotics and bracing of the neck. The presumed aetiology and the possible pathogenesis are described. Evidence suggests that the two infections were the result of needle injection of a contaminated solution, the organisms of which haematogenously lodged in the intervertebral discs in the cervical region. Lymph drainage from the gums and teeth is suggested as a possible route of inoculation. Images PMID:4449000

  6. Clinicopathological evaluation of 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts with emphasis on the presence of odontogenic epithelium in the connective tissue. The hypothesis of “focal ameloblastoma”

    PubMed Central

    Meleti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Some ameloblastomas presumably originate from odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue of dental follicles and dentigerous cysts. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to discuss as whether odontogenic epithelium proliferations, frankly displaying ameloblastomatous features (“focal ameloblastoma”), should be considered as an “early” ameloblastoma. Study Design: Histopathological reports from 164 dental follicles and dentigerous cysts from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology of the VU Free University medical center in Amsterdam, The Ne-therlands, were reviewed. Histopathological slides from 39 cases reporting the presence of odontogenic epithelium within the connective tissue were re-evaluated in order to assess the possible presence of focal ameloblastomas. Results: Focal ameloblastomas were detected in one dental follicle and in two dentigerous cysts. During a follow-up period of 6, 8 and 22 years, respectively, no clinical signs of (recurrent) ameloblastoma have occurred in these patients. Conclusions: Focal ameloblastoma possibly represents the early stage of ameloblastoma development. Key words:Ameloblastoma, odontogenic epithelium, dentigerous cyst, dental follicle. PMID:23085710

  7. Fatal thalamic abscess secondary to dental infection.

    PubMed

    Basyuni, Shadi; Sharma, Valmiki; Santhanam, Vijay; Ferro, Ashley

    2015-12-17

    We present the case of poor neurological recovery and subsequent death secondary to a thalamic abscess in a 53-year-old man. This patient initially presented with sudden dysarthria and left hemiparesis while driving. Neuroimaging showed a multilobular abscess involving the right thalamus with oedema extending to the basal ganglionic region and brainstem. The source of the abscess was initially unknown and it required draining multiple times while the different causes were being explored. The patient's neurological state along with intubation made for a difficult and inconclusive oral examination. It was only after neuroimaging included tooth-bearing areas that it became evident that this patient had extensive periodontal disease with multiple areas of periapical radiolucencies. The patient underwent complete dental clearance alongside repeated drainage of the abscess. Despite initial postoperative improvement, the patient never recovered from the neurological damage and died 3 weeks later.

  8. Identification of focal viral infections by confocal microscopy for subsequent ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, S E; Levenson, R M; Aldridge, C; Hester, S; Kenan, D J; Howell, D N

    1997-01-01

    A correlative microscopy method for the ultrastructural analysis of focal viral tissue infections is presented. Using a confocal scanning laser microscope, foci of infection are identified in tissue sections prior to embedment; a variety of techniques can be employed for viral detection, including staining with standard histochemical reagents and fluorescently labeled antibodies. Areas of infection identified using confocal microscopy are excised from the tissue sections, embedded, and examined by transmission electron microscopy. Applications of this technique in both diagnostic and basic research settings are described.

  9. Prevalence of GBV-C infection among dental personnel.

    PubMed

    Roy, Kirsty M; Bagg, Jeremy; Kennedy, Catherine; Cameron, Sheila; Simmonds, Peter; Lycett, Carol; Hunter, Iain; Taylor, Margie

    2003-05-01

    Healthcare workers who carry out exposure-prone procedures are theoretically at increased risk of acquiring blood-borne virus infections. GB virus C (GBV-C) is a recently described blood-borne virus that is related distantly to hepatitis C virus. The occupational risk of GBV-C infection to healthcare workers is unknown. This study collected detailed occupational and personal risk data in parallel with a blood specimen, to establish the prevalence and determinants of GBV-C infection among dental healthcare workers. The presence of GBV-C antibodies was detected using commercially available ELISA; GBV-C RNA was detected by nested PCR using primers from the conserved 5' noncoding region. The overall prevalence of GBV-C antibodies among the study population was 11.1% (98/880, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1-13.4%) and 4.6% were positive for GBV-C RNA (46/879, 95% CI, 2.5-5.1%), resulting in a cumulative prevalence of 15.7%. These figures are similar to those described in other populations. There was no significant difference in lifetime exposure to GBV-C between dentists (17.7%) and dental nurses/hygienists (14.3%). Significantly more dental nurses/hygienists aged 16-30 years had been exposed to GBV-C compared to dentists of the same age (chi(2) = 13.75; P < 0.001). Conversely, significantly more dentists 46 years or older had evidence of exposure to GBV-C compared to dental nurses/hygienists (chi(2) = 6.79; P = 0.009). The high prevalence of GBV-C infection did not seem to be related to past parenteral exposure, and the data suggest that sexual transmission, rather than occupational transmission, was a more important route for GBV-C infection among this population.

  10. Oral and dental lesions in HIV infected Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Abe, Elizabeth Oluwatoyin; Agelebe, Efeturi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates. Methods A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons. Results The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study. Conclusion Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs. PMID:26161210

  11. Breaking the Chain of Infection: Dental Unit Water Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Amrita; Mehta, Sonia; Dang, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The air–water syringes, ultrasonic scalers, high speed air turbine handpieces are connected to dental units by a network of small-bore plastic tubes through which water and air travel to activate or cool the instruments and it had been shown that this system is extensively contaminated with microbial biofilms and pose a potential risk of infection for patients as well as dental professionals. Aim To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants in reducing the microbial colony count in water derived from Dental Unit Waterlines. Materials and Methods Five random dental units were selected and samples were collected before and after intervention with 5 disinfectants (0.02% H2O2 continuously, 0.02% H2O2 continuously with shock treatment with 0.25% H2O2 weekly, 0.12% Chlorohexidine and 12% Ethanol overnight, 1:50 Original Listerine overnight, 2% Sodium Perborate and 2% EDTA 5 minutes in morning) using different disinfection methods for 4 weeks. Samples were cultured on Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) agar for microbial counting. Results Results were recorded as Colony forming units/ml (cfu/ml) and were evaluated statistically. Results showed that all the dental unit waterlines were heavily contaminated with microbes before any intervention. After 1 day of disinfection regime the counts reduced significantly and showed progressive reduction in consecutive weeks. Goals set by ADA & CDC were ultimately achieved at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion All the disinfectants were equally effective in reducing the microbial colony count of DUWLs, irrespective of their concentration and method of disinfection. PMID:27630960

  12. Compliance with infection control practices in an university hospital dental clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mutters, Nico T.; Hägele, Ulrike; Hagenfeld, Daniel; Hellwig, Elmar; Frank, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Compliance with infection control practices is the key to quality care and excellence in dentistry. Infection control remains one of the most cost-beneficial interventions available. However, implementing control procedures requires full compliance of the whole dental team. The aim of our study was to measure the compliance in daily clinical practice. Methods: The compliance with infection control practices in dentistry by dental health care personnel (DHCP) in a German university dental clinic was observed during clinical work. In addition, a survey was conducted to assess the individual knowledge about infection control procedures. Contamination of the workplace during invasive dental procedures was tested, as well. Results: A total of 58 invasive dental treatments implying close contacts between HCWs and patients were scrutinized. All HCWs (100%) wore gloves during dental work, but in some cases (female dentists: 14.3%; dental assistants: 28.6%) gloves were neither changed nor hands were disinfected between different activities or patient contacts (female dentists: 68.6%; male dentists: 60.9%; dental assistants: 93%). Only 31.4% of female and 39.1% of male dentists carried out adequate hygienic hand disinfection after removing gloves. Male dentists wore significantly more often (100%) protective eyewear compared to 77.1% of female dentists (p<0.05). In addition, most of female dentists (62.9%) and dental assistants (80.7%) wore jewelry during dental procedures. Conclusion: Despite the knowledge of distinct hygiene procedures only a small percentage of dental staff performs hygiene practices according to recommended guidelines. Strict audit is clearly needed in the dental setting to ensure compliance with infection control guidelines to prevent transmission of pathogens. Our results provide insights for the development of a targeted education and training strategy to enhance compliance of dental staff especially of dental assistants with infection control

  13. Assessing cross infection prevention measures at the Dental Clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, J O; Aderinokun, G A

    2002-09-01

    The dental clinic is an environment where disease transmission occurs easily. Prevention of cross infection in the dental clinic is therefore a crucial aspect of dental practice and dental clinic workers must adopt certain basic routines while practising. This study evaluates basic routines in prevention of cross-infection in the dental clinic, University College Hospital Ibadan. The sample comprised 77 dental clinic workers, who completed closed-ended questionnaires. The questionnaires enquired into practices of the workers in the clinic as well as in the laboratories Physical inspection of dental equipment, instruments and materials was also carried out. The results highlight poor compliance of workers, especially the dental surgeons and students, with the hepatitis B vaccination programme of the Hospital. History to identify high risk individuals was often overlooked and was practised by less than 50% of the clinic workers. Barrier technique with the exception of the use of eye shield, was well practised by all the clinic workers. Aseptic technique was well practised in the dental clinic. Inadequate number of dental surgery assistants, faulty sterilizing equipment, poor monitoring of sterilization, coupled with inadequate number of instruments contributed to the poor success of prevention of contamination and instrument processing procedures. Less than 30% of dental surgeons and fewer than 50% of students discarded sharp materials into the yellow/sharp bin. Liquid waste was well disposed off through the drain for onward flow into the sewer, whilst the disposal of solid contaminated waste did not conform to stipulated international standard. The study found that successful infection control in the dental clinic was highly dependent on the dental surgery assistants, because highly technological equipment were lacking. The management/administration also plays an important role in the number of physical and human resources available and in the overall surveillance

  14. [Hygiene education in the Laureate Course of Dentistry and Dental Prosthetics: evaluation of student knowledge about the risk of infection in a dental practice environment].

    PubMed

    Minelli, L; Vescarelli, I; Pasquarella, C; Montagna, M T; Castiglia, P; Liguori, G; Annino, I; Bergomi, M; Fabiani, L; Gregorio, P; Majori, S; Petti, S; Stampi, S; Tarsitani, G; Monarca, S

    2003-01-01

    Hygiene education for dental students is crucial in order to control and reduce the risk of infections in their future professional practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the improvement in university students' knowledge of infectious disease prevention, dental instruments and environmental decontamination following the Course in Dental Hygiene and Prevention. 595 questionnaires were submitted to dental students at twelve Italian Universities; 335 were filled out before the Course began and 260 at the end of the same course. The students in both the PRE-course and at the POST-course evaluations demonstrated adequate knowledge regarding the transmission of infections in dental practices, knowledge improved following the Hygiene course.

  15. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  16. Infection control practices in public dental care services: findings from one South African Province.

    PubMed

    Mehtar, S; Shisana, O; Mosala, T; Dunbar, R

    2007-05-01

    Infection control practices which increase the risk of blood-borne virus transmission with associated dental practice in one South African province were studied. All 24 state dental clinics were observed for adequate provision to carry out good infection prevention and control (IPC) practice, 75 staff including dentists, nurses and dental assistants were interviewed to assess IPC knowledge and 23 dental procedures were observed. Significant findings were the difference between knowledge and practice, despite adequate provisions for safe infection control practice. The lack of protective eye wear during a dental procedure, not washing hands between patients, not disassembling an item prior to disinfection or sterilization, and not using a sterile drill for each patient were identified. A rapid method for detection of occult blood was used as a marker for inadequate IPC practice. Contaminated dental items of equipment just prior to patient use in 25% of equipment tested and 37% of surfaces and surrounding areas in the dental clinics and units were recorded. This study concludes that, despite provision for safe dental practice available in state dental clinics, there was a lack of knowledge application in clinical practice. The risk of blood-borne virus transmission in a population with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence cannot be ignored.

  17. Imaging focal sites of bacterial infection in rats with indium-111-labeled chemotactic peptide analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Fischman, A.J.; Pike, M.C.; Kroon, D.; Fucello, A.J.; Rexinger, D.; ten Kate, C.; Wilkinson, R.; Rubin, R.H.; Strauss, H.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Four DTPA-derivatized chemotactic peptide analogs: ForNleLFNleYK-DTPA (P1), ForMLFNH(CH2)6NH-DTPA (P2), ForNleLFK(NH2)-DTPA (P3), and ForNleLFK-DTPA (P4), were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro bioactivity and receptor binding. The peptides were radiolabeled with 111In by transchelation and their biodistribution determined in rats at 5, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection. Localization at sites of infection was determined by scintillation camera imaging in animals with deep-thigh infection due to Escherichia coli. Images were recorded from 5 min to 2 hr after injection. All peptides maintained biologic activity (EC50 for O2-production by human PMN's: 3-150 nM) and the ability to bind to the oligopeptide chemoattractant receptor on human PMN's (EC50 for binding: 7.5-50 nM); biologic activity and receptor binding were highly correlated (r = 0.99). For all the peptides, blood clearance was rapid (half-lives: 21.5, 33.1, 31.6, and 28.7 min for P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively). Biodistributions of the individual peptides were similar with low levels of accumulation in the heart, lung, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. In the kidney, P1 had much greater accumulation than other organs. All peptides yielded high quality images of the infection sites within 1 hr of injection. This study demonstrates that 111In-labeled chemotactic peptide analogs were effective agents for the external imaging of focal sites of infection.

  18. Continuing Progress in Infection Control in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, Virginia A.; Molinari, John A.

    1990-01-01

    Results of a 1988 survey of dental school deans concerning infection control instruction and protocols found increased attention to infection control and application of recommended protocols. Findings are contrasted with those of earlier studies, and remaining obstacles to implementation of infection control programs are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  19. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck's disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  20. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia in Adult Patients With HIV Infection: Clearance With Topical Imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Flores, Silvia; Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Saeb-Lima, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Case 1 A 41-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1 diagnosed 16 years prior to his consultation was referred for an 8-month history of multiple painless lumps in his mouth. He had A2 status (CD4 cell count of 273 cells/mm(3) and viral load of 43,000 copies/L) and was taking treatment with lamivudine/zidovudine (combivir) and efavirenz. Physical examination showed multiple small mucosal-colored and lobulated papulonodules located in the palate and lower gingiva and a whitish verrucous plaque on the lower labial mucosa (Figure 1a). The lesions were diagnosed clinically as focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) and further confirmed by classical histopathological findings (Figure 1b). He had previously received unspecified treatment; thus, topical 5% imiquimod cream was initiated every night. Mild erosion and ulceration developed in the upper labial mucosa, which were managed with lubrication (petrolatum ointment). After 2 weeks, all of the small lesions disappeared and the largest plaque resolved 1 week later (Figure 1c). A small residual mass in the area of biopsy, suggesting a scar, remained on the lower lip. The area was removed surgically and corresponded to fibrosis histologically, with no evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. CD4 cell count (694 cells/mm(3)) and viral load (<40 copies/L) did not show remarkable changes after imiquimod administration. No serious side effects were observed and the patient has remained free of disease after 1 year of follow-up.

  1. Focal Philophthalmus gralli infection possibly persists in Melanoides tuberculata over two years following the definitive hosts' removal.

    PubMed

    Heneberg, Petr; Rojas, Alicia; Bizos, Jiří; Kocková, Lucie; Malá, Milena; Rojas, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Philophthalmosis is a zoonotic disease associated largely with the spread of the invasive freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata, serving as an intermediate host. Here we examined Philophthalmus gralli focal fenced infection site reported recently as being associated with Tinamus major and M. tuberculata in Alajuela, Costa Rica. Removal of the definitive hosts allowed us to address also the long-term survival strategy of the parasite. Initially, the snail intermediate hosts displayed high prevalence of P. gralli infection across all its age cohorts. Two years following the removal of definitive hosts, the infection rate decreased by one order of magnitude, while the snails aging less than one year displayed zero infection prevalence. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial (ND1) and nuclear (ITS1, ITS2) DNA loci revealed negligible intrasite DNA variability of the specimens obtained at the study site in Costa Rica (but not of those obtained earlier in Peru or New Zealand), supporting strongly the hypothesis on focal origin of the infection. The observed dynamics of infection suggests the explanation for the high variability in P. gralli prevalence in intermediate hosts experienced worldwide. We noticed that the reports claiming >20% prevalence of M. tuberculata infection by P. gralli originated exclusively from foci with known eye infection of the definitive hosts, while the P. gralli infection penetrance <2% is typically associated with sites, where the infection of definitive hosts was not observed, suggesting that the infected definitive hosts were present onsite only in the past, or were present only at a site upstream or downstream of the respective sampling site. Thus, this is the first evidence on the possible persistence of eye-trematode infection site for over two years following the last confirmed outbreak in its adult hosts.

  2. Infection control practices in dental school: A patient perspective from Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Baseer, Mohammad Abdul; Rahman, Ghousia; Yassin, Mona Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Routine use of gloves, masks and spectacles are important in infection control. Aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infection control measures among the patients attending clinics of Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP) in Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: It was a cross-sectional descriptive study of a convenient sample of dental patients attending dental clinics of RCsDP. A structured, close ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 patients and a response rate of 86% was obtained. Questionnaireconsisted of series of queries related to knowledge and attitudes of patients towards infection control measures. Data analysis included frequency distribution tables, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Final study sample included 301 patients (147 males and 154 females). Almost 99%, 93.7% and 82.7% of the patients agreed that dentist should wear gloves, face mask and spectacles while providing treatment. However, 60.1%, 30% of the patients said that HIV and hepatitis-B infections can spread in dental clinics. Half of the patients felt that they were likely to contract AIDS and 77.7% refused to attend clinics if they knew that AIDS and Hepatitis-B patients treated there. Only 25.2% said that autoclave is the best method of sterilization. A significantly higher knowledge of infection control was observed among the previous dental visitors compared to the first time visitors to the dental clinics (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Patients revealed adequate knowledge towards the use of gloves, face mask and spectacles by dentist. However, their knowledge regarding the spread of Hepatitis-B, HIV infection and use of autoclave was poor. Previous visitor of dental clinics showed higher knowledge of infection control as compared to the first time visitors. Many patients expressed their negative attitudes towards dental care due to AIDS and Hepatitis-B concerns

  3. Maintaining dental education and specialist dental care during an outbreak of a new coronavirus infection. Part 1: a deadly viral epidemic begins.

    PubMed

    Smales, F C; Samaranyake, L P

    2003-11-22

    During the three months from March 2003 the economically vibrant city of Hong Kong was seriously dislocated after becoming 'second port of call' of the new and potentially fatal disease, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The uncertainties during that period had a significant impact on the provision of dental care. However the city's only dental hospital continued to function and to support the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Hong Kong in educating dental students and other members of the dental team. At the time of writing no transmissions of the disease have been attributed to procedures associated with dental healthcare. This article chronicles the sequence of events during the outbreak from a dental perspective. It highlights information that may be useful to dental colleagues who might someday be confronted with similar outbreaks of newly emerged potentially lethal infections.

  4. Modeling Dental Health Care Workers' Risk of Occupational Infection from Bloodborne Pathogens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capilouto, Eli; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The brief paper offers a model which permits quantification of the dental health care workers' risk of occupationally acquiring infection from bloodborne pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. The model incorporates five parameters such as the probability that any individual patient is infected and number of patients…

  5. [A case of liver abscess due to Streptococcus anginosus infection secondary to a dental extraction].

    PubMed

    Iwashita, Hideyuki; Matsui, Noriaki; Tsukamoto, Shinji; Funakoshi, Sadahiro; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kabemura, Teppei; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2015-08-01

    A 74-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of a high fever. He had undergone a dental extraction about 1 month prior to admission because of apical periodontitis. Imaging study revealed liver abscess lesions. Infection with Streptococcus anginosus was confirmed using both stab and blood culture. An adequate selection of antibiotics was administered, and a good outcome was obtained. There have been no case reports of liver abscess caused by intraoral commensal flora related to dental extraction in healthy adults. This case shows that liver abscesses can occur secondary to dental extractions, even in healthy adults.

  6. Nigerian Dental Technology Students and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Knowledge, Misconceptions and Willingness to Care

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, CC; Omili, MA; Akeredolu, PA

    2014-01-01

    Background: The rehabilitative dental care is important for maintaining adequate nutrition, guarding against wasting syndrome and malnutrition among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the Nigerian dental technology students’ knowledge and misconceptions about HIV infection and their willingness to care for HIV-infected patients. Subjects and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study of dental technology students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria was conducted in 2010. Data was subjected to descriptive, non-parametric and parametric statistics using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 17.0 (Chicago Illinois, USA). P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents was high with some misconceptions. Specifically, the misconceptions about HIV transmission through a mosquito bite (P = 0.02) and shaking of hands (P = 0.03) were higher among respondents in the higher class than those in lower class. However, 10.6% (21/198), 6.1% (12/198) and 4.0% (8/198) of the respondents erroneous described HIV as harmless, self-limitation and antibiotics responsive infection respectively. Of the respondents, 78.8% (156/198) and 83.3% (165/198) of them expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients and expressed need for training in the clinical care of HIV-infected patients respectively. Overall, the respondents opined that the dental therapists are the most suitable dental professional to pass HIV-related information to patients in the dental setting ahead of dentists and dental surgery assistants. Conclusion: The expressed willingness to care for HIV-infected patients, knowledge about the mode of HIV transmission and prevention among the respondents were high with existent misconceptions. There were no significant differences in the knowledge about HIV infection

  7. Inflammatory Mediators of Leprosy Reactional Episodes and Dental Infections: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cortela, D. C. B.; de Souza Junior, A. L.; Virmond, M. C. L.; Ignotti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Reactional episodes in leprosy are a result of complex interactions between the immune system, Mycobacterium leprae, and predisposing factors, including dental infections. To determine the main inflammatory mediators in the immunopathological process of dental infections and leprosy reactions, we conducted a systematic review of primary literature published between 1996 and 2013. A three-stage literature search was performed (Stage I, “leprosy reactions” and “inflammatory mediators”; Stage II, “dental infections” and “inflammatory mediators”; and Stage III, “leprosy reactions,” “dental infections,” and “inflammatory mediators”). Of the 911 eligible publications, 10 were selected in Stage I, 68 in Stage II, and 1 in Stage III. Of the 27 studied inflammatory mediators, the main proinflammatory mediators were IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17; the main anti-inflammatory mediators were IL-10 and IL-4. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were significant during periodontal and reactional lesion evolution; IFN-γ and IL-1β were associated with types 1 and 2 reactions and chronic periodontal disease. The proinflammatory mediators in dental infections and leprosy reactions, especially IL-6 and TNF-α, were similar across studies, regardless of the laboratory technique and sample type. IFN-γ and IL-1β were significant for leprosy reactions and periodontal diseases. This pattern was maintained in serum. PMID:26339136

  8. [Physical performance in patients with focal infection ergospirometric stress-testing before and after tonsillectomy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Reiterer, W; Hrabcik, H; Nissel, H

    1977-12-23

    The diagnosis of a focal infection in 13 patients (6 men and 7 women, aged 18 to 36) was based on the findings of chronic tonsillitis and general complaints interpreted as focal symptoms. The patients underwent symptom-limited maximal stress-testing before and after tonsillectomy to rule out any impairment of physical performance on the basis of computer-assisted processing of ergospirometric data. It can be concluded that the actual data of maximal oxygen uptake (aerobic power), the phenomenon of adaptation to increasing work loads (derived from rating of the increase in oxygen uptake during rectangular-triangular bicycle ergometry), the on-line processed index of anaerobic power and the anaerobic threshold, as well as heart rate and arterial blood pressure regulation did not differ in these patients from findings in healthy subjects. Nor were these parameters altered by tonsillectomy. Tonsillar focal infection is unlikely to cause any impairment of physical performance with respect to parameters of cardio-respiratory and metabolic function.

  9. Evaluation of Cellular Phones for Potential Risk of Nosocomial Infection amongst Dental Operators and Auxiliary Staff

    PubMed Central

    Nasim, V S; Al-Hakami, Ahmed; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Al-Manea, Sulthan Ahmed; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Dahman; Al-Malki, Saleh Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates cellular phones for potential risk of nosocomial infection amongst dental operators and auxiliary staff in a dental school. Materials and Methods: Each participant’s mobile phone was first cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab. Following the cleansing protocol, the partakers were asked to make a short phone call. The mobile phones were then washed aseptically by rotating damp cotton swabs with sterile normal saline. Bacterial growth was identified on sheep blood agar and McConkey’s agar plates. Sabouraud dextrose agar media was used for fungi species. Descriptive statistics was established with the data statistically explored with SPSS version 17.0. Results: About 50% of dental professionals had shown active bacterial and fungal growth in which 35% (n=35) were dental operators and 15% (n=15) were dental nurses. 53% Gram-positive organisms, 2% Gram-negative organisms, and 3% fungi were identified growths on cellular phones. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that the cellular phones of dental operators as compared to auxiliaries can act as a potential source of nosocomial infection. PMID:25954071

  10. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  11. Detection of HCV Persistent Infections in the Dental Pulp: A Novel Approach for the Detection of Past and Ancient Infections

    PubMed Central

    Siravenha, Layla Gomes; Siravenha, Leonardo Quintão; Madeira, Lucimar Di Paula; Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir B.; Machado, Luiz Fernando Almeida; Martins Feitosa, Rosimar Neris; Vallinoto, Antonio Carlos Rosário; Ishak, Marluísa de Oliveira Guimarães; Ishak, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The dental pulp is a sterile highly vascularized tissue and has been commonly used as a biological material to detect the genome of infectious agents that reach the dental tissue. Indeed, the pulp is also used to reveal past and ancient infections in the field of paleomicrobiology. The present study aimed to detect the presence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a small community (approximately 400 inhabitants) in the Amazon region of Brazil (Nossa Senhora do Perpetuo Socorro, Vizeu, Para, Brazil) and standardize a technique for the detection of the virus in the dental pulp. Serum samples were collected from 48 patients whose teeth were clinically recommended for surgical extraction. The group comprised an equal number of males and females, mostly agriculture workers and housewives, respectively. The majority (64.6%) received less than one minimum wage and were ill educated (less than four years of school years). An enzyme immune assay was used to detect antibodies to HCV and the 9 (18.8%) positive samples were submitted to nucleic acid extraction in the blood (using the EXTRAzol) and the pulp (QIAamp DNA Micro Kit e kit RNeasy Plus Micro). The pulp was removed using a modified protocol without the use of liquid nitrogen. Nucleic acid was found in 8 of the dental pulp, but in 7 of the blood samples. Sequencing of one of the samples showed the presence of genotype 1. Conclusions: A novel simplified methodology for the extraction and amplification of HCV nucleic acid was successful to detect the presence of persistent infections of the virus within the dental pulp tissue. The protocol may be helpful to detect past and ancient infections and to better understand the natural history of HCV. PMID:27783693

  12. Role of the dental surgeon in the early detection of adults with underlying HIV infection / AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jorge; del Romero, Jorge; Hernando, Victoria; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    A review is made of the late diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a subject of growing interest in public health. It has been estimated that in Europe 30% of all HIV-infected people are unaware of their seropositive condition, and this in turn is associated with a poorer long-term disease prognosis and an increased risk of transmission to other individuals. The role of the dental surgeon in this context could be of great importance, since there are many oral lesions that can suggest the existence of underlying infection. The study also addresses the controversial subject of rapid HIV testing, and whether these tests should be performed on a routine basis in the dental clinic, or whether it is preferable to refer the patient to a specialized center. Key words:HIV in Spain, HIV screening, early diagnosis. PMID:22143719

  13. Evidence summary: what 'cost of illness' evidence is there about cross-infection related infections in dental practice?

    PubMed

    Fox, Chris

    2010-07-24

    Since August 2009, members of the Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (http://www.dentistryresearch.org) have taken part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question which receives the most votes each month forms the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting takes place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website.The paper below details a summary of the findings of the seventh critical appraisal. In conclusion, the critical appraisal identified no evidence on the epidemiological scale of cross-infection caused in dental practices and therefore also of the cost impact of cross-infection caused in primary dental practices. As a result, no 'cost of illness', or cost-benefit assessment, exists or is feasible at this time.

  14. Dental Assistants

    MedlinePlus

    ... help keep the dental office running smoothly. Important Qualities Detail oriented. Dental assistants must follow specific rules and protocols, such as infection control procedures, when helping dentists treat patients. Assistants also ...

  15. [Impact of HIV infection and AIDS on dental practice].

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, A M

    1990-11-01

    Describing the results of a study on the impact of HIV on practitional dentistry, the author finds out a considerable uncertainty of knowledge among elder practitioners. While 62% are willing to treat HIV-infected persons, a big part of the participants is looking on AIDS as an occupational risk. Regarding infection control procedures, the results show a limited compliance with the generally accepted recommendations.

  16. Trehalulose does not induce dental caries in rats infected with mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, T; Izumitani, A; Minami, T; Fujiwara, T; Nakajima, Y; Hamada, S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of trehalulose, a structural isomer of sucrose, and a syrup (TP syrup) rich in trehalulose and palatinose on caries development were examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. Streptococcus mutans MT8148R and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 fermented the syrup which resulted in acid production, while both strains were found not to utilize trehalulose. Furthermore, trehalulose did not serve as a substrate for glucosyltransferases of these mutans streptococci to synthesize water-insoluble glucan, and it inhibited the sucrose-dependent adherence of mutans streptococci to a glass surface. Although trehalulose induced no significant dental caries in specific pathogen-free rats infected with either MT8148R or 6715, TP syrup was found to induce significant but low dental caries. Furthermore, replacement of the dietary sucrose content with trehalulose resulted in a significant reduction of caries development in rats infected with strain 6715.

  17. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  18. THE INDUCTION OF RHEUMATIC-LIKE CARDIAC LESIONS IN RABBITS BY REPEATED FOCAL INFECTIONS WITH GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, George E.; Swift, Homer F.

    1950-01-01

    Cardiac lesions like those characteristic of rheumatic fever in man have been induced in a small portion of rabbits that were subjected to successive focal infections with group A streptococci of several serological types. Fresh myocardial interstitial granulomata so induced bear striking resemblance to Aschoff bodies, the histologic hallmarks of human active rheumatic fever; and the fresh and healed lesions found in the cardiac valves, endocardia, epicardia, blood vessels, and aortae of some of these rabbits are homologous with those characteristic of rheumatic fever in man. These experimental myocardial and vascular lesions and those of human rheumatic fever differ in several important respects from the lesions of experimental and human serum disease. PMID:15415504

  19. Infective endocarditis caused by Veillonella of dental origin.

    PubMed

    Prpić-Mehicić, G; Marsan, T; Miletić, I; Buntak-Kobler, D

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether Veillonella could cause transitory bacteriemia and endocarditis in both pure and mixed cultures when the port of entrance for infection was made in rats' incisors. Incisors of 54 male Zgr: whistar conventional rats were inoculated with pure culture of Veillonella (18 animals) and with mixed culture of S. mutans and Veillonella (18 animals). Remaining 18 incisors (the control group) were treated with saline solution. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 21 and 52 days respectively. Two positive hemocultures were obtained in mixed infection after 21 days of experimental procedure. Histopatological analysis of endocardial tissue revealed changes in 7 (12.96%) cases. Occurrence of acute endocarditis (one case) and chronical (four cases) ones depended on duration of mixed infections. For chronical endocarditis that appears in two animals with pure Veillonela culture we are at a loss of explanation. In conclusion, on the rats model Veillonella can penetrate into circulation in association with S. mutans via the pulp tissue and could be involved in infective endocarditis.

  20. Capturing orthopaedic surgical site infection data and assessing dental recommendations with respect to total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Florschutz, Anthony V; Parsley, Brian S; Shapiro, Irving M

    2015-04-01

    Greater documentation of patient history and clinical course is crucial for identifying factors that can influence surgical outcomes. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have already begun public reporting of hospital data on readmission, complication, and infection rates and will soon launch a website to make physician-specific outcomes data public. The orthopaedic community has the opportunity to lead the way in ensuring that adequate and accurate data is collected to facilitate appropriate comparisons that are based on patients' true risk of complications and the complexity of treatment. Several studies have reported a link between oral pathogens and periprosthetic infection, although it remains unclear whether organisms unique to dental tissues are also present in osteoarthritic joints and tissues affected by periprosthetic joint infection. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and the American Dental Association are aware of these concerns and have created guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis in patients who have undergone total hip or knee arthroplasty and require high-risk dental procedures. Because these guidelines have received considerable criticism, recommendations that are based on scientific and case-controlled clinical studies and provide effective guidance on this important subject are needed.

  1. Dental school deans' and dentists' perceptions of infection control and HIV/AIDS patient care: a challenge for dental education in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Mayoral, E E; Sánchez-Pérez, L; Olguín-Barreto, Y; Acosta-Gío, A E

    2009-07-01

    HIV/AIDS patients face unique oral diagnostic and treatment challenges. The aim of this investigation among dental school deans (DSD) and graduate school applicants (GSA) who had qualified from 30 different dental schools was to assess their perceptions on dental education relevant to infection control (IC) and HIV/AIDS patient care. The questionnaire included Likert-type scale evaluations of agreement with statements. Of 158 questionnaires, 23 DSD (68% response rate), and 123 GSA (100% response rate) returned valid questionnaires. Fifteen (65%) DSD and 89 (72%) GSA ranked as "very strong" their perception that infection control prevents the transmission of blood borne viruses. However, the perception prevailed, among DSD and GSA, that HIV infection was a "very strong" to "strong" occupational hazard. Special reprocessing of instruments used on HIV patients was frequently reported. Many considered "very strong" to "strong" that HIV/AIDS patients must be treated in specialized clinics, and nearly half (48%) of the DSD and one third (35%) of the GSA stated that their school does refer HIV/AIDS patients to dental treatment in specialized clinics. These results indicate that many dental schools in Mexico must provide better education on IC and HIV/AIDS patient care to enhance attitudes toward HIV/AIDS patients.

  2. Cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by a dental infection: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Gi-Sung; Kim, Hyun Young; Kwak, Eun-Jung; Jung, Young-Soo; Park, Hyung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis not only presents with constitutional symptoms including fever, pain and swelling but also with specific findings such as proptosis, chemosis, periorbital swelling, and cranial nerve palsies. It is known to occur secondary to the spread of paranasal sinus infections in the nose, ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses. However, paranasal sinus infection of dental origin is rare. The following is a case of cavernous sinus thrombosis due to the spread of an abscess in the buccal and pterygomandibular spaces via buccal mucosal laceration. PMID:25247150

  3. Extensive Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Noormohamadi, Robab

    2015-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck’s disease is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma virus especially subtypes 13 or 32. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region and ethnic groups to another. This paper reports an Iranian case of extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia. A 35-year-old man with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for more than 25 years. The lesion was diagnosed according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental practitioner should be aware of these types of lesions and histopathological examination together and a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26351501

  4. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and infection control for restorative dental treatment in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Hall, David L

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nursing home residents now averages 20-35%. This includes both numerous asymptomatic mostly unidentified carriers, and the occasional patient with an active infection. Among the most common sites for positive MRSA colonization are the nares and mouth (saliva). Ohio State University (OSU) dental students perform routine restorative dental care onsite in local nursing homes using portable equipment including handpieces that can generate aerosols. Using a series of cultured test swabs and plates, this pilot study suggests that protection for both dental health care personnel and patients are provided by the following: 1. universal barrier precautions (for example, gloves, gowns, masks, hats, facial shields, glasses), 2. surface disinfectants, 3. pre-op 0.12% chlorhexidene mouth rinses, 4. high volume evacuation, 5. perioral skin scrubs. Additional infection control methods, techniques and equipment were evaluated and compared including rubber dam isolation, hand excavation and bond technique, high-speed air turbine and electric "high" speed handpiece. There was no indication of a special tendency or heightened ability of MRSA to aerosolize.

  5. Indications of antibiotic prophylaxis in dental practice- Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, C; Padmanabhan, TV

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently used in dental practice. Clinical and bacteriological epidemiological factors determine the indications of antibiotics in dentistry. Antibiotics are used in addition to appropriate treatment to aid the host defences in the elimination of remaining bacteria. It is indicated when there is evidence of clinical sign involvement and spread of infection. Antibiotics are prescribed in dental practice for treating odontoge nic infections, non-odontogenic infections, as prophylaxis against focal and local infection. Special care needs to be addressed to patients with organ transplants, poorly controlled diabetes and pregnancy. Antibiotics should be used only as an adjunct to dental treatment and never alone as the first line of care. The present paper reviews the indications of antibiotics in dental practice. PMID:23570007

  6. Prevalence and associated risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Monica; Muoio, Maria Rosaria; Westermann, Claudia; Nienhaus, Albert; Arnese, Antonio; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Crispino, Vincenzo; Coppola, Nicola; De Rosa, Alfredo

    2017-03-04

    To estimate the prevalence of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) in Italian dental students exposed to the same occupational risks as dental health care personnel and to evaluate potential risk factors, a cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate and postgraduate students. After clinical evaluation, students were given a tuberculin skin test; in those found positive, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA) was conducted. Of the 281 students enrolled, 10 were only TST positive; 8 were TST or/and IGRA positive. We found that participants testing positive at TST and/or IGRA, a group in which the risk of false LTBI positives is minimal, were older and had been studying longer. Although the prevalence of LTBI among dental students in our study was low, a risk of acquiring a work-related infection exists even in a country with a low incidence of TB. Thus, dental students should be screened to catch LTBI early on.

  7. Dental status, dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and oncological data as potential risk factors for infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw after radiotherapy for oral neoplasms: a retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Retrospective evaluation of the dental status of patients with oral cancer before radiotherapy, the extent of dental rehabilitation procedures, demographic and radiotherapy data as potential risk factors for development of infected osteoradionecrosis of the lower jaw. Methods A total of 90 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for oral cancer were included into this retrospective evaluation. None of them had distant metastases. After tumour surgery the patients were referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon for dental examination and the necessary dental rehabilitation procedures inclusive potential tooth extraction combined with primary soft tissue closure. Adjuvant radiotherapy was started after complete healing of the gingiva (> 7 days after potential extraction). The majority of patients (n = 74) was treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy with total doses ranging from 50-70Gy whereas further 16 patients received hyperfractionated radiotherapy up to 72Gy. The records of the clinical data were reviewed. Furthermore, questionnaires were mailed to the patients’ general practitioners and dentists in order to get more data concerning tumour status and osteoradionecrosis during follow-up. Results The patients’ dental status before radiotherapy was generally poor. On average 10 teeth were present, six of them were regarded to remain conservable. Extensive dental rehabilitation procedures included a mean of 3.7 tooth extractions. Chronic periodontitis with severe attachment loss was found in 40%, dental biofilm in 56%. An infected osteoradionecrosis (IORN) grade II according to (Schwartz et al., Am J Clin Oncol 25:168-171, 2002) was diagnosed in 11 of the 90 patients (12%), mostly within the first 4 years after radiotherapy. We could not find significant prognostic factors for the occurrence of IORN, but a trendwise correlation with impaired dental status, rehabilitation procedures, fraction size and tumour outcome. Conclusion The

  8. An unusual infection of cervicofacial area caused by dental pathology: flesh-eating syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozdinc, Serife; Unlu, Ebru; Oruc, Oya; User, Nese Nur; Karakaya, Zeynep

    2015-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the cervicofacial area is highly rare, but physicians should be familiar with the presentation of this situation owing to the suddenness of its beginning, the rapidness of its spread, and ending with high mortality and morbidity. In this article, 5 patients with NF admitted to emergency department with dental pathology history were discussed with a review of the literature. The purpose of this case series is to raise awareness about NF of the cervicofacial area caused by dental pathologies. Five patients admitted to our emergency department between January 2012 and March 2015 and diagnosed as having cervicofacial NF were identified. All patients had dental pathologies. The parameters of the study were patients' age, sex, complaints, self- and family histories, physical examinations' findings, routine laboratory-computed tomographic findings, treatment, and complications. Two of the patients were older than 70 years. One of the patients was healthy but he lost time because of an inappropriate treatment. These 3 patients died. The remaining patients were discharged at the end of the prolonged and intensive treatment. Necrotizing fasciitis should always be remembered in the diagnosis of the infection of the cervicofacial area. Because of difficulty in its diagnosis, a delay in the treatment may result in a horrific outcome.

  9. Frequent Dental Scaling Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Periprosthetic Infection following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Ho, Chia-Jung; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Yang, Chyun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Oral bacteremia has been presumed to be an important risk factor for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection. We aimed to investigate whether dental scaling could reduce the risk of TKA infection. A nested case-control study was conducted to compare 1,291 TKA patients who underwent resection arthroplasty for infected TKA and 5,004 matched controls without infection in the TKA cohort of Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The frequency of dental scaling was analyzed. Multiple conditional logistic regression was used to assess the frequency of dental scaling and the risk of TKA infection. The percentage of patients who received dental scaling was higher in the control group than in the TKA infection group. The risk for TKA infection was 20% lower for patients who received dental scaling at least once within a 3-year period than for patients who never received dental scaling. Moreover, the risk of TKA infection was reduced by 31% among patients who underwent more frequent dental scaling (5–6 times within 3 years). Frequent and regular dental scaling is associated with a reduced risk of TKA infection. PMID:27336912

  10. Frequent Dental Scaling Is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Periprosthetic Infection following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Nationwide Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Chieh; Ho, Chia-Jung; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Yang, Chyun-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Oral bacteremia has been presumed to be an important risk factor for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection. We aimed to investigate whether dental scaling could reduce the risk of TKA infection. A nested case-control study was conducted to compare 1,291 TKA patients who underwent resection arthroplasty for infected TKA and 5,004 matched controls without infection in the TKA cohort of Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The frequency of dental scaling was analyzed. Multiple conditional logistic regression was used to assess the frequency of dental scaling and the risk of TKA infection. The percentage of patients who received dental scaling was higher in the control group than in the TKA infection group. The risk for TKA infection was 20% lower for patients who received dental scaling at least once within a 3-year period than for patients who never received dental scaling. Moreover, the risk of TKA infection was reduced by 31% among patients who underwent more frequent dental scaling (5-6 times within 3 years). Frequent and regular dental scaling is associated with a reduced risk of TKA infection.

  11. Italian multicenter study on infection hazards during dental practice: Control of environmental microbial contamination in public dental surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; Pasquarella, Cesira; Bergomi, Margherita; Fabiani, Leila; Monarca, Silvano; Petti, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Background The present study assessed microbial contamination in Italian dental surgeries. Methods An evaluation of water, air and surface microbial contamination in 102 dental units was carried out in eight Italian cities. Results The findings showed water microbial contamination in all the dental surgeries; the proportion of water samples with microbial levels above those recommended decreased during working. With regard to Legionella spp., the proportion of positive samples was 33.3%. During work activity, the index of microbial air contamination (IMA) increased. The level of microbial accumulation on examined surfaces did not change over time. Conclusion These findings confirm that some Italian dental surgeries show high biocontamination, as in other European Countries, which highlights the risk of occupational exposure and the need to apply effective measures to reduce microbial loads. PMID:18644099

  12. Dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mueller, P O; Lowder, M Q

    1998-08-01

    Dental sepsis or periapical abscess formation constitutes a large percentage of dental conditions that afflict horses. Dental sepsis occurs when the pulp chamber of the tooth is exposed to the oral cavity or external environment, allowing bacterial localization with resulting infection. Although acute, primary, septic pulpitis in horses is rare, dental sepsis often results from colonization of the pulp chamber with pathogenic bacteria secondary to maleruption or impaction of teeth with secondary alveolar bone lysis, primary fractures of the tooth, mandible, or maxilla, periodontal disease, or infundibular necrosis. The sequela to pulpal infection are extensions into the periradicular tissues and mandibular or maxillary periapical abscess formation.

  13. Changes in admission rates for spreading odontogenic infection resulting from changes in government policy about the dental schedule and remunerations.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Richard; Bhandari, Rishi; Bridle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The government changed the system of payment to general dental practitioners on 1 April 2005 from a fee/item to a banding system. The figures collected have shown that there has been a 62% increase in the number of patients who require admission for surgical treatment of spreading odontogenic infections compared with the 3-year period before this date.

  14. A survey of infection control teaching in U.S. dental schools.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Nuala B; Bizra, Eamon; Cothron, Annaliese; Yeh, Chih-Ko

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the content of infection control (IC) curricula, the extent of IC monitoring and compliance, and the number of bloodborne pathogen (BBP) exposures/year in U.S. dental schools. A questionnaire was emailed to persons responsible for predoctoral IC programs. The response rate was 60 percent. Most schools did not have an independent course and used classroom lectures and clinic demonstrations to teach IC. Schools with an IC committee were more likely to use online learning (p<0.05), utilize multiple teaching methods (p<0.05), issue written warnings for IC violations (p<0.0001), and use multiple disciplinary actions (p<0.005) than schools without an IC committee. Schools with an IC coordinator were less likely to issue grade reductions for IC violations than schools with no IC coordinator (p<0.05). Thirty-eight percent reported ≥ 16 BBP exposures/year, and 18 percent reported <5. There was significant correlation between BBP exposure incidents and large class size (p<0.005). Respondents were satisfied with their IC curriculum and perceived that dental students had a high level of IC compliance and satisfaction, along with staff IC promotion and compliance. The findings suggest that schools without an IC committee should consider its benefits. Further investigation of schools with high numbers of BBP exposures is recommended.

  15. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  16. Survey of Infection Control Policies within Dental/Educational Patient Treatment Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Keith Winfield

    1986-01-01

    The article describes a survey of 36 dental education programs to identify educators' reactive policies and procedures in their patient treatment centers to minimize dental contamination and cross-contamination. (Author/CT)

  17. Cross-infection risks associated with current procedures for using high-speed dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D L; Boe, R K

    1992-02-01

    When a dye solution used to simulate patient material was either injected into high-speed dental handpiece (drill) waterlines or applied to the equipment externally, internal air turbine chambers became contaminated. These chambers served as a reservoir of the material, which was slowly dislodged by air expelled during subsequent handpiece operation and which was diluted by water spray used for cooling the drilling surface. Considering the fact that patient materials could reside in internal parts of the equipment that are not usually disinfected and that the material may be subsequently sprayed into cuts and abrasions in the oral cavity, the common approach to reprocessing handpieces (external wiping in combination with flushing) may pose unacceptably high risks to those individuals treated soon after infected patients. Therefore, unless reliable data on cross-infection frequencies are obtained and prove it unnecessary, heat-treating high-speed handpieces between each patient should be considered an essential component of standard procedures whenever universal precautions are practiced in dentistry.

  18. Infection prevention and control in dental surgeries in the Pará state prison system in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Clelia Maria A; Smith, Andrew J; Fonseca Silva, Almenara S; Flório, Flávia M; Zanin, Luciane

    2016-11-01

    Prison populations have higher levels of bloodborne viruses with consequently higher risks of cross-infection. This study assessed infection prevention and occupational hazards in prison dental surgeries in the Brazilian state of Pará. Investigations were undertaken by a single examiner in 11 prison clinics. Manual washing of instruments with no detergents and dry heat sterilization were the main instrument decontamination methods used. Most surgeries had insufficient instruments for daily clinical work requirements. Half of dentists interviewed worked single-handed with no documented policies or health and safety procedures.

  19. 18F-FDG PET/CT as a central tool in the shift from chronic Q fever to Coxiella burnetii persistent focalized infection: A consecutive case series.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Melenotte, Cléa; Million, Matthieu; Cammilleri, Serge; Sotto, Albert; Elsendoorn, Antoine; Thuny, Franck; Lepidi, Hubert; Roblot, France; Weitten, Thierry; Assaad, Souad; Bouaziz, Anissa; Chapuzet, Claire; Gras, Guillaume; Labussiere, Anne-Sophie; Landais, Cécile; Longuet, Pascale; Masseau, Agathe; Mundler, Olivier; Raoult, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Because Q fever is mostly diagnosed serologically, localizing a persistent focus of Coxiella burnetii infection can be challenging. F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FDG PET/CT) could be an interesting tool in this context.We performed a retrospective study on patients diagnosed with C burnetii infection, who had undergone F-FDG PET/CT between 2009 and 2015. When positive F-FDG PET/CT results were obtained, we tried to determine if it changed the previous diagnosis by discovering or confirming a suspected focus of C burnetii infection.One hundred sixty-seven patients benefited from F-FDG PET/CT. The most frequent clinical subgroup before F-FDG PET/CT was patients with no identified focus of infection, despite high IgG1 serological titers (34%). For 59% (n = 99) of patients, a hypermetabolic focus was identified. For 62 patients (62.6%), the positive F-FDG PET/CT allowed the diagnosis to be changed. For 24 of them, (38.7%), a previously unsuspected focus of infection was discovered. Forty-two (42%) positive patients had more than 1 hypermetabolic focus. We observed 21 valvular foci, 34 vascular foci, and a high proportion of osteoarticular localizations (n = 21). We also observed lymphadenitis (n = 27), bone marrow hypermetabolism (n = 11), and 9 pulmonary localizations.We confirmed thatF-FDG PET/CT is a central tool in the diagnosis of C burnetii focalized persistent infection. We proposed new diagnostic scores for 2 main clinical entities identified using F-FDG PET/CT: osteoarticular persistent infections and lymphadenitis.

  20. Equine dental disease part 4: a long-term study of 400 cases: apical infections of cheek teeth.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Tremaine, W H; Pickles, K; Kuhns, L; Hawe, C; McCann, J; McGorum, B C; Railton, D I; Brammer, S

    2000-05-01

    Of 400 horses referred because of equine dental disease, 162 suffered from primary apical infections of their cheek teeth (CT), including 92 with maxillary CT infections and 70 with mandibular CT infections. Maxillary swellings and sinus tracts were more common (82 and 26% incidence, respectively) with infections of the rostral 3 maxillary CT, than with infections of the caudal 3 maxillary CT (39 and 5% incidence, respectively). Nasal discharge was more commonly present with caudal (95%) than rostral (23%) maxillary CT infections. Mandibular CT apical infections commonly had mandibular swellings (91%) and mandibular sinus tracts (59%) and these infections were closely related to eruption of the affected CT. A variety of treatments, including medical treatment, apical curettage, repulsion and oral extraction of affected teeth were utilised in these cases, with oral extraction appearing to be most satisfactory. Infections of caudal maxillary CT with a secondary paranasal sinusitis were most refractory to treatment, with a complete response to the initial treatment achieved in just 33% of these cases. Most other cases responded fully to their initial treatment. The long-term response to treatment was good in most cases.

  1. HIV Infections: A Personal Perspective on the Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    An unidentified dental student who tested positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus offers a personal perspective on the emotions, concerns, and considerations of a seropositive student. He outlines the process by which he made decisions concerning his situation and describes the response of family, fellow students, and dental school…

  2. Evans Blue Staining Reveals Vascular Leakage Associated with Focal Areas of Host-Parasite Interaction in Brains of Pigs Infected with Taenia solium

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy. PMID:24915533

  3. Evans blue staining reveals vascular leakage associated with focal areas of host-parasite interaction in brains of pigs infected with Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Marzal, Miguel; Guerra-Giraldez, Cristina; Paredes, Adriana; Cangalaya, Carla; Rivera, Andrea; Gonzalez, Armando E; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Garcia, Hector H; Nash, Theodore E

    2014-01-01

    Cysticidal drug treatment of viable Taenia solium brain parenchymal cysts leads to an acute pericystic host inflammatory response and blood brain barrier breakdown (BBB), commonly resulting in seizures. Naturally infected pigs, untreated or treated one time with praziquantel were sacrificed at 48 hr and 120 hr following the injection of Evans blue (EB) to assess the effect of treatment on larval parasites and surrounding tissue. Examination of harvested non encapsulated muscle cysts unexpectedly revealed one or more small, focal round region(s) of Evans blue dye infiltration (REBI) on the surface of otherwise non dye-stained muscle cysts. Histopathological analysis of REBI revealed focal areas of eosinophil-rich inflammatory infiltrates that migrated from the capsule into the tegument and internal structures of the parasite. In addition some encapsulated brain cysts, in which the presence of REBI could not be directly assessed, showed histopathology identical to that of the REBI. Muscle cysts with REBI were more frequent in pigs that had received praziquantel (6.6% of 3736 cysts; n = 6 pigs) than in those that were untreated (0.2% of 3172 cysts; n = 2 pigs). Similar results were found in the brain, where 20.7% of 29 cysts showed histopathology identical to muscle REBI cysts in praziquantel-treated pigs compared to the 4.3% of 47 cysts in untreated pigs. Closer examination of REBI infiltrates showed that EB was taken up only by eosinophils, a major component of the cellular infiltrates, which likely explains persistence of EB in the REBI. REBI likely represent early damaging host responses to T. solium cysts and highlight the focal nature of this initial host response and the importance of eosinophils at sites of host-parasite interaction. These findings suggest new avenues for immunomodulation to reduce inflammatory side effects of anthelmintic therapy.

  4. Dental Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Symington, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Patients with dental emergencies sometimes present to their physician. This article outlines the role of the physician in the management of dental patients who have suffered traumatic injuries, postoperative hemorrhage, pain, and infection. It deals with those difficulties for which the physician may easily prescribe treatment and outlines the treatment that would be undertaken by a dentist who receives such a patient on referral. PMID:21253249

  5. Focal bacterial meningitis following ascending bite wound infection leading to paraparesis in a captive California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Braun, Veronika; Eskens, Ulrich; Hartmann, Antje; Lang, Barbara; Kramer, Martin; Schmidt, Martin J

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 15-yr-old captive female California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with a 2-wk history of progressive paraparesis and a 9-mo history of exudative skin lesion on the left thoracic wall. Magnetic resonance images showed a well-defined muscle infiltrating lesion ventrolateral to the seventh cervical to the third thoracic vertebra on the left side, which extended through the left intervertebral foramina C7 to T3 into the vertebral canal, causing spinal cord compression and displacement as well as inflammation of the spinal cord and nerves. This lesion surprisingly caused no forelimb deficits. Differential diagnoses included abscess formation or neoplasia. Pathologic examination revealed chronic focal purulent meningitis associated with widespread paraspinal fistulous inflammation originating from a chronic dermal ulcer. Mainly Escherichia coli var. haemolytica and Clostridium perfringens were identified as the underlying agents.

  6. A Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's disease) with PCR Detection of Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Bora; Gunduz, Kaan; Gunhan, Omer; Ozden, Feyza Otan

    2011-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papillomavirus. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region to another. In Caucasians there have been only few cases reported. This paper reports a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia and demonstrates the association with HPV subtype 32 through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of PCR products. A 7-year-old Caucasian girl was admitted to our clinic for investigation of multiple oral mucosal lesions in the mouth. Lesion was excised under local anesthesia without any complication. The lesion was diagnosed as focal epithelial hyperplasia according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental staff should be aware of these kind of lesions and histopathological examination together with a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  7. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus.

  8. Versatile molybdenum disulfide based antibacterial composites for in vitro enhanced sterilization and in vivo focal infection therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wentao; Shi, Shuo; Wang, Yanru; Yu, Shaoxuan; Zhu, Wenxin; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Daohong; Yang, Baowei; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-06-01

    Biologically, MoS2-based nanostructures have been intensely applied for the photothermal therapy of cancer, but rarely for antibacterial uses. In this contribution, a multifunctional chitosan (CS) functionalized magnetic MoS2 (abbreviated to CFM) was constructed to nonspecifically combat bacterial infection by integrating bacterial conjugation and enrichment, and NIR-triggered photothermal sterilization. Owing to the abundant introduced amino groups, the CFM complex offers a significantly enhanced conjugation efficiency without obvious specificity towards both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria compared to amino-free magnetic MoS2. The magnetic properties of CFM obtained from iron oxide facilitate the enrichment of a CFM-bacteria conjugate, improving the photothermal efficiency of CFM as a photothermal antibacterial agent. Specifically, after being trapped together with bacteria cells, CFM shows an enhanced in vitro photothermal sterilization ability. In vivo S. aureus-induced abscess treatment studies show faster healing when CFM is used as subcutaneous nano-localized heating sources with the assistance of an external magnet to concentrate the CFM-bacteria conjugate. This work establishes an innovative solution and a novel antimicrobial agent for combating bacterial infections without the use of antibiotics, which may open a new area of application and research for MoS2-based nanostructures.Biologically, MoS2-based nanostructures have been intensely applied for the photothermal therapy of cancer, but rarely for antibacterial uses. In this contribution, a multifunctional chitosan (CS) functionalized magnetic MoS2 (abbreviated to CFM) was constructed to nonspecifically combat bacterial infection by integrating bacterial conjugation and enrichment, and NIR-triggered photothermal sterilization. Owing to the abundant introduced amino groups, the CFM complex offers a significantly enhanced conjugation efficiency without obvious specificity towards both Gram

  9. Cervical Facet Joint Infection and Associated Epidural Abscess with Streptococcus intermedius from a Dental Infection Origin A Case Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Ian David; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S

    2016-09-01

    Pyogenic cervical facet joint infections are rare and such infections from a dental origin are even less common. Of these few cases, none have described infection with Streptococcus intermedius as the pathogen. A 65-year-old orthopaedic surgeon complained of fevers, right-sided radiating neck pain, stiffness, swelling, erythema, and right upper extremity weakness one month after he had broken a crown over his right mandibular premolar, a continued source of pain. Imaging of the cervical spine showed a right C4-C5 facet inflammatory arthropathy and a small epidural abscess that was cultured and initially treated with intravenous antibiotics. The oral maxillofacial surgery team performed an extraction of the infected, symptomatic tooth. For continued right upper extremity weakness, the patient underwent C4-C5 laminoforaminotomy and irrigation and debridement of the right C4-C5 facet joint. After 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics, the patient's infectious and inflammatory markers had normalized. By 4 months, he had regained full strength at his upper extremity and a painless and full range of motion of his cervical spine.Pyogenic cervical facet joint infection is very rare and potentially dangerous. A high clinical suspicion and appropriate imaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, are important for correct diagnosis. Prompt medical and surgical treatment may avert complications, and although the patient presented made a complete recovery, patients may be left with neurological compromise.

  10. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Yolanda; Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Zambrano, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

  11. Streptococcus mutans infective endocarditis complicated by vertebral discitis following dental treatment without antibiotic prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sujata; Bowler, Ian C J W; Bunch, Christopher; Prendergast, Bernard; Webster, Daniel P

    2010-10-01

    We report what we believe is the first reported case of Streptococcus mutans endocarditis complicated by vertebral discitis. The case is particularly interesting and topical as it occurred in a patient with pre-existing cardiac valvular disease who had recently had a dental procedure without antibiotic prophylaxis following a dramatic shift in the UK guidelines.

  12. Early Respiratory Infections and Dental Caries in the First 27 Years of Life: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Näyhä, Simo; Hugg, Timo T.; Jaakkola, Jouni J. K.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and dental caries are among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. The relations between early RTIs and development of caries in permanent teeth have not been studied earlier. We assessed childhood RTIs as potential predictors of caries in young adulthood in a 20-year prospective population-based cohort study (The Espoo Cohort Study). Information on lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) that had required hospitalization was retrieved from the National Hospital Discharge Registry (n = 1623). Additional information on LRTIs and upper RTIs (URTIs) was assessed based on the questionnaire reports that covered the preceding 12 months. Caries was measured as the number of teeth with fillings (i.e. filled teeth, FT) reported in the 20-year follow-up questionnaire. The absolute and relative excess numbers of FT were estimated applying negative binomial regression. The mean number of FT in young adulthood was 1.4 greater among subjects who had experienced LRTIs requiring hospitalization before the age of 2 years (SD 4.8) compared to those without any such infections (SD 3.4), and the adjusted relative excess number of FT was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.2). LRTIs up to 7 years were associated with an absolute increase of 0.9 in the mean FT number, the adjusted relative excess being 1.3 (1.0–1.8). Also the questionnaire-based LRTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.3; 95% CI 0.9–1.8) and URTIs (adjusted relative excess 1.4, 1.0–1.8) before the age of 2 years predicted higher occurrence of FT. Findings suggest that early RTIs have a role in the development of dental caries in permanent teeth. PMID:27936203

  13. Nontyphoidal Salmonella causing focal infections in patients admitted at a Spanish general hospital during an 11-year period (1991-2001).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mercedes; de Diego, Isabel; Martínez, Noelia; Rosario Rodicio, M; Carmen Mendoza, M

    2006-08-01

    In focal infections (FI) caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes and recorded at a Spanish hospital 1991-2001, clinical and microbiological features were analyzed. Thirty-five revised episodes were related to infections of the digestive (10), urinary (10), pulmonar (4), vascular (4), osteoarticular (3) and central nervous (3) systems, and with a submaxillary lymph node. At least 16 episodes were associated with previous or concomitant gastroenteritis, 19 with primary or secondary bacteremia, and 18 with underlying diseases of different severity. Eighteen patients were male and 14 female (data were not available for three patients), while 1, 4, 12 and 15 patients were, respectively, categorized as children, young adults, senior adults and elderly. Sources of Salmonella strains were urine (13), blood (11), purulent abscess (8), cerebrospinal fluid (3), peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, wound exudates, aneurism (2 of each), ascitic fluid, sputum, tracheal aspirate, needle aspirate, bone and lymph node (1 of each) samples. Only 28 Salmonella strains involved in FIs were available for further analysis. They were discriminated into 6 serotypes, and into 13 XbaI macrorestriction, 6 virulence, 11 antimicrobial resistance, 5 integron and 10 plasmid profiles. Broadly, the pattern of serotype distribution of salmonellas involved in FIs matched that of those causing gastroenteritis, with the pandemic Enteritidis and Typhimurium (18 and 6 strains, respectively) being clearly predominant. Within serotype, the same lineages (as revealed by XbaI-macrorestriction analysis as well as R- and V-profiles) were represented in both disease groups, with host-related factors apparently playing a more critical role than the individual strain in the outcome of the disease.

  14. Technetium-99m-human polyclonal IgG radiolabeled via the hydrazino nicotinamide derivative for imaging focal sites of infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, M.J.; Juweid, M.; tenKate, C.I.; Schwartz, D.A.; Hauser, M.M.; Gaul, F.E.; Fuccello, A.J.; Rubin, R.H.; Strauss, H.W.; Fischman, A.J. )

    1990-12-01

    The biologic behavior of human polyclonal immunoglobulin (IgG) radiolabeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) by a novel method, via a nicotinyl hydrazine derivative, was evaluated in rats. Technetium-99m- and indium-111-IgG were co-administered to normal rats and biodistribution was determined at 2, 6, and 16 hr. The inflammation imaging properties of the two reagents were compared in rats with deep-thigh infection due to Escherichia coli. Blood clearance of both antibody preparations was well described by a bi-exponential function: ({sup 99m}Tc-IgG: t1/2 = 3.82 +/- 0.89 and 57.52 +/- 1.70 hr. {sup 111}In-IgG: 3.93 +/- 0.117 and 40.71 +/- 1.26 hr). Biodistributions in the solid organs were similar, however, small but statistically significant differences were detected: {sup 99m}Tc-IgG greater than {sup 111}In-IgG in lung, liver, and spleen; {sup 99m}Tc-IgG less than {sup 111}In-IgG in kidney and skeletal muscle (p less than 0.01). At all three imaging times, target-to-background ratio and percent residual activity for the two compounds were remarkably similar. These studies establish that human polyclonal IgG labeled with {sup 99m}Tc via a nicotinyl hydrazine modified intermediate is equivalent to {sup 111}In-IgG for imaging focal sites of infection in experimental animals.

  15. A Clinical Practice Update on the Latest AAOS/ADA Guideline (December 2012) on Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Dental Patients.

    PubMed

    Hamedani, Sh

    2013-03-01

    The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Dental Association (ADA), along with 10 other academic associations and societies recently (December 2012) published their mutual clinical practice guideline "Prevention of Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Patients Undergoing Dental Procedures." This evidence-based guideline ,detailed in 325 pages, has three recommendations and substitutes the previous AAOS guideline. The new published clinical guideline is a protocol to prevent patients undertaking dental procedures from orthopaedic implant infection. The guideline is developed on the basis of a collaborative systematic review to provide practical advice for training clinicians, dentists and any qualified physicians who need to consider prevention of orthopaedic implant (prosthesis) infection in their patients. This systematic review found no explicit evidence of cause-and-effect relationship between dental procedures and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). This LTTE wishes to present a vivid summary of AAOS/ADA clinical practice guideline as a clinical update and an academic implementation to inform and assist Iranian competent clinicians and dentists in the course of their treatment decisions, to enrich the value and quality of health care on the latest international basis.

  16. Streptococcus gordonii prosthetic joint infection in the setting of vigorous dental flossing.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rick; Dababneh, Ala S; Palraj, Bharath Raj Varatharaj

    2015-08-11

    A 65-year-old woman with osteoarthritis, who underwent knee replacement 5 years prior, developed sudden onset knee pain and swelling. She had voluntarily starting a vigorous dental flossing regimen prior to the onset of symptoms. The patient underwent right knee arthrotomy, irrigation and debridement of right total knee arthroplasty and exchange of polyethylene with retention of the prosthesis. Intraoperative cultures grew Streptococcus gordonii. She was treated with 6 weeks of ceftriaxone and was later placed on oral antibiotic suppression.

  17. Genotyping, morphology and molecular characteristics of a lytic phage of Neisseria strain obtained from infected human dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Aljarbou, Ahmed N; Aljofan, Mohamad

    2014-07-01

    The lytic bacteriaphage (phage) A2 was isolated from human dental plaques along with its bacterial host. The virus was found to have an icosahedron-shaped head (60±3 nm), a sheathed and rigid long tail (∼175 nm) and was categorized into the family Siphoviridae of the order Caudovirales, which are dsDNA viral family, characterised by their ability to infect bacteria and are nonenveloped with a noncontractile tail. The isolated phage contained a linear dsDNA genome having 31,703 base pairs of unique sequence, which were sorted into three contigs and 12 single sequences. A latent period of 25 minutes and burst size of 24±2 particles was determined for the virus. Bioinformatics approaches were used to identify ORFs in the genome. A phylogenetic analysis confirmed the species inter-relationship and its placement in the family.

  18. Dental Amalgam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  19. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Case report.

    PubMed

    Puriene, Alina; Rimkevicius, Arunas; Gaigalas, Mindaugas

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to present a 15 year-old patient with focal epithelial hyperplasia and to review the references on the subject-related etiological, pathological, diagnostic and treatment aspects. Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare human papilloma virus (HPV) related to oral lesion with very low frequency within our population. Surgical treatment with a biopsy was performed, acanthosis and parakeratosis are consistent histopathological features, since the patient had no history of sexual contact and HIV infection, the virus was probably acquired from environmental sources.

  20. Oral and dental health care of oral cancer patients: hyposalivation, caries and infections.

    PubMed

    Meurman, Jukka H; Grönroos, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Oral cancer and its treatment can cause a variety of problems to patients, also as regards maintaining their daily oral hygiene. Surgery mutilates tissues which may hamper cleaning the teeth and mucosal surfaces. The patient may have complicated reconstructive structures that also need continuous attention. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation further complicates the situation and decreases the quality of life. Consequently, dental caries, mucosal diseases such as candidosis and sialadenitis become problematic to treat. Hence every effort should be focused on prevention. In caries prevention intensified fluoride therapy together with dietary counseling is needed. Oral cancer patients also need to be frequently referred to dental hygienists for professional cleaning. Drinking enough daily and moisturizing mucosal surfaces with commercial dry-mouth products, vegetable oils, milk products and respective topical agents need to be individually recommended. In addition, patients with severe dry mouth cases may also benefit from the prescription of pilocarpine tablets. In oral candidosis, the microbiological diagnosis must be confirmed before administration of antifungal drugs in order to avoid the selection pressure to resistant strains.

  1. Human dental stem cells suppress PMN activity after infection with the periodontopathogens Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia

    PubMed Central

    Hieke, Cathleen; Kriebel, Katja; Engelmann, Robby; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Lang, Hermann; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation associated with the colonization of different oral pathogens. We here aimed to investigate how bacteria and host cells shape their environment in order to limit inflammation and tissue damage in the presence of the pathogen. Human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs) were co-cultured with gram-negative P. intermedia and T. forsythia and were quantified for adherence and internalization as well as migration and interleukin secretion. To delineate hDFSC-specific effects, gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22) were used as controls. Direct effects of hDFSCs on neutrophils (PMN) after interaction with bacteria were analyzed via chemotactic attraction, phagocytic activity and NET formation. We show that P. intermedia and T. forsythia adhere to and internalize into hDFSCs. This infection decreased the migratory capacity of the hDFSCs by 50%, did not disturb hDFSC differentiation potential and provoked an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion while leaving IL-10 levels unaltered. These environmental modulations correlated with reduced PMN chemotaxis, phagocytic activity and NET formation. Our results suggest that P. intermedia and T. forsythia infected hDFSCs maintain their stem cell functionality, reduce PMN-induced tissue and bone degradation via suppression of PMN-activity, and at the same time allow for the survival of the oral pathogens. PMID:27974831

  2. Human dental stem cells suppress PMN activity after infection with the periodontopathogens Prevotella intermedia and Tannerella forsythia.

    PubMed

    Hieke, Cathleen; Kriebel, Katja; Engelmann, Robby; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte; Lang, Hermann; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2016-12-15

    Periodontitis is characterized by inflammation associated with the colonization of different oral pathogens. We here aimed to investigate how bacteria and host cells shape their environment in order to limit inflammation and tissue damage in the presence of the pathogen. Human dental follicle stem cells (hDFSCs) were co-cultured with gram-negative P. intermedia and T. forsythia and were quantified for adherence and internalization as well as migration and interleukin secretion. To delineate hDFSC-specific effects, gingival epithelial cells (Ca9-22) were used as controls. Direct effects of hDFSCs on neutrophils (PMN) after interaction with bacteria were analyzed via chemotactic attraction, phagocytic activity and NET formation. We show that P. intermedia and T. forsythia adhere to and internalize into hDFSCs. This infection decreased the migratory capacity of the hDFSCs by 50%, did not disturb hDFSC differentiation potential and provoked an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 secretion while leaving IL-10 levels unaltered. These environmental modulations correlated with reduced PMN chemotaxis, phagocytic activity and NET formation. Our results suggest that P. intermedia and T. forsythia infected hDFSCs maintain their stem cell functionality, reduce PMN-induced tissue and bone degradation via suppression of PMN-activity, and at the same time allow for the survival of the oral pathogens.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in an HIV positive man. An illustrated case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marvan, E; Firth, N

    1998-10-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare but distinctive entity of viral aetiology with characteristic clinical and histopathological features. It is usually seen in children and adolescents of American Indian and Eskimo background; however, it has recently been described in adults who are HIV positive. Suppression of the immune system leaves the individual vulnerable to opportunistic infections. With improved management of immunocompromised patients it is increasingly possible that the general dental practitioner will encounter secondary oral infections such as FEH and must therefore be able to recognize, diagnose and treat these lesions. The following report presents a case of FEH in an HIV-infected man, and is followed by a review of the literature.

  4. Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses versus dental implants: a comparison between keratinocyte and gingival epithelial cell adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pendegrass, C J; Lancashire, H T; Fontaine, C; Chan, G; Hosseini, P; Blunn, G W

    2015-04-19

    Infection is the primary failure modality for transcutaneous implants because the skin breach provides a route for pathogens to enter the body. Intraosseous transcutaneous amputation prostheses (ITAP) are being developed to overcome this problem by creating a seal at the skin-implant interface. Oral gingival epithelial cell attachment creates an infection-free seal around dental implants. However, this has yet to be achieved consistently outside of the oral environment. Epithelial cells attach to metal substrates by means of hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions. Their density per unit cell is an indicator of attachment strength. We postulate that gingival epithelial cells express more hemidesmosomes and focal adhesions at earlier time points, compared with epidermal keratinocytes, and this increased speed and strength of attachment may be the reason why an infection-free seal is often achieved around dental implants but less frequently around ITAP. The aim of this study was to compare epidermal keratinocyte with oral gingival cell attachment on titanium alloy in vitro, to determine whether these two cell types differ in their speed and strength of attachment. We aimed to test the hypothesis that gingival cells up-regulate focal adhesion and hemidesmosome formation at earlier time points compared with extra-oral keratinocytes. To test this hypothesis we cultured epidermal keratinocytes and oral gingival cells on titanium alloy substrates and assessed cell attachment by focal adhesions and hemidesmosome expression at 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Formation and expression of hemidesmosomes temporally lagged behind that of focal adhesions in both cell types. Gingival derived cells up-regulated focal adhesion and hemidesmosome expression at earlier time points compared with epidermal keratinocytes. Hemidesmosome expression in oral gingival cells was 3 times greater compared with epidermal keratinocytes at 4 hours. Our findings indicate that earlier attachment may be key to the

  5. Focal Choroidal Excavation

    PubMed Central

    Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation. PMID:28050329

  6. Focal Choroidal Excavation.

    PubMed

    Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

    2016-12-01

    Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation.

  7. Awareness of droplet and airborne isolation precautions among dental health professionals during the outbreak of corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Shahzeb-Hasan; AlShamrani, Sultan-Saleh; Alakras, Abdul-Rahman; Mahrous, Raif; Alenazi, Abdul-Majeed

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of airborne and droplet isolation precautions among Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) (dental students, interns, practitioners and auxiliaries) during the outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 406 dental health professionals (DHPs) working in selected dental facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of MERS (April-June 2013). A structured, close-ended, self-administered questionnaire explored the knowledge, attitude, and practice towards droplet and isolation precautions. Collected data was subjected to descriptive statistics to express demographic information, mean knowledge score, mean attitude score and practice score of DHPs. Inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.05) were used to examine differences between study variables. Spearman’s rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge-attitude, knowledge-practice, and attitude-practice. Results A response rate of rate of 90.22% (406 out of 452) was obtained. The mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 10.61 ± 1.19, 50.54 ± 7.53 and 8.50 ± 2.14 respectively. Spearman’s correlation test revealed a significant linear positive correlation between knowledge and attitude (r-0.501, P- 0.01), knowledge and practice (r-0.185, P-0.01) and attitude and practice (r-0.351, P- 0.01) of DHPs about airborne isolation precautions. Conclusions Dental health professionals considered in the present study showed good knowledge, positive attitude and good practice towards droplet and airborne isolation precautions during outbreak of MERS. Key words:Knowledge, attitude, practice, droplet, airborne, precaution, dental professionals. PMID:27703605

  8. An uncommon focal epithelial hyperplasia manifestation.

    PubMed

    dos Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Giro, Elisa Maria Aparecida; Pansani, Cyneu Aguiar; Ferrari, Junia; Massucato, Elaine Maria Sgavioli; Spolidório, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare, contagious disease associated with infection of the oral mucosa by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32, characterized by multiple soft papules of the same color as the adjacent normal mucosa. It mainly affects the lower lip, buccal mucosa, and tongue. The purpose of this case report was to describe a rare verrucal lesion located in the upper gingiva that was clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  9. Predicting intention to treat HIV-infected patients among Tanzanian and Sudanese medical and dental students using the theory of planned behaviour - a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic poses significant challenges to the low income countries in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), affecting the attrition rate among health care workers, their level of motivation, and absenteeism from work. Little is known about how to deal with deterioration of human resources in the health care systems. This study aimed to predict the intention to provide surgical treatment to HIV infected patients among medical- and dental students in Tanzania and Sudan using an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Methods Four hundred and seventy five medical- and dental students at the University of Dar es Salaam (mean age, 25 yr) and 642 dental students attending 6 public and private dental faculties in Khartoum (mean age 21.7 yr) completed self-administered TPB questionnaires in 2005 and 2007, respectively. Results Both Tanzanian and Sudanese students demonstrated strong intentions to provide care for people with HIV and AIDS. Stepwise linear regression revealed that the TPB accounted for 51% (43% in Tanzania and Sudan) of the variance in intention across study sites. After having controlled for country and past behaviour, the TPB in terms of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control accounted for 34% and moral norms for an additional 2,3% of the explainable variance in intention. Across both study sites, attitudes were the strongest predictor of intention followed in descending order by subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control. Conclusion The TPB is applicable to students' care delivery intentions in the context of HIV and AIDS across the two SSA countries investigated. It is suggested that attitudes, subjective norms, moral norms and perceived behavioural control are key factors in students' willingness to treat AIDS and HIV infected patients and should be targets of interventions aimed at improving the quality of health care delivery in this context. PMID:19930555

  10. Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Clinical Isolates from Initial Stages of Dental Pulp Infection: Identification of a New Exopolysaccharide Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Mangala A.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wilkins, Marc R.; Hunter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The human oral microbiome has a major role in oral diseases including dental caries. Our studies on progression of caries infection through dentin and more recently, the invasion of vital dental pulp, detected Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the initial stages of infection of vital pulp tissue. In this study employing current high-throughput next generation sequencing technology we sought to obtain insight into genomic traits of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus, to recognise biomarkers that could provide an understanding of pathogenic potential of lactobacilli, generally regarded as safe. Roche GS FLX+ technology was used to generate whole genome sequences of two clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus infecting vital pulp. Detailed genome-wide comparison of the genetic profiles of tissue invasive L. rhamnosus with probiotic L. rhamnosus was performed to test the hypothesis that specific strains of L. rhamnosus possessing a unique gene complement are selected for the capacity to invade vital pulp tissue. Analysis identified 264 and 258 genes respectively, from dental pulp-invasive L. rhamnosus strains LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 isolated from two different subjects that were not present in the reference probiotic L. rhamnosus strain ATCC 53103 (GG). Distinct genome signatures identified included the presence of a modified exopolysaccharide cluster, a characteristic confirmed in a further six clinical isolates. Additional features of LRHMDP2 and LRHMDP3 were altered transcriptional regulators from RpoN, NtrC, MutR, ArsR and zinc-binding Cro/CI families, as well as changes in the two-component sensor kinase response regulator and ABC transporters for ferric iron. Both clinical isolates of L. rhamnosus contained a single SpaFED cluster, as in L. rhamnosus Lc705, instead of the two Spa clusters (SpaCBA and SpaFED) identified in L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 (GG). Genomic distance analysis and SNP divergence confirmed a close relationship of the clinical isolates but segregation from the reference

  11. Interferon Induced Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bayram Kayar, Nuket; Alpay, Nadir; Hamdard, Jamshid; Emegil, Sebnem; Bag Soydas, Rabia; Baysal, Birol

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology which involves recurring oral and genital aphthous ulcers and ocular lesions as well as articular, vascular, and nervous system involvement. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is usually seen in viral infections, immune deficiency syndrome, sickle cell anemia, and hyperfiltration and secondary to interferon therapy. Here, we present a case of FSGS identified with kidney biopsy in a patient who had been diagnosed with Behçet's disease and received interferon-alpha treatment for uveitis and presented with acute renal failure and nephrotic syndrome associated with interferon. PMID:27847659

  12. Focal Adhesion of Osteoblastic Cells on Titanium Surface with Amine Functionalities Formed by Plasma Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Heesang; Jung, Sang Chul; Kim, Byung Hoon

    2012-08-01

    To enhance the focal adhesion of osteoblastic cells on a titanium surface, plasma polymerized allyl amine (AAm) thin films were deposited by plasma polymerization. This plasma polymer functionalization of titanium is advantageous for osteoblastic focal adhesion formation. Such Ti surfaces are useful for the fabrication of titanium-based dental implants for enhancement of osseointegration.

  13. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  14. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  15. Vitelliform focal choroidal excavation.

    PubMed

    Or, Chris; Forooghian, Farzin

    2014-05-30

    Focal choroidal excavations (FCE) are characterized by foveal or perifoveal choroid excavations seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The authors report a case of FCE associated with a vitelliform lesion within the excavation. A case of FCE associated with a small vitelliform lesion has been described previously, but the larger extent of the vitelliform lesion observed in the current case has not been previously reported. This may represent a novel category of FCE, vitelliform focal choroidal excavation, in which deposition of vitelliform material is associated with its development.

  16. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  17. The seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among children and their mothers attending for dental care in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Maureen; Bagg, Jeremy; Welbury, Richard; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Hague, Rosie; Geary, Isabella; Roy, Kirsty M

    2016-08-24

    This paper describes a voluntary anonymous survey to investigate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV) in children in Glasgow, UK attending a Dental Hospital and the proportion of HCV positive mothers who have a child who is HCV seropositive. The study was undertaken among children and accompanying parents and household contacts attending a general anaesthetic assessment clinic at Glasgow Dental Hospital and School. Children were asked to provide an oral fluid specimen for HCV testing. Accompanying adults were asked to provide demographic data on the child and information on familial risk factors for HCV infection using a standardised questionnaire. Birth mothers were also asked to provide an oral fluid specimen. Specimens and questionnaires were linked by a unique anonymous study number. Between June 2009 and December 2011, samples were collected from 2141 children and 1698 mothers. None of the samples from the children were HCV seropositive but 16 (0.9%, 95% CI 0.6-1.5%) of the specimens from mothers were HCV antibody positive. In summary, the prevalence of HCV seropositivity in the birth mothers of the children was similar to that estimated in the general population served by the hospital and showed no evidence of mother-to-child transmission of HCV.

  18. A review of equine dental disorders.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Dacre, I

    2005-03-01

    Equine dentistry is a very important but until recently rather neglected area of equine practice, with many horses suffering from undiagnosed, painful dental disorders. A thorough clinical examination using a full mouth speculum is a pre-requisite to performing any equine dental procedure. Common incisor disorders include: prolonged retention of deciduous incisors, supernumerary incisors and overjet--the latter usually accompanied by cheek teeth (CT) overgrowths. Overjet can be surgically corrected, but perhaps should not be in breeding animals. In younger horses, traumatically fractured incisors with pulpar exposure may survive by laying down tertiary dentine. Loss or maleruption of incisors can cause uneven occlusal wear that can affect mastication. Idiopathic fractures and apical infection of incisors are rare. The main disorder of canine teeth is the development of calculus of the lower canines, and occasionally, developmental displacements and traumatic fractures. The main indications for extraction of "wolf teeth" (Triadan 05s) are the presence of displaced or enlarged wolf teeth, or their presence in the mandible. Developmental abnormalities of the CT include; rostral positioning of the upper CT rows in relation to the lower CT rows--with resultant development of focal overgrowths on the upper 06s and the lower 11s. Displaced CT develop overgrowths on unopposed aspects of the teeth and also develop periodontal disease in the inevitable abnormal spaces (diastemata) that are present between displaced and normal teeth. Diastemata of the CT due to excessive developmental spacing between the CT or to inadequate compression of the CT rows is a common but under diagnosed problem in many horses and causes very painful periodontal disease and quidding. Supernumerary CT mainly occur at the caudal aspect of the CT rows and periodontal disease commonly occurs around these teeth. Eruption disorders of CT include prolonged retention of remnants of deciduous CT ("caps

  19. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colston, Bill W.; Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Dasilva, Luiz B.; Everett, Matthew J.; Stroeve, Pieter; Otis, L. L.

    1998-09-01

    We present here the first in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of human dental tissue. A novel dental optical coherence tomography system has been developed. This system incorporates the interferometer sample arm and transverse scanning optics into a handpiece that can be used intraorally to image human dental tissues. The average imaging depth of this system varied from 3 mm in hard tissues to 1.5 mm in soft tissues. We discuss the application of this imaging system for dentistry and illustrate the potential of our dental OCT system for diagnosis of periodontal disease, detection of caries, and evaluation of dental restorations.

  20. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  1. Focal dermal hypoplasia: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Christiana; de Oliveira Lira Ortega, Adriana; Guimarães, Antônio Sérgio; Gonçalves-Bittar, Daniela; Bönecker, Marcelo; Ciamponi, Ana Lídia

    2011-08-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH), also known as Goltz-Gorlin syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disease affecting tissues derived from the ectoderm and mesoderm. Knowledge and early diagnosis of the craniofacial alterations commonly found in patients with FDH provide oral health care professionals with effective preventive and therapeutic tools. This article aims to review the craniofacial characteristics present in FDH and the main systemic manifestations that have implications for dental management, while presenting a new case of the syndrome with novel oral findings.

  2. The microbiology of the acute dental abscess.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D; Smith, A J

    2009-02-01

    The acute dental abscess is frequently underestimated in terms of its morbidity and mortality. The risk of potential serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess is still relevant today with many hospital admissions for dental sepsis. The acute dental abscess is usually polymicrobial comprising facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group, with predominantly strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella and Fusobacterium species. The use of non-culture techniques has expanded our insight into the microbial diversity of the causative agents, identifying such organisms as Treponema species and anaerobic Gram-positive rods such as Bulleidia extructa, Cryptobacterium curtum and Mogibacterium timidum. Despite some reports of increasing antimicrobial resistance in isolates from acute dental infection, the vast majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment, with antimicrobials limited to spreading and severe infections. The microbiology and treatment of the acute localized abscess and severe spreading odontogenic infections are reviewed.

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) associated with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viraben, R; Aquilina, C; Brousset, P; Bazex, J

    1996-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) of the oral mucosa occurring in a HIV-infected man is described. Molecular biology disclosed an HPV-32 type in oral lesions. The association of FEH and AIDS is uncommon although many HPV subtypes may manifest during HIV infection.

  4. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  5. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    PubMed Central

    Shweta; Prakash, S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed. PMID:24348613

  6. Dental Hygienist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental hygienist, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 9 units specific to the occupation of dental hygienist. The following skill areas are covered in…

  7. Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Zohrabian, Vahe M; Sonick, Michael; Hwang, Debby; Abrahams, James J

    2015-10-01

    Dental implants restore function to near normal in partially or completely edentulous patients. A root-form implant is the most frequently used type of dental implant today. The basis for dental implants is osseointegration, in which osteoblasts grow and directly integrate with the surface of titanium posts surgically embedded into the jaw. Radiologic assessment is critical in the preoperative evaluation of the dental implant patient, as the exact height, width, and contour of the alveolar ridge must be determined. Moreover, the precise locations of the maxillary sinuses and mandibular canals, as well as their relationships to the site of implant surgery must be ascertained. As such, radiologists must be familiar with implant design and surgical placement, as well as augmentation procedures utilized in those patients with insufficient bone in the maxilla and mandible to support dental implants.

  8. Morbidly obese patient with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related cirrhosis who died from sepsis caused by dental infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yuno; Kitamoto, Mikiya; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Yamanoue, Takao; Tada, Yoshihiro; Boku, Noriko; Nishisaka, Takashi; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-03-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is associated with increased risks of developing lifestyle-related diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cerebral vessel disease. While the two-hit hypothesis and, recently, multiple parallel hits hypothesis of NASH pathogenesis were proposed, further details have not emerged. Recently, dental infection of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) has been reported as a critical risk factor for NASH progression, which acts as multiple parallel hits to induce inflammation and fibrogenic responses in steatosis. We describe here a 54-year-old woman who died from sepsis and was diagnosed with NASH. Briefly, her body mass index (BMI) at the age of 35 years old had been 25.6 kg/m(2) , but she became obese after withdrawing into her home at the age of 45 years. Severe obesity continued over 19 years without diabetes mellitus. She was admitted to our hospital due to a sudden disturbance of consciousness. On admission, her BMI was 48.5 kg/m(2) . Computed tomography revealed cirrhotic liver with massive ascites, and laboratory data indicated increased inflammatory responses, renal failure and C grade Child-Pugh classification, suggesting the diagnosis of sepsis. Also, severe periodontal disease was present, because the patient's front teeth fell out easily during intubation. Although the focus of infection was not specified, the oral flora Parvimonas micra, a periodontal pathogen, was detected in venous blood. In spite of intensive care including artificial respiration management and continuous hemodiafiltration, she died on the 43rd day after admission. Surprisingly, P. gingivalis was detected in her hepatocytes. This case may represent the significance of P. gingivalis in the progress to cirrhosis in NASH patients.

  9. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Shoryabi, Ali; Adhami, Shahrzad; Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Hoda

    2010-01-01

    Heck's disease or focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign contagious disease caused by human papillomavirus types 13 or 32. It occurs with low frequency in the Iranian population. This condition is characterized by the occurrence of multiple, small papules or nodules in the oral cavity, especially on the labial and buccal mucosa and tongue. In some populations, up to 39% of children are affected. Conservative surgical excision of lesions may be performed for diagnostic or aesthetic purposes. The risk of recurrence after this therapy is minimal, and there seems to be no malignant transformation potential. In the present work, we presented the clinical case of a 12-year-old Iranian girl with oral lesions that clinically and histologically correspond to Heck's disease.

  10. Focal brain inflammation and autism.

    PubMed

    Theoharides, Theoharis C; Asadi, Shahrzad; Patel, Arti B

    2013-04-09

    Increasing evidence indicates that brain inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social and learning disabilities that affect as many as 1/80 children in the USA. There is still no definitive pathogenesis or reliable biomarkers for ASD, thus significantly curtailing the development of effective therapies. Many children with ASD regress at about age 3 years, often after a specific event such as reaction to vaccination, infection, stress or trauma implying some epigenetic triggers, and may constitute a distinct phenotype. ASD children respond disproportionally to stress and are also affected by food and skin allergies. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted under stress and together with neurotensin (NT) stimulates mast cells and microglia resulting in focal brain inflammation and neurotoxicity. NT is significantly increased in serum of ASD children along with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). NT stimulates mast cell secretion of mtDNA that is misconstrued as an innate pathogen triggering an auto-inflammatory response. The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutation, associated with the higher risk of ASD, which leads to hyper-active mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. CRH, NT and environmental triggers could hyperstimulate the already activated mTOR, as well as stimulate mast cell and microglia activation and proliferation. The natural flavonoid luteolin inhibits mTOR, mast cells and microglia and could have a significant benefit in ASD.

  11. Predictability of Dental Emergencies by Panography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-30

    population (recruits with little or no prior dental care) demonstrate a high incidence of 1,2dental disease . Various epidemiologic studies have shown the...Medical Center, Washington, DC 20012 I Abstract: A study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of panoramic radiography for...dental complaints ranked second only to upper respiratory infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and reliability of

  12. Dental OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  13. Electromyogram-evoked focal myositis

    PubMed Central

    Snipes, George; Quan, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Focal myositis is a rarely reported inflammatory disease of skeletal muscle, particularly of an extremity. It is often misinterpreted as an infectious syndrome, leading to prolonged antibiotic use and a delay in immunosuppressive therapy. Without a confirmed etiology to date, we present a case of recurrent focal myositis following an electromyogram. PMID:28127151

  14. Registered Dental Hygienists as Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Janet; Shugars, Daniel A.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys conducted to (1) investigate why dental hygienists choose to become dentists, (2) evaluate their success in dental school, (3) assess the experience of those who had entered dental school, and (4) gauge the level of interest among dental hygienists in applying to dental school are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  15. Dental sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... few quick steps. There is no drilling or scraping of the molars. Your dentist will: Clean the ... Dental sealants. Updated October 19, 2016. ADA.org Web site. www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral- ...

  16. Dental Sealants

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  17. 75 FR 16511 - Pentron Clinical Technologies, a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of Kerr Dental/Sybron Dental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... such as dental prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental... prosthetics, dental composites, dental impressions, dental adhesives, and other dental materials to...

  18. Kartagener syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Ali; Doroushi, Behzad; Taheri, Nadia

    2013-11-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia is characterized by congenital impairment of mucociliary clearance. Kartagener syndrome (KS) is a clinical variant of primary ciliary dyskinesia which is involved in situs inversus associated with chronic respiratory infections. In addition, glomerular disease in KS syndrome is rare and reported cases are limited. We had a 27-year-old female patient with KS who presented with proteinuria, hematuria, normal kidney function, and a family history of systemic lupus erythematosus. Kidney biopsy showed segmental scar with adhesion to Bowman capsule, which was indicative of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

  19. Mutations in X-linked PORCN, a putative regulator of Wnt signaling, cause focal dermal hypoplasia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Focal dermal hypoplasia is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by patchy hypoplastic skin and digital, ocular, and dental malformations. We used array comparative genomic hybridization to identify a 219-kb deletion in Xp11.23 in two affected females. We sequenced genes in this region and fou...

  20. [Dental management in patients with cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martínez, Sandra; Talaván Serna, Julio; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier

    2016-03-01

    The present article makes a brief review about dental management of the patients with cirrhosis. It focus on problems related with infections, haemorrhagic events and treatment with drugs of common use in odontology.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: focal dermal hypoplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions focal dermal hypoplasia focal dermal hypoplasia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Focal dermal hypoplasia is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the ...

  2. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection and Oral Lesions in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Katia; Kazimiroff, Julie; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Smith, Richard V.; Wiltz, Mauricio; Polanco, Jacqueline; Grossberg, Robert M.; Belbin, Thomas J.; Strickler, Howard D.; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the risk factors associated with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and oral lesions in 161 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients and 128 HIV-negative patients presenting for oral examination at 2 urban healthcare centers. Patients were interviewed on risk factors and provided oral-rinse samples for HPV DNA typing by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical associations were assessed by logistic regression. Oral HPV was prevalent in 32% and 16% of HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative patients, respectively, including high-risk HPV type 16 (8% and 2%, respectively; P = .049) and uncommon HPV types 32/42 (6% and 5%, respectively; P = .715). Among HIV-negative patients, significant risk factors for oral HPV included multiple sex partners (≥21 vs ≤5; odds ratio [OR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–49.3), heavy tobacco smoking (>20 pack-years vs none; OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 1.4–59.4), and marijuana use (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3–12.4). Among HIV-positive patients, lower CD4+ T-cell count only was associated with oral HPV detection (≤200 vs ≥500 cells/mm3; OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.3–15.5). Detection of high-risk HPV was also associated with concurrent detection of potentially cancerous oral lesions among HIV-negative patients but not among HIV-positive patients. The observed risk factor associations with oral HPV in HIV-negative patients are consistent with sexual transmission and local immunity, whereas in HIV-positive patients, oral HPV detection is strongly associated with low CD4+ T-cell counts. PMID:25681375

  3. Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    standing, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections. Key Words: musculoskeletal infection, biofilm , bacteria, biomaterial (J Orthop Trauma...form a biofilm , or slime layer.1 The recurrence of infections is often the result of microbial biofilm formation on the implant, enabling the persistence...Klebsiella pneumoniae). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm

  4. Statistical Earthquake Focal Mechanism Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The new whole Earth focal mechanism forecast, based on the GCMT catalog, has been created. In the present forecast, the sum of normalized seismic moment tensors within 1000 km radius is calculated and the P- and T-axes for the focal mechanism are evaluated on the basis of the sum. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms. This average angle shows tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The method was originally proposed by Kagan and Jackson (1994, JGR). Recent interest by CSEP and GEM has motivated some improvements, particularly to extend the previous forecast to polar and near-polar regions. The major problem in extending the forecast is the focal mechanism calculation on a spherical surface. In the previous forecast as our average focal mechanism was computed, it was assumed that longitude lines are approximately parallel within 1000 km radius. This is largely accurate in the equatorial and near-equatorial areas. However, when one approaches the 75 degree latitude, the longitude lines are no longer parallel: the bearing (azimuthal) difference at points separated by 1000 km reach about 35 degrees. In most situations a forecast point where we calculate an average focal mechanism is surrounded by earthquakes, so a bias should not be strong due to the difference effect cancellation. But if we move into polar regions, the bearing difference could approach 180 degrees. In a modified program focal mechanisms have been projected on a plane tangent to a sphere at a forecast point. New longitude axes which are parallel in the tangent plane are corrected for the bearing difference. A comparison with the old 75S-75N forecast shows that in equatorial regions the forecasted focal mechanisms are almost the same, and the difference in the forecasted focal mechanisms rotation angle is close to zero. However, though the forecasted focal mechanisms are similar

  5. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  6. Oral phenotype and variation in focal dermal hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Wright, John Timothy; Puranik, Chaitanya P; Farrington, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) or Goltz Syndrome (OMIM# 305600) is an X-linked dominant ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in the PORCN gene. This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum transmembrane protein that is involved in processing the embryonically critical WNT signaling proteins. Individuals diagnosed with FDH were recruited to participate in the study through the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Individuals were evaluated to characterize the FDH phenotype. Each participant completed a brief dental survey and oral evaluation using artificial light. To identify the oral soft and hard tissue findings 19 individuals (16 female and 3 male) participated with a median age of 10 years (range 2-56 years). Soft and hard tissue defects were present in 68% (13) and 94% (18) of the patients, respectively. Dental anomalies were highly prevalent with 68% (13) demonstrating vertical enamel grooving, 52% (10) having peg shaped tooth deformities, and 78% (15) having enamel hypoplasia with or without discoloration. Cleft lip and cleft palate presented in 15% (3) of the participants. Other findings included 57% (11) having intra-oral lipoma or papilloma with no site predilection. Dental malocclusions were common with 63% (12) having some degree of malocclusion with 15% (3) of participants having class III malocclusion with an anterior dental cross bite. Participants frequently reported speech problems or difficulty with chewing (73%; N = 14). This study shows there is marked variation in the oral phenotype of individuals with FDH and underscores the important role of WNT signaling in oro-facial development.

  7. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  8. Dental pathology in Pongo satyrus borneensis.

    PubMed

    Stoner, K E

    1995-11-01

    The Selenka orangutan collection obtained from 1892 to 1896 from wild-shot specimens in West Borneo, provides an excellent opportunity to examine dental pathology in free-ranging primates. Two hundred and twenty-three skulls from this collection were analyzed for dental conditions, including carious lesions, local infections (infra-alveolar and periapical osseous defects), horizontal bone loss, and premortem tooth loss. Specimens were sexed, divided into three broad age groups, and compared to ascertain sex-related or age-related differences in occurrence of dental pathology. None of the subadults displays any evidence of dental disease. One individual (2%) in the young adult group has a periapical osseous defect and evidence of horizontal bone loss, and another (2%) has two adjacent interproximal carious lesions. The old adults have a much higher prevalence of individuals afflicted with dental pathologies, including 6% carious lesions, 26% local infections, 23% horizontal bone loss, and 3% premortem tooth loss. The differences between the young and old adults in number of individuals afflicted with dental pathologies is statistically significant for local infections and horizontal bone loss. When compared by sex, the old adult group reveals that females have a higher occurrence of dental pathologies than males in all types of lesions recorded and these differences are statistically significant for local infections and horizontal bone loss. Considering the importance diet plays in the development of dental disease, it is suggested that ecological separation of the sexes, with the subsequent dietary differences, could be an important factor determining the higher prevalence of dental lesions observed in female orangutans. Additionally, the importance of local ecological factors, which may affect dietary patterns, are recognized as a potential source of variation in dental pathologies among different samples of orangutans.

  9. Blaschko Linear Enamel Defects – A Marker for Focal Dermal Hypoplasia: Case Report of Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gysin, Stefan; Itin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare genetic skin disorder. The inheritance of FDH or Goltz-Gorlin syndrome is X-linked dominant and the disease is associated with a PORCN gene mutation. This gene plays a key role in the Wnt pathway, which has an impact on embryonic development. Every tissue derived from meso- and ectoderm can be affected. Patients suffer from cutaneous, ocular, osseous, oral and dental defects. The skin and dental alterations manifest along the Blaschko lines. We present a woman (born in 1962) suffering from FDH with congenital skin changes and Blaschko linear enamel defects. Typical symptoms (e.g. fat herniations, scoliosis, syndactyly, microphthalmia, caries and alopecia) plus vertical grooving of all teeth gave a first indication. Molecular genetic testing confirmed the definitive diagnosis of FDH. We hypothesize that, in the context of typical skin changes, visible Blaschko lines on the teeth in the form of vertical grooves are almost pathognomonic for FDH. PMID:26078738

  10. From focal sepsis to periodontal medicine: a century of exploring the role of the oral microbiome in systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Purnima S

    2017-01-15

    The oral microbiome is established within a few minutes after birth and consists of stable multi-species communities that engage in a dynamic equilibrium with the host immune system. Dental caries, endodontic infections and periodontal diseases are bacterially driven diseases that are caused by dysbiotic microbiomes. Over a century ago, the focal infection theory implicated these infections in the aetiology of several systemic diseases, ranging from arthritis to neurodegenerative diseases. However, a lack of concrete evidence, combined with the urgency with which clinicians embraced this approach without regard for appropriate case selection, led to its demise within 30 years. In the last decade of the 20th century, the concept of periodontal medicine was introduced to explain the correlations that were being observed between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, pulmonary disease, pre-term delivery of low birth weight infants and metabolic disease. It was proposed that periodontal pathobionts played a causal role in the initiating or exacerbating certain diseases either by direct invasion or by stimulating a florid immune-inflammatory response that extended into the systemic circulation. This review will examine the strength of current evidence in establishing a causal link between oral pathobionts and systemic disease.

  11. Dental health status of liver transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Guggenheimer, James; Eghtesad, Bijan; Close, John M; Shay, Christine; Fung, John J

    2007-02-01

    A prerequisite dental evaluation is usually recommended for potential organ transplant candidates. This is based on the premise that untreated dental disease may pose a risk for infection and sepsis, although there is no evidence that this has occurred in organ transplant candidates or recipients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental disease and oral health behaviors in a sample of liver transplant candidates (LTCs). Oral examinations were conducted on 300 LTCs for the presence of gingivitis, dental plaque, dental caries, periodontal disease, edentulism, and xerostomia. The prevalence of these conditions was compared with oral health data from national health surveys and examined for possible associations with most recent dental visit, smoking, and type of liver disease. Significant risk factors for plaque-related gingivitis included intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004), smoking (P = 0.03), and diuretic therapy (P = 0.005). Dental caries and periodontal disease were also significantly associated with intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit (P = 0.004). LTCs with viral hepatitis or alcoholic cirrhosis had the highest smoking rate (78.8%). Higher rates of edentulism occurred among older LTCs who were less likely to have had a recent dental evaluation (mean 88 months). In conclusion, intervals of more than 1 yr since the last dental visit, smoking, and diuretic therapy appear to be the most significant determinants of dental disease and the need for a pretransplantation dental screening evaluation in LTCs. Edentulous patients should have periodic examinations for oral cancer.

  12. Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) in dental patients.

    PubMed

    Takata, Y; Kurokawa, H; Fukuda, J

    2003-04-01

    Transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) is a new DNA virus found in patients with post-transfusion hepatitis. The prevalence of this virus among dental patients has not been reported, therefore, the prevalence of TTV infection in consecutive dental inpatients was evaluated. TTV DNA was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 441 dental inpatients with oral cancer (n=192) or oral cysts (n=249). The serum HBs antigen and HCV antibody as well as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GTP) concentrations were also measured. Of 441 subjects, 137 were infected with TTV (31.1%). This prevalence of TTV was much higher than that of HBV or HCV (HBV 1.2%; HCV 6.0%) in these dental patients. There was no gender or age difference in the prevalence of TTV infection. Of the 192 patients with oral cancer, 57 subjects had TTV in their sera, while 80 of 249 with oral cystic disease had TTV. The prevalence of TTV was similar between the two different disease groups. Neither the serum ALT nor serum AST concentrations were different between the subjects positive and negative for TTV DNA. In hospitalized dental patients, 31.1% were infected with TTV. The prevalence of TTV was much higher than that of HBV or HCV. There was no difference in the prevalence of TTV between subjects with cancer and cysts. Dentists should maintain high standards of infection control when treating any dental patient.

  13. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  14. Finding Dental Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Finding Dental Care Where can I find low-cost dental care? Dental schools often have clinics that allow dental ... can I find more information? See Finding Low Cost Dental Care . ​​​​ WWNRightboxRadEditor2 Contact Us 1-866-232-4528 nidcrinfo@ ...

  15. Dental education and dental practice.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper relates recent modes of dental practice to changes that the public and government are likely to ask the health care professions to make in the future. As usual they are asking for the best of all worlds. First, that we maintain the clinical model to the highest standards of personal dental care based and tested against the best research at our disposal, whilst we ensure there is no reduction in the high technical standards for which british dentists have a reputation. Second, that the profession is required to consider ways of providing care on the medicosocial model for the whole community at an economic level the country will afford. The broad changes in dental education have been reviewed, from the technical apprenticeship to the establishment of strong university departments in teaching hospitals. The importance of a sound biomedical foundation and of research both to education and the credibility of dental practice as a primary health care profession is stressed if the profession is to retain its position as a sister to medicine and not slide down to that of a technical ancillary. PMID:6374141

  16. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  17. Genetic models of focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Boillot, Morgane; Baulac, Stéphanie

    2016-02-15

    Focal epilepsies were for a long time thought to be acquired disorders secondary to cerebral lesions. However, the important role of genetic factors in focal epilepsies is now well established. Several focal epilepsy syndromes are now proven to be monogenic disorders. While earlier genetic studies suggested a strong contribution of ion channel and neurotransmitter receptor genes, later work has revealed alternative pathways, among which the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signal transduction pathway with DEPDC5. In this article, we provide an update on the mutational spectrum of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA4, CHRNB2, CHRNA2) and KCNT1 causing autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE), and of LGI1 in autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF). We also emphasize, through a review of the current literature, the contribution of in vitro and in vivo models developed to unveil the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these two epileptic syndromes.

  18. Dental Implant Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Dental implant surgery Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dental implant surgery is a procedure that replaces tooth roots with ... look and function much like real ones. Dental implant surgery can offer a welcome alternative to dentures ...

  19. Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23(4):251-69. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) guideline. Back to Top Administration ... : Hospital Scope | Glossary | References | Site Map | Credits Freedom of ...

  20. Dental Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirtoft, Ingegerd

    1983-12-01

    Ten years have passed since the first articles appeared in this new field. The qualities of the laser light together with the need of contactless 3-D measurements for different dental purposes seemed to be extremely promising, but still just a few scientists have used the method and mostly for laboratory studies. For some reason there has been a preponderance for orthodontic measurements. This seems to be a bit peculiar from holographic view compared with measurements for engineering purposes, which usually are made on metals. So naturally holography can become a clinical tool for measurements in the field of fixed bridges, removable partial dentures and implants. One of the problems is that the need for holography in dental research must be fulfilled in collaboration with physicists. Only a two-way communication during an entire experiment can balance both technical and odontological demands and thus give practical and clinical important results. The need for an easy way of handling the evaluation to get all required information is another problem and of course the holographic equipment must be converted to a box easy to handle for everyone. At last the position of dental holography today is going to be carefully examined together with an attempt to look into the hopefully exciting and not to utopic future for this research field.

  1. Dental issues in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janas, Anna; Osica, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The advancements in science and technology allowed saving the lives of children, who had no chance of survival before. Hence the problem of so called rare diseases, usually genetically determined. It is a new challenge for both the physicians and the health services. These children require a coordinated multi specialist oriented health care, which includes also dentists. This situation is reflected by the case of an 18 years old girl with Rett Syndrome, described by us. In this patient despite numerous visits to various dental practices, no decision of a radical surgical extraction of the tooth has been conducted. In our Department the extraction of teeth 22, 16 and 14 has been performed, as a part of 1 day surgery procedures, thus eliminating the dental infections and pain. Conclusion: Elaboration and introduction into praxis principles of dental care in children and young adults with rare diseases are needed.

  2. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2014-04-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

  3. [Effectiveness and difficulty of education on nosocomial infection control for pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for students in the Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Sunakawa, Mitsuhiro; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2009-03-01

    It has been planned to give pre-clinical practice in the clinic, so-called inclusive clinical practice phase I, for fifth-grade students in the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, to give them the clinical training needed to perform dental practice and clinical practicum for comprehensive patient care, namely inclusive clinical practice phase II. This study analyzed the educative efficiency of the class on nosocomial infection control (NIC) by comparing achievements pre- and post-test, and discussed appropriate education planning on the NIC for dental students. Sixty-two fifth-grade students in the 2007 academic year sat the pre- and post-tests; the mean score and standard deviation of these tests were 5.30 +/- 1.26 (n = 56) and 8.59 +/- 1.18 (n = 59), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between them (paired t-test, p < 0.01). Another finding was that students with high scores in the post-test did not necessarily achieve high ratings in the pre-test. It is suggested that the introduction of pre- and post-tests and the clarification of main points in the class as a theme of NIC could be a useful tool for increasing the comprehension of students on the theme. Since students at lower grades will attend clinical practice in the university hospital, it is thought that students should be given NIC training early in the clinical course, and the current curriculum should be improved to increase the opportunity for students to study this important issue.

  4. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  5. Infection,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-16

    inapparent infection. A refeeding program may thus become complicated by the sudden appearance of a life-threatening infectious illness (3). (3) The...Beisel, W. R. 23 Unusually low serum concentrations of inorganic phosphate have been reported in patients with gram-negative sepsis and in Reye’s syndrome ...infection should be corrected by a well-managed program of convalescent-period refeeding . This aspect of nutritional support is too often ignored. On the

  6. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  7. Focal hyperhidrosis: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Aamir; Solish, Nowell

    2005-01-01

    HYPERHIDROSIS, A CONDITION CHARACTERIZED by excessive sweating, can be generalized or focal. Generalized hyperhidrosis involves the entire body and is usually part of an underlying condition, most often an infectious, endocrine or neurologic disorder. Focal hyperhidrosis is idiopathic, occurring in otherwise healthy people. It affects 1 or more body areas, most often the palms, armpits, soles or face. Almost 3% of the general population, largely people aged between 25 and 64 years, experience hyperhidrosis. The condition carries a substantial psychological and social burden, since it interferes with daily activities. However, patients rarely seek a physician's help because many are unaware that they have a treatable medical disorder. Early detection and management of hyperhidrosis can significantly improve a patient's quality of life. There are various topical, systemic, surgical and nonsurgical treatments available with efficacy rates greater than 90%–95%. PMID:15632408

  8. Stigmatic flat focal field spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemczyk, T. M.; Gobeli, G. W.

    Advances in two dimensional detectors have created a need for a spectrograph that can produce high fidelity images. Aberrations that detract from image quality in conventional spectrographs are discussed. Ray trace and experimental results obtained for a unique spectrograph designed for use with array detectors, i.e., designed to produce high fidelity images, are presented. The spectrograph employs toroidal mirrors to achieve stigmatic imaging in a flat focal field.

  9. Child Indicators: Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewit, Eugene M.; Kerrebrock, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Reviews measures of dental health in children and the evidence on child dental health. Although children's dental health has improved over the past two decades, many poor children do not receive necessary dental health services, and reasons for this failure are summarized. (SLD)

  10. Almost Unilateral Focal Dermal Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Solam; Choe, Sung Jay

    2017-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia, caused by mutations in PORCN, is an X-linked ectodermal dysplasia, also known as Goltz syndrome. Only seven cases of unilateral or almost unilateral focal dermal hypoplasia have been reported in the English literature and there have been no previously reported cases in the Republic of Korea. A 19-year-old female presented with scalp defects, skin lesions on the right leg and the right trunk, and syndactyly of the right fourth and fifth toes. Cutaneous examination revealed multiple atrophic plaques and a brown and yellow mass with fat herniation and telangiectasia that was mostly located on the lower right leg. She had syndactyly on the right foot and the scalp lesion appeared to be an atrophic, membranous, fibrotic alopecic scar. A biopsy of the calf revealed upper dermal extension of fat cells, dermal atrophy, and loss of dermal collagen. A diagnosis of almost unilateral focal dermal hypoplasia was made on the basis of physical and histologic findings. Henceforth, the patient was referred to a plastic surgeon and an orthopedics department to repair her syndactyly. PMID:28223754

  11. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for curl-ups.…

  12. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  13. Qualitative assessment of the dental health services provided at a dental school in Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rad, Maryam; Haghani, Jahangir; Shahravan, Arash; Khosravifar, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the quality of the services provided in a Dental School can raise the satisfaction level of patients and consequently increase the level of their oral health. This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of dental care and services provided to patients referred to a Dental School in Kerman, Iran. In this qualitative study, face-to-face, in-depth interviews were conducted with 41 participants [25 patients (P), 5 nurses (N), 6 dental academic staff (AS), and 5 dental students (S)]. Then, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed, using content analysis of data. Data analysis in qualitative research involves breaking down the data and searching for codes and categories that are then reassembled to form themes. Both positive and negative themes emerged. Positive themes included: good infection control, service accessibility, patient appointments and visits were not assigned on merit, precise examinations, and comprehensive treatment plans. Negative themes included: long wait time, lack of options to pass waiting time, such as newspapers and television, an insufficient number of nurses, and not enough professors for supervision. In addition, the results of this study show that the patients and dental staff have high expectations in relation to dental services, and that implementation of these expectations would increase the overall satisfaction with and the quality of the level of services. Finally, some recommendations for improving services in the Kerman Dental School were given to the managing team of the Dental School.

  14. Dental education in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Jorge A.; Pulido, Jairo H. Ternera; Núñez, Jaime A. Castro; Bird, William F.; Komabayashi, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes Colombia's development of formal dentistry, its dental school system, curriculum, and dental licensure, and current issues in oral health care. In 1969, there were only 4 dental schools in Colombia; at this writing there are 21. Five dental schools are public and the other 16 are private. Nearly all classes are conducted in Spanish. Undergraduate pre-dental coursework is not a prerequisite for dental school in Colombia. To obtain licensure, Colombian dental students must complete 5 years of study in dental school, earn a diploma, and work for the government for 1 year. There are approximately 41,400 dentists in Colombia, and the number is increasing quickly. However, the unemployment rate among dentists is very high, even though graduation from dental school is extremely difficult. Although the 1,100:1 ratio of citizens to dentists is considered satisfactory, access to dental care is limited due to the high rate of poverty. PMID:20339245

  15. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison.

  16. A case of odontogenic brain abscess arising from covert dental sepsis.

    PubMed

    Clifton, T C; Kalamchi, S

    2012-01-01

    Odontogenic infections can spread to any organ of the body and in some cases cause life threatening infections. We report a case of multiple odontogenic brain abscesses resulting from undetected tooth decay. Whereas most odontogenic brain abscesses occur following dental treatment, this report documents brain abscesses prior to dental treatment, signifying the dangers of covert dental infections. This case report updates the literature on the topic of odontogenic brain abscesses.

  17. Occupational hazards to dental staff

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Jamshid; Ayatollahi, Fatemah; Ardekani, Ali Mellat; Bahrololoomi, Rezvan; Ayatollahi, Jahangir; Ayatollahi, Ali; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Dental professionals are predisposed to a number of occupational hazards. These include exposure to infections (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus and viral hepatitis); percutaneous exposure incidents, dental materials, radiation, and noise; musculoskeletal disorders; psychological problems and dermatitis; respiratory disorders; and eye insults. Percutaneous exposure incidents remain a main concern, as exposure to serious infectious agents is a virtual risk. Minimizing percutaneous exposure incidents and their consequences should continue to be considered, including sound infection control practices, continuing education, and hepatitis B vaccination. Basically, for any infection control strategies, dentists should be aware of individual protective measures and appropriate sterilization or other high-level disinfection utilities. Strained posture at work disturbs the musculoskeletal alignment and leads to stooped spine. The stooped posture also involved certain groups of muscles and joints. This may lead to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Continuous educating and appropriate intervention studies are needed to reduce the complication of these hazards. So, it is important for dentists to remain constantly up-to-date about measures on how to deal with newer strategies and dental materials, and implicates the need for special medical care for this professional group. PMID:22363355

  18. Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Swine-Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection among Dental Professionals in India - A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Pannu, Prabh Roohan; Nanda, Tarun; Arora, Gagandeep; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Swine flu or Influenza A (H1N1) flu is the most recent of the pandemic disease that has affected the world’s population. We, as health care providers should feel responsible for reducing the transmission of influenza. Aim To conduct a systematic review of observational studies and to assess dental professionals’ knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu. Materials and Methods Relevant cross-sectional observational studies were included in the systematic review to assess the level of knowledge and awareness regarding swine flu among dental professionals. Three studies out of 28 were finally included in the present review after conducting both electronic and manual search of scientific databases like Pubmed, Medline, and EMBASE. No limitation in terms of publication date and language was considered. Potential biases were reported and appropriate data were extracted by the concerned investigators. Descriptive statistics, student t-test were used for analysis. Results Majority of the subjects (92.6%) had heard about swine flu, and 64.3% of them knew about the H1N1 virus in one of the study reports. More than 80% of subjects were aware regarding the availability of swine flu vaccine in one study reports as compared to another study in which only 31.5% had awareness. Majority of the subjects were of the opinion that frequent hand washing and use of sanitizer are one of the effective methods to prevent swine flu in all the three studies. Conclusion The results of the present review showed that some knowledge gaps existed among dental professionals regarding swine flu. Therefore, there is an urgent need for training and continuous education programs regarding infectious diseases. PMID:27790597

  19. Report of the Task Force on AIDS and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, John; Gray, Carolyn F.

    1988-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' task force on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dental education recommends that educational strategies stress the necessity for routine infection control procedures in treatment, enhancing the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning all aspects of disease prevention.…

  20. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: Heck disease.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Hebert, A A; Adler-Storthz, K

    1993-09-01

    Two sisters of Mexican ancestry had focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH). The lesions on the oral mucosa of the older child were initially misinterpreted as representing sexual abuse. Microscopic evaluation of a hematoxylin and eosin-stained section from a lower lip papule demonstrated the histologic features of FEH. Although human papillomavirus (HPV) type 13 and HPV32 have been most consistently present in FEH lesions, types 6, 11, 13, and 32 were not detected in the paraffin-embedded tissue specimen of our patient using an in situ hybridization technique. The lesions persisted or recurred during management using destructive modalities; subsequently, they completely resolved spontaneously.

  1. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  2. Bacteremia following dental implant surgery: Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Tayfun; Öksüz, Lütfiye; Gürler, Nezahat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of bacteremia, bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility against to causative bacteria associated with dental implant installation. Study Design: 30 generally healthy patients were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30 minutes after dental implant installation and 24 hours after dental implant surgery. Blood samples were cultured in a BACTEC system. The isolated bacteria were identified using conventional methods. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were performed by disc diffusion. Results: No bacteria were isolated at the baseline and 24 hours after surgery, whereas the prevalence of bacteremia at 30 minutes after dental implant installation was 23%. The isolated bacteria species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Eubacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus viridans. The Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was isolated in three patients, was found to be resistant to penicillin which is first choice of many clinicians. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that installation of dental implants can produce bacteremia. Within the limitations of this study, it can be speculated that the resistance of antibiotics may compromise the routine prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Therefore use of blood cultures and antibiograms may be suggested in risky patients. The outcome of the present study should be verified using a larger patient group with varying conditions. Key words: Dental implant, bacteremia, infective endocarditis, antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:22157668

  3. Pathogenesis of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Beom Jin; Yang, Jae Won; Do, Woo Sung; Fogo, Agnes B.

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS. FSGS may also be caused by genetic alterations. These genes are mainly those regulating slit diaphragm structure, actin cytoskeleton of podocytes, and foot process structure. The mode of inheritance and age of onset are different according to the gene involved. Recently, the role of parietal epithelial cells (PECs) has been highlighted. Podocytes and PECs have common mesenchymal progenitors, therefore, PECs could be a source of podocyte repopulation after podocyte injury. Activated PECs migrate along adhesion to the glomerular tuft and may also contribute to the progression of sclerosis. Markers of activated PECs, including CD44, could be used to distinguish FSGS from minimal change disease. The pathogenesis of FSGS is very complex; however, understanding basic mechanisms of podocyte injury is important not only for basic research, but also for daily diagnostic pathology practice. PMID:27744657

  4. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  5. Dental Auxiliary Occupations. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Richard D.

    As part of a dental auxiliaries project, a Dental Auxiliary National Technical Advisory Committee was established, and its major undertaking was to assist in the development of a functional inventory for each of the three dental auxiliary occupations (dental assisting, dental hygiene, and dental laboratory technology). The analysis consisted of…

  6. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  7. Dental Exam for Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and thumb sucking Toddlers, school-age children and adolescents During each regular checkup, the dentist or hygienist ... dental hygienist about proper oral health care for adolescents. American Dental Hygienists' Association. http://www.adha.org/ ...

  8. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    MedlinePlus

    ... documents in the Related Resources section. Why is mercury used in dental amalgam? Approximately half of a ... about bioaccumulation, please see Related Resources. Is the mercury in dental amalgam the same as the mercury ...

  9. 75 FR 33169 - Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...-AG21 Dental Devices: Classification of Dental Amalgam, Reclassification of Dental Mercury, Designation of Special Controls for Dental Amalgam, Mercury, and Amalgam Alloy; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Food... classified dental amalgam as a class II device, reclassified dental mercury from class I to class II,...

  10. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

  11. Focal epithelial hyperplasia - an update.

    PubMed

    Said, Ahmed K; Leao, Jair C; Fedele, Stefano; Porter, Stephen R

    2013-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is an asymptomatic benign mucosal disease, which is mostly observed in specific groups in certain geographical regions. FEH is usually a disease of childhood and adolescence and is generally associated with people who live in poverty and of low socioeconomic status. Clinically, FEH is typically characterized by multiple, painless, soft, sessile papules, plaques or nodules, which may coalesce to give rise to larger lesions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), especially genotypes 13 and 32, have been associated and detected in the majority of FEH lesions. The clinical examination and social history often allow diagnosis, but histopathological examination of lesional tissue is usually required to confirm the exact diagnosis. FEH sometimes resolves spontaneously however, treatment is often indicated as a consequence of aesthetic effects or any interference with occlusion. There remains no specific therapy for FEH, although surgical removal, laser excision or possibly topical antiviral agents may be of benefit. There remains no evidence that FEH is potentially malignant.

  12. Smov Baseline Focal Plane Check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    This test will be executed during the period after the servicing mission and before the extension of the COSTAR assembly. Its purpose is to verify that the FOS, HRS, and FOC focal planes have not been altered by the activities performed by Story and the Astronauts during the servicing mission. A large unknown deviation in aperture position would severly impact subsequent COSTAR alignment activities. If this test reveals a deviation, we may be able to compensate for any offsets prior to the complex and delicate COSTAR alignment calibrations. This enhanced version of the Heptathlon is designed to verify course alignments and measure relative aperture positions to within a few arcsecs. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: ***This test uses pre-servicing parameters for HRS, FOS, and FOC and the Cycle 4 parameters for WFPC2.*** ***This test requires special alignment and special guide stars.** ***This test requires special commanding for telemetry setups.**

  13. Causes and pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fogo, Agnes B.

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) describes both a common lesion in progressive kidney disease, and a disease characterized by marked proteinuria and podocyte injury. The initial injuries vary widely. Monogenetic forms of FSGS are largely due to alterations in structural genes of the podocyte, many of which result in early onset of disease. Genetic risk alleles in apolipoprotein L1 are especially prevalent in African Americans, and are linked not only to adult-onset FSGS but also to progression of some other kidney diseases. The recurrence of FSGS in some transplant recipients whose end-stage renal disease was caused by FSGS points to circulating factors in disease pathogenesis, which remain incompletely understood. In addition, infection, drug use, and secondary maladaptive responses after loss of nephrons from any cause may also cause FSGS. Varying phenotypes of the sclerosis are also manifest, with varying prognosis. The so-called tip lesion has the best prognosis, whereas the collapsing type of FSGS has the worst prognosis. New insights into glomerular cell injury response and repair may pave the way for possible therapeutic strategies. PMID:25447132

  14. Accreditation in Dental Hygiene.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Accrediting, Washington, DC.

    The Council on Dental Education cooperates with the American Dental Hygienists' Association in developing educational requirements for schools of dental hygiene. To be eligible for accreditation, schools must operate on a non-profit basis. A school applying for accreditation completes a previsitation questionnaire concerning its program. The…

  15. Dental Manpower Fact Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ake, James N.; Johnson, Donald W.

    Statistical data on many aspects of dental and allied dental personnel supply, distribution, characteristics, and education and on certain other aspects of dental services are presented and discussed. The data on dentist supply show the national trend in the supply of active dentists since 1950 and the concurrent changes in dentist-to-population…

  16. Dental Laboratory Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Air Force, Washington, DC.

    The Air Force dental laboratory technology manual is designed as a basic training text as well as a reference source for dental laboratory technicians, a specialty occupation concerned with the design, fabrication, and repair of dental prostheses. Numerous instructive diagrams and photographs are included throughout the manual. The comprehensive…

  17. DENTAL SCHOOL PLANNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALAGAN, DONALD J.

    THIS DISCUSSION PRESENTS A COMPLETE PICTURE OF THE CURRENT STATE OF DENTAL EDUCATION WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR MEETING THE DEMANDS FOR DENTAL STAFF AND FACILITIES. THE AREAS INVESTIGATED ARE (1) OBJECTIVES IN DENTAL EDUCATION--COURSES, TEACHING MODES, INNOVATIONS IN CURRICULUM, COORDINATION OF BASIC AND CLINICAL INSTRUCTION, (2) FACILITY…

  18. Dental Assisting Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Sandra J.

    Compiled to introduce the dental assisting student to various techniques used in the dental office and to present theoretical information essential for the student's professional development, this laboratory guide consists of three units of instruction. The first unit is an introduction to dental assisting and contains five topics of study. The…

  19. Perspectives from Dental Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Bruce J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper responds to the Institute of Medicine's 1995 report concerning the present status and future needs of dental education in the United States. It examines whether real reform is occurring at the National Institute of Dental Research, within the academic dental community, and within the practicing profession. It concludes that very little…

  20. Utilization of dental health care services in context of the HIV epidemic- a cross-sectional study of dental patients in the Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV infected patients should be expected in the Sudanese dental health care services with an increasing frequency. Dental care utilization in the context of the HIV epidemic is generally poorly understood. Focusing on Sudanese dental patients with reported unknown HIV status, this study assessed the extent to which Andersen's model in terms of predisposing (socio-demographics), enabling (knowledge, attitudes and perceived risk related to HIV) and need related factors (oral health status) predict dental care utilization. It was hypothesized that enabling factors would add to the explanation of dental care utilization beyond that of predisposing and need related factors. Methods Dental patients were recruited from Khartoum Dental Teaching Hospital (KDTH) and University of Science and Technology (UST) during March-July 2008. A total of 1262 patients (mean age 30.7, 56.5% females and 61% from KDTH) were examined clinically (DMFT) and participated in an interview. Results A total of 53.9% confirmed having attended a dental clinic for treatment at least once in the past 2 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that predisposing factors; travelling inside Sudan (OR = 0.5) were associated with lower odds and females were associated with higher odds (OR = 2.0) for dental service utilization. Enabling factors; higher knowledge of HIV transmission (OR = 0.6) and higher HIV related experience (OR = 0.7) were associated with lower odds, whereas positive attitudes towards infected people and high perceived risk of contagion (OR = 1.3) were associated with higher odds for dental care utilization. Among need related factors dental caries experience was strongly associated with dental care utilization (OR = 4.8). Conclusion Disparity in the history of dental care utilization goes beyond socio-demographic position and need for dental care. Public awareness of HIV infection control and confidence on the competence of dentists should be improved to minimize avoidance

  1. Weaker Dental Enamel Explains Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Gibson, Carolyn W.; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is “weaker” while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution. PMID:25885796

  2. [Relationship between odontogenic infections and infective endocarditis].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Jaime

    2012-03-24

    Revised guidelines for the prevention of infective endocarditis published by national and international associations in the last years do not support the indiscriminate use of antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures. However, some of them still recommend its use in high-risk patients before dental treatments likely to cause bleeding. Given the high prevalence of bacteremia of dental origin due to tooth-brushing, mastication or other daily activities, it appears unlikely that infective endocarditis from oral microorganisms can be completely prevented. A good oral health status and satisfactory level of oral hygiene are sufficient to control the consequences of the systemic spread of oral microorganisms in healthy individuals. However, caution is still needed and prophylactic antibiotics must be administered to susceptible or medically compromised patients. This review briefly outlines the current concepts of odontogenic bacteremia and antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing dental treatment.

  3. Endothelial paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) play a critical role in neutrophil transmigration.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Sean A; Sharma, Ritu; Roccamatisi, Dawn L; Zhang, Hong; Petri, Björn; Kubes, Paul; Colarusso, Pina; Patel, Kamala D

    2012-02-01

    During an inflammatory response, endothelial cells undergo morphological changes to allow for the passage of neutrophils from the blood vessel to the site of injury or infection. Although endothelial cell junctions and the cytoskeleton undergo reorganization during inflammation, little is known about another class of cellular structures, the focal adhesions. In this study, we examined several focal adhesion proteins during an inflammatory response. We found that there was selective loss of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) from focal adhesions in proximity to transmigrating neutrophils; in contrast the levels of the focal adhesion proteins β1-integrin and vinculin were unaffected. Paxillin was lost from focal adhesions during neutrophil transmigration both under static and flow conditions. Down-regulating endothelial paxillin with siRNA blocked neutrophil transmigration while having no effect on rolling or adhesion. As paxillin dynamics are regulated partly by FAK, the role of FAK in neutrophil transmigration was examined using two complementary methods. siRNA was used to down-regulate total FAK protein while dominant-negative, kinase-deficient FAK was expressed to block FAK signaling. Disruption of the FAK protein or FAK signaling decreased neutrophil transmigration. Collectively, these findings reveal a novel role for endothelial focal adhesion proteins paxillin and FAK in regulating neutrophil transmigration.

  4. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  5. Early vision and focal attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julesz, Bela

    1991-07-01

    At the thirty-year anniversary of the introduction of the technique of computer-generated random-dot stereograms and random-dot cinematograms into psychology, the impact of the technique on brain research and on the study of artificial intelligence is reviewed. The main finding-that stereoscopic depth perception (stereopsis), motion perception, and preattentive texture discrimination are basically bottom-up processes, which occur without the help of the top-down processes of cognition and semantic memory-greatly simplifies the study of these processes of early vision and permits the linking of human perception with monkey neurophysiology. Particularly interesting are the unexpected findings that stereopsis (assumed to be local) is a global process, while texture discrimination (assumed to be a global process, governed by statistics) is local, based on some conspicuous local features (textons). It is shown that the top-down process of "shape (depth) from shading" does not affect stereopsis, and some of the models of machine vision are evaluated. The asymmetry effect of human texture discrimination is discussed, together with recent nonlinear spatial filter models and a novel extension of the texton theory that can cope with the asymmetry problem. This didactic review attempts to introduce the physicist to the field of psychobiology and its problems-including metascientific problems of brain research, problems of scientific creativity, the state of artificial intelligence research (including connectionist neural networks) aimed at modeling brain activity, and the fundamental role of focal attention in mental events.

  6. Focal non granulomatous orchitis in a patient with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Piton, Nicolas; Roquet, Marie-Laurence; Sibert, Louis; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe

    2015-04-28

    Crohn's disease is a systemic disease and sometimes involves the testicle, usually leading to granulomatous lesions. We report herein a case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis in a 21-year-old patient with active Crohn's disease treated by an anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody. This circumscribed testicular lesion mimicked a tumor, leading to orchiectomy. Pre-operative blood tests (i.e. alpha-fetoprotein, lactate dehydrogenase and human chorionic gonadotrophin) were strictly normal Pathological examination of the testicle revealed a focal inflammatory infiltrate predominantly composed of lymphocytes accompanied by few plasma cells, lacking giant cells or granulomas. Importantly, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, atrophy or lithiasis were not observed.After discussing and excluding other plausible causes (burnt-out /regressed germ cell tumor, infection, vascular or traumatic lesions, iatrogenic effects), we concluded that this particular case of orchitis was most likely an extra-digestive manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of focal non-granulomatous orchitis associated with Crohn's disease. Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2117747284160112.

  7. [Conditions of dental extractions in areas health centers of Senegal].

    PubMed

    Faye, D; Tine, S D; Cisse, D; Lo, C M; Mbodj, El B; Diouf, M; Diallo, P D

    2009-12-01

    Dental extraction is a surgical act frequently carried out in the African dental structures. It requires the rigorous respect of the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis. Equipments and anaesthetic and avulsional products must be also sufficient. Our study undertaken among 46 dental services in areas health centers of Senegal aimed to determine the conditions under which dental extractions are carried out. The principle results of our study showed that 93% of dental practitioners wore sterilized gloves. 49% of the dentist's care activity consisted in dental extractions. 50% of the practitioners re-use anaesthetic needles, 2% re-use anaesthetic carpules. We noticed that the dental structures were facing a deficit of materials and products of extraction. Face to the outbreak of serious illnesses as infections of HIV and Hepatitis B, the practitioner and his team must be sensitized and trained to struggle against the transmissible infections and to carry out the dental extraction only if the conditions of asepsis and antisepsis are joined together. A pleading towards the medical authorities must be done to support the services in equipments and periodic renewals of the materials and products of extractions.

  8. What is dental ecology?

    PubMed

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  9. Dental hygiene in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Luciak-Donsberger, C; Krizanová, M

    2004-08-01

    This article reports on the development of the dental hygiene profession in Slovakia from a global perspective. The aim is to inform about current developments and to examine, how access to qualified dental hygiene care might be improved and how professional challenges might be met. For an international study on dental hygiene, secondary source data were obtained from members of the House of Delegates of the International Federation of Dental Hygienists (IFDH) or by fax and e-mail from experts involved in the national professional and educational organization of dental hygiene in non-IFDH member countries, such as Slovakia. Responses were followed-up by interviews, e-mail correspondence, visits to international universities, and a review of supporting studies and reference literature. Results show that the introduction of dental hygiene in Slovakia in 1992 was inspired by the delivery of preventive care in Switzerland. Initiating local dentists and dental hygienists strive to attain a high educational level, equitable to that of countries in which dental hygiene has an established tradition of high quality care. Low access to qualified dental hygiene care may be a result of insufficient funding for preventive services, social and cultural lack of awareness of the benefits of preventive care, and of limitations inherent in the legal constraints preventing unsupervised dental hygiene practice. These may be a result of gender politics affecting a female-dominated profession and of a perception that dental hygiene is auxiliary to dental care. International comparison show that of all Eastern European countries, the dental hygiene profession appears most advanced in Slovakia. This is expressed in high evidence-based academic goals, in extensive work with international consultants from the Netherlands and Switzerland, in annual congresses of high professional quality, and in the establishment of a profession, which has not been introduced in all Western EU countries.

  10. Chronic Cutaneous Draining Sinus of Dental Origin

    PubMed Central

    Sisodia, N; Manjunath, MK

    2014-01-01

    Extra oral sinus of odontogenic origin occurs when the purulent by-products of dental pulp necrosis spread along the path of least resistance from the root apex to the skin on the face. Patients presenting with cutaneous sinus usually visit a general physician or dermatologist first, as the lesion can mimic various dermatologic pathologies, ranging from an infected sebaceous cysts to a basal cell carcinoma. Despite systemic antibiotics, symptoms often persist causing further confusion, and at times leading to unnecessary surgical interventions. The location of this sinus in the head and neck region should lead the physician to seek a dental opinion in order to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25506495

  11. Employment of Dental Hygienists as Dental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Cynthia; Odrich, Johanna

    1987-01-01

    A study of the use of dental hygienists to teach periodontics, preventive dentistry, community dentistry, and public health courses looked at employment patterns and practices and the qualifications of the teachers. (MSE)

  12. A Review of Focal Reducer Interferometer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    searches. G.Courtes has also proposed a design for a focal reducer for the E.S.O. 3.6m. Ritchey -Chretien telescope (Fig. 4b). He uses a Schmidt camera...spaced components, with a modified Wynne camera design (Fig. 7). The instrument proposed used folded optics and would operate at the F/8 Ritchey Cretien ...G.Courtes for the 3.6m Ritchey Chretien telescope . a, telescope focal plane and field lens; b, collimator; c, camera. Figure 5 The focal reducer of A.B

  13. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  14. Unilateral Isolated Proximal Femoral Focal Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Doğer, Emek; Köpük, Şule Y.; Çakıroğlu, Yiğit; Çakır, Özgür; Yücesoy, Gülseren

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To discuss a patient with a prenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency. Case. Antenatal diagnosis of unilateral isolated femoral focal deficiency was made at 20 weeks of gestation. The length of left femur was shorter than the right, and fetal femur length was below the fifth percentile. Proximal femoral focal deficiency was diagnosed. After delivery, the diagnosis was confirmed with skeletal radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. In prenatal ultrasonographic examination, the early recognition and exclusion of skeletal dysplasias is important; moreover, treatment plans should be initiated, and valuable information should be provided to the family. PMID:23984135

  15. Mosaic focal plane for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

  16. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) related to highly active antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-seropositive child. A report of a case, and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Malema, V; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2010-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is increasingly frequently observed in rural South African communities. HIV-seropositive subjects have a higher prevalence of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections than immunocompetent subjects; and paradoxically, the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-seropositive subjects is associated with increased frequency of focal epithelial hyperplasia. We describe a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in an HIV-seropositive child receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, who was successfully treated by using diode laser ablation.

  17. Pathways in dental public health.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Steven J

    2005-07-01

    Dental public health is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association Commission on Dental Accreditation. Dental public health has been defined as the "science and art of preventing and controlling dental diseases and promoting dental health through organized community efforts. It is that form of dental practice which serves the community as a patient rather than as an individual. It is concerned with the dental health education of the public, with applied dental research, and with the administration of group dental care programs as well as the prevention and control of dental diseases on a community basis." This article will describe the many career and educational pathways dentists may follow to become irvolved in the practice of dental public health.

  18. International dental standards.

    PubMed

    Jones, Derek W

    2007-09-22

    International dental standards are vital in maintaining the safety and quality of both the products and materials used by dental professionals and the many oral health products used by members of the general public, yet many dentists will be unaware of the role standards play in their daily practice. In this article, Derek W. Jones outlines the vital work of the International Standards Organization and highlights how standards pervade nearly every dental procedure.

  19. Dental radiology for children

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.R.

    1984-01-01

    The benefit for the child from the judicious use of diagnostic dental radiography is improved dental health. The risk to the child from dental diagnostic radiation exposure appears to be extremely low. Despite the low risk, the dentist must minimize the child's exposure to ionizing radiation by using sound clinical judgment to determine what radiographs are necessary and to provide children with optimal protection from ionizing radiation.

  20. Dental erosion, summary.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Imfeld, T

    1996-04-01

    Although reports on dental erosion have always appeared in the dental literature, there is currently a growing interest among researchers and clinicians. Potential risk factors for dental erosion are changed lifestyle and eating patterns, with increased consumption of acidic foods and beverages. Various gastrointestinal and eating disorders expose the dentition to frequent contacts with very acidic gastric content, which may lead to erosion. Whether these factors indeed lead, on a population scale, to a higher prevalence and incidence of erosion is yet to be established. This article summarizes the different aspects of the prevalence, pathology, etiology, assessment, prevention and treatment of dental erosion, and concludes with recommendations for future research.

  1. Dental Implant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oshida, Yoshiki; Tuna, Elif B.; Aktören, Oya; Gençay, Koray

    2010-01-01

    Among various dental materials and their successful applications, a dental implant is a good example of the integrated system of science and technology involved in multiple disciplines including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering. As many other dental materials and devices, there are crucial requirements taken upon on dental implants systems, since surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is subjected to chemical as well as mechanical bio-environments. Such requirements should, at least, include biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility to surrounding vital tissues. In this review, based on carefully selected about 500 published articles, these requirements plus MRI compatibility are firstly reviewed, followed by surface texturing methods in details. Normally dental implants are placed to lost tooth/teeth location(s) in adult patients whose skeleton and bony growth have already completed. However, there are some controversial issues for placing dental implants in growing patients. This point has been, in most of dental articles, overlooked. This review, therefore, throws a deliberate sight on this point. Concluding this review, we are proposing a novel implant system that integrates materials science and up-dated surface technology to improve dental implant systems exhibiting bio- and mechano-functionalities. PMID:20480036

  2. Finding the Focal Axes of Offset Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Focal axis of offset paraboloidal reflector antennas determined by direct measurement instead of trial and error. Two feed horns transmit sum or difference pattern to antenna under test, which reflects energy to far-field detector. When axis of feed horns coincides with focal axis of antenna reflector, far-field detector records minimum in amplitude difference and maximum in absolute-magnitude phase difference between sum and difference signals.

  3. Dental care in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Karine Cestaro; Teófilo, Carolina Rodrigues; Perdigão, João Paulo Veloso; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; de Negreiros, Wagner Araújo; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima

    2017-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a prothrombotic autoimmune disease that may be classified as primary or secondary. Treatment consists of oral anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and/or immunosuppressant drugs. This report describes the dental treatment of 2 women with APS and multiple dental concerns, including periodontal disease, caries, and missing teeth. The invasive dental procedures were performed in an outpatient setting with hematologic monitoring and use of local hemostatic measures. Neither interruption of anticoagulant medications nor administration of blood products was necessary. All of the procedures were performed without complications. To date, no recommendations for the dental care of patients with APS have been established, demonstrating a need to investigate the risks for bleeding and infection, among other concerns, during dental treatment of these patients.

  4. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  5. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.

  6. Dental Laboratory Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of dental laboratory technician, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 13 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 8 units to the occupation of dental laboratory technician. The following skill areas…

  7. Dental Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental assisting curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level dental assistants, and includes job skills in the technical areas of preventive dentistry; four-handed dentistry; chairside assisting with emphasis in diagnostics,…

  8. Clinical feline dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Lemmons, Matthew

    2013-05-01

    Dental radiography is a necessary diagnostic modality in small animal practice. It is not possible to accurately assess and diagnose tooth resorption, periodontal disease, endodontic disease, neoplasia and injury without it. Dental radiography is also necessary for treatment and assessment of the patient postoperatively.

  9. Dental Charting. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Trudy Karlene; Apfel, Maura

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: dental anatomical terminology; tooth numbering systems;…

  10. Workbook for Dental Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Corinne K.; Volpe, Margaret E.

    This workbook contains l8 units of instruction for dental assistant students, each designed to give students practical experience in completing forms that simulate realistic situations in a dental office. Units are: (1) The Appointment Record, (2) The Recall System, (3) Clinical Records, (4) Estimates, (5) Daily Record Sheet, (6) Patient's…

  11. The microbiological quality of water in dental chair units.

    PubMed

    Pankhurst, C L; Philpott-Howard, J N

    1993-03-01

    Infection control is an important issue in the dental surgery but the potential hazards associated with contaminated dental water have received relatively little attention in recent years. The complex design of the equipment results in stagnation of water within the dental chair and subsequent amplification of contaminating environmental organisms, including pseudomonads and legionellae, to potentially hazardous levels. Immunocompromised patients may be at particular risk of infection. Very poor water quality with total bacterial counts above 10(4) ml-1 is unpleasant for all patients, and the dental chair supply should be of drinking water quality. In addition to these problems, bacteria and viruses may be aspirated from the oral cavity and contaminate the handpiece. Measures to reduce microbial contamination of dental chairs and equipment include flushing water through the chair's equipment at the beginning of each day; continuous or pulsed water chlorination, or application of biocides other than chlorine; provision of sterile bottled water in the system; and autoclaving handpieces between patients. Future dental chair design must attempt to resolve the problems associated with microbial contamination of the water supply and aerosols generated during dental procedures.

  12. Dental Expression and Role in Palliative Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Rajiv; Marawar, PP; Shete, Sujata; Saini, Santosh; Mani, Ameet

    2009-01-01

    World Health Organization defines palliative care as the active total care of patients whose disease is not responding to curative treatment. Palliative care for the terminally ill is based on a multidimensional approach to provide whole-person comfort care while maintaining optimal function; dental care plays an important role in this multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the present study is to review significance of dentist's role to determine whether mouth care was effectively assessed and implemented in the palliative care setting. The oral problems experienced by the hospice head and neck patient clearly affect the quality of his or her remaining life. Dentist plays an essential role in palliative care by the maintenance of oral hygiene; dental examination may identify and cure opportunistic infections and dental disease like caries, periodontal disease, oral mucosal problems or prosthetic requirement. Oral care may reduce not only the microbial load of the mouth but the risk for pain and oral infection as well. This multidisciplinary approach to palliative care, including a dentist, may reduce the oral debilities that influence the patient's ability to speak, eat or swallow. This review highlighted that without effective assessment of the mouth, the appropriate implementation of care will not be delivered. Palliative dental care has been fundamental in management of patients with active, progressive, far-advanced disease in which the oral cavity has been compromised either by the disease directly or by its treatment; the focus of care is quality of life. PMID:20606852

  13. Focal Mechanism determination of local M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vales, Dina; Custório, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    We determine the focal mechanisms of local small (ML<3.9) earthquakes that occurred between 2013 and 2014 in mainland Portugal. These low magnitude events were recorded by several stations that provide first-motion polarity solutions. However, only few stations are located near the epicenter and record a waveform with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) high enough to allow full waveform modelling. To overcome this limitation, we used a new approach called cyclic scanning of the polarity solutions (CSPS) (Fojtíková and Zahradnik, 2014), which performs a joint inversion of full waveform and first motion polarities to retrieve the focal mechanism. This methodology has the advantage of yielding reliable focal mechanism solutions, even when high SNR waveforms are available from only a few near field stations (or in the limiting case, only with one single station). To apply the CSPS method one needs to: i) run the the FOCal MEChanism (FOCMEC) code (Snoke, 2003) to obtain a suite of the DC solutions corresponding to the first motion polarities, and then ii) perform the waveform modelling in order to decrease the uncertainty. The ISOLated Asperities (ISOLA) software (Sokos and Zahradník, 2008, 2013) is used in this second step. We applied this method to weak events recorded by a network of 30 broadband seismic stations that transmit data in real-time to Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. We interpret the obtained fault plane solutions in light of active faults and regional tectonics, and in comparison with focal mechanisms previously inferred for events in the region. The focal mechanisms obtained for small earthquakes allow us to significantly expand the database of available focal mechanisms in mainland Portugal, contributing to the understanding of active deformation in the region.

  14. Transparent Meta-Analysis: Does Aging Spare Prospective Memory with Focal vs. Non-Focal Cues?

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Background Prospective memory (ProM) is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM) (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE). The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? Methods and Findings A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. Conclusions The results are consistent with Craik's (1983) proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging. PMID:21304905

  15. Dental Fear Among University Employees: Implications for Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaakko, Tarja; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.; Getz, Tracy; Weinstein, Philip; Ramsay, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 270 University of Washington permanent employees who were potential candidates for teaching clinics, found dental anxiety prevalent, correlating with poorer perceived dental health, longer intervals between dental appointments, higher frequency of past fear behaviors, more physical symptoms during last dental injection, and more…

  16. Spasmodic torticollis: the dental connection.

    PubMed

    Sims, Anthony B; Stack, Brendan C; Demerjian, G Gary

    2012-07-01

    Spasmodic torticollis or cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common form of focal dystonia and is characterized by sustained abnormal muscle contractions in the head and neck area resulting in abnormal positioning or posturing of the head. The dystonic muscle spasms associated with spasmodic torticollis may affect any combination of neck muscles. Three cases are reported of spasmodic torticollis that were treated by a dental appliance with individual varying occlusal heights to open the maxillomandibular vertical dimension. Upon increasing the vertical dimension of occlusion, there was a slowing and/or discontinuance of the symptoms of cervical dystonia. The proposed hypothesis for this reversal is that there may be neuritis of the auriculotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve, which has direct input into the reticular formation (RF), and it may activate the cells of the pontine region of the RF known for the control and deviation of head posture. There is growing clinical evidence that temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction may be a factor in this neurological and painful disorder when it coexists.

  17. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  18. Odontogenic Orofacial Infections.

    PubMed

    Bertossi, Dario; Barone, Antonio; Iurlaro, Antonio; Marconcini, Simone; De Santis, Daniele; Finotti, Marco; Procacci, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Acute dental abscess is a frequent and sometimes underestimated disease of the oral cavity. The acute dental abscess usually occurs secondary to caries, trauma, or failed endodontic treatment. After the intact pulp chamber is opened, colonization of the root canals takes place with a variable set of anaerobic bacteria, which colonize the walls of the necrotic root canals forming a specialized mixed anaerobic biofilm. Asymptomatic necrosis is common. However, abscess formation occurs when these bacteria and their toxic products breach into the periapical tissues through the apical foramen and induce acute inflammation and pus formation. The main signs and symptoms of the acute dental abscess (often referred to as a periapical abscess or infection) are pain, swelling, erythema, and suppuration usually localized to the affected tooth, even if the abscess can eventually spread causing a severe odontogenic infection which is characterized by local and systemic involvement culminating in sepsis syndrome. The vast majority of dental abscesses respond to antibiotic treatment, however, in some patients surgical management of the infection may be indicated. In the present work, a retrospective analysis of the patients with dental orofacial infections referred to the Unit of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Verona from 1991 to 2011 has been performed.

  19. Health Instruction Packages: Permanent Teeth, Dental Deposits, and Dental Instruments. Dientes Permanentes, Depositos Dentales y Instrumentos Dentales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Patricia; Germano, Catherine

    These five learning modules use text interspersed with illustrations and reinforcement exercises to instruct dental aide and dental hygiene students about jaw bones and gums, dental deposits, and dental instruments. The first four modules were prepared by Patricia Lind in both Spanish and English. "The Gum and Bone of Permanent Teeth"…

  20. Dental care access for low-income and immigrant cancer patients in New York City.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jocelyn R; Ramirez, Julia; Li, Yuelin; Gany, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    This exploratory study assesses the dental care needs and access of low-income, mostly immigrant cancer patients enrolled in New York City's Integrated Cancer Care Action Network (ICCAN). A nested cohort of patients from ICCAN responded to a dental needs assessment that surveyed current dental health as well as access to, and use of, dental services. 373 patients participated. Self-report of having a dentist to visit, current dental problems, income, and insurance most significantly predicted a dentist visit in the past year. Discussing treatment-related oral side effects with the oncologist greatly increased the likelihood of seeing a dentist, but few patients reported having had this conversation. There is a lack of oral care information flowing from oncologists to low income patients. We found a high number of reported dental problems: concerning because of potential treatment interference and risk for infection. Finally, ability to pay largely determined dental care access in our study participants.

  1. Focal Adhesion-Independent Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Paluch, Ewa K; Aspalter, Irene M; Sixt, Michael

    2016-10-06

    Cell migration is central to a multitude of physiological processes, including embryonic development, immune surveillance, and wound healing, and deregulated migration is key to cancer dissemination. Decades of investigations have uncovered many of the molecular and physical mechanisms underlying cell migration. Together with protrusion extension and cell body retraction, adhesion to the substrate via specific focal adhesion points has long been considered an essential step in cell migration. Although this is true for cells moving on two-dimensional substrates, recent studies have demonstrated that focal adhesions are not required for cells moving in three dimensions, in which confinement is sufficient to maintain a cell in contact with its substrate. Here, we review the investigations that have led to challenging the requirement of specific adhesions for migration, discuss the physical mechanisms proposed for cell body translocation during focal adhesion-independent migration, and highlight the remaining open questions for the future.

  2. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  3. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  4. Achromatic phase shifting focal plane masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kevin

    The search for life on other worlds is an exciting scientific endeavor that could change the way we perceive our place in the universe. Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered using indirect detection techniques. One of the most promising methods for discovering new exoplanets and searching for life is direct imaging with a coronagraph. Exoplanet coronagraphy of Earth-like planets is a challenging task, but we have developed many of the tools necessary to make it feasible. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph is one of the highest-performing architectures for direct exoplanet imaging. With a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask, the PIAA Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) can approach the theoretical performance limit for any direct detection technique. The architecture design is flexible enough to be applied to any arbitrary aperture shape, including segmented and obscured apertures. This is an important feature for compatibility with next-generation ground and space-based telescopes. PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks have been demonstrated in monochromatic light. An important next step for high-performance coronagraphy is the development of broadband phase-shifting focal plane masks. In this dissertation, we present an algorithm for designing the PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks to operate in broadband. We also demonstrate manufacturing of the focal plane masks, and show laboratory results. We use simulations to show the potential performance of the coronagraph system, and the use of wavefront control to correct for mask manufacturing errors. Given the laboratory results and simulations, we show new areas of exoplanet science that can potentially be explored using coronagraph technology. The main conclusion of this dissertation is that we now have the tools required to design and manufacture PIAA and PIAACMC achromatic focal plane masks. These tools can be applied to current and future telescope systems to enable new

  5. A simple method for focal length measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hua; Ren, Huan; Zhang, Lin; Shi, Zhengdong; Yuan, Quan; Yang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    A simple method for focal length measurement based on image processing is demonstrated and discussed. The collimated beam, detector, motorized translation stage and computer make up of this test system. The two spots pass through the tested lens is accepted by detector, which is transferred twice by motorized translation stage. By acquired the difference of two spots by image processing, the focal length of the tested lens can be gained. The error sources in the measurement are analyzed. Then the results of experiment show that the relative error was 0.1%. This method can be used in workshop and labs for its convenience and low cost.

  6. Natural course of symptomatic focal choroidal excavation.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Luisa; Casalino, Giuseppe; Introini, Ugo; Gagliardi, Marco; Sergenti, Jessica; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Bandello, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old man was referred to the authors' department for nonspecified macular dystrophy with persistent metamorphopsia in the right eye diagnosed 10 years before and followed using optical coherence tomography. The patient underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, including multimodal imaging evaluation and electrofunctional testing. The diagnosis was consistent with nonconforming focal choroid excavation. Over 10 years, no complications occurred, visual acuity was stable, and optical coherence tomography showed no progression of the lesion during follow-up. In this case, nonconforming symptomatic focal choroid excavation was a nonprogressive condition with good long-term visual outcome.

  7. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.

  8. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, R.K.

    1991-04-02

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element of one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities is disclosed. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels. 19 figures.

  9. Crystal diffraction lens with variable focal length

    DOEpatents

    Smither, Robert K.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for altering the focal length of a focusing element o one of a plurality of pre-determined focal lengths by changing heat transfer within selected portions of the element by controlled quantities. Control over heat transfer is accomplished by manipulating one or more of a number of variables, including: the amount of heat or cold applied to surfaces; type of fluids pumped through channels for heating and cooling; temperatures, directions of flow and rates of flow of fluids; and placement of channels.

  10. Actinic Granuloma with Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Phasukthaworn, Ruedee; Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2016-01-01

    Actinic granuloma is an uncommon granulomatous disease, characterized by annular erythematous plaque with central clearing predominately located on sun-damaged skin. The pathogenesis is not well understood, ultraviolet radiation is recognized as precipitating factor. We report a case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic annular erythematous plaques on the forehead and both cheeks persisting for 2 years. The clinical presentation and histopathologic findings support the diagnosis of actinic granuloma. During that period of time, she also developed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. The association between actinic granuloma and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis needs to be clarified by further studies. PMID:27293392

  11. [Antiperspirants for the therapy of focal hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Streker, M; Kerscher, M

    2012-06-01

    In Europe often no clear distinction is made between deodorant and antiperspirant. Particularly in Germany, the labeling "deo" is used for both. Only antiperspirants are capable of influencing the activity of eccrine sweat glands. In the treatment of focal hyperhidrosis, the use of aluminum chloride solutions represents the first choice. The efficacy is well documented in a variety of studies. Subjective side effects include pruritus and - less often - irritant dermatitis, which can be treated symptomatically and usually does not require discontinuation of the treatment. Rare variants of focal hyperhidrosis like auriculotemporal syndrome, Ross syndrome and nevus sudoriferus also are suitable for treatment with topical aluminum chloride hexahydrate solutions.

  12. Oral and dental signs of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID

  13. Dental Compressed Air Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    I AL-TR-IWI-0uuu AD-A249 954 DENTAL COMPRESSED AIMYTM R Curtis D. Weyrmuch, Mejor, USAP, D Samuel P.Dvs iueatclpi SF.O N AEROSPACE MwaEDIN mwr~ComA G...FUNDING NUMBERS Dental Compressed Air Systems PE - 87714F PR - 7350 TA - 22 D. Weyrauch WU - XX Samuel P. Davis George W. Gaines 7. PERFORMING...words) The purpose of this report is to update guidelines on dental compressed air systems (DCA). Much of the information was obtained from a survey

  14. Standing equine dental surgery.

    PubMed

    Menzies, Robert A; Easley, Jack

    2014-04-01

    Dental surgeries refer to procedures that affect the dental tissues or their supporting structures. With the development of specific, efficacious, and conservative treatments, morbidity risks have been lowered and chances of benefiting the health of equids improved. Advances in quality of sedation, analgesia, and locoregional anesthesia allow a majority of dental surgeries to be performed in the standing patient. This update focuses on an orthograde endodontic technique, a minimally invasive buccotomy technique, with the potential to combine it with a transbuccal screw extraction technique, and revisits the AO pinless external fixator for fractures of the body of the mandible.

  15. Feline dental disease.

    PubMed

    Frost, P; Williams, C A

    1986-09-01

    Periodontal disease and chronic gingivitis/stomatitis are the most common feline dental diseases. With routine dental care and increased emphasis on home oral hygiene, these diseases can be controlled. Cats can be seen with a number of other dental disorders, and improved treatment methods such as restorations of early subgingival resorptive lesions, endodontic therapy, and orthodontic therapy can be performed successfully. More study and research are necessary about the gingivitis/stomatitis syndrome and subgingival resorptive lesions so that improved prevention and treatment recommendations can be made.

  16. Is endocarditis prophylaxis for dental procedures necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Kathryn A; Wilson, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose is to address whether antimicrobial prophylaxis is necessary before certain dental procedures for patients at increased risk for acquiring infective endocarditis (IE). Methods We reviewed recommendations for IE prophylaxis made by the American Heart Association (AHA) from 1995 to the present time. We also compared and contrasted the current recommendations from the AHA, European Society of Cardiology (ESC), United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and a consortium of French organisations. We further reviewed recent papers that have observed the incidence of IE since these current recommendations were published. Results Beginning in the 1990s, questions were raised about the advisability of using antimicrobial prophylaxis before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. Various groups in Europe and the US were increasingly aware that there were not any clinical trials showing the effectiveness, or lack thereof, of such prophylaxis. In the early to mid-2000s, the AHA, ESC and French consortium published guidelines recommending restriction of prophylaxis before dental procedures to patients with highest risk for developing IE and/or the highest risk for an adverse outcome from IE. The NICE guidelines eliminated recommendations for prophylaxis before dental procedures. Studies published after these changes were instituted have generally shown that the incidence of IE has not changed, although two recent reports have observed some increased incidence (but not necessarily related to an antecedent dental procedure). Conclusion A multi-national randomised controlled clinical trial that would include individuals from both developed and developing countries around the world is needed to ultimately define whether there is a role for antibiotic prophylaxis administered before certain dental procedures to prevent IE. PMID:28321267

  17. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of 3 cases with human papillomavirus DNA sequencing analysis.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, S E; Tokman Yildirim, Benay; Sarisoy, S

    2011-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a benign proliferative viral infection of the oral mucosa that is related to Human Papil-lomavirus (HPV), mainly subtypes 13 and 32. Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, the reported cases among Caucasians are relatively rare. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. Histopathologically, it is characterized by parakeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, focal acanthosis, fusion, and horizontal outgrowth of epithelial ridges and the cells named mitozoids. The purpose of this case report was to present 3 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a pediatric age group. Histopathological and clinical features of cases are discussed and DNA sequencing analysis is reported in which HPV 13, HPV 32, and HPV 11 genomes are detected.

  18. Economic impact of dental hygienists on solo dental practices.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Beazoglou, Tryfon J

    2012-08-01

    The fact that a significant percentage of dentists employ dental hygienists raises an important question: Are dental practices that utilize a dental hygienist structurally and operationally different from practices that do not? This article explores differences among dental practices that operate with and without dental hygienists. Using data from the American Dental Association's 2003 Survey of Dental Practice, a random sample survey of U.S. dentists, descriptive statistics were used to compare selected characteristics of solo general practitioners with and without dental hygienists. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of dental hygienists on the gross billings and net incomes of solo general practitioners. Differences in practice characteristics--such as hours spent in the practice and hours spent treating patients, wait time for a recall visit, number of operatories, square feet of office space, net income, and gross billings--were found between solo general practitioners who had dental hygienists and those who did not. Solo general practitioners with dental hygienists had higher gross billings. Higher gross billings would be expected, as would higher expenses. However, net incomes of those with dental hygienists were also higher. In contrast, the mean waiting time for a recall visit was higher among dentists who employed dental hygienists. Depending on personal preferences, availability of qualified personnel, etc., dentists who do not employ dental hygienists but have been contemplating that path may want to further research the benefits and opportunities that may be realized.

  19. Encephalitozoon cuniculi causes focal anterior cataract and uveitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nell, B; Csokai, J; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Maaß, G

    2015-01-01

    Three mongrel dogs, aged 10 months (case 1), 14 months (case 2) and 7.5 years (case 3), were presented because of ophthalmologic disorders of 4 months, 6 months and 7 years duration, respectively. All three dogs were offspring of stray dogs from Hungary and Serbia and had positive serum antibody titres against Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi. The two young dogs showed unilateral, the older dog bilateral chronic anterior uveitis with posterior synechia and focal anterior cortical cataract. The fundi that could be evaluated developed focal tapetal hyporeflective lesions in the course of the disease. Dogs 1 and 2 underwent removal of the lens via phacoemulsification. PCR of the lens material was positive for E. cuniculi strains IV and II, respectively. In dog 2 findings suggestive of microsporidia were detected underneath the anterior lens capsule by immunohistochemical staining. In all cases medical treatment consisted of systemic fenbendazole, prednisolone, and topical anti-inflammatory drugs, and additional brinzolamid/timolol for dog 3. For the time being all cases (follow up 23 months, 6 months and 3 months, respectively) are still on topical anti-inflammatory therapy. It is concluded that E. cuniculi infections can cause cataract and chorioretinal lesions in dogs.

  20. Glossary of Dental Terms

    MedlinePlus

    ... of entire communities, and can design and administer large-scale prevention and dental care programs by compiling and analyzing statistics Radiosurgery surgery technique that uses radio waves to produce a pressureless, ...

  1. Interpretation of dental radiographs.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Tony M

    2009-02-01

    Interpretation of dental radiographs is fairly straightforward, with a handful of common patterns making up the majority of pathology. This article covers normal radiographic anatomy, endodontic disease, periodontal disease, neoplastic changes, tooth resorption, caries, and radiographic signs of oral trauma.

  2. Dental Care in Scleroderma

    MedlinePlus

    ... a side effect • Avoid the spiral of depression – depression causes worse oral health and poor oral health worsens depression. Suggestions for your dental appointments: • Tell the dentist ...

  3. American Dental Education Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADEA Application Services ADEA AADSAS® ADEA CAAPID® ADEA PASS® ADEA DHCAS® Career Resources DentEd Jobs Placing Ads ... Students & Residents Prospective Students Application Services AADSAS CAAPID PASS DHCAS ADEA AADSAS Applicants Prospective applicants to dental ...

  4. American Dental Hygienists' Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Working Column Journal of Dental Hygiene Author Guidelines Advertising Subscribe Resources Resources About ADHA About Promo (DO ... Member Benefits Footer Copy Legal Inquiries | Contact Us | Advertising | Media Inquiries | Staff / Board Login ©2012-2017 ADHA. ...

  5. Dental Treatment Considerations

    MedlinePlus

    ... and modifying dental treatment to accommodate altered muscle strength. Appointment Scheduling It is important to realize that ... and take advantage of the typically greater muscle strength during the morning hours. Appointments are best scheduled ...

  6. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  7. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  8. Sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Avanzino, Laura; Tinazzi, Michele; Ionta, Silvio; Fiorio, Mirta

    2015-12-01

    Traditional definitions of focal dystonia point to its motor component, mainly affecting planning and execution of voluntary movements. However, focal dystonia is tightly linked also to sensory dysfunction. Accurate motor control requires an optimal processing of afferent inputs from different sensory systems, in particular visual and somatosensory (e.g., touch and proprioception). Several experimental studies indicate that sensory-motor integration - the process through which sensory information is used to plan, execute, and monitor movements - is impaired in focal dystonia. The neural degenerations associated with these alterations affect not only the basal ganglia-thalamic-frontal cortex loop, but also the parietal cortex and cerebellum. The present review outlines the experimental studies describing impaired sensory-motor integration in focal dystonia, establishes their relationship with changes in specific neural mechanisms, and provides new insight towards the implementation of novel intervention protocols. Based on the reviewed state-of-the-art evidence, the theoretical framework summarized in the present article will not only result in a better understanding of the pathophysiology of dystonia, but it will also lead to the development of new rehabilitation strategies.

  9. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia. An unusual clinical aspect].

    PubMed

    Bodokh, I; Lacour, J P; Rainero, C; Orth, G; Perrin, C; Hoffman, P; Santini, J; Ortonne, J P

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia in a child born in France of Algerian parents. The clinical appearance was unusual in that certain lesions were verrucous and pediculate. A virological study revealed the presence of papillomavirus 32, one of the two types of HPV specifically associated with this entity.

  10. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  11. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

    PubMed

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

    1983-01-01

    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  12. Complex source description of focal regions.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Cesar; Forester, Donald W; Moore, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Closed-form solutions of the two-dimensional homogeneous wave equation are presented that provide focal-region descriptions corresponding to a converging bundle of rays. The solutions do have evanescent wave content and can be described as a source-sink pair or particle-antiparticle pair, collocated in complex space, with the complex location being critical in the determination of beam shape and focal region size. The wave solutions are not plagued by singularities, have a finite energy, and have a limitation on how small the focal size can get, with a penalty for limiting small spot sizes in the form of impractically high associated reactive energy. The electric-field-defined spot-size limiting value is 0.35lambda x 0.35lambda, which is about 38% of the Poynting-vector-defined minimum spot size (0.8lambda x 0.4lambda) and corresponds to a condition related to the maximum possible beam angle. A multiple set of solutions is introduced, and the elementary solutions are used to produce new solutions via superposition, resulting in fields with chiral character or with increased depth of focus. We do not claim generality, as the size of focal regions exhibited by the closed-form solutions has a lower bound and hence is not able to account for Pendry's "ideal lens" scenario.

  13. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  14. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  15. Exploring Attitudes of White Dental Students Regarding Willingness to Treat People with HIV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Jeanine M.; Hoffman, Mary Ann

    1997-01-01

    A study found that white dental students' (n=144) perceptions of clinical ability, attitudes toward gay men, and white racial attitudes account for both their willingness to provide dental care to patients with HIV disease and their perception of the risk of occupational infection with the disease. Results suggest attitudes regarding cultural…

  16. Estimation of focal and extra-focal radiation profiles based on Gaussian modeling in medical linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Anai, Shigeo; Arimura, Hidetaka; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Araki, Fujio; Matsuki, Takaomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Nobuo

    2011-07-01

    The X-ray source or focal radiation is one of the factors that can degrade the conformal field edge in stereotactic body radiotherapy. For that reason, it is very important to estimate the total focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators, which consists of X-ray focal-spot radiation and extra-focal radiation profiles. Our purpose in this study was to propose an experimental method for estimating the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles of linear accelerators based on triple Gaussian functions. We measured the total X-ray focal radiation profiles of the accelerators by moving a slit in conjunction with a photon field p-type silicon diode. The slit width was changed so that the extra-focal radiation could be optimally included in the total focal radiation. The total focal radiation profiles of an accelerator at 4-MV and 10-MV energies were approximated with a combination of triple Gaussian functions, which correspond to the focal-spot radiation, extra-focal radiation, and radiation transmitted through the slit assembly. As a result, the ratios of the Gaussian peak value of the extra-focal radiation to that of the focal spot for 4 and 10 MV were 0.077 and 0.159, respectively. The peak widths of the focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles were 0.57 and 25.0 mm for 4 MV, respectively, and 0.60 and 22.0 mm for 10 MV, respectively. We concluded that the proposed focal radiation profile model based on the triple Gaussian functions may be feasible for estimating the X-ray focal-spot and extra-focal radiation profiles.

  17. Prosthetic knee arthritis due to Granulicatella adiacens after dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Mougari, F; Jacquier, H; Berçot, B; Hannouche, D; Nizard, R; Cambau, E; Zadegan, F

    2013-10-01

    We report prosthetic knee arthritis in a 55-year-old diabetic man due to Granulicatella adiacens, a micro-organism present in the oral flora, usually described in endocarditis but rarely in prosthesis joint infection. This patient had undergone a dental extraction without antibiotic prophylaxis one month before, and an aseptic loosening of the prosthesis had been diagnosed previously. If antimicrobial prophylaxis against infective endocarditis for dental procedures is well established, such an approach is still controversial for joint prosthesis and should be considered in some conditions.

  18. Portable Dental System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Portable dental system provides dental care in isolated communities. System includes a patient's chair and a dentist's stool, an X-ray machine and a power unit, all of which fold into compact packages. A large yellow "pumpkin" is a collapsible compressed air tank. Portable system has been used successfully in South America in out of the way communities with this back-packable system, and in American nursing homes. This product is no longer manufactured.

  19. Dental physical examination.

    PubMed

    Baker, G J

    1998-08-01

    The objectives of the equine dental physical examination are to detect and quantify oral and dental disorders, to propose and carry out their treatment, and to implement management programs. The veterinarian should be able to offer a prognosis and to detail any future treatment or management plans that may be required. These objectives should take into account the cost of these procedures, and the veterinarian should be prepared to offer a cost-benefit analysis of the problem and the proposed cures.

  20. Dental considerations in anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dental trauma as a result of anaesthesia practice is a relevant issue concerning morbidity and litigation. The investigator aimed to consolidate pertinent information on this issue to aid in the redressal of such an occurrence. A review of this relevant literature alongwith the author’s suggestions towards the management of the various kinds of dental trauma sustained as a result of anaesthesia practice is presented. PMID:27974970

  1. TRICARE Dental Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    enrollee – $1,500 lifetime maximum for orthodontics – Contractor: Delta Dental of California 2011 MHS Conference TRICARE Retiree Dental Program...Benefits Comprehensive benefits 12-month waiting period for crowns, prosthetics and orthodontics No waiting period if enroll within 120 days of...retiring from active duty or transfer to Retired Reserve status from National Guard or Reserve  Orthodontics for children and adults Accident coverage

  2. Dental arch asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zubair, Nabil Muhsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to assess the dental arch asymmetry in a Yemeni sample aged (18-25) years. Materials and Methods: The investigation involved clinical examination of 1479 adults; only 253 (129 females, 124 males) out of the total sample were selected to fulfill the criteria for the study sample. Study models were constructed and evaluated to measure mandibular arch dimensions. Three linear distances were utilized on each side on the dental arch: Incisal-canine distance, canine-molar distance and incisal-molar distance, which represent the dental arch segmental measurements. Results: When applying “t-test” at P < 0.05, no significant differences were found between the right and left canine-molar, incisal-canine and incisal-molar distances in both dental arches for both sexes. The greater variation (0.30 mm) was observed between right and left canine-molar distance in the maxillary dental arch in male and the smaller (0.04 mm) in the mandibular dental arch between the right and left canine-molar distance in females. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed a symmetrical pattern of dental arches, since the right and left sides showed no statistically significant difference. In general, it can be observed that the measurements related to the central incisors and canines have the widest range of reading and give the impression that the location of central incisor and canines to each other and to other teeth is the strongest factor in determining the dental arch asymmetry. PMID:24966774

  3. FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS AND CHRONIC KIDNEY DISASE IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Kiffel, Jeremy; Rahimzada, Yael; Trachtman, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most common forms of acquired glomerular disease leading to end stage kidney disease (ESKD). Its incidence is rising around the world. There is no proven therapy for those patients who do not respond to corticosteroids and it can recur in 20–25% of patients who receive a kidney transplant. The disease can be primary or secondary to various conditions including vesicoureteral reflux, obesity, medications, and infections. Recent advances have demonstrated the important role of genetic mutations in podocyte proteins as a cause of FSGS. There is an urgent need for randomized clinical trials to develop safe and effective therapy for FSGS that occurs in the native or transplanted kidney. PMID:21896374

  4. Characterization of focal muscle compression under impact loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, B. J.; Sory, D. R.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Proud, W. G.; Williams, A.; Brown, K. A.

    2017-01-01

    In modern wars over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome of the extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions.

  5. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  6. Lasers and pediatric dental care.

    PubMed

    Kotlow, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    There are several types of lasers that will allow pediatric dentists to remove soft tissue (such as diode or Neodynium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers) or remove both hard and soft tissue (such as the Erbium:YAG laser), in addition to photobiostimulation or therapeutic lasers that produce their healing benefits without producing heat. Lasers allow pediatric dentists to provide optimal care without many of the fear factors that result from conventional dental techniques. Lasers are extremely safe and effective when the user has a proper understanding of laser physics. Using lasers for caries removal, bone removal, and soft tissue treatment can reduce postoperative discomfort and infection and make it possible for dentists to provide safe, simple treatments.

  7. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  8. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  9. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  10. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography G Appendix G to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... individual State licensure processes, all of which include assessment of competence in dental radiography....

  11. X-ray sources of medical linear accelerators: focal and extra-focal radiation.

    PubMed

    Jaffray, D A; Battista, J J; Fenster, A; Munro, P

    1993-01-01

    A computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction technique has been used to make quantitative measurements of the size and shape of the focal spot in medical linear accelerators. Using this technique, we have measured the focal spots in a total of nine accelerators, including (i) two Varian Clinac 2100c's, (ii) two Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) Therac-25's, (iii) two AECL Therac 6's, (iv) a Siemens KD-2, (v) a Varian Clinac 600c (4 MV), and (vi) an AECL Therac-20. Some of these focal spots were monitored for changes over a 2-yr period. It has been found that (i) the size and shape of the source spot varies greatly between accelerators of different design ranging from 0.5 to 3.4 mm in full width at half maximum (FWHM); and (ii) for accelerators of the same design, the focal spots are very similar. In addition to the measurements of the focal spot, a new technique for measuring the magnitude and distribution of extra-focal radiation originating from the linear accelerator head (flattening filter, primary collimator) has also been developed. The extra-focal radiation produced by a Varian Clinac 2100c accelerator was measured using this technique and it was found that the extra-focal radiation accounts for as much as 8% of the total photon fluence reaching the isocenter. The majority (75%) of this extra-focal radiation originates from within a circle 6 cm in diameter at the target plane. The source MTFs for each of the measured focal spots have been calculated in order to assess their influence on the spatial resolution of verification images. The limiting spatial resolution (i.e., 10% modulation) for all the source MTFs is 1.8 mm-1 or greater when used for transmission radiography at a magnification of 1.2. The extra-focal radiation, which produces a low-frequency drop in the source MTFs of up to 8%, changes with field size. As a result, the source MTFs of linear accelerators depend not only on the design of individual accelerators and image magnification, but also

  12. Influence of dental materials on dental MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tymofiyeva, O; Vaegler, S; Rottner, K; Boldt, J; Hopfgartner, AJ; Proff, PC; Richter, E-J; Jakob, PM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the potential influence of standard dental materials on dental MRI (dMRI) by estimating the magnetic susceptibility with the help of the MRI-based geometric distortion method and to classify the materials from the standpoint of dMRI. Methods: A series of standard dental materials was studied on a 1.5 T MRI system using spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences and their magnetic susceptibility was estimated using the geometric method. Measurements on samples of dental materials were supported by in vivo examples obtained in dedicated dMRI procedures. Results: The tested materials showed a range of distortion degrees. The following materials were classified as fully compatible materials that can be present even in the tooth of interest: the resin-based sealer AH Plus® (Dentsply, Maillefer, Germany), glass ionomer cement, gutta-percha, zirconium dioxide and composites from one of the tested manufacturers. Interestingly, composites provided by the other manufacturer caused relatively strong distortions and were therefore classified as compatible I, along with amalgam, gold alloy, gold–ceramic crowns, titanium alloy and NiTi orthodontic wires. Materials, the magnetic susceptibility of which differed from that of water by more than 200 ppm, were classified as non-compatible materials that should not be present in the patient’s mouth for any dMRI applications. They included stainless steel orthodontic appliances and CoCr. Conclusions: A classification of the materials that complies with the standard grouping of materials according to their magnetic susceptibility was proposed and adopted for the purposes of dMRI. The proposed classification can serve as a guideline in future dMRI research. PMID:23610088

  13. [Special considerations in dental surgery procedures on organ transplantation patients].

    PubMed

    Schmelzeisen, R; Eckardt, A; Knoll, M; Girod, S

    1991-01-01

    In 150 patients 366 (95%) of 385 dental surgery procedures performed prior to organ transplantations were free of complications. In 6 patients circumscribed wound infections occurred, and 5 post-operative hemorrhages as well as 2 injection hematomas were observed. In the group of patients where dental surgery was performed after organ transplantation, all 123 procedures were free of complications. Treatment of transplantation patients in the dental office requires a profound understanding of the complex clinical problems these patients might present, a good coordination of the required measures and close cooperation between the transplantation center and the attending dentist. Special considerations of the treatment of organ transplantation patients and the indications for dental surgery are discussed.

  14. Effect of different disinfection protocols on microbial and biofilm contamination of dental unit waterlines in community dental practices.

    PubMed

    Dallolio, Laura; Scuderi, Amalia; Rini, Maria S; Valente, Sabrina; Farruggia, Patrizia; Sabattini, Maria A Bucci; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Acacci, Anna; Roncarati, Greta; Leoni, Erica

    2014-02-18

    Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two underwent continuous disinfection with hydrogen peroxide/silver ions (0.02%) and stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.22%), respectively. After three months of applying the disinfection protocols, continuous disinfection systems were more effective than intermittent systems in reducing the microbial contamination of the water, allowing compliance with the CDC guidelines and the European Council regulatory thresholds for drinking water. P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, S. aureus and β-haemolytic streptococci were also absent from units treated with continuous disinfection. The biofilm covering the DUWLs was more extensive, thicker and more friable in the intermittent disinfection dental units than in those with continuous disinfection. Overall, the findings showed that the products used for continuous disinfection of dental unit waterlines showed statistically better results than the intermittent treatment products under the study conditions.

  15. Effect of Different Disinfection Protocols on Microbial and Biofilm Contamination of Dental Unit Waterlines in Community Dental Practices

    PubMed Central

    Dallolio, Laura; Scuderi, Amalia; Rini, Maria S.; Valente, Sabrina; Farruggia, Patrizia; Bucci Sabattini, Maria A.; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Acacci, Anna; Roncarati, Greta; Leoni, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Output water from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) may be a potential source of infection for both dental healthcare staff and patients. This study compared the efficacy of different disinfection methods with regard to the water quality and the presence of biofilm in DUWLs. Five dental units operating in a public dental health care setting were selected. The control dental unit had no disinfection system; two were disinfected intermittently with peracetic acid/hydrogen peroxide 0.26% and two underwent continuous disinfection with hydrogen peroxide/silver ions (0.02%) and stabilized chlorine dioxide (0.22%), respectively. After three months of applying the disinfection protocols, continuous disinfection systems were more effective than intermittent systems in reducing the microbial contamination of the water, allowing compliance with the CDC guidelines and the European Council regulatory thresholds for drinking water. P. aeruginosa, Legionella spp, sulphite-reducing Clostridium spores, S. aureus and β-haemolytic streptococci were also absent from units treated with continuous disinfection. The biofilm covering the DUWLs was more extensive, thicker and more friable in the intermittent disinfection dental units than in those with continuous disinfection. Overall, the findings showed that the products used for continuous disinfection of dental unit waterlines showed statistically better results than the intermittent treatment products under the study conditions. PMID:24552789

  16. Anatomy, Physiology and Non-dental Disorders of the Mouth of Pet Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Thomas M; Vella, David

    2016-09-01

    The first part of this review focuses on the anatomy and physiology of the rabbit mouth. Practical understanding is critical to comprehend the dynamic pathologic changes of dental disease, which is one of the most common presenting problems in rabbits. The major theories of the etiopathogenesis of dental disease are presented. The second part focuses on non-dental oral disorders, which encompass only a small incidence of stomatognathic diseases when compared with dental disease. These diseases are primarily composed of infections (treponematosis, oral papillomatosis), neoplasia (frequently involving calcified tissue proliferation), and congenital abnormalities (mandibular prognathism, absent peg teeth, supernumerary peg teeth).

  17. Dental and Anaesthetic Challenges in a Patient with Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abadi, Ali; Al-Azri, Salah A.; Bakathir, Abdulaziz; Al-Riyami, Yusra

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a group of rare genetic disorders characterised by skin and mucous membrane fragility and systemic manifestations of variable severity. We report a case of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in an 18-year-old male patient who presented to the Department of Oral Health at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2015 with recurrent dental pain and infections. Due to the poor dental status of the patient and anticipated operative difficulties due to microstomia and limited mouth opening, the patient underwent full dental clearance under general anaesthesia. This article discusses the dental and anaesthetic challenges encountered during the management of this patient and provides a brief literature review. PMID:28003899

  18. Complying with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration: guidelines for the dental office.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Ricardo; Mull, Justin

    2008-07-01

    This article outlines Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines for maintaining a safe dental practice workplace and covers requirements, such as education and protection for dental health care personnel. OSHA regulations aim to reduce exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Environmental infection control in dental offices and operatories is the goal of enforcement of OSHA codes of practice. Universal precautions reduce the risk for infectious disease. OSHA has a mandate to protect workers in the United States from potential workplace injuries. OSHA standards are available through online and print publications and owners of dental practices must meet OSHA standards for the workplace.

  19. History of dental hygiene research.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Dental hygiene is defined as the science and practice of the recognition, treatment and prevention of oral diseases. The history of dental hygiene research is considered in the context of the development of the discipline and an emerging infrastructure. Research-related events supporting the growth and maturation of the profession are considered from the early years to the most recent. The benefits of preventive oral health services provided by dental hygienists have been supported by research, and the practice of dental hygiene has expanded as a result of research findings since its inception 100 years ago. Dental hygienists' engagement in research, however, did not begin until the 1960s as research associates or administrators, primarily with dental researchers as primary investigators. The Journal of Dental Hygiene (JDH) has provided information for dental hygiene practice since 1927, and has been the primary venue for dissemination of dental hygiene research since 1945. Graduate education in dental hygiene at the master's degree level and the work of early dental hygiene researchers led to the first conference on dental hygiene research in 1982. Over 30 years later, dental hygiene has established a meta-paradigm and defined conceptual models, built an initial infrastructure to support research endeavors and contributed much to the development of dental hygiene as a unique discipline. A doctoral degree in the discipline, continued theory-based research, initiatives to foster collaborations between dental hygiene and other researchers and enhanced capabilities to attract funding to support large scale studies are goals that must be attained through the efforts of future researchers to address the needs for additional development in the discipline of dental hygiene. Dental hygiene research supports the growing discipline and its value to society.

  20. DESI focal plate mechanical integration and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, A. R.; Besuner, R. W.; Claybaugh, T. M.; Silber, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique[1]. The spectra of 40 million galaxies over 14000 sq. deg will be measured during the life of the experiment. A new prime focus corrector for the KPNO Mayall telescope will deliver light to 5000 fiber optic positioners. The fibers in turn feed ten broad-band spectrographs. This paper describes the mechanical integration of the DESI focal plate and the thermal system design. The DESI focal plate is comprised of ten identical petal assemblies. Each petal contains 500 robotic fiber positioners. Each petal is a complete, self-contained unit, independent from the others, with integrated power supply, controllers, fiber routing, and cooling services. The major advantages of this scheme are: (1) supports installation and removal of complete petal assemblies in-situ, without disturbing the others, (2) component production, assembly stations, and test procedures are repeated and parallelizable, (3) a complete, full-scale prototype can be built and tested at an early date, (4) each production petal can be surveyed and tested as a complete unit, prior to integration, from the fiber tip at the focal surface to the fiber slit at the spectrograph. The ten petal assemblies will be installed in a single integration ring, which is mounted to the DESI corrector. The aluminum integration ring attaches to the steel corrector barrel via a flexured steel adapter, isolating the focal plate from differential thermal expansions. The plate scale will be kept stable by conductive cooling of the petal assembly. The guider and wavefront sensors (one per petal) will be convectively cooled by forced flow of air. Heat will be removed from the system at ten liquid-cooled cold plates, one per petal, operating at ambient temperature. The entire focal plate structure is enclosed in an insulating shroud, which serves as a thermal barrier

  1. Changing profile of infective endocarditis: a clinicopathologic study of 220 patients in a single medical center from 1998 through 2009.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Linlin; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Hong

    2014-10-01

    The epidemiologic profile of infective endocarditis has changed substantially over the past few years, especially in industrialized countries. Our study evaluates the clinical and pathologic characteristics of infective endocarditis patients treated by cardiac surgery in China during a 12-year period. We retrospectively evaluated 220 surgically treated infective endocarditis patients and analyzed their changes from the beginning of 1998 through 2009. The mean age of the patients increased from 36.9 to 42.7 years during those 12 years (P=0.036). The chief predisposing disease was congenital heart disease (32.8%), rather than rheumatic heart disease (13.2%); this rate did not change significantly during the 12 years. The prevalent congenital lesion was bicuspid aortic valve, the rate of which (55.6%) increased significantly over the 3 time intervals studied (P=0.016). The frequency of infective endocarditis after non-dental surgical and nonsurgical intervention was significantly greater (23.3%) during 1998 through 2001, compared with the 2 intervals that followed (9%; P=0.019). Streptococcus viridans was the most frequent causative agent overall (25.6%). Forty-seven of the 220 patients (21.4%) carried the clinical diagnosis of some other form of heart disease before surgery, but at surgery they were found to have infective endocarditis as the fundamental disease process. Of 47 patients, 33 (70.2%) had either very small or no vegetations but had focal necrosis and inflammation of valve tissue that supported the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  2. Dental Implantology in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavitz, J. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The results of a survey of 44 dental schools corroborate the belief that dental implantology is gaining widespread acceptance in U.S. dental schools. Currently, predoctoral students have limited clinical participation. Most programs have taken the position that clinical techniques are best taught within the existing specialties at a graduate…

  3. Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa in Dental and Dental Hygiene Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Karen B. W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Dentists and dental hygienists are in a unique position to identify an eating disorder patient from observed oral manifestations and to refer the patient for psychological therapy. The inclusion of information on general and oral complications of bulimia and anorexia nervosa in dental and dental hygiene curriculum was examined. (MLW)

  4. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a nanoparticulate bioceramic paste for dental pulp repair.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingxin; Yang, Jingwen; Zhang, Jie; Lei, Dongqi; Xiao, Lan; Cheng, Xue; Lin, Ying; Peng, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Bioactive materials play an important role in facilitating dental pulp repair when living dental pulp is exposed after injuries. Mineral trioxide aggregate is the currently recommended material of choice for pulp repair procedures though has several disadvantages, especially the inconvenience of handling. Little information is yet available about the early events and molecular mechanisms involved in bioceramic-mediated dental pulp repair. We aimed to characterize and determine the apatite-forming ability of the novel ready-to-use nanoparticulate bioceramic iRoot BP Plus, and investigate its effects on the in vitro recruitment of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), as well as its capacity to induce dentin bridge formation in an in vivo model of pulp repair. It was found that iRoot BP Plus was nanosized and had excellent apatite-forming ability in vitro. Treatment with iRoot BP Plus extracts promoted the adhesion, migration and attachment of DPSCs, and optimized focal adhesion formation (Vinculin, p-Paxillin and p-Focal adhesion kinase) and stress fibre assembly. Consistent with the in vitro results, we observed the formation of a homogeneous dentin bridge and the expression of odontogenic (dentin sialoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1) and focal adhesion molecules (Vinculin, p-Paxillin) at the injury site of pulp repair model by iRoot BP Plus. Our findings provide valuable insights into the mechanism of bioceramic-mediated dental pulp repair, and the novel revolutionary ready-to-use nanoparticulate bioceramic paste shows promising therapeutic potential in dental pulp repair application.

  5. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... Your e-mail address: Personal message (optional): Bees: Wax: Notice: RadiologyInfo respects your privacy. Information entered here ...

  6. A variable-focal-length telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irkaev, Bahor; Popov, Gennadiy; Nekhaeva, Svetlana

    2005-04-01

    A special additional optical system (AOS) to develop any telescope into a zoom or a variable-focal-length telescope (variotelescope) is proposed. This system permits the telescope optics and detector (charge-couped device) to be matched in order to obtain the best resolution. An analysis of the resolution of the system consisting of the ‘V-telescope and detector’ is performed, and it is shown that the best way to match the optics and detector is to change the focal length, that is to change the image scale. The proposed AOS consists of two spherical mirrors: a large concave mirror and a small convex mirror. The AOS is illustrated by means of figures and tables.

  7. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

  8. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years.

  9. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years. PMID:25361760

  10. Focal colors are universal after all

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Terry; Kay, Paul; Cook, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    It is widely held that named color categories in the world's languages are organized around universal focal colors and that these focal colors tend to be chosen as the best examples of color terms across languages. However, this notion has been supported primarily by data from languages of industrialized societies. In contrast, recent research on a language from a nonindustrialized society has called this idea into question. We examine color-naming data from languages of 110 nonindustrialized societies and show that (i) best-example choices for color terms in these languages cluster near the prototypes for English white, black, red, green, yellow, and blue, and (ii) best-example choices cluster more tightly across languages than do the centers of category extensions, suggesting that universal best examples (foci) may be the source of universal tendencies in color naming. PMID:15923257

  11. Error compensation research on the focal plane attitude measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongfei; Zhang, Feifan; Zhai, Chao; Zhou, Zengxiang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. Combined with the six DOF parallel focal plane attitude measurement instrument that had been already designed, space attitude error compensation of the attitude measurement instrument for the focal plane was studied in order to measure the deformation and surface shape of the focal plane in different space attitude accurately.

  12. Focal epithelial hyperplasia in a Turkish family.

    PubMed

    Gökahmetoğlu, Selma; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Canöz, Özlem

    2014-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferative condition that is more frequently found in children of certain ethnic groups. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 13 and 32 genotypes has been consistently detected in these lesions. In this study a daughter, mother and father had FEH, and HPV 13 was shown by sequence analysis in the lesions of these patients. Cryotherapy was applied to the lesions and the lesions improved, but did not recover properly. In conclusion, HPV genotyping should be performed in FEH cases.

  13. Extensive focal epithelial hyperplasia: case report.

    PubMed

    Durso, Braz Campos; Pinto, José Marcelo Vargas; Jorge, Jacks; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2005-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare benign lesion caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in numerous populations and ethnic groups. A higher incidence in close communities and among family members indicates infectious pathogenesis. A 21-year-old woman with FEH is described, in whom the lesions had persisted for 10 years. A literature review is also presented, with emphasis on manifestations in the oral mucosa and histopathological features.

  14. Likelihood analysis of earthquake focal mechanism distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2015-06-01

    In our paper published earlier we discussed forecasts of earthquake focal mechanism and ways to test the forecast efficiency. Several verification methods were proposed, but they were based on ad hoc, empirical assumptions, thus their performance is questionable. We apply a conventional likelihood method to measure the skill of earthquake focal mechanism orientation forecasts. The advantage of such an approach is that earthquake rate prediction can be adequately combined with focal mechanism forecast, if both are based on the likelihood scores, resulting in a general forecast optimization. We measure the difference between two double-couple sources as the minimum rotation angle that transforms one into the other. We measure the uncertainty of a focal mechanism forecast (the variability), and the difference between observed and forecasted orientations (the prediction error), in terms of these minimum rotation angles. To calculate the likelihood score we need to compare actual forecasts or occurrences of predicted events with the null hypothesis that the mechanism's 3-D orientation is random (or equally probable). For 3-D rotation the random rotation angle distribution is not uniform. To better understand the resulting complexities, we calculate the information (likelihood) score for two theoretical rotational distributions (Cauchy and von Mises-Fisher), which are used to approximate earthquake source orientation pattern. We then calculate the likelihood score for earthquake source forecasts and for their validation by future seismicity data. Several issues need to be explored when analyzing observational results: their dependence on forecast and data resolution, internal dependence of scores on forecasted angle and random variability of likelihood scores. Here, we propose a simple tentative solution but extensive theoretical and statistical analysis is needed.

  15. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

  16. Focal epileptic seizures mimicking sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Ossola, Maria; Colnaghi, Silvia; Arbasino, Carla

    2009-03-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common parasomnia. The diagnostic criteria for SP, as reported in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, are essentially clinical, as electroencephalography (EEG)-polysomnography (PSG) is not mandatory. We describe a subject whose sleep-related events fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SP, even though her visual hallucinations were elementary, repetitive and stereotyped, thus differing from those usually reported by patients with SP. Video/EEG-PSG documented the focal epileptic nature of the SP-like episodes.

  17. Objective identification of dental abnormalities with multispectral fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surya Pratap; Fält, Pauli; Barman, Ishan; Koistinen, Arto; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Kullaa, Arja M

    2016-12-12

    Sensitive methods that can enable early detection of dental diseases (caries and calculus) are desirable in clinical practice. Optical spectroscopic approaches have emerged as promising alternatives owing to their wealth of molecular information and lack of sample preparation requirements. In the present study, using multispectral fluorescence imaging, we have demonstrated that dental caries and calculus can be objectively identified on extracted tooth. Spectral differences among control, carious and calculus conditions were attributed to the porphyrin pigment content, which is a byproduct of bacterial metabolism. Spectral maps generated using different porphyrin bands offer important clues to the spread of bacterial infection. Statistically significant differences utilizing fluorescence intensity ratios were observed among three groups. In contrast to laser induced fluorescence, these methods can provide information about exact spread of the infection and may aid in long term dental monitoring. Successful adoption of this approach for routine clinical usage can assist dentists in implementing timely remedial measures.

  18. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  19. Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuson, Karen; Clements, Douglas; Beckmann, Sybilla

    2010-01-01

    "Focus in Grade 1: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points" describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 1 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate…

  20. Dynamics of Focal Fibrillation Waves during Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Lanters, Eva A H; Allessie, Maurits A; DE Groot, Natasja M S

    2016-04-01

    The incidence and appearance of focal fibrillation waves on the right and left atrial epicardial surface were visualized during 10 seconds of persistent atrial fibrillation in a 71-year-old woman with valvular heart disease. The frequent, nonrepetitive, widespread, and capricious distribution of focal waves suggests that transmural conduction of fibrillation waves is most likely the mechanism underlying focal fibrillation waves.

  1. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease): report of two cases with PCR detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, P R; Abeyratne, S; Ranasinghe, A W; Tilakaratne, W M

    2004-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) (Heck's disease) is essentially a benign oral infection produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, it is relatively rare in South-East Asia. The following report is based on two cases of adult FEH with histopathological features in favour of the disease. In addition, polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of HPV DNA in the lesions in order to confirm the histopathological diagnosis.

  2. The Primary Dental Care Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neenan, M. Elaine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study describes the characteristics of the current primary dental care workforce (dentists, hygienists, assistants), its distribution, and its delivery system in private and public sectors. Graduate dental school enrollments, trends in patient visits, employment patterns, state dental activities, and workforce issues related to health care…

  3. Dental ethics and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Alvin B; Wolf, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Dental ethics is often taught, viewed, and conducted as an intell enterprise, uninformed by other noncognitive factors. Emotional intelligence (EQ) is defined distinguished from the cognitive intelligence measured by Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This essay recommends more inclusion of emotional, noncognitive input to the ethical decision process in dental education and dental practice.

  4. Dental therapists: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Nash, David A; Friedman, Jay W; Kardos, Thomas B; Kardos, Rosemary L; Schwarz, Eli; Satur, Julie; Berg, Darren G; Nasruddin, Jaafar; Mumghamba, Elifuraha G; Davenport, Elizabeth S; Nagel, Ron

    2008-04-01

    In 1921, New Zealand began training school dental nurses, subsequently deploying them throughout the country in school-based clinics providing basic dental care for children. The concept of training dental nurses, later to be designated dental therapists, was adopted by other countries as a means of improving access to care, particularly for children. This paper profiles six countries that utilise dental therapists, with a description of the training that therapists receive in these countries, and the context in which they practice. Based on available demographic information, it also updates the number of dental therapists practising globally, as well as the countries in which they practice. In several countries, dental therapy is now being integrated with dental hygiene in training and practice to create a new type of professional complementary to a dentist. Increasingly, dental therapists are permitted to treat adults as well as children. The paper also describes the status of a current initiative to introduce dental therapy to the United States. It concludes by suggesting that dental therapists can become valued members of the dental team throughout the world, helping to improve access to care and reducing existing disparities in oral health.

  5. Dental Assistant Specialist. (AFSC 98150).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eling, David R.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for dental assistant specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are an introduction to dental services (the mission and organization of medical/dental service, career ladder progressions, medical readiness/wartime training, and…

  6. Dental Laboratory Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide contains 45 program standards for the dental laboratory technology program conducted in technical institutes in Georgia. The dental laboratory technology program, either diploma or associate degree, is designed to ensure that students gain basic competence in the job skills needed for an entry-level employee in dental laboratory…

  7. The Future Dental Education Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjorting-Hansen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Directions for dental education are examined, with reference made to a number of recent background papers and an Institute of Medicine report on dental education in the United States. Greater integration with other health sciences, development of dental faculty teaching skills, and greater use of apprenticeships and continuing education are…

  8. Dental amalgam: An update

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, Kulvinder Kaur; Tikku, Aseem Prakash; Chandra, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Dental amalgam has served as an excellent and versatile restorative material for many years, despite periods of controversy. The authors review its history, summarize the evidence with regard to its performance and offer predictions for the future of this material. The PubMed database was used initially; the reference list for dental amalgam featured 8641 articles and 13 publications dealing with recent advances in dental amalgam. A forward search was undertaken on selected articles and using some author names. For the present, amalgam should remain the material of choice for economic direct restoration of posterior teeth. When esthetic concerns are paramount, tooth-colored materials, placed meticulously, can provide an acceptable alternative. All alternative restorative materials and procedures, however, have certain limitations. PMID:21217947

  9. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  10. Performance of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Rekow, E.D.; Silva, N.R.F.A.; Coelho, P.G.; Zhang, Y.; Guess, P.; Thompson, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    The clinical success of modern dental ceramics depends on an array of factors, ranging from initial physical properties of the material itself, to the fabrication and clinical procedures that inevitably damage these brittle materials, and the oral environment. Understanding the influence of these factors on clinical performance has engaged the dental, ceramics, and engineering communities alike. The objective of this review is to first summarize clinical, experimental, and analytic results reported in the recent literature. Additionally, it seeks to address how this new information adds insight into predictive test procedures and reveals challenges for future improvements. PMID:21224408

  11. Epilepsy in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J J; McArdle, N S; Wilson, M H; Stassen, L F A

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological condition characterised by seizure activity. It has an approximate incidence of 1%. General dental practitioners will encounter these patients in practice. This article discusses the types of epilepsy, the medical management and considerations in dental management of epileptic patients. General recommendations are made, based on current evidence, with respect to prescribing of medications. The management of an epileptic seizure is discussed. Status epilepticus is a rare but serious complication of epileptic seizures. An easy-to-follow algorithm is provided to assist the practitioner in managing seizures.

  12. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  13. Dental Aide. Student Manual [and] Instructor Key. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckman, Karen; Noirfalise, Pat

    The first component of this three-part package is a student manual designed to be used independently in secondary health occupations programs or on-the-job training programs for dental assistants. The manual contains seven units that cover the following topics: introduction to dentistry; basic office procedures; infection control and occupational…

  14. Isolation of Actinomyces bacteriophage from human dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Tylenda, C A; Calvert, C; Kolenbrander, P E; Tylenda, A

    1985-07-01

    Human dental plaque samples were screened for the presence of bacteriophage for Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus sanguis. None of the 336 samples yielded phage for S. sanguis, but 10 contained virulent actinomyces phage. A high host cell specificity was observed in that one phage isolate infected only A. viscosus T14V, eight phage isolates infected only A. viscosus MG-1, and one infected both strains. None was capable of productively infecting various other actinomyces strains that represented the six actinomyces coaggregation groups. Because phage-containing samples occurred randomly in this survey, no correlation between the individual collecting the samples, dental clinic, or type of patient and the presence of phage in the sample was noted. Examination of one of the samples that yielded phage for the presence of a natural host strain for that particular phage resulted in the isolation of two strains which were identified as A. viscosus serotype II and Actinomyces naeslundii serotype I. This is the first report of an A. naeslundii host strain and actinomyces bacteriophage of human dental plaque origin. The finding of both phage and host strains in the same dental plaque sample along with the observation of high host cell specificity by these phage provide indicators that support an active role for actinomyces bacteriophage in oral microbial ecology. The use of these freshly isolated phage as probes to study actinomyces coaggregation properties is discussed.

  15. Current Therapy in Acute Mouth Infections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfarb, George; Burnstein, Irwin L.

    1970-01-01

    Until a dental department is added to a college health service, a physician or nurse can give treatment for acute oral infections. Treatment excludes the use of caustic, escharotic chemicals in favor of more benign agents. (Author)

  16. [Is dental plaque a normal Helicobacter pylori reservoir?].

    PubMed

    Améndola, R; Roldán, C D; Morgade, L; Solagna, A; Lineado, A; Musi, A O; Valero, J; Zerbo, O; Kogan, Z; Ferro, F E; Schenone, L; Corti, R

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms of transmission and reservoir of Helicobacter pylori is still unclear; even it has been suggested that dental plaque could be the bacterial reservoir and one important factor in the reinfection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque in 20 patients with non ulcer dyspepsia (12 females, 7 males; mean age 40.5 years) and antral infection; and to establish the presence of bacteria in dental plaque and gastric mucosa after eradication. Gastric colonization in all of them was confirmed by five samples (three of antrum and two of body) with Giemsa conventional technique, clotest and culture. When clotest was positive in gastric mucosa, we performed the scrape of dental plaque and sending the material for culture. All patients were treated with a scheme of seven days with one protom pump inhibitor and two antibiotics. After four weeks all the patients were controlled with endoscopy and culture of dental plaque to confirm eradication. Dental plaque culture was positive in 1/20 patients (5%), and this results was similar to developed countries, using as detection method culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  17. Issues in financing dental care for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Jones, J A; Adelson, R; Niessen, L C; Gilbert, G H

    1990-01-01

    The elderly make up an increasingly larger segment of the patient population in dental practices. This article reviews recent epidemiologic, demographic, and health services research, and concludes that significant segments of the elderly are at high risk for oral disease and/or limited access to dental treatment, and consequently warrant classification as high-risk groups for policy considerations. It then proposes policy options to the dental community and public decision makers. Oral care can be viewed as having three components. Two basic components are the primary care component--which includes diagnostic, preventive restorative, and periodontal care--and the acute care component--i.e., the treatment of oral pain, trauma, and infection. The third, rehabilitative component, has to do with the restoration of oral function, including prosthodontics and cosmetic dentistry. Viewing dental care in this perspective may help link funding for dental primary care services with that for other primary health services, and link restoration of function and improvement of quality of life with similar health services, like hearing, vision, and social services. In addition, approaching dental care policy makers on several levels--i.e., federal, state, and local--will contribute to our ability as a profession, in the decades ahead, to meet the oral health needs of more elders: including the frail, those at high risk for oral disease, and those with limited access to care.

  18. Review of Spaceflight Dental Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Anil

    2012-01-01

    All exploration class missions--extending beyond earth's orbit--differ from existing orbital missions by being of longer duration and often not having a means of evacuation. If an exploration mission extends beyond a year, then there will be a greater lapse since the crewmembers last terrestrial dental exams, which routinely occur each year. This increased time since professional dental care could increase the chance of a dental emergency such as intractable pain, dental decay requiring a temporary filling, crown replacement, exposed pulp, abscess, tooth avulsion, or toothache. Additionally, any dental emergency will have to be treated in-flight with available resources and personnel who may not have extensive training in dental care. Thus, dental emergencies are an important risk to assess in preparation for exploration missions.

  19. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  20. Medicaid: State and Federal Actions Have Been Taken to Improve Children's Access to Dental Services, but Gaps Remain. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-723

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Children's access to Medicaid dental services is a long-standing concern. The tragic case of a 12-year-old boy who died from an untreated infected tooth that led to a fatal brain infection renewed attention to this issue. He was enrolled in Medicaid--a joint federal and state program that provides health care coverage, including dental care, for…

  1. A kinetic model for RNA-interference of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Focal adhesions are integrin-based cell-matrix contacts that transduce and integrate mechanical and biochemical cues from the environment. They develop from smaller and more numerous focal complexes under the influence of mechanical force and are key elements for many physiological and disease-related processes, including wound healing and metastasis. More than 150 different proteins localize to focal adhesions and have been systematically classified in the adhesome project (http://www.adhesome.org). First RNAi-screens have been performed for focal adhesions and the effect of knockdown of many of these components on the number, size, shape and location of focal adhesions has been reported. Results We have developed a kinetic model for RNA interference of focal adhesions which represents some of its main elements: a spatially layered structure, signaling through the small GTPases Rac and Rho, and maturation from focal complexes to focal adhesions under force. The response to force is described by two complementary scenarios corresponding to slip and catch bond behavior, respectively. Using estimated and literature values for the model parameters, three time scales of the dynamics of RNAi-influenced focal adhesions are identified: a sub-minute time scale for the assembly of focal complexes, a sub-hour time scale for the maturation to focal adhesions, and a time scale of days that controls the siRNA-mediated knockdown. Our model shows bistability between states dominated by focal complexes and focal adhesions, respectively. Catch bonding strongly extends the range of stability of the state dominated by focal adhesions. A sensitivity analysis predicts that knockdown of focal adhesion components is more efficient for focal adhesions with slip bonds or if the system is in a state dominated by focal complexes. Knockdown of Rho leads to an increase of focal complexes. Conclusions The suggested model provides a kinetic description of the effect of RNA

  2. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Other Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental ...

  3. Smoking and dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kasat, V.; Ladda, R.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a prevalent behaviour in the population. The aim of this review is to bring to light the effects of smoking on dental implants. These facts will assist dental professionals when implants are planned in tobacco users. A search of “PubMed” was made with the key words “dental implant,” “nicotine,” “smoking,” “tobacco,” and “osseointegration.” Also, publications on tobacco control by the Government of India were considered. For review, only those articles published from 1988 onward in English language were selected. Smoking has its influence on general as well as oral health of an individual. Tobacco negatively affects the outcome of almost all therapeutic procedures performed in the oral cavity. The failure rate of implant osseointegration is considerably higher among smokers, and maintenance of oral hygiene around the implants and the risk of peri-implantitis are adversely affected by smoking. To increase implant survival in smokers, various protocols have been recommended. Although osseointegrated dental implants have become the state of the art for tooth replacement, they are not without limitations or complications. In this litigious era, it is extremely important that the practitioner clearly understands and is able and willing to convey the spectrum of possible complications and their frequency to the patients. PMID:24478965

  4. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  5. Advances in dental materials.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2014-05-01

    The dental market is replete with new resorative materials marketed on the basis of novel technological advances in materials chemistry, bonding capability or reduced operator time and/or technique sensitivity. This paper aims to consider advances in current materials, with an emphasis on their role in supporting contemporary clinical practice.

  6. American Dental Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Medicine: Balancing Our Compassion for Patients with Social Responsibility April 13, 2-3 p.m. (CT) ASDA DAT Week April 17-21 FACEBOOK LIVE: The Top Three Questions Patients Ask about Fluoride April 18, ... Social ADA Twitter ADA News Twitter ADA Facebook GKAS ...

  7. Clinical canine dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Bannon, Kristin M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide small animal veterinarians in private practice a guideline for interpretation of the most common findings in canine intraoral radiology. Normal oral and dental anatomy is presented. A brief review of variations of normal, common periodontal and endodontic pathology findings and developmental anomalies is provided.

  8. Dental amalgam and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Mackert, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-08-01

    This paper looks at the issues of the current amalgam controversy: the daily dose of mercury from amalgam, hypersensitivity to mercury, claims of adverse effects from amalgam mercury and alleged overnight 'cures.' In addition, the toxicity and allergenicity of the proposed alternative materials are examined with the same kind of scrutiny applied by the anti-amalgam group to dental amalgam. 100 references.

  9. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Tsai, Jui-che; Lin, Kun-Feng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT) in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed. PMID:23857261

  10. Financing Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Chester; Fein, Rashi

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the current status of and recent trends in dental school finances provides an overall financial description, documents trends in revenue and expenses, discusses student debt and its consequences, and presents alternatives for increasing revenues and decreasing expenses. The paper provides background for an Institute of Medicine study…

  11. Integrated focal-plane array /IFPA/ approach to large-area infrared focal plane architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A modular approach to IFPA design is presented which makes it possible to obtain a high-density infrared focal plane amendable to parallel manufacturing techniques as well as to serial plane integration and test. The percent fill factor of the design is dependent on the dimension of the individual detectors; each submodule is manufactured from identical components. The technologies including cables, interconnects, multilayer interconnect structures, and subassembly test requirements, which have direct application to scanning as well as staring integrated focal plane arrays, are discussed.

  12. Efficacy of lacosamide by focal seizure subtype.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Michael R; Rosenow, Felix; Faught, Edward; Hebert, David; Doty, Pamela; Isojärvi, Jouko

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this post hoc exploratory analysis was to determine the effects of the antiepileptic drug, lacosamide, on focal (partial-onset) seizure subtypes. Patient data from the three lacosamide pivotal trials were grouped and pooled by focal seizure subtype at Baseline: simple partial seizures (SPS), complex partial seizures (CPS), and secondarily generalized partial seizures (SGPS). Both efficacy outcomes (median percent change from Baseline to Maintenance Phase in seizure frequency per 28 days and the proportion of patients experiencing at least a 50% reduction in seizures) were evaluated by lacosamide dose (200, 400, or 600 mg/day) compared to placebo for each seizure subtype. An additional analysis was performed to determine whether a shift from more severe focal seizure subtypes to less severe occurred upon treatment with lacosamide. In patients with CPS or SGPS at Baseline, lacosamide 400 mg/day (maximum recommended daily dose) and 600 mg/day reduced the frequency of CPS and SGPS compared to placebo. Likewise, a proportion of patients with CPS and SGPS at Baseline experienced at least a 50% reduction in the frequency of CPS and SGPS (≥50% responder rate) in the lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day groups compared with placebo. For both outcomes, numerically greatest responses were observed in the lacosamide 600 mg/day group among patients with SGPS at Baseline. In patients with SPS at Baseline, no difference between placebo and lacosamide was observed for either efficacy outcome. An additional exploratory analysis suggests that in patients with SPS at Baseline, CPS and SGPS may have been shifted to less severe SPS upon treatment with lacosamide. The results of these exploratory analyses revealed reductions in CPS and SGPS frequency with adjunctive lacosamide. Reduction in CPS and SGPS may confound assessment of SPS since the CPS or SGPS may possibly change to SPS by effective treatment.

  13. 42 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and...—Standards for Licensing Dental Hygienists and Dental Assistants in Dental Radiography The following section... personnel who perform radiologic procedures. Currently, Dental Hygienists are credentialed...

  14. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  15. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

  16. Laser skin perforator with focal point detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, L.; Arronte, M.; Cabrera, J. L.; Flores, T.

    2006-02-01

    The development of laser skin perforator device for obtaining blood samples is presented. The use of photoelectric proximity photoelectric sensor permits to determine the focal point eliminating any contact and them avoiding the risk of contamination. Perforation of about 0.2 mm - 0.5 mm in diameter can be obtained in order to take the sample of blood. The method permits to make the blood analysis not only avoiding the contamination risk but also diminishing the pain sensation in comparison with metal lancet.

  17. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    PubMed

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  18. Focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord: Imaging diagnosis and surgical resolution

    PubMed Central

    Morisako, Hiroki; Takami, Toshihiro; Yamagata, Toru; Chokyu, Isao; Tsuyuguchi, Naohiro; Ohata, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord can cause progressive symptoms associated with syringomyelia or myelomalacia, its surgical resolution based on the imaging diagnosis is not well characterized. This study aims to describe the use of imaging for the diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis of the spinal cord and its surgical resolution using microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Materials and Methods: Four consecutive patients with symptomatic syringomyelia or myelomalacia caused by focal adhesive arachnoiditis underwent microsurgical arachnoidolysis. Comprehensive imaging evaluation using constructive interference in steady-state (CISS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelographic MR imaging using true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) sequences was included before surgery to determine the surgical indication. Results: In all four patients a focal adhesion was identified at the cervical or thoracic level of the spinal cord, a consequence of infection or trauma. Three patients showed modest or minor improvement in neurological function, and one patient was unchanged after surgery. The syringomyelia or myelomalacia resolved after surgery and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period, which ranged from 5 months to 30 months. Conclusions: MRI diagnosis of focal adhesive arachnoiditis is critical to determine the surgical indication. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis appears to be a straightforward method for stabilizing the progressive symptoms, though the procedure is technically demanding. PMID:21572630

  19. Pontine Infarct Presenting with Atypical Dental Pain: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Goel, Rajat; Kumar, Sanjeev; Panwar, Ajay; Singh, Abhishek B

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial pain' most commonly occurs due to dental causes like caries, gingivitis or periodontitis. Other common causes of 'orofacial pain' are sinusitis, temporomandibular joint(TMJ) dysfunction, otitis externa, tension headache and migraine. In some patients, the etiology of 'orofacial pain' remains undetected despite optimal evaluation. A few patients in the practice of clinical dentistry presents with dental pain without any identifiable dental etiology. Such patients are classified under the category of 'atypical odontalgia'. 'Atypical odontalgia' is reported to be prevalent in 2.1% of the individuals. 'Atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia' can result from the neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis, trigeminal neuralgia and herpes infection. Trigeminal neuralgia has been frequently documented as a cause of 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. There are a few isolated case reports of acute pontine stroke resulting in 'atypical orofacial pain' and 'atypical odontalgia'. However, pontine stroke as a cause of atypical odontalgia is limited to only a few cases, hence prevalence is not established. This case is one, where a patient presented with acute onset atypical dental pain with no identifiable dental etiology, further diagnosed as an acute pontine infarct on neuroimaging. A 40 years old male presented with acute onset, diffuse teeth pain on right side. Dental examination was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) of the brain had an acute infarct in right pons near the trigeminal root entry zone(REZ). Pontine infarct presenting with dental pain as a manifestation of trigeminal neuropathy, has rarely been reported previously. This stresses on the importance of neuroradiology in evaluation of atypical cases of dental pain.

  20. Microbial contamination of used dental handpieces.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon; Smith, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Microbial contamination of used, unprocessed internal components of dental handpieces (HPs) was assessed. HPs were dismantled aseptically, immersed in phosphate-buffered saline, ultrasonicated, and cultured. A median of 200 CFU per turbine (n = 40), 400 CFU per spray channel (n = 40), and 1000 CFU per item of surgical gear (n = 20) was detected. Isolates included oral streptococci, Pseudomonas spp, and Staphylococcus aureus. Recovery of S aureus confirms the need for appropriate HP cleaning and sterilization after each patient to prevent cross-infection.

  1. 21 CFR 872.3240 - Dental bur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials intended for use in the fabrication of dental devices. (b) Classification. Class I (general... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental bur. 872.3240 Section 872.3240 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3240 Dental bur. (a) Identification. A dental bur is a...

  2. Dental Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental Association Dental Tourism English 牙科旅行 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF California Dental ... NEEG MOB - Hmoob (Hmong) California Dental Association Dental Tourism English Kev Kho Hniav Txawv Teb Chaws - Hmoob ( ...

  3. Allied Dental Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Linda Rubinstein

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the status of the three allied dental disciplines (dental assisting, dental technology, and dental hygiene) gives a historical overview on allied dental programs, assesses their current status and enrollment trends, identifies critical issues affecting educational programs, and outlines a framework for innovation in recruitment and…

  4. The piriform cortex and human focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David N; Jackson, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  5. Phase retrieval in the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaessler, W.; Peter, D.; Storz, C.

    Phase retrieval in the focal plane is a very appealing technique, which would simplify the optomechanics of an Adaptive Optics (AO) system a lot and could gain sensitivity under certain conditions. For conventional AO systems the limiting magnitude of the system does not depend on the diameter of the telescope, since any wave front sensor splits the light into sub-apertures, which are in number related to the telescope diameter. Having this in mind the phase retrieval technique looks promising as it breaks this paradigm in the diffraction limited case and thus yields some gain in limiting magnitude with larger telescope diameter. Until now this path was not followed deeply in astronomical AO systems, as the solution of the inversion is non unique and demands much higher calculation power as in conventional AO. This might change with state of the art computers. We give a short overview of some existing techniques and algorithms of focal plane AO and report results of other groups, which tested them in laboratory and on sky. To solve the drawback of the large computational demands and to increase the sensitivity we propose a bootstrapping process with dynamical binning.

  6. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:26973405

  7. The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, David N.; Jackson, Graeme D.

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic – being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability. PMID:25538678

  8. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    PubMed

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  9. Musical anhedonia after focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Belfi, Amy M; Evans, Erin; Heskje, Jonah; Bruss, Joel; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    People listen to music because it is pleasurable. However, there are individual differences in the reward value of music. At the extreme low end of this continuum, individuals who derive no pleasure from music are said to have 'musical anhedonia.' Cases of acquired musical anhedonia following focal brain damage are rare, with only a handful having been reported in the scientific literature. Here, we surveyed a large sample of patients with focal brain damage to identify the frequency, specificity, and neural correlates of acquired musical anhedonia. Participants completed the Musical anhedonia Questionnaire and the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (Mas-Herrero et al., 2013) to assess changes in musical enjoyment and reward following brain injury. Neuroanatomical data were analyzed with a proportional MAP-3 method to create voxelwise lesion proportion difference maps. No clear or consistent neuroanatomical correlates of musical anhedonia were identified. One patient with damage to the right-hemisphere putamen and internal capsule displayed specific and severe acquired musical anhedonia. These findings indicate that acquired musical anhedonia is very uncommon, a result which is consistent with the fact that only a small number of such cases have been reported in the literature. This rarity could have positive implications for the therapeutic potentialities of music in patients with severe neurological disorders.

  10. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  11. Visual function and perinatal focal cerebral infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, E; Atkinson, J; Braddick, O; Anker, S; Nokes, L; Cowan, F; Rutherford, M; Pennock, J; Dubowitz, L

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the visual function of infants with perinatal cerebral infarction in whom the site and size of the lesion has been determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Twelve infants with cerebral infarction on MRI were studied with a battery of tests specifically designed to evaluate visual function in infancy. This included tests: for visual attention (fixation shifts); of cerebral asymmetry (optokinetic nystagmus, visual fields); for assessment of acuity (forced choice preferential looking); and neurophysiological measures of vision (phase reversal and orientation reversal visual evoked potential). RESULTS: A considerable incidence of abnormalities on at least one of the tests for visual function used was observed. The presence or severity of visual abnormalities could not always be predicted by the site and extent of the lesion seen on imaging. CONCLUSIONS: Early focal lesions affecting the visual pathway can, to some extent, be compensated for by the immature developing brain. These data suggest that all the infants presenting with focal lesions need to be investigated with a detailed assessment of various aspects of vision. Images PMID:8949687

  12. Ultrasound elastographic techniques in focal liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Conti, Clara Benedetta; Cavalcoli, Federica; Fraquelli, Mirella; Conte, Dario; Massironi, Sara

    2016-03-07

    Elastographic techniques are new ultrasound-based imaging techniques developed to estimate tissue deformability/stiffness. Several ultrasound elastographic approaches have been developed, such as static elastography, transient elastography and acoustic radiation force imaging methods, which include point shear wave and shear wave imaging elastography. The application of these methods in clinical practice aims at estimating the mechanical tissues properties. One of the main settings for the application of these tools has been liver stiffness assessment in chronic liver disease, which has been studied mainly using transient elastography. Another field of application for these techniques is the assessment of focal lesions, detected by ultrasound in organs such as pancreas, prostate, breast, thyroid, lymph nodes. Considering the frequency and importance of the detection of focal liver lesions through routine ultrasound, some studies have also aimed to assess the role that elestography can play in studying the stiffness of different types of liver lesions, in order to predict their nature and thus offer valuable non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of liver masses.

  13. Focal embolic cerebral ischemia in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Zhang, Rui Lan; Jiang, Quan; Ding, Guangliang; Chopp, Michael; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of focal cerebral ischemia are well accepted for investigating the pathogenesis and potential treatment strategies for human stroke. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an endovascular filament is a widely used model to induce focal cerebral ischemia. However, this model is not amenable to thrombolytic therapies. As thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is a standard of care within 4.5 hours of human stroke onset, suitable animal models that mimic cellular and molecular mechanisms of thrombosis and thrombolysis of stroke are required. By occluding the MCA with a fibrin-rich allogeneic clot, we have developed an embolic model of MCA occlusion in the rat, which recapitulates the key components of thrombotic development and of thrombolytic therapy of rtPA observed from human ischemic stroke. The surgical procedures of our model can be typically completed within approximately 30 min and are highly adaptable to other strains of rats as well as mice for both genders. Thus, this model provides a powerful tool for translational stroke research. PMID:25741989

  14. Prevalence of Dental Fear and Anxiety amongst Patients in Selected Dental Clinics in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofori, Marian A.; Adu-Ababio, F.; Nyako, E. A.; Ndanu, Tom A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To find out the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear amongst patients in various selected dental clinics in Accra, Ghana. Study design: Dental patients (n = 279) who had either been exposed to dental treatments or had no prior dental exposure, attending four selected dental clinics in Accra were randomly sampled. They were interviewed…

  15. Focal adhesion kinase modulates tension signaling to control actin and focal adhesion dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schober, Markus; Raghavan, Srikala; Nikolova, Maria; Polak, Lisa; Pasolli, H Amalia; Beggs, Hilary E; Reichardt, Louis F; Fuchs, Elaine

    2007-02-26

    In response to alphabeta1 integrin signaling, transducers such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) become activated, relaying to specific machineries and triggering distinct cellular responses. By conditionally ablating Fak in skin epidermis and culturing Fak-null keratinocytes, we show that FAK is dispensable for epidermal adhesion and basement membrane assembly, both of which require alphabeta1 integrins. FAK is also dispensible for proliferation/survival in enriched medium. In contrast, FAK functions downstream of alphabeta1 integrin in regulating cytoskeletal dynamics and orchestrating polarized keratinocyte migration out of epidermal explants. Fak-null keratinocytes display an aberrant actin cytoskeleton, which is tightly associated with robust, peripheral focal adhesions and microtubules. We find that without FAK, Src, p190RhoGAP, and PKL-PIX-PAK, localization and/or activation at focal adhesions are impaired, leading to elevated Rho activity, phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase, and enhanced tensile stress fibers. We show that, together, these FAK-dependent activities are critical to control the turnover of focal adhesions, which is perturbed in the absence of FAK.

  16. [Dental education in Germany: new concepts for the dental curriculum].

    PubMed

    Hugger, A; Hugger, S; Kordass, B

    2011-09-01

    In Germany, the dental curriculum is still based on dental licensing regulations ("Approbations-/Prüfungsordnung für Zahnärzte") from 1955. Essential changes of the dental licensing regulations have not been made for over 50 years-unlike the medical licensing regulations in Germany. Teaching and learning concepts have, nevertheless, changed considerably in medical and dental education over time. The present study delivers an analysis about reform initiatives in dental education in Germany and introduces examples of innovative projects. To be able to establish long-term and broad reforms in dental education, new licensing regulations for dentists are required. This should create a contemporary framework for education, which assigns resources and enables occupational profile development at specific locations. Thereby, compatibility with the medical curriculum has to be guaranteed just as required adaptations of admission and curricular capacity regulations for dentistry.

  17. Dental therapists in general dental practices: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J; Lazar, Vickie F; Guay, Albert H; Heffley, Dennis R; Bailit, Howard L

    2012-08-01

    Dental access disparities are well documented and have been recognized as a national problem. Their major cause is the lack of reasonable Medicaid reimbursement rates for the underserved. Specifically, Medicaid reimbursement rates for children average 40 percent below market rates. In addition, most state Medicaid programs do not cover adults. To address these issues, advocates of better oral health for the underserved are considering support for a new allied provider--a dental therapist--capable of providing services at a lower cost per service and in low-income and rural areas. Using a standard economic analysis, this study estimated the potential cost, price, utilization, and dentist's income effects of dental therapists employed in general dental practices. The analysis is based on national general dental practice data and the broadest scope of responsibility for dental therapists that their advocates have advanced, including the ability to provide restorations and extractions to adults and children, training for three years, and minimum supervision. Assuming dental therapists provide restorative, extraction, and pulpal services to patients of all ages and dental hygienists continue to deliver all hygiene services, the mean reduction in a general practice costs ranges between 1.57 and 2.36 percent. For dental therapists treating children only, the range is 0.31 to 0.47 percent. The effects on price and utilization are even smaller. In addition, the effects on most dentists' gross income, hours of work, and net income are negative. The estimated economic impact of dental therapists in the United States on private dental practice is very limited; therefore, the demand for dental therapists by private practices also would probably be very limited.

  18. Dental-service Dental Radiation Safety and Protection: Program guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-27

    The primary purpose of the program guide for Dental Radiation Safety and Protection is to assist VA dental personnel in developing radiologic procedures that ensure maximum safety for their patients and themselves. In order to do this, the authors have included a summary of the biological hazards associated with exposure to x-radiation, provided information on patient exposure levels associated with dental X-ray units, and explained the methods for reducing patient and staff exposure to X-rays.

  19. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-08-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination.

  20. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapmeyer, Martin; Weber, Renee C.

    2011-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation. We will examine the extent to which shear (S) and compression (P) wave amplitude ratios can constrain moonquake fault geometry by determining whether, for a given cluster, there exists a focal mechanism that can produce a radiation pattern consistent with the amplitudes measured by the Apollo instruments. Amplitudes are read in the ray coordinate frame, directly from seismograms for which the P and S arrivals are clearly identifiable on all long-period channels of the four Apollo stations. We apply an empirical station correction to account for site effects and the differences between P- and S-wave attenuation. Instead of focusing on the best fitting solution only, we formulate the inverse problem using a falsification criterion: all source orientations that do not reproduce the observed SV/P ratios within an error margin derived from the uncertainty of amplitude readings are rejected. All others are accepted as possible solutions. The inversion is carried out using an exhaustive grid search on a regular grid with predefined step size, encompassing all possible combinations of strike, dip and slip. To assess the

  1. Physical Activity Performance of Focal Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gelbaugh, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    Histograms of push-ups and curl-ups from a sample of more than 9,000 students show periodic spikes at five and 10 unit intervals. This article argues that these spikes are related to focal points, a game theoretic concept popularized by Nobel Laureate Thomas Schelling. Being focal on one test makes one more likely to be focal on the other. Focal…

  2. [Phenomenon of dental fear].

    PubMed

    Moore, R; Birn, H

    1990-01-01

    Odontophobia is a rather unique phobia with special psychosomatic components that impact on the dental health of odontophobic persons. It also has psychosocial components largely as a result of destruction of the teeth and subsequent embarrassment that can affect a person and cause a vicious cycle of dental fear. The phenomenon is facilitated by misunderstandings and myths generated by both patients and dentists. The most common reasons given in the literature for such strong fears of dental treatment are: 1) bad experiences in childhood for 85% of cases, 2) feeling of powerlessness and lack of control over personal emotional reactions and over the social situation in the dental chair, 3) social learning processes in which the image of the dentist is cast in a negative light by the mass media or by the person's relatives or friends and 4) that the person has other psychologic problems (in 20% of cases), such as serious phobias and/or neuroses. A strategy of researching and thus tackling the problem is presented which focuses on three essential targets that require studying and change: 1) the community at large and their image of the dentist, 2) the patient role and 3) the dentist role. Various model projects are presented along with their diagnostic systems. These are seen to focus in varying degrees on different elements of the target groups that effect the dentist-patient relationship but the need to come out into the community and make the social environment right for these patients is an important factor in all strategies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Syllabus of Dental Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    or orthodontic bands. When a cold mixing slab (7 to 210 C) is used, more powder will be incorporated into the liquid and the set of the cement...over the mechanism of action of eugenol upon the dental pulp . Brannstrom and Nyborg (8) have demonstrated that eugenol may have little direct...AND LINERS--WOOLSEY 35 pulp , but may actually kill bacteria in the dentinal tubules and eliminate the source of pulpal irritation which renders the

  4. Dental Assisting Education in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.

    A survey of 22 dental assisting programs showed an average of 1,124 hours of instruction in dental assisting for 15 four-semester, 955 for three three-semester, and 1,042 for four two-semester programs. The average instructional hours for the four-semester programs were 48 in introduction to dental assisting, 179 in the life sciences, 221 in the…

  5. Botulinum toxin physiology in focal hand and cranial dystonia.

    PubMed

    Karp, Barbara Illowsky

    2012-11-20

    The safety and efficacy of botulinum toxin for the treatment of focal hand and cranial dystonias are well-established. Studies of these adult-onset focal dystonias reveal both shared features, such as the dystonic phenotype of muscle hyperactivity and overflow muscle contraction and divergent features, such as task specificity in focal hand dystonia which is not a common feature of cranial dystonia. The physiologic effects of botulinum toxin in these 2 disorders also show both similarities and differences. This paper compares and contrasts the physiology of focal hand and cranial dystonias and of botulinum toxin in the management of these disorders.

  6. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    PubMed

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  7. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  8. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  9. Stabilized dispersive focal plane systems for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Beebe, Chip R.; Brooks, Mark J.; Davis, Michael W.; Klar, Robert A.; Roberts, John M.; Rose, Randall J.; Winters, Gregory S.

    2012-09-01

    As the costs of space missions continue to rise, the demand for compact, low mass, low-cost technologies that maintain high reliability and facilitate high performance is increasing. One such technology is the stabilized dispersive focal plane system (SDFPS). This technology provides image stabilization while simultaneously delivering spectroscopic or direct imaging functionality using only a single optical path and detector. Typical systems require multiple expensive optical trains and/or detectors, sometimes at the expense of photon throughput. The SDFPS is ideal for performing wide-field low-resolution space-based spectroscopic and direct-imaging surveys. In preparation for a suborbital flight, we have built and ground tested a prototype SDFPS that will concurrently eliminate unwanted image blurring due to the lack of adequate platform stability, while producing images in both spectroscopic and direct-imaging modes. We present the overall design, testing results, and potential scientific applications.

  10. Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms: Recovery and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    A defining characteristic of deep moonquakes is their tendency to occur with tidal periodicity, prompting previous studies to infer that they are related to the buildup and release of tidal stress within the Moon [refs]. In studies of tidal forcing, a key constraint is the focal mechanism: the fault parameters describing the type of failure moonquakes represent. The quality of the lunar seismic data and the limited source/receiver geometries of the Apollo seismic network prohibit the determination of deep moonquake fault parameters using first-motion polarities, as is typically done in terrestrial seismology [ref]. Without being able to resolve tidal stress onto a known failure plane, we can examine only gross qualities of the tidal stress tensor with respect to moonquake occurrence, so we cannot fully address the role of tidal stress in moonquake generation.

  11. Clinical evaluation of chlorine dioxide for disinfection of dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Watamoto, Takao; Egusa, Hiroshi; Sawase, Takashi; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clinically evaluate the disinfection efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for used dental instruments. An imprint culture technique demonstrated that ultrasonic cleaning of intraorally applied dental mirrors in 0.02% ClO2 for 10 minutes resulted in compete removal of microorganisms for 10 subjects. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction on periodontal curettes after subgingival scaling in four HCV-infected patients and was completely removed by the same treatment procedure. Therefore, the combination of ultrasonic cleaning with ClO2 may provide an alternative to toxic disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochlorite, for disinfecting dental instruments.

  12. Managing the Cutaneous Sinus Tract of Dental Origine

    PubMed Central

    Janev, Edvard; Redzep, Enis

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Draining cutaneous sinus tract in chin area may be caused by chronic periapical dental infections. Misdiagnosis of these lesions usually leads to destructive invasive treatment of the sinus tract that is not correct and curative. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old male patient referred to us with a chronically draining lesion on his chin. The lesion previously was misdiagnosed by medical doctors and had undergone two times surgery with a focus on the skin lesion and had received antibiotic therapy for a prolonged period of time. After clinical and radiologic examination the dental origin of the lesion was evident and proper endodontic and surgical treatment was performed. Three months later, after the treatment, the lesion showed total healing and reoccurrence occurred. CONCLUSION: The key to successful treatment of cutaneous sinus tract of dental origin must be in appropriate communication between the dentist and the physician in order to achieve correct diagnosis and therapy in such cases. PMID:27703580

  13. Dental manifestations of patient with Vitamin D-resistant rickets

    PubMed Central

    SOUZA, Andréia Pereira; KOBAYASHI, Tatiana Yuriko; LOURENÇO NETO, Natalino; SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira; OLIVEIRA, Thais Marchini

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Vitamin D-resistant rickets have abnormal tooth morphology such as thin globular dentin and enlarged pulp horns that extend into the dentino-enamel junction. Invasion of the pulp by microorganisms and toxins is inevitable. The increased fibrotic content of the pulp, together with a reduced number of odontoblasts, decreases the response to pulp infection. The most important oral findings are characterized by spontaneous gingival and dental abscesses occuring without history of trauma or caries. Radiographic examinations revealed large pulp chambers, short roots, poorly defined lamina dura and hypoplastic alveolar ridge. These dental abscesses are common and therefore the extraction and pulpectomy are the treatment of choice. The purpose of this article is to report a case of Vitamin D-resistant rickets in a 5 year-old boy, describing the dental findings and the treatment to be performed in these cases. PMID:24473729

  14. Pneumatic release of focal vitreomacular traction.

    PubMed

    Claus, M G; Feron, E; Veckeneer, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of expansile gas as a valuable alternative to current treatment options (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical) in patients with symptomatic, focal vitreomacular traction (VMT).Patients and methodsThis study comprises a retrospective, interventional case series of patients. Twenty eyes in seventeen patients with symptomatic and persisting focal VMT were treated in an outpatient setting with an intravitreal gas injection of 0.2 ml. In 19 eyes, 100% hexafluoroethane (C2F6) was used. One eye received sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). To all but three patients posturing advice was given. Patients were reviewed with a full-eye examination and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) after 14 days and later. The primary outcome measure was the release of VMT on OCT.ResultsIn 17 of the 20 (85.0%) treated eyes, a release of VMT was achieved as documented on OCT. The release of VMT was diagnosed during the first month after injection in 11 eyes of 11 patients and within 3 months in 16 eyes of 15 patients. In all but five of our patients, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) remained stable or improved. In four patients, the progression or development of cataract was the probable cause of the decrease in BCVA. One patient developed a stage II macular hole after injection and needed vitrectomy. None of the treated patients developed retinal breaks.ConclusionIntravitreal expansile gas injection could offer a minimally invasive, low-cost alternative treatment in patients with symptomatic, persisting VMT. Additional studies on a larger number of patients are required.

  15. Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia in a goat.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego M; Pimentel, Luciano A; Pessoa, André F; Dantas, Antônio F M; Uzal, Francisco; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2010-09-01

    Focal symmetrical encephalomalacia (FSE) is the most prominent lesion seen in the chronic form of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens type D in sheep. However, this lesion has not been reported in goats. The current paper reports a case of FSE in a goat from the state of Paraíba in the Brazilian semiarid region. As reported by the farmer, 30, 4-48-month-old animals from a flock of 150 goats died after showing nervous signs, including blindness and recumbence, for periods varying between 1 and 14 days. The flock was grazing native pasture supplemented with wheat and corn bran. Additionally, lactating goats were supplemented with soybeans. A 4-month-old goat with nervous signs was examined clinically and then necropsied 3 days after the onset of clinical signs. Bilateral, focal, and symmetrical areas of brown discoloration were observed in the internal capsule and thalamus. Histologic lesions in these areas consisted of multifocal, bilateral malacia with a few neutrophils; endothelial cell swelling; perivascular edema; and hemorrhages. The etiology of these lesions was not determined. However, FSE is considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type D enterotoxemia in sheep, and it is speculated that this microorganism was the etiologic agent in the present case. The flock had been vaccinated against type D enterotoxemia only once, approximately 3 months before the beginning of the outbreak. Insufficient immunity due to the incorrect vaccination protocol, low efficacy of the vaccine used, and a diet including large amounts of highly fermentable carbohydrates were suspected to be predisposing factors for this outbreak.

  16. Molecular mimicry in pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Renate; Exner, Markus; Brandes, Ricarda; Ziebermayr, Reinhard; Cunningham, Dawn; Alderson, Carol A; Davidovits, Agnes; Raab, Ingrid; Jahn, Renate; Ashour, Oliver; Spitzauer, Susanne; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Fukuda, Minoru; Klemm, Per; Rees, Andrew J; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2009-01-01

    Pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FNGN) is a severe inflammatory disease associated with autoantibodies to neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (ANCA). Here we characterize autoantibodies to lysosomal membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and show that they are a new ANCA subtype present in almost all individuals with FNGN. Consequently, its prevalence is nearly twice that of the classical ANCAs that recognize myeloperoxidase or proteinase-3. Furthermore, antibodies to LAMP-2 cause pauci-immune FNGN when injected into rats, and a monoclonal antibody to human LAMP-2 (H4B4) induces apoptosis of human microvascular endothelium in vitro. The autoantibodies in individuals with pauci-immune FNGN commonly recognize a human LAMP-2 epitope (designated P41–49) with 100% homology to the bacterial adhesin FimH, with which they cross-react. Rats immunized with FimH develop pauci-immune FNGN and also develop antibodies to rat and human LAMP-2. Finally, we show that infections with fimbriated pathogens are common before the onset of FNGN. Thus, FimH-triggered autoimmunity to LAMP-2 provides a previously undescribed clinically relevant molecular mechanism for the development of pauci-immune FNGN. PMID:18836458

  17. Focal transmural necrotic tracheitis in commercial meat turkeys.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, Gabriel; Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an unusual presentation of severe focal necrotic tracheitis in a flock of 8-wk-old commercial turkeys. The flock was kept on a range that is located near a cotton field. The cotton field had been chemically defoliated 2 wk before the birds were submitted for necropsy. At necropsy, most of the birds had a 1-cm, yellow-white constricture in the upper third of the trachea at which the lumen was partially occluded by necrotic tissue. Microscopically, there was severe, transmural necrosis with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate in the tracheal lumen and numerous bacteria within the necrotic debris, mucosa, and lamina propria. Mixed bacteria were isolated from the trachea. No viruses were detected. Neither abnormal heavy metal concentrations in the liver nor paraquat in the respiratory tract were detected. The exact cause of this severe, necrotic tracheitis was not determined. Based on the clinical history and laboratory findings, it was concluded that a combination of a toxic irritant, possibly an aerosolized cotton defoliant, and bacterial infections were likely the cause of this lesion.

  18. A role for genetic susceptibility in sporadic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyang; Artomov, Mykyta; Brähler, Sebastian; Stander, M. Christine; Shamsan, Ghaidan; Sampson, Matthew G.; White, J. Michael; Kretzler, Matthias; Jain, Sanjay; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Mitra, Robi D.; Daly, Mark J.; Shaw, Andrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a syndrome that involves kidney podocyte dysfunction and causes chronic kidney disease. Multiple factors including chemical toxicity, inflammation, and infection underlie FSGS; however, highly penetrant disease genes have been identified in a small fraction of patients with a family history of FSGS. Variants of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) have been linked to FSGS in African Americans with HIV or hypertension, supporting the proposal that genetic factors enhance FSGS susceptibility. Here, we used sequencing to investigate whether genetics plays a role in the majority of FSGS cases that are identified as primary or sporadic FSGS and have no known cause. Given the limited number of biopsy-proven cases with ethnically matched controls, we devised an analytic strategy to identify and rank potential candidate genes and used an animal model for validation. Nine candidate FSGS susceptibility genes were identified in our patient cohort, and three were validated using a high-throughput mouse method that we developed. Specifically, we introduced a podocyte-specific, doxycycline-inducible transactivator into a murine embryonic stem cell line with an FSGS-susceptible genetic background that allows shRNA-mediated targeting of candidate genes in the adult kidney. Our analysis supports a broader role for genetic susceptibility of both sporadic and familial cases of FSGS and provides a tool to rapidly evaluate candidate FSGS-associated genes. PMID:26901816

  19. Characterization of Focal Muscle Compression Under Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Ben; Sory, David; Nguyen, Thuy-Tien; Curry, Richard; Clasper, Jon; Proud, William; Williams, Alun; Brown, Kate

    2015-06-01

    The pattern of battle injuries sustained in modern wars shows that over 70% of combat wounds are to the extremities. These injuries are characterized by disruption and contamination of the limb soft tissue envelope. The extent of this tissue trauma and contamination determine the outcome in extremity injury. In military injury, common post-traumatic complications at amputation sites include heterotopic ossification (formation of bone in soft tissue), and severe soft tissue and bone infections. We are currently developing a model of soft tissue injury that recreates pathologies observed in combat injuries. Here we present characterization of a controlled focal compression of the rabbit flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) muscle group. The FCU was previously identified as a suitable site for studying impact injury because its muscle belly can easily be mobilized from the underlying bone without disturbing anatomical alignment in the limb. We show how macroscopic changes in tissue organization, as visualized using optical microscopy, can be correlated with data from temporally resolved traces of loading conditions. Funding provided by the Royal British Legion.

  20. Effect of ionization on microbial air pollution in the dental clinic.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, J; Bergerson, O; Levi, N; Brenner, S; Eli, I

    1990-06-01

    The use of spray-producing instruments in the dental clinic continuously creates a potentially harmful contamination of the room environment. In the present study a 13.5-kV corona discharge ionizing generator was used in order to investigate the effect of ions on the microbial air pollution of the dental clinic. Samples of microbial air population were collected in 9-cm-diameter plates containing either Bacto-Brain Heart Infusion Agar or Bacto-Mitis Salivarius Agar and exposed to different time periods in various locations of an active dental clinic. Microbial air levels in the dental clinic were significantly reduced with the generator (by 40-50%). The data suggest that the ionizing generator can be used to reduce the microbial air pollution within the dental clinic, thus reducing the environmental hazard of infections to the staff.

  1. Allied dental personnel: will there be enough?

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    2008-11-01

    The escalating number and size of dental practices mean greater dependency on a ready supply of allied dental personnel. However, despite the increasing number of entry places in allied dental training programs, many places remain unfilled and large numbers of individuals do not complete the course of studies. A review of the changes in dental practice sizes and dental assistant, dental hygienist and dental laboratory technician programs raises concerns as to whether there will be enough allied dental personnel to meet the future needs of the profession. The need for increasing attention to this potential eventuality is stressed.

  2. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  3. Infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated.

  4. Impact of cleaning regimes on dental water unit contamination.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Soad A; Khalil, Ahmed I

    2011-12-01

    Microorganisms that have been identified in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) are of concern because they can cause infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence of microbial contamination in DUWLs before and after intervention to reduce contamination, and to investigate the presence of coliforms, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Water samples were collected aseptically from the waterlines. The high-speed hand-piece and dental chair units were served by one distillation apparatus, which was fed by the potable tap water of four dental clinics. Different interventions were used: chlorination, flushing before clinics and between patients, draining at the end of the day, and freshly distilled water on a daily basis. There was a significant difference between the level of contamination in the high-speed hand-piece (1.5-2.7 log CFU/ml) and dental chair unit water (2.0-3.5 log CFU/ml). Coliforms (0.9%) E. coli (0.9%) and Pseudomonas (1.8%) were detected during 2008. This study indicates the need to monitor water quality regularly and prevent stagnation in DUWLs to reduce the number of viable bacteria to <100 CFU/ml. We recommend flushing the DUWL for 2 min before the first patient and for 10-20 s between patients, flushing the dental unit at the end of the day and draining it overnight to reduce the development of biofilms, and chlorination of the DUWLs.

  5. Clinical dental findings in 203 working donkeys in Mexico.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Nicole; Burden, Faith A; Dixon, Padraic M

    2008-12-01

    Clinical dental examinations of 203 unsedated working donkeys in tropical and temperate climatic areas in Mexico revealed a high prevalence (62%) of dental disease with sharp enamel points present in 98% of the animals. More significant dental disorders (diastemata, 4%; overgrown teeth, 18%; worn teeth, 16%; missing teeth, 0.5%; displaced teeth, 1.5%; fractured teeth, 2%) with welfare implications that required immediate treatment were also present in 18% of donkeys. The high prevalence of buccal ulcers (14.3%) and calluses (13.3%) present in this population was believed to be due to the high prevalence of sharp enamel points in conjunction with the use of tight nose bands and head collars. Dental disease was significantly associated with age groups, but not with body condition score or to the climatic area where the donkeys lived. As part of more general examinations, 81% of donkeys that had faecal egg counts performed, had parasite burdens which mainly showed a moderate level of infection. This study concluded that dental disease is a welfare concern in working donkeys in Mexico.

  6. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization. PMID:20454445

  7. Recurrent focal epithelial hyperplasia due to HPV13 in an HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Moerman, M; Danielides, V G; Nousia, C S; Van Wanzeele, F; Forsyth, R; Vermeersch, H

    2001-01-01

    There are few reports on focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; thus the relationship between them has not been completely clarified yet. We present a case of recurrent FEH in an HIV-positive man (the first described in Belgium), which, according to the PCR-DNA testing, was due to human papilloma virus type 13 (HPV13). To our knowledge, based on the accessible literature, this type of HPV has not been detected in any other documented study of FEH in HIV-positive patients before. Our patient experienced three recurrences of FEH in 1 year. It is therefore suggested that immunodeficiency due to HIV infection is responsible for the HPV-related FEH and the subsequent recurrences. In order to support the consideration of FEH as an oral manifestation of an HIV-related opportunistic infection, every new 'HPV-type' oral lesion in HIV-positive patients must be completely documented.

  8. Focus in Grade 8: Teaching with Curriculum Focal Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schielack, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This book describes and illustrates learning paths for the mathematical concepts and skills of each grade 8 Focal Point as presented in Curriculum Focal Points for Prekindergarten through Grade 8 Mathematics. It includes representational supports for teaching and learning that can facilitate understanding, stimulate productive discussions about…

  9. Focal epithelial hyperplasia caused by human papillomavirus 13.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Natasha R; Scolnik, Dennis; Rebbapragada, Anuradha; Koelink, Eric; Craw, Lindsey; Roth, Sherryn; Aronson, Leya; Perusini, Stephen; Silverman, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, papulo-nodular disease of the oral cavity. It is rare, affecting primarily Native American populations during childhood. It is closely associated with human papillomavirus 13 and 32. This report describes the diagnosis of 2 cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia in children from southern Guyana. The diagnosis was made using clinical criteria, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing.

  10. Focal Manual for CAI Coding on the TSS/8 System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbs, H. Dewey; And Others

    Basic information is provided in this manual for coding drill-and-practice CAI (computer-assisted instruction) applications in the language FOCAL (Formulating On-line Calculations in Algebraic Language). This language is available on the Digital Equipment Corporation Time-Sharing 8 system (TSS/8). While FOCAL is oriented toward solution of…

  11. Focally spared area of fatty liver caused by arterioportal shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Arita, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Honma, Yutaka

    1996-05-01

    We describe a case with a focally spared area in fatty liver caused by arterioportal shunt. Furthermore, we discuss the cause of the focally spared area related to a localized dilution or reduction in portal blood flow. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Competency in Allied Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemsterboer, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    Implications of competency-based education for dental assistants and hygienists are examined. Such an approach would provide assistance in defining evolving roles in delivery of dental care; help in defining national competencies and analyzing appropriateness of current care; and a mechanism for developing curriculum that responds to community…

  13. Dental Assisting Competencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Beverly; And Others

    This document contains dental assisting competencies and competency-based performance objectives, learning activities, resources, and evaluation procedures for each competency that was adapted and developed by instructors of dental assisting to suit the needs and legal parameters of Pennsylvania. The competencies and associated elements are…

  14. Clinical Guidelines. Dental Hygiene Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Bonnie

    This manual contains information concerning the policies and procedures of the Southern Illinois University-Carbondale Dental Hygiene Clinic. The manual is presented in a question/answer format for the information and convenience of dental hygiene students in the program, and is intended to answer their questions concerning clinical policies and…

  15. Medical screenings in dental settings.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Denise M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of Linking Research to Clinical Practice is to present evidence based information to clinical dental hygienists so that they can make informed decisions regarding patient treatment and recommendations. Each issue will feature a different topic area of importance to clinical dental hygienists with A BOTTOM LINE to translate the research findings into clinical application.

  16. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    A reference guide to laws, rules, and regulations that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in New York State is presented. In addition to identifying licensing requirements/procedures for dentists and dental hygienists, general provisions of Title VIII of the Education Law are covered, along with state management, professional misconduct,…

  17. Dentistry and Dental Hygiene Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The handbook contains laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern dentistry and dental hygiene practice in the state. It describes licensure requirements and includes complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a dentist and dental hygienist. Applicants are…

  18. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2016-11-25

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered.

  19. Dental Laboratory Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide contains the standard dental laboratory technology curriculum for both diploma programs and associate degree programs in technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum encompasses the minimum competencies required for entry-level workers in the dental laboratory technology field. The general information section contains the…

  20. Dental problems in epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Zioło, Anna; Mielnik-Błaszczak, Maria

    2004-01-01

    On the grounds of literature and own clinical experience, pathological changes in epilepitic patients have been described. Dental management procedures in these patients have also been presented. The unquestionable importance of prophylaxis, which may markedly minimize the impact of epilepsy on the incidence of mouth diseases, has been emphasised. It has also been stated that epileptic patients should receive specialised and integrated dental treatment.

  1. Dosimetric considerations in dental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goble, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    The integration of the Lixiscope into dental procedures was studied and compared with conventional dental radiographic techniques. It was found that through the use of intraoral sealed sources in conjunction with microchannel plate technology, the Lixiscope gives increased diagnostic information with decreased radiation dosage.

  2. Dental Chairside Technique. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfel, Maura; Weaver, Trudy Karlene

    This manual is part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. This student manual contains four units covering the following topics: local anesthesia; dental office emergencies; oral hygiene;…

  3. Chemical intensification of dental radiographs

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.

    1983-04-01

    The potential applications of chemical intensification in dental radiography are explored. Three standard photographic intensifiers and three methods designed for radiographic use are evaluated. One of these methods is shown to be capable of reducing radiation dose to one half, without loss of diagnostic quality. Further work is necessary to achieve a system sufficiently practicable to deserve widespread use in routine clinical dental radiography.

  4. Health Instruction Packages: Dental Assisting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnery, Paula

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules to instruct dental assisting students in various office skills. The first module, "Dental Office Telephone Techniques," examines the qualities of a good telephone voice and demeanor and provides guidelines for taking a message and handling various…

  5. Status of viral hepatitis in the world community: its incidence among dentists and other dental personnel.

    PubMed

    Mori, M

    1984-06-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem, occurring endemically in all areas of the world. The prevalence of the disease is influenced by numerous factors which may be able to modulate its onset. Study of the epidemiology of viral hepatitis in different geographical, ethnic, social and genetic groups as well as immunological and individual factors has contributed much to our understanding of the disease. Hepatitis viruses are classified into A (infectious hepatitis), B (serum hepatitis) and non-A, non-B. The transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a potential hazard in dental practice. A number of reports suggest a significantly higher incidence of hepatitis among dentists than in the general population and also higher rates of hepatitis in certain specialists, especially oral surgeons, periodontists and endodontists, than in general dentists. Vectors of infection with HBV in dental practice are blood, saliva and nasopharyngeal secretions. The incidence of hepatitis B in dental practitioners is influenced by the exposure to infection, the type of practice, the number of years of professional experience and antibody response. HBV may be spread by dentists and dental students, by dental auxiliaries and by other personnel closely associated with clinical practice, who are antigen positive carriers but have no clinical symptoms. Therefore, dentists and their staff should know well the risk of infection from their patients, the risk of cross-infection between patients, and the risk of infecting each other.

  6. An update on focal therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Perera, Marlon; Krishnananthan, Nishanth; Lindner, Uri; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    Globally, the increased uptake of serum PSA level screening led to an increase in the number of diagnoses of low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Traditionally, these patients have been considered for either active surveillance programmes or radical whole-gland therapies, such as prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Focal therapy is an emerging treatment option that involves the focal ablation of prostate cancer with preservation of surrounding healthy tissue. This approach might result in reduced morbidity when compared with whole-gland therapies. In current practice, much controversy surrounds optimal patient selection and preoperative tumour localization strategies. Focal therapy modalities include cryotherapy, high-intensity focused ultrasound, laser ablation, photodynamic therapy, irreversible electroporation, radiofrequency ablation and focal brachytherapy. However, as long-term oncological data for focal therapies are lacking, formal recommendations for its use cannot be made.

  7. Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre G; Lupini, Andrew R; Kubel, Christian; Slusallek, Phillip; De Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller missing wedge artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  8. Nanotechnology for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Tomsia, Antoni P; Lee, Janice S; Wegst, Ulrike G K; Saiz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of nanotechnology, an opportunity exists for the engineering of new dental implant materials. Metallic dental implants have been successfully used for decades, but they have shortcomings related to osseointegration and mechanical properties that do not match those of bone. Absent the development of an entirely new class of materials, faster osseointegration of currently available dental implants can be accomplished by various surface modifications. To date, there is no consensus regarding the preferred method(s) of implant surface modification, and further development will be required before the ideal implant surface can be created, let alone become available for clinical use. Current approaches can generally be categorized into three areas: ceramic coatings, surface functionalization, and patterning on the micro- to nanoscale. The distinctions among these are imprecise, as some or all of these approaches can be combined to improve in vivo implant performance. These surface improvements have resulted in durable implants with a high percentage of success and long-term function. Nanotechnology has provided another set of opportunities for the manipulation of implant surfaces in its capacity to mimic the surface topography formed by extracellular matrix components of natural tissue. The possibilities introduced by nanotechnology now permit the tailoring of implant chemistry and structure with an unprecedented degree of control. For the first time, tools are available that can be used to manipulate the physicochemical environment and monitor key cellular events at the molecular level. These new tools and capabilities will result in faster bone formation, reduced healing time, and rapid recovery to function.

  9. Current trends in dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Gaviria, Laura; Salcido, John Paul; Guda, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Tooth loss is very a very common problem; therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant designs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants. PMID:24868501

  10. Biostatistical consultation for dental research.

    PubMed

    Clive, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Dental science researchers do not really need a detailed, ready-at-hand knowledge of statistics to design and perform high quality scientific research. Although the acquisition and utilization of such knowledge by dental researchers is not discouraged, it is proposed that it is more important for dental researchers to be committed to developing and maintaining a long term, ongoing, interactive consulting relationship with a biostatistician. The nature of this relationship will depend in large part on the complexity of the dental research being conducted. While the statistical consultant will assist in interpreting analytic results for the dental researcher, the latter will need to provide extensive input in assisting in the estimation of sample size and power, and for expressing scientific hypotheses in statistical terms so that the appropriate data analytic methodology can be specified.

  11. The american dental dream.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The American Dental Dream-the cultural desire for straight, white teeth-is difficult, if not impossible, for poor and working-class people to achieve. Using ethnographic fiction, autoethnography, poetry, and qualitative interviewing, I brush away the taken-for-granted assumptions about teeth. I explore the personal, relational, and structural consequences of this cultural desire, and show how social class writes itself on our bodies. I write these culture-centered teeth tales to show how one might cope with their teeth.

  12. Lasers In Dental Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everse, K. E.; Sinor, T. W.; Menzel, E. R.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the potential of lasers for real time in situ dental diagnosis via transillumination of teeth and gums and via fluorescence. Not surprisingly, absorption and/or scattering of light by teeth was found to be insensitive to light color. However, monochromatic transillumination revealed detail better than white light. Transillumination of gums was best performed with orange-red light because of tissue absorption. Illumination of oral structures by 488 nm Ar-laser light was effective in revealing diagnosis detail by fluorescence. Incipient caries and fine tooth fracture lines that are generally not revealed by radiography were observable by laser.

  13. Dental impression materials.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that many impression materials are available to the veterinary dentist. They each have different inherent properties, handling characteristics, and indications for use. A thorough understanding of these concepts is essential if the veterinarian and laboratory technician are to produce meaningful and accurate reproductions of oral structures. New products are constantly being introduced to the dental market, with fantastic claims for ease of use and reproduction of detail. The reader is urged to seek independent research findings when assessing such claims, and make decisions founded in the highest possible levels of evidence.

  14. Biomimetic extracellular matrix mediated somatic stem cell differentiation: applications in dental pulp tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Sriram; George, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most widely prevalent infectious diseases in the world. It affects more than half of the world's population. The current treatment for necrotic dental pulp tissue arising from dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality making it prone for secondary infections. Over the past decade, several tissue-engineering approaches have attempted regeneration of the dental pulp tissue. Although several studies have highlighted the potential of dental stem cells, none have transitioned into a clinical setting owing to limited availability of dental stem cells and the need for growth factor delivery systems. Our strategy is to utilize the intact ECM of pulp cells to drive lineage specific differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. From a clinical perspective, pulp ECM scaffolds can be generated using cell lines and patient specific somatic stem cells can be used for regeneration. Our published results have shown the feasibility of using pulp ECM scaffolds for odontogenic differentiation of non-dental mesenchymal cells. This focused review discusses the issues surrounding dental pulp tissue regeneration and the potential of our strategy to overcome these issues. PMID:25954205

  15. Dental, Dental Hygiene, and Graduate Students' and Faculty Perspectives on Dental Hygienists' Professional Role and the Potential Contribution of a Peer Teaching Program.

    PubMed

    McComas, Martha J; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    The changing role of dental hygienists deserves dental and dental hygiene educators' attention. The first aim of this survey study was to assess University of Michigan dental, dental hygiene, and graduate students' and faculty members' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles; their attitudes and behaviors related to clinical interactions between dental and dental hygiene students; and perceived benefits of engaging dental hygiene students as peer teachers for dental students. The second aim was to assess whether one group of dental students' experiences with dental hygiene student peer teaching affected their perceptions of the dental hygiene profession. Survey respondents were 57 dental hygiene students in all three years of the program (response rate 60% to 100%); 476 dental students in all four years (response rate 56% to 100%); 28 dental and dental hygiene graduate students (response rate 28%); and 67 dental and dental hygiene faculty members (response rate 56%). Compared to the other groups, dental students reported the lowest average number of services dental hygienists can provide (p≤0.001) and the lowest average number of patient groups for which dental hygienists can provide periodontal care (p<0.001). Dental students also had the least positive attitudes about clinical interactions between dental hygiene and dental students (p<0.001) and perceived the fewest benefits of dental hygiene student peer teaching (p<0.001) before experiencing peer teaching. After experiencing dental hygiene student peer teaching, the dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles, attitudes about clinical interactions with dental hygienists, and perceived benefits of dental hygiene student peer teachers improved and were more positive than the responses of their peers with no peer teaching experiences. These results suggest that dental hygiene student peer teaching may improve dental students' perceptions of dental hygienists' roles and attitudes about

  16. An empirical assessment of the focal species hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Lane, P W; Westgate, M J; Crane, M; Michael, D; Okada, S; Barton, P S

    2014-12-01

    Biodiversity surrogates and indicators are commonly used in conservation management. The focal species approach (FSA) is one method for identifying biodiversity surrogates, and it is underpinned by the hypothesis that management aimed at a particular focal species will confer protection on co-occurring species. This concept has been the subject of much debate, in part because the validity of the FSA has not been subject to detailed empirical assessment of the extent to which a given focal species actually co-occurs with other species in an assemblage. To address this knowledge gap, we used large-scale, long-term data sets of temperate woodland birds to select focal species associated with threatening processes such as habitat isolation and loss of key vegetation attributes. We quantified co-occurrence patterns among focal species, species in the wider bird assemblage, and species of conservation concern. Some, but not all, focal species were associated with high levels of species richness. One of our selected focal species was negatively associated with the occurrence of other species (i.e., it was an antisurrogate)-a previously undescribed property of nominated focal species. Furthermore, combinations of focal species were not associated with substantially elevated levels of bird species richness, relative to levels associated with individual species. Our results suggest that although there is some merit to the underpinning concept of the FSA, there is also a need to ensure that actions are sufficiently flexible because management tightly focused on a given focal species may not benefit some other species, including species of conservation concern, such of which might not occur in species-rich assemblages.

  17. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  18. HgCdTe hybrid focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, J. P.

    1984-09-01

    Second-generation IR systems, consisting of 2-D mosaics of IR detectors, have been under intense development for the last few years. One of the most successful architectures has been a HgCdTe hybrid focal plane array (FPA), using a Si charge-coupled device (CCD) readout chip interfaced to epitaxial HgCdTe. Detection is made by backside-illuminated photovoltaic detectors with high fill factors and quantum efficiency. The detectors are coupled into the CCD by In bumps which mass bond each detector in the mosaic to a CCD input. Advances have been made in uniform, large area HgCdTe detector material that can be grown with a bandgap from less than 0.1 eV to greater than 1 eV. CCD architectures have been developed with simple, linear inputs and dynamic ranges up to 80 dB. Hybrid FPAs are currently being tested in prototype imaging systems, for detecting thermal differences as well as reflected sunlight in the IR. In the 3-5μm region, these arrays have proven capable of noise-equivalent temperature differences as low as 0.01 K, acquired at a 400 Hz frame rate. In addition to improving current imaging systems, these area arrays allow new system concepts to be brought to fruition.

  19. Nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingjing; Li, Yi; Fu, Xinyu; Li, Lijuan; Hao, Xiaoting; Li, Shasha

    2017-01-01

    Rodents have been widely used in the production of cerebral ischemia models. However, successful therapies have been proven on experimental rodent stroke model, and they have often failed to be effective when tested clinically. Therefore, nonhuman primates were recommended as the ideal alternatives, owing to their similarities with the human cerebrovascular system, brain metabolism, grey to white matter ratio and even their rich behavioral repertoire. The present review is a thorough summary of ten methods that establish nonhuman primate models of focal cerebral ischemia; electrocoagulation, endothelin-1-induced occlusion, microvascular clip occlusion, autologous blood clot embolization, balloon inflation, microcatheter embolization, coil embolization, surgical suture embolization, suture, and photochemical induction methods. This review addresses the advantages and disadvantages of each method, as well as precautions for each model, compared nonhuman primates with rodents, different species of nonhuman primates and different modeling methods. Finally it discusses various factors that need to be considered when modelling and the method of evaluation after modelling. These are critical for understanding their respective strengths and weaknesses and underlie the selection of the optimum model.

  20. Advanced dynamic pyroelectric focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglaub, Ricardo A. G.; Celinska, Jolanta B.; McWilliams, Christopher R.; Paz de Araujo, Carlos A.; Forbes, Timothy; Pankin, Jayson D.

    2010-04-01

    The pyroelectric effect has been characterized for single-pixel elements consisting of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric material as the sensing elements. These pixels have been integrated into second-generation focal plane arrays. The constituent second-generation pixels include thermal insulating layers and an infrared absorber layer. The MEMS-less arrays are operated in active mode, a technique that eliminates radiation choppers found in other passive pyroelectric IR imagers. This paper addresses the results of precursor 2x2 to 14x14 second-generation arrays of SBT elements, the active detection mechanism, and the unique read-out, interrogation signal, and the synchronization electronics. The second-generation 14x14 pixels array was implemented to demonstrate the performance of an active pyroelectric array as a precursor to larger size arrays using different pixel dimensions. The active mode detection eliminates the use of a chopper, enables the dynamic partition of the array into pixel domains in which pixel sensitivity in the domains can be adjusted independently. This unique feature in IR detection can be applied to the simultaneous tracking of diverse contrast objects. In addition, by controlling the thickness of the absorber material the arrays can be optimized for maximum response at specified wavelengths by means of quarter-wavelength interferometry.

  1. Focal cerebral mantle disruption in fetal hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Peter; Muzumdar, Dattatraya P; Sly, Lloyd E; Michaud, Jean

    2007-04-01

    A variety of developmental brain anomalies have been described in individuals with fetal hydrocephalus, regardless of etiology. Examples include callosal dysgenesis, periventricular gray matter heterotopia, hippocampal and white matter hypoplasia, and cortical polygyration. The present report draws attention to another anomaly not reported in previous case series of fetal hydrocephalus: focal cerebral mantle disruption. Neonatal imaging findings (where available) and post-shunt, stable-state magnetic resonance imaging, or pathological findings were reviewed in 77 subjects with fetal hydrocephalus (55 myelomeningocele, 16 sporadic aqueductal stenosis, 6 miscellaneous). Of these, 12 subjects (15.6%) demonstrated a combination of absence of the septum pellucidum and severe thinning or absence of the posteromesial cerebral mantle. On axial sequences, this combination created the illusion of a common ventricle, as in lobar holoprosencephaly. All 12 subjects had massive hydrocephalus at birth, accompanied in 7 by posteromesial ventricular diverticula. Two subjects, and one other subject with distinct lateral ventricles, demonstrated unilateral or bilateral mantle clefts suggestive of schizencephaly. Close radiological (n = 2) or pathological (n = 1) inspection showed that the clefts were only partially lined with gray matter and contained a transverse gliotic membrane. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that massive early fetal hydrocephalus may completely disrupt cerebral mantle formation, particularly in the posteromesial hemispheres.

  2. The Prevalence of Dental Anxiety in Patients of a University Dental Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodmansey, Karl F.

    2005-01-01

    Dental anxiety remains a pervasive barrier to dental treatment for many individuals, including college-age patients. In this article, the author reviews dental anxiety and examines the usefulness of assessment instruments for identifying dental anxiety. Using 2 unique assessment instruments, he examines the prevalence of dental anxiety in his…

  3. Status of the Predoctoral Dental Education Program and Its Impact on Graduate Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Don L.

    1980-01-01

    The status of the current predoctoral dental program and its relationship to graduate dental education is described. Factors that have influenced the dental curriculum and major changes that have occurred are presented. Major issues facing dental education are outlined. A proposal is presented for greater flexibility in dental education.…

  4. Undergraduate dental English education in Japanese dental schools.

    PubMed

    Rodis, Omar M M; Matsumura, Seishi; Kariya, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Michiko; Yoshida, Toshiko

    2013-05-01

    Dental schools in Japan are among many worldwide whose medium of instruction is not in English. With advances in science, technology, and communication, the demand for the globalization of professions increases. At present, dental schools in Asia, the Middle East, and Europe have started revising their dental curricula to either include English courses for dentistry or offer a full English dental curriculum. In Japan, dental English courses started to be introduced into curricula in the early 1990s. However, a survey conducted in 1999 found that English courses were not offered in Japan's twenty-nine dental schools and there was no consensus as to what such courses should include or when and how they should be taught. Ten years after that survey, the survey results reported in this article found that the problems reported in the 1999 survey still exist. Additionally, there are still differences among schools offering English courses in terms of the timing and contents of the courses. Since teachers and school officials will have an important role in curriculum development, this article recommends that a fact-finding meeting with educators, school, and education officials be initiated to discuss, develop, and implement a core curriculum for these dental English courses.

  5. Trends in Dentistry and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valachovic, Richard W.; Weaver, Richard G.; Sinkford, Jeanne C.; Haden, N. Karl

    2001-01-01

    Compiled from many of the surveys that the American Dental Education Association routinely publishes, along with data from surveys conducted by the American Dental Association and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, presents statistical tables and descriptive text on trends among dental patients, among dental practitioners, and in dental…

  6. Dental photography today. Part 1: basic concepts

    PubMed Central

    CASAGLIA, A.; DE DOMINICIS, P.; ARCURI, L.; GARGARI, M.; OTTRIA, L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper is the first article in a new series on digital dental photography. Part 1 defines the aims and objectives of dental photography for examination, diagnosis and treatment planning, legal and forensic documentation, publishing, education, marketing and communication with patients, dental team members, colleagues and dental laboratory. PMID:28042424

  7. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is intended for filling dental caries. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  12. Involving Parents in Their Children's Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Donna

    1998-01-01

    Asserts that parent education is vital to good dental hygiene for the whole family. Discusses what Head Start staffers can do to ensure that children's dental needs are being met, particularly in assisting parents with taking responsibility for children's dental hygiene. Covers dental care tips for parents, questions and answers about dental…

  13. Dental Curriculum Development in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phantumvanit, Prathip

    1996-01-01

    Since establishment of formal dental education in Southeast Asia, changes stemming from research and technology have led to dental curriculum changes. Development of the dental curriculum can be divided into three phases: disease oriented; health oriented; and community oriented. Evolution of these phases is traced in the dental curricula of Laos,…

  14. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns...

  15. Sources of Dental Health Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Jean H.

    1982-01-01

    Sources of dental health education teaching aids which are available for free or at minimal cost include: (1) The American Dental Health Association; (2) state and local departments of public health; (3) schools of dentistry, dental hygiene, and dental assisting; and (4) the Educator's International Guide. (JN)

  16. 21 CFR 872.3700 - Dental mercury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental mercury. 872.3700 Section 872.3700 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3700 Dental mercury. (a) Identification. Dental mercury is a device composed of mercury intended for use as a component of amalgam alloy in the restoration of...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is intended for filling dental caries. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is intended for filling dental caries. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is intended for filling dental caries. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3100 - Dental amalgamator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is intended for filling dental caries. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dental amalgamator. 872.3100 Section 872.3100 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3100 Dental amalgamator. (a) Identification. A...

  1. Severe odontogenic infection: An emergency. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Crisosto-Jara, Claudia; Diaz-Ricouz, Camilo; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    2017-01-01

    Odontogenic infections (OI) are a major reason for consultation in dental practice. They affect people of all ages, and most of them respond well to current medical and surgical treatments. However, some OI can spread to vital and deep structures, overcome the host immune system - especially in diabetic, immunocompromised or weakened patients - and even prove fatal. Ludwig’s angina is a severe form of diffuse cellulitis that can have an acute onset and spread very rapidly, bilaterally affecting areas of the head and neck, and may prove life threatening. A case of severe dental infection is presented in which emphasis is placed on the importance of airway maintenance, followed by surgical decompression under adequate antibiotic coverage. Key words:Ludwig’s angina, severe odontogenic infection, surgical decompression, dental infection. PMID:28210456

  2. Dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression among adult patients with dental anxiety but with different dental-attendance patterns.

    PubMed

    Bernson, Jenny M; Elfström, Magnus L; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression in relation to regularity of dental treatment among persons with either regular dental care or phobic avoidance, whilst controlling for sociodemographic factors. Psychometric questionnaires on dental anxiety, dental coping strategies, general anxiety, and depression were delivered to 263 adult patients with dental phobic avoidance behavior who were seeking help from a specialized dental fear clinic and to 141 adult patients with dental anxiety who were receiving regular dental care from various public dental clinics. The results showed that the levels of dental and general anxiety and of depression were significantly higher among irregular attendees compared with regular attendees. Irregular attendees admitted fewer adaptive coping strategies. Predictive of irregular dental care were gender, dental anxiety, general anxiety, and the nonuse of the coping strategy 'optimism'. This study further confirms earlier preliminary results that the use of optimistic thinking is predictive for regular dental attendance habits and that male gender is a risk factor for irregular attendance. Moreover, this study adds that a high level of general anxiety indicates a higher risk for irregular dental care.

  3. Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, E L; Donnelly, E; Eve, L; Atherton, J V; Asch, T

    1990-01-01

    The influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry upon mammographic image quality were evaluated. The modulation transfer functions (MTF's) for eight different intensity distributions were determined and plotted in a manner to eliminate the effects of magnification and focal spot dimension. The results indicated that the total cross-sectional area is important for focal spots with uniform intensity distributions and equivalent diameters. For equivalent focal spot dimensions, intensity distributions with edge bands were shown to have less spatial resolution than uniform intensity distributions. Focal spots with greater intensities towards their centers provided better resolution than either uniform intensity distributions or distributions with edge bands for equivalent sizes. The type of intensity distribution was also shown to affect the accuracy of star pattern measurements of focal spot size; this method of measurement is only precise for a uniform square intensity distribution. Errors obtained with several other intensity distributions were tabulated. The variations of the effective focal spot size with position along the anode-cathode axis were shown to be of a factor of approximately two to three. The combined effects of geometric blur and film/screen blur were present for various heights above the cassette tray on several different mammographic systems.

  4. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems. PMID:25302004

  5. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The twodimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  6. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-19

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  7. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images

    PubMed Central

    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject’s facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  8. A simplified impression technique for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Robert E

    2002-03-01

    Dental implants have been considered an acceptable form of dental treatment since the early 1980s. A number of studies have been published describing impression techniques for dental implants. Many of the techniques described are so complex that they may seem daunting to the average restorative dentist. Most general practitioners do not wish to attempt to restore dental implants. This article describes a very simple, yet extremely accurate, technique for making impressions of dental implant fixtures.

  9. A Survey of Civilian Dental Computer Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    r.arketplace, the orthodontic community continued to pioneer clinical automation through diagnosis, treat- (1) patient registration, identification...profession." New York State Dental Journal 34:76, 1968. 17. Ehrlich, A., The Role of Computers in Dental Practice Management. Champaign, IL: Colwell...Council on Dental military dental clinic. Medical Bulletin of the US Army Practice. Report: Dental Computer Vendors. 1984 Europe 39:14-16, 1982. 19

  10. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) predicts focal epileptogenicity in cavernomas

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, H; Scheler, G; Hummel, C; Walter, J; Romstock, J; Buchfelder, M; Blumcke, I

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the irritative epileptic zone in patients with cavernomas by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). Method: Among 82 patients operated for epilepsy, whose presurgical evaluation had included MEG, histological assessment of the tissue removed had confirmed cavernomas in eight. These eight patients had epilepsy since 18.6 (SD 12.7) years on average. The monitoring lasted about 2.1 (SD 1.3) hours and a median 20.9 (SD 14.3) spikes per hour were recorded. Spontaneous brain activity was recorded by means of a 74 channel dual unit MEG system (Magnes II, 4-D Neuroimaging) with simultaneous EEG recording (31 scalp electrodes). Spike analysis was performed using different source (moving dipole, current density reconstruction) and head models (spherical shells, BEM). Co-registration of neurophysiological and imaging data (MRI) was based upon anatomical landmarks. Results: In 6/8 patients co-localisation from the cavernoma and epileptic zone was found. In two patients the focus was localised in the parieto-occipital lobe, in three patients in the frontal lobe and in three patients in the temporal lobe. In one case of temporal and one case of frontal lobe focus localisation there was no spatial relationship to the cavernoma. Conclusion: In cases of focal seizures due to a single cavernoma, MEG may precisely delineate the epileptogenic tissue bordering the lesion. In patients with multiple cavernomas or dual pathology, MSI may reveal the complexity of the case, and contribute to the decision about further invasive diagnostics and more sophisticated therapeutic measures. MEG is a promising method for prediction of the epileptic zone in cavernoma related epilepsies, and thus it can contribute to decision making about and planning of epilepsy surgery. PMID:15314122

  11. Recovery of Deep Moonquake Focal Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Knapmeyer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Deep moonquakes are clustered not only in space but also in time: their recurrence times correspond to the durations of the anomalistic and draconic months, with some clusters preferring one of the two periods, while others are active with both periods. A key constraint for the understanding of the connection between the orbital motion of the Moon and its seismic activity is the focal mechanism: the orientation of the fault surface on which failure occurs during the quake. Due to the small aperture of the Apollo seismic network and the strong scattering of seismic waves within the lunar crust, the evaluation of P wave first motions to constrain the strike and dip of the fault planes is not feasible. Instead we evaluate the amplitude ratios of P and S waves. Seismograms are rotated into the P-SV-SH coordinate frame and amplitudes are determined as averages over short time windows after the arrival to reduce the impact of the scattering coda, which is independent of the source orientation. We allow for reversals of the fault motion, as observed for some clusters in previous studies, by taking into account the absolute amplitude only, without sign. An empirical site correction factor is applied to correct for amplitude distortions in the crust. We construct ensembles of fault plane solutions using an exhaustive grid search by accepting all orientations that reproduce the measured amplitude ratios within the observed standard deviations. Since all events of a given cluster are supposed to share the same fault plane, the combination of the individual inversion results further constrains the orientation. We evaluate 106 events from 25 different moonquake clusters. The most active cluster A001 contributes 37 events, while others contribute 1 to 9 events per cluster. Comparison of fault orientations with the variation of the tidal stress results in preferred orientations.

  12. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  13. Focal conduction block in a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diogo F; Scremin, Luciano; Zúniga, Sérgio F; Oh, Shin J

    2010-09-01

    We report a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) with focal conduction block across the tarsal tunnel (TT). A 46-year-old woman had pain in the left foot, sensory loss on the plantar surface, and positive Tinel sign over the TT. TTS was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and surgery. Motor nerve conduction studies showed focal conduction block across the TT. Conduction block has rarely been reported in TTS. In this case, conduction block provides evidence for focal demyelination as the primary pathological process in TTS.

  14. The Characteristics of Broad and Narrow Focal Zone Lithotripters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; VonDerHaar, R. Jason; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.

    2008-09-01

    The focal width of a lithotripter is a measure of the diameter of its focal zone, the region where acoustic pressures are at least half the maximum positive pressure generated at a given power level. Different lithotripters have different focal widths. The Dornier HM3, for example, has a focal width of ˜10-12 mm and for many years this was the widest focal zone among clinical machines. Electromagnetic lithotripters tend to have narrower focal zones, in the range of ˜4-6 mm. Recent studies suggesting that focal width plays an important role in stone breakage prompted this assessment of two electromagnetic lithotripters. Acoustical mapping using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH-500) and breakage of U-30 gypsum model stones were used to compare a conventional lithotripter (Dornier DoLi-50) and a broad focal zone device (XiXin XX-ES). FOPH mapping characterized the focal width of the DoLi to be about 5mm and that of the XX-ES to be much wider (˜18 mm). For stone breakage experiments the DoLi was fired at power level 3 (mid-range) and the XX-ES was operated at the recommended clinical setting of 9.3 kV. Both lithotripters were fired at 60 SW/min. U-30 model stones held in a 2mm mesh basket were positioned at the clinical target point on the acoustic axis and at 5mm steps laterally, and the number of SW's to complete fragmentation was counted. Breakage on-axis was similar for the two machines (DoLi 676±105 SW's versus XX-ES 644±123 SW's, p>0.6), but at 15mm the DoLi required nearly twice the number of SW's as the XX-ES (DoLi 3006±780 SW's versus 1726±972 SW's, p<0.006). This demonstrates that a broad focal zone lithotripter is more effective in breaking stones off axis and supports the idea that focal width is an important feature, likely to be relevant in the clinical setting where respiratory motion may limit the effectiveness of narrow focal zone machines.

  15. Test chamber for low-background IR focal plane testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staller, Craig; Capps, Richard W.; Butler, Douglas; Moss, Nancy; Norwood, Wynn

    1989-01-01

    A unique and versatile vacuum chamber has been designed for JPL's IR Focal Plane Technology Group. This chamber is equipped with multiple ports for cryogen and electrical vacuum feedthroughs, pumping units, vacuum gages, sources, and detector camera heads. The design incorporates a liquid-nitrogen-cooled optical table and radiation shield for low-background IR detector testing. Focal planes can be tested at temperatures ranging from 300 K to that of liquid helium. This paper describes the design and construction of this low-background IR focal plane test chamber and discusses some of its distinctive features. An analysis of the test chamber's performance is also presented.

  16. Controlling the thermally induced focal shift in laser processing heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negel, Jan-Philipp; Abt, Felix; Blázquez-Sánchez, David; Austerschulte, Armin; Hafner, Margit; Liebig, Thomas; von Strobl-Albeg, Philipp; Weber, Rudolf; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan; Voss, Andreas; Graf, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    A system being able to in situ measure and control not simply the distance between the workpiece and the focusing optics, but the true focal position on the workpiece including the thermally induced focal shift in a laser processing head is presented. In order to achieve this, a bundle of astigmatic measurement beams is used following the same optical path as the welding beam. A camera and a software algorithm allow to keep the focal position constant within a range of 4 mm and with a resolution between 150 μm and 500 μm.

  17. Initial dental needs and a projection of needed dental capacity in the Iowa Department of Corrections.

    PubMed

    Ringgenberg, Wendy J

    2011-04-01

    The dental health data for the Iowa Department of Corrections (IDOC) inmate population were analyzed to better understand dental health issues experienced by inmates and IDOC's system for responding to those dental needs. Each inmate is given a dental health assessment upon admission to Iowa's prison system. These data were analyzed for frequency of dental health needs and frequency of dental health services. In addition, emergency dental health services were analyzed. The findings show that each inmate has approximately 7.6 dental codes, including the initial exam, dental services provided, and dental needs not yet addressed. When reviewing only dental needs (and not the initial exam), 32% (5,110) identified dental needs were completed and 66% (10,572) were not.

  18. Decontamination Methods Used for Dental Burs – A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hugar, Deepa; Hugar, Santosh; Ranjan, Shashi; Kadani, Megha

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Infection control and modes of sterilizations are the key factors to avoid cross transmission of infection in the field of dentistry. Transmission of disease or infection is noted with improper sterilization of reused instruments. Dental burs are the most important tool in any endodontic or conservative procedures of teeth involving tooth contouring, restorative filling procedures and endodontic procedures. Hence, the present study is undertaken to assess the efficacy of different methods of sterilization or decontamination which are routinely used in dental clinics. Materials and Methods: For the present study 96 round diamond burs were selected and divided into 6 groups. These burs were used for the access cavity preparation to get contamination and subjected for bacteriological culture. After getting base line date burs were subjected to manual scrubbing, hot air oven, glass bead sterilizer, ultrasonic cleaner and autoclave to get post decontamination data. Results: The study revealed that mean colony forming units/ml of Streptococcus mutans decreased maximum for autoclave with 80% reduction, for Lactobacilli 76% reduction and for Candida albicans maximum reduction seen for glass bead sterilizer with 74%. Conclusion: Findings of our study revealed that none of the methods used were found to be absolutely efficacious in the decontamination of dental burs. However, among the experimental groups used in the present study, autoclave was found to be the relatively best method. PMID:25121062

  19. Roughness Measurement of Dental Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulev, Assen; Roussev, Ilia; Karpuzov, Simeon; Stoilov, Georgi; Ignatova, Detelina; See, Constantin von; Mitov, Gergo

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a roughness measurement of zirconia ceramics, widely used for dental applications. Surface roughness variations caused by the most commonly used dental instruments for intraoral grinding and polishing are estimated. The applied technique is simple and utilizes the speckle properties of the scattered laser light. It could be easily implemented even in dental clinic environment. The main criteria for roughness estimation is the average speckle size, which varies with the roughness of zirconia. The algorithm used for the speckle size estimation is based on the normalized autocorrelation approach.

  20. [Allergies to dental materials and dental pharmacologic agents].

    PubMed

    Gall, H

    1983-07-01

    Allergic reactions to dental materials and remedies cause stomatitis in the patient and a contact dermatitis in the dental personnel. Topical contact (acrylic resin denture materials, heat accumulation, plaques on the denture) and endogenic (symptom of internal and psychiatric illnesses) factors are the cause for denture sore mouth. In metallic alloys corrosions and electric currents can effect an irritation to the oral mucosa. The application of amalgam fillings can possibly result in a mercurialism. Dental remedies used for treatment of wounds and dental roots are potent sensitizers. Surface anesthetics with tetracaine are the most frequent contact allergens for dentists. Injectable local anesthetics produce anaphylactic type reactions as well as toxic side-effects in the patient.

  1. Do dental students cheat?

    PubMed

    Fuller, J L; Killip, D E

    1979-12-01

    In a questionnaire survey, dental students from all four classes at The University of Iowa College of Dentistry were asked if they had cheated during their first and second years. They were then asked if they believed that others cheated. Cheating was admitted to by 43 percent of the respondents, but 94 percent believed it was occurring. Plagiarism was delineated as a form of cheating; while fewer students admitted to its use, the reported occurrence should be of concern in technique courses. Responses were analyzed both by year in school and grade point average. Reasons for cheating were described; and some conditions conducive to cheating were found to be under the control of the instructor.

  2. Dental Arch Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Straightening teeth is an arduous process requiring months, often years, of applying corrective pressure by means of arch wires-better known as brace-which may have to be changed several times in the course of treatment. A new method has been developed by Dr. George Andreasen, orthodontist and dental scientist at the University of Iowa. The key is a new type of arch wire material, called Nitinol, with exceptional elasticity which helps reduce the required number of brace changes. An alloy of nickel and titanium, Nitinol was originally developed for aerospace applications by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory, now the Naval Surface Weapons Laboratory, White Oaks, Maryland. NASA subsequently conducted additional research on the properties of Nitinol and on procedures for processing the metal.

  3. Dental solid waste characterization and management in Iran: a case study of Sistan and Baluchestan Province.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Mohammadi, Leili; Mostafapour, Ferdos Kord; Moghaddam, Alireza Ansari

    2014-02-01

    The management of dental solid waste continues to be a major challenge, particularly in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. In Iran, few studies on management of dental solid waste and its composition are available. An effort has been made through this study to evaluate the hazardous and infectious status of dental solid waste, keeping in mind its possible role in cross-infection chain. For this study, 123 private dental centres and 36 public dental centres were selected and the composition and generation rate of dental solid waste produced were measured. Dental solid waste was classified to four main categories: (i) domestic-type; (ii) potentially infectious; (iii) chemical and pharmaceutical; and (iv) toxic, which constituted 11.7, 80.3, 6.3, and 1.7%, respectively, of the total. Also, the results indicated that the dental solid waste per patient per day generation rate for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 169.9, 8.6, 153.3, 11.2, and 3.3 g/patient/d, respectively. Furthermore, the per day generation rates for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 194.5, 22.6, 156.1, 12.3, and 3.4 kg/d, respectively. According to findings of this study, for best management of dental waste it is suggested that source reduction, separation, reuse, and recycling programmes be implemented and each section of dental waste be collected and disposed of separately and in accordance with related criteria.

  4. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  5. Diabetes: Dental Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for mouth infections, especially periodontal (gum) disease. Periodontal disease can damage the gum and bone that hold ... people with serious gum disease lose their teeth. Periodontal disease may also make it hard to control your ...

  6. Dental Care in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... teeth and gums are healthy What is periodontal disease? Periodontal disease is an infection in the mouth caused by ... cause tooth decay (cavities) or even tooth loss. Periodontal disease can begin with gum swelling and bleeding, called ...

  7. Real-time focal stack compositing for handheld mobile cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solh, Mashhour

    2013-03-01

    Extending the depth of field using a single lens camera on a mobile device can be achieved by capturing a set of images each focused at a different depth or focal stack then combine these samples of the focal stack to form a single all-in-focus image or an image refocused at a desired depth of field. Focal stack compositing in real time for a handheld mobile camera has many challenges including capturing, processing power, handshaking, rolling shutter artifacts, occlusion, and lens zoom effect. In this paper, we describe a system for a real time focal stack compositing system for handheld mobile device with an alignment and compositing algorithms. We will also show all-in-focus images captured and processed by a cell phone camera running on Android OS.

  8. [Familial Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis, a vademecum for clinical nephrologist].

    PubMed

    Caridi, Gianluca; Lugani, Francesca; Bonanni, Elisa; Rossi, Roberta; Carrea, Alba; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2015-01-01

    The new genomic technologies (Next Generation Sequencing, NGS) are opening a new era in Genomic Medicine. This simple guide gives a state-of-the-art description of the genes that cause Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis and nephrotic syndrome.

  9. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis.

  10. Oral focal mucinosis: a rare case with literature review

    PubMed Central

    Sowmya, G V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha; Nahar, Prashant; Aggarwal, Hersheal

    2015-01-01

    Oral focal mucinosis (OFM) is an unusual disease that affects diverse localised areas of the mouth, where the connective tissue undergoes focal degeneration. It was described for the first time by Tomich in 1974. It presents as an asymptomatic pedunculated or sessile growth, commonly on the gingiva, with most cases being in women. Its pathogenesis is linked to overproduction of hyaluronic acid by fibroblasts during collagen production, ensuing in focal myxoid degeneration. It has no characteristic features and diagnosis depends on histological scrutiny. We report a rare case of oral focal mucinosis affecting a 54-year-old man who presented with a sessile gingival growth mimicking a common tumour-like lesion. PMID:25759271

  11. Focal MRI and Learning Disability with Reduced Automaticity.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2015-09-01

    Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, MA, performed a retrospective analysis of 1,587 children referred for a learning disability, and 127 had a focal deficit demonstrated on either a neurologic or neuropsychological evaluation.

  12. Dental Health: The Basic Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... MS. Resources Academy of General Dentistry 211 East Chicago Avenue Suite 900 Chicago, Illinois 60611 Tel: 888-243-3368 Web site: ... Ask a question American Dental Association 211 East Chicago Avenue Chicago, Illinois 60611 Tel: 312-440-2500 ...

  13. Vocational Interests of Dental Hygienists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishida, Helen

    1975-01-01

    Using the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, an occupational interest scale for dental hygienists was developed, and comparisons of interests were made between graduates of two- and four-year programs. (Author)

  14. Dental insurance! Are we ready?

    PubMed

    Toor, Ravi S S; Jindal, R

    2011-01-01

    Dental insurance is insurance designed to pay the costs associated with dental care. The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) bill which was put forward in the winter session of the Lok Sabha (2008) focused on increasing the foreign investment share from the existing 26% to 49% in the insurance companies of India. This will allow the multibillion dollar international insurance companies to enter the Indian market and subsequently cover all aspects of insurance in India. Dental insurance will be an integral a part of this system. Dental insurance is a new concept in Southeast Asia as very few countries in Southeast Asia cover this aspect of insurance. It is important that the dentists in India should be acquainted with the different types of plans these companies are going to offer and about a new relationship which is going to emerge in the coming years between dentist, patient and the insurance company.

  15. Dental disease in geriatric horses.

    PubMed

    Lowder, M Q; Mueller, P O

    1998-08-01

    The dental management of geriatric horses can be a rewarding challenge to the practitioner. Owners become dissatisfied when their expectations are unrealistic. Consequently, communication between the owner and the practitioner is essential prior to the start of any dental procedure in a geriatric horse. Owners often expect the practitioner to correct what has been neglected for years. It is critical that the owner understand the possible complications associated with dental procedures and that some procedures (e.g., trephination) may necessitate protracted care. Often, when a tooth has been removed, there is a need for more frequent masticatory examinations to curtail any potential problems (i.e., development of step mouth). The owner needs to be aware of the extra dental maintenance costs that must be included in the upkeep of the horse.

  16. Lip Lifting: Unveiling Dental Beauty.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kyle; Caligiuri, Matthew; Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Bazos, Panaghiotis K; Magne, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The focus for the achievement of complete success in the esthetic zone has traditionally been on addressing deficiencies of intraoral hard and soft tissue. Often, these deficiencies are accompanied by esthetic concerns regarding the lips that are routinely neglected by the dental team. A predictable plastic surgery technique - the lip lift - has been used for decades to enhance lip esthetics by shortening the senile upper lip to achieve a more youthful appearance. Over the years, this technique has been refined and used in many different ways, allowing its routine incorporation into full facial esthetic planning. Through restoration of the upper lip to its optimal position, the artistry of the dentist and dental technician can truly be appreciated in the rejuvenated smile. By the introduction of this minimally invasive surgical technique to the dental community, patients stand to benefit from a comprehensive orofacial approach to anterior dental esthetic planning.

  17. Clinical Medicine for Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Norman S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A program providing instruction in medical topics throughout the dental curriculum at Tufts University is described, and the results of a survey indicating alumni satisfaction with training in physical evaluation techniques and ability to detect medical problems are discussed. (MSE)

  18. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  19. Focal epithelial hyperplasia. A rare disease in our area.

    PubMed

    Segura-Saint-Gerons, Rafael; Toro-Rojas, Mariano; Ceballos-Salobreña, Alejandro; Aparicio-Soria, Jose Luis; Fuentes-Vaamonde, Helena

    2005-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a benign, asymptomatic disease, occurring with very low frequency within our population. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue, and less frequently on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. We present the clinical case of a 9-year-old Saharan girl with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to a focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  20. Inflammatory pancreatic masses: problems in differentiating focal pancreatitis from carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, C.C.; Simeone, J.F.; Wittenberg, J.; Mueller, P.R.; Ferrucci, J.T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The authors studied 19 patients with focal inflammatory masses of the pancreas over an 18-month period. In 13 cases, transhepatic cholangiography and/or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were unsuccessful in differentiating pancreatitis from carcinoma. Eighteen patients had a history of alcohol abuse, and 12 had had pancreatitis previously. Pre-existing glandular injury appears to be a prerequisite to formation of focal inflammatory pancreatic masses.