Science.gov

Sample records for focal plane polarimeter

  1. Signal-to-noise analysis of Stokes parameters in division of focal plane polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Robert; Gruev, Viktor

    2010-12-06

    An analysis of the temporal noise in the Stokes parameters computed by division of focal plane polarimeters is presented. Theoretical estimations of the Stokes parameter signal-to-noise ratios for CCD polarization imaging sensors with both 4-polarizer and 2-polarizer micropolarization filter arrays are derived. The theoretical derivation is verified with measurements from an integrated polarization imaging sensor composed of a CCD imaging array and aluminum nanowire polarization filters. The measured data obtained from the CCD polarimeters matches the theoretical derivations of the temporal noise model of the Stokes parameters.

  2. New data acquisition system for the focal plane polarimeter of the Grand Raiden spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Tamii, A.; Sakaguchi, H.; Takeda, H.; Yosoi, M.; Akimune, H.; Fujiwara, M.; Ogata, H.; Tanaka, M.; Togawa, H.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes a new data acquisition system for the focal plane polarimeter of the Grand Raiden spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) in Osaka, Japan. Data are acquired by a Creative Electronic Systems (CES) Starburst, which is a CAMAC auxiliary crate controller equipped with a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) J11 microprocessor., The data on the Starburst are transferred to a VME single-board computer. A VME reflective memory module broadcasts the data to other systems through a fiber-optic link. A data transfer rate of 2.0 Mbytes/s between VME modules has been achieved by reflective memories. This rate includes the overhead of buffer management. The overall transfer rate, however, is limited by the performance of the Starburst to about 160 Kbytes/s at maximum. In order to further improve the system performance, the authors developed a new readout module called the Rapid Data Transfer Module (RDTM). RDTM`s transfer data from LeCroy PCOS III`s or 4298`s, and FERA/FERET`s directly to CES 8170 High Speed Memories (HSM) in VME crates. The data transfer rate of the RDTM from PCOS III`s to the HSM is about 4 Mbytes/s.

  3. A DSP-based readout and online processing system for a new focal-plane polarimeter at AGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, M.; Bassini, R.; van den Berg, A. M.; Ellinghaus, F.; Frekers, D.; Hannen, V. M.; Häupke, T.; Heyse, J.; Jacobs, E.; Kirsch, M.; Krüsemann, B.; Rakers, S.; Sohlbach, H.; Wörtche, H. J.

    1999-11-01

    A Focal-Plane Polarimeter (FPP) for the large acceptance Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at AGOR using a novel readout architecture has been commissioned at the KVI Groningen. The instrument is optimized for medium-energy polarized proton scattering near or at 0°. For the handling of the high counting rates at extreme forward angles and for the suppression of small-angle scattering in the graphite analyzer, a high-performance data processing DSP system connecting to the LeCroy FERA and PCOS ECL bus architecture has been made operational and tested successfully. Details of the system and the functions of the various electronic components are described.

  4. Evaluation of calibration methods for visible-spectrum division-of-focal-plane polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, S. B.; Gruev, Viktor

    2013-09-01

    Polarization imaging sensors using the division-of-focal-plane paradigm have recently emerged on the market. These sensors, due to their compact design, are ideal for field work. One of the major drawbacks in these sensors is the spatial variation of the optical response of individual pixels across the imaging array. These spatial variations are due to variations in the nanowires of the pixelated polarization filters. In this paper, we describe and compare two methods for calibrating a division of focal plane sensors. We present theoretical and experimental data for these calibration methods.

  5. THE IMAGING PROPERTIES OF THE GAS PIXEL DETECTOR AS A FOCAL PLANE POLARIMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Fabiani, S.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Muleri, F.; Soffitta, P.; Rubini, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; De Ruvo, L.; Minuti, M.; Pinchera, M.; Sgró, C.; Spandre, G.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Burwitz, V.; Burkert, W.; and others

    2014-06-01

    X-rays are particularly suited to probing the physics of extreme objects. However, despite the enormous improvements of X-ray astronomy in imaging, spectroscopy, and timing, polarimetry remains largely unexplored. We propose the photoelectric polarimeter Gas Pixel Detector (GPD) as a candidate instrument to fill the gap created by more than 30 yr without measurements. The GPD, in the focus of a telescope, will increase the sensitivity of orders of magnitude. Moreover, since it can measure the energy, the position, the arrival time, and the polarization angle of every single photon, it allows us to perform polarimetry of subsets of data singled out from the spectrum, the light curve, or an image of the source. The GPD has an intrinsic, very fine imaging capability, and in this work we report on the calibration campaign carried out in 2012 at the PANTER X-ray testing facility of the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik of Garching (Germany) in which, for the first time, we coupled it with a JET-X optics module with a focal length of 3.5 m and an angular resolution of 18 arcsec at 4.5 keV. This configuration was proposed in 2012 aboard the X-ray Imaging Polarimetry Explorer (XIPE) in response to the ESA call for a small mission. We derived the imaging and polarimetric performance for extended sources like pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants as case studies for the XIPE configuration and also discuss possible improvements by coupling the detector with advanced optics that have a finer angular resolution and larger effective areas to study extended objects with more detail.

  6. Division of focal plane polarimeter-based 3 × 4 Mueller matrix microscope: a potential tool for quick diagnosis of human carcinoma tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jintao; He, Honghui; Wang, Ye; Huang, Yi; Li, Xianpeng; He, Chao; Liao, Ran; Zeng, Nan; Liu, Shaoxiong; Ma, Hui

    2016-05-01

    A polarization microscope is a useful tool to reveal the optical anisotropic nature of a specimen and can provide abundant microstructural information about samples. We present a division of focal plane (DoFP) polarimeter-based polarization microscope capable of simultaneously measuring both the Stokes vector and the 3×4 Mueller matrix with an optimal polarization illumination scheme. The Mueller matrix images of unstained human carcinoma tissue slices show that the m24 and m34 elements can provide important information for pathological observations. The characteristic features of the m24 and m34 elements can be enhanced by polarization staining under illumination by a circularly polarized light. Hence, combined with a graphics processing unit acceleration algorithm, the DoFP polarization microscope is capable of real-time polarization imaging for potential quick clinical diagnoses of both standard and frozen slices of human carcinoma tissues.

  7. Microfabrication and Device Parameter Testing of the Focal Plane Arrays for the Spider and BICEP2/Keck CMB Polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, J. A.; Turner, A. D.; Kenyon, M.; Orlando, A.; Brevik, J. A.; Trangsrud, A.; Sudiwala, R.; Leduc, H. G.; Nguyen, H. T.; Day, P. K.; Bock, J. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Sayers, J.; Kovac, J. M.; Lange, A. E.; Jones, W. C.; Kuo, C. L.

    2009-12-01

    Spider and BICEP2/Keck are projects to study the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The focal planes for both require large format arrays of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES's). A major challenge for these projects is fabricating arrays with high uniformity in device parameters. A microfabrication process is described that meets this challenge. The results from device testing are discussed. Each focal plane is composed of 4 square wafers (tiles), and each wafer contains 128 membrane-isolated, polarization-sensitive, antenna-coupled TES's. After processing, selected wafers are pre-screened in a quick-turn-around, cryogen-free, 3He fridge. The pre-screening is performed with a commercial resistance bridge and measures transition temperatures (Tc) and normal state resistances (Rn). After pre-screening, 4 tiles at a time are fully characterized in a testbed employing a SQUID readout and SQUID mulitplexing. The tests demonstrate the values of Tc, Rn, thermal conductance, g, and the standard deviations of each, across a wafer and from wafer to wafer, are within design specifications.

  8. SNAP focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  9. Study of the polarization dependence of the photoelectric effect in the soft X-ray band - A focal plane photoelectric stellar X-ray polarimeter for the Spectrum-X-Gamma mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, A.; Blaer, A.; Kaaret, P.; Novick, R.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study of the polarization dependence of the photoelectric effect in cesium iodide in the soft X-ray band was started (Heckler et al., 1989). At a grazing angle of 10 degrees and a photon energy of 2.6 keV, it is found that the photoelectric yield from a thin layer of evaporated cesium iodide varies by 12.4 percent as the polarization vector of the incident X-ray beam is rotated about the line-of-sight. The rotation angle corresponding to the maximum photoyield is displaced by 16 degrees from the normal to the photocathode. This modulation and phase shift are in good agreement with the results recently reported by Fraser, et al. (1989) It is shown that a focal plane stellar X-ray polarimeter based on this photoelectric effect will be substantially more efficient than convential X-ray polarimeters such as those based on either Bragg reflection or scattering from low atomic number targets.

  10. An All Silicon Feedhorn-Coupled Focal Plane for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubmayr, J.; Appel, J. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Crites, A. T.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Fox, A.; George, E. M.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Li, D.; Niemack, M. D.; Nibarger, J. P.; VanLanen, J.; Newburgh, L. B.; Parker, L. P.

    2011-01-01

    Upcoming experiments aim to produce high fidelity polarization maps of the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity, we are developing monolithic, feedhorn-coupled transition edge sensor polarimeter arrays operating at 150 GHz. We describe this focal plane architecture and the current status of this technology, focusing on single-pixel polarimeters being deployed on the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) and an 84-pixel demonstration feedhorn array backed by four 10-pixel polarimeter arrays. The feedhorn array exhibits symmetric beams, cross-polar response less than -23 dB and excellent uniformity across the array. Monolithic polarimeter arrays, including arrays of silicon feedhorns, will be used in the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) and the South Pole Telescope Polarimeter (SPTpol) and have been proposed for upcoming balloon-borne instruments.

  11. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  12. Smov Baseline Focal Plane Check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmozzi, Roberto

    1994-01-01

    This test will be executed during the period after the servicing mission and before the extension of the COSTAR assembly. Its purpose is to verify that the FOS, HRS, and FOC focal planes have not been altered by the activities performed by Story and the Astronauts during the servicing mission. A large unknown deviation in aperture position would severly impact subsequent COSTAR alignment activities. If this test reveals a deviation, we may be able to compensate for any offsets prior to the complex and delicate COSTAR alignment calibrations. This enhanced version of the Heptathlon is designed to verify course alignments and measure relative aperture positions to within a few arcsecs. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS: ***This test uses pre-servicing parameters for HRS, FOS, and FOC and the Cycle 4 parameters for WFPC2.*** ***This test requires special alignment and special guide stars.** ***This test requires special commanding for telemetry setups.**

  13. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  14. Digital scanner infrared focal plane technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, M. A.; Malone, N. R.; Harris, M.; Shin, J.; Byers, S.; Price, D.; Vampola, J.

    2011-09-01

    Advancements in finer geometry and technology advancements in circuit design now allow placement of digital architecture on cryogenic focal planes while using less power than heritage analog designs. These advances in technology reduce the size, weight, and power of modern focal planes. In addition, the interface to the focal plane is significantly simplified and is more immune to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI). The cost of the customer's instrument after integration with the digital scanning Focal Plane Array (FPA) has been significantly reduced by placing digital architecture such as Analog to digital convertors and Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) Inputs and Outputs (I/O) on the Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC).

  15. Imaging Polarimetry With Polarization-Sensitive Focal Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present a compact, lightweight, snapshot imaging polarimeter designed for operation in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR). Flux, polarization and spectral energy distribution are the fundamental measurements through which we infer properties of the sources of radiation such as intensity, temperature, chemical composition, emission mechanisms and structure. In recent decades, many scientific fields that utilize radiometry and spectroscopy have benefited from revolutionary improvements in instrumentation, for example, charge-coupled devices, hybridized infrared arrays, multi-object spectrometers and adaptive optics. Advances in polarimetric instrumentation have been more modest. Recently, the fabrication of microgrid polarizer arrays (MGPAs), facilitated the development of polarization-sensitive focal planes. These devices have inherent capability to measure the degree and angle of polarization across a scene (i.e., imaging polarimetry) instantaneously, without the need for multiple exposures and moving optics or multiple detectors. MGPA-based devices are compact, lightweight, and mechanically robust and perfectly suited for deployment on space-based and airborne platforms. We describe the design, operation and expected performance of MGPA-based imaging polarimeters and identify the applications for which these polarimeters are best suited.

  16. Mosaic focal plane for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N. C.

    1981-02-01

    The basic principles of star sensors are reviewed with reference to the advantages of replacing photodiodes, image dissectors, and vidicons with mosaic charge transfer device (CTD) focal planes. The desirable characteristics of CTD focal planes include: high uniformity, high transfer effect, low dark current, low hot and cold spots, low dead space, low angular misalignment, high coplanarity, and high thermal stability. An implementation of a mosaic CTD array star sensor which achieves high angular position accuracy and frequency attitude update is presented. Two focal plane packaging concepts, the planar and vertical board packagings, are examined.

  17. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    SciTech Connect

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  18. Integrated focal plane arrays for millimeter-wave astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, James J.; Goldin, Alexey; Hunt, Cynthia; Lange, Andrew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2002-02-01

    We are developing focal plane arrays of bolometric detectors for sub-millimeter and millimeter-wave astrophysics. We propose a flexible array architecture using arrays of slot antennae coupled via low-loss superconducting Nb transmission line to microstrip filters and antenna-coupled bolometers. By combining imaging and filtering functions with transmission line, we are able to realize unique structures such as a multi-band polarimeter and a planar, dispersive spectrometer. Micro-strip bolometers have significantly smaller active volume than standard detectors with extended absorbers, and can realize higher sensitivity and speed of response. The integrated array has natural immunity to stray radiation or spectral leaks, and minimizes the suspended mass operating at 0.1-0.3 K. We also discuss future space-borne spectroscopy and polarimetry applications. .

  19. Solid-state curved focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Jones, Todd (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to curved focal plane arrays. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and method for making solid-state curved focal plane arrays from standard and high-purity devices that may be matched to a given optical system. There are two ways to make a curved focal plane arrays starting with the fully fabricated device. One way, is to thin the device and conform it to a curvature. A second way, is to back-illuminate a thick device without making a thinned membrane. The thick device is a special class of devices; for example devices fabricated with high purity silicon. One surface of the device (the non VLSI fabricated surface, also referred to as the back surface) can be polished to form a curved surface.

  20. Achromatic phase shifting focal plane masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Kevin

    The search for life on other worlds is an exciting scientific endeavor that could change the way we perceive our place in the universe. Thousands of extrasolar planets have been discovered using indirect detection techniques. One of the most promising methods for discovering new exoplanets and searching for life is direct imaging with a coronagraph. Exoplanet coronagraphy of Earth-like planets is a challenging task, but we have developed many of the tools necessary to make it feasible. The Phase-Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph is one of the highest-performing architectures for direct exoplanet imaging. With a complex phase-shifting focal plane mask, the PIAA Complex Mask Coronagraph (PIAACMC) can approach the theoretical performance limit for any direct detection technique. The architecture design is flexible enough to be applied to any arbitrary aperture shape, including segmented and obscured apertures. This is an important feature for compatibility with next-generation ground and space-based telescopes. PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks have been demonstrated in monochromatic light. An important next step for high-performance coronagraphy is the development of broadband phase-shifting focal plane masks. In this dissertation, we present an algorithm for designing the PIAA and PIAACMC focal plane masks to operate in broadband. We also demonstrate manufacturing of the focal plane masks, and show laboratory results. We use simulations to show the potential performance of the coronagraph system, and the use of wavefront control to correct for mask manufacturing errors. Given the laboratory results and simulations, we show new areas of exoplanet science that can potentially be explored using coronagraph technology. The main conclusion of this dissertation is that we now have the tools required to design and manufacture PIAA and PIAACMC achromatic focal plane masks. These tools can be applied to current and future telescope systems to enable new

  1. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  2. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  3. Dual band QWIP focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Choi, Kwong Kit (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) that provides two-color image sensing. Two different quantum wells are configured to absorb two different wavelengths. The QWIPs are arrayed in a focal plane array (FPA). The two-color QWIPs are selected for readout by selective electrical contact with the two different QWIPs or by the use of two different wavelength sensitive gratings.

  4. High speed multi focal plane optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for eliminating beamsplitter generated optical aberrations in a pupil concentric optical system providing a plurality of spatially separated images on different focal planes or surfaces is presented. The system employs a buried surface beamsplitter having spherically curved entrance and exit faces which are concentric to a system aperture stop with the entrance face being located in the path of a converging light beam directed there from an image forming objective element which is also concentric to the aperture stop.

  5. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  6. Integrated focal-plane array /IFPA/ approach to large-area infrared focal plane architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A modular approach to IFPA design is presented which makes it possible to obtain a high-density infrared focal plane amendable to parallel manufacturing techniques as well as to serial plane integration and test. The percent fill factor of the design is dependent on the dimension of the individual detectors; each submodule is manufactured from identical components. The technologies including cables, interconnects, multilayer interconnect structures, and subassembly test requirements, which have direct application to scanning as well as staring integrated focal plane arrays, are discussed.

  7. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  8. The Simbol-X Focal Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Simbol-X focal plane is designed to detect photons focused by the mirror in the 0.5 to 100 keV energy band. Composed of two detectors, it will measure the position, energy, and arrival time of each incoming X-ray. On top of it will be a collimator to shield all photons not coming from the mirror field of view. The whole system is surrounded by an active and passive shielding in order to ensure the required very low background.

  9. Error compensation research on the focal plane attitude measurement instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongfei; Zhang, Feifan; Zhai, Chao; Zhou, Zengxiang; Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Jianping

    2016-07-01

    The surface accuracy of astronomical telescope focal plate is a key indicator to precision stellar observation. Combined with the six DOF parallel focal plane attitude measurement instrument that had been already designed, space attitude error compensation of the attitude measurement instrument for the focal plane was studied in order to measure the deformation and surface shape of the focal plane in different space attitude accurately.

  10. Phase retrieval in the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaessler, W.; Peter, D.; Storz, C.

    Phase retrieval in the focal plane is a very appealing technique, which would simplify the optomechanics of an Adaptive Optics (AO) system a lot and could gain sensitivity under certain conditions. For conventional AO systems the limiting magnitude of the system does not depend on the diameter of the telescope, since any wave front sensor splits the light into sub-apertures, which are in number related to the telescope diameter. Having this in mind the phase retrieval technique looks promising as it breaks this paradigm in the diffraction limited case and thus yields some gain in limiting magnitude with larger telescope diameter. Until now this path was not followed deeply in astronomical AO systems, as the solution of the inversion is non unique and demands much higher calculation power as in conventional AO. This might change with state of the art computers. We give a short overview of some existing techniques and algorithms of focal plane AO and report results of other groups, which tested them in laboratory and on sky. To solve the drawback of the large computational demands and to increase the sensitivity we propose a bootstrapping process with dynamical binning.

  11. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  12. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  13. Stabilized dispersive focal plane systems for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roming, Peter W. A.; Bayless, Amanda J.; Beebe, Chip R.; Brooks, Mark J.; Davis, Michael W.; Klar, Robert A.; Roberts, John M.; Rose, Randall J.; Winters, Gregory S.

    2012-09-01

    As the costs of space missions continue to rise, the demand for compact, low mass, low-cost technologies that maintain high reliability and facilitate high performance is increasing. One such technology is the stabilized dispersive focal plane system (SDFPS). This technology provides image stabilization while simultaneously delivering spectroscopic or direct imaging functionality using only a single optical path and detector. Typical systems require multiple expensive optical trains and/or detectors, sometimes at the expense of photon throughput. The SDFPS is ideal for performing wide-field low-resolution space-based spectroscopic and direct-imaging surveys. In preparation for a suborbital flight, we have built and ground tested a prototype SDFPS that will concurrently eliminate unwanted image blurring due to the lack of adequate platform stability, while producing images in both spectroscopic and direct-imaging modes. We present the overall design, testing results, and potential scientific applications.

  14. ORFEUS focal plane instrumentation: The Berkeley spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Mark; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    A spectrograph for the ORFEUS mission that incorporates four varied line-space, spherically figured diffraction gratings was designed. The ORFEUS, a 1-m normal incidence telescope is equipped with 2 focal plane spectrographs. The Berkeley spectrograph was developed with an optimizing raytracing computer code. Each grating accepts the light from 20 percent of the aperture of the telescope primary mirror and has a unique set of characteristics to cover a sub-bandpass within the 390 to 1200 A spectral range. Two photon-counting detectors incorporating a time delay readout system are used to record the spectra from all four gratings simultaneously. The nominal design achieves a spectral resolution (FWHM) in excess of 5500 at all wavelengths within the bandpass. The resolution is limited primarily by the detector spatial resolution. The 1 sigma astigmatism of this design varies between 13 and 150 micrometer on the same focal surface. An independent, direct imaging system tracks the drift of the target within the spectrometer aperture and allows measurement of the misalignment between the telescope optical axis and that of the external star tracker. The resolution and astigmatism achievable with this design are superior to those of a standard Rowland spectrograph designed with the same constraints.

  15. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  16. HgCdTe hybrid focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, J. P.

    1984-09-01

    Second-generation IR systems, consisting of 2-D mosaics of IR detectors, have been under intense development for the last few years. One of the most successful architectures has been a HgCdTe hybrid focal plane array (FPA), using a Si charge-coupled device (CCD) readout chip interfaced to epitaxial HgCdTe. Detection is made by backside-illuminated photovoltaic detectors with high fill factors and quantum efficiency. The detectors are coupled into the CCD by In bumps which mass bond each detector in the mosaic to a CCD input. Advances have been made in uniform, large area HgCdTe detector material that can be grown with a bandgap from less than 0.1 eV to greater than 1 eV. CCD architectures have been developed with simple, linear inputs and dynamic ranges up to 80 dB. Hybrid FPAs are currently being tested in prototype imaging systems, for detecting thermal differences as well as reflected sunlight in the IR. In the 3-5μm region, these arrays have proven capable of noise-equivalent temperature differences as low as 0.01 K, acquired at a 400 Hz frame rate. In addition to improving current imaging systems, these area arrays allow new system concepts to be brought to fruition.

  17. Advanced dynamic pyroelectric focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglaub, Ricardo A. G.; Celinska, Jolanta B.; McWilliams, Christopher R.; Paz de Araujo, Carlos A.; Forbes, Timothy; Pankin, Jayson D.

    2010-04-01

    The pyroelectric effect has been characterized for single-pixel elements consisting of strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) ferroelectric material as the sensing elements. These pixels have been integrated into second-generation focal plane arrays. The constituent second-generation pixels include thermal insulating layers and an infrared absorber layer. The MEMS-less arrays are operated in active mode, a technique that eliminates radiation choppers found in other passive pyroelectric IR imagers. This paper addresses the results of precursor 2x2 to 14x14 second-generation arrays of SBT elements, the active detection mechanism, and the unique read-out, interrogation signal, and the synchronization electronics. The second-generation 14x14 pixels array was implemented to demonstrate the performance of an active pyroelectric array as a precursor to larger size arrays using different pixel dimensions. The active mode detection eliminates the use of a chopper, enables the dynamic partition of the array into pixel domains in which pixel sensitivity in the domains can be adjusted independently. This unique feature in IR detection can be applied to the simultaneous tracking of diverse contrast objects. In addition, by controlling the thickness of the absorber material the arrays can be optimized for maximum response at specified wavelengths by means of quarter-wavelength interferometry.

  18. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  19. Compact Focal Plane Assembly for Planetary Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari; Aslam, Shahid; Huang, Wei-Chung; Steptoe-Jackson, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    A compact radiometric focal plane assembly (FPA) has been designed in which the filters are individually co-registered over compact thermopile pixels. This allows for construction of an ultralightweight and compact radiometric instrument. The FPA also incorporates micromachined baffles in order to mitigate crosstalk and low-pass filter windows in order to eliminate high-frequency radiation. Compact metal mesh bandpass filters were fabricated for the far infrared (FIR) spectral range (17 to 100 microns), a game-changing technology for future planetary FIR instruments. This fabrication approach allows the dimensions of individual metal mesh filters to be tailored with better than 10- micron precision. In contrast, conventional compact filters employed in recent missions and in near-term instruments consist of large filter sheets manually cut into much smaller pieces, which is a much less precise and much more labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult process. Filter performance was validated by integrating them with thermopile arrays. Demonstration of the FPA will require the integration of two technologies. The first technology is compact, lightweight, robust against cryogenic thermal cycling, and radiation-hard micromachined bandpass filters. They consist of a copper mesh supported on a deep reactive ion-etched silicon frame. This design architecture is advantageous when constructing a lightweight and compact instrument because (1) the frame acts like a jig and facilitates filter integration with the FPA, (2) the frame can be designed so as to maximize the FPA field of view, (3) the frame can be simultaneously used as a baffle for mitigating crosstalk, and (4) micron-scale alignment features can be patterned so as to permit high-precision filter stacking and, consequently, increase the filter bandwidth and sharpen the out-of-band rolloff. The second technology consists of leveraging, from another project, compact and lightweight Bi0.87Sb0.13/Sb arrayed thermopiles

  20. Maximum bandwidth snapshot channeled imaging polarimeter with polarization gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaCasse, Charles F.; Redman, Brian J.; Kudenov, Michael W.; Craven, Julia M.

    2016-05-01

    Compact snapshot imaging polarimeters have been demonstrated in literature to provide Stokes parameter estimations for spatially varying scenes using polarization gratings. However, the demonstrated system does not employ aggressive modulation frequencies to take full advantage of the bandwidth available to the focal plane array. A snapshot imaging Stokes polarimeter is described and demonstrated through results. The simulation studies the challenges of using a maximum bandwidth configuration for a snapshot polarization grating based polarimeter, such as the fringe contrast attenuation that results from higher modulation frequencies. Similar simulation results are generated and compared for a microgrid polarimeter. Microgrid polarimeters are instruments where pixelated polarizers are superimposed onto a focal plan array, and this is another type of spatially modulated polarimeter, and the most common design uses a 2x2 super pixel of polarizers which maximally uses the available bandwidth of the focal plane array.

  1. Test chamber for low-background IR focal plane testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staller, Craig; Capps, Richard W.; Butler, Douglas; Moss, Nancy; Norwood, Wynn

    1989-01-01

    A unique and versatile vacuum chamber has been designed for JPL's IR Focal Plane Technology Group. This chamber is equipped with multiple ports for cryogen and electrical vacuum feedthroughs, pumping units, vacuum gages, sources, and detector camera heads. The design incorporates a liquid-nitrogen-cooled optical table and radiation shield for low-background IR detector testing. Focal planes can be tested at temperatures ranging from 300 K to that of liquid helium. This paper describes the design and construction of this low-background IR focal plane test chamber and discusses some of its distinctive features. An analysis of the test chamber's performance is also presented.

  2. On-sky performance evaluation and calibration of a polarization-sensitive focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran; Brock, Neal; West, Ray

    2016-07-01

    The advent of pixelated micropolarizer arrays (MPAs) has facilitated the development of polarization-sensitive focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and active pixel sensors (APSs), which are otherwise only able to measure the intensity of light. Polarization sensors based on MPAs are extremely compact, light-weight, mechanically robust devices with no moving parts, capable of measuring the degree and angle of polarization of light in a single snapshot. Furthermore, micropolarizer arrays based on wire grid polarizers (so called micro-grid polarizers) offer extremely broadband performance, across the optical and infrared regimes. These devices have potential for a wide array of commercial and research applications, where measurements of polarization can provide critical information, but where conventional polarimeters could be practically implemented. To date, the most successful commercial applications of these devices are 4D Technology's PhaseCam laser interferometers and PolarCam imaging polarimeters. Recently, MPA-based polarimeters have been identified as a potential solution for space-based telescopes, where the small size, snapshot capability and low power consumption (offered by these devices) are extremely desirable. In this work, we investigated the performance of MPA-based polarimeters designed for astronomical polarimetry using the Rochester Institute of Technology Polarization Imaging Camera (RITPIC). We deployed RITPIC on the 0.9 meter SMARTS telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and observed a variety of astronomical objects (calibration stars, variable stars, reflection nebulae and planetary nebulae). We use our observations to develop calibration procedures that are unique to these devices and provide an estimate for polarimetric precision that is achievable.

  3. Orion: The Largest Infrared Hybrid Focal Plane in Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Albert M.; Merrill, Michael; Ball, William J.; Henden, Arne A.; Vrba, Frederick J.; McCreight, Craig R.

    2003-03-01

    Orion is a program to develop a 2048x2048 infrared focal plane using InSb PV detectors. It is the natural follow-on to the successful Aladdin 1024x1024 program, which was the largest IR focal plane of the 90's. Although the pixels are somewhat smaller than Aladdin, the overall focal plane is over 50mm in size and for the present is the largest IR focal plane of the 21st century. The work is being done by Raytheon Infrared Operations (RIO but better known as SBRC) by many of the same people who created the Aladdin focal plane. The design is very similar to the successful Aladdin design with the addition of reference pixels to lower noise and drift effects in long integrations. So far we have made five focal plane modules with hybridized InSb detectors. In this paper we will discuss the unique design features of this device as well as present test data taken from these devices.

  4. Cryogenic focal plane flatness measurement with optical zone slope tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Jerry; Sirk, Martin; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Besuner, Robert W.; Hoff, Matthew; Perry, Paul; Heetderks, Henry D.; Bebek, Christopher J.; Levi, Michael E.

    2011-10-01

    We describe a non-contact optical measurement method used to determine the surface flatness of a cryogenic sensor array developed for the JDEM mission. Large focal planes envisioned for future visible to near infra-red astronomical large area point-source surveys such as JDEM, WFIRST, or EUCLID must operate at cryogenic temperatures while maintaining focal plane flatness within a few 10's of μm over half-meter scales. These constraints are imposed by sensitivity conditions that demand low noise observations from the sensors and the large-field, fast optical telescopes necessary to obtain the science yield. Verifying cryogenic focal plane flatness is challenging because μm level excursions need to be measured within and across many multi-cm sized sensors using no physical contact and while situated within a high-vacuum chamber. We have used an optical metrology Shack-Hartmann scheme to measure the 36x18 cm focal plane developed for the JDEM mission at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The focal plane holds a 4x8 array of CCDs and HgCdTe detectors. The flatness measurement scheme uses a telescope-fed micro-lens array that samples the focal plane to determine slope changes of individual sensor zones.

  5. Monolithically integrated HgCdTe focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicu, Silviu; Lee, Tae-Seok; Ashokan, Renganathan; Grein, Christoph H.; Boieriu, Paul; Chen, Y. P.; Dinan, John H.; Lianos, Dimitrios

    2003-12-01

    The cost and performance of hybrid HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays are constrained by the necessity of fabricating the detector arrays on a CdZnTe substrate. These substrates are expensive, fragile, are available only in small rectangular formats, and are not a good thermal expansion match to the silicon readout integrated circuit. We discuss in this paper an infrared sensor technology based on monolithically integrated infrared focal plane arrays that could replace the conventional hybrid focal plane array technology. We have investigated the critical issues related to the growth of HgCdTe on Si read-out integrated circuits and the fabrication of monolithic focal plane arrays: (1) the design of Si read-out integrated circuits and focal plane array layouts, (2) the low temperature cleaning of Si(001) wafers, (3) growth of CdTe and HgCdTe layers on read-out integrated circuits, (4) array fabrication, interconnection between focal plane array and read-out integrated circuit input nodes and demonstration of the photovoltaic operation, and (5) maintenance of the read-out integrated circuit characteristics after substrate cleaning, molecular beam epitaxy growth and device fabrication. Crystallographic, optical and electrical properties of the grown layers are presented. Electrical properties for diodes fabricated on misoriented Si and read-out integrated circuit substrates are discussed. The fabrication of arrays with demonstrated I-V properties show that monolithic integration of HgCdTe-based infrared focal plane arrays on Si read-out integrated circuits is feasible and could be implemented in the 3rd generation of infrared systems.

  6. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-08-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.

  7. Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    AD-A276 963 1111111111 I NAWCWPNS TP 8185 Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays OTIC by ELECTE Dr. Gary Hewer MAR 151994 and...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED IFebruary 1994 Final; 199 ,L TTLE ND SBTILE LFUNDNG UBER Wavelet Transform of Fixed Pattern Noise in Focal Plane Arrays...nonlinearity 71,(w) = sgn(w)(IwI-t). with threshold t to each empirical sample value w in the wavelet transform d scales. After thresholding the wavelet

  8. Design study of the accessible focal plane telescope for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and cost analysis of an accessible focal plane telescope for Spacelab is presented in blueprints, tables, and graphs. Topics covered include the telescope tube, the telescope mounting, the airlock plus Spacelab module aft plate, the instrument adapter, and the instrument package. The system allows access to the image plane with instrumentation that can be operated by a scientist in a shirt sleeve environment inside a Spacelab module.

  9. Prototype focal plane assembly for multispectral remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.L.; Vampola, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing. A prototype multispectral sensor system is under development. The three major subsystems making up the prototype sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {mu}m to 10.7 {mu}m. All the linear arrays are mounted on a single motherboard and are designed to operate at 75 K. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 16.4 megapixels per second. The diverse requirements for the focal plane assembly make this a challenging, sensor to design and build.

  10. Quantum-Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Ewin, Audrey J.; Hess, Larry A.; Hartmann, Thomas M.; La, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), a QWIP-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 microns. The focal plane will contain three 640x512 QWIP arrays mounted on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is a custom-fabricated carrier board with a single layer of aluminum interconnects. The general fabrication process starts with a 4-in. (approx.10-cm) diameter silicon wafer. The wafer is oxidized, a single substrate contact is etched, and aluminum is deposited, patterned, and alloyed. This technology development is aimed at incorporating three large-format infrared detecting arrays based on GaAs QWIP technology onto a common focal plane with precision alignment of all three arrays. This focal plane must survive the rigors of flight qualification and operate at a temperature of 43 K (-230 C) for five years while orbiting the Earth. The challenges presented include ensuring thermal compatibility among all the components, designing and building a compact, somewhat modular system and ensuring alignment to very tight levels. The multi-array focal plane integrated onto a single silicon substrate is a new application of both QWIP array development and silicon wafer scale integration. The Invar-based assembly has been tested to ensure thermal reliability.

  11. Multispectral Focal Plane Assembly for Satellite Remote Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Rienstra, J.; Ballard, M.

    1997-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories and several subsystem contractors are developing technologies applicable to multispectral remote sensing from space. A proof of concept multispectral sensor system is under development. The objective of building this sensor is to demonstrate and evaluate multispectral imaging technologies for various applications. The three major subsystems making up the sensor are the focal plane assembly (FPA), the cryocooler, and the telescope. This paper covers the focal plane assembly, which is the basis of the sensor system. The focal plane assembly includes sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure with cold shielding. Linear detector arrays provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for a pushbroom imager configuration. The optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 microns to 10.7 microns. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. No beam splitters are used. The four spectral bands covering the visible to near infrared have roughly 2400 pixels each, and the remaining 11 spectral bands have roughly 600 pixels each. The average total rate of multispectral data from the FPA is approximately 15.4 megapixels per second. At the time this paper is being written, the multispectral focal plane assembly is in the fabrication phase. A thermal/mechanical mockup has been built and tested for the vibration environment and to determine the thermal load. Some of the sensor chip assemblies and filters have been built and tested. Several notable features of the design are covered in the paper as well as preliminary test data.

  12. Signal processing on the focal plane array: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Roger W.; Trautfield, Walter C.; Taylor, Scott M.; Murray, Mark P.; Mesh, Frank J.; Horn, Stuart B.; Finch, James A.; Dang, Khoa V.; Caulfield, John T.

    2000-12-01

    Raytheon's Infrared Operations (RIO) has invented and developed a new class of focal plane arrays; the Adaptive IR Sensor (AIRS) and Thinfilm Analog Image Processor (TAIP). The AIRS FPA is based upon biologically inspired on-focal- plane circuitry, which adaptively removes detector and optic temperature drift and l/f induced fixed pattern noise. This third-generation multimode IRFPA, also called a Smart FPA, is a 256x256-array format capable of operation in four modes: 1) Direct Injection (DI), 2) Adaptive Non-uniformity Correction (NUC), 3) Motion/Edge Detection, and 4) Subframe Averaging. Also the 320x240 TAIP results have shown excellent image processing in the form of Spatial and Temporal processing.

  13. Uncooled infrared focal plane array imaging in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuyu

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the development of uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIFPA) imaging in China in the past decade. Sensors based on optical or electrical read-out mechanism were developed but the latter dominates the market. In resistive bolometers, VOx and amorphous silicon are still the two major thermal-sensing materials. The specifications of the IRFPA made by different manufactures were collected and compared. Currently more than five Chinese companies and institutions design and fabricate uncooled infrared focal plane array. Some devices have sensitivity as high as 30 mK; the largest array for commercial products is 640×512 and the smallest pixel size is 17 μm. Emphasis is given on the pixel MEMS design, ROIC design, fabrication, and packaging of the IRFPA manufactured by GWIC, especially on design for high sensitivities, low noise, better uniformity and linearity, better stabilization for whole working temperature range, full-digital design, etc.

  14. Precise annealing of focal plane arrays for optical detection

    DOEpatents

    Bender, Daniel A.

    2015-09-22

    Precise annealing of identified defective regions of a Focal Plane Array ("FPA") (e.g., exclusive of non-defective regions of the FPA) facilitates removal of defects from an FPA that has been hybridized and/or packaged with readout electronics. Radiation is optionally applied under operating conditions, such as under cryogenic temperatures, such that performance of an FPA can be evaluated before, during, and after annealing without requiring thermal cycling.

  15. SIRTF Focal Plane Survey: A Pre-flight Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios; Kang, Bryan H.

    2003-01-01

    This report contains a pre-flight error analysis of the calibration accuracies expected from implementing the currently planned SIRTF focal plane survey strategy. The main purpose of this study is to verify that the planned strategy will meet focal plane survey calibration requirements (as put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [4]), and to quantify the actual accuracies expected. The error analysis was performed by running the Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter on a complete set of simulated IOC-SV survey data, and studying the resulting propagated covariances. The main conclusion of this study is that the all focal plane calibration requirements can be met with the currently planned survey strategy. The associated margins range from 3 to 95 percent, and tend to be smallest for frames having a 0.14" requirement, and largest for frames having a more generous 0.28" (or larger) requirement. The smallest margin of 3 percent is associated with the IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 micron array centers (frames 068 and 069), and the largest margin of 95 percent is associated with the MIPS 160 micron array center (frame 087). For pointing purposes, the most critical calibrations are for the IRS Peakup sweet spots and short wavelength slit centers (frames 019, 023, 052, 028, 034). Results show that these frames are meeting their 0.14" requirements with an expected accuracy of approximately 0.1", which corresponds to a 28 percent margin.

  16. On-chip ADC for infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Chen, Guo-qiang; Wang, Pan; Ding, Rui-jun

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a low power and small area analog-digital converter (ADC) for infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA) readout integrated circuit (ROIC). Successive approximation register (SAR) ADC architecture is used in this IRFPA readout integrated circuit. Each column of the IRFPA shares one SAR ADC. The most important part is the three-level DAC. Compared to the previous design, this three-level DAC needs smaller area, has lower power, and more suitable for IRFPA ROIC. In this DAC, its most significant bit (MSB) sub-DAC uses charge scaling, while the least significant bit (LSB) sub-DAC uses voltage scaling. Where the MSB sub-DAC consists of a four-bit charge scaling DAC and a five-bit sub-charge scaling DAC. We need to put a scaling capacitor Cs between these two sub-DACs. Because of the small area, we have more design methods to make the ADC has a symmetrical structure and has higher accuracy. The ADC also needs a high resolution comparator. In this design the comparator uses three-stage operational amplifier structure to have a 77dB differential gain. As the IR focal plane readout circuit signal is stepped DC signal, the circuit design time without adding the sample and hold circuit, so we can use a DC signal instead of infrared focal plane readout circuit output analog signals to be simulated. The simulation result shows that the resolution of the ADC is 12 bit.

  17. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  18. Out-of-plane Stokes imaging polarimeter for early skin cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Lemaillet, Paul; Germer, Thomas A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Venna, Suraj S.; Boisvert, Marc E.; Flanagan, Katherine E.; Jordan, Marion H.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-07-01

    Optimal treatment of skin cancer before it metastasizes critically depends on early diagnosis and treatment. Imaging spectroscopy and polarized remittance have been utilized in the past for diagnostic purposes, but valuable information can be also obtained from the analysis of skin roughness. For this purpose, we have developed an out-of-plane hemispherical Stokes imaging polarimeter designed to monitor potential skin neoplasia based on a roughness assessment of the epidermis. The system was utilized to study the rough surface scattering for wax samples and human skin. The scattering by rough skin--simulating phantoms showed behavior that is reasonably described by a facet scattering model. Clinical tests were conducted on patients grouped as follows: benign nevi, melanocytic nevus, melanoma, and normal skin. Images were captured and analyzed, and polarization properties are presented in terms of the principal angle of the polarization ellipse and the degree of polarization. In the former case, there is separation between different groups of patients for some incidence azimuth angles. In the latter, separation between different skin samples for various incidence azimuth angles is observed.

  19. Kalman Filter for Calibrating a Telescope Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Bryan; Bayard, David

    2006-01-01

    The instrument-pointing frame (IPF) Kalman filter, and an algorithm that implements this filter, have been devised for calibrating the focal plane of a telescope. As used here, calibration signifies, more specifically, a combination of measurements and calculations directed toward ensuring accuracy in aiming the telescope and determining the locations of objects imaged in various arrays of photodetectors in instruments located on the focal plane. The IPF Kalman filter was originally intended for application to a spaceborne infrared astronomical telescope, but can also be applied to other spaceborne and ground-based telescopes. In the traditional approach to calibration of a telescope, (1) one team of experts concentrates on estimating parameters (e.g., pointing alignments and gyroscope drifts) that are classified as being of primarily an engineering nature, (2) another team of experts concentrates on estimating calibration parameters (e.g., plate scales and optical distortions) that are classified as being primarily of a scientific nature, and (3) the two teams repeatedly exchange data in an iterative process in which each team refines its estimates with the help of the data provided by the other team. This iterative process is inefficient and uneconomical because it is time-consuming and entails the maintenance of two survey teams and the development of computer programs specific to the requirements of each team. Moreover, theoretical analysis reveals that the engineering/ science iterative approach is not optimal in that it does not yield the best estimates of focal-plane parameters and, depending on the application, may not even enable convergence toward a set of estimates.

  20. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  1. Focal plane detectors possible detector technologies for OWL/AIRWATCH

    SciTech Connect

    Flyckt, Esso

    1998-06-15

    New satellite-born projects OWL and AIRWATCH will need single-photon focal-plane detectors of a million pixels in a design which is optimized to the focusing optics and electronics at acceptable cost. We discuss different phototube possibilities and their pros and cons with crude cost estimates. We conclude that a multichannel-photomultiplier solution is safe. A better compromise may be to adapt a 6 or 9 inch X-ray image intensifier tube or develop a 12 inch image intensifier for detecting individual photons, and adapt the optics to have many mirror modules. The possibility of developing super-large-area phototubes is also discussed.

  2. Analysis and modeling for thermal focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuer, T. W.; Ball, B. W.; Freeling, J. R.; Lennington, J. W.; Lindquist, G. H.

    1984-07-01

    The development of a first principles computer simulation of a generic pyroelectric thermal detector is described. Formulation of the pertinent equations (based on a thorough literature survey) is presented. This simulation incorporates a finite difference treatment of the transient three-dimensional thermal response of composite focal plane arrays, with treatments of the signal generation, readout and processing including all pertinent noise sources. A number of simplified problems having analytical solutions were treated to validate various portions of the simulation to within a few percent. Performance estimates were made for conceptual several configurations and materials.

  3. Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, B. J.; Mccafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

  4. Continuing developments in biologically inspired smart focal plane concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Wehling, Martin F.; Massie, Mark A.

    1995-05-01

    The Neuromorphic IR FPA Sensor developed by Amber Engineering, Inc., Goleta, CA for the Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate's Advanced Guidance Division, performs a Difference of Gaussians filtering function, similar to what occurs in the outer plexiform layer of the primate retinal system. This function requires a computationally intensive (digital-wise) spatial-temporal data smoothing operation, which is executed on the focal plane, at the seeker frame rate, while the image data is still in the analog domain. Implementation of analog operation provides great flexibility, not only in terms of the speed and power dissipation advantages, but also with the interface of other processes to the analog system. The fact that the human visual system is essentially based upon analog techniques helps to emphasize the point; nature has invested millions of years in the development of sensors and processing `wetware' which are highly tuned to their environment. Our goal is to take further advantage of the lessons which nature can teach us, and advance the state of the art in imaging detection and tracking by taking the next step to develop neuromorphic/corticomorphic focal plane devices. This paper will discuss some of the concepts the authors have been investigation in formulating advanced `smart' FPAs for future guided missile seeker applications.

  5. Antenna coupled detectors for 2D staring focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritz, Michael A.; Kolasa, Borys; Lail, Brian; Burkholder, Robert; Chen, Leonard

    2013-06-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmW)/sub-mmW/THz region of the electro-magnetic spectrum enables imaging thru clothing and other obscurants such as fog, clouds, smoke, sand, and dust. Therefore considerable interest exists in developing low cost millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) systems. Previous MMWI systems have evolved from crude mechanically scanned, single element receiver systems into very complex multiple receiver camera systems. Initial systems required many expensive mmW integrated-circuit low-noise amplifiers. In order to reduce the cost and complexity of the existing systems, attempts have been made to develop new mmW imaging sensors employing direct detection arrays. In this paper, we report on Raytheon's recent development of a unique focal plane array technology, which operates broadly from the mmW through the sub-mmW/THz region. Raytheon's innovative nano-antenna based detector enables low cost production of 2D staring mmW focal plane arrays (mmW FPA), which not only have equivalent sensitivity and performance to existing MMWI systems, but require no mechanical scanning.

  6. Curved-Focal-Plane Arrays Using Deformed-Membrane Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Jones, Todd

    2004-01-01

    A versatile and simple approach to the design and fabrication of curved-focal-plane arrays of silicon-based photodetectors is being developed. This approach is an alternative to the one described in "Curved Focal-Plane Arrays Using Back- Illuminated High-Purity Photodetectors" (NPO-30566), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 10a. As in the cited prior article, the basic idea is to improve the performance of an imaging instrument and simplify the optics needed to obtain a given level of performance by making an image sensor (in this case, an array of photodetectors) conform to a curved focal surface, instead of designing the optics to project an image onto a flat focal surface. There is biological precedent for curved-focal-surface designs: retinas - the image sensors in eyes - conform to the naturally curved focal surfaces of eye lenses. The present approach is applicable to both front-side- and back-side-illuminated, membrane photodetector arrays and is being demonstrated on charge-coupled devices (CCDs). The very-large scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry of such a CCD or other array is fabricated on the front side of a silicon substrate, then the CCD substrate is attached temporarily to a second substrate for mechanical support, then material is removed from the back to obtain the CCD membrane, which typically has a thickness between 10 and 20 m. In the case of a CCD designed to operate in back-surface illumination, delta doping can be performed after thinning to enhance the sensitivity. This approach is independent of the design and method of fabrication of the front-side VLSI circuitry and does not involve any processing of a curved silicon substrate. In this approach, a third substrate would be prepared by polishing one of its surfaces to a required focal-surface curvature. A CCD membrane fabricated as described above would be pressed against, deformed into conformity with, and bonded to, the curved surface. The technique used to press and

  7. UV photodetectors, focal plane arrays, and avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, Ryan

    2007-12-01

    The study of III-Nitride based optoelectronics devices is a maturing field, but there are still many underdeveloped areas in which to make a contribution of new and original research. This work specifically targets the goals of realizing high-efficiency back-illuminated solar-blind photodetectors, solar-blind focal plane arrays, and visible- and solar-blind Avalanche photodiodes. Achieving these goals has required systematic development of the material growth and characterization, device modeling and design, device fabrication and processing, and the device testing and qualification. This work describes the research conducted and presents relevant devices results. The AlGaN material system has a tunable direct bandgap that is ideally suited to detection of ultraviolet light, however this material system suffers from several key issues, making realization of high-efficiency photodetectors difficult: large dislocation densities, low n-type and p-type doping efficiency, and lattice and thermal expansion mismatches leading to cracking of the material. All of these problems are exacerbated by the increased aluminum compositions necessary in back-illuminated and solar-blind devices. Overcoming these obstacles has required extensive development and optimization of the material growth techniques necessary: this includes everything from the growth of the buffer and template, to the growth of the active region. The broad area devices realized in this work demonstrate a quantum efficiency that is among the highest ever reported for a back-illuminated solar-blind photodetector (responsivity of 157 mA/W at 280nm, external quantum efficiency of 68%). Taking advantage of the back illuminated nature of these detectors, we have successfully developed the technology to hybridize and test a solar-blind focal plane array camera. The initial focal plane array shows good uniformity and reasonable operability, and several images from this first camera are presented. However, in order to

  8. Blocked impurity band hybrid infrared focal plane arrays for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Seib, D. H.; Stetson, S. B.; Herter, T.; Rowlands, N.

    1989-01-01

    High-performance infrared hybrid focal plane arrays using 10- x 50-element Si:As blocked-impurity-band (BIB) detectors (cutoff wavelength = 28 microns) and matching switched MOSFET multiplexers have been developed and characterized for space astronomy. Use of impurity-band-conduction technology provides detectors which are nuclear-radiation-hard and free of the many anomalies associated with conventional silicon photoconductive detectors. Emphasis in the present work is on recent advances in detector material quality which have led to significantly improved detector and hybrid characteristics. Results demonstrating increased quantum efficiency (particularly at short-wavelength infrared), obtained by varying the BIB detector properties (infrared active layer thickness and arsenic doping profile), are summarized. Measured read noise and dark current for different temperatures are reported. The hybrid array performance achieved demonstrates that BIB detectors are well suited for use in astronomical instrumentation.

  9. Robust Approach for Nonuniformity Correction in Infrared Focal Plane Array

    PubMed Central

    Boutemedjet, Ayoub; Deng, Chenwei; Zhao, Baojun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new scene-based nonuniformity correction technique for infrared focal plane arrays. Our work is based on the use of two well-known scene-based methods, namely, adaptive and interframe registration-based exploiting pure translation motion model between frames. The two approaches have their benefits and drawbacks, which make them extremely effective in certain conditions and not adapted for others. Following on that, we developed a method robust to various conditions, which may slow or affect the correction process by elaborating a decision criterion that adapts the process to the most effective technique to ensure fast and reliable correction. In addition to that, problems such as bad pixels and ghosting artifacts are also dealt with to enhance the overall quality of the correction. The performance of the proposed technique is investigated and compared to the two state-of-the-art techniques cited above. PMID:27834893

  10. Planck 2015 results. XII. Full focal plane simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Castex, G.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dolag, K.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A. A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J. E.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Karakci, A.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P. R.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Roman, M.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Wehus, I. K.; Welikala, N.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2016-09-01

    We present the 8th full focal plane simulation set (FFP8), deployed in support of the Planck 2015 results. FFP8 consists of 10 fiducial mission realizations reduced to 18 144 maps, together with the most massive suite of Monte Carlo realizations of instrument noise and CMB ever generated, comprising 104 mission realizations reduced to about 106 maps. The resulting maps incorporate the dominant instrumental, scanning, and data analysis effects, and the remaining subdominant effects will be included in future updates. Generated at a cost of some 25 million CPU-hours spread across multiple high-performance-computing (HPC) platforms, FFP8 is used to validate and verify analysis algorithms and their implementations, and to remove biases from and quantify uncertainties in the results of analyses of the real data.

  11. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  12. Characteristics of stereo images from detectors in focal plane array.

    PubMed

    Son, Jung-Young; Yeom, Seokwon; Chun, Joo-Hwan; Guschin, Vladmir P; Lee, Dong-Su

    2011-07-01

    The equivalent ray geometry of two horizontally aligned detectors at the focal plane of the main antenna in a millimeter wave imaging system is analyzed to reveal the reason why the images from the detectors are fused as an image with a depth sense. Scanning the main antenna in both horizontal and vertical directions makes each detector perform as a camera, and the two detectors can work like a stereo camera in the millimeter wave range. However, the stereo camera geometry is different from that of the stereo camera used in the visual spectral range because the detectors' viewing directions are diverging to each other and they are a certain distance apart. The depth sense is mainly induced by the distance between detectors. The images obtained from the detectors in the millimeter imaging system are perceived with a good depth sense. The disparities responsible for the depth sense are identified in the images.

  13. Strained layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K; Carroll, Malcolm S; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F; Young, Erik W; Cich, Michael J

    2012-10-23

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  14. Integration of IR focal plane arrays with massively parallel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfandiari, P.; Koskey, P.; Vaccaro, K.; Buchwald, W.; Clark, F.; Krejca, B.; Rekeczky, C.; Zarandy, A.

    2008-04-01

    The intent of this investigation is to replace the low fill factor visible sensor of a Cellular Neural Network (CNN) processor with an InGaAs Focal Plane Array (FPA) using both bump bonding and epitaxial layer transfer techniques for use in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) interceptor seekers. The goal is to fabricate a massively parallel digital processor with a local as well as a global interconnect architecture. Currently, this unique CNN processor is capable of processing a target scene in excess of 10,000 frames per second with its visible sensor. What makes the CNN processor so unique is that each processing element includes memory, local data storage, local and global communication devices and a visible sensor supported by a programmable analog or digital computer program.

  15. Fast speed MWIR imager for uncooled focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Liu

    2007-12-01

    Recent advances of uncooled detector technology especially the development of uncooled micro-bolometer array hold promise for us to develop low-cost and compact MWIR earth observation imager. For comparative lower radiometric performance of uncooled focal plane array, fast speed optical system operating in large spectral bands is compatible. In addition, in order to exhibit advantages over imagers based on cooled detector technology, the optical system should be as compact as possible which means fewer elements, smaller size and light weight. In this article, a high speed optical design meeting these requirement is provided with 100mm focal length, F/1 F number,+/-2.5°field of view woking in 3-5um wave band. The fast speed MWIR imager has properties mentioned as follows: First, the optical system utilizes a hybrid system including refractive and diffractive elements. Second, the optical system realizes athermalization in simple passive way through distributing power among the refractive elements. It can work under typical temperature scope from -20°C to 60°C for typical space application. Third, Because of high speed aperture, the design makes use of aspheric surface to correct spherical aberration and spherochromatism .Finally, we use Ge and Si material. instead of expensive ZnS material.

  16. Kalman filtering techniques for focal plane electric field estimation.

    PubMed

    Groff, Tyler D; Jeremy Kasdin, N

    2013-01-01

    For a coronagraph to detect faint exoplanets, it will require focal plane wavefront control techniques to continue reaching smaller angular separations and higher contrast levels. These correction algorithms are iterative and the control methods need an estimate of the electric field at the science camera, which requires nearly all of the images taken for the correction. The best way to make such algorithms the least disruptive to science exposures is to reduce the number required to estimate the field. We demonstrate a Kalman filter estimator that uses prior knowledge to create the estimate of the electric field, dramatically reducing the number of exposures required to estimate the image plane electric field while stabilizing the suppression against poor signal-to-noise. In addition to a significant reduction in exposures, we discuss the relative merit of this algorithm to estimation schemes that do not incorporate prior state estimate history, particularly in regard to estimate error and covariance. Ultimately the filter will lead to an adaptive algorithm which can estimate physical parameters in the laboratory for robustness to variance in the optical train.

  17. Spitzer Space Telescope: Focal Plane Survey Final Report. Appendix B:; IRAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, Dhemetrios

    2004-01-01

    This final report summarizes the results and accuracies of the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane survey. Accuracies achieved are compared to the focal plane survey calibration requirements put forth in the SIRTF IOC-SV Mission Plan [14] and pre-flight predictions made in [2]. The results of this focal plane survey are presently being used to support in-flight precision pointing, precision incremental offsets, IRS peakup array calibration, and ground pointing reconstruction...

  18. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dunner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe approx.70% of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at approx.10Hz to suppress the 1/f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  19. Advancement in 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Skidmore, George; Howard, Christopher; Clarke, Elwood; Han, C. J.

    2009-05-01

    This paper provides an update of 17 micron pixel pitch uncooled microbolometer development at DRS. Since the introduction of 17 micron pitch 640x480 focal plane arrays (FPAs) in 2006, significant progress has been made in sensor performance and manufacturing processes. The FPAs are now in initial production with an FPA noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), detector thermal time constant, and pixel operability equivalent or better than that of the current 25 micron pixel pitch production FPAs. NETD improvement was achieved without compromising detector thermal response or thermal time constant by simultaneous reduction in bolometer heat capacity and thermal conductance. In addition, the DRS unique "umbrella" microbolometer cavities were optically tuned to optimize detector radiation absorption for specific spectral band applications. The 17 micron pixel pitch FPAs are currently being considered for the next generation soldier systems such as thermal weapon sights (TWS), vehicle driver vision enhancers (DVE), digitally fused enhanced night vision goggles (DENVG) and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) surveillance sensors, because of overall thermal imaging system size, weight and power advantages.

  20. Performance overview of the Euclid infrared focal plane detector subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waczynski, A.; Barbier, R.; Cagiano, S.; Chen, J.; Cheung, S.; Cho, H.; Cillis, A.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawson, O.; Delo, G.; Farris, M.; Feizi, A.; Foltz, R.; Hickey, M.; Holmes, W.; Hwang, T.; Israelsson, U.; Jhabvala, M.; Kahle, D.; Kan, Em.; Kan, Er.; Loose, M.; Lotkin, G.; Miko, L.; Nguyen, L.; Piquette, E.; Powers, T.; Pravdo, S.; Runkle, A.; Seiffert, M.; Strada, P.; Tucker, C.; Turck, K.; Wang, F.; Weber, C.; Williams, J.

    2016-07-01

    In support of the European space agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne imaging systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the detector characterization laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard space flight center (GSFC) in close collaboration with engineers and scientists from the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) and the Euclid project. The Euclid near infrared spectrometer and imaging photometer (NISP) will perform large area optical and spectroscopic sky surveys in the 0.9-2.02 μm infrared (IR) region. The NISP instrument will contain sixteen detector arrays each coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The focal plane will operate at 100K and the SIDECAR ASIC will be in close proximity operating at a slightly higher temperature of 137K. This paper will describe the test configuration, performance tests and results of the latest engineering run, also known as pilot run 3 (PR3), consisting of four H2RG detectors operating simultaneously. Performance data will be presented on; noise, spectral quantum efficiency, dark current, persistence, pixel yield, pixel to pixel uniformity, linearity, inter pixel crosstalk, full well and dynamic range, power dissipation, thermal response and unit cell input sensitivity.

  1. Stress analysis of the space telescope focal plane structure joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shoemaker, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two major efforts were begun concerning the Space Telescope focal plane structure joint. The 3-D solid finite element modeling of the bipod flexure plate was carried out. Conceptual models were developed for the load transfer through the three major bolts to the flexure plate. The flexure plate drawings were reconstructed using DADAM for the purpose of developing a file from which the coordinates of any point on the flexure plate could be determined and also to locate the attachment points of the various components which connect with the flexure plate. For modeling convenience the CADAM drawing of the flexure plate has been divided into several regions which will be subdivided into finite elements using MSGMESH, which is a finite element mesh generator available with MSC/NASTRAN. In addition to the CADAM work on the flexure plate, an effort was also begun to develop computer aided drawings of the peripheral beam which will be used to assist in modeling the connection between it and the flexure plate.

  2. Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) Focal Plane Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J.; Bennett, C. L.; Colazo, F.; Denis, K. L.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Eimer, J.; Fluxa, P.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Iuliano, J.; Marriage, T. A.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Mumby, G.; Petroff, M.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; U-Yen, K.; Watts, D.; Wagner, E.; Wollack, E. J.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background to search for and characterize the polarized signature of inflation. CLASS will operate from the Atacama Desert and observe ˜ 70 % of the sky. A variable-delay polarization modulator provides modulation of the polarization at ˜ 10 Hz to suppress the 1/ f noise of the atmosphere and enable the measurement of the large angular scale polarization modes. The measurement of the inflationary signal across angular scales that spans both the recombination and reionization features allows a test of the predicted shape of the polarized angular power spectra in addition to a measurement of the energy scale of inflation. CLASS is an array of telescopes covering frequencies of 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. These frequencies straddle the foreground minimum and thus allow the extraction of foregrounds from the primordial signal. Each focal plane contains feedhorn-coupled transition-edge sensors that simultaneously detect two orthogonal linear polarizations. The use of single-crystal silicon as the dielectric for the on-chip transmission lines enables both high efficiency and uniformity in fabrication. Integrated band definition has been implemented that both controls the bandpass of the single-mode transmission on the chip and prevents stray light from coupling to the detectors.

  3. Focal plane mechanical design of the NISP/Euclid instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoi, Anne; Bon, William; Niclas, Mathieu; Solheim, Bjarte G. B.; Torvanger, Oyvind; Schistad, Robert; Foulon, Benjamin; Garcia, José; Vives, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    Currently in phase C, the Euclid mission selected by ESA in the Cosmic Vision program is dedicated to understand dark energy and dark matter. NISP (standing for Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer) is one of the two instruments of the mission. NISP will combine a photometer and a spectrometer working in the near-IR (0.9-2 microns). Its detection subsystem (called NI-DS) is based on a mosaic of 16 IR detectors cooled down to 90K which are supported by a molybdenum plate. The front-end readout electronics (working at 130K) are supported by another structure in Aluminum. The NI-DS is mounted on the rest of the instrument thanks to a panel in Silicon Carbide (SiC). Finally an optical baffle in Titanium will prevent the rogue light to reach the detectors. On top of the complexity due to the wide range of temperatures and the various materials imposed at the interfaces; the NI-DS has also to incorporate an internal adjustment capability of the position of the focal plane in tip/tilt and focus. This article will present current status of the development of the detection system of NISP.

  4. FOCAL PLANE WAVEFRONT SENSING USING RESIDUAL ADAPTIVE OPTICS SPECKLES

    SciTech Connect

    Codona, Johanan L.; Kenworthy, Matthew

    2013-04-20

    Optical imperfections, misalignments, aberrations, and even dust can significantly limit sensitivity in high-contrast imaging systems such as coronagraphs. An upstream deformable mirror (DM) in the pupil can be used to correct or compensate for these flaws, either to enhance the Strehl ratio or suppress the residual coronagraphic halo. Measurement of the phase and amplitude of the starlight halo at the science camera is essential for determining the DM shape that compensates for any non-common-path (NCP) wavefront errors. Using DM displacement ripples to create a series of probe and anti-halo speckles in the focal plane has been proposed for space-based coronagraphs and successfully demonstrated in the lab. We present the theory and first on-sky demonstration of a technique to measure the complex halo using the rapidly changing residual atmospheric speckles at the 6.5 m MMT telescope using the Clio mid-IR camera. The AO system's wavefront sensor measurements are used to estimate the residual wavefront, allowing us to approximately compute the rapidly evolving phase and amplitude of speckle halo. When combined with relatively short, synchronized science camera images, the complex speckle estimates can be used to interferometrically analyze the images, leading to an estimate of the static diffraction halo with NCP effects included. In an operational system, this information could be collected continuously and used to iteratively correct quasi-static NCP errors or suppress imperfect coronagraphic halos.

  5. A CMOS Imager with Focal Plane Compression using Predictive Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Balkir, Sina; Sayood, Khalid; Schemm, Nathan; Hoffman, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS image sensor with focal-plane compression. The design has a column-level architecture and it is based on predictive coding techniques for image decorrelation. The prediction operations are performed in the analog domain to avoid quantization noise and to decrease the area complexity of the circuit, The prediction residuals are quantized and encoded by a joint quantizer/coder circuit. To save area resources, the joint quantizerlcoder circuit exploits common circuitry between a single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and a Golomb-Rice entropy coder. This combination of ADC and encoder allows the integration of the entropy coder at the column level. A prototype chip was fabricated in a 0.35 pm CMOS process. The output of the chip is a compressed bit stream. The test chip occupies a silicon area of 2.60 mm x 5.96 mm which includes an 80 X 44 APS array. Tests of the fabricated chip demonstrate the validity of the design.

  6. The Focal Plane Package of the Solar Optical telescope on Solar B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2006-06-01

    The Solar-B satellite will be launched into a full-sun low-earth orbit in the fall of 2006 from Japan's Uchinoura Space center. It includes the 50-cm diameter Solar Optical Telescope with its Focal Plane Package (FPP), for near-UV and visible observations of the photosphere and chromosphere at very high (diffraction limited) angular resolution. The FPP has a Spectro-Polarimeter (SP) for precision measurements of photospheric vector magnetic fields over a 160 x 320 arcsecond field of view; a Narrowband Filter Imager (NFI) with a tunable birefringent filter for magnetic, Doppler, and intensity maps over the same field of view; and a Broadband Filter Imager (BFI) for highest resolution images in six wavelengths (G band, Ca II H, continua, etc.) over two-thirds of that field of view. A polarization modulator in the telescope allows measurement of Stokes parameters at all wavelengths in the SP and NFI. The NFI wavelengths include both photospheric and chromospheric lines (Fe I, Mg b, Na D, H-alpha). All images are stabilized by a tip-tilt mirror and correlation tracker. This presentation will include pictures and description of the instrument, results from calibration and sun testing, portions of the draft science plan, and some preliminary JOP's. Solar-B is an international cooperative mission between JAXA/ISAS of Japan, NASA of the United States, and PPARC of the United Kingdom. The Solar Optical Telescope has been developed by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitsubishi Electric Company, and JAXA/ISAS. The FPP has been developed by the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, High Altitude Observatory, and NASA.

  7. Astrobiological polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Neeraj; Jafarpour, Aliakbar; Thaler, Tracey L.; Trebino, Rick; Bommarius, Andreas S.

    2007-09-01

    Chirality is an excellent indicator of life, but naturally occurring terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples nearly always exhibit massive depolarizing light scattering (DLS). This problem bears a striking resemblance to that of developing a chirality-based non-invasive glucose monitor for diabetics. Both applications require a lightweight, compact, efficient, and robust polarimeter that can operate despite significant DLS. So for astrobiological applications, we developed a polarimeter that was inspired from a polarimetry technique previously investigated for non-invasive in-vivo glucose-sensing. Our polarimeter involves continuously rotating the plane of linear polarization of a laser beam to probe a sample with DLS, and analyzing its transmission with a fixed analyzer to obtain a sinusoidal voltage signal. We lock-in detect this signal using a reference signal from an analogous set up without any sample. With milk as a scatterer, we find that this polarimeter detects chirality in the presence of three orders of magnitude more DLS than conventional polarimeters. It can accurately measure 0.1° of polarization rotation in the presence of 15% milk.

  8. System and method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array

    DOEpatents

    Bixler, Jay V; Brandt, Timothy G; Conger, James L; Lawson, Janice K

    2013-05-21

    A method for generating a deselect mapping for a focal plane array according to one embodiment includes gathering a data set for a focal plane array when exposed to light or radiation from a first known target; analyzing the data set for determining which pixels or subpixels of the focal plane array to add to a deselect mapping; adding the pixels or subpixels to the deselect mapping based on the analysis; and storing the deselect mapping. A method for gathering data using a focal plane array according to another embodiment includes deselecting pixels or subpixels based on a deselect mapping; gathering a data set using pixels or subpixels in a focal plane array that are not deselected upon exposure thereof to light or radiation from a target of interest; and outputting the data set.

  9. Detectors and Focal Plane Modules for Weather Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, A. I.; Robinson, E.; Masterjohn, S.; Ely, P.; Khalap, V.; Babu, S.; Smith, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Weather satellite instruments require detectors with a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to VLWIR. One of the remote sensing applications is the geostationary GOES-ABI imager covering wavelengths from the 450 to 490 nm band through the 13.0 to 13.6 micron band. There are a total of 16 spectral bands covered. The Cross-track infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Polar Orbiting interferometric sensor that measures earth radiances at high spectral resolution, using the data to provide pressure, temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. The pressure, temperature and moisture sounding data are used in weather prediction models that track storms, predict levels of precipitation etc. The CrIS instrument contains SWIR (lamba(sub c) approximately 5 micron at 98K), MWIR (lambda(sub c) approximately 9 micron at 98K) and LWIRs (lamba(sub c) approximately 15.5 micron at 81K) bands in three Focal Plane Array Assemblies (FPAAs). GOES-ABI contains three focal plane modules (FPMs), (i) a visible-near infrared module consisting of three visible and three near infrared channels, (ii) a MWIR module comprised of five channels from 3.9 micron to 8.6 micron and (iii) a 9.6 micron to 13.3 micron, five-channel LWIR module. The VNIR FPM operates at 205 K, and the MWIR and LWIR FPMs operate at 60 K. Each spectral channel has a redundant array built into a single detector chip. Switching is thus permitted from the primary selected array in each channel to the redundant array, given any degradation in performance of the primary array during the course of the mission. Silicon p-i-n detectors are used for the 0.47 micron to 0.86 micron channels. The thirteen channels above 1 micron are fabricated in various compositions of Hg1-xCdxTe, and in this particular case using two different detector architectures. The 1.38 micron to 9.61 micron channels are all fabricated in Hg1-xCdxTe grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) using the HDVIP detector architecture. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE

  10. Detectors and focal plane modules for weather satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, A. I.; Robinson, E.; Masterjohn, S.; Ely, P.; Khalap, V.; Babu, S.; Smith, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    Weather satellite instruments require detectors with a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to VLWIR. One of the remote sensing applications is the geostationary GOES-ABI imager covering wavelengths from the 450 to 490 nm band through the 13.0 to 13.6 μm band. There are a total of 16 spectral bands covered. The Cross-track infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Polar Orbiting interferometric sensor that measures earth radiances at high spectral resolution, using the data to provide pressure, temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. The pressure, temperature and moisture sounding data are used in weather prediction models that track storms, predict levels of precipitation etc. The CrIS instrument contains SWIR (λc ~ 5 μm at 98K), MWIR (λc ~ 9 μm at 98K) and LWIRs (λc ~ 15.5 μm at 81K) bands in three Focal Plane Array Assemblies (FPAAs). GOES-ABI contains three focal plane modules (FPMs), (i) a visible-near infrared module consisting of three visible and three near infrared channels, (ii) a MWIR module comprised of five channels from 3.9 μm to 8.6 μm and (iii) a 9.6 μm to 13.3 μm, five-channel LWIR module. The VNIR FPM operates at 205 K, and the MWIR and LWIR FPMs operate at 60 K. Each spectral channel has a redundant array built into a single detector chip. Switching is thus permitted from the primary selected array in each channel to the redundant array, given any degradation in performance of the primary array during the course of the mission. Silicon p-i-n detectors are used for the 0.47 μm to 0.86 μm channels. The thirteen channels above 1 μm are fabricated in various compositions of Hg1-xCdxTe, and in this particular case using two different detector architectures. The 1.38 μm to 9.61 μm channels are all fabricated in Hg1-xCdxTe grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) using the HDVIP detector architecture. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown Hg1-xCdxTe material are used for the LWIR 10.35 μm to 13.3 μm channels fabricated in Double

  11. Validating Phasing and Geometry of Large Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standley, Shaun P.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Rabbette, Maura

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to survey our region of the Milky Way galaxy to discover hundreds of Earth-sized and smaller planets in or near the habitable zone. The Kepler photometer is an array of 42 CCDs (charge-coupled devices) in the focal plane of a 95-cm Schmidt camera onboard the Kepler spacecraft. Each 50x25-mm CCD has 2,200 x 1,024 pixels. The CCDs accumulate photons and are read out every six seconds to prevent saturation. The data is integrated for 30 minutes, and then the pixel data is transferred to onboard storage. The data is subsequently encoded and transmitted to the ground. During End-to-End Information System (EEIS) testing of the Kepler Mission System (KMS), there was a need to verify that the pixels requested by the science team operationally were correctly collected, encoded, compressed, stored, and transmitted by the FS, and subsequently received, decoded, uncompressed, and displayed by the Ground Segment (GS) without the outputs of any CCD modules being flipped, mirrored, or otherwise corrupted during the extensive FS and GS processing. This would normally be done by projecting an image on the focal plane array (FPA), collecting the data in a flight-like way, and making a comparison between the original data and the data reconstructed by the science data system. Projecting a focused image onto the FPA through the telescope would normally involve using a collimator suspended over the telescope opening. There were several problems with this approach: the collimation equipment is elaborate and expensive; as conceived, it could only illuminate a limited section of the FPA (.25 percent) during a given test; the telescope cover would have to be deployed during testing to allow the image to be projected into the telescope; the equipment was bulky and difficult to situate in temperature-controlled environments; and given all the above, test setup, execution, and repeatability were significant concerns. Instead of using this complicated approach of

  12. Large-format and multispectral QWIP infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Arnold C.; Choi, Kwong-Kit; Jhabvala, Murzy; La, Anh; Uppal, Parvez N.; Winn, Michael L.

    2003-09-01

    The next generation of infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) will need to be a significant improvement in capability over those used in present-day second generation FLIRs. The Army's Future Combat System requires that the range for target identification be greater than the range of detection for an opposing sensor. To accomplish this mission, the number of pixels on the target must be considerably larger than that possible with 2nd generation FLIR. Therefore, the 3rd generation FLIR will need to be a large format staring FPA with more than 1000 pixels on each side. In addition, a multi-spectral capability will be required to allow operability in challenging ambient environments, discriminate targets from decoys, and to take advantage of the smaller diffraction blur in the MWIR for enhanced image resolution. We report on laboratory measurements of a large format (1024 x 1024 pixels) single-color LWIR IR FPA made using the corrugated quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) structure by the ARL/NASA team. The pixel pitch is 18 μm and the spectral response peaks at 8.8 μm with a 9.2 μm cutoff. We report on recent results using a MWIR/LWIR QWIP FPA to image the boost phase of a launch vehicle for missile defense applications and a LWIR/LWIR FPA designed specifically for detecting the disturbed soil associated with buried land mines. Finally, we report on the fabrication of a new read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) specifically designed for multi-spectral operation.

  13. Infrared focal plane performance in the South Atlantic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junga, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    Proton-induced pulse height distributions (PHD's) in Si:XX detectors were studied analytically and experimentally. In addition, a preliminary design for a flight experiment to characterize the response of Si:XX detectors to the trapped proton environment and verify PHD models was developed. PHD's were computed for two orbit altitudes for a variety of shielding configurations. Most of the proton-induced pulses have amplitudes less that about 3.5 x 10(exp 5) e-h pairs. Shielding has a small effect on the shape of the PHD's. The primary effect of shielding is to reduce the total number of pulses produced. Proton-induced PHD's in a Si:Sb focal plane array bombarded by a unidirectional 67-MeV beam were measured. The maximum pulse height recorded was 6 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The distribution had two peaks: the larger peak corresponded to 3.8 x 10(exp 5) pairs and the smaller peak to 1.2 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The maximum pulse height and the larger peak are within a factor of two of predicted values. The low-energy peak was not expected, but is believed to be an artifact of inefficient charge collection in the detector. The planned flight experiment will be conducted on a Space Shuttle flight. Lockheed's helium extended life dewar (HELD) will be used to provide the required cryogenic environment for the detector. Two bulk Si:Sb arrays and two Si:As impurity band conduction arrays will be tested. The tests will be conducted while the Space Shuttle passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly. PHD's will be recorded and responsivity changes tracked. This experiment will provide a new database on proton-induced PHD's, compare two infrared detector technologies in a space environment, and provide the data necessary to validate PHD modeling.

  14. Infrared focal plane performance in the South Atlantic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junga, Frank A.

    1989-09-01

    Proton-induced pulse height distributions (PHD's) in Si:XX detectors were studied analytically and experimentally. In addition, a preliminary design for a flight experiment to characterize the response of Si:XX detectors to the trapped proton environment and verify PHD models was developed. PHD's were computed for two orbit altitudes for a variety of shielding configurations. Most of the proton-induced pulses have amplitudes less that about 3.5 x 10(exp 5) e-h pairs. Shielding has a small effect on the shape of the PHD's. The primary effect of shielding is to reduce the total number of pulses produced. Proton-induced PHD's in a Si:Sb focal plane array bombarded by a unidirectional 67-MeV beam were measured. The maximum pulse height recorded was 6 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The distribution had two peaks: the larger peak corresponded to 3.8 x 10(exp 5) pairs and the smaller peak to 1.2 x 10(exp 5) pairs. The maximum pulse height and the larger peak are within a factor of two of predicted values. The low-energy peak was not expected, but is believed to be an artifact of inefficient charge collection in the detector. The planned flight experiment will be conducted on a Space Shuttle flight. Lockheed's helium extended life dewar (HELD) will be used to provide the required cryogenic environment for the detector. Two bulk Si:Sb arrays and two Si:As impurity band conduction arrays will be tested. The tests will be conducted while the Space Shuttle passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly. PHD's will be recorded and responsivity changes tracked. This experiment will provide a new database on proton-induced PHD's, compare two infrared detector technologies in a space environment, and provide the data necessary to validate PHD modeling.

  15. Design of diffractive microlens array integration with focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sihai; Yi, Xinjian; Li, Yi; He, Miao; Chen, Sixiang; Kong, Lingbin

    2000-10-01

    The IR spectrum from 3 to 5micrometers has numerous applications in both military and civil industries. High performance at high operating temperature is often important in these applications. Conventional Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) without integration with concentrator such as microlens have poor sensitivity and low signal-to-noise ratio because of their lower fill factor. The binary optics microlens arrays reported in this paper are designed for integration with FPAs. Thus, the FPAs' fill factor, sensitivity, and signal- to-noise ratio can be improved while retaining a given image resolution and optical collection area. In the paper, we discussed the 256(Horizontal)x290(Vertical) microlens arrays designed for a center wavelength of 4micrometers , with 50micrometers (Horizontalx33micrometers (Vertical) quadrate pixel dimension and a speed (F number) of F/1.96. PtSi FPAs were fabricated on the front side of a 400-micrometers -thick Si substrate. The designed diffractive microlens arrays will be etched on the back side of the same wafer in a register fashion and it will be reported in other paper. Considering the diffraction efficiency, 8-phase-level approximation is enough. For the diffraction efficiency of 8-phase-level diffractive microlens reaches 95%. The process only need three mask-level, so we designed and fabricated three masks with the same dimension 4'x4'. Also, a set of fine verniers was designed and fabricated on each mask to allow accurate alignment during the fabrication process. Through a computer simulation, the microlens arrays are nearly diffraction limited, with the diffraction efficiency of 93%, a bit lower than the theoretical value of 95%. Introduction of microlens arrays has the ability to increase the FPAs' fill factor to 100%, while it is only about 21.6% without microlens. To our knowledge, this is the first trial of integration large area microlens arrays with FPAs at home.

  16. Focal-plane electric field sensing with pupil-plane holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Por, Emiel H.; Keller, Christoph U.

    2016-07-01

    The direct detection and spectral characterization of exoplanets requires a coronagraph to suppress the diffracted star light. Amplitude and phase aberrations in the optical train fill the dark zone of the coronagraph with quasi-static speckles that limit the achievable contrast. Focal-plane electric field sensing, such as phase diversity introduced by a deformable mirror (DM), is a powerful tool to minimize this residual star light. The residual electric field can be estimated by sequentially applying phase probes on the DM to inject star light with a well-known amplitude and phase into the dark zone and analyzing the resulting intensity images. The DM can then be used to add light with the same amplitude but opposite phase to destructively interfere with this residual star light. Using a static phase-only pupil-plane element we create holographic copies of the point spread function (PSF), each superimposed with a certain pupil-plane phase probe. We therefore obtain all intensity images simultaneously while still retaining a central, unaltered science PSF. The electric field sensing method only makes use of the holographic copies, allowing for correction of the residual electric field while retaining the central PSF for uninterrupted science data collection. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of this method with numerical simulations.

  17. Experimental characterization, evaluation, and diagnosis of advanced hybrid infrared focal plane array electro-optical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomheim, Terrence S.; Schumann, Lee W.; Kohn, Stanley E.

    1998-07-01

    High performance scanning time-delay-and-integration and staring hybrid focal plane devices with very large formats, small pixel sizes, formidable frame and line rates, on-chip digital programmability, and high dynamic ranges, are being developed for a myriad of defense, civil, and commercial applications that span the spectral range from shortwave infrared (SWIR) to longwave infrared (LWIR). An essential part in the development of such new advanced hybrid infrared focal planes is empirical validation of their electro-optical (EO) performance. Many high-reliability, high-performance applications demand stringent and near flawless EO performance over a wide variety of operating conditions and environments. Verification of focal plane performance compliance over this wide range of parametric conditions requires the development and use of accurate, flexible, and statistically complete test methods and associated equipment. In this paper we review typical focal plane requirements, the ensuing measurement requirements (quantity, accuracy, repeatability, etc.), test methodologies, test equipment requirements, electronics and computer-based data acquisition requirements, statistical data analysis and display requirements, and associated issues. We also discuss special test requirements for verifying the performance of panchromatic thermal and multispectral imaging focal planes where characterization of dynamic modulation transfer function (MTF), and point-image response and optical overload is generally required. We briefly overview focal plane radiation testing. We conclude with a discussion of the technical challenges of characterizing future advanced hybrid focal plane testing where it is anticipated that analog-to- digital conversion will be included directly on focal plane devices, thus creating the scenario of 'photons-in-to-bits- out' within the focal plane itself.

  18. Detectors and focal plane modules for weather instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, A. I.; Robinson, E.; Masterjohn, S.; Khalap, V.; Bhargava, S.; Rangel, E.; Babu, S.; Smith, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    Weather satellite instruments require detectors with a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to VLWIR. The Cross-track infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Polar Orbiting interferometric sensor that measures earth radiances at high spectral resolution, using the data to provide pressure, temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. The pressure, temperature and moisture sounding data are used in weather prediction models that track storms, predict levels of precipitation etc. The CrIS instrument contains SWIR (λc ~ 5 μm at 98 K), MWIR (λc ~ 9 μm at 98 K) and LWIRs (λc ~ 15.4 μm at 81 K) bands in three Focal Plane Array Assemblies (FPAAs). CrIS detectors are 850 μm diameter detectors with each FPAA consisting of nine photovoltaic detectors arranged in a 3 x 3 pattern. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown Hg1-xCdxTe material are used for the detectors fabricated in a modified Double Layer Planar Heterostructure (DLPH) architecture. Each detector has an accompanying cold preamplifier. SWIR and MWIR FPAAs operate at 98 K and the LWIR FPAA at 81 K, permitting the use of passive radiators to cool the detectors. D* requirements at peak 14.01 μm wavelength are >= 5.0E+10 Jones for LWIR, >= 7.5E+10 Jones at 8.26 μm for MWIR and >= 3.0E+11 Jones at peak 4.64 μm wavelength for SWIR. All FPAAs exceeded the D* requirements. Measured mean values for the nine photodiodes in each of the LWIR, MWIR and SWIR FPAAs are D* = 5.3 x 1010 cm-Hz1/2/W at 14.0 μm, 9.6 x 1010 cm-Hz1/2/W at 8.0 μm and 3.4 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W at 4.64 μm.

  19. Detectors and Focal Plane Modules for Weather Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Souza, A.I.; Robinson, E.; Masterjohn, S.; Khalap, V.; Bhargava, S.; Rangel, E.; Babu, S.; Smith, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    Weather satellite instruments require detectors with a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to VLWIR. The Cross-track infrared Sounder (CrIS) is a Polar Orbiting interferometric sensor that measures earth radiances at high spectral resolution, using the data to provide pressure, temperature and moisture profiles of the atmosphere. The pressure, temperature and moisture sounding data are used in weather prediction models that track storms, predict levels of precipitation etc. The CrIS instrument contains SWIR (lambda(sub c) (is) approximately 5 micrometers at 98 K), MWIR (lambda(sub c) (is) approximately 9 micrometers at 98 K) and LWIRs (lambda(sub c) (is) approximately 15.4 ?m at 81 K) bands in three Focal Plane Array Assemblies (FPAAs). CrIS detectors are 850 micrometers diameter detectors with each FPAA consisting of nine photovoltaic detectors arranged in a 3 x 3 pattern. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE)-grown Hg1-xCdxTe material are used for the detectors fabricated in a modified Double Layer Planar Heterostructure (DLPH) architecture. Each detector has an accompanying cold preamplifier. SWIR and MWIR FPAAs operate at 98 K and the LWIR FPAA at 81 K, permitting the use of passive radiators to cool the detectors. D* requirements at peak 14.01 micrometers wavelength are greater than 5.0E+10 Jones for LWIR, greater than 7.5E+10 Jones at 8.26 micrometers for MWIR and greater than 3.0E+11 Jones at peak 4.64 micrometers wavelength for SWIR. All FPAAs exceeded the D* requirements. Measured mean values for the nine photodiodes in each of the LWIR, MWIR and SWIR FPAAs are D* = 5.3 x 10(exp 10) cm-Hz1/2/W at 14.0 micrometers, 9.6 x 10(exp 10) cm-Hz1/2/W at 8.0 micrometers and 3.4 x 10(exp 11) cm-Hz1/2/W at 4.64 micrometers.

  20. Advances in Focal Plane Wavefront Estimation for Directly Imaging Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldorado Riggs, A. J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; Groff, Tyler Dean

    2015-01-01

    To image cold exoplanets directly in visible light, an instrument on a telescope needs to suppress starlight by about 9 orders of magnitude at small separations from the star. A coronagraph changes the point spread function to create regions of high contrast where exoplanets or disks can be seen. Aberrations on the optics degrade the contrast by several orders of magnitude, so all high-contrast imaging systems incorporate one or more deformable mirrors (DMs) to recover regions of high contrast. With a coronagraphic instrument planned for the WFIRST-AFTA space telescope, there is a pressing need for faster, more robust estimation and control schemes for the DMs. Non-common path aberrations limit conventional phase conjugation schemes to medium star-to-planet contrast ratios of about 1e-6. High-contrast imaging requires estimation and control of both phase and amplitude in the same beam path as the science camera. Field estimation is a challenge since only intensity is measured; the most common approach, including that planned for WFIRST-AFTA, is to use DMs to create diversity, via pairs of small probe shapes, thereby allowing disambiguation of the electric field. Most implementations of DM Diversity require at least five images per electric field estimate and require narrowband measurements. This paper describes our new estimation algorithms that improve the speed (by using fewer images) and bandwidth of focal plane wavefront estimation. For narrowband estimation, we are testing nonlinear, recursive algorithms such as an iterative extended Kalman filter (IEKF) to use three images each iteration and build better, more robust estimates. We are also exploring the use of broadband estimation without the need for narrowband sub-filters and measurements. Here we present simulations of these algorithms with realistic noise and small signals to show how they might perform for WFIRST-AFTA. Once validated in simulations, we will test these algorithms experimentally in

  1. Focal-plane irradiance tailoring using the concept of Woofer-Tweeter deformable mirrors.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zexin; Huang, Lei; Gong, Mali

    2014-04-21

    Deformable mirror (DM) is a common-used active freeform optical element. We introduce the concept of Woofer-Tweeter DM system for controlling focal-plane irradiance profiles. We firstly determine a freeform reflective surface for transforming a given incident laser beam into the desired focal-plane irradiance distribution by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampère equation. Then, we use a low-bandwidth Woofer DM to approximate the required freeform reflective surface and a high-bandwidth Tweeter DM to compensate the residual error. Simulation results show that, compared with single DMs, the Woofer-Tweeter DM system brings the best focal-plane irradiance performances.

  2. LWIR scene simulator developed for end-to-end performance evaluation of focal planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Niels A.; Bowser, William M.; Song, Sung H.; Skiff, Laura T.; Powell, William W.; Romero, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The development of a long-wave infrared optical simulator facilitates evaluation of the end-to-end performance of long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in a system-like environment. This simulator provides selectable structured scene inputs to a focal plane module or array. Background irradiances as low as 10 exp 10 photons/sq cm s are achievable when the simulator is cooled with liquid helium. The optical simulator can generate single or multiple targets of controllable intensities, and uniform or structured background irradiances. The infrared scenes can be viewed in a stationary mode or dynamically scanned across the focal plane.

  3. Focal-Plane Arrays of Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Wilson, Daniel; Hill, Cory; Liu, John; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David

    2007-01-01

    Focal-plane arrays of semiconductor quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are being developed as superior alternatives to prior infrared imagers, including imagers based on HgCdTe devices and, especially, those based on quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). HgCdTe devices and arrays thereof are difficult to fabricate and operate, and they exhibit large nonunformities and high 1/f (where f signifies frequency) noise. QWIPs are easier to fabricate and operate, can be made nearly uniform, and exhibit lower 1/f noise, but they exhibit larger dark currents, and their quantization only along the growth direction prevents them from absorbing photons at normal incidence, thereby limiting their quantum efficiencies. Like QWIPs, QDIPs offer the advantages of greater ease of operation, greater uniformity, and lower 1/f noise, but without the disadvantages: QDIPs exhibit lower dark currents, and quantum efficiencies of QDIPs are greater because the three-dimensional quantization of QDIPs is favorable to the absorption of photons at normal or oblique incidence. Moreover, QDIPs can be operated at higher temperatures (around 200 K) than are required for operation of QWIPs. The main problem in the development of QDIP imagers is to fabricate quantum dots with the requisite uniformity of size and spacing. A promising approach to be tested soon involves the use of electron-beam lithography to define the locations and sizes of quantum dots. A photoresist-covered GaAs substrate would be exposed to the beam generated by an advanced, high-precision electron beam apparatus. The exposure pattern would consist of spots typically having a diameter of 4 nm and typically spaced 20 nm apart. The exposed photoresist would be developed by either a high-contrast or a low-contrast method. In the high-contrast method, the spots would be etched in such a way as to form steep-wall holes all the way down to the substrate. The holes would be wider than the electron beam spots perhaps as

  4. Next generation sub-millimeter wave focal plane array coupling concepts: an ESA TRP project to develop multichroic focal plane pixels for future CMB polarization experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trappe, N.; Bucher, M.; De Bernardis, P.; Delabrouille, J.; Deo, P.; DePetris, M.; Doherty, S.; Ghribi, A.; Gradziel, M.; Kuzmin, L.; Maffei, B.; Mahashabde, S.; Masi, S.; Murphy, J. A.; Noviello, F.; O'Sullivan, C.; Pagano, L.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Robinson, M.; Stompor, R.; Tartari, A.; van der Vorst, M.; Verhoeve, P.

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this activity is to develop new focal plane coupling array concepts and technologies that optimise the coupling from reflector optics to the large number of detectors for next generation sub millimetre wave telescopes particularly targeting measurement of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In this 18 month TRP programme the consortium are tasked with developing, manufacturing and experimentally verifying a prototype multichroic pixel which would be suitable for the large focal plane arrays which will be demanded to reach the required sensitivity of future CMB polarization missions. One major development was to have multichroic operation to potentially reduce the required focal plane size of a CMB mission. After research in the optimum telescope design and definition of requirements based on a stringent science case review, a number of compact focal plane architecture concepts were investigated before a pixel demonstrator consisting of a planar mesh lens feeding a backend Resonant Cold Electron Bolometer RCEB for filtering and detection of the dual frequency signal was planned for manufacture and test. In this demonstrator the frequencies of the channels was chosen to be 75 and 105 GHz in the w band close to the peak CMB signal. In the next year the prototype breadboards will be developed to test the beams produced by the manufactured flat lenses fed by a variety of antenna configurations and the spectral response of the RCEBs will also be verified.

  5. Large format focal plane array integration with precision alignment, metrology and accuracy capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Jay; Parlato, Russell; Tracy, Gregory; Randolph, Max

    2015-09-01

    Focal plane alignment for large format arrays and faster optical systems require enhanced precision methodology and stability over temperature. The increase in focal plane array size continues to drive the alignment capability. Depending on the optical system, the focal plane flatness of less than 25μm (.001") is required over transition temperatures from ambient to cooled operating temperatures. The focal plane flatness requirement must also be maintained in airborne or launch vibration environments. This paper addresses the challenge of the detector integration into the focal plane module and housing assemblies, the methodology to reduce error terms during integration and the evaluation of thermal effects. The driving factors influencing the alignment accuracy include: datum transfers, material effects over temperature, alignment stability over test, adjustment precision and traceability to NIST standard. The FPA module design and alignment methodology reduces the error terms by minimizing the measurement transfers to the housing. In the design, the proper material selection requires matched coefficient of expansion materials minimizes both the physical shift over temperature as well as lowering the stress induced into the detector. When required, the co-registration of focal planes and filters can achieve submicron relative positioning by applying precision equipment, interferometry and piezoelectric positioning stages. All measurements and characterizations maintain traceability to NIST standards. The metrology characterizes the equipment's accuracy, repeatability and precision of the measurements.

  6. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  7. Kinoform phase plates for focal plane irradiance profile control

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, S.N.; Lawson, J.K.; Manes, K.R.; Powell, H.T. ); Nugent, K.A. )

    1994-03-15

    A versatile, rapidly convergent, iterative algorithm is presented for the construction of kinoform phase plates for tailoring the far-field intensity distribution of laser beams. The method consists of repeated Fourier transforming between the near-field and the far-field planes with constraints imposed in each plane. For application to inertial confinement fusion, the converged far-field pattern contains more than 95% of the incident energy inside a desired region and is relatively insensitive to beam aberrations.

  8. Materials, devices, techniques, and applications for Z-plane focal plane array technology II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 12, 13, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John C.

    1990-11-01

    Various papers on materials, devices, techniques, and applications for X-plane focal plane array technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: application of Z-plane technology to the remote sensing of the earth from GEO, applications of smart neuromorphic focal planes, image-processing of Z-plane technology, neural network Z-plane implementation with very high interconnection rates, using a small IR surveillance satellite for tactical applications, establishing requirements for homing applications, Z-plane technology. Also discussed are: on-array spike suppression signal processing, algorithms for on-focal-plane gamma circumvention and time-delay integration, current HYMOSS Z-technology, packaging of electrons for on- and off-FPA signal processing, space/performance qualification of tape automated bonded devices, automation in tape automated bonding, high-speed/high-volume radiometric testing of Z-technology focal planes, 128-layer HYMOSS-module fabrication issues, automation of IRFPA production processes.

  9. Fabrication of a Cryogenic Bias Filter for Ultrasensitive Focal Plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James; Wollack, Edward

    2012-01-01

    A fabrication process has been developed for cryogenic in-line filtering for the bias and readout of ultrasensitive cryogenic bolometers for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. The design is a microstripline filter that cuts out, or strongly attenuates, frequencies (10 50 GHz) that can be carried by wiring staged at cryogenic temperatures. The filter must have 100-percent transmission at DC and low frequencies where the bias and readout lines will carry signal. The fabrication requires the encapsulation of superconducting wiring in a dielectric-metal envelope with precise electrical characteristics. Sufficiently thick insulation layers with high-conductivity metal layers fully surrounding a patterned superconducting wire in arrayable formats have been demonstrated. A degenerately doped silicon wafer has been chosen to provide a metallic ground plane. A metallic seed layer is patterned to enable attachment to the ground plane. Thick silicon dioxide films are deposited at low temperatures to provide tunable dielectric isolation without degrading the metallic seed layer. Superconducting wiring is deposited and patterned using microstripline filtering techniques to cut out the relevant frequencies. A low Tc superconductor is used so that it will attenuate power strongly above the gap frequency. Thick dielectric is deposited on top of the circuit, and then vias are patterned through both dielectric layers. A thick conductive film is deposited conformally over the entire circuit, except for the contact pads for the signal and bias attachments to complete the encapsulating ground plane. Filters are high-aspect- ratio rectangles, allowing close packing in one direction, while enabling the chip to feed through the wall of a copper enclosure. The chip is secured in the copper wall using a soft metal seal to make good thermal and electrical contact to the outer shield.

  10. Focal-plane detector system for the KATRIN experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Amsbaugh, J. F.; Barrett, J.; Beglarian, A.; ...

    2015-01-09

    Here, the local plane detector system for the KArlsiuhe TRItium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment consists of a multi-pixel silicon p-i-n-diode array, custom readout electronics, two superconducting solenoid magnets, an ultra high vacuum system, a high vacuum system, calibration and monitoring devices, a scintillating veto, and a custom data-acquisition system, It is designed to detect the low-energy electrons selected by the KATRIN main spectrometer. We describe the system and summarize its performance after its final installation.

  11. Orion: A 1-5 Micron Focal Plane for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, A. M.; Merrill, K. M.; Ball, W.; Henden, A.; Vrba, F.; McCreight, C.

    The Orion program is a project to develop a 2Kx2K infrared focal plane using InSb p-on-n diodes for detectors. It is the natural follow-up to the successful Aladdin 1Kx1K program started in the early 90's. The work is being done at the Raytheon Infrared Operations Division (RIO, previously known as the Santa Barbara Research Center) by many of the same people who created the Aladdin focal plane. The design is very similar to the successful Aladdin design with the addition of reference pixels, whole array readout (no quadrants), two-adjacent-side buttability, and a packaging design that includes going directly to the ultimate focal plane size of 4Kx4K. So far we have successfully made a limited number of hybrid modules with InSb detectors. In this paper we will describe the design features and test data taken from some of these devices.

  12. Low power, highly linear output buffer. [for infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, D.; Butler, N.; Stobie, J.

    1992-01-01

    A class AB CMOS output buffer has been designed for use on an IR focal plane array. Given the requirements for power dissipation and load capacitance a class A output, such as a source follower, would be unsuitable. The approach taken uses a class AB amplifier configured as a charge integrator. Thus it converts a charge packet in the focal plane multiplexer to a voltage which is then the output of the focal plane. With a quiescent current of 18 micro-a and a load capacitance of 100 pf, the amplifier has an open loop unity gain bandwidth of 900 khz. Integral nonlinearity is better than .03 percent over 5.5 volts when run with VDD-VSS = 6v.

  13. Fabrication of Transition Edge Sensor Microcalorimeters for X-Ray Focal Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chervenak, James A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Audley, Heather; Bandler, Simon R.; Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele; Eckart, Megan E.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline; Lee, Sang Jun; Mateo, Jennette; Sadleir, John E.; Smith, Stephen J.; Wassell, Edward; Yoon, Wonsik

    2015-01-01

    Requirements for focal planes for x-ray astrophysics vary widely depending on the needs of the science application such as photon count rate, energy band, resolving power, and angular resolution. Transition edge sensor x-ray calorimeters can encounter limitations when optimized for these specific applications. Balancing specifications leads to choices in, for example, pixel size, thermal sinking arrangement, and absorber thickness and material. For the broadest specifications, instruments can benefit from multiple pixel types in the same array or focal plane. Here we describe a variety of focal plane architectures that anticipate science requirements of x-ray instruments for heliophysics and astrophysics. We describe the fabrication procedures that enable each array and explore limitations for the specifications of such arrays, including arrays with multiple pixel types on the same array.

  14. An Integrated Optimal Estimation Approach to Spitzer Space Telescope Focal Plane Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Kang, Bryan H.; Brugarolas, Paul B.; Boussalis, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses an accurate and efficient method for focal plane survey that was used for the Spitzer Space Telescope. The approach is based on using a high-order 37-state Instrument Pointing Frame (IPF) Kalman filter that combines both engineering parameters and science parameters into a single filter formulation. In this approach, engineering parameters such as pointing alignments, thermomechanical drift and gyro drifts are estimated along with science parameters such as plate scales and optical distortions. This integrated approach has many advantages compared to estimating the engineering and science parameters separately. The resulting focal plane survey approach is applicable to a diverse range of science instruments such as imaging cameras, spectroscopy slits, and scanning-type arrays alike. The paper will summarize results from applying the IPF Kalman Filter to calibrating the Spitzer Space Telescope focal plane, containing the MIPS, IRAC, and the IRS science Instrument arrays.

  15. Measuring the Flatness of Focal Plane for Very Large Mosaic CCD Camera

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Jiangang; Estrada, Juan; Cease, Herman; Diehl, H.Thomas; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Kubik, Donna; Kuk, Keivin; Kuropatkine, Nickolai; Lin, Huan; Montes, Jorge; Scarpine, Vic; /Fermilab

    2010-06-08

    Large mosaic multiCCD camera is the key instrument for modern digital sky survey. DECam is an extremely red sensitive 520 Megapixel camera designed for the incoming Dark Energy Survey (DES). It is consist of sixty two 4k x 2k and twelve 2k x 2k 250-micron thick fully-depleted CCDs, with a focal plane of 44 cm in diameter and a field of view of 2.2 square degree. It will be attached to the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. The DES will cover 5000 square-degrees of the southern galactic cap in 5 color bands (g, r, i, z, Y) in 5 years starting from 2011. To achieve the science goal of constraining the Dark Energy evolution, stringent requirements are laid down for the design of DECam. Among them, the flatness of the focal plane needs to be controlled within a 60-micron envelope in order to achieve the specified PSF variation limit. It is very challenging to measure the flatness of the focal plane to such precision when it is placed in a high vacuum dewar at 173 K. We developed two image based techniques to measure the flatness of the focal plane. By imaging a regular grid of dots on the focal plane, the CCD offset along the optical axis is converted to the variation the grid spacings at different positions on the focal plane. After extracting the patterns and comparing the change in spacings, we can measure the flatness to high precision. In method 1, the regular dots are kept in high sub micron precision and cover the whole focal plane. In method 2, no high precision for the grid is required. Instead, we use a precise XY stage moves the pattern across the whole focal plane and comparing the variations of the spacing when it is imaged by different CCDs. Simulation and real measurements show that the two methods work very well for our purpose, and are in good agreement with the direct optical measurements.

  16. Method of fabricating multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A multiwavelength local plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y.ltoreq.1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  17. Optimized focal and pupil plane masks for vortex coronagraphs on telescopes with obstructed apertures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruane, Garreth J.; Absil, Olivier; Huby, Elsa; Mawet, Dimitri; Delacroix, Christian; Carlomagno, Brunella; Piron, Pierre; Swartzlander, Grover A.

    2015-09-01

    We present methods for optimizing pupil and focal plane optical elements that improve the performance of vortex coronagraphs on telescopes with obstructed or segmented apertures. Phase-only and complex masks are designed for the entrance pupil, focal plane, and the plane of the Lyot stop. Optimal masks are obtained using both analytical and numerical methods. The latter makes use of an iterative error reduction algorithm to calculate "correcting" optics that mitigate unwanted diffraction from aperture obstructions. We analyze the achieved performance in terms of starlight suppression, contrast, off-axis image quality, and chromatic dependence. Manufacturing considerations and sensitivity to aberrations are also discussed. This work provides a path to joint optimization of multiple coronagraph planes to maximize sensitivity to exoplanets and other faint companions.

  18. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  19. High-precision method for determining the position of laser beam focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Kleimenov, A N; Potemkin, I B; Khabibulin, V M

    2013-12-31

    The method of wavefront doubled-frequency spherical modulation for determining the laser beam waist position has been simulated and experimentally studied. The error in determining the focal plane position is less than 10{sup -5} D. The amplitude of the control doubled-frequency electric signal is experimentally found to correspond to 12% of the total radiation power. (laser beams)

  20. Radiation-Induced Transient Effects in Near Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert A.; Pickel, J.; Marshall, P.; Waczynski, A.; McMurray, R.; Gee, G.; Polidan, E.; Johnson, S.; McKeivey, M.; Ennico, K.; Johnson, R.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a test simulate the transient effects of cosmic ray impacts on near infrared focal plane arrays. The objectives of the test are to: 1) Characterize proton single events as function of energy and angle of incidence; 2) Measure charge spread (crosstalk) to adjacent pixels; 3) Assess transient recovery time.

  1. Development and Testing of an Innovative Two-Arm Focal-Plane Thermal Strap (TAFTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquiza, E.; Vasquez, C.; Rodriguez, J.; Van Gorp, B.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining temperature stability in optical focal planes comes with the intrinsic challenge of creating a pathway that is both extremely flexible mechanically and highly conductive thermally. The task is further complicated because science-caliber optical focal planes are extremely delicate, yet their mechanical resiliency is rarely tested and documented. The mechanical engineer tasked with the thermo-mechanical design must then create a highly conductive thermal link that minimizes the tensile and shear stresses transmitted to the focal plane without design parameters on an acceptable stiffness. This paper will describe the development and testing of the thermal link developed for the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) instrument. It will provide experimentally determined mechanical stiffness plots in the three axes of interest. Analytical and experimental thermal conductance results for the two-arm focal-plane thermal strap (TAFTS), from cryogenic to room temperatures, are also presented. The paper also briefly describes some elements of the fabrication process followed in developing a novel design solution, which provides high conductance and symmetrical mechanical loading, while providing enhanced flexibility in all three degrees of freedom.

  2. Focal plane actuation to achieve ultra-high resolution on suborbital balloon payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Miller, Alex; Challa, Priya; Veach, Todd; Groppi, Chris; Mauskopf, Phil

    2014-07-01

    Over the past few years there has been remarkable success flying imaging telescope systems suspended from suborbital balloon payload systems. These imaging systems have covered optical, ultraviolet, sub-­-millimeter and infrared passbands (i.e. BLAST, STO, SBI, Fireball and others). In recognition of these advances NASA is now considering ambitious programs to promote planetary imaging from high altitude at a fraction of the cost of similar fully orbital systems. The challenge with imaging from a balloon payload is delivering the full diffraction-­-limited resolution of the system from a moving payload. Good progress has been made with damping mechanisms and oscillation control to remove most macroscopic movement in the departures of the imaging focal plane from a static configuration, however a jitter component remains that is difficult to remove using external corrections. This paper reports on work to demonstrate in the laboratory the utility and performance of actuating a detector focal plane (of whatever type) to remove the final jitter terms using an agile hexapod design. The input to this demonstration is the jitter signal generated by the pointing system of a previously flown balloon mission (the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory, STO). Our group has a mature jitter compensation system that thermally isolates the control head from the focal plane itself. This allows the hexapod to remain at ambient temperature in a vacuum environment with the focal plane cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Our lab design mounts the focal plane on the hexapod in a custom cryostat and delivers an active optical stimulus together with the corresponding jitter signal, using the actuation of the hexapod to correct for the departures from a static, stable configuration. We believe this demonstration will make the case for inclusion of this technological solution in future balloon-­-borne imaging systems requiring ultra-­-high resolution.

  3. Snapshot polarimeter based on the conical refraction phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinado, Alba; Lizana, Angel; Turpin, Alex; Estévez, Irene; Iemmi, Claudio; Kalkanjiev, Todor K.; Mompart, Jordi; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    A complete and punctual Stokes polarimeter based on the conical refraction (CR) phenomenon is presented. The CR phenomenon occurs when light travels along one of the optical axes of a biaxial crystal (BC), leading to a bright ring of light at the focal plane of the system. We propose using the connection between the intensity pattern of the CR ring and the state of polarization (SOP) of the incident beam as a new tool for polarization metrology. In order to implement a complete polarimeter, the instrument is designed with a beam splitter and two BCs, one BC for each sub-beam. In the second sub-beam, a retarder is introduced before the BC, allowing us to measure the ellipticity content of the input SOP. The CR-based polarimeter presents several appealing features compared to standard polarimeters. To name some of them, CR polarimeters retrieve the SOP of an input beam with a single snapshot measurement, allow for substantially enhancing the data redundancy without increasing measuring time, and avoid instrumental errors related to rotating elements or active polarization devices. This work shows the instrument design, in particular the parameters of the set-up have been optimized in order to reduce the amplification of noise. Then, the experimental implementation of the instrument is detailed, including the experimental calibration of the system. Finally, the implemented polarimeter is experimentally tested by measuring different SOPs, including fully and partially polarized light.

  4. MITO-Pol, a polarimeter for the Testa Grigia observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoli, R.; Savini, G.; Melchiorri, F.

    2002-05-01

    After a short review of the existing upper limits on CMB polarization and planned experiments, we present the solution adopted to resolve polarized signals with MITO-Pol, a polarimeter that will operate at the focal plane of MITO telescope. The first MITO-Pol campaign is planned for Winter 2002-2003. The main goals of this instrument are search for calibration sources and investigation of the polarization field around the CMB anisotropy peaks. .

  5. High contrast imaging through adaptive transmittance control in the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    High contrast imaging, in the presence of a bright background, is a challenging problem encountered in diverse applications ranging from the daily chore of driving into a sun-drenched scene to in vivo use of biomedical imaging in various types of keyhole surgeries. Imaging in the presence of bright sources saturates the vision system, resulting in loss of scene fidelity, corresponding to low image contrast and reduced resolution. The problem is exacerbated in retro-reflective imaging systems where the light sources illuminating the object are unavoidably strong, typically masking the object features. This manuscript presents a novel theoretical framework, based on nonlinear analysis and adaptive focal plane transmittance, to selectively remove object domain sources of background light from the image plane, resulting in local and global increases in image contrast. The background signal can either be of a global specular nature, giving rise to parallel illumination from the entire object surface or can be represented by a mosaic of randomly orientated, small specular surfaces. The latter is more representative of real world practical imaging systems. Thus, the background signal comprises of groups of oblique rays corresponding to distributions of the mosaic surfaces. Through the imaging system, light from group of like surfaces, converges to a localized spot in the focal plane of the lens and then diverges to cast a localized bright spot in the image plane. Thus, transmittance of a spatial light modulator, positioned in the focal plane, can be adaptively controlled to block a particular source of background light. Consequently, the image plane intensity is entirely due to the object features. Experimental image data is presented to verify the efficacy of the methodology.

  6. Uncooled bolometer-type Terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki

    2010-08-01

    Real-time Terahertz (THz) imaging technologies which make use of uncooled bolometer-type infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) will be reviewed. A description of how THz focal plane array and THz imagers have been developed on the basis of infrared technologies, especially the improvement in both THz sensitivity of bolometer-type FPA and THz transmittance of materials for lens and vacuum package window will be given. Characteristics of 320×240 THz-FPA, such as relation of noise equivalent power (NEP) to wavelength and real-time THz imageries will be presented. One of the imageries indicates that THz technology is promising for label-free detection of reaction of small molecules with proteins.

  7. Solar-Driven Background Intensity Variations in a Focal Plane Array

    SciTech Connect

    Eyer, H.H.; Guillen, J.L.L.; Vittitoe, C.N.

    1998-12-03

    Portions of a series of end-of-life tests are described for a Sandia National Li~boratories- designed space-based sensor that utilizes a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal plane array. Variations in background intensity are consistent with the hypothesis that seasonal variations in solar position cause changes in the pattern of shadows falling across the compartment containing the optical elements, filter-band components, and focal plane array. When the sensor compartment is most fully illuminated by the sun, background intensities are large and their standard deviations tend to be large. During the winter season, when the compartment is most fully shadowed by surrounding structure, backgrounci intensities are small and standard deviations tend to be small. Details in the surrounding structure are speculated to produce transient shadows that complicate background intensifies as a function of time or of sensor position in orbit.

  8. Status of on-focal-plane signal processing utilizing 3D silicon technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John C.

    1994-03-01

    3D silicon technology has been under development since 1980, primarily aimed at on-focal- plane signal processing to solve a variety of military sensor systems problems. The thrust has been to bring more and more parallel analog and digital processing into the closest possible proximity to the detector array. At this time on-focal-plane functionality includes preamplification, spatial and temporal matched filtering, nonuniformity correction, neural networks, analog-digital conversion, digital logic, and digital memory. Historically, a custom- built specialty technology constrained by cost in its applicability, 3D silicon has undergone a dual-use conversion to include high-volume, low-cost commercial computer electronics. 3D silicon is on the way to becoming the lowest-cost-per-gate technology available and, because of this, sensor system design and performance will be revolutionized.

  9. Focal-plane CMOS wavelet feature extraction for real-time pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olyaei, Ashkan; Genov, Roman

    2005-09-01

    Kernel-based pattern recognition paradigms such as support vector machines (SVM) require computationally intensive feature extraction methods for high-performance real-time object detection in video. The CMOS sensory parallel processor architecture presented here computes delta-sigma (ΔΣ)-modulated Haar wavelet transform on the focal plane in real time. The active pixel array is integrated with a bank of column-parallel first-order incremental oversampling analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Each ADC performs distributed spatial focal-plane sampling and concurrent weighted average quantization. The architecture is benchmarked in SVM face detection on the MIT CBCL data set. At 90% detection rate, first-level Haar wavelet feature extraction yields a 7.9% reduction in the number of false positives when compared to classification with no feature extraction. The architecture yields 1.4 GMACS simulated computational throughput at SVGA imager resolution at 8-bit output depth.

  10. Real Time Imaging Analysis Using a Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser and a Microbolometer Focal Plane Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    sensing area, assuming that the device remains approximately in thermodynamic equilibrium, the heat balance equation can be expressed as o d TP G T C...11. Modulated radiation incident on focal plane array. .........................................17 Figure 12. Temperature change in a pixel for P0...for b) 4.3 and c) 4.9 THz windows. HITRAN (solid line) and FTIR results (dashed line). Lasing spectra of QCL’s are depicted with dashed vertical

  11. Orion: A 1 5 Micron Focal Plane for the 21st Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Albert M.; Merrill, K. Michael; Ball, William; Henden, Arne; Vrba, Fred; McCreight, Craig

    2002-08-01

    The Orion program is a project to develop a 2K × 2K infrared focal plane using InSb p-on-n diodes for detectors. It is the natural follow-up to the successful Aladdin 1K × 1Kprogram started in the early 90’s. The work is being done at the Raytheon Infrared Operations Division (RIO, previously known as the Santa Barbara Research Center) by many of the same people who created the Aladdin focal plane. The design is very similarto the successful Aladdin design with the addition of reference pixels, whole array readout (no quadrants), two-adjacent-side buttability, and a packaging design that includes going directly to the ultimate focal plane size of 4K × 4K. So far we have successfully made a limited number of hybrid modules with InSb detectors. In this paper we will describe the design features and test data taken from some of these devices.

  12. Short wavelength HgCdTe staring focal plane for low background astronomy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D.; Stobie, J.; Hartle, N.; Lacroix, D.; Maschhoff, K.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a 128x128 staring short wave infrared (SWIR) HgCdTe focal plane incorporating charge integrating transimpedance input preamplifiers is presented. The preamplifiers improve device linearity and uniformity, and provide signal gain ahead of the miltiplexer and readout circuitry. Detector's with cutoff wavelength of 2.5 microns and operated at 80 K have demonstrated impedances in excess of 10(exp 16) ohms with 60 percent quantum efficiency. Focal plane performance using a smaller format device is presented which demonstrates the potential of this approach. Although the design is capable of achieving less than 30 rms electrons with todays technology, initial small format devices demonstrated a read noise of 100 rms electrons and were limited by the atypical high noise performance of the silicon process run. Luminescence from the active silicon circuitry in the multiplexer limits the minimum detector current to a few hundred electrons per second. Approaches to eliminate this excessive source of current is presented which should allow the focal plane to achieve detector background limited performance.

  13. Focal plane resolution and overlapped array time delay and integrate imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grycewicz, Thomas J.; Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Kalman, Linda S.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we model sub-pixel image registration for a generic earth-observing satellite system with a focal plane using two offset time delay and integrate (TDI) arrays in the focal plane to improve the achievable ground resolution over the resolution achievable with a single array. The modeling process starts with a high-resolution image as ground truth. The Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation Software (PICASSO) modeling tool is used to degrade the images to match the optical transfer function, sampling, and noise characteristics of the target system. The model outputs a pair of images with a separation close to the nominal half-pixel separation between the overlapped arrays. A registration estimation algorithm is used to measure the offset for image reconstruction. The two images are aligned and summed on a grid with twice the capture resolution. We compare the resolution in images between the inputs before overlap, the reconstructed image, and a simulation for the image which would have been captured on a focal plane with twice the resolution. We find the performance to always be better than the lower resolution baseline, and to approach the performance of the high-resolution array in the ideal case. We show that the overlapped array imager significantly outperforms both the conventional high- and low-resolution imagers in conditions with high image smear.

  14. MIXS on BepiColombo and its DEPFET based focal plane instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treis, J.; Andricek, L.; Aschauer, F.; Heinzinger, K.; Herrmann, S.; Hilchenbach, M.; Lauf, T.; Lechner, P.; Lutz, G.; Majewski, P.; Porro, M.; Richter, R. H.; Schaller, G.; Schnecke, M.; Schopper, F.; Soltau, H.; Stefanescu, A.; Strüder, L.; de Vita, G.

    2010-12-01

    Focal plane instrumentation based on DEPFET Macropixel devices, being a combination of the Detector-Amplifier structure DEPFET with a silicon drift chamber (SDD), has been proposed for the MIXS (Mercury Imaging X-ray Spectrometer) instrument on ESA's Mercury exploration mission BepiColombo. MIXS images X-ray fluorescent radiation from the Mercury surface with a lightweight X-ray mirror system on the focal plane detector to measure the spatially resolved element abundance in Mercury's crust. The sensor needs to have an energy resolution better than 200 eV FWHM at 1 keV and is required to cover an energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV, for a pixel size of 300×300μm2. Main challenges for the instrument are radiation damage and the difficult thermal environment in the mercury orbit. The production of the first batch of flight devices has been finished at the MPI semiconductor laboratory. Prototype modules have been assembled to verify the electrical properties of the devices; selected results are presented here. The prototype devices, Macropixel prototypes for the SIMBOL-X focal plane, are electrically fully compatible, but have a pixel size of 0.5×0.5 mm2. Excellent homogeneity and near Fano-limited energy resolution at high readout speeds have been observed on these devices.

  15. Accuracy and uncertainty in random speckle modulation transfer function measurement of infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Kenneth J.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Plummer, Philip J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper expands upon a previously reported random speckle technique for measuring the modulation transfer function of midwave infrared focal plane arrays by considering a number of factors that impact the accuracy of the estimated modulation transfer function. These factors arise from assumptions in the theoretical derivation and bias in the estimation procedure. Each factor is examined and guidelines are determined to maintain accuracy within 2% of the true value. The uncertainty of the measurement is found by applying a one-factor ANOVA analysis and confidence intervals are established for the results. The small magnitude of the confidence intervals indicates a very robust technique capable of distinguishing differences in modulation transfer function among focal plane arrays on the order of a few percent. This analysis directly indicates the high quality of the random speckle modulation transfer function measurement technique. The methodology is applied to a focal plane array and results are presented that emphasize the need for generating independent random speckle realizations to accurately assess measured values.

  16. Liquid crystal microlens with tunable-focus over focal plane driven by low-voltage signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Shengwu; Rong, Xing; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng; Zhang, Tianxu

    2012-11-01

    A liquid crystal (LC) microlens with a new type of electrode pattern is designed. The both bottom and top ITO electrodes of LC microlens are placed face to face, and are separated by glass spacer with the thickness in micron scale, and then LC materials are injected into the cell constructed by them. Because of the two electrodes directly and closely facing the LC layer injected, the design can largely decrease the driving signal voltage for LC lens. The bottom electrode is designed with one round hole pattern. The top electrode is four circle patterns. The diameters of round hole and circle are 500μm and 160μm, respectively. Each circle pattern electrode can be used to focus incident light into different region over the focal plane of LC lens. When the four circle electrodes are driven by different signal at the same time, the focus can be moved off-axis over the focal plane of LC lens, and thus the voltage amplitude can be varied in the range from 0Vrms to 20Vrms. So, we realize a LC microlens with tunable-focus over the focal plane of LC lens driven by low-amplitude voltage signal.

  17. Design of corrugated-horn-coupled MKID focal plane for CMB B-mode polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Yutaro; Sekiguchi, Shigeyuki; Shu, Shibo; Sekine, Masakazu; Nitta, Tom; Naruse, Masato; Dominjon, Agnes; Hasebe, Takashi; Shan, Wenlei; Noguchi, Takashi; Miyachi, Akihira; Mita, Makoto; Kawasaki, Shigeo

    2016-07-01

    A focal plane based on MKID has been designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization experiments. We are designing and developing a focal plane with broadband corrugated horn array, planar OMT, 180 degree hybrid, bandpass filters, and MKIDs. The focal plane consists of 3 octave bands (55 - 108 GHz, 80 - 160 GHz, 160 - 320 GHz), 10 hexagonal modules. Broadband corrugated horn-array has been directly machined from an Al block and measured to have a good beam shape which is consistent with electromagnetic field simulations in octave bands. The horn array is designed to be low standing-wave, light weight, and electromagnetic shield. The broadband 4 probes ortho-mode transducer (OMT) is fabricated on Si membrane of an SOI wafer. A broadband 180 degree hybrid made with coplanar waveguide (CPW) is used to reduce higher modes of the circular waveguide. Two bandpass filters of each polarization are patterned with Nb microstrip. A prototype of the broadband corrugated horn coupled MKIDs has been fabricated and tested.

  18. Focal plane actuation for the development of a high resolution suborbital telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke Miller, Alex; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We present a hexapod stabilized focal plane as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements (~50μm at 20hz) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and is the limiting resolution of the system. To solve this, the hexapod system actuates the focal plane to counteract the jitter through real-time closed loop feedback from star-trackers. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. This boost in resolution will allow for Hubble-quality imaging for a fraction of the cost. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. The design also thermally isolates the hexapod from the cryogenic focal plane enabling the use of well-established non-cryogenic hexapod technology. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giant outer planets, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new data. On an Antarctic ~100-day Long-Duration-Balloon mission the continued high-resolution imaging of gas giant storm systems would provide cloud formation and evolution data second to only a Flagship orbiter.

  19. InstantScope: a low-cost whole slide imaging system with instant focal plane detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kaikai; Liao, Jun; Bian, Zichao; Heng, Xin; Zheng, Guoan

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a high-throughput whole slide imaging (WSI) system by adapting a cost-effective optomechanical add-on kit to existing microscopes. Inspired by the phase detection concept in professional photography, we attached two pinhole-modulated cameras at the eyepiece ports for instant focal plane detection. By adjusting the positions of the pinholes, we can effectively change the view angle for the sample, and as such, we can use the translation shift of the two pinhole-modulated images to identify the optimal focal position. By using a small pinhole size, the focal-plane-detection range is on the order of millimeter, orders of magnitude longer than the objective's depth of field. We also show that, by analyzing the phase correlation of the pinhole-modulated images, we can determine whether the sample contains one thin section, folded sections, or multiple layers separated by certain distances - an important piece of information prior to a detailed z scan. In order to achieve system automation, we deployed a low-cost programmable robotic arm to perform sample loading and $14 stepper motors to drive the microscope stage to perform x-y scanning. Using a 20X objective lens, we can acquire a 2 gigapixel image with 14 mm by 8 mm field of view in 90 seconds. The reported platform may find applications in biomedical research, telemedicine, and digital pathology. It may also provide new insights for the development of high-content screening instruments.

  20. Curved Focal-Plane Arrays Using Back-Illuminated High-Purity Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh; Hoenk, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    Curved-focal-plane arrays of back-illuminated silicon-based photodetectors are being developed. The basic idea is to improve the performance of an imaging instrument and simplify the optics needed to obtain a given level of performance by making an image sensor (e.g., a photographic film or an array of photodetectors) conform to a curved focal surface, instead of following the customary practice of designing the optics to project an image onto a flat focal surface. Eyes are natural examples of optical systems that have curved focal surfaces on which image sensors (retinas) are located. One prior approach to implementation of this concept involves the use of curved-input-surface microchannel plates as arrays of photodetectors. In comparison with microchannel plates, these curved-focal-plane arrays would weigh less, operate at much lower voltages, and consume less power. It should also be possible to fabricate the proposed devices at lower cost. It would be possible to fabricate an array of photodetectors and readout circuitry in the form of a very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit on a curved focal surface, but it would be difficult and expensive to do so. In a simple and inexpensive alternate approach, a device (see figure) would have (1) a curved back surface, onto which light would be focused; and (2) a flat front surface, on which VLSI circuitry would be fabricated by techniques that are well established for flat surfaces. The device would be made from ultrapure silicon, in which it is possible to form high-resistivity, thick photodetectors that are fully depleted through their thicknesses. (As used here, "thick means having a thickness between a fraction of a millimeter and a few millimeters.) The back surface would be polished to the curvature of the focal surface of the intended application. To enable the collection of charge carriers excited by photons near the back surface or in the bulk of the device, it would be necessary to form a transparent or

  1. A Design of Focal-plane Compensation of Aviation Imaging Equipment Based on MS5534C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lina, Zheng; Xue, Leng; Jiufei, Zhou; Yong, He; Jinbao, Fu

    This paper proposes an auto-compensation method for defocusing distance caused by temperature and pressure in aviation imaging equipment. As the host computer, the TMS320F2812 is the core controller and the digital pressure sensor MS5534C from Intersema Company is used as slave computer. The controller acquires the output of the temperature and the pressure from the sensor through MCBSP interface. By the change of temperature and pressure which results in defocusing distance, the software is adopted to compensate the defocusing distance and thereby keeps the stabilization of focal plane in aviation imaging equipment. The design proposal and the software flow is shown in the paper, furthermore the new system has simple interface, small size and real-time function. With many flight tests, the defocusing distance after the compensation of temperature and pressure is far less than the half focal depth of the optical system and it is fully satisfied with the requirements of imaging.

  2. Hemispherical infrared focal plane arrays: a new design parameter for the instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendler, M.; Dumas, D.; Chemla, F.; Cohen, M.; Laporte, P.; Tekaya, K.; Le Coarer, E.; Primot, J.; Ribot, H.

    2012-07-01

    In ground based astronomy, mainly all designs of sky survey telescopes are limited by the requirement that the detecting surface is flat whereas the focal surface is curved. Two kinds of solution have been investigated up to now. The first one consists in adding optical systems to flatten the image surface; however this solution complicates the design and increases the system size. Somehow, this solution increases, in the same time, the weight and price of the instrument. The second solution consists in curving artificially the focal surface by using a mosaic of several detectors, which are positioned in a spherical shape. However, this attempt is dedicated to low curvature and is limited by the technical difficulty to control the detectors alignment and tilt between each others. Today we would like to propose an ideal solution which is to curve the focal plane array in a spherical shape, thanks to our monolithic process developed at CEA-LETI based on thinned silicon substrates which allows a 100% optical fill factor. Two infrared uncooled cameras have been performed, using 320 x 256 pixels and 25 μm pitch micro-bolometer arrays curved at a bending radius of 80 mm. These two micro-cameras illustrate the optical system simplification and miniaturization involved by curved focal plane arrays. Moreover, the advantages of curved detectors on the optical performances (Point Spreading Function), as well as on volume and cost savings have been highlighted by the simulation of the opto-mechanical architecture of the spectrometer OptiMOS-EVE for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT).

  3. Advanced simulation methods to detect resonant frequency stack up in focal plane design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Craig; Malone, Neil R.; Torres, Raymond; Fajardo, Armando; Vampola, John; Drechsler, William; Parlato, Russell; Cobb, Christopher; Randolph, Max; Chiourn, Surath; Swinehart, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Wire used to connect focal plane electrical connections to external electrical circuitry can be modeled using the length, diameter and loop height to determine the resonant frequency. The design of the adjacent electric board and mounting platform can also be analyzed. The combined resonant frequency analysis can then be used to decouple the different component resonant frequencies to eliminate the potential for metal fatigue in the wires. It is important to note that the nominal maximum stress values that cause metal fatigue can be much less than the ultimate tensile stress limit or the yield stress limit and are degraded further at resonant frequencies. It is critical that tests be done to qualify designs that are not easily simulated due to material property variation and complex structures. Sine wave vibration testing is a critical component of qualification vibration and provides the highest accuracy in determining the resonant frequencies which can be reduced or uncorrelated improving the structural performance of the focal plane assembly by small changes in design damping or modern space material selection. Vibration flow down from higher levels of assembly needs consideration for intermediary hardware, which may amplify or attenuate the full up system vibration profile. A simple pass through of vibration requirements may result in over test or missing amplified resonant frequencies that can cause system failure. Examples are shown of metal wire fatigue such as discoloration and microscopic cracks which are visible at the submicron level by the use of a scanning electron microscope. While it is important to model and test resonant frequencies the Focal plane must also be constrained such that Coefficient of Thermal expansion mismatches are allowed to move and not overstress the FPA.

  4. Design and performance of the eROSITA focal plane instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Aschauer, Florian; Elbs, Johannes; Eraerds, Tanja; Granato, Stefanie; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Mießner, Danilo; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Strüder, Lothar; von Kienlin, Andreas; Walther, Sabine

    2012-07-01

    We developed and tested X-ray PNCCD focal plane detectors for the eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) space telescope. General scientific goal of the eROSITA project is the exploration of the X-ray universe in the energy band from about 0.2 keV up to 10 keV with excellent energy, time, and spatial resolution in combination with large effective telescope areas. The observational program divides into an all-sky survey and pointed observations. The mission duration is scheduled for 7.5 years. The German instrument will be launched in near future to the Lagrange point L2 on the Russian satellite SRG. The detection of single X-ray photons with precise information about their energy, angle of incidence and time is accomplished for eROSITA by an array of seven identical and independent PNCCD cameras. Each camera is assigned to a dedicated mirror system of Wolter-I type. The key component of the camera is a 5 cm • 3 cm large, back-illuminated, 450 μm thick and fully depleted frame store PNCCD chip. This chip is a further development of the sensor type that is in operation as focal plane detector on the XMMNewton satellite since launch in 1999 to date. Development and production of the CCDs for the eROSITA project were performed by the MPI Halbleiterlabor, as already in the past for the XMM-Newton project. According to the status of the project, a complete design of the seven flight cameras including the camera electronics and the filter wheel has been developed. Various functional and performance tests have been accomplished for a detailed characterization of the eROSITA camera system. We focus here especially on the focal plane detector design and the performance of the detectors, which are essential for the success of the X-ray astronomy space project.

  5. A 260 megapixel visible/NIR mixed technology focal plane for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besuner, Robert W.; Bebek, Christopher J.; Haller, Gunther M.; Harris, Stewart E.; Hart, Philip A.; Heetderks, Henry D.; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Lampton, Michael L.; Levi, Michael E.; Maldonado, Sergio E.; Roe, Natalie A.; Roodman, Aaron J.; Sapozhnikov, Leonid

    2011-10-01

    Mission concepts for NASA's Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST)1,2, ESA's Euclid3,4 mission, as well as next-generation ground-based surveys require large mosaic focal planes sensitive in both visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We have developed space-qualified detectors, readout electronics and focal plane design techniques that can be used to intermingle CCDs and NIR detectors on a single, silicon carbide (SiC) cold plate. This enables optimized, wideband observing strategies. The CCDs, developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, are fully-depleted, pchannel devices that are backside illuminated and capable of operating at temperatures down to 120K. The NIR detectors are 1.7 μm and 2.0 μm wavelength cutoff H2RG® HgCdTe, manufactured by Teledyne Imaging Sensors under contract to LBNL. Both the CCDs and NIR detectors are packaged on 4-side abuttable SiC pedestals with a common mounting footprint supporting a 44 mm mosaic pitch. Both types of detectors have direct-attached readout electronics that convert the detector signal directly to serial, digital data streams and allow a flexible, low cost data acquisition strategy to enable large data rates. A mosaic of these detectors can be operated at a common temperature that achieves the required dark current and read noise performance necessary for dark energy observations. We report here the qualification testing and performance verification for a focal plane that accommodates a 4x8 array of CCDs and HgCdTe detectors.

  6. Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Advanced Focal Planes and Integrated Circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Keast, Craig

    2007-02-28

    Over the last five years MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL) has developed a three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration technology that exploits the advantages of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology to enable wafer-level stacking and micrometer-scale electrical interconnection of fully fabricated circuit wafers. Advanced focal plane arrays have been the first applications to exploit the benefits of this 3D integration technology because the massively parallel information flow present in 2D imaging arrays maps very nicely into a 3D computational structure as information flows from circuit-tier to circuit-tier in the z-direction. To date, the MIT-LL 3D integration technology has been used to fabricate four different focal planes including: a 2-tier 64 x 64 imager with fully parallel per-pixel A/D conversion; a 3-tier 640 x 480 imager consisting of an imaging tier, an A/D conversion tier, and a digital signal processing tier; a 2-tier 1024 x 1024 pixel, 4-side-abutable imaging modules for tiling large mosaic focal planes, and a 3-tier Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) 3-D LIDAR array, using a 30 volt APD tier, a 3.3 volt CMOS tier, and a 1.5 volt CMOS tier. Recently, the 3D integration technology has been made available to the circuit design research community through DARPA-sponsored Multiproject fabrication runs. The first Multiproject Run (3DL1) completed fabrication in early 2006 and included over 30 different circuit designs from 21 different research groups. 3D circuit concepts explored in this run included stacked memories, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and mixed-signal circuits. The second Multiproject Run (3DM2) is currently in fabrication and includes particle detector readouts designed by Fermilab. This talk will provide a brief overview of MIT-LL's 3D-integration process, discuss some of the focal plane applications where the technology is being applied, and provide a summary of some of the Multiproject Run circuit results.

  7. Ballistic imaging of biological media with collimated illumination and focal plane detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezner, Barak; Cahen, Sarah; Glasser, Ziv; Sternklar, Shmuel; Granot, Er'el

    2015-07-01

    A simple, affordable method for imaging through biological tissue is investigated. The method consists of (1) imaging with a wavelength that has a relatively small scattering coefficient (1310 nm in this case) and (2) collimated illumination together with (3) focal plane detection to enhance the detection of the ballistic photons relative to the diffusive light. We demonstrate ballistic detection of an object immersed in a 1-cm-thick cuvette filled with 4% Intralipid, which is equivalent to ˜1 to 2 cm of skin tissue. With the same technology, a ballistic image of a 1-mm-wide object in 10-mm-thick chicken breast is also presented.

  8. Review of Concepts and Applications for Multispectral/Hyperspectral Focal Plane Array (FPA) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAdoo, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Multispectral, and ultimately hyperspectral, focal plane arrays (FPAs) represent the logical extension of two-color FPA technology, which has already shown its utility in military applications. Incorporating the spectral discrimination function directly in the FPA would offer the potential for orders-of-magnitude increase in remote sensor system performance. It would allow reduction or even elimination of optical components currently required to provide spectral discrimination in atmospheric remote sensors. The result would be smaller, simpler instruments with higher performance than exist today.

  9. Development and production of the H4RG-15 focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Richard; Beletic, James W.; Cooper, Donald; Farris, Mark; Hall, Donald N. B.; Hodapp, Klaus; Luppino, Gerard; Piquette, Eric; Xu, Min

    2012-07-01

    In preparation for the large number of infrared pixels required in the era of Extremely Large Telescopes, Teledyne, in partnership with the University of Hawaii and GL Scientific, has been funded to develop the next generation of largeformat infrared focal plane array for ground-based astronomy; the 4096 × 4096 pixel (15 micron pitch) H4RG-15. Teledyne has successfully designed, produced, and tested the first generation H4RG-15 prototype arrays. This paper reports on the functionality and performance test results of the H4RG-15 prototypes and provides status of the 2012 pilot production effort.

  10. Extrinsic charge-extraction device /XCED/ - An extrinsic-silicon focal-plane array architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pocock, D. N.; Chiu, K. Y.; Missman, R. A.; Nuttall, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The XCED (extrinsic charge-extraction device) is a unique focal-plane array structure designed for staring infrared-imaging applications. Extrinsic-silicon detectors, MOS integrating storage capacitors, and unique accumulation mode multiplexing devices are combined in a two-dimensional array within a single monolithic chip. Zinc-doped silicon has been studied and utilized to fabricate detectors sensitive in the 2 to 4 micron spectral band with BLIP operating temperatures above 110 K. The potentially severe problems for staring arrays of element-to-element nonuniformities and detector storage saturation have been solved. Preliminary results and thermal imagery are shown for a 16 x 16 element array.

  11. MUSTANG 2: A Large Focal Plane Array for the 100 m Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicker, S. R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dober, B.; Egan, D.; Ford, J.; Ford, P.; Hilton, G.; Irwin, K. D.; Mason, B. S.; Marganian, P.; Mello, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Mroczkowski, T.; Rosenman, M.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L.; White, S.; Whitehead, M.; Young, A. H.

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes MUSTANG 2, a 338 element focal plane array that is being built for the Green Bank Telescope. Each element consists of a profiled feedhorn coupled to two transition edge sensor bolometers, one for each polarization. Initial deployment will be with 32 detectors, but once fully populated, MUSTANG 2 will be capable of mapping a area to Jy in 1 h with good image fidelity on angular scales from to . As well as an instrument overview, the choice of bandpass and the design of the feeds, detectors and readout are given.

  12. A Method to Measure the Flatness of the LSST Focal Plane Assembly in Situ

    SciTech Connect

    Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

    2005-10-26

    In this note I describe an inexpensive and simple laser-based method to measure the flatness of the LSST focal plane assembly (FPA) in situ, i.e. while the FPA is inside its cryostat, at -100 C and under vacuum. The method may also allow measurement of the distance of the FPA to lens L3, and may be sensitive enough to measure gravity- and pressure-induced deformations of L3 as well. The accuracy of the method shows promise to be better than 1 micron.

  13. Design of the CRISM cryogenic system and focal plane assembly isolation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Jeffrey; Schaefer, Ed; Fasold, Melisa

    2005-08-01

    This Paper will discuss the design of a triple redundant cryogenically cooled and isolated Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) for the Compact Remote Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument. The FPA is required to operate in the temperature range of 90 - 100K. The CRISM FPA isolation system was constructed from a ceramic fiber composite. The FPA was cooled by one of three cryocoolers individually connected to one of three diode heat pipes that were all connected to the FPA. The total heat load imposed by the isolation system was about 250 milliwatts at operating temperature. CRISM is expected to launch in August of 2005.

  14. Quantum Well and Quantum Dot Modeling for Advanced Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of Quantum Well Infrared Detectors (QWIP) and Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors (QDIP) in the development of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). The QWIP Detector being developed is a dual band detector. It is capable of running on two bands Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) and Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR). The same large-format dual-band FPA technology can be applied to Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) with no modification, once QDIP exceeds QWIP in single device performance. Details of the devices are reviewed.

  15. Regional Stress Orientations and Slip Compatibility of Earthquake Focal Mechanism Nodal Planes in the New Madrid Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, O.; Zoback, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    In this study we revisit the question of slip on faults in the New Madrid seismic zone in the context of the regional stress field. Specifically, we utilize newly available data to investigate whether fault slip is compatible with the regional stress field and laboratory-determined coefficients of friction (as originally argued by M.D. Zoback and M.L. Zoback, Science, 1981) or if there is evidence for either local sources of stress or anomalously low fault strength. Ten new, well-constrained earthquake focal plane mechanisms from the New Madrid seismic zone are available to update regional stress data and two earthquake focal plane mechanisms originally published in the 1970's have recently been revised. Utilizing these data, we demonstrate that the earthquakes occur on nodal planes which are optimally-oriented for shear failure in the current stress field assuming hydrostatic pore pressure in the brittle crust and coefficients of friction (μ) of about 0.6. The average SHmax orientation inferred from P-axes of the 12 focal mechanisms is N84E +/- 21°, which is consistent with the overall trend of SHmax in the region. In a manner similar to the study by M.L. Zoback (JGR, 1992), which utilized a slightly smaller (and in two cases, less reliable) set of focal mechanisms in this area, we use the orientation of the focal mechanism nodal planes combined with independent stress data to investigate the compatibility of slip on both nodal planes in the current stress field. First, the relative magnitudes of the three principal stresses are calculated from the nodal plane and stress orientations. Next, we utilize Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion to calculate the theoretically-optimal orientation of a fault plane for different coefficients of friction. Lastly, we calculate the difference in orientation between the theoretically-optimal planes and the focal mechanism nodal planes and identify the nodal plane with the smaller difference as the preferred nodal plane. For μ = 0

  16. 3D numerical model for a focal plane view in case of mosaic grating compressor for high energy CPA chain.

    PubMed

    Montant, S; Marre, G; Blanchot, N; Rouyer, C; Videau, L; Sauteret, C

    2006-12-11

    An important issue, mosaic grating compressor, is studied to recompress pulses for multiPetawatt, high energy laser systems. Alignment of the mosaic elements is crucial to control the focal spot and thus the intensity on target. No theoretical approach analyses the influence of compressor misalignment on spatial and temporal profiles in the focal plane. We describe a simple 3D numerical model giving access to the focal plane view after a compressor. This model is computationally inexpensive since it needs only 1D Fourier transforms to access to the temporal profile. We present simulations of monolithic and mosaic grating compressors.

  17. Effects of Non-Elevation-Focalized Linear Array Transducer on Ultrasound Plane-Wave Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Congzhi; Xiao, Yang; Xia, Jingjing; Qiu, Weibao; Zheng, Hairong

    2016-01-01

    Plane-wave ultrasound imaging (PWUS) has become an important method of ultrasound imaging in recent years as its frame rate has exceeded 10,000 frames per second, allowing ultrasound to be used for two-dimensional shear wave detection and functional brain imaging. However, compared to the traditional focusing and scanning method, PWUS images always suffer from a degradation of lateral resolution and contrast. To improve the image quality of PWUS, many different beamforming algorithms have been proposed and verified. Yet the influence of transducer structure is rarely studied. For this paper, the influence of using an acoustic lens for PWUS was evaluated. Two linear array transducers were fabricated. One was not self-focalized in the elevation direction (non-elevation-focalized transducer, NEFT); the other one was a traditional elevation-focalized transducer (EFT). An initial simulation was conducted to show the influence of elevation focusing. Then the images obtained with NEFT on a standard ultrasound imaging phantom were compared with those obtained with EFT. It was demonstrated that, in a relatively deep region, the contrast of an NEFT image is better than that of an EFT image. These results indicate that a more sophisticated design of ultrasound transducer would further improve the image quality of PWUS. PMID:27845751

  18. Conceptual design of wide-field focal plane with InGaAs image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Nakaya, H.; Kashikawa, N.; Uchida, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a conceptual design to implement wide-field focal plane assembly with InGaAs image sensors which are being tested intensively and reveled to be promising for astronomical use. InGaAs image sensors are sensitive up to 1.7 microns and would open a new window for the wide-field near-infrared (NIR) imaging survey once large format sensors are developed. The sensors are not necessarily cooled down to below 100 K, which is the case for prevailing NIR image sensors such as HgCdTe, enabling us to develop the NIR camera based on the technique developed for the CCD camera in optical wavelength. The major technical challenges to employ InGaAS image sensors for wide-field NIR camera are implementation of focal plane assembly and thermal design. In this article, we discuss these difficulties and show how we can conquer based on our experience to build Hyper Suprime-Cam, which is a wide-field imager with 116 2k4k CCDs attached to Subaru Telescope.

  19. Holographic optical tweezers combined with back-focal-plane displacement detection.

    PubMed

    Marsà, Ferran; Farré, Arnau; Martín-Badosa, Estela; Montes-Usategui, Mario

    2013-12-16

    A major problem with holographic optical tweezers (HOTs) is their incompatibility with laser-based position detection methods, such as back-focal-plane interferometry (BFPI). The alternatives generally used with HOTs, like high-speed video tracking, do not offer the same spatial and temporal bandwidths. This has limited the use of this technique in precise quantitative experiments. In this paper, we present an optical trap design that combines digital holography and back-focal-plane displacement detection. We show that, with a particularly simple setup, it is possible to generate a set of multiple holographic traps and an additional static non-holographic trap with orthogonal polarizations and that they can be, therefore, easily separated for measuring positions and forces with the high positional and temporal resolutions of laser-based detection. We prove that measurements from both polarizations contain less than 1% crosstalk and that traps in our setup are harmonic within the typical range. We further tested the instrument in a DNA stretching experiment and we discuss an interesting property of this configuration: the small drift of the differential signal between traps.

  20. Terahertz 3D printed diffractive lens matrices for field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays.

    PubMed

    Szkudlarek, Krzesimir; Sypek, Maciej; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Suszek, Jarosław; Zagrajek, Przemysław; Feduniewicz-Żmuda, Anna; Yahniuk, Ivan; Yatsunenko, Sergey; Nowakowska-Siwińska, Anna; Coquillat, Dominique; But, Dmytro B; Rachoń, Martyna; Węgrzyńska, Karolina; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Knap, Wojciech

    2016-09-05

    We present the concept, the fabrication processes and the experimental results for materials and optics that can be used for terahertz field-effect transistor detector focal plane arrays. More specifically, we propose 3D printed arrays of a new type - diffractive multi-zone lenses of which the performance is superior to that of previously used mono-zone diffractive or refractive elements and evaluate them with GaN/AlGaN field-effect transistor terahertz detectors. Experiments performed in the 300-GHz atmospheric window show that the lens arrays offer both a good efficiency and good uniformity, and may improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the terahertz field-effect transistor detectors by more than one order of magnitude. In practice, we tested 3 × 12 lens linear arrays with printed circuit board THz detector arrays used in postal security scanners and observed significant signal-to-noise improvements. Our results clearly show that the proposed technology provides a way to produce cost-effective, reproducible, flat optics for large-size field-effect transistor THz-detector focal plane arrays.

  1. Noise analysis for infrared focal plane arrays CMOS readout integrated circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiamu; Ding, Ruijun; Chen, Honglei; Shen, Xiao; Liu, Fei

    2008-12-01

    With the development of the infrared focal plane detectors, the internal noises in the infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) CMOS readout integrated circuit gradually became an important factor of the development of the IRFPAs. The internal noises in IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit are researched in this work. Part of the motivation for this work is to analyze the mechanism and influence of the internal noises in readout integrated circuit. And according to the signal transporting process, many kinds of internal noises are analyzed. According to the results of theory analysis, it is shown that 1/f noise, KTC noise and pulse switch noise have greater amplitude in frequency domain. These noises have seriously affected the performance of output signal. Also this work has frequency test on the signals of a readout integrated circuit chip which is using DI readout mode. After analyzing the frequency test results, it is shown that 1/f noises and pulse switch noises are the main components of the internal noises in IRFPAS CMOS readout integrated circuit and they are the noises which give a major impact to the output signal. In accordance with the type of noise, some design methods for noise suppression are put forward. And after the simulation of these methods with EDA software, the results show that noises have been reduced. The results of this work gave the referenced gist for improving the noise suppression design of IRFPAs CMOS readout integrated circuit.

  2. Range-gated imaging with an indium-gallium-arsenide-based focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Robert M.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; O'Grady, Matthew T.; Blessinger, Michael A.; Dries, J. C.

    2004-08-01

    Range-gated imaging using indium gallium arsenide based focal plane arrays enables both depth and intensity imaging with eye-safe lasers while remaining covert to night vision goggles. We report on a focal plane array consisting of an indium gallium arsenide photodiode array hybrid-integrated with a CMOS readout circuit, resulting in an all solid state device. A 5 V supply avoids the complication of high voltage supplies and improves reliability, while also allowing the device to be small and lightweight. The spectral sensitivity of InGaAs extends from 0.9 microns to 1.7 microns, allowing the use of commercially available pulsed lasers with 1.5 micron wavelength, several millijoule pulse energies, and nanosecond scale pulse durations. SUI is developing a 320 x 256 pixel imager with the ability to conduct range gated imaging with sub-100 ns gates, while also allowing a 16 ms integration time for imaging in a staring mode. The pixels are fabricated on a 25 micron pitch for a compact device, and all pixels are gated simultaneously for "snapshot" exposure. High in-pixel gain with nearly noiseless amplification and low dark current enable high sensitivity imaging from ultra-short gates to video rate imaging.

  3. Closed-loop focal plane wavefront control with the SCExAO instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinache, Frantz; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Guyon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Aims: This article describes the implementation of a focal plane based wavefront control loop on the high-contrast imaging instrument SCExAO (Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics). The sensor relies on the Fourier analysis of conventional focal-plane images acquired after an asymmetric mask is introduced in the pupil of the instrument. Methods: This absolute sensor is used here in a closed-loop to compensate for the non-common path errors that normally affects any imaging system relying on an upstream adaptive optics system.This specific implementation was used to control low-order modes corresponding to eight zernike modes (from focus to spherical). Results: This loop was successfully run on-sky at the Subaru Telescope and is used to offset the SCExAO deformable mirror shape used as a zero-point by the high-order wavefront sensor. The paper details the range of errors this wavefront-sensing approach can operate within and explores the impact of saturation of the data and how it can be bypassed, at a cost in performance. Conclusions: Beyond this application, because of its low hardware impact, the asymmetric pupil Fourier wavefront sensor (APF-WFS) can easily be ported in a wide variety of wavefront sensing contexts, for ground- as well space-borne telescopes, and for telescope pupils that can be continuous, segmented or even sparse. The technique is powerful because it measures the wavefront where it really matters, at the level of the science detector.

  4. A method for pulsed scannerless laser imaging using focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-peng; Wang, Ke-yong; Deng, Jia-hao; Hai, Yan

    2011-06-01

    Laser imaging techniques have advantages for EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) immunity and abundant image information. This contribution describes the research activity on the scannerless laser imaging detection technique using direct detection aimed at laser fuze applications. The technique using a pulsed laser to illuminate the target and a focal plane array can be used as a receiver. The range information is achieved by means of a direct time of light measurement. Information about the reflectivity of the target is gathered by recording the amplitude of the received pulse. In this paper a high-repetition-frequency, narrow pulse semiconductor laser floodlight emitting system is designed; corresponding optics is used to generate the homogenously illuminated FOI (field of illumination). The echo of laser is collected by receiving optical system fed to focal plane array. Some experiments were done with the emitting and receiving systems that had been designed. Experiments show the validity and rationality of this method. The scannerless structure is robust and provides instantaneous snapshot-type imaging. Avoiding any moving mechanical parts, scannerless laser imaging system have distinct characteristics such as small, compact, high frame rate, wide field of view and high reliability. It is an optimal approach to realize laser imaging fuze.

  5. Solid-state image sensor with focal-plane digital photon-counting pixel array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A photosensitive layer such as a-Si for a UV/visible wavelength band is provided for low light level imaging with at least a separate CMOS amplifier directly connected to each PIN photodetector diode to provide a focal-plane array of NxN pixels, and preferably a separate photon-counting CMOS circuit directly connected to each CMOS amplifier, although one row of counters may be time shared for reading out the photon flux rate of each diode in the array, together with a buffer memory for storing all rows of the NxN image frame before transfer to suitable storage. All CMOS circuitry is preferably fabricated in the same silicon layer as the PIN photodetector diode for a monolithic structure, but when the wavelength band of interest requires photosensitive material different from silicon, the focal-plane array may be fabricated separately on a different semiconductor layer bump-bonded or otherwise bonded for a virtually monolithic structure with one free terminal of each diode directly connected to the input terminal of its CMOS amplifier and digital counter for integration of the photon flux rate at each photodetector of the array.

  6. InstantScope: a low-cost whole slide imaging system with instant focal plane detection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kaikai; Liao, Jun; Bian, Zichao; Heng, Xin; Zheng, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of a high-throughput whole slide imaging (WSI) system by adapting a cost-effective optomechanical add-on kit to existing microscopes. Inspired by the phase detection concept in professional photography, we attached two pinhole-modulated cameras at the eyepiece ports for instant focal plane detection. By adjusting the positions of the pinholes, we can effectively change the view angle for the sample, and as such, we can use the translation shift of the two pinhole-modulated images to identify the optimal focal position. By using a small pinhole size, the focal-plane-detection range is on the order of millimeter, orders of magnitude longer than the objective’s depth of field. We also show that, by analyzing the phase correlation of the pinhole-modulated images, we can determine whether the sample contains one thin section, folded sections, or multiple layers separated by certain distances – an important piece of information prior to a detailed z scan. In order to achieve system automation, we deployed a low-cost programmable robotic arm to perform sample loading and $14 stepper motors to drive the microscope stage to perform x-y scanning. Using a 20X objective lens, we can acquire a 2 gigapixel image with 14 mm by 8 mm field of view in 90 seconds. The reported platform may find applications in biomedical research, telemedicine, and digital pathology. It may also provide new insights for the development of high-content screening instruments. PMID:26417493

  7. Status of the Stellar X-Ray Polarimeter for the Spectrum-X-Gamma mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; Novick, R.; Shaw, P.; Hanany, S.; Liu, Y.; Fleischman, J. R.; Siuniaev, R.; Lapshov, I.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    The Stellar X-Ray Polarimeter (SXRP) uses the polarization sensitivity of a graphite Bragg crystal and a lithium Thomsom scattering target to measure the polarization of X-rays from astrophysical sources. The SXRP is a focal plane detector for the Soviet-Danish SODART telescopes which will be launched on the Soviet Spectrum-X-Gamma mission. The SXRP will be the third orbiting stellar X-ray polarimeter, and should provide an order of magnitude increase in polarization sensitivity over its predecessors.

  8. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Intergration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Dick; Byrd, Don; Christensen, Wynn; Henson, Tammy; Krumel, Les; Rappoport, William; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1999-06-08

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82° along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38° across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 µm. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than ± 20 µm over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA.

  9. Focal plane wavefront sensor achromatization: The multireference self-coherent camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, J. R.; Galicher, R.; Baudoz, P.; Rousset, G.; Mazoyer, J.; Dupuis, O.

    2016-04-01

    Context. High contrast imaging and spectroscopy provide unique constraints for exoplanet formation models as well as for planetary atmosphere models. But this can be challenging because of the planet-to-star small angular separation (<1 arcsec) and high flux ratio (>105). Recently, optimized instruments like VLT/SPHERE and Gemini/GPI were installed on 8m-class telescopes. These will probe young gazeous exoplanets at large separations (≳1 au) but, because of uncalibrated phase and amplitude aberrations that induce speckles in the coronagraphic images, they are not able to detect older and fainter planets. Aims: There are always aberrations that are slowly evolving in time. They create quasi-static speckles that cannot be calibrated a posteriori with sufficient accuracy. An active correction of these speckles is thus needed to reach very high contrast levels (>106-107). This requires a focal plane wavefront sensor. Our team proposed a self coherent camera, the performance of which was demonstrated in the laboratory. As for all focal plane wavefront sensors, these are sensitive to chromatism and we propose an upgrade that mitigates the chromatism effects. Methods: First, we recall the principle of the self-coherent camera and we explain its limitations in polychromatic light. Then, we present and numerically study two upgrades to mitigate chromatism effects: the optical path difference method and the multireference self-coherent camera. Finally, we present laboratory tests of the latter solution. Results: We demonstrate in the laboratory that the multireference self-coherent camera can be used as a focal plane wavefront sensor in polychromatic light using an 80 nm bandwidth at 640 nm (bandwidth of 12.5%). We reach a performance that is close to the chromatic limitations of our bench: 1σ contrast of 4.5 × 10-8 between 5 and 17 λ0/D. Conclusions: The performance of the MRSCC is promising for future high-contrast imaging instruments that aim to actively minimize the

  10. Focal plane alignment and detector characterization for the Subaru prime focus spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Murdock; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Carr, Michael; Golebiowski, Mirek; Gunn, James E.; Hope, Stephen C.; Smee, Stephen A.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the infrastructure being developed to align and characterize the detectors for the Subaru Measure- ment of Images and Redshifts (SuMIRe) Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS). PFS will employ four three-channel spectrographs with an operating wavelength range of 3800 °A to 12600 °A. Each spectrograph will be comprised of two visible channels and one near infrared (NIR) channel, where each channel will use a separate Schmidt camera to image the captured spectra onto their respective detectors. In the visible channels, Hamamatsu 2k × 4k CCDs will be mounted in pairs to create a single 4k × 4k detector, while the NIR channel will use a single Teledyne 4k × 4k H4RG HgCdTe device. The fast f/1.1 optics of the Schmidt cameras will give a shallow depth of focus necessitating an optimization of the focal plane array flatness. The minimum departure from flatness of the focal plane array for the visible channels is set the by the CCD flatness, typically 10 μm peak-to-valley. We will adjust the coplanarity for a pair of CCDs such that the flatness of the array is consistent with the flatness of the detectors themselves. To achieve this we will use an optical non-contact measurement system to measure surface flatness and coplanarity at both ambient and operating temperatures, and use shims to adjust the coplanarity of the CCDs. We will characterize the performance of the detectors for PFS consistent with the scientific goals for the project. To this end we will measure the gain, linearity, full well, quantum efficiency (QE), charge diffusion, charge transfer inefficiency (CTI), and noise properties of these devices. We also desire to better understand the non-linearity of the photon transfer curve for the CCDs, and the charge persistence/reciprocity problems of the HgCdTe devices. To enable the metrology and characterization of these detectors we are building two test cryostats nearly identical in design. The first test cryostat will primarily be used for the

  11. Multiple detector focal plane array ultraviolet spectrometer for the AMPS laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, P. D.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of meeting the requirements of the amps spectroscopic instrumentation by using a multi-element focal plane detector array in a conventional spectrograph mount was examined. The requirements of the detector array were determined from the optical design of the spectrometer which in turn depends on the desired level of resolution and sensitivity required. The choice of available detectors and their associated electronics and controls was surveyed, bearing in mind that the data collection rate from this system is so great that on-board processing and reduction of data are absolutely essential. Finally, parallel developments in instrumentation for imaging in astronomy were examined, both in the ultraviolet (for the Large Space Telescope as well as other rocket and satellite programs) and in the visible, to determine what progress in that area can have direct bearing on atmospheric spectroscopy.

  12. Visualization of Subsurface Defects in Composites using a Focal Plane Array Infrared Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Yuri A.; Winfree, William P.

    1999-01-01

    A technique for enhanced defect visualization in composites via transient thermography is presented in this paper. The effort targets automated defect map construction for multiple defects located in the observed area. Experimental data were collected on composite panels of different thickness with square inclusions and flat bottom holes of different depth and orientation. The time evolution of the thermal response and spatial thermal profiles are analyzed. The pattern generated by carbon fibers and the vignetting effect of the focal plane array camera make defect visualization difficult. An improvement of the defect visibility is made by the pulse phase technique and the spatial background treatment. The relationship between a size of a defect and its reconstructed image is analyzed as well. The image processing technique for noise reduction is discussed.

  13. Status of AlGaN based focal plane arrays for UV solar blind detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Mazzeo, Giovanni; Dussaigne, Amélie; Duboz, Jean-Yves

    2005-10-01

    The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet solar blind detection in competition with technologies based on photocathodes, MCP intensifiers, back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays. All of the them must be associated to UV blocking filters. These new detectors present both an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. First we will present the ultimate properties of the AlGaN based devices. These spectral properties are analysed in regards to the sharp cut off required for solar blind detection around 280nm, and we will quantify how the stringent difficulties to achieve solar blind filters can be reduced. We also investigated the electrical capabilities of Schottky diodes or Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) technologies to detect extremely low UV signal. We will especially present results from a linear array based on a CCD readout multiplexor.

  14. Methodology for testing infrared focal plane arrays in simulated nuclear radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divita, E. L.; Mills, R. E.; Koch, T. L.; Gordon, M. J.; Wilcox, R. A.; Williams, R. E.

    1992-07-01

    This paper summarizes test methodology for focal plane array (FPA) testing that can be used for benign (clear) and radiation environments, and describes the use of custom dewars and integrated test equipment in an example environment. The test methodology, consistent with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) standards, is presented for the total accumulated gamma dose, transient dose rate, gamma flux, and neutron fluence environments. The merits and limitations of using Cobalt 60 for gamma environment simulations and of using various fast-neutron reactors and neutron sources for neutron simulations are presented. Test result examples are presented to demonstrate test data acquisition and FPA parameter performance under different measurement conditions and environmental simulations.

  15. ACE16k: a 128x128 focal plane analog processor with digital I/O.

    PubMed

    Cembrano, Gustavo Liñan; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Angel; Espejo Meana, Servando; Domínguez-Castro, Rafael

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new generation 128x128 Focal-Plane Analog Programmable Array Processor -FPAPAP, from a system level perspective. It has been manufactured in a 0.35 microm standard digital 1P-5M CMOS technology. It has been designed to achieve the high-speed and moderate-accuracy -8b- requirements of most real time -early-vision applications. External data interchange and control are completely digital. The chip contains close to four million transistors, 90% of them working in analog mode. It achieves peak computing values of 0.33TeraOPS while keeping power consumption at reasonable limits -82.5GOPS/W. Preliminary experimental results are also provided in the paper.

  16. Automated alignment of a reconfigurable optical system using focal-plane sensing and Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Fang, Joyce; Savransky, Dmitry

    2016-08-01

    Automation of alignment tasks can provide improved efficiency and greatly increase the flexibility of an optical system. Current optical systems with automated alignment capabilities are typically designed to include a dedicated wavefront sensor. Here, we demonstrate a self-aligning method for a reconfigurable system using only focal plane images. We define a two lens optical system with 8 degrees of freedom. Images are simulated given misalignment parameters using ZEMAX software. We perform a principal component analysis on the simulated data set to obtain Karhunen-Loève modes, which form the basis set whose weights are the system measurements. A model function, which maps the state to the measurement, is learned using nonlinear least-squares fitting and serves as the measurement function for the nonlinear estimator (extended and unscented Kalman filters) used to calculate control inputs to align the system. We present and discuss simulated and experimental results of the full system in operation.

  17. Time resolved photo-luminescent decay characterization of mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Soehnel, Grant

    2015-01-20

    The minority carrier lifetime is a measurable material property that is an indication of infrared detector device performance. To study the utility of measuring the carrier lifetime, an experiment has been constructed that can time resolve the photo-luminescent decay of a detector or wafer sample housed inside a liquid nitrogen cooled Dewar. Motorized stages allow the measurement to be scanned over the sample surface, and spatial resolutions as low as 50µm have been demonstrated. A carrier recombination simulation was developed to analyze the experimental data. Results from measurements performed on 4 mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays show strong correlationmore » between spatial maps of the lifetime, dark current, and relative response.« less

  18. An innovative concept for the AsteroidFinder/SSB focal plane assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Karsten; Tschentscher, Matthias; Koncz, Alexander; Solbrig, Michael; Michaelis, Harald

    2012-06-01

    This paper gives a summary on the system concept and design of the focal plane assembly of AsteroidFinder/SSB, a small satellite mission which is currently under development at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). An athermal design concept has been developed in accordance to the requirements of the instrument and spacecraft. Key aspects leading to this approach have been a trade-off study of the mechanical telescope interface, the definition of electrical and thermal interfaces and a material selection which minimizes thermally induced stresses. As a novelty, the structure will be manufactured from a machinable AlN-BN composite ceramic. To enable rapid design iterations and development, an integrated modeling approach has been used to conduct a thermo-mechanical analysis of the proposed concept in order to proof its feasibility. The steady-state temperature distribution for various load cases and the resulting stress and strain within the assembly have both been computed using a finite element simulation.

  19. Time resolved photo-luminescent decay characterization of mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Soehnel, Grant

    2015-01-20

    The minority carrier lifetime is a measurable material property that is an indication of infrared detector device performance. To study the utility of measuring the carrier lifetime, an experiment has been constructed that can time resolve the photo-luminescent decay of a detector or wafer sample housed inside a liquid nitrogen cooled Dewar. Motorized stages allow the measurement to be scanned over the sample surface, and spatial resolutions as low as 50µm have been demonstrated. A carrier recombination simulation was developed to analyze the experimental data. Results from measurements performed on 4 mercury cadmium telluride focal plane arrays show strong correlation between spatial maps of the lifetime, dark current, and relative response.

  20. Direct view zoom scope with single focal plane and adaptable reticle

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, Brett

    2016-11-15

    A direct view telescopic sight includes objective lens, eyepiece, and prism erector assemblies. The objective lens assembly is mounted to receive light of an image from an object direction and direct the light along an optical path. The eyepiece assembly is mounted to receive the light along the optical path and to emit the light of the image along an eye-ward direction. The prism erector assembly is positioned between the objective lens and eyepiece assemblies and includes first and second prism elements through which the optical path passes. The first and second prism elements invert the image. A reticle element is disposed on or adjacent to a surface of one of the first or second prism elements to combine a reticle on the image. The image is brought into focus at only a single focal plane between the objective lens and eyepiece assemblies at a given time.

  1. Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, J. M.; Shott, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    We have exploited the artificial atomlike properties of epitaxially self-assembled quantum dots for the development of high operating temperature long wavelength infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays. Quantum dots are nanometer-scale islands that form spontaneously on a semiconductor substrate due to lattice mismatch. QDIPs are expected to outperform quantum well infrared detectors (QWIPs) and are expected to offer significant advantages over II-VI material based focal plane arrays. QDIPs are fabricated using robust wide bandgap III-V materials which are well suited to the production of highly uniform LWIR arrays. We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology to grow multi-layer LWIR quantum dot structures based on the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs material system. JPL is building on its significant QWIP experience and is basically building a Dot-in-the-Well (DWELL) device design by embedding InAs quantum dots in a QWIP structure. This hybrid quantum dot/quantum well device offers additional control in wavelength tuning via control of dot-size and/or quantum well sizes. In addition the quantum wells can trap electrons and aide in ground state refilling. Recent measurements have shown a 10 times higher photoconductive gain than the typical QWIP device, which indirectly confirms the lower relaxation rate of excited electrons (photon bottleneck) in QDPs. Subsequent material and device improvements have demonstrated an absorption quantum efficiency (QE) of approx. 3%. Dot-in-the-well (DWELL) QDIPs were also experimentally shown to absorb both 45 deg. and normally incident light. Thus we have employed a reflection grating structure to further enhance the quantum efficiency. JPL has demonstrated wavelength control by progressively growing material and fabricating devices structures that have continuously increased in LWIR response. The most recent devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 microns. Peak detectivity of the 8.1 micrometer devices has reached approx. 1 x 10(exp 10

  2. Strained-layer superlattice focal plane array having a planar structure

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jin K.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Gin, Aaron; Marsh, Phillip F.; Young, Erik W.; Cich, Michael J.

    2010-07-13

    An infrared focal plane array (FPA) is disclosed which utilizes a strained-layer superlattice (SLS) formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5 epitaxially grown on a GaSb substrate. The FPA avoids the use of a mesa structure to isolate each photodetector element and instead uses impurity-doped regions formed in or about each photodetector for electrical isolation. This results in a substantially-planar structure in which the SLS is unbroken across the entire width of a 2-D array of the photodetector elements which are capped with an epitaxially-grown passivation layer to reduce or eliminate surface recombination. The FPA has applications for use in the wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m.

  3. First Photometric Performance Results of the Kepler Single String Focal Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, David G.; Borucki, W.; Dunham, E.; Geary, J.; Jenkins, J.; Argabright, V.; Bauer, R.; Dumont, C.; McArthur, S.; Peters, D.; Philbrick, R.; Rudeen, A.; VanCleve, J.; Witteborn, F.

    2006-12-01

    The Kepler Mission is designed to detect Earth-size and smaller exoplanets using space based transit photometry. An engineering model (EM) consisting of two flight-like CCDs and the associated control and data acquisition boards representing a portion of the flight focal plane has been built to qualify the flight design. In addition to all of the flight environmental qualification tests, this single-string EM has been photometrically tested using the Kepler Technology Demonstration facility (Koch et al, SPIE, 4013, 508-519, 2000), which includes a star field simulator and the ability to generate Earth-size transit signals in various stars. We present a description of the test methodology, the photometric performance test results and a comparison to the mission design requirements.

  4. W-band planar antennas for next generation sub-millimeter focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deo, Prafulla; Robinson, Matthew; Maffei, Bruno; Pisano, Giampaolo; Trappe, Neil

    2016-07-01

    Current and future generations of astronomical instruments in the millimetre (mm) and sub-mm range are in need of increased sensitivity through the use of ever larger focal planes with 1000s of pixels. Mass, dimensions and manufacture requirements, mainly for new space missions, is driving the technology to go from feedhorn, and generally waveguide based cold optics to planar coupled detectors, while maintaining RF performance. The present results of a current ESA TRP are presented with respect to the work on planar antennae that will be coupled to cold bolometric detectors through the use of planar mesh lenses. Two planar antennae operating at W-band are developed, namely, a broadband sinuous antenna and a variation on the classical dual-slot antenna to realise multi-band functionality.

  5. A math model for high velocity sensoring with a focal plane shuttered camera.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.

    1971-01-01

    A new mathematical model is presented which describes the image produced by a focal plane shutter-equipped camera. The model is based upon the well-known collinearity condition equations and incorporates both the translational and rotational motion of the camera during the exposure interval. The first differentials of the model with respect to exposure interval, delta t, yield the general matrix expressions for image velocities which may be simplified to known cases. The exposure interval, delta t, may be replaced under certain circumstances with a function incorporating blind velocity and image position if desired. The model is tested using simulated Lunar Orbiter data and found to be computationally stable as well as providing excellent results, provided that some external information is available on the velocity parameters.

  6. Low dark current LWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiml, M.; Eich, D.; Fick, W.; Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, M.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenically cooled HgCdTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices, and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. AIM will present its latest results on n-on-p as well as p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode focal plane detector arrays at cut-off wavelengths >11 μm at 80 K. Dark current densities below the Rule'07 have been demonstrated for n-on-p devices. Slightly higher dark current densities and excellent cosmetics with very low cluster and point defect densities have been demonstrated for p-on-n devices.

  7. The focal plane adaptive optics test box of the Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschênes, William; Brousseau, Denis; Lavigne, Jean-Francois; Thibault, Simon; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    With the upcoming construction of Extremely Large Telescopes, several existing technologies are being pushed beyond their performance limit and it becomes essential to develop and evaluate new alternatives. The "Observatoire du Mont Mégantic" (OMM) hosts a telescope having a 1.6-meter diameter primary. The OMM telescope is known to be an excellent location to develop and test precursor instruments which are then upscaled to larger telescopes (ex. SPIOMM which led to SITELLE at the CFHT). We present a specifically designed focal plane box for the OMM which will allow to evaluate, directly on-sky, the performance of a number of next generation adaptive optics related technologies The system will able us to compare the performance of several new wavefront sensors in contrast with the current standard, the Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor.

  8. Radiation Channels Close to a Plasmonic Nanowire Visualized by Back Focal Plane Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Nicolai; Piatkowski, Dawid; Ciesielski, Richard; Mackowski, Sebastian; Hartschuh, Achim

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the angular radiation patterns, a key characteristic of an emitting system, from individual silver nanowires decorated with rare earth ion-doped nanocrystals. Back focal plane radiation patterns of the nanocrystal photoluminescence after local two-photon excitation can be described by two emission channels: Excitation of propagating surface plasmons in the nanowire followed by leakage radiation and direct dipolar emission observed also in the absence of the nanowire. Theoretical modeling reproduces the observed radiation patterns which strongly depend on the position of excitation along the nanowire. Our analysis allows to estimate the branching ratio into both emission channels and to determine the diameter dependent surface plasmon quasi-momentum, important parameters of emitter-plasmon structures. PMID:24131299

  9. A focal-plane detector for the recoil-mass spectrometer of LNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrieri, A.; Maron, G.; Montagnoli, G.; Napoli, D. R.; Prete, G.

    1990-12-01

    A focal-plane detector for a recoil-mass spectrometer has been developed. It consists of a 14 × 14 cm 2 position-sensitive parallel-plate avalanche counter backed by a 43 cm long Bragg chamber. Both detectors work in the same gas volume thus reducing the dead layers. The intrinsic resolution of the position detector is ±0.5 mm, and an overall timing resolution of 660 ps FWHM was measured with 5.5 MeV α-particles. The Bragg chamber allows the identification of elements with energy high enough to overcome the Bragg peak: in all cases it allows the separation between the reaction channels and the beam scattering. The detector has already been used with a good reliability in a variety of transfer and fusion experiments at the LNL Recoil Mass Spectrometer.

  10. Argus: A W-band 16-pixel focal plane array for the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah; Cleary, Kieran; Frayer, David; Gawande, Rohit; Goldsmith, Paul; Gundersen, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Readhead, Tony; Reeves, Rodrigo; Samoska, Lorene; Sieth, Matt; Voll, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    We are building Argus, a 16-pixel square-packed focal plane array that will cover the 75-115.3 GHz frequency range on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The primary research area for Argus is the study of star formation within our Galaxy and nearby galaxies. Argus will map key molecules that trace star formation, including carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). An additional key science area is astrochemistry, which will be addressed by observing complex molecules in the interstellar medium, and the study of formation of solar systems, which will be addressed by identifying dense pre-stellar cores and by observing comets in our solar system. Argus has a highly scalable architecture and will be a technology path finder for larger arrays. The array is modular in construction, which will allow easy replacement of malfunctioning and poorly performing components.

  11. A new monolithic approach for mid-IR focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chengzhi; Pusino, Vincenzo; Khalid, Ata; Aziz, Mohsin; Steer, Matthew J.; Cumming, David R. S.

    2016-10-01

    Antimonide-based photodetectors have recently been grown on a GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and reported to have comparable performance to the devices grown on more expensive InSb and GaSb substrates. We demonstrated that GaAs, in addition to providing a cost saving substrate for antimonide-based semiconductor growth, can be used as a functional material to fabricate transistors and realize addressing circuits for the heterogeneously grown photodetectors. Based on co-integration of a GaAs MESFET with an InSb photodiode, we recently reported the first demonstration of a switchable and mid-IR sensible photo-pixel on a GaAs substrate that is suitable for large-scale integration into a focal plane array. In this work we report on the fabrication steps that we had to develop to deliver the integrated photo-pixel. Various highly controllable etch processes, both wet and dry etch based, were established for distinct material layers. Moreover, in order to avoid thermally-induced damage to the InSb detectors, a low temperature annealed Ohmic contact was used, and the processing temperature never exceeded 180 °C. Furthermore, since there is a considerable etch step (> 6 μm) that metal must straddle in order to interconnect the fabricated devices, we developed an intermediate step using polyimide to provide a smoothing section between the lower MESFET and upper photodiode regions of the device. This heterogeneous technology creates great potential to realize a new type of monolithic focal plane array of addressable pixels for imaging in the medium wavelength infrared range without the need for flip-chip bonding to a CMOS readout chip.

  12. Development of a 2K x 2K GaAs QWIP Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M.; Choi, K.; Jhabvala, C.; Kelly, D.; Hess, L.; Ewin, A.; La, A.; Wacynski, A.; Sun, J.; Adachi, T.; Costen, N.; Ni, Q.; Snodgrass, Stephen; Foltz, Roger

    2013-01-01

    We are developing the next generation of GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in preparation for future NASA space-borne Earth observing missions. It is anticipated that these missions will require both wider ground spatial coverage as well as higher ground imaging resolution. In order to demonstrate our capability in meeting these future goals we have taken a two-tiered approach in the next stage of advanced QWIP focal plane array development. We will describe our progress in the development of a 512 x 3,200 (512 x 3K) array format for this next generation thermal imaging array for the NASA Landsat project. However, there currently is no existing readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for this format array.so to demonstrate the ability to scale-up an existing ROIC we developed a 1,920 x 2,048 (2K x 2K) array and it hybridized to a Raytheon SB419 CTIA readout integrated circuit that was scaled up from their existing 512 x 640 SB339 ROIC. Two versions of the 512 x 3K QWIP array were fabricated to accommodate a future design scale-up of both the Indigo 9803 ROIC based on a 25 micron pixel dimension and a scale up of the Indigo 9705 ROIC based on a 30 micron pixel dimension. Neither readout for the 512 x 3K has yet to be developed but we have fabricated both versions of the array. We describe the design, development and test results of this effort as well as the specific applications these FPAs are intended to address.

  13. Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride Focal Plane Array Performance Under Non-Standard Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Bruce, Carl F.; Green, Robert O.; Coles, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights a new technique that allows the Teledyne Scientific & Imaging LLC TCM6604A Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) Focal Plane Array (FPA) to operate at room temperature. The Teledyne MCT FPA has been a standard in Imaging Spectroscopy since its creation in the 1980's. This FPA has been used in applications ranging from space instruments such as CRISM, M3 and ARTEMIS to airborne instruments such as MaRS and the Next Generation AVIRIS Instruments1. Precise focal plane alignment is always a challenge for such instruments. The current FPA alignment process results in multiple cold cycles requiring week-long durations, thereby increasing the risk and cost of a project. These alignment cycles are necessary because optimal alignment is approached incrementally and can only be measured with the FPA and Optics at standard operating conditions, requiring a cold instrument. Instruments using this FPA are normally cooled to temperatures below 150K for the MCT FPA to properly function. When the FPA is run at higher temperatures the dark current increases saturating the output. This paper covers the prospect of warm MCT FPA operation from a theoretical and experimental perspective. We discuss the empirical models and physical laws that govern MCT material properties and predict the optimal settings that will result in the best MCT PA performance at 300K. Theoretical results are then calculated for the proposed settings. We finally present the images and data obtained using the actual system with the warm MCT FPA settings. The paper concludes by emphasizing the strong positive correlation between the measured values and the theoretical results.

  14. ART-XC/SRG: status of the x-ray focal plane detector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Vasily; Pavlinsky, Mikhail; Akimov, Valeriy; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rotin, Alexey; Krivchenko, Alexander; Lapshov, Igor; Oleinikov, Vladimir

    2014-07-01

    The Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) has developed CdTe detectors for the focal plane of the ART-XC/SRG instrument. The CdTe crystal has dimensions about 30 × 30 × 1 mm. Top and bottom sides of the detector each contain 48 strips and a guard ring. The ASIC VA64TA1 is connected to the CdTe crystal by AC-coupling for both DSSD sides. This approach allows one to have the same ground level for both electronic parts and to operate detectors with different leakage currents without reconfiguration of the VA64TA1 chips. One CdTe crystal and two ASICs are integrated with thermal sensors and Peltier cooler in a big hybrid integrated circuit. This detector is hermetically sealed by a cover with beryllium window. For ground testing the detector volume is filled with dry nitrogen. Peltier cooler is used during ground tests only. Together with the hermetic case package it allows us to operate the detector at low temperature during all ART-XC telescope development tests. When in space, the detector cooling will be provided by a radiator and heat pipes. Polarization rate temperature and voltage dependences as well as splitting charges between electrodes are being studied. IKI manufactured dozen X-ray cameras with detectors and supporting electronics for EM, QM and flight model of the ART-XC telescope. Spectroscopic and imaging performances of the detectors were tested on the IKI's X-Ray Calibration Facility. Current status of the focal plane detector development and testing will be presented.

  15. Monolithic in-based III-V compound semiconductor focal plane array cell with single stage CCD output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Krabach, Timothy N. (Inventor); Staller, Craig O. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A monolithic semiconductor imager includes an indium-based III-V compound semiconductor monolithic active layer of a first conductivity type, an array of plural focal plane cells on the active layer, each of the focal plane cells including a photogate over a top surface of the active layer, a readout circuit dedicated to the focal plane cell including plural transistors formed monolithically with the monolithic active layer and a single-stage charge coupled device formed monolithically with the active layer between the photogate and the readout circuit for transferring photo-generated charge accumulated beneath the photogate during an integration period to the readout circuit. The photogate includes thin epitaxial semiconductor layer of a second conductivity type overlying the active layer and an aperture electrode overlying a peripheral portion of the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer, the aperture electrode being connectable to a photogate bias voltage.

  16. Monolithic in-based III-V compound semiconductor focal plane array cell with single stage CCD output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor); Krabach, Timothy N. (Inventor); Staller, Craig O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A monolithic semiconductor imager includes an indium-based III-V compound semiconductor monolithic active layer of a first conductivity type, an array of plural focal plane cells on the active layer, each of the focal plane cells including a photogate over a top surface of the active layer, a readout circuit dedicated to the focal plane cell including plural transistors formed monolithically with the monolithic active layer and a single-stage charge coupled device formed monolithically with the active layer between the photogate and the readout circuit for transferring photo-generated charge accumulated beneath the photogate during an integration period to the readout circuit. The photogate includes thin epitaxial semiconductor layer of a second conductivity type overlying the active layer and an aperture electrode overlying a peripheral portion of the thin epitaxial semiconductor layer, the aperture electrode being connectable to a photogate bias voltage.

  17. Focal plane actuation by hexapod for the development of a high-resolution suborbital telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Alexander D.; Scowen, Paul A.; Veach, Todd J.

    2016-07-01

    We present a prototype hexapod image stabilization system as the key instrument for a proposed suborbital balloon mission. The unique design thermally isolates an off-the-shelf non-cryogenic hexapod from a liquid nitrogen cooled focal plane, enabling its use in a cryogenic environment. Balloon gondolas currently achieve 1-2 arcsecond pointing error, but cannot correct for unavoidable jitter movements ( 20 micron amplitude at 20 Hz at the worst) caused by wind rushing over balloon surfaces, thermal variations, and vibrations from cryocoolers, and reaction wheels. The jitter causes image blur during exposures and limits the resolution of the system. Removal of this final jitter term decreases pointing error by an order of magnitude and allows for true diffraction-limited observation. Tip-tilt pointing systems have been used for these purposes in the past, but require additional optics and introduce multiple reflections. The hexapod system, rather, is compact and can be plugged into the focal point of nearly any configuration. For a 0.8m telescope the improvement in resolution by this system would provide 0.1" angular resolution at 300nm, which is comparable to Hubble for a fraction of the cost. On an actual balloon, the hexapod system would actuate the focal plane to counteract the jitter using position information supplied by guidestar cameras. However, in the lab, we instead simulate guide camera tracking, using a 1024 × 1024 e2v science-grade CCD to take long exposures of a target attached to an XY stage driven with the balloon jitter signal recorded during the STO mission. Further confirmation of the positional accuracy and agility of the hexapod is achieved using a laser and fast-sampling position-sensitive diode. High-resolution time domain multispectral imaging of the gas giants, especially in the UV range, is of particular interest to the planetary community, and a suborbital telescope with the hexapod stabilization in place would provide a wealth of new

  18. Charge integration successive approximation analog-to-digital converter for focal plane applications using a single amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An analog-to-digital converter for on-chip focal-plane image sensor applications. The analog-to-digital converter utilizes a single charge integrating amplifier in a charge balancing architecture to implement successive approximation analog-to-digital conversion. This design requires minimal chip area and has high speed and low power dissipation for operation in the 2-10 bit range. The invention is particularly well suited to CMOS on-chip applications requiring many analog-to-digital converters, such as column-parallel focal-plane architectures.

  19. Statistical framework for the utilization of simultaneous pupil plane and focal plane telemetry for exoplanet imaging. I. Accounting for aberrations in multiple planes.

    PubMed

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs), has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination of both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This approach promises to overcome the most important systematic errors inherent in the various schemes based on differential imaging, such as angular differential imaging and spectral differential imaging. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem, setting the stage for the statistical inference methods to follow in the future. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. Here, the polarimetric image is expressed in terms of aberrations in the various planes of a polarizing telescope with an adaptive optics system. Further, it is shown that current methods that utilize focal plane sensing to correct the speckle field, e.g., electric field conjugation, rely on the tacit assumption that aberrations on multiple optical surfaces can be represented as aberration on a single optical surface, ultimately limiting their potential effectiveness for ground-based astronomy.

  20. Performance enhancement of uncooled infrared focal plane array by integrating metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Wei; Wen, Yongzheng; Yu, Xiaomei

    2015-03-16

    This letter presents an infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with metamaterial absorber (MMA) integrated to enhance its performance. A glass substrate, on which arrays of bimaterial cantilevers are fabricated as the thermal-sensitive pixels by a polyimide surface sacrificial process, is employed to allow the optical readout from the back side of the substrate. Whereas the IR wave radiates onto the FPA from the front side, which consequently avoids the energy loss caused by the silicon substrate compared with the previous works. This structure also facilitates the integration of MMA by introducing a layer of periodic square resonators atop the SiN{sub x} structural layer to form a metal/dielectric/metal stack with the gold mirror functioning as the ground plane. A comparative experiment was carried out on the FPAs that use MMA and ordinary SiN{sub x} as the absorbers, respectively. The performance improvement was verified by the evaluation of the absorbers as well as the imaging results of both FPAs.

  1. Performance enhancement of uncooled infrared focal plane array by integrating metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei; Wen, Yongzheng; Yu, Xiaomei; Feng, Yun; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-03-01

    This letter presents an infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with metamaterial absorber (MMA) integrated to enhance its performance. A glass substrate, on which arrays of bimaterial cantilevers are fabricated as the thermal-sensitive pixels by a polyimide surface sacrificial process, is employed to allow the optical readout from the back side of the substrate. Whereas the IR wave radiates onto the FPA from the front side, which consequently avoids the energy loss caused by the silicon substrate compared with the previous works. This structure also facilitates the integration of MMA by introducing a layer of periodic square resonators atop the SiNx structural layer to form a metal/dielectric/metal stack with the gold mirror functioning as the ground plane. A comparative experiment was carried out on the FPAs that use MMA and ordinary SiNx as the absorbers, respectively. The performance improvement was verified by the evaluation of the absorbers as well as the imaging results of both FPAs.

  2. Calibration of optical tweezers with positional detection in the back focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Tolic-Noerrelykke, Simon F.; Schaeffer, Erik; Howard, Jonathon; Pavone, Francesco S.; Juelicher, Frank; Flyvbjerg, Henrik

    2006-10-15

    We explain and demonstrate a new method of force and position calibrations for optical tweezers with back-focal-plane photodetection. The method combines power spectral measurements of thermal motion and the response to a sinusoidal motion of a translation stage. It consequently does not use the drag coefficient of the trapped object as an input. Thus, neither the viscosity, nor the size of the trapped object, nor its distance to nearby surfaces needs to be known. The method requires only a low level of instrumentation and can be applied in situ in all spatial dimensions. It is both accurate and precise: true values are returned, with small error bars. We tested this experimentally, near and far from surfaces in the lateral directions. Both position and force calibrations were accurate to within 3%. To calibrate, we moved the sample with a piezoelectric translation stage, but the laser beam could be moved instead, e.g., by acousto-optic deflectors. Near surfaces, this precision requires an improved formula for the hydrodynamical interaction between an infinite plane and a microsphere in nonconstant motion parallel to it. We give such a formula.

  3. DoFP polarimeter based polarization microscope for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jintao; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Polarization microscope is a useful technique to observe the optical anisotropic nature of biomedical specimens and provide more microstructural information than the conventional microscope. In this paper, we present a division of focal plane (DoFP) polarimeter based polarization microscope which is capable of imaging both the Stokes vector and the 3×4 Mueller matrix. The Mueller matrix measurement can help us completely understand the polarization properties of the sample and the Stokes vector measurement is a simultaneous technology. First, we calibrate a DoFP polarimeter using the polarization data reduction method for accurate Stokes vector measurements. Second, as the Stokes vector computation for all pixels using the calibrated instrument matrix is usually time consuming, we develop a GPU acceleration algorithm for real time Stokes vector calculations. Third, based on the accurate and fast Stokes vector calculation, we present an optimal 4-states of polarization (4-SoP) illumination scheme for Mueller matrix measurement using the DoFP polarimeter. Finally, we demonstrate the biomedical applications of the DoFP polarimeter based polarization microscope. Experiment results show that the characteristic features of many biomedical samples can be observed in the "polarization staining" images using the circularly polarized light as illumination. In this way, combined with GPU acceleration algorithm, the DoFP polarization microscope has the capacity for real time polarization monitoring of dynamic processes in biological samples.

  4. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS): 38 GHz Detector Array of Bolometric Polarimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, John W.; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin; Dunner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Gothe, Dominik; Halpern, Mark; Harrington, Kathleen; Kogut, Alan J..; Miller, Nathan; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas; Towner, Deborah; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) experiment aims to map the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at angular scales larger than a few degrees. Operating from Cerro Toco in the Atacama Desert of Chile, it will observe over 65% of the sky at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz. In this paper we discuss the design, construction, and characterization of the CLASS 38 GHz detector focal plane, the first ever Q-band bolometric polarimeter array.

  5. CdTe focal plane detector for hard x-ray focusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Schneider, Andreas; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Gregory, Kyle; Inglis, Andrew; Panessa, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The demand for higher resolution x-ray optics (a few arcseconds or better) in the areas of astrophysics and solar science has, in turn, driven the development of complementary detectors. These detectors should have fine pixels, necessary to appropriately oversample the optics at a given focal length, and an energy response also matched to that of the optics. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have developed a 3-side buttable, 20 mm x 20 mm CdTe-based detector with 250 μm square pixels (80x80 pixels) which achieves 1 keV FWHM @ 60 keV and gives full spectroscopy between 5 keV and 200 keV. An added advantage of these detectors is that they have a full-frame readout rate of 10 kHz. Working with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center, 4 of these 1mm-thick CdTe detectors are tiled into a 2x2 array for use at the focal plane of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope, and a similar configuration could be suitable for astrophysics and solar space-based missions. This effort encompasses the fabrication and testing of flightsuitable front-end electronics and calibration of the assembled detector arrays. We explain the operation of the pixelated ASIC readout and measurements, front-end electronics development, preliminary X-ray imaging and spectral performance, and plans for full calibration of the detector assemblies. Work done in conjunction with the NASA Centers is funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program.

  6. CdTe Focal Plane Detector for Hard X-Ray Focusing Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Schneider, Andreas; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Panessa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The demand for higher resolution x-ray optics (a few arcseconds or better) in the areas of astrophysics and solar science has, in turn, driven the development of complementary detectors. These detectors should have fine pixels, necessary to appropriately oversample the optics at a given focal length, and an energy response also matched to that of the optics. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have developed a 3-side buttable, 20 millimeter x 20 millimeter CdTe-based detector with 250 micrometer square pixels (80 x 80 pixels) which achieves 1 kiloelectronvolt FWHM (Full-Width Half-Maximum) @ 60 kiloelectronvolts and gives full spectroscopy between 5 kiloelectronvolts and 200 kiloelectronvolts. An added advantage of these detectors is that they have a full-frame readout rate of 10 kilohertz. Working with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center, 4 of these 1 millimeter-thick CdTe detectors are tiled into a 2 x 2 array for use at the focal plane of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope, and a similar configuration could be suitable for astrophysics and solar space-based missions. This effort encompasses the fabrication and testing of flight-suitable front-end electronics and calibration of the assembled detector arrays. We explain the operation of the pixelated ASIC readout and measurements, front-end electronics development, preliminary X-ray imaging and spectral performance, and plans for full calibration of the detector assemblies. Work done in conjunction with the NASA Centers is funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program.

  7. Hierarchical Phased Array Antenna Focal Plane for Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Sub-mm Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Adrian

    We propose to develop planar-antenna-coupled superconducting bolometer arrays for observations at sub-millimeter to millimeter wavelengths. Our pixel architecture features a dual-polarization, log-periodic antenna with a 5:1 bandwidth ratio, followed by a filter bank that divides the total bandwidth into several broad photometric bands. We propose to develop an hierarchical phased array of our basic pixel type that gives optimal mapping speed (sensitivity) over a much broader range of frequencies. The advantage of this combination of an intrinsically broadband pixel with hierarchical phase arraying include a combination of greatly reduced focal-plane mass, higher array sensitivity, and a larger number of spectral bands compared to focal-plane designs using conventional single-color pixels. These advantages have the potential to greatly reduce cost and/or increase performance of NASA missions in the sub-millimeter to millimeter bands. For CMB polarization, a wide frequency range of about 30 to 400 GHz is required to subtract galactic foregrounds. As an example, the multichroic architecture we propose could reduce the focal plane mass of the EPIC-IM CMB polarization mission study concept by a factor of 4, with great savings in required cryocooler performance and therefore cost. We have demonstrated the lens-coupled antenna concept in the POLARBEAR groundbased CMB polarization experiment which is now operating in Chile. That experiment uses a single-band planar antenna that gives excellent beam properties and optical efficiency. POLARBEAR recently succeeded in detecting gravitational lensing B-modes in the CMB polarization. In the laboratory, we have measured two octaves of total bandwidth in the log-periodic sinuous antenna. We have built filter banks of 2, 3, and 7 bands with 4, 6, and 14 bolometers per pixel for two linear polarizations. Pixels of this type are slated to be deployed on the ground in POLARBEAR and SPT-3G and proposed to be used on a balloon by EBEX

  8. High Sensitivity Long-Wavelength Infrared QWIP Focal Plane Array Based Instrument for Remote Sensing of Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S.; Bandara, S.; Ivanov, A.

    2003-01-01

    GaAs based Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) technology has shown remarkable success in advancing low cost, highly uniform, high-operability, large format multi-color focal plane arrays. QWIPs afford greater flexibility than the usual extrinsically doped semiconductor IR detectors. The wavelength of the peak response and cutoff can be continuously tailored over a range wide enough to enable light detection at any wavelength range between 6 and 20 micron. The spectral band-width of these detectors can be tuned from narrow (Deltalambda/lambda is approximately 10%) to wide (Deltalambda/lambda is approximately 40%) allowing various applications. Furthermore, QWIPs offer low cost per pixel and highly uniform large format focal plane arrays due to mature GaAs/AlGaAs growth and processing technologies. The other advantages of GaAs/AlGaAs based QWIPS are higher yield, lower l/f noise and radiation hardness (1.5 Mrad). In this presentation, we will discuss our recent demonstrations of 640x512 pixel narrow-band, broad-band, multi-band focal plane arrays, and the current status of the development of 1024x1024 pixel long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays.

  9. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  10. A Simple Polarimeter and Experiments Utilizing an Overhead Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, H. C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Although polarimeters that illustrate rotation of plane-polarized light by chiral solutions have been previously described, the polarimeter described in this paper has certain advantages when used in conjunction with an overhead projector. Instructions for constructing this polarimeter and its use in demonstrating the optical activity of sugars…

  11. Low dark current LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Fick, W.; Figgemeier, H.; Mahlein, M.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper AIM presents an update on its results for both n-on-p and p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode technology LWIR and VLWIR two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays with a cut-off wavelength >11μm at 80K and a 640×512 pixel format. The arrays are stitched from two 512×320 pixel photodiode arrays at a 20μm pixel pitch. Thermal dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' at a yet good detection efficiency <60% as well as results from NETD and photo response performance characterization are presented over a wide operating temperature range. The improvements made allow for the same dark current performance at a 20K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. The demonstrated detector performance paces the way for a new generation of higher operating temperature low SWaP LWIR MCT FPAs with a <30mK NETD up to a 110K detector operating temperature and with good operability. Alternatively, lower dark currents at common operating temperatures may be attained, enabling cutting edge next generation LWIR/VLWIR detectors for space instruments.

  12. NOTE: Design and fabrication of a high sensitivity focal plane array for uncooled IR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaomei; Yi, Yuliang; Ma, Shenglin; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiaohua; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin

    2008-05-01

    This note reports on the development of a novel cantilever-based focal plane array (FPA) for uncooled infrared (IR) imaging. The FPA of 160 × 120 pixels consisted of a 1 µm thick low stress SiNx structure layer, a thin gold reflection layer and a thick gold bimaterial layer. A bulk silicon process that includes silicon-glass anodic bonding and deep reactive ion etching techniques was developed selectively to remove the substrate silicon and form silicon frames for every FPA pixel. The thermomechanical sensitivity of the cantilever pixel was measured as 0.11 µm K-1, the noise-equivalent temperature difference of the FPA was theoretically estimated to be below 60 mK and the response time was calculated to be 15 ms. An optical readout system was used to measure deflections of all cantilevers in the FPA simultaneously, and thermal images of the human body were captured in good time. One of the unique advantages of this honeycomb-like FPA is the selective removal of the silicon substrate, which could increase the IR absorption efficiency by 48% compared with that fabricated by a traditional surface sacrificial layer process.

  13. CCD Centroiding Experiment for Correcting a Distorted Image on the Focal Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Taihei; Araki, Hiroshi; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Tazawa, Seiichi; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Hanada, Hideo; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruta, Seiitsu

    2006-10-01

    JASMINE (Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration) and ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) are space missions that are in progress at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. These two projects require a common astrometric technique to obtain precise positions of star images on solid-state detectors in order to accomplish their objectives. In the laboratory, we have carried out measurements of the centroid of artificial star images on a CCD array in order to investigate the precision of the positions of the stars, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon-weighted means of the stars. In the calibration of the position of a star image at the focal plane, we have also taken into account the lowest order distortion due to optical aberrations, which is proportional to the cube of the distance from the optical axis. Accordingly, we find that the precision of the measurement for the positions of the stars reaches below 1/100 pixel for one measurement.

  14. WSPEC: A Waveguide Filter-Bank Focal Plane Array Spectrometer for Millimeter Wave Astronomy and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Sean; Aguirre, James; Che, George; Doyle, Simon; Flanigan, Daniel; Groppi, Christopher; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Glenn; Mauskopf, Philip; McCarrick, Heather; Monfardini, Alessandro; Mroczkowski, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Imaging and spectroscopy at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths are key frontiers in astronomy and cosmology. Large area spectral surveys with moderate spectral resolution (R=50-200) will be used to characterize large-scale structure and star formation through intensity mapping surveys in emission lines such as the CO rotational transitions. Such surveys will also be used to study the the Sunyaev Zeldovich (SZ) effect, and will detect the emission lines and continuum spectrum of individual objects. WSPEC is an instrument proposed to target these science goals. It is a channelizing spectrometer realized in rectangular waveguide, fabricated using conventional high-precision metal machining. Each spectrometer is coupled to free space with a machined feed horn, and the devices are tiled into a 2D array to fill the focal plane of the telescope. The detectors will be aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs). To target the CO lines and SZ effect, we will have bands at 135-175 and 190-250 GHz, each Nyquist-sampled at R≈ 200 resolution. Here, we discuss the instrument concept and design, and successful initial testing of a WR10 (i.e., 90 GHz) prototype spectrometer. We recently tested a WR5 (180 GHz) prototype to verify that the concept works at higher frequencies, and also designed a resonant backshort structure that may further increase the optical efficiency. We are making progress towards integrating a spectrometer with a LEKID array and deploying a prototype device to a telescope for first light.

  15. Coronagraph Focal-Plane Phase Masks Based on Photonic Crystal Technology: Recent Progress and Observational Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murakami, Naoshi; Nishikawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Ise, Akitoshi; Oka, Kazuhiko; Baba, Naoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Tamura, Motohide; Traub, Wesley A.; Mawet, Dimitri; Moody, Dwight C.; Kern, Brian D.; Trauger, John T.; Serabyn, Eugene; Hamaguchi, Shoki; Oshiyama, Fumika

    2012-01-01

    Photonic crystal, an artificial periodic nanostructure of refractive indices, is one of the attractive technologies for coronagraph focal-plane masks aiming at direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial extrasolar planets. We manufactured the eight-octant phase mask (8OPM) and the vector vortex mask (VVM) very precisely using the photonic crystal technology. Fully achromatic phase-mask coronagraphs can be realized by applying appropriate polarization filters to the masks. We carried out laboratory experiments of the polarization-filtered 8OPM coronagraph using the High-Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT), a state-of-the-art coronagraph simulator at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). We report the experimental results of 10-8-level contrast across several wavelengths over 10% bandwidth around 800nm. In addition, we present future prospects and observational strategy for the photonic-crystal mask coronagraphs combined with differential imaging techniques to reach higher contrast. We proposed to apply a polarization-differential imaging (PDI) technique to the VVM coronagraph, in which we built a two-channel coronagraph using polarizing beam splitters to avoid a loss of intensity due to the polarization filters. We also proposed to apply an angular-differential imaging (ADI) technique to the 8OPM coronagraph. The 8OPM/ADI mode avoids an intensity loss due to a phase transition of the mask and provides a full field of view around central stars. We present results of preliminary laboratory demonstrations of the PDI and ADI observational modes with the phase-mask coronagraphs.

  16. Evolution of miniature detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Louis A.

    1993-01-01

    Sensors that are sensitive in the infrared spectral region have been under continuous development since the WW2 era. A quest for the military advantage of 'seeing in the dark' has pushed thermal imaging technology toward high spatial and temporal resolution for night vision equipment, fire control, search track, and seeker 'homing' guidance sensing devices. Similarly, scientific applications have pushed spectral resolution for chemical analysis, remote sensing of earth resources, and astronomical exploration applications. As a result of these developments, focal plane arrays (FPA) are now available with sufficient sensitivity for both high spatial and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution imaging over large fields of view. Such devices combined with emerging opto-electronic developments in integrated FPA data processing techniques can yield miniature sensors capable of imaging reflected sunlight in the near IR and emitted thermal energy in the Mid-wave (MWIR) and longwave (LWIR) IR spectral regions. Robotic space sensors equipped with advanced versions of these FPA's will provide high resolution 'pictures' of their surroundings, perform remote analysis of solid, liquid, and gas matter, or selectively look for 'signatures' of specific objects. Evolutionary trends and projections of future low power micro detector FPA developments for day/night operation or use in adverse viewing conditions are presented in the following test.

  17. Using a focal-plane array to estimate antenna pointing errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, S.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

    1991-01-01

    The use of extra collecting horns in the focal plane of an antenna as a means of determining the Direction of Arrival (DOA) of the signal impinging on it, provided it is within the antenna beam, is considered. Our analysis yields a relatively simple algorithm to extract the DOA from the horns' outputs. An algorithm which, in effect, measures the thermal noise of the horns' signals and determines its effect on the uncertainty of the extracted DOA parameters is developed. Both algorithms were implemented in software and tested in simulated data. Based on these tests, it is concluded that this is a viable approach to the DOA determination. Though the results obtained are of general applicability, the particular motivation for the present work is their application to the pointing of a mechanically deformed antenna. It is anticipated that the pointing algorithm developed for a deformed antenna could be obtained as a small perturbation of the algorithm developed for an undeformed antenna. In this context, it should be pointed out that, with a deformed antenna, the array of horns and its associated circuitry constitute the main part of the deformation-compensation system. In this case, the pointing system proposed may be viewed as an additional task carried out by the deformation-compensation hardware.

  18. A novel readout method for focal plane array imaging in the presence of large dark current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Changqing

    1999-08-01

    This research was an investigation of a novel readout method for focal plane array (FPA) optical imaging, especially for very sensitive detectors with large dark current. The readout method is based on periodically blocking the optical input enabling the removal of the dark current integration from the output. The research demonstrated that it is feasible to modulate the optical input with the designed readout circuit and thus achieve longer signal integration time to enhance the signal-to- noise ratio. Study of a proposed circuit model showed that in theory the correlated readout method could increase the output voltage swing and reduce the noise level by attenuating low frequency noise, thereby effectively improving the FPA dynamic range. Circuits based on standard CMOS circuitry were designed, simulated by PSpice, fabricated using Orbit 2μm n-well technology, and tested with a PI-4000 system. In the circuit evaluation, the output noise due to the clock switching phenomena, the gate signal feedthrough and the charge relaxation, was considered to be the critical problem. The most promising design for minimizing this problem had a CMOS current steering circuit at the input of a high CMRR operational amplifier. Simulation and test results showed that a modified capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) could subtract dark current output and reduce the output signal due to any difference between the frequencies of the optical input modulation signal and the switch modulation signal. In conclusion, the correlated readout circuit was shown to be a promising approach for advancing FPA technology.

  19. The focal plane assembly for the Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. D.; van Weers, H.; van der Kuur, J.; den Hartog, R.; Akamatsu, H.; Argan, A.; Bandler, S. R.; Barbera, M.; Barret, D.; Bruijn, M. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Dercksen, J.; Gatti, F.; Gottardi, L.; Haas, D.; den Herder, J.-W.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Kiviranta, M.; Lam-Trong, T.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Smith, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper summarizes a preliminary design concept for the focal plane assembly of the X-ray Integral Field Unit on the Athena spacecraft, an imaging microcalorimeter that will enable high spectral resolution imaging and point-source spectroscopy. The instrument's sensor array will be a 3840-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array, with a frequency domain multiplexed SQUID readout system allowing this large-format sensor array to be operated within the thermal constraints of the instrument's cryogenic system. A second TES detector will be operated in close proximity to the sensor array to detect cosmic rays and secondary particles passing through the sensor array for off-line coincidence detection to identify and reject events caused by the in-orbit high-energy particle background. The detectors, operating at 55 mK, or less, will be thermally isolated from the instrument cryostat's 2 K stage, while shielding and filtering within the FPA will allow the instrument's sensitive sensor array to be operated in the expected environment during both on-ground testing and in-flight operation, including straylight from the cryostat environment, low-energy photons entering through the X-ray aperture, low-frequency magnetic fields, and high-frequency electric fields.

  20. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  1. Micromachined room-temperature microbolometer for millimeter-wave detection and focal-plane imaging arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Arifur; Duerr, Erik K.; de Lange, Gert; Hu, Qing

    1997-06-01

    We have combined silicon micromachining technology with planar circuits to fabricated room-temperature niobium microbolometers for millimeter-wave detection. In this type of detector, a thin niobium film, with a dimension much smaller than the wavelength, is fabricated on a 1-micrometers thick Si3N4 membrane of square and cross geometries. The Nb film acts both as a radiation absorber and temperature sensor. Incident radiation is coupled into the microbolometer by a 0.37 (lambda) dipole antenna with a center frequency of 95 GHz and a 3-db bandwidth of 15%, which is impedance matched with the Nb film. The dipole antennas is placed inside a micromachined pyramidal cavity formed by anisotropically etched Si wafers. To increase the Gaussian beam coupling efficiency, a machined square or circular horn is placed in front of the micromachined section. Circular horns interface more easily with die-based manufacturing processes; therefore, we have developed simulation tools that allow us to model circular machined horns. We have fabricated both single element receivers and 3 X 3 focal-plane arrays using uncooled Nb microbolometers. An electrical NEP level of 8.3 X 10-11 W/(root)Hz has been achieved for a single- element receiver. This NEP level is better than that of the commercial room-temperature pyroelectric millimeter-wave detectors. The frequency response of the microbolometer has a ln(1/f) dependence with frequency, and the roll-off frequency is approximately 35 kHz.

  2. Evolution of miniature detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Louis A.

    1993-06-01

    Sensors that are sensitive in the infrared spectral region have been under continuous development since the WW2 era. A quest for the military advantage of 'seeing in the dark' has pushed thermal imaging technology toward high spatial and temporal resolution for night vision equipment, fire control, search track, and seeker 'homing' guidance sensing devices. Similarly, scientific applications have pushed spectral resolution for chemical analysis, remote sensing of earth resources, and astronomical exploration applications. As a result of these developments, focal plane arrays (FPA) are now available with sufficient sensitivity for both high spatial and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution imaging over large fields of view. Such devices combined with emerging opto-electronic developments in integrated FPA data processing techniques can yield miniature sensors capable of imaging reflected sunlight in the near IR and emitted thermal energy in the Mid-wave (MWIR) and longwave (LWIR) IR spectral regions. Robotic space sensors equipped with advanced versions of these FPA's will provide high resolution 'pictures' of their surroundings, perform remote analysis of solid, liquid, and gas matter, or selectively look for 'signatures' of specific objects. Evolutionary trends and projections of future low power micro detector FPA developments for day/night operation or use in adverse viewing conditions are presented in the following test.

  3. High-Performance MWIR HgCdTe on Si Substrate Focal Plane Array Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bommena, R.; Ketharanathan, S.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Dhar, N. K.; Kodama, R.; Zhao, J.; Buurma, C.; Bergeson, J. D.; Aqariden, F.; Velicu, S.

    2015-09-01

    The development of low noise-equivalent differential temperature (NEDT), high-operability midwave infrared (MWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) fabricated from molecular beam epitaxial (MBE)-grown HgCdTe on Si-based substrates is reported. High-quality n-type MWIR HgCdTe layers with a cutoff wavelength of 4.90 μm at 77 K and a carrier concentration of 1-2 × 1015 cm-3 were grown on CdTe/Si substrates by MBE. Highly uniform composition and thickness over 3-inch areas were demonstrated, and low surface defect densities (voids ~5 × 102 cm-2, micro-defects ~5 × 103 cm-2) and etch pit density (~3.5 × 106 cm-2) were measured. This material was used to fabricate 320 × 256, 30 μm pitch FPAs with planar device architecture; arsenic implantation was used to achieve p-type doping. Radiometric and noise characterization was also performed. A low NEDT of 13.8 m K at 85 K for a 1 ms integration time with f/#2 optics was measured. The NEDT operability was 99% at 120 K with a mean dark current noise of 8.14 × 10-13 A/pixel. High-quality thermal images were obtained from the FPA up to a temperature of 150 K.

  4. A novel design of infrared focal plane array with digital read out interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Ding, Ruijun; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Chun

    2010-10-01

    Infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) with digital read out interface is a key sign of the third generation IRFPA, which plays an important role in the reliability and miniaturization of infrared systems. A readout integrated circuit (ROIC) of IRFPA with digital readout interface based on dual ramp single slope (DRSS) analog to digital converter (ADC) architecture is presented in the paper. The design is realized using shared ADCs in column-wise and these ADCs are consisted of simplified DRSS architecture and shared units. Sample, conversion and readout are proceeded simultaneously in order to adapt large scale and high readout frame rate application. This circuit also shows many advantages, including small area and low power consumption. Simulation result shows that this architecture can be expand to 320×256 pixel array with a frame rate of 100 frames per second or a larger size whit lower frame rate, the quantized resolution of this circuit is 12 bit, and the analog power consumption is only 17μw per ADC.

  5. A superconducting focal plane array for ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared astrophysics.

    PubMed

    Mazin, Benjamin A; Bumble, Bruce; Meeker, Seth R; O'Brien, Kieran; McHugh, Sean; Langman, Eric

    2012-01-16

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors, or MKIDs, have proven to be a powerful cryogenic detector technology due to their sensitivity and the ease with which they can be multiplexed into large arrays. A MKID is an energy sensor based on a photon-variable superconducting inductance in a lithographed microresonator, and is capable of functioning as a photon detector across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as a particle detector. Here we describe the first successful effort to create a photon-counting, energy-resolving ultraviolet, optical, and near infrared MKID focal plane array. These new Optical Lumped Element (OLE) MKID arrays have significant advantages over semiconductor detectors like charge coupled devices (CCDs). They can count individual photons with essentially no false counts and determine the energy and arrival time of every photon with good quantum efficiency. Their physical pixel size and maximum count rate is well matched with large telescopes. These capabilities enable powerful new astrophysical instruments usable from the ground and space. MKIDs could eventually supplant semiconductor detectors for most astronomical instrumentation, and will be useful for other disciplines such as quantum optics and biological imaging.

  6. Mechanical design of mounts for IGRINS focal plane arrays and field flattening lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Cha, Sang-Mok; Yuk, In-Soo; Kim, Kang-Min; Chun, Moo-Young; Ko, Kyeongyeon; Oh, Heeyeong; Jeong, Ueejeong; Nah, Jakyoung; Lee, Hanshin; Pavel, Michael; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    IGRINS, the Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer, is a near-infrared wide-band high-resolution spectrograph jointly developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute and the University of Texas at Austin. IGRINS employs three HAWAII-2RG focal plane array (FPA) detectors. The mechanical mounts for these detectors and for the final (field-flattening) lens in the optical train serve a critical function in the overall instrument design: Optically, they permit the only positional compensation in the otherwise "build to print" design. Thermally, they permit setting and control of the detector operating temperature independently of the cryostat bench. We present the design and fabrication of the mechanical mount as a single module. The detector mount includes the array housing, housing for the SIDECAR ASIC, a field flattener lens holder, and a support base. The detector and ASIC housing will be kept at 65 K and the support base at 130 K. G10 supports thermally isolate the detector and ASIC housing from the support base. The field flattening lens holder attaches directly to the FPA array housing and holds the lens with a six-point kinematic mount. Fine adjustment features permit changes in axial position and in yaw and pitch angles. We optimized the structural stability and thermal characteristics of the mount design using computer-aided 3D modeling and finite element analysis. Based on the computer simulation, the designed detector mount meets the optical and thermal requirements very well.

  7. The nonuniformity measurement and image processing algorithm evaluation for uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, BenKang; Zhang, Junju; Xing, Suxia; Yu, Shuizhong; Yang, Ji

    2005-01-01

    The great achievements were achieved in the manufacturing of uncooled microbolometer infrared focal plane arrays(UFPA). By this technique infrared system can be made in the formation of small volume, light weight, low price and being portable. It promotes greatly the utilization of infrared system in many fields. The main disadvantage of UFPA is non-uniformity. Despite non-uniformity of UFPA has been greatly improved, non-uniformity still restricts the performance of uncooled infrared system. In this paper, the attention is focused on the technology and methods measuring the non-uniformity of UFPA. The system that can measure the non-uniformity of UFPA and evaluate the image processing algorithms is developed. The measurement system consists of blackbody, infrared optics, control units, processing circuit, high-speed A/D converter, computer and software. To obtain the output signals of UFPA, the drive circuit and control circuit of thermoelectric stabilizer(TEC) of UFPA are developed. In the drive circuit, the CPLD device is employed to insure a small size circuit. In the TEC circuit, a kind of highly integrated and cost-effective, high-effiency, switch-mode driver is used to insure temperature stability of 0.01°C. The system is used to measure non-uniformity of microbolometer detectors which are produced by ULIS company. It can also present the evaluation of algorithm. The results are given and analyzed.

  8. Modeling of HgCdTe focal plane array spectral inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2015-06-01

    Infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA) are widely used to perform high quality measurements such as spectrum acquisition at high rate, ballistic missile defense, gas detection, and hyperspectral imaging. For these applications, the fixed pattern noise represents one of the major limiting factors of the array performance. This sensor imperfection refers to the nonuniformity between pixels, and is partially caused by disparities of the cut-off wavenumbers. In this work, we focus particularly on mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe), which is the most important material of IR cooled detector applications. Among the many advantages of this ternary alloy is the tunability of the bandgap energy with Cadmium composition, as well as the high quantum efficiency. In order to predict and understand spectral inhomogeneities of HgCdTe-based IRFPA, we propose a modeling approach based on the description of optical phenomena inside the pixels. The model considers the p-n junctions as a unique absorbent bulk layer, and derives the sensitivity of the global structure to both Cadmium composition and HgCdTe layer thickness. For this purpose, HgCdTe optical and material properties were necessary to be known at low temperature (80K), in our operating conditions. We therefore achieved the calculation of the real part of the refractive index using subtracti

  9. Optical sensitivity non-uniformity analysis and optimization of a tilt optical readout focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianyu; Shang, Haiping; Shi, Haitao; Li, Zhigang; Ou, Yi; Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2016-02-01

    An optical readout focal plane array (FPA) usually has a differently tilted reflector/absorber at the initial state due to the micromachining technique. The angular deviation of the reflector/absorber has a strong impact on the optical sensitivity non-uniformity, which is a key factor which affects the imaging uniformity. In this study, a theoretical analysis has been developed, and it is found that the stress matching in SiO2-Aluminum (Al) bilayer leg could make a contribution towards reducing the optical sensitivity non-uniformity. Ion implantation of phosphorus (P) has been utilized to control the stress in SiO2 film. By controlling the implantation energy and dose, the stress and stress stability are modified. The optical readout FPA has been successfully fabricated with the stress-control technique based on P+ implantation. It is demonstrated that the gray response non-uniformity of optical readout FPA has decreased from 25.69% to 10.7%.

  10. CCD TV focal plane guider development and comparison to SIRTF applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rank, David M.

    1989-01-01

    It is expected that the SIRTF payload will use a CCD TV focal plane fine guidance sensor to provide acquisition of sources and tracking stability of the telescope. Work has been done to develop CCD TV cameras and guiders at Lick Observatory for several years and have produced state of the art CCD TV systems for internal use. NASA decided to provide additional support so that the limits of this technology could be established and a comparison between SIRTF requirements and practical systems could be put on a more quantitative basis. The results of work carried out at Lick Observatory which was designed to characterize present CCD autoguiding technology and relate it to SIRTF applications is presented. Two different design types of CCD cameras were constructed using virtual phase and burred channel CCD sensors. A simple autoguider was built and used on the KAO, Mt. Lemon and Mt. Hamilton telescopes. A video image processing system was also constructed in order to characterize the performance of the auto guider and CCD cameras.

  11. Solid-state Image Sensor with Focal-plane Digital Photon-counting Pixel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1997-01-01

    A solid-state focal-plane imaging system comprises an NxN array of high gain. low-noise unit cells. each unit cell being connected to a different one of photovoltaic detector diodes, one for each unit cell, interspersed in the array for ultra low level image detection and a plurality of digital counters coupled to the outputs of the unit cell by a multiplexer(either a separate counter for each unit cell or a row of N of counters time shared with N rows of digital counters). Each unit cell includes two self-biasing cascode amplifiers in cascade for a high charge-to-voltage conversion gain (greater than 1mV/e(-)) and an electronic switch to reset input capacitance to a reference potential in order to be able to discriminate detection of an incident photon by the photoelectron (e(-))generated in the detector diode at the input of the first cascode amplifier in order to count incident photons individually in a digital counter connected to the output of the second cascade amplifier. Reseting the input capacitance and initiating self-biasing of the amplifiers occurs every clock cycle of an integratng period to enable ultralow light level image detection by the may of photovoltaic detector diodes under such ultralow light level conditions that the photon flux will statistically provide only a single photon at a time incident on anyone detector diode during any clock cycle.

  12. Performance of Hg1‑xCdxTe infrared focal plane array at elevated temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder

    2017-04-01

    The simulated optical and electrical performance of the infrared HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) for elevated operation temperature is reported. The depleted absorber layer is explored for equilibrium mode of operation up to 160 K. A resonant cavity is created to improve photon-matter interaction and hence, reduces the required absorption volume. The volume of the active region of HgCdTe detector is reduced by 70% in this manner. Dark current density is decreased without compromising the quantum efficiency. The effect of the reduced band filling effect leading to higher absorption coefficient and more efficient utilization of incident flux is employed. High quantum efficiency is achieved in a thin compositionally graded n+/ν/π/p HgCdTe photo-diode. This architecture helps to minimize the requirement of charge handling capacity in the CMOS read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) as the operation temperature is increased. Quantum efficiency ∼30% or above is shown to be sufficient for Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) less than 20 mK with the reported design.

  13. Automated optical testing of LWIR objective lenses using focal plane array sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Daniel; Erichsen, Patrik; Domagalski, Christian; Peter, Frank; Heinisch, Josef; Dumitrescu, Eugen

    2012-10-01

    The image quality of today's state-of-the-art IR objective lenses is constantly improving while at the same time the market for thermography and vision grows strongly. Because of increasing demands on the quality of IR optics and increasing production volumes, the standards for image quality testing increase and tests need to be performed in shorter time. Most high-precision MTF testing equipment for the IR spectral bands in use today relies on the scanning slit method that scans a 1D detector over a pattern in the image generated by the lens under test, followed by image analysis to extract performance parameters. The disadvantages of this approach are that it is relatively slow, it requires highly trained operators for aligning the sample and the number of parameters that can be extracted is limited. In this paper we present lessons learned from the R and D process on using focal plane array (FPA) sensors for testing of long-wave IR (LWIR, 8-12 m) optics. Factors that need to be taken into account when switching from scanning slit to FPAs are e.g.: the thermal background from the environment, the low scene contrast in the LWIR, the need for advanced image processing algorithms to pre-process camera images for analysis and camera artifacts. Finally, we discuss 2 measurement systems for LWIR lens characterization that we recently developed with different target applications: 1) A fully automated system suitable for production testing and metrology that uses uncooled microbolometer cameras to automatically measure MTF (on-axis and at several o-axis positions) and parameters like EFL, FFL, autofocus curves, image plane tilt, etc. for LWIR objectives with an EFL between 1 and 12mm. The measurement cycle time for one sample is typically between 6 and 8s. 2) A high-precision research-grade system using again an uncooled LWIR camera as detector, that is very simple to align and operate. A wide range of lens parameters (MTF, EFL, astigmatism, distortion, etc.) can be

  14. High temperature operation In1-xAlxSb infrared focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Yanqiu; Si, Junjie; Cao, Xiancun; Zhang, Liang; Peng, Zhenyu; Ding, Jiaxin; Yao, Guansheng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Reobrazhenskiy, Valeriy

    2016-05-01

    A high temperature operation mid-wavelength 128×128 infrared focal plane arrays (FPA) based on low Al component In1-xAlxSb was presented in this work. InAlSb materials were grown on InSb (100) substrates using MBE technology, which was confirmed by XRD and AFM analyses. We have designed and grown two structures with and without barrier. The pixel of the detector had a conventional PIN structure with a size of 50μmx50μm. The device fabrication process consisted of mesa etching, passivation, metallization and flip-chip hybridization with readout integrated circuit (ROIC), epoxy backfill, lap and polish. Diode resistance, imaging, NETD and operability results are presented for a progression of structures that reduce the diode leakage current as the temperature is raised above 80K. These include addition of a thin region of InAlSb to reduce p-contact leakage current, and construction of the whole device from InAlSb to reduce thermal generation in the active region of the detector. An increase in temperature to 110K, whilst maintaining full 80K performance, is achieved. The I-V curves were measured at different temperature. Quantum efficiency, pixel operability, non-uniformity, and the mean NETD values of the FPAs were measured at 110K. This gives the prospect of significant benefits for the cooling systems, including, for example, use of argon in Joule-Thomson coolers or an increase in the life and/or decrease in the cost, power consumption and cool-down time of Stirling engines by several tens of percent.

  15. 480 x 8 hybrid HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masako; Wada, Hideo; Okamura, Toshihiro; Kudo, Jun-ichi; Tanikawa, Kunihiro; Hikida, Soichiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Miyazaki, Shinji; Yoshida, Yukihiro

    2001-10-01

    This paper explains the technologies used for high-performance long linear arrays based on HgCdTe/CMOS hybrid multiplexers with bidirectional Time Delay and Integration (TDI) functions, and it describes the development of the first high-resolution Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system with the SXGA format. Long-wavelength Infrared (LWIR) photodiode arrays are fabricated using liquid-phase epitaxially grown HgCdTe on a CdZnTe substrate. Each photodiode array consists of 480x8-element n+/n-on-p diodes formed by B+ implantation. Each photodiode is surrounded by a crosswise drain diode to define the detection area. The diodes with a 10.3-μm cutoff wavelength had a typical zero-bias resistance of 10 MΩ and a shunt resistance of 1 GΩ. Four CMOS Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROICs) were used for bidirectional TDI and multiplex operations where each ROIC summed up and multiplexed eight signals from 120 channels. The ROIC also includes pixel deselection and gain control circuits along with the corresponding memory and writing means. The Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPAs) had a typical Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of 18 mK after TDI with F/1.55 optics and 10-μs integration. The FLIR system using the 480x8 IRFPA demonstrated a high spatial resolution of 1280 horizontal lines by 960 vertical lines (SXGA format) and NETD of less than 30 mK. The unique algorithm for image enhancement was successfully confirmed to be efficient.

  16. The self-coherent camera as a focal plane fine phasing sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janin-Potiron, P.; Martinez, P.; Baudoz, P.; Carbillet, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets requires very high contrast imaging capability and high angular resolution. Primary mirror segmentation is a key technological solution for large-aperture telescopes because it opens the path toward significantly increasing the angular resolution. The segments are kept aligned by an active optics system that must reduce segment misalignments below tens of nm rms to achieve the high optical quality required for astronomical science programs. Aims: The development of cophasing techniques is mandatory for the next generation of space- and ground-based segmented telescopes, which both share the need for increasing spatial resolution. We propose a new focal plane cophasing sensor that exploits the scientific image of a coronagraphic instrument to retrieve simultaneously piston and tip-tilt misalignments. Methods: The self-coherent camera phasing sensor (SCC-PS) adequately combines the SCC properties to segmented telescope architectures with adapted segment misalignment estimators and image processing. An overview of the system architecture, and a thorough performance and sensitivity analysis, including a closed-loop efficiency, are presented by means of numerical simulations. Results: The SCC-PS estimates simultaneously piston and tip-tilt misalignments and corrects them in closed-loop operation in a few iterations. As opposed to numerous phasing sensor concepts the SCC-PS does not require any a priori on the signal at the segment boundaries or any dedicated optical path. We show that the SCC-PS has a moderate sensitivity to misalignments, virtually none to pupil shear, and is by principle insensitive to segment gaps and edge effects. Primary mirror phasing can be achieved with a relatively bright natural guide star with the SCC-PS. Conclusions: The SCC-PS is a noninvasive concept and an efficient phasing sensor from the image domain. It is an attractive candidate for segment cophasing at the instrument level or

  17. High performance type II superlattice focal plane array with 6μm cutoff wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Kouhei; Machinaga, Ken-ichi; Balasekaran, Sundararajan; Kawahara, Takahiko; Migita, Masaki; Inada, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Yasuhiro; Sakai, Michito; Murooka, Junpei; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kimata, Masafumi

    2016-05-01

    The cutoff wavelength of 6μm is preferable for the full usage of the atmospheric window in the mid-wavelength region. An InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) is the only known infrared material that has a theoretically predicted high performance and also the cutoff wavelength can be easily controlled by changing the thickness of InAs and GaSb. In this study, we used a p-i-n structure with InAs/GaSb T2SL absorber and also barrier layers which was grown on a Tedoped GaSb substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. A mesa-type focal plane array (FPA) with 320×256 pixels and 30μm pixel pitch was fabricated. Mesa structures were formed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching with halogen gas mixture. Prior to the deposition of the SiO2 passivation film, N2 plasma treatment was applied for reducing the dark currents. Measured dark current of the sensor was 4x10-7A/cm2 at temperature of 77K and reverse bias of -20mV. The quantum efficiency was 0.35 and the detectivity was 4.1x1012cm/Hz1/2W. The sensor array was hybridized with the commercially available readout integrated circuit using indium bumps. The noise equivalent differential temperature measured with F/2.3 optics was 31mK at 77K. The operability was over 99%. This FPA is suitable for full usage of the atmospheric window in the mid-wavelength region.

  18. Hemispherical curved monolithic cooled and uncooled infrared focal plane arrays for compact cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekaya, Kevin; Fendler, Manuel; Dumas, Delphine; Inal, Karim; Massoni, Elisabeth; Gaeremynck, Yann; Druart, Guillaume; Henry, David

    2014-06-01

    InfraRed (IR) sensor systems like night vision goggles, missile approach warning systems and telescopes have an increasing interest in decreasing their size and weight. At the same time optical aberrations are always more difficult to optimize with larger Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and larger field of view. Both challenges can now take advantage of a new optical parameter thanks to flexible microelectronics technologies: the FPA spherical curvature. This bio-inspired approach can correct optical aberrations and reduce the number of lenses in camera conception. Firstly, a new process to curve thin monolithic devices has been applied to uncooled microbolometers FPAs. A functional 256×320 25μm pitch (roughly 1cm2) uncooled FPA has been thinned and curved. Its electrical response showed no degradation after our process (variation of less than 2.3% on the response). Then a two lenses camera with a curved FPA is designed and characterized in comparison with a two lenses camera with a flat FPA. Their Modulation Transfer Functions (MTFs) show clearly an improvement in terms of beams dispersion. Secondly, a new process to fabricate monolithic cooled flip-chip MCT-IRCMOS FPAs was developed leading to the first spherical cooled IR FPA: with a radius of 550 mm. Other radii are achieved. A standard opto-electrical characterization at 80 K of the imager shows no additional short circuit and no mean response alteration compared to a standard IRCMOS shown in reference. Noise is also studied with a black body between 20 and 30°C.

  19. Two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays for LWIR/VLWIR space and airborne sounding missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S.; Bauer, A.; Bitterlich, H.; Bruder, M.; Haas, L.-D.; Haiml, M.; Hofmann, K.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Nothaft, H.-P.; Schallenberg, T.; Weber, A.; Wendler, J.; Wollrab, R.; Ziegler, J.

    2010-10-01

    An increasing need for high-precision atmospheric data especially in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) spectral ranges has arisen in the past years not only for the analysis of climate change and its effect on the earth's ecosystem, but also for weather forecast and atmospheric monitoring purposes. Spatially and spectrally resolved atmospheric emission data are advantageously gathered through limb or nadir sounding using an imaging Fourier transform (FT) interferometer with a two-dimensional (2D) high-speed focal plane detector array (FPA). In this paper, AIM reports on its latest results on MCT VLWIR FPAs for Fourier transform infrared sounding applications in the 8-15μm spectral range. The performance of a (112x112) pixel photodiode array with a 40μm pixel pitch incorporating extrinsic p-doping for low dark current, a technique for linearity improvement at high photon fluxes, pixel guards, pixel select/de-select, and a (2x2) super-pixel architecture is discussed. The customized read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) supporting integrate while-read (IWR) operation has a buffered direct injection (BDI) input stage and a full well capacity (FWC) of 143 Megaelectrons per super-pixel. It consists of two independently operating halves with two analog video outputs each. The full frame rate is typically 4k frames/sec, making it suitable for use with rapid scan FT infrared spectrometers. At a 55K operating temperature and an ~14.4μm cut-off wavelength, a photo response of 12.1mV/K and a noise equivalent temperature difference of 24.8mK at half well filling are demonstrated for a 286K reference scene. The nonlinearity error is <0.5%.

  20. Correction of NIRI/ Altair non-common path aberrations using focal plane sharpening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Jesse G.; Lai, Olivier; Trujillo, Chadwick; White, John

    2016-07-01

    Non-common path aberrations (NCPA), in an adaptive optics system, are static aberrations induced by the science and wavefront sensor's (WFS) separate light paths, for which the latter is corrected (although not present in the former), and the former is not. It was suspected1 that this type of aberration may significantly affect the image quality performance of Altair + NIRI, the Gemini North Observatory's adaptive optics facility instrument and the near-infrared imaging camera. A simple and effective focal plane sharpening technique was developed to optimize these static aberrations for Altair & NIRI at f/32, and 2.12μm. By varying the shape of the deformable mirror (DM) to introduce Zernike aberration coefficients through a reasonable range of values, the images produced were read out on the NIRI detector and analyzed for Strehl ratio. Fitting a second-order polynomial to this data set gave an optimized value for each coefficient out to Z49. The Strehl ratio was improved by 6% +/- 2% and the Z5 (45° astigmatism) term showed the only appreciable error contribution to the current NCPA offset of 0.15μm in k-prime (2.12μm). Aside from resulting in a slight improvement in image quality, the technique developed is non-invasive and will be implemented in other instruments and cameras that typically couple with Altair and have outdated or erroneous NCPA files currently. Furthermore, some high spatial-frequency structure in the PSF was found that limited the effect of these corrections, and may be a key component in further investigations towards image quality degradation in Altair + NIRI.

  1. Vacuum packaging of InGaAs focal plane array with four-stage thermoelectric cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, De-feng; Liu, Da-fu; Yang, Li-yi; Xu, Qin-fei; Li, Xue

    2013-09-01

    The InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) detectors, covering the near-infrared 1~2.4 μm wavelength range, have been developed for application in space-based spectroscopy of the Earth atmosphere. This paper shows an all-metal vacuum package design for area array InGaAs detector of 1024×64 pixels, and its architecture will be given. Four-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is used to cool down the FPA chip. To acquire high heat dissipation for TEC's Joule-heat, tungsten copper (CuW80) and kovar (4J29) is used as motherboard and cavity material respectively which joined by brazing. The heat loss including conduction, convection and radiation is analyzed. Finite element model is established to analyze the temperature uniformity of the chip substrate which is made of aluminum nitride (AlN). The performance of The TEC with and without heat load in vacuum condition is tested. The results show that the heat load has little influence to current-voltage relationship of TEC. The temperature difference (ΔT) increases as the input current increases. A linear relationship exists between heat load and ΔT of the TEC. Theoretical analysis and calculation show that the heat loss of radiation and conduction is about 187 mW and 82 mW respectively. Considering the Joule-heat of readout circuit and the heat loss of radiation and conduction, the FPA for a 220 K operation at room temperature can be achieved. As the thickness of AlN chip substrate is thicker than 1 millimeter, the temperature difference can be less than 0.3 K.

  2. Performance of 128×128 solar-blind AlGaN ultraviolet focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongang; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dafu; Chu, Kaihui; Wang, Ling; Li, Xiangyang

    2009-07-01

    Ozone layer intensively absorbs 240nm to 285 nm incidence, when the sunshine goes through stratospheric. There is almost no UVC (200nm-280nm) band radiation existing below stratospheric. Because the radiation target presents a strong contrast between atmosphere and background, solar-blind band radiation is very useful. Wide band gap materials, especially III-V nitride materials, have attracted extensive interest. The direct band gap of GaN and A1N is 3.4 and 6.2 eV, respectively. Since they are miscible with each other and form a complete series of AlGaN alloys, AlGaN has direct band gaps from 3.4 to 6.2 eV, corresponding to cutoff wavelengths from 365 to 200 nm. A back-illuminated hybrid FPA has been developed by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics Chinese Academy of Science. This paper reports the performance of the 128x128 solar-blind AlGaN UV Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs). More and more a CTIA (capacitivetransimpedance) readout circuit architecture has been proven to be well suited for AlGaN detectors arrays. The bared readout circuit was first tested to find out optimal analog reference voltage. Second, this ROIC was tested in a standard 20-pin shielded dewar at 115 K to 330K. Then, a new test system was set up to obtain test UV FPA noise, swing voltage, data valid time, operating speed, dynamic range, UV response etc. The results show that 128x128 back-illuminated AlGaN PIN detector SNR is as high as 74db at the speed of above30 frame per second. Also, some noise test method is mentioned.

  3. Development of high performance SWIR InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagi, Richie; Bregman, Jeremy; Mizuno, Genki; Oduor, Patrick; Olah, Robert; Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2015-05-01

    Banpil Photonics has developed a novel InGaAs based photodetector array for Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) imaging, for the most demanding security, defense, and machine vision applications. These applications require low noise from both the detector and the readout integrated circuit arrays. In order to achieve high sensitivity, it is crucial to minimize the dark current generated by the photodiode array. This enables the sensor to function in extremely low light situations, which enables it to successfully exploit the benefits of the SWIR band. In addition to minimal dark current generation, it is essential to develop photodiode arrays with higher operating temperatures. This is critical for reducing the power consumption of the device, as less energy is spent in cooling down the focal plane array (in order to reduce the dark current). We at Banpil Photonics are designing, simulating, fabricating and testing SWIR InGaAs arrays, and have achieved low dark current density at room temperature. This paper describes Banpil's development of the photodetector array. We also highlight the fabrication technique used to reduce the amount of dark current generated by the photodiode array, in particular the surface leakage current. This technique involves the deposition of strongly negatively doped semiconductor material in the area between the pixels. This process reduces the number of dangling bonds present on the edges of each pixel, which prevents electrons from being swept across the surface of the pixels. This in turn drastically reduces the amount of surface leakage current at each pixel, which is a major contributor towards the total dark current. We present the optical and electrical characterization data, as well as the analysis that illustrates the dark current mechanisms. Also highlighted are the challenges and potential opportunities for further reduction of dark current, while maintaining other parameters of the photodiode array, such as size, weight, temperature

  4. Enchanced interference cancellation and telemetry reception in multipath environments with a single paraboic dish antenna using a focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Ryan (Inventor); Vilnrotter, Victor A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An Advanced Focal Plane Array ("AFPA") for parabolic dish antennas that exploits spatial diversity to achieve better channel equalization performance in the presence of multipath (better than temporal equalization alone), and which is capable of receiving from two or more sources within a field-of-view in the presence of multipath. The AFPA uses a focal plane array of receiving elements plus a spatio-temporal filter that keeps information on the adaptive FIR filter weights, relative amplitudes and phases of the incoming signals, and which employs an Interference Cancelling Constant Modulus Algorithm (IC-CMA) that resolves multiple telemetry streams simultaneously from the respective aero-nautical platforms. This data is sent to an angle estimator to calculate the target's angular position, and then on to Kalman filters FOR smoothing and time series prediction. The resulting velocity and acceleration estimates from the time series data are sent to an antenna control unit (ACU) to be used for pointing control.

  5. 1024 x 1024 pixel mid-wavelength and long-wavelength infrared QWIP focal plane arrays for imaging applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hill, C. J.; Rafol, S. B.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, J. T.; Tidrow, M. Z.; LeVan, P. D.

    2005-01-01

    Mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) 10(24) x 10(24) pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal planes have been demonstrated with excellent imaging performance. The MWIR QWIP detector array has demonstrated a noise equivalent differential temperature (NEAT) of 17 mK at a 95 K operating temperature with f/2.5 optics at 300 K background and the LWIR detector array has demonstrated a NEAT of 13 mK at a 70 K operating temperature with the same optical and background conditions as the MWIR detector array after the subtraction of system noise. Both MWIR and LWIR focal planes have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 90 K and 70 K operating temperatures respectively, with similar optical and background conditions. In this paper, we will discuss the performance in terms of quantum efficiency, NE(delta)T, uniformity, operability and modulation transfer functions.

  6. Simultaneous imaging of multiple focal planes for three-dimensional microscopy using ultra-high-speed adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Duocastella, Martí; Sun, Bo; Arnold, Craig B

    2012-05-01

    Traditional white-light and fluorescent imaging techniques provide powerful methods to extract high-resolution information from two-dimensional (2-D) sections, but to retrieve information from a three-dimensional (3-D) volume they require relatively slow scanning methods that result in increased acquisition time. Using an ultra-high speed liquid lens, we circumvent this problem by simultaneously acquiring images from multiple focal planes. We demonstrate this method by imaging microparticles and cells flowing in 3-D microfluidic channels.

  7. A Simple Model for Predicting the Flux Distribution through the Focal Plane of a Multifaceted-Concentrator Solar Furnace.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-06

    Concentrators ," Solar Energy Re- search Institute Report SERI/TR-631-336 (April 1980). 4. Jaffe, L.D., "Optimization of Dish Solar Collectors with and Without...NO. 5 A Simple Model for Predicting the Flux Distribution Through the Focal Plane of a Multifaceted- Concentrator Solar Furnace by D.E.E. Carlson, R.B...Diver, and E.A. Fletcher Prepared for Publication In Journal of Solar Energy Engineering University of Minnesota Mechanical Engineering Department

  8. The development of InGaAs short wavelength infrared focal plane arrays with high performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Gong, Haimei; Fang, Jiaxiong; shao, Xiumei; Tang, Hengjing; Huang, Songlei; Li, Tao; Huang, Zhangcheng

    2017-01-01

    High performance, various specifications InGaAs focal plane arrays(FPAs) were studied in Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics (SITP). On the one hand, the typical linear 256 × 1, 512 × 1 and 1024 × 1 FPAs were obtained for response wavelengths from 0.9 μm to 1.7 μm. The typical 320 × 256 FPAs and special sizes 512 × 128, 512 × 256 FPAs for the near infrared multi-spectral imaging were studied. The performance of InGaAs FPAs from 0.9 μm to 1.7 μm has improved enormously. The average peak detectivity, the response non-uniformity and non-operable pixel of the FPAs are superior to 3 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W, 5% and 1% at the room temperature. On the other hand, the development of the extended InGaAs FPAs was also focused in SITP. The dark current of InGaAs detectors with the response wavelength from 1.0 μm to 2.5 μm decreases to about 10 nA/cm2 at 200 K. The dark current mechanisms for extended InGaAs detectors were studied by P/A photodiodes. The special sizes 512 × 256 FPAs has been fabricated since 2011. The average peak detectivity, the response non-uniformity and non-operable pixel of the FPAs are superior to 5 × 1011 cm Hz1/2/W, 8% and 2% at 200 K. In order to verify the performance of FPAs, the short wavelength infrared lens was used to form optical imaging system. The buildings, water, trees are sharply imaged by 320 × 256 FPAs with 0.9-1.7 μm wavelength and 512 × 1 FPAs with 0.9-2.5 μm wavelength at about hundreds of meters distance as target at daylight.

  9. Pleiades HR in Flight Geometrical Calibration : Location and Mapping of the Focal Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lussy, F.; Greslou, D.; Dechoz, C.; Amberg, V.; Delvit, J. M.; Lebegue, L.; Blanchet, G.; Fourest, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Pleiades system, ORFEO system optical component (Optical and Radar Federated Earth Observation) consists of a constellation of two satellites for very High Resolution panchromatic and multispectral optical observation of the Earth. Its mission is to cover all European civilian needs (mapping, tracking floods and fires) and defence in the category of metric resolution: 0.7m Nadir. The first Pleiades satellite was launched at the end of last year. One of the key objectives of the Pleiades HR (PHR) project is to achieve a location accuracy that will allow the use of images in GIS (Geographical Information System) without geometrical model improvement by refining on ground control points. The image location without refined model was specified with the precision of the most commonly used tool ie the civil GPS. So the location accuracy has been specified at less than 12m for 90% of the images on a nominal satellite configuration. Very special care has been taken all along the PHR project realization to achieve this very good location accuracy. The final touch is given during the in-orbit commissioning phase which lasts until June 2012. The geometric quality implies to tune the parameters involved in the geolocation model (geometric calibration): besides attitude and orbit restitution tuning (not considered here), it consists in estimating the biases between the instrument orientation and the AOCS reference frame, and also the sight line of each detector in the focal plane. This is called static geometrical model. The analysis of dynamic perturbations outside of the model are the second most important image quality objective of in-flight commissioning, not described in this paper. Finally "image quality assessment" consists in evaluating the image quality obtained in the final products. For geolocation model, it is quantified by the absolute geolocation and the pointing accuracies, and it is a main contributor in length alteration and planimetric and altimetric

  10. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    Full video format focal plane array (FPA) modules with up to 640 X 512 pixels have been developed for high resolution imaging applications in either mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) mid wave (MWIR) infrared (IR) or platinum silicide (PtSi) and quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology as low cost alternatives to MCT for high performance IR imaging in the MWIR or long wave spectral band (LWIR). For the QWIP's, a new photovoltaic technology was introduced for improved NETD performance and higher dynamic range. MCT units provide fast frame rates > 100 Hz together with state of the art thermal resolution NETD < 20 mK for short snapshot integration times of typically 2 ms. PtSi and QWIP modules are usually operated in a rolling frame integration mode with frame rates of 30 - 60 Hz and provide thermal resolutions of NETD < 80 mK for PtSi and NETD < 20 mK for QWIP, respectively. Due to the lower quantum efficiency compared to MCT, however, the integration time is typically chosen to be as long 10 - 20 ms. The heat load of the integrated detector cooler assemblies (IDCAs) could be reduced to an amount as low, that a 1 W split liner cooler provides sufficient cooling power to operate the modules -- including the QWIP with 60 K operation temperature -- at ambient temperatures up to 65 degrees Celsius. Miniaturized command/control electronics (CCE) available for all modules provide a standardized digital interface, with 14 bit analogue to digital conversion for state to the art correctability, access to highly dynamic scenes without any loss of information and simplified exchangeability of the units. New modular image processing hardware platforms and software for image visualization and nonuniformity correction including scene based self learning algorithms had to be developed to accomplish for the high data rates of up to 18 M pixels/s with 14-bit deep data, allowing to take into account nonlinear effects to access the full NETD by accurate reduction of residual

  11. Portable sequential multicolor thermal imager based on a MCT 384 x 288 focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Rainer; Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann

    2001-10-01

    AIM has developed a sequential multicolor thermal imager to provide customers with a test system to realize real-time spectral selective thermal imaging. In contrast to existing PC based laboratory units, the system is miniaturized with integrated signal processing like non-uniformity correction and post processing functions such as image subtraction of different colors to allow field tests in military applications like detection of missile plumes or camouflaged targets as well as commercial applications like detection of chemical agents, pollution control, etc. The detection module used is a 384 X 288 mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) focal plane array (FPA) available in the mid wave (MWIR) or long wave spectral band LWIR). A compact command and control electronics (CCE) provides clock and voltage supply for the detector as well as 14 bit deep digital conversion of the analog detector output. A continuous rotating wheel with four facets for filters provides spectral selectivity. The customer can choose between various types of filter characteristics, e.g. a 4.2 micrometer bandpass filter for CO2 detection in the MWIR band. The rotating wheel can be synchronized to an external source giving the rotation speed, typical 25 l/s. A position sensor generates the four frame start signals for synchronous operation of the detector -- 100 Hz framerate for the four frames per rotation. The rotating wheel is exchangeable for different configurations and also plates for a microscanner operation to improve geometrical resolution are available instead of a multicolor operation. AIM's programmable MVIP image processing unit is used for signal processing like non- uniformity correction and controlling the detector parameters. The MVIP allows to output the four subsequent images as four quarters of the video screen to prior to any observation task set the integration time for each color individually for comparable performance in each spectral color and after that also to determine

  12. Microbolometer Terahertz Focal Plane Array and Camera with Improved Sensitivity in the Sub-Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Naoki; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Doi, Kohei; Ishi, Tsutomu; Sudou, Takayuki; Morimoto, Takao; Goto, Hideki; Sasaki, Tokuhito

    2015-10-01

    A pixel in an uncooled microbolometer terahertz (THz) focal plane array (FPA) has a suspended structure above read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) substrate. An optical cavity structure is formed between a thin metallic layer deposited on the suspended structure and a thick metallic layer deposited on the ROIC surface. The geometrical optical cavity length for our previous pixel structure, 3-4 μm, is extended three times, so that responsivity can be increased in the sub-THz region. This modification is carried out by depositing a thick SiN layer on the thick metallic layer. The modified pixel structure is applied to 640 × 480 and 320 × 240 THz-FPAs with 23.5 μm pixel pitch. Minimum detectable powers per pixel (MDP) are evaluated for these FPAs at 4.3, 2.5, 0.6, and 0.5 THz, and the MDP values are found to be improved by a factor of ten at 0.6 and 0.5 THz. The MDP values of the THz-FPAs developed in this work are compared with those of other THz detectors, such as uncooled antenna-coupled CMOS (complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor) THz-FPAs and cooled bolometer arrays. It is found that our THz-FPAs are more sensitive in the sub-THz region than the CMOS THz-FPAs, while they are much less sensitive than the cooled bolometer arrays. These THz-FPAs are incorporated into a 640 × 480 THz camera and 320 × 240 THz camera, and imaging equipment is developed. The equipment consists of a linearly polarized sub-THz source, a collimator lens, a beam homogenizer, two wire grids, a quarter-wave plate, and two THz cameras, and sub-THz images are demonstrated. It should be mentioned for the equipment that imaging of transmission and reflection is realized by moving only the quarter-wave plate, and the reflection image is taken along a direction normal to a sample surface so that the reflection image is hardly deformed.

  13. Starch-based second-harmonic-generated collinear frequency-resolved optical gating pulse characterization at the focal plane of a high-numerical-aperture lens.

    PubMed

    Amat-Roldán, Ivan; Cormack, Iain G; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Artigas, David

    2004-10-01

    We report the use of starch as an ideal nonlinear medium with which to perform collinear frequency-resolved optical gating measurements of ultrashort pulses at the focal plane of a high-numerical-aperture (NA) lens. We achieved these measurements by simply sandwiching starch granules (suspended in water) between two coverslips and placing them within the focal plane of a high-NA lens. The natural nonlinear characteristics of starch allow the correct phase matching of pulses at the focal plane of a high-NA lens at different wavelengths. This elegant arrangement overcomes all the complexity and problems that were previously associated with pulse characterization within a multiphoton microscope.

  14. Design and Calibration of the QUIET CMB Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buder, Immanuel

    2011-04-01

    QUIET is a large--angular-scale Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarimeter designed to measure the B-mode signal from inflation. The design incorporates a new time-stream "double-demodulation" technique, a 1.4-m Mizuguchi--Dragone telescope, natural sky rotation, and frequent boresight rotation to minimize systematic contamination. The levels of contamination in the inflationary signal are below r=0.1, the best yet achieved by any B-mode polarimeter. Moreover, QUIET is unique among B-mode polarimeters in using a large focal-plane array of miniaturized High--Electron-Mobility Transistor (HEMT) based coherent detectors. These detectors take advantage of a breakthrough in microwave-circuit packaging to achieve a field sensitivity of 69,K√s. QUIET has collected > 10,000,ours of data and recently released results from the first observing season at Q band (43 GHz). Analysis of W-band (95-GHz) data is ongoing. I will describe the Q-band calibration plan which uses a combination of astronomical and artificial sources to convert the raw data into polarization measurements with small and well-understood calibration errors. I will also give a status report on calibration for the upcoming W-band results.

  15. Calibration of the stellar X-ray polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, J.

    1997-07-01

    The Stellar X-Ray Polarimeter (SXRP) will be more than an order of magnitude more sensitive than any previous x-ray polarimeter in the 2-15 keV energy band. The SXRP is a focal plane detector for a Danish-Russian SODART telescope, which will be launched on the Russian Spectrum-X-Gamma (SXG) mission. The SXRP exploits the polarization dependence of Bragg reflection from a graphite crystal, and of Thomson scattering from a target of metallic lithium. The SXRP flight model (FM) was calibrated at a facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) equipped with polarized and unpolarized x-ray sources producing x-rays in the band pass for the graphite and the lithium scatterers. By adjusting the orientation of the SXRP with respect to the incident x-ray beam, it was possible to simulate the converging beam from a SODART telescope and to measure the SXRP response to telescope pointing errors. In this paper we describe the SXRP-FM calibration and present results for the graphite polarimeter.

  16. Quasi-plane shear wave propagation induced by acoustic radiation force with a focal line region: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Min; Abbott, Derek; Lu, Minhua; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-03-01

    Shear wave propagation speed has been regarded as an attractive indicator for quantitatively measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of soft tissues. While most existing techniques use acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation with focal spot region based on linear array transducers, we try to employ a special ARF with a focal line region and apply it to viscoelastic materials to create shear waves. First, a two-dimensional capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer with 64 × 128 fully controllable elements is realised and simulated to generate this special ARF. Then three-dimensional finite element models are developed to simulate the resulting shear wave propagation through tissue phantom materials. Three different phantoms are explored in our simulation study using: (a) an isotropic viscoelastic medium, (b) within a cylindrical inclusion, and (c) a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium. For each phantom, the ARF creates a quasi-plane shear wave which has a preferential propagation direction perpendicular to the focal line excitation. The propagation of the quasi-plane shear wave is investigated and then used to reconstruct shear moduli sequentially after the estimation of shear wave speed. In the phantom with a transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium, the anisotropy results in maximum speed parallel to the fiber direction and minimum speed perpendicular to the fiber direction. The simulation results show that the line excitation extends the displacement field to obtain a large imaging field in comparison with spot excitation, and demonstrate its potential usage in measuring the mechanical properties of anisotropic tissues.

  17. Antennas for Terahertz Applications: Focal Plane Arrays and On-chip Non-contact Measurement Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trichopoulos, Georgios C.

    The terahertz (THz) band provides unique sensing opportunities that enable several important applications such as biomedical imaging, remote non-destructive inspection of packaged goods, and security screening. THz waves can penetrate most materials and can provide unique spectral information in the 0.1--10 THz band with high resolution. In contrast, other imaging modalities, like infrared (IR), suffer from low penetration depths and are thus not attractive for non-destructive evaluation. However, state-of-the-art THz imaging systems typically employ mechanical raster scans using a single detector to acquire two-dimensional images. Such devices tend to be bulky and complicated due to the mechanical parts, and are thus rather expensive to develop and operate. Thus, large-format (e.g. 100x100 pixels) and all-electronics based THz imaging systems are badly needed to alleviate the space, weight and power (SWAP) factors and enable cost effective utilization of THz waves for sensing and high-data-rate communications. In contrast, photonic sensors are very compact because light can couple directly to the photodiode without residing to radiation coupling topologies. However, in the THz band, due to the longer wavelengths and much lower photon energies, highly efficient antennas with optimized input impedance have to be integrated with THz sensors. Here, we implement novel antenna engineering techniques that are optimized to take advantage of recent technological advances in solid-state THz sensing devices. For example, large-format focal plane arrays (FPAs) have been the Achilles' heel of THz imaging systems. Typically, optical components (lenses, mirrors) are employed in order to improve the optical performance of FPAs, however, antenna sensors suffer from degraded performance when they are far from the optical axis, thus minimizing the number of useful FPA elements. By modifying the radiation pattern of FPA antennas we manage to alleviate the off-axis aberration

  18. Effect of the focal plane position on CO2 laser beam cutting of injection molded polycarbonate sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Mehrabi, Omid; Azdast, Taher; Benyounis, Khaled Y.

    2016-11-01

    In the present research, the effect of laser beam focal plane position (FPP) on the kerf quality of the polycarbonate laser cutting is investigated. Low power CO2 laser is used as the heat source of the cutting runs. In the experiments, FPP is varied from 0 to -4mm while other processing parameters (i.e. laser power, cutting speed and gas pressure) are considered constant. Upper and lower kerf width, kerf taper, upper heat affected zone and surface roughness of the kerf wall are also considered as the responses. Observations signified that reducing the position of the laser beam focal point from zero to - 3mm reduces the upper and lower kerf width. However reducing FPP below -3mm leads to an increase in the kerf width. Results also reveals that upper heat affected zone value reduces by reduction in FPP. Moreover the best kerf wall surface roughness occurred at FPP= -3mm.

  19. HgCdTe p-on- n Focal-Plane Array Fabrication Using Arsenic Incorporation During MBE Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravrand, O.; Ballet, Ph.; Baylet, J.; Baier, N.

    2009-08-01

    Extrinsic p-type doping during molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth represents an essential generic toolbox for advanced heterostructures based on the HgCdTe material system: PiN diodes, mesa avalanche photodiodes (APD) or third-generation multispectral focal-plane arrays. Today, arsenic appears to be the best candidate to fulfill this role and our group is actively working on its incorporation during MBE growth, using an original radio frequency (RF) plasma source for arsenic. Such a cell is supposed to deliver a monatomic As flux, and as expected we observed high As electrical activation rates after annealing short-wave (SW), mid-wave (MW), and long-wave (LW) layers. At last, a couple of technological runs have been carried out in the MW range in order to validate the approach on practical devices. p-on- n focal-plane arrays (FPA) have been fabricated using a mesa delineated technology on an As-on-In doped metallurgical heterojunction layer grown on a lattice-matched CdZnTe layer (320 × 256, 30 μm pitch, 5 μm cutoff at 77 K). Observed diodes exhibit very interesting electro-optical characteristics: large shunt impedance, high quantum efficiency, and no noticeable excess noise. The resulting focal-plane arrays were observed to be very uniform, leading to high operabilities. Noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) distributions are very similar to those observed with the As ion-implanted p-on- n technology, fabricated in our laboratory as well. In our opinion, those excellent results demonstrate the feasibility of our MBE in situ arsenic doping process. Good electrical activation rates and high-quality layers can be obtained. We believe that such an approach allows precise control of the p-doping profile in the HgCdTe layer, which is necessary for advanced structure designs.

  20. Infrared hyperspectral imaging using a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and microbolometer focal plane array

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Ho, Nicolas

    2008-02-04

    A versatile mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging system is demonstrated by combining a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser and a microbolometer focal plane array. The tunable mid-infrared laser provided high brightness illumination over a tuning range from 985 cm-1 to 1075 cm-1 (9.30-10.15 μm). Hypercubes containing images at 300 wavelengths separated by 0.3 cm 1 were obtained in 12 s. High spectral resolution chemical imaging of methanol vapor was demonstrated for both static and dynamic systems. The system was also used to image and characterize multiple component liquid and solid samples.

  1. A K-band spectroscopic focal plane array for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank radio telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Matthew; White, Steve; Lockman, Jay; Bryerton, Eric; Saini, Kamaljeet; Norrod, Rorger; Simon, Bob; Srikanth, Sivasankaran; Anderson, Gary; Pisano, Daniel

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the design and current status of a K-Band Focal Plane Array (KFPA) for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The prototype array will go online with 7 independent dual-polarized beams, but the design target is a fully-populated instrument with approximately 60 beams on the sky. This project presents a number of technical challenges, including the architecture of a cryostat capable of supporting 60 independent receivers, design of high- performance components that fit behind the aperture of a compact feedhorn, and stable transmission of the large-volume of receiver data from the telescope to a remote building for back-end processing.

  2. Spectroscopy of transfermium nuclei using the GABRIELA set up at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Piot, J.; Curien, D.; Gall, B.; Yeremin, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Isaev, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Katrasev, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Sokol, E. A.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Wiborg-Hagen, T.; Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Drafta, G.; Pantelica, D.; Scintee, N.; Görgen, A.; Kutsarova, T.; Mullins, S.; Šáro, Š.

    2010-06-01

    An IN2P3-JINR collaboration has launched a project called GABRIELA at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) within the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia). The goal of the project is to perform gamma-ray and internal conversion electron spectroscopy of heavy nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and transported to the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA. During five experimental campaigns of GABRIELA, the detection system has gained in sensitivity and new spectroscopic information has been obtained for 249Fm, 251Fm, 253No and 255Lr. In this contribution new results for 253No will be discussed.

  3. Spectroscopy of transfermium nuclei using the GABRIELA set up at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Briançon, Ch.; Désesquelles, P.; Garcia-Santamaria, S.; Korichi, A.; Robin, J.; Dorvaux, O.; Piot, J.; Curien, D.; Gall, B.; Khalfallah, F.; Khouaja, A.; Rousseau, M.; Stuttgé, L.; Rowley, N.; Yeremin, A. V.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Gorshkov, V. A.; Isaev, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Katrasev, D. E.; Kutznetzov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shutov, A. V.; Sokol, E. A.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Wiborg-Hagen, T.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Nyhus, H. T.; Siem, S.; Syed, N. U. H.; Hanappe, F.; Bouchat, V.; Jones, P.; Borcea, R.; Drafta, G.; Pantelica, D.; Rotaru, F.; Scintee, N.; Zamfir, V.; Görgen, A.; Theisen, Ch.; Minkova, A.; Kutsarova, T.; Stodel, Ch.; Mullins, S.; Lieder, E.; Antalic, S.; Šáro, Š.; Venhart, M.

    2010-04-01

    An IN2P3-JINR collaboration has launched a project called GABRIELA at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) within the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia). The goal of the project is to perform gamma-ray and internal conversion electron spectroscopy of heavy nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and transported to the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA. During five experimental campaigns of GABRIELA, the detection system has gained in sensitivity and new spectroscopic information has been obtained for 249Fm, 251Fm, 253No and 255Lr.

  4. Results of ground tests and calibration of x-ray focal plane detectors for ART-XC/SRG instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Vasily; Pavlinsky, Mikhail; Akimov, Valery; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rotin, Alexey; Krivchenko, Aleksandr; Lapshov, Igor; Oleynikov, Vladimir

    2016-07-01

    The Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) has developed seven flight models and three spare models of the X-ray detectors for the ART-XC/SRG telescope. Each detector situated in the focal plane of ART-XC X-ray optics and includes CdTe die, front-end electronics, data processing, storage and telemetry units. In the Space Research Institute performed a vibration, thermal cycling and thermal vacuum tests of X-ray detectors. During this tests have been studied the leakage current stability, polarization rate, spectroscopic and imaging performance in the working temperature range. The current status of the X-ray detectors development and testing presented.

  5. Resolution and Mass Range Performance in Distance-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with a Multichannel Focal-Plane Camera Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alexander W.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Felton, Jeremy A.; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2011-10-05

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based mass-separation technique in which ions are separated in space along the plane of a spatially selective detector. In the present work, a solid-state charge-detection array, the focal-plane camera (FPC), was incorporated into the DOFMS platform. Use of the FPC with our DOFMS instrument resulted in improvements in analytical performance, usability, and versatility over a previous generation instrument that employed a microchannel-plate/phosphor DOF detector. Notably, FPC detection provided resolution improvements of at least a factor of two, with typical DOF linewidths of 300 {micro}m (R(FWHM)=1000). Merits of solid-state detection for DOFMS are evaluated and methods to extend the DOFMS mass range are considered.

  6. Resolution and Mass Range Performance in Distance-of-flight Mass Spectrometry with a Multichannel Focal-Plane Camera Detector.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alexander W.; Ray, Steven J.; Enke, Christie G.; Felton, Jeremy A.; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2011-11-15

    Distance-of-flight mass spectrometry (DOFMS) is a velocity-based mass-separation technique in which ions are separated in space along the plane of a spatially selective detector. In the present work, a solid-state charge-detection array, the focal-plane camera (FPC), was incorporated into the DOFMS platform. Use of the FPC with our DOFMS instrument resulted in improvements in analytical performance, usability, and versatility over a previous generation instrument that employed a microchannel-plate/phosphor DOF detector. Notably, FPC detection provided resolution improvements of at least a factor of 2, with typical DOF linewidths of 300 μm (R((fwhm)) = 1000). The merits of solid-state detection for DOFMS are evaluated, and methods to extend the DOFMS mass range are considered.

  7. The WIYN one degree imager 2014: performance of the partially populated focal plane and instrument upgrade path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbeck, Daniel R.; Boroson, Todd; Lesser, Michael; Rajagopal, Jayadev; Yeatts, Andrey; Corson, Charles; Liu, Wilson; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Kotulla, Ralf; Ouellette, David; Hooper, Eric; Smith, Mike; Bredthauer, Richard; Martin, Pierre; Muller, Gary; Knezek, Patricia; Hunten, Mark

    2014-07-01

    The One Degree Imager (ODI) was deployed during the summer of 2012 at the WIYN 3.5m telescope, located on Kitt Peak near Tucson, AZ (USA). ODI is an optical imager designed to deliver atmosphere-limited image quality (≤ 0.4" FWHM) over a one degree field of view, and uses Orthogonal Transfer Array (OTA) detectors to also allow for on-chip tip/tilt image motion compensation. At this time, the focal plane is partially populated ("pODI") with 13 out of 64 OTA detectors, providing a central scientifically usable field of view of about 24' x 24'; four of the thirteen detectors are installed at outlying positions to probe image quality at all field angles. The image quality has been verified to be indeed better than 0.4'' FWHM over the full field when atmospheric conditions allow. Based on over one year of operations, we summarize pODIs performance and lessons learned. As pODI has proven the viability of the ODI instrument, the WIYN consortium is engaging in an upgrade project to add 12 more detectors to the focal plane enlarging the scientifically usable field of view to about 40' x 40'. A design change in the new detectors has successfully addressed a low light level charge transfer inefficiency.

  8. POL-2: a polarimeter for the James-Clerk-Maxwell telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, Per; Bastien, Pierre; Berry, David; Savini, Giorgio; Graves, Sarah F.; Pattle, Kate

    2016-07-01

    The POL-2 polarimeter for the SCUBA-2 10 000 pixel Terahertz camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in it's late state of commissioning. Proposals have been accepted for POL-2 and general observing will start in August 2016. SCUBA-2 has a field of view of 43 arcmin at both of the 850 and 450 μm focal planes. POL-2 will map the sky in the the 850 μm band. The POL-2 polarimeter utilizes three optical components: a half wave plate and two wire-grid polarizers used as calibrator and analyzer covering the full field of SCUBA-2. We describe the instrument, data acquisition and features/artifacts that have been encountered during the commissioning.

  9. A method using focal plane analysis to determine the performance of reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, P. W.; Imbriale, W. A.; Rengarajan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Reflector antenna optimization schemes using array feeds have been used to recover antenna losses resulting from antenna distortions and aberrations and to generate contour coverage patterns. Historically, these optimizations have been carried out using the antenna far-field scattered patterns. The far-field patterns must be calculated separately for each of the array feed elements. For large or complex antennas (which include beam-waveguide antennas), the far-field calculation times can be prohibitive. This article presents a method with which the optimization can be carried out in the antenna focal region, where the scattering calculation needs only to be done once independently of the number of the elements in the array. This article also includes the results of a study, utilizing this unique technique, to determine the capabilities and limitations of using array feeds to compensate for gravitational induced losses in large reflector antennas.

  10. The spectral archive of cosmic X-ray sources observed by the Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Kenneth S. K.; Canizares, Claude R.; Clark, George W.; Coyne, Joan M.; Markert, Thomas H.; Saez, Pablo J.; Schattenburg, Mark L.; Winkler, P. F.

    1992-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory Focal Plane Crystal Spectrometer (FPCS) used the technique of Bragg spectroscopy to study cosmic X-ray sources in the 0.2-3 keV energy range. The high spectral resolving power (E/Delta-E is approximately equal to 100-1000) of this instrument allowed it to resolve closely spaced lines and study the structure of individual features in the spectra of 41 cosmic X-ray sources. An archival summary of the results is presented as a concise record the FPCS observations and a source of information for future analysis by the general astrophysics community. For each observation, the instrument configuration, background rate, X-ray flux or upper limit within the energy band observed, and spectral histograms are given. Examples of the contributions the FPCS observations have made to the understanding of the objects observed are discussed.

  11. Snapshot linear-Stokes imaging spectropolarimeter using division-of-focal-plane polarimetry and integral field spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Tingkui; Pacheco, Shaun; Chen, Zeyu; Zhang, Chunmin; Liang, Rongguang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the design and experimental demonstration of a snapshot linear-Stokes imaging spectropolarimeter (SLSIS) is presented. The SLSIS, which is based on division-of-focal-plane polarimetry with four parallel linear polarization channels and integral field spectroscopy with numerous slit dispersive paths, has no moving parts and provides video-rate Stokes-vector hyperspectral datacubes. It does not need any scanning in the spectral, spatial or polarization dimension and offers significant advantages of rapid reconstruction without heavy computation during post-processing. The principle and the experimental setup of the SLSIS are described in detail. The image registration, Stokes spectral reconstruction and calibration procedures are included, and the system is validated using measurements of tungsten light and a static scene. The SLSIS’s snapshot ability to resolve polarization spectral signatures is demonstrated using measurements of a dynamic scene. PMID:28191819

  12. Coaxial Dual-wavelength Interferometric Method for a Thermal Infrared Focal-plane-array with Integrated Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Yuanfang; Ye, Xiongying; Cao, Liangcai; Song, Pengfei; Feng, Jinyang

    2016-05-01

    Uncooled infrared (IR) focal-plane-array (FPA) with both large sensing range and high sensitivity is a great challenge due to the limited dynamic range of the detected signals. A coaxial dual-wavelength interferometric system was proposed here to detect thermal-induced displacements of an ultrasensitive FPA based on polyvinyl-chloride(PVC)/gold bimorph cantilevers and carbon nanotube (CNT)-based IR absorbing films. By alternately selecting the two displacement measurements performed by λ1 (=640 nm) and λ2 (=660 nm), the temperature measuring range with greater than 50% maximum sensitivity can be extended by eight-fold in comparison with the traditional single-wavelength mode. Meanwhile, the relative measurement error over the full measuring range is below 0.4%. In addition, it offers a feasible approach for on-line and on-wafer FPA characterization with great convenience and high efficiency.

  13. Spectroscopy of transfermium nuclei using the GABRIELA set up at the focal plane of the VASSILISSA recoil separator

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, K.; Lopez-Martens, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Piot, J.; Curien, D.; Gall, B.; Yeremin, A. V.; Chelnokov, M. L.; Chepigin, V. I.; Isaev, A. V.; Izosimov, I. N.; Kabachenko, A. P.; Katrasev, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Malyshev, O. N.; Popeko, A. G.; Sokol, E. A.; Svirikhin, A. I.; Wiborg-Hagen, T.; Nyhus, H. T

    2010-06-01

    An IN2P3-JINR collaboration has launched a project called GABRIELA at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) within the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna (Russia). The goal of the project is to perform gamma-ray and internal conversion electron spectroscopy of heavy nuclei produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and transported to the focal plane of the recoil separator VASSILISSA. During five experimental campaigns of GABRIELA, the detection system has gained in sensitivity and new spectroscopic information has been obtained for {sup 249}Fm, {sup 251}Fm, {sup 253}No and {sup 255}Lr. In this contribution new results for {sup 253}No will be discussed.

  14. Solid state active/passive night vision imager using continuous-wave laser diodes and silicon focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmerhausen, Richard H.

    2013-04-01

    Passive imaging offers covertness and low power, while active imaging provides longer range target acquisition without the need for natural or external illumination. This paper describes a focal plane array (FPA) concept that has the low noise needed for state-of-the-art passive imaging and the high-speed gating needed for active imaging. The FPA is used with highly efficient but low-peak-power laser diodes to create a night vision imager that has the size, weight, and power attributes suitable for man-portable applications. Video output is provided in both the active and passive modes. In addition, the active mode is Class 1 eye safe and is not visible to the naked eye or to night vision goggles.

  15. State of the art of AIM LWIR and VLWIR MCT 2D focal plane detector arrays for higher operating temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Fick, W.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper AIM presents its latest results on both n-on-p and p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode technology LWIR and VLWIR two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays with a cut-off wavelength >11μm at 80K and a 640x512 pixel format at a 20μm pitch. Thermal dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' at a yet good detection efficiency >60% as well as results from NETD and photo response performance characterization are presented. The demonstrated detector performance paces the way for a new generation of higher operating temperature LWIR MCT FPAs with a <30mK NETD up to a 110K detector operating temperature and with good operability.

  16. Focal-plane wavefront sensing for active optics in the VST based on an analytical optical aberration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzlöhner, R.; Taubenberger, S.; Rakich, A. P.; Noethe, L.; Schipani, P.; Kuijken, K.

    2016-08-01

    We study a novel focal plane wavefront sensing and active optics control scheme at the VST on Cerro Paranal, an f/5.5 survey telescope with a 1x1 degree field of view and a 2.6m primary mirror. This scheme analyzes the elongation pattern of stellar PSFs across the full science image (256 Mpixels) and compares their second moments with an analytical model based on 5th-order geometrical optics. We consider 11 scalar degrees of freedom in mirror misalignments and deformations (M2 piston, tip/tilt and lateral displacement, detector tip/tilt, plus M1 figure astigmatism and trefoil). Using a numerical optimization method, we extract up to 4000 stars and complete the fitting process in under one minute. We demonstrate successful closed-loop active optics control based on maximum likelihood filtering.

  17. 640 x 512 Pixels Long-Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) Imaging Focal Plane Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Keo, Sam A.; Krishna, Sanjay; Chang, Y. -C.; Shott, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Epitaxially grown self-assembled. InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are exploited for the development of large-format long-wavelength infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). The dot-in-a-well (DWELL) structures were experimentally shown to absorb both 45 degrees and normal incident light, therefore, a reflection grating structure was used to enhance the quantum efficiency. The devices exhibit peak responsivity out to 8.1 micrometers, with peak detectivity reaching approximately 1 X 10(exp 10) Jones at 77 K. The devices were fabricated into the first long-wavelength 640 x 512 pixel QD infrared photodetector imaging FPA, which has produced excellent infrared imagery with noise equivalent temperature difference of 40 mK at 60-K operating temperature.

  18. Conversion electron spectroscopy at the FMA focal plane: Decay studies of proton-rich N {approximately} 82 nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I.

    1995-08-01

    The FMA has proven to be an ideal instrument for the detailed study of the decay of microsecond isomers behind the focal plane following mass selection. In reactions leading to the population of nuclei with isomeric lifetimes longer than their flight time through the device, decay gamma rays and conversion electrons can be detected in an environment free from the backgrounds of prompt radiation and delta electrons. This was a very successful technique to study proton (h{sub 11/2}){sup n} seniority isomers in nuclei with Z > 64 and N {approximately} 82. Since isomeric decay gamma rays are emitted isotropically, conversion electrons are essential for the assignment of multipolarities in these nuclei. Furthermore, the low-energy transitions that depopulate isomeric states are typically highly converted and can escape gamma-ray detection, but they can be identified by their conversion electrons.

  19. Snapshot linear-Stokes imaging spectropolarimeter using division-of-focal-plane polarimetry and integral field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Tingkui; Pacheco, Shaun; Chen, Zeyu; Zhang, Chunmin; Liang, Rongguang

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the design and experimental demonstration of a snapshot linear-Stokes imaging spectropolarimeter (SLSIS) is presented. The SLSIS, which is based on division-of-focal-plane polarimetry with four parallel linear polarization channels and integral field spectroscopy with numerous slit dispersive paths, has no moving parts and provides video-rate Stokes-vector hyperspectral datacubes. It does not need any scanning in the spectral, spatial or polarization dimension and offers significant advantages of rapid reconstruction without heavy computation during post-processing. The principle and the experimental setup of the SLSIS are described in detail. The image registration, Stokes spectral reconstruction and calibration procedures are included, and the system is validated using measurements of tungsten light and a static scene. The SLSIS’s snapshot ability to resolve polarization spectral signatures is demonstrated using measurements of a dynamic scene.

  20. Test results of Spacelab 2 infrared telescope focal plane. [photoconductive detector fabrication and JFET transimpedance amplifier design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, E. T.; Rieke, G. H.; Gautier, T. N.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Poteet, W.; Fazio, G. G.; Koch, D.; Traub, W. A.; Urban, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    The small helium cooled infrared telescope for Spacelab 2 is designed for sensitive mapping of extended, low-surface-brightness celestial sources as well as highly sensitive investigations of the shuttle contamination environment (FPA) for this mission is described as well as the design for a thermally isolated, self-heated J-FET transimpedance amplifier. This amplifier is Johnson noise limited for feedback resistances from less than 10 to the 8th power Omega to greater than 2 x 10 to the 10th power Omega at T = 4.2K. Work on the focal plane array is complete. Performance testing for qualification of the flight hardware is discussed, and results are presented. All infrared data channels are measured to be background limited by the expected level of zodiacal emission.

  1. A 160 x 120 pixel uncooled TEC-less infrared radiation focal plane array on a standard ceramic package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funaki, Hideyuki; Honda, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Ikuo; Yagi, Hitoshi; Ishii, Kouichi; Sasaki, Keita

    2009-05-01

    We have developed a 32 μm pitch and 160 × 120 pixel uncooled infrared radiation focal plane array (IRFPA) on SOI by 0.35 μm CMOS technology and bulk-micromachining. For IR detection, we use silicon single crystal series p-n junctions which can realize high uniformity of temperature coefficient and low voltage drift. We have also developed a low-noise CMOS readout circuit on the same SOI which can calibrate the substrate temperature variation in every frame period, comparing two types of pixels, a bulk-micromachined infrared detection pixel and a non-micromachined reference pixel. Then the FPA requires no thermo-electric cooler (TEC) and is mounted on a low-cost standard ceramic package for the consumer products market.

  2. HEB heterodyne focal plane arrays: a terahertz technology for high sensitivity near-range security imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerecht, Eyal; Gu, Dazhen; Yngvesson, Sigfrid; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Zannoni, R.; Nicholson, John

    2005-05-01

    We have achieved the first demonstration of a low-noise heterodyne array operating at a frequency above 1 THz (1.6 THz). The prototype array has three elements, consisting of NbN hot electron bolometer (HEB) detectors on silicon substrates. We use a quasi-optical design to couple the signal and local oscillator (LO) power to the detector. We also demonstrate, for the first time, how the HEB detectors can be intimately integrated in the same block with monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) IF amplifiers. Such focal plane arrays can be increased in size to a few hundred elements using the next generation fabrication architecture for compact and easy assembly. Future HEB-based focal plane arrays will make low-noise heterodyne imaging systems with high angular resolution possible from 500 GHz to several terahertz. Large low-noise HEB arrays are well suited for real-time video imaging at any frequency over the entire terahertz spectrum. This is made possible by virtue of the extremely low local oscillator power requirements of the HEB detectors (a few hundred nanowatts to a microwatt per pixel). The operating temperature is 4 to 6 K, which can be provided by a compact and mobile cryocooler system, developed as a spin-off from the space program. The terahertz HEB imager consists of a computer-controlled optical system mounted on an elevation and azimuth scanning translator which provides a two-dimensional image of the target. We present preliminary measured data at the symposium for a terahertz security system of this type.

  3. Focal plane array detectors with micro-bolometer structure and its application in IR and THz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Mou, Wenchao; Gou, Jun; Jiang, Yadong

    2016-10-01

    Focal Plane Array (FPA) detector has characteristics of low cost, operating at room temperature, compatibility with the silicon CMOS technology, and high detecting performance, therefore it becomes a hot spot in infrared (IR) or terahertz (THz) detect field recently. However, the tradition structure of micro-bolometer has the conflict of the pixel size and thermal performance. In order to improve the detecting performance of small pixel size bolometer, high fill factor and low thermal conductance design should be considered. In IR detecting, double layers structure is an efficient method to improve the absorption of micro-bolometer and reduce thermal conductance. The three-dimension model of small size micro-bolometer was built in this article. The thermal and mechanical characters of those models were simulated and optimized, and finally the double layer structure micro-bolometer was fabricated with multifarious semiconductor recipes on the readout integrated chip wafer. For THz detecting, to improve the detecting performance, different dimension THz detectors based on micro-bridge structure were designed and fabricated to get optimizing micro-bolometer parameters from the test results of membrane deformation. A nanostructured titanium thin film absorber is integrated in the micro-bridge structure of the VOx micro-bolometer to enhance the absorption of THz radiation. Continuous-wave THz detection and imaging are demonstrated with a 2.52 THz far infrared CO2 laser and fabricated 320×240 vanadium oxide micro-bolometer focal plane array with optimized cell structure. With this detecting system, THz imaging of metal concealed in wiping cloth and envelope is demonstrated.

  4. Design and verification of focal plane assembly thermal control system of one space-based astronomy telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen-gang; Fan, Xue-wu; Wang, Chen-jie; Wang, Ying-hao; Feng, Liang-jie; Du, Yun-fei; Ren, Guo-rui; Wang, Wei; Li, Chuang; Gao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    One space-based astronomy telescope will observe astronomy objects whose brightness should be lower than 23th magnitude. To ensure the telescope performance, very low system noise requirements need extreme low CCD operating temperature (lower than -65°C). Because the satellite will be launched in a low earth orbit, inevitable space external heat fluxes will result in a high radiator sink temperature (higher than -65°C). Only passive measures can't meet the focal plane cooling specification and active cooling technologies must be utilized. Based on detailed analysis on thermal environment of the telescope and thermal characteristics of focal plane assembly (FPA), active cooling system which is based on thermo-electric cooler (TEC) and heat rejection system (HRS) which is based on flexible heat pipe and radiator have been designed. Power consumption of TECs is dependent on the heat pumped requirements and its hot side temperature. Heat rejection capability of HRS is mainly dependent on the radiator size and temperature. To compromise TEC power consumption and the radiator size requirement, thermal design of FPA must be optimized. Parasitic heat loads on the detector is minimized to reduce the heat pumped demands of TECs and its power consumption. Thermal resistance of heat rejection system is minimized to reject the heat dissipation of TECs from the hot side to the radiator efficiently. The size and surface coating of radiator are optimized to compromise heat reject ion requirements and system constraints. Based on above work, transient thermal analysis of FPA is performed. FPA prototype model has been developed and thermal vacuum/balance test has been accomplished. From the test, temperature of key parts and working parameters of TECs in extreme cases have been acquired. Test results show that CCD can be controlled below -65°C and all parts worked well during the test. All of these verified the thermal design of FPA and some lessons will be presented in this

  5. High-contrast single-particle tracking by selective focal plane illumination microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Jörg G; Veith, Roman; Siebrasse, Jan-Peter; Kubitscheck, Ulrich

    2008-05-12

    Wide-field single molecule microscopy is a versatile tool for analyzing dynamics and molecular interactions in biological systems. In extended three-dimensional systems, however, the method suffers from intrinsic out-of-focus fluorescence. We constructed a high-resolution selective plane illumination microscope (SPIM) to efficiently solve this problem. The instrument is an optical sectioning microscope featuring the high speed and high sensitivity of a video microscope. We present theoretical calculations and quantitative measurements of the illumination light sheet thickness yielding 1.7 microm (FWHM) at 543 nm, 2.0 microm at 633 nm, and a FWHM of the axial point spread function of 1.13 microm. A direct comparison of selective plane and epi-illumination of model samples with intrinsic background fluorescence illustrated the clear advantage of SPIM for such samples. Single fluorescent quantum dots in aqueous solution are readily visualized and tracked proving the suitability of our setup for the study of fast and dynamic processes in spatially extended biological specimens.

  6. Total elimination of sampling errors in polarization imagery obtained with integrated microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Tyo, J Scott; LaCasse, Charles F; Ratliff, Bradley M

    2009-10-15

    Microgrid polarimeters operate by integrating a focal plane array with an array of micropolarizers. The Stokes parameters are estimated by comparing polarization measurements from pixels in a neighborhood around the point of interest. The main drawback is that the measurements used to estimate the Stokes vector are made at different locations, leading to a false polarization signature owing to instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) errors. We demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that spatially band limited polarization images can be ideally reconstructed with no IFOV error by using a linear system framework.

  7. Monte-Carlo Estimation of the Inflight Performance of the GEMS Satellite X-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; Tamagawa, Toru; Hayato, Asami; Enoto, Teruaki; Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Kaneko, Kenta; Takeuchi, Yoko; Black, Kevin; Hill, Joanne; Jahoda, Keith; Krizmanic, John; Sturner, Steve; Griffiths, Scott; Kaaret, Philip; Marlowe, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    We report a Monte-Carlo estimation of the in-orbit performance of a cosmic X-ray polarimeter designed to be installed on the focal plane of a small satellite. The simulation uses GEANT for the transport of photons and energetic particles and results from Magboltz for the transport of secondary electrons in the detector gas. We validated the simulation by comparing spectra and modulation curves with actual data taken with radioactive sources and an X-ray generator. We also estimated the in-orbit background induced by cosmic radiation in low Earth orbit.

  8. Improved performance of HgCdTe infrared detector focal plane arrays by modulating light field based on photonic crystal structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jian; Hu, Weida Ye, Zhenhua; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang Lu, Wei; Liao, Lei

    2014-05-14

    An HgCdTe long-wavelength infrared focal plane array photodetector is proposed by modulating light distributions based on the photonic crystal. It is shown that a promising prospect of improving performance is better light harvest and dark current limitation. To optimize the photon field distributions of the HgCdTe-based photonic crystal structure, a numerical method is built by combining the finite-element modeling and the finite-difference time-domain simulation. The optical and electrical characteristics of designed HgCdTe mid-wavelength and long-wavelength photon-trapping infrared detector focal plane arrays are obtained numerically. The results indicate that the photon crystal structure, which is entirely compatible with the large infrared focal plane arrays, can significantly reduce the dark current without degrading the quantum efficiency compared to the regular mesa or planar structure.

  9. RMT focal plane sensitivity to seismic network geometry and faulting style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kendra L.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, Harley M.; McNamara, Dan E.; Bergman, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Modern tectonic studies often use regional moment tensors (RMTs) to interpret the seismotectonic framework of an earthquake or earthquake sequence; however, despite extensive use, little existing work addresses RMT parameter uncertainty. Here, we quantify how network geometry and faulting style affect RMT sensitivity. We examine how data-model fits change with fault plane geometry (strike and dip) for varying station configurations. We calculate the relative data fit for incrementally varying geometries about a best-fitting solution, applying our workflow to real and synthetic seismograms for both real and hypothetical station distributions and earthquakes. Initially, we conduct purely observational tests, computing RMTs from synthetic seismograms for hypothetical earthquakes and a series of well-behaved network geometries. We then incorporate real data and station distributions from the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD), which recorded aftershocks of the 2010 MW 8.8 Maule earthquake, and a set of regional stations capturing the ongoing earthquake sequence in Oklahoma and southern Kansas. We consider RMTs computed under three scenarios: (1) real seismic records selected for high data quality; (2) synthetic seismic records with noise computed for the observed source-station pairings and (3) synthetic seismic records with noise computed for all possible station-source pairings. To assess RMT sensitivity for each test, we observe the `fit falloff', which portrays how relative fit changes when strike or dip varies incrementally; we then derive the ranges of acceptable strikes and dips by identifying the span of solutions with relative fits larger than 90 per cent of the best fit. For the azimuthally incomplete IMAD network, Scenario 3 best constrains fault geometry, with average ranges of 45° and 31° for strike and dip, respectively. In Oklahoma, Scenario 3 best constrains fault dip with an average range of 46°; however, strike is best constrained by

  10. RMT focal plane sensitivity to seismic network geometry and faulting style

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Kendra L.; Hayes, Gavin; Herrmann, Robert B.; Benz, Harley M.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Bergman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern tectonic studies often use regional moment tensors (RMTs) to interpret the seismotectonic framework of an earthquake or earthquake sequence; however, despite extensive use, little existing work addresses RMT parameter uncertainty. Here, we quantify how network geometry and faulting style affect RMT sensitivity. We examine how data-model fits change with fault plane geometry (strike and dip) for varying station configurations. We calculate the relative data fit for incrementally varying geometries about a best-fitting solution, applying our workflow to real and synthetic seismograms for both real and hypothetical station distributions and earthquakes. Initially, we conduct purely observational tests, computing RMTs from synthetic seismograms for hypothetical earthquakes and a series of well-behaved network geometries. We then incorporate real data and station distributions from the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD), which recorded aftershocks of the 2010 MW 8.8 Maule earthquake, and a set of regional stations capturing the ongoing earthquake sequence in Oklahoma and southern Kansas. We consider RMTs computed under three scenarios: (1) real seismic records selected for high data quality; (2) synthetic seismic records with noise computed for the observed source-station pairings and (3) synthetic seismic records with noise computed for all possible station-source pairings. To assess RMT sensitivity for each test, we observe the ‘fit falloff’, which portrays how relative fit changes when strike or dip varies incrementally; we then derive the ranges of acceptable strikes and dips by identifying the span of solutions with relative fits larger than 90 per cent of the best fit. For the azimuthally incomplete IMAD network, Scenario 3 best constrains fault geometry, with average ranges of 45° and 31° for strike and dip, respectively. In Oklahoma, Scenario 3 best constrains fault dip with an average range of 46°; however, strike is best constrained

  11. LEP and CEBAF polarimeters: Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Burkert, V.; Rossmanith, R.; Placidi, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper gives an overview on high energy electron (positron) polarimeters by describing in more detail the plans for the LEP polarimeter and the CEBAF polarimeters. Both LEP and CEBAF will have laser polarimeters. In addition CEBAF will be equipped with a M/o/ller polarimeter (for currents below 1..mu..A). 4 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Trade-offs and difficulties of the vertical photoconductor: a novel device structure suitable for HgCdTe two-dimensional infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhan, R. K.; Dhar, V.; Mittal, Vandana

    1999-10-01

    Recently Siliquini and Faraone [J.F. Siliquini, L. Faraone, Infrared Phys. Technol. 38 (1997) 205] have proposed vertical photoconductive device (PC) based two-dimensional long wavelength infrared region focal plane arrays (LWIR FPAs). In this note, we examine some trade-offs and difficulties of this proposed structure.

  13. Focal plane arrays for submillimeter waves using two-dimensional electron gas elements: A grant under the Innovative Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid; Lau, Kei-May

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a three-year research effort, aimed at developing new types of THz low noise receivers, based on bulk effect ('hot electron') nonlinearities in the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG) Medium, and the inclusion of such receivers in focal plane arrays. 2DEG hot electron mixers have been demonstrated at 35 and 94 GHz with three orders of magnitude wider bandwidth than previous hot electron mixers, which use bulk InSb. The 2DEG mixers employ a new mode of operation, which was invented during this program. Only moderate cooling is required for this mode, to temperatures in the range 20-77 K. Based on the results of this research, it is now possible to design a hot electron mixer focal plane array for the THz range, which is anticipated to have a DSB receiver noise temperature of 500-1000K. In our work on this grant, we have found similar results the the Cronin group (resident at the University of Bath, UK). Neither group has so far demonstrated heterodyne detection in this mode, however. We discovered and explored some new effects in the magnetic field mode, and these are described in the report. In particular, detection of 94 GHz and 238 GHz, respectively, by a new effect, 'Shubnikov de Haas detection', was found to be considerably stronger in our materials than the cyclotron resonance detection. All experiments utilized devices with an active 2DEG region of size of the order of 10-40 micrometers long, and 20-200 micrometers wide, formed at the heterojunction between AlGaAs and GaAs. All device fabrication was performed in-house. The materials for the devices were also grown in-house, utilizing OMCVD (Organo Metallic Chemical Vapor Deposition). In the course of this grant, we developed new techniques for growing AlGaAs/GaAs with mobilities equalling the highest values published by any laboratory. We believe that the field of hot electron mixers and detectors will grow substantially in importance in the next few years, partly as a result of

  14. Real-time 3D millimeter wave imaging based FMCW using GGD focal plane array as detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Assaf; Rozban, Daniel; Kopeika, Natan S.; Yitzhaky, Yitzhak; Abramovich, Amir

    2014-03-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) imaging systems are required for applications in medicine, communications, homeland security, and space technology. This is because there is no known ionization hazard for biological tissue, and atmospheric attenuation in this range of the spectrum is relatively low. The lack of inexpensive room temperature imaging systems makes it difficult to give a suitable MMW system for many of the above applications. 3D MMW imaging system based on chirp radar was studied previously using a scanning imaging system of a single detector. The system presented here proposes to employ a chirp radar method with a Glow Discharge Detector (GDD) Focal Plane Array (FPA) of plasma based detectors. Each point on the object corresponds to a point in the image and includes the distance information. This will enable 3D MMW imaging. The radar system requires that the millimeter wave detector (GDD) will be able to operate as a heterodyne detector. Since the source of radiation is a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW), the detected signal as a result of heterodyne detection gives the object's depth information according to value of difference frequency, in addition to the reflectance of the image. In this work we experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an imaging system based on radar principles and FPA of GDD devices. This imaging system is shown to be capable of imaging objects from distances of at least 10 meters.

  15. A per-pixel Log2ADC for high dynamic range, 1000FPS digital focal plane arrays (DFPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petilli, Eugene

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsix has developed a Digital Focal Plane Array (DFPA) architecture based on a novel piecewise linear Log2 ADC (LADC) with "lossless" analog compression which enables ultra-high dynamic range ROICs that use less power than other extended dynamic range technologies. The LADC provides dynamic range of 126dB with a constant 75dB SNR over the entire frame. The companding 13bit mantissa, 3bit radix per pixel LADCs compress the 21bit signals into efficient 16 bit data words. The Read Out IC (ROIC) is compatible with most IR and LWIR detectors including two-color SLS (photodiode) and uBolometers. The DFPA architecture leverages two (staggered frame prime and redundant) MIPI CSI-3 interfaces to achieve full HD DFPA at 1000 frames/sec; an equivalent uncompressed data rate of 100Gb/sec. The LADC uses direct injection into a moderate sized integrating capacitor and several comparators create a stream of multi-bit data values. These values are accumulated in an SRAM based log2ALU and the radix of the ALU is combined with the data to generate a feedback current to the integrating capacitor, closing the delta loop. The integration time and a single pole low pass IIR filter are configurable using control signals to the log2ALU. The feedback current is at least partially generated using PWM for high linearity.

  16. Crack-free AlGaN for solar-blind focal plane arrays through reduced area epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, E.; McClintock, R.; Vashaei, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Gautier, S.; Cho, C. Y.; Razeghi, M.

    2013-02-01

    We report on crack reduction for solar-blind ultraviolet detectors via the use of a reduced area epitaxy (RAE) method to regrow on patterned AlN templates. With the RAE method, a pre-deposited AlN template is patterned into isolated mesas in order to reduce the formation of cracks in the subsequently grown high Al-content AlxGa1-xN structure. By restricting the lateral dimensions of the epitaxial growth area, the biaxial strain is relaxed by the edges of the patterned squares, which resulted in ˜97% of the pixels being crack-free. After successful implementation of RAE method, we studied the optical characteristics, the external quantum efficiency, and responsivity of average pixel-sized detectors of the patterned sample increased from 38% and 86.2 mA/W to 57% and 129.4 mA/W, respectively, as the reverse bias is increased from 0 V to 5 V. Finally, we discussed the possibility of extending this approach for focal plane array, where crack-free large area material is necessary for high quality imaging.

  17. Very large scale heterogeneous integration (VLSHI) and wafer-level vacuum packaging for infrared bolometer focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Fredrik; Roxhed, Niclas; Fischer, Andreas C.; Samel, Björn; Ericsson, Per; Hoivik, Nils; Lapadatu, Adriana; Bring, Martin; Kittilsland, Gjermund; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank

    2013-09-01

    Imaging in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm is an extremely useful tool for non-contact measurement and imaging of temperature in many industrial, automotive and security applications. However, the cost of the infrared (IR) imaging components has to be significantly reduced to make IR imaging a viable technology for many cost-sensitive applications. This paper demonstrates new and improved fabrication and packaging technologies for next-generation IR imaging detectors based on uncooled IR bolometer focal plane arrays. The proposed technologies include very large scale heterogeneous integration for combining high-performance, SiGe quantum-well bolometers with electronic integrated read-out circuits and CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packing. The fabrication and characterization of bolometers with a pitch of 25 μm × 25 μm that are arranged on read-out-wafers in arrays with 320 × 240 pixels are presented. The bolometers contain a multi-layer quantum well SiGe thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistance of -3.0%/K. The proposed CMOS compatible wafer-level vacuum packaging technology uses Cu-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding. The presented technologies are suitable for implementation in cost-efficient fabless business models with the potential to bring about the cost reduction needed to enable low-cost IR imaging products for industrial, security and automotive applications.

  18. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  19. Digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) implementing time delay and integration (TDI) for scanning type infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Burak, Abdurrahman; Caliskan, Can; Yazici, Melik; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Galioglu, Arman; Kayahan, Huseyin; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a digital readout integrated circuit (DROIC) implementing time delay and integration (TDI) for scanning type infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs) with a charge handling capacity of 44.8 Me- while achieving quantization noise of 198 e- and power consumption of 14.35 mW. Conventional pulse frequency modulation (PFM) method is supported by a single slope ramp ADC technique to have a very low quantization noise together with a low power consumption. The proposed digital TDI ROIC converts the photocurrent into digital domain in two phases; in the first phase, most significant bits (MSBs) are generated by the conventional PFM technique in the charge domain, while in the second phase least significant bits (LSBs) are generated by a single slope ramp ADC in the time domain. A 90 × 8 prototype has been fabricated and verified, showing a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 51 dB for low illumination levels (280,000 collected electrons), which is attributed to the TDI implementation method and very low quantization noise due to the single slope ADC implemented for LSBs. Proposed digital TDI ROIC proves the benefit of digital readouts for scanning arrays enabling smaller pixel pitches, better SNR for the low illumination levels and lower power consumption compared to analog TDI readouts for scanning arrays.

  20. MCT-Based LWIR and VLWIR 2D Focal Plane Detector Arrays for Low Dark Current Applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Fick, W.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.; Wendler, J.; Figgemeier, H.

    2016-09-01

    We present our latest results on n-on- p as well as on p-on- n low dark current planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology long wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) two-dimensional focal plane arrays (FPAs) with quantum efficiency (QE) cut-off wavelength >11 μm at 80 K and a 512 × 640 pixel format FPA at 20 μm pitch stitched from two 512 × 320 pixel photodiode arrays. Significantly reduced dark currents as compared with Tennant's "Rule 07" are demonstrated in both polarities while retaining good detection efficiency ≥60% for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) technology. For p-on- n LWIR MCT FPAs, broadband photoresponse nonuniformity of only about 1.2% is achieved at 55 K with low defective pixel numbers. For an n-on- p VLWIR MCT FPA with 13.6 μm cut-off at 55 K, excellent photoresponse nonuniformity of about 3.1% is achieved at moderate defective pixel numbers. This advancement in detector technology paves the way for outstanding signal-to-noise ratio performance infrared detection, enabling cutting-edge next-generation LWIR/VLWIR detectors for space instruments and devices with higher operating temperature and low size, weight, and power for field applications.

  1. Development of High-Performance eSWIR HgCdTe-Based Focal-Plane Arrays on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Pepping, J.; Mukhortova, A.; Ketharanathan, S.; Kodama, R.; Zhao, J.; Hansel, D.; Velicu, S.; Aqariden, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report the development of high-performance and low-cost extended short-wavelength infrared (eSWIR) focal-plane arrays (FPAs) fabricated from molecular beam epitaxial (MBE)-grown HgCdTe on Si-based substrates. High-quality n-type eSWIR HgCdTe (cutoff wavelength ˜2.68 μm at 77 K, electron carrier concentration 5.82 × 1015 cm-3) layers were grown on CdTe/Si substrates by MBE. High degrees of uniformity in composition and thickness were demonstrated over three-inch areas, and low surface defect densities (voids 9.56 × 101 cm-2, micro-defects 1.67 × 103 cm-2) were measured. This material was used to fabricate 320 × 256 format, 30 μm pitch FPAs with a planar device architecture using arsenic implantation to achieve p-type doping. The dark current density of test devices showed good uniformity between 190 K and room temperature, and high-quality eSWIR imaging from hybridized FPAs was obtained with a median dark current density of 2.63 × 10-7 A/cm2 at 193 K with a standard deviation of 1.67 × 10-7 A/cm2.

  2. LWIR Snapshot Imaging Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Robert E Sampson

    2009-04-01

    This report describes the results of a phase 1 STTR to design a longwave infrared imaging polarimeter. The system design, expected performance and components needed to construct the imaging polarimeter are described. Expected performance is modeled and sytem specifications are presented.

  3. Silicon photomultipliers as readout elements for a Compton effect polarimeter: the COMPASS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Monte, E.; Rubini, A.; Brandonisio, A.; Muleri, F.; Soffitta, P.; Costa, E.; Di Persio, G.; Di Cosimo, S.; Massaro, E.; Morbidini, A.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Fabiani, S.; Michilli, D.; Giarrusso, S.; Catalano, O.; Impiombato, D.; Mineo, T.; Sottile, G.; Billotta, S.

    2016-08-01

    COMpton Polarimeter with Avalanche Silicon readout (COMPASS) is a research and development project that aims to measure the polarization of X-ray photons through Compton Scattering. The measurement is obtained by using a set of small rods of fast scintillation materials with both low-Z (as active scatterer) and high-Z (as absorber), all read-out with Silicon Photomultipliers. By this method we can operate scattering and absorbing elements in coincidence, in order to reduce the background. In the laboratory we are characterising the SiPMs using different types of scintillators and we are optimising the performances in terms of energy resolution, energy threshold and photon tagging efficiency. We aim to study the design of two types of satellite-borne instruments: a focal plane polarimeter to be coupled with multilayer optics for hard X-rays and a large area and wide field of view polarimeter for transients and Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper we describe the status of the COMPASS project, we report about the laboratory measurements and we describe our future perspectives.

  4. Low dark current MCT-based focal plane detector arrays for the LWIR and VLWIR developed at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Eich, Detlef; Fick, Wolfgang; Figgemeier, Heinrich; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard

    2015-10-01

    For nearly 40 years AIM develops, manufactures and delivers photo-voltaic and photo-conductive infrared sensors and associated cryogenic coolers which are mainly used for military applications like pilotage, weapon sights, UAVs or vehicle platforms. In 2005 AIM started to provide the competences also for space applications like IR detector units for the SLSTR instrument on board of the Sentinel 3 satellite, the hyperspectral SWIR Imager for EnMAP or pushbroom detectors for high resolution Earth observation satellites. Meanwhile AIM delivered more than 25 Flight Models for several customers. The first European pulse-tube cooler ever operating on-board of a satellite is made by AIM. AIM homes the required infrared core capabilities such as design and manufacturing of focal plane assemblies, detector housing technologies, development and manufacturing of cryocoolers and also data processing for thermal IR cameras under one roof which enables high flexibility to react to customer needs and assures economical solutions. Cryogenically cooled Hg(1-x)CdxTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. However, achieving an excellent MCT detector performance at long (LWIR) and very long (VLWIR) infrared wavelengths is challenging due to the exponential increase in the thermally generated photodiode dark current with increasing cut-off wavelength and / or operating temperature. Dark current is a critical design driver, especially for LWIR / VLWIR multi-spectral imagers with moderate signal levels or hyper-spectral Fourier spectrometers operating deep into the VLWIR spectral region. Consequently, low dark current (LDC) technologies are the

  5. Reliable Transport over SpaceWire for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Dailey, Christopher; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin

    2003-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) faces difficult technical and budgetary challenges to overcome before it is scheduled launch in 2010. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM), shares these challenges. The major challenge addressed in this paper is the data network used to collect, process, compresses and store Infrared data. A total of 114 Mbps of raw information must be collected from 19 sources and delivered to the two redundant data processing units across a twenty meter deployed thermally restricted interface. Further data must be transferred to the solid-state recorder and the spacecraft. The JWST detectors are kept at cryogenic temperatures to obtain the sensitivity necessary to measure faint energy sources. The Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) that sample the detector, generate packets from the samples, and transmit these packets to the processing electronics must dissipate little power in order to help keep the detectors at these cold temperatures. Separating the low powered front-end electronics from the higher-powered processing electronics, and using a simple high-speed protocol to transmit the detector data minimize the power dissipation near the detectors. Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) drivers were considered an obvious choice for physical layer because of their high speed and low power. The mechanical restriction on the number cables across the thermal interface force the Image packets to be concentrated upon two high-speed links. These links connect the many image packet sources, Focal Plane Electronics (FPE), located near the cryogenic detectors to the processing electronics on the spacecraft structure. From 12 to 10,000 seconds of raw data are processed to make up an image, various algorithms integrate the pixel data Loss of commands to configure the detectors as well as the loss of science data itself may cause inefficiency in the use of the telescope that are unacceptable given the high cost of the observatory. This

  6. Identification and Quantification of Microplastics in Wastewater Using Focal Plane Array-Based Reflectance Micro-FT-IR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tagg, Alexander S; Sapp, Melanie; Harrison, Jesse P; Ojeda, Jesús J

    2015-06-16

    Microplastics (<5 mm) have been documented in environmental samples on a global scale. While these pollutants may enter aquatic environments via wastewater treatment facilities, the abundance of microplastics in these matrices has not been investigated. Although efficient methods for the analysis of microplastics in sediment samples and marine organisms have been published, no methods have been developed for detecting these pollutants within organic-rich wastewater samples. In addition, there is no standardized method for analyzing microplastics isolated from environmental samples. In many cases, part of the identification protocol relies on visual selection before analysis, which is open to bias. In order to address this, a new method for the analysis of microplastics in wastewater was developed. A pretreatment step using 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was employed to remove biogenic material, and focal plane array (FPA)-based reflectance micro-Fourier-transform (FT-IR) imaging was shown to successfully image and identify different microplastic types (polyethylene, polypropylene, nylon-6, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene). Microplastic-spiked wastewater samples were used to validate the methodology, resulting in a robust protocol which was nonselective and reproducible (the overall success identification rate was 98.33%). The use of FPA-based micro-FT-IR spectroscopy also provides a considerable reduction in analysis time compared with previous methods, since samples that could take several days to be mapped using a single-element detector can now be imaged in less than 9 h (circular filter with a diameter of 47 mm). This method for identifying and quantifying microplastics in wastewater is likely to provide an essential tool for further research into the pathways by which microplastics enter the environment.

  7. Design, development, characterization and qualification of infrared focal plane area array detectors for space-borne imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Ankur; Banerjee, Arup

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the design, development, characterization and qualification aspects of large format Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) required for panchromatic, multi-, hyper- and ultra-spectral imaging applications from a space-borne imager. Detection of feeble radiant flux from the intended target in narrow spectral bands requires a highly sensitive low noise sensor array with high well capacity. For this the photodiode arrays responsive in desired spectral band are grown using different growth techniques and flip-chip bonded with a suitable Si Read-out ICs (ROICs) for signal conditioning. IR detectors require cryogenic cooling to achieve background limited performance. Although passive radiative cooling is always the preferred choice of cooling in space, it is not suitable for cooling IRFPAs due to high thermal loads. To facilitate characterization of IRFPAs and cool them to desired cryogenic temperature, an Integrated Detector Dewar Cooler Assembly (IDDCA) is essential where the detector array sits over the cold tip of an active cooler and the detector cooler assembly is vacuum sealed in a thermally isolated Dewar. A cold shield above the sensor array inside the Dewar restricts its field-of-view and a cold filter fine tunes its spectral response. In this paper, various constituents of an IRFPA like sensor array materials, growth techniques, ROICs, filters, cold shields, cooling techniques etc., their types and selection criteria for different applications are discussed in detail. Design aspects of IRFPA characterization test bench, challenges involved in radiometric and spectral characterization and space qualification of such IDDCA based IRFPAs are also discussed.

  8. A readout integrated circuit based on DBI-CTIA and cyclic ADC for MEMS-array-based focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Liu; Dong, Wu; Zheyao, Wang

    2016-11-01

    A readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for a MEMS (microelectromechanical system)-array-based focal plane (MAFP) intended for imaging applications is presented. The ROIC incorporates current sources for diode detectors, scanners, timing sequence controllers, differential buffered injection-capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (DBI-CTIA) and 10-bit cyclic ADCs, and is integrated with MAFP using 3-D integration technology. A small-signal equivalent model is built to include thermal detectors into circuit simulations. The biasing current is optimized in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and power consumption. Layout design is tailored to fulfill the requirements of 3-D integration and to adapt to the size of MAFP elements, with not all but only the 2 bottom metal layers to complete nearly all the interconnections in DBI-CTIA and ADC in a 40 μm wide column. Experimental chips are designed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS mixed signal process, and verified in a code density test of which the results indicate a (0.29/-0.31) LSB differential nonlinearity (DNL) and a (0.61/-0.45) LSB integral nonlinearity (INL). Spectrum analysis shows that the effective number of bits (ENOB) is 9.09. The ROIC consumes 248 mW of power at most if not to cut off quiescent current paths when not needed. Project supported by by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61271130), the Beijing Municipal Science and Tech Project (No. D13110100290000), the Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program (No. 20131089225), and the Shenzhen Science and Technology Development Fund (No. CXZZ20130322170740736).

  9. Recent development of SWIR focal plane array with InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hiroshi; Machinaga, Kenichi; Balasekaran, Sundararajan; Miura, Kouhei; Kawahara, Takahiko; Migita, Masaki; Akita, Katsushi; Iguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    HgCdTe (MCT) is predominantly used for infrared imaging applications even in SWIR region. However, MCT is expensive and contains environmentally hazardous substances. Therefore, its application has been restricted mainly military and scientific use and was not spread to commercial use. InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well structures are considered as an attractive material for realizing low dark current PDs owing to lattice-matching to InP substrate. Moreover, III-V compound material systems are suitable for commercial use. In this report, we describe successful operation of focal plane array (FPA) with InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum wells and mention improvement of optical characteristics. Planar type pin-PDs with 250-pairs InGaAs(5nm)/GaAsSb(5nm) quantum well absorption layer were fabricated. The p-n junction was formed in the absorption layer by the selective diffusion of zinc. Electrical and optical characteristics of FPA or pin-PDs were investigated. Dark current of 1μA/cm2 at 210K, which showed good uniformity and led to good S/N ratio in SWIR region, was obtained. Further, we could successfully reduce of stray light in the cavity of FPA with epoxy resin. As a result, the clear image was taken with 320x256 format and 7% contrast improvement was achieved. Reliability test of 10,000 heat cycles was carried out. No degradations were found in FPA characteristics of the epoxy coated sample. This result means FPA using InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum wells is a promising candidate for commercial applications.

  10. Uncooled SWIR InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, H.; Miura, K.; Mori, H.; Nagai, Y.; Iguchi, Y.; Kawamura, Y.

    2010-04-01

    Low dark current photodiodes (PDs) in the short wavelength infrared (SWIR) upto 2.5μm region, are expected for many applications. HgCdTe (MCT) is predominantly used for infrared imaging applications. However, because of high dark current, MCT device requires a refrigerator such as stirling cooler, which increases power consumption, size and cost of the sensing system. Recently, InGaAs/GaAsSb type II quantum well structures were considered as attractive material system for realizing low dark current PDs owing to lattice-matching to InP substrate. Planar type PIN-PDs were successfully fabricated. The absorption layer with 250 pair-InGaAs(5nm)/GaAsSb(5nm) quantum well structures was grown on S-doped (100) InP substrates by solid source molecular beam epitaxy method. InP and InGaAs were used for cap layer and buffer layer, respectively. The p-n junctions were formed in the absorption layer by the selective diffusion of zinc. Diameter of light-receiving region was 140μm. Low dark current was obtained by improving GaAsSb crystalline quality. Dark current density was 0.92mA/cm2 which was smaller than that of a conventional MCT. Based on the same process as the discrete device, a 320x256 planar type focal plane array was also fabricated. Each PD has 15μm diameter and 30μm pitch and it was bonded to read-out IC by using indium bump flip chip process. Finally, we have successfully demonstrated the 320 x256 SWIR image at room temperature. This result means that planer type PD array with the type II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well structure is a promising candidate for uncooled applications.

  11. Hard X-ray Imaging Polarimeter for PolariS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We present the current status of development of hard X-ray imaging polarimeters for the small satellite mission PolariS. The primary aim of PolariS is hard X-ray (10-80keV) polarimetry of sources brighter than 10mCrab. Its targets include stellar black holes, neutron stars, super nova remnants, and active galactic nuclei. This aim is enabled with three sets of hard X-ray telescopes and imaging polarimeters installed on their focal planes. The imaging polarimeter consists of two kinds of (plastic and GSO) scintillator pillars and multi-anode photo multiplier tubes (MAPMTs). When an X-ray photon incident to a plastic scintillator cause a Compton scattering, a recoiled electron makes a signal on the corresponding MAPMT pixel, and a scatted X-rays absorbed in surrounding GSO makes another signal. This provide information on the incident position and the scattered direction. The latter information is employed for polarimetry. For 20keV X-ray incidence, the recoiled electron energy is as low as 1keV. Thus, the performance of this imaging polarimeter is primarily determined by the efficiency that we can detect low level signal of recoiled electrons generated in plastic scintillators. The efficiency could depend on multiple factors, e.g. quenching of light in scintillators, electric noise, pedestal error, cross talk of the lights to adjacent MAPMT pixels, MAPMT dark current etc. In this paper, we examined these process experimentally and optimize the event selection algorithm, in which single photo-electron events are selected. We then performed an X-ray (10-80keV monochromatic polarized beam) irradiation test at a synchrotron facility. The modulation contrast (M) is about 60% in 15-80keV range. We succeeded in detecting recoiled electrons for 10-80keV X-ray incidence, though detection efficiency is lower at lowest end of the energy range. Expected MDP will also be shown.

  12. Focused, phased-array plane piston and spherically-shaped concave piston transducers: comparison for the same aperture and focal point.

    PubMed

    Warriner, Renée K; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2012-04-01

    It has sometimes been assumed that the phased-array plane piston transducer and the spherically-shaped concave piston transducer are equivalent structures when both have the same aperture and focal point. This assumption has not been previously examined, nor has an expression for the on-axis impulse response of the focused, phased-array plane piston transducer been derived. It is shown in this paper how such an expression can be obtained. Comparisons of the impulse response for both structures show similarities, as well as some differences that could be significant as the observation point approaches the focal point. Comparisons are also performed for wide-band pulses close to the focus as well as for sinusoidal excitation. A physical explanation for the cause of the impulse response discrepancy is shown to be due to the nature of the piston focusing delay and its effect on the Rayleigh integral.

  13. Long-Wavelength 640 x 484 GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Hong, W.; Sundaram, M.; Carralejo, R.; Shott, C. A.; Maker, P. D.; Miller, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    A 9 micrometers cutoff 640 x 484 hand-held quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE.deltaT) of 43 mK has been achieved. In this paper, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array (FPA) and its performance in quantum efficiency, NE.deltaT, uniformity, and operability.

  14. The coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor: a hybrid focal-plane sensor for the high-contrast imaging of circumstellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, M. J.; Keller, C. U.; Snik, F.; Korkiakoski, V.; Pietrow, A. G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The raw coronagraphic performance of current high-contrast imaging instruments is limited by the presence of a quasi-static speckle (QSS) background, resulting from instrumental Non-Common Path Errors (NCPEs). Rapid development of efficient speckle subtraction techniques in data reduction has enabled final contrasts of up to 10-6 to be obtained, however it remains preferable to eliminate the underlying NCPEs at the source. In this work we introduce the coronagraphic Modal Wavefront Sensor (cMWS), a new wavefront sensor suitable for real-time NCPE correction. This combines the Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraph with a holographic modal wavefront sensor to provide simultaneous coronagraphic imaging and focal-plane wavefront sensing with the science point-spread function. We first characterise the baseline performance of the cMWS via idealised closed-loop simulations, showing that the sensor is able to successfully recover diffraction-limited coronagraph performance over an effective dynamic range of ±2.5 radians root-mean-square (rms) wavefront error within 2-10 iterations, with performance independent of the specific choice of mode basis. We then present the results of initial on-sky testing at the William Herschel Telescope, which demonstrate that the sensor is capable of NCPE sensing under realistic seeing conditions via the recovery of known static aberrations to an accuracy of 10 nm (0.1 radians) rms error in the presence of a dominant atmospheric speckle foreground. We also find that the sensor is capable of real-time measurement of broadband atmospheric wavefront variance (50% bandwidth, 158 nm rms wavefront error) at a cadence of 50 Hz over an uncorrected telescope sub-aperture. When combined with a suitable closed-loop adaptive optics system, the cMWS holds the potential to deliver an improvement of up to two orders of magnitude over the uncorrected QSS floor. Such a sensor would be eminently suitable for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of

  15. Short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays detector: the performance optimization of photosensitive element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-jiang; Tang, Zun-lie; Zhang, Xiu-chuan; Chen, Yang; Jiang, Li-qun; Cheng, Hong-bing

    2009-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in technology of the InGaAs focal plane arrays (FPA) detector operating in short wave infrared (SWIR) last two decades. The no cryogenic cooling, low manufacturing cost, low power, high sensitivity and maneuverability features inherent of InGaAs FPA make it as a mainstream SWIR FPA in a variety of critical military, national security, aerospace, telecommunications and industrial applications. These various types of passive image sensing or active illumination image detecting systems included range-gated imaging, 3-Dimensional Ladar, covert surveillance, pulsed laser beam profiling, machine vision, semiconductor inspection, free space optical communications beam tracker, hyperspectroscopy imaging and many others. In this paper the status and perspectives of hybrid InGaAs FPA which is composed of detector array (PDA) and CMOS readout integrate circuit (ROIC) are reviewed briefly. For various low light levels applications such as starlight or night sky illumination, we have made use of the interface circuit of capacitive feedback transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) in which the integration capacitor was adjustable, therefore implements of the physical and electrical characteristics matches between detector arrays and readout intergrate circuit was achieved excellently. Taking into account the influences of InGaAs detector arrays' optoelectronic characteristics on performance of the FPA, we discussed the key parameters of the photodiode in detailed, and the tradeoff between the responsivity, dark current, impedance at zero bias and junction capacitance of photosensitive element has been made to root out the impact factors. As a result of the educed approach of the photodiode's characteristics optimizing which involve with InGaAs PDA design and process, a high performance InGaAs FPA of 30um pixel pitch and 320×256 format has been developed of which the response spectrum range over 0.9um to 1.7um, the mean peak detectivity (λ=1.55

  16. The translated conceptual survey of physics / stablization of the focal plane in two photon excitation fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Asma

    advantages arise from the fact that (TPEF) imaging is done with excitation wavelengths in the near infrared (NIR). The (NIR) wavelength regime, 750- 1100nm, penetrates deep (>100 μm) into tissue, and has been used to image to depths of up to 1 mm. Further, the longer excitation wavelengths are less absorbing than the traditional ultraviolet wavelengths used in confocal microscopy, and are consequently less damaging. As a result, (TPEF) is presently the preferred tool for visualizing dynamics by biologists. One important aspect of imaging living systems, however, is that they move! This adds to the challenge of trying to study some particular biological function(s). This thesis begins to address this issue by combining a simple micro controller circuit that can be linked to a remote focusing scheme that will make it possible to lock a focal plane to a specific depth inside a living, moving specimen.

  17. AlGaN-based focal plane arrays for selective UV imaging at 310nm and 280nm and route toward deep UV imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Caumes, Jean-Pascal; Mourad, Idir; Brault, Julien; Duboz, Jean-Yves

    2007-10-01

    The fast development of nitrides has given the opportunity to investigate AlGaN as a material for ultraviolet detection. Such camera present an intrinsic spectral selectivity and an extremely low dark current at room temperature. It can compete with technologies based on photocathodes, MCP intensifiers, back thinned CCD or hybrid CMOS focal plane arrays (FPA) for low flux measurements. AlGaN based cameras allow UV imaging without filters or with simplified ones in harsh solar blind conditions. Few results on camera have been shown in the last years, but the ultimate performances of AlGaN photodiodes couldn't be achieved due to parasitic illumination of multiplexers, responsivity of p layers in p-i-n structures, or use of cooled readout circuit. Such issues have prevented up to now a large development of this technology. We present results on focal plane array of 320x256 pixels with a pitch of 30μm for which Schottky photodiodes are multiplexed with a readout circuit protected by black matrix at room temperature. Theses focal plane present a peak reponsivity around 280nm and 310nm with a rejection of visible light of four decades only limited by internal photoemission in contact. Then we will show the capability to outdoor measurements. The noise figure is due to readout noise of the multiplexer and we will investigate the ultimate capabilities of Schottky diodes or Metal- Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) technologies to detect extremely low signal. Furthermore, we will consider deep UV measurements on single pixels MSM from 32nm to 61nm in a front side illumination configuration. Finally, we will define technology process allowing backside illumination and deep UV imaging.

  18. The Mechanical Design of a Kinematic Mount for the Mid Infrared Instrument Focal Plane Module on the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, Michael P.; Moore, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    The detector assembly for the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is mechanically supported in the Focal Plane Module (FPM) Assembly with an efficient hexapod design. The kinematic mount design allows for precision adjustment of the detector boresight to assembly alignment fiducials and maintains optical alignment requirements during flight conditions of launch and cryogenic operations below 7 Kelvin. This kinematic mounting technique is able to be implemented in a variety of optical-mechanical designs and is capable of micron level adjustment control and stability over wide dynamic and temperature ranges.

  19. 15-micro-m 128 x 128 GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x) As Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Focal Plane Array Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Park, Jin S.; Sarusi, Gabby; Lin, True-Lon; Liu, John K.; Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.; Shott, Craig A.; Hoelter, Ted

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the development of very sensitive, very long wavelength infrared GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIP's) based on bound-to-quasi-bound intersubband transition, fabrication of random reflectors for efficient light coupling, and the demonstration of a 15 micro-m cutoff 128 x 128 focal plane array imaging camera. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (N E(delta T)) of 30 mK has been achieved.

  20. Synchrotron Infrared Confocal Microspectroscopic Spatial Resolution or a Customized Synchrotron/focal Plane Array System Enhances Chemical Imaging of Biological Tissue or Cells

    SciTech Connect

    D Wetzel; M Nasse; =

    2011-12-31

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 {mu} with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  1. Synchrotron infrared confocal microspectroscopic spatial resolution or a customized synchrotron/focal plane array system enhances chemical imaging of biological tissue or cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, David L.; Nasse, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    Spectroscopy and spatially resolved chemical imaging of biological materials using an infrared microscope is greatly enhanced with confocal image plane masking to 5-6 μm with a third generation microspectrometer and illumination with a synchrotron radiation source compared to globar illuminated and array detection or singly masked system. Steps toward this instrumental achievement are illustrated with spectra and images of biological tissue sections, including single cells, brain, aorta, and grain specimens. A recent, customized synchrotron infrared microspectrometer installation enables focal plane array detection to achieve both rapid and high definition chemical imaging. Localization of the ester carbonyl population in single modified starch granules was used to provide direct comparison of the two advanced imaging capabilities.

  2. A Shoebox Polarimeter: An Inexpensive Analytical Tool for Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Akash; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    A polarimeter can determine the optical activity of an organic or inorganic compound by providing information about the optical rotation of plane-polarized light when transmitted through that compound. This "Journal" has reported various construction methods for polarimeters. We report a unique construction using a shoebox, recycled office…

  3. Focal-Plane Sensing-Processing: A Power-Efficient Approach for the Implementation of Privacy-Aware Networked Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Berni, Jorge; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo; del Río, Rocío; Kleihorst, Richard; Philips, Wilfried; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    The capture, processing and distribution of visual information is one of the major challenges for the paradigm of the Internet of Things. Privacy emerges as a fundamental barrier to overcome. The idea of networked image sensors pervasively collecting data generates social rejection in the face of sensitive information being tampered by hackers or misused by legitimate users. Power consumption also constitutes a crucial aspect. Images contain a massive amount of data to be processed under strict timing requirements, demanding high-performance vision systems. In this paper, we describe a hardware-based strategy to concurrently address these two key issues. By conveying processing capabilities to the focal plane in addition to sensing, we can implement privacy protection measures just at the point where sensitive data are generated. Furthermore, such measures can be tailored for efficiently reducing the computational load of subsequent processing stages. As a proof of concept, a full-custom QVGA vision sensor chip is presented. It incorporates a mixed-signal focal-plane sensing-processing array providing programmable pixelation of multiple image regions in parallel. In addition to this functionality, the sensor exploits reconfigurability to implement other processing primitives, namely block-wise dynamic range adaptation, integral image computation and multi-resolution filtering. The proposed circuitry is also suitable to build a granular space, becoming the raw material for subsequent feature extraction and recognition of categorized objects. PMID:25195849

  4. Focal-plane sensing-processing: a power-efficient approach for the implementation of privacy-aware networked visual sensors.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Berni, Jorge; Carmona-Galán, Ricardo; del Río, Rocío; Kleihorst, Richard; Philips, Wilfried; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel

    2014-08-19

    The capture, processing and distribution of visual information is one of the major challenges for the paradigm of the Internet of Things. Privacy emerges as a fundamental barrier to overcome. The idea of networked image sensors pervasively collecting data generates social rejection in the face of sensitive information being tampered by hackers or misused by legitimate users. Power consumption also constitutes a crucial aspect. Images contain a massive amount of data to be processed under strict timing requirements, demanding high-performance vision systems. In this paper, we describe a hardware-based strategy to concurrently address these two key issues. By conveying processing capabilities to the focal plane in addition to sensing, we can implement privacy protection measures just at the point where sensitive data are generated. Furthermore, such measures can be tailored for efficiently reducing the computational load of subsequent processing stages. As a proof of concept, a full-custom QVGA vision sensor chip is presented. It incorporates a mixed-signal focal-plane sensing-processing array providing programmable pixelation of multiple image regions in parallel. In addition to this functionality, the sensor exploits reconfigurability to implement other processing primitives, namely block-wise dynamic range adaptation, integral image computation and multi-resolution filtering. The proposed circuitry is also suitable to build a granular space, becoming the raw material for subsequent feature extraction and recognition of categorized objects.

  5. Snapshot polarimeter fundus camera.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Luo, Haitao; Oka, Kazuhiko; Dereniak, Eustace; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-03-20

    A snapshot imaging polarimeter utilizing Savart plates is integrated into a fundus camera for retinal imaging. Acquired retinal images can be processed to reconstruct Stokes vector images, giving insight into the polarization properties of the retina. Results for images from a normal healthy retina and retinas with pathology are examined and compared.

  6. Comparison of designs of off-axis Gregorian telescopes for millimeter-wave large focal-plane arrays.

    PubMed

    Hanany, Shaul; Marrone, Daniel P

    2002-08-01

    We compare the diffraction-limited field of view (FOV) provided by four types of off-axis Gregorian telescopes: the classical Gregorian, the aplanatic Gregorian, and the designs that cancel astigmatism and both astigmatism and coma. The analysis is carried out with telescope parameters that are appropriate for satellite and balloonborne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave astrophysics. We find that the design that cancels both coma and astigmatism provides the largest flat FOV, approximately 21 square deg. We also find that the FOV can be increased by approximately 15% by means of optimizing the shape and location of the focal surface.

  7. Design and Tests of the Hard X-Ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beilicke, M.; Baring, M. G.; Barthelmy, S.; Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J.; Cowsik, R.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A.; Guo, Q.; Haba, Y.; Israel, M. H.; Kunieda, H.; Lee, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyazawa, T.; Okajima, T.; Schnittman, J.; Tamura, K.; Tueller, J.; Krawczynski, H.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested a hard X-ray polarimeter X-Calibur to be used in the focal plane of the InFOC(mu)S grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope. X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 10 - 80 keY X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  8. Design and Tests of the Hard X-Ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beilicke, M.; Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J.; Cowsik, R.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A.; Guo, Q.; Israel, M. H.; Lee, K.; Krawczynski, H.; Baring, M. G.; Barthelmy, S.; Okajima, T.; Schnittman, J.; Tueller, J.; Haba, Y.; Kunieda, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyazawa, T.; Tamura, K.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to give new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested a hard X-ray polarimeter X-Calibur to be used in the focal plane of the InFOC(mu)S grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope. X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 10-80 keV X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  9. Snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yifan; Kudenov, Michael; Kashani, Amir; Schwiegerling, Jim; Escuti, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Early diagnosis of glaucoma, which is a leading cause for visual impairment, is critical for successful treatment. It has been shown that Imaging polarimetry has advantages in early detection of structural changes in the retina. Here, we theoretically and experimentally present a snapshot Mueller Matrix Polarimeter fundus camera, which has the potential to record the polarization-altering characteristics of retina with a single snapshot. It is made by incorporating polarization gratings into a fundus camera design. Complete Mueller Matrix data sets can be obtained by analyzing the polarization fringes projected onto the image plane. In this paper, we describe the experimental implementation of the snapshot retinal imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SRIMMP), highlight issues related to calibration, and provide preliminary images acquired from the camera.

  10. Polarimeter Arrays with Comprehensive Frequency Coverage for the Next Generation of Precision Microwave Background Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, Jason Edward; Beall, James; Becker, Dan; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Duff, Shannon; gao, jiansong; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; li, dale; McKenney, Christopher; Ullom, Joel; van lanen, jeffrey; Vissers, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Spectral resolution at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths is now understood to be crucially important in precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Recent results from the Planck and BICEP/KECK experiments have established that measurements of the CMB polarization signal is limited, in part, by polarized foreground emission. In particular, polarized emission from galactic dust has been found to dominate and obscure potential signals of cosmic inflation, even in regions of the sky specifically identified as having relatively low galactic emission. Current and future experiments aim to address foreground contamination by conducting high-sensitivity observations with broad spectral coverage that will allow for differentiation within the measured signal between foreground sources of polarization and that of the CMB, which each have distinct spectral characteristics. To efficiently achieve these goals within a limited focal plane area, NIST-Boulder has developed multi-band TES-based polarimeters that simultaneously measure multiple spectral bands in each of two orthogonal polarizations. This acts to both increase pixel sensitivity through an increased total bandwidth, as well as providing broad spectral information for differentiation of emission sources. Here, we describe recent achievements and ongoing efforts at NIST-Boulder in the development of millimeter and sub-millimeter detector and focal plane technologies for future experiments, including the stage-IV CMB experiment, CMB-S4. NIST-Boulder provides critical cryogenic components to a large number of current and in-development CMB experiments. Recent milestones include the fielding of the first broadband multi-chroic mm-wave polarimeters in the ACTPol experiment, multi-band array fabrication on large-format 150 mm wafers, and development of matching 150 mm silicon platelet feedhorn arrays. We also review several related development efforts in detector, optical coupling, and readout technologies

  11. Determining temperature distribution in tissue in the focal plane of the high (>100 W/cm(2)) intensity focused ultrasound beam using phase shift of ultrasound echoes.

    PubMed

    Karwat, Piotr; Kujawska, Tamara; Lewin, Peter A; Secomski, Wojciech; Gambin, Barbara; Litniewski, Jerzy

    2016-02-01

    In therapeutic applications of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) the guidance of the HIFU beam and especially its focal plane is of crucial importance. This guidance is needed to appropriately target the focal plane and hence the whole focal volume inside the tumor tissue prior to thermo-ablative treatment and beginning of tissue necrosis. This is currently done using Magnetic Resonance Imaging that is relatively expensive. In this study an ultrasound method, which calculates the variations of speed of sound in the locally heated tissue volume by analyzing the phase shifts of echo-signals received by an ultrasound scanner from this very volume is presented. To improve spatial resolution of B-mode imaging and minimize the uncertainty of temperature estimation the acoustic signals were transmitted and received by 8 MHz linear phased array employing Synthetic Transmit Aperture (STA) technique. Initially, the validity of the algorithm developed was verified experimentally in a tissue-mimicking phantom heated from 20.6 to 48.6 °C. Subsequently, the method was tested using a pork loin sample heated locally by a 2 MHz pulsed HIFU beam with focal intensity ISATA of 129 W/cm(2). The temperature calibration of 2D maps of changes in the sound velocity induced by heating was performed by comparison of the algorithm-determined changes in the sound velocity with the temperatures measured by thermocouples located in the heated tissue volume. The method developed enabled ultrasound temperature imaging of the heated tissue volume from the very inception of heating with the contrast-to-noise ratio of 3.5-12 dB in the temperature range 21-56 °C. Concurrently performed, conventional B-mode imaging revealed CNR close to zero dB until the temperature reached 50 °C causing necrosis. The data presented suggest that the proposed method could offer an alternative to MRI-guided temperature imaging for prediction of the location and extent of the thermal lesion prior to applying the

  12. Super-resolution for imagery from integrated microgrid polarimeters.

    PubMed

    Hardie, Russell C; LeMaster, Daniel A; Ratliff, Bradley M

    2011-07-04

    Imagery from microgrid polarimeters is obtained by using a mosaic of pixel-wise micropolarizers on a focal plane array (FPA). Each distinct polarization image is obtained by subsampling the full FPA image. Thus, the effective pixel pitch for each polarization channel is increased and the sampling frequency is decreased. As a result, aliasing artifacts from such undersampling can corrupt the true polarization content of the scene. Here we present the first multi-channel multi-frame super-resolution (SR) algorithms designed specifically for the problem of image restoration in microgrid polarization imagers. These SR algorithms can be used to address aliasing and other degradations, without sacrificing field of view or compromising optical resolution with an anti-aliasing filter. The new SR methods are designed to exploit correlation between the polarimetric channels. One of the new SR algorithms uses a form of regularized least squares and has an iterative solution. The other is based on the faster adaptive Wiener filter SR method. We demonstrate that the new multi-channel SR algorithms are capable of providing significant enhancement of polarimetric imagery and that they outperform their independent channel counterparts.

  13. Hard x-ray imaging polarimeter for PolariS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Kim, Juyong; Sadamoto, Masaaki; Yoshinaga, Keigo; Gunji, Shuichi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Kishimoto, Yuji; Kubo, Hidetoshi; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Dotani, Tadayasu; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Nakamori, Takeshi; Yoneyama, Tomokage; Ikeyama, Yuki; Kamitsukasa, Fumiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Hard X-ray imaging polarimeters are developed for the X-ray γ-ray polaeimtery satellite PolariS. The imaging polarimter is scattering type, in which anisotropy in the direction of Compton scattering is employed to measure the hard X-ray (10-80 keV) polarization, and is installed on the focal planes of hard X-ray telescopes. We have updated the design of the model so as to cover larger solid angles of scattering direction. We also examine the event selection algorithm to optimize the detection efficiency of recoiled electrons in plastic scintillators. We succeed in improving the efficiency by factor of about 3-4 from the previous algorithm and criteria for 18-30 keV incidence. For 23 keV X-ray incidence, the recoiled electron energy is about 1 keV. We measured the efficiency to detect recoiled electrons in this case, and found about half of the theoretical limit. The improvement in this efficiency directly leads to that in the detection efficiency. In other words, however, there is still a room for improvement. We examine various process in the detector, and estimate the major loss is primarily that of scintillation light in a plastic scintillator pillar with a very small cross section (2.68mm squared) and a long length (40mm). Nevertheless, the current model provides the MDP of 6% for 10mCrab sources, which are the targets of PolariS.

  14. Analysis of the Maillard reaction in human hair using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging and a focal-plane array detector.

    PubMed

    Jung, In-Keun; Park, Sang-Chul; Bin, Sung-Ah; Roh, Young Sup; Lee, John Hwan; Kim, Boo-Min

    2016-03-01

    The Maillard reaction has been well researched and used in the food industry and the fields of environmental science and organic chemistry. Here, we induced the Maillard reaction inside human hair and analyzed its effects by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with a focal-plane array (FTIR-FPA) detector. We used arginine (A), glycine (G), and D-xylose (X) to generate the Maillard reaction by dissolving them in purified water and heating it to 150 °C. This label-free process generated a complex compound (named AGX after its ingredients) with a monomer structure, which was determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and FTIR-FPA. This compound was stable in hair and substantially increased its tensile strength. To our knowledge, we are the first to report the formation of this monomer in human hair, and our study provides insights into a new method that could be used to improve the condition of damaged or aging hair.

  15. Autofocus technique for three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar using Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal-plane array.

    PubMed

    Oh, Min Seok; Kong, Hong Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jo, Sung Eun

    2010-12-15

    An autofocus technique is proposed for a three-dimensional imaging, direct-detection laser radar system that uses a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode focal plane array (GmAPD-FPA). This technique is implemented by pointing laser pulses on a target of interest and observing its scattered photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA. Measuring the standard deviation of the photon distribution on a GmAPD-FPA enables the best focus condition to be found. The feasibility of this technique is demonstrated experimentally by employing a 1 × 8 pixel GmAPD-FPA. It is shown that the spatial resolution improves when the GmAPD-FPA is located in the best focus position found by the autofocus technique.

  16. Panoramic Stokes-polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syniavskyi, I. I.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Karpov, N. V.

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes optical layout of the imaging polarimeter based on the polarization films to measure the linear polarization of point and extended celestial objects. The spectral range of device is 420-850 nm, field of view 0.25°x0.25°. The device is designed to equip the telescope with a diameter of primary mirror about 400 mm and aperture f/12.

  17. Design of 280 GHz feedhorn-coupled TES arrays for the balloon-borne polarimeter SPIDER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubmayr, Johannes; Austermann, Jason E.; Beall, James A.; Becker, Daniel T.; Benton, Steven J.; Bergman, A. Stevie; Bond, J. Richard; Bryan, Sean; Duff, Shannon M.; Duivenvoorden, Adri J.; Eriksen, H. K.; Filippini, Jeffrey P.; Fraisse, A.; Galloway, Mathew; Gambrel, Anne E.; Ganga, K.; Grigorian, Arpi L.; Gualtieri, Riccardo; Gudmundsson, Jon E.; Hartley, John W.; Halpern, M.; Hilton, Gene C.; Jones, William C.; McMahon, Jeffrey J.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Nagy, Johanna M.; Netterfield, C. B.; Osherson, Benjamin; Padilla, Ivan; Rahlin, Alexandra S.; Racine, B.; Ruhl, John; Rudd, T. M.; Shariff, J. A.; Soler, J. D.; Song, Xue; Ullom, Joel N.; Van Lanen, Jeff; Vissers, Michael R.; Wehus, I. K.; Wen, Shyang; Wiebe, D. V.; Young, Edward

    2016-07-01

    We describe 280 GHz bolometric detector arrays that instrument the balloon-borne polarimeter spider. A primary science goal of spider is to measure the large-scale B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (cmb) in search of the cosmic-inflation, gravitational-wave signature. 280 GHz channels aid this science goal by constraining the level of B-mode contamination from galactic dust emission. We present the focal plane unit design, which consists of a 16x16 array of conical, corrugated feedhorns coupled to a monolithic detector array fabricated on a 150 mm diameter silicon wafer. Detector arrays are capable of polarimetric sensing via waveguide probe-coupling to a multiplexed array of transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers. The spider receiver has three focal plane units at 280 GHz, which in total contains 765 spatial pixels and 1,530 polarization sensitive bolometers. By fabrication and measurement of single feedhorns, we demonstrate 14.7° FHWM Gaussian-shaped beams with <1% ellipticity in a 30% fractional bandwidth centered at 280 GHz. We present electromagnetic simulations of the detection circuit, which show 94% band-averaged, single-polarization coupling efficiency, 3% reflection and 3% radiative loss. Lastly, we demonstrate a low thermal conductance bolometer, which is well-described by a simple TES model and exhibits an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) = 2.6 x 10-17 W/√Hz, consistent with the phonon noise prediction.

  18. Quasi-optical verification of the focal plane optics of the heterodyne instrument for the far-infrared (HIFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candotti, Massimo; Cahill, Gary A.; Finn, Timothy J.; Jellema, Willem; Lavelle, John; Murphy, J. Anthony; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Trappe, Neil A.

    2004-09-01

    HIFI is one of the three instruments for the Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA cornerstone mission. HIFI is a high resolution spectrometer operating at wavelengths between 157 and 625 µm. The need for a compact layout reducing the volume and mass as much as possible has important consequences for the optical design. Many mirrors are located in the near-field of the propagating beam. Especially in the long wavelength limit diffraction effects might therefore introduce significant amplitude and phase distortions. A classical geometrical optical approach is consequently inadequate. In this paper we present a rigorous quasi-optical analysis of the entire optical system including the signal path, local oscillator path and onboard calibration source optical layout. In order to verify the results of the front-to-end coherent propagation of the detector beams, near-field measurement facilities capable of measuring both amplitude and phase have beam developed. A remarkable feature of these facilities is that the absolute coordinates of the measured field components are known to within fractions of a wavelength. Both measured and simulated fields can therefore compared directly since they are referenced to one single absolute position. We present a comparison of experimental data with software predictions obtained from the following packages: GRASP (Physical Optics Analysis) and GLAD (Plane Wave Decomposition). We also present preliminary results for a method to correct for phase aberrations and optimize the mirror surfaces without changing the predesigned mechanical layout of the optical system.

  19. A far infrared polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A.; Conversi, L.; De Gregori, S.; De Petris, M.; Lamagna, L.; Maoli, R.; Savini, G.; Battistelli, E. S.; Orlando, A.

    2004-12-01

    We describe an experiment to measure calibration sources, the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) and the polarization induced on the CMBR from S-Z effects, using a polarimeter, MITOPol, that will be employed at the MITO telescope. Two modulation methods are presented and compared: an amplitude modulation with a Fresnel double rhomb and a phase modulation with a modified Martin-Puplett interferometer. A first light is presented from the campaign (summer 2003) that has permitted to estimate the instrument spurious polarization using the second modulation method.

  20. High acceptance recoil polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    The HARP Collaboration

    1992-12-05

    In order to detect neutrons and protons in the 50 to 600 MeV energy range and measure their polarization, an efficient, low-noise, self-calibrating device is being designed. This detector, known as the High Acceptance Recoil Polarimeter (HARP), is based on the recoil principle of proton detection from np[r arrow]n[prime]p[prime] or pp[r arrow]p[prime]p[prime] scattering (detected particles are underlined) which intrinsically yields polarization information on the incoming particle. HARP will be commissioned to carry out experiments in 1994.

  1. 4K×4K format 10μm pixel pitch H4RG-10 hybrid CMOS silicon visible focal plane array for space astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yibin; Tennant, William; Anglin, Selmer; Wong, Andre; Farris, Mark; Xu, Min; Holland, Eric; Cooper, Donald; Hosack, Joseph; Ho, Kenneth; Sprafke, Thomas; Kopp, Robert; Starr, Brian; Blank, Richard; Beletic, James W.; Luppino, Gerard A.

    2012-07-01

    Teledyne’s silicon hybrid CMOS focal plane array technology has matured into a viable, high performance and high- TRL alternative to scientific CCD sensors for space-based applications in the UV-visible-NIR wavelengths. This paper presents the latest results from Teledyne’s low noise silicon hybrid CMOS visible focal place array produced in 4K×4K format with 10 μm pixel pitch. The H4RG-10 readout circuit retains all of the CMOS functionality (windowing, guide mode, reference pixels) and heritage of its highly successful predecessor (H2RG) developed for JWST, with additional features for improved performance. Combined with a silicon PIN detector layer, this technology is termed HyViSI™ (Hybrid Visible Silicon Imager). H4RG-10 HyViSI™ arrays achieve high pixel interconnectivity (<99.99%), low readout noise (<10 e- rms single CDS), low dark current (<0.5 e-/pixel/s at 193K), high quantum efficiency (<90% broadband), and large dynamic range (<13 bits). Pixel crosstalk and interpixel capacitance (IPC) have been predicted using detailed models of the hybrid structure and these predictions have been confirmed by measurements with Fe-55 Xray events and the single pixel reset technique. For a 100-micron thick detector, IPC of less than 3% and total pixel crosstalk of less than 7% have been achieved for the HyViSI™ H4RG-10. The H4RG-10 array is mounted on a lightweight silicon carbide (SiC) package and has been qualified to Technology Readiness Level 6 (TRL-6). As part of space qualification, the HyViSI™ H4RG-10 array passed radiation testing for low earth orbit (LEO) environment.

  2. Determination of charge-carrier diffusion length in the photosensing layer of HgCdTe n-on-p photovoltaic infrared focal plane array detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A. Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2014-03-03

    In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents j{sub ph} being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at j{sub ph} ≠ 0) charge-carrier diffusion length l{sub d} {sub eff} as a function of j{sub ph} for j{sub ph} → 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of l{sub d} {sub eff} vs j{sub ph} as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

  3. Study of LWIR and VLWIR Focal Plane Array Developments: Comparison Between p-on- n and Different n-on- p Technologies on LPE HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravrand, O.; Mollard, L.; Largeron, C.; Baier, N.; Deborniol, E.; Chorier, Ph.

    2009-08-01

    The very long infrared wavelength (>14 μm) is a very challenging range for the design of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) large focal plane arrays (FPAs). The need (mainly expressed by the space industry) for very long wave FPAs appears very difficult to fulfil. High homogeneity, low defect rate, high quantum efficiency, low dark current, and low excess noise are required. Indeed, for such wavelength, the corresponding HgCdTe gap becomes smaller than 100 meV and each step from the metallurgy to the technology becomes critical. This paper aims at presenting a status of long and very long wave FPAs developments at DEFIR (LETI-LIR/Sofradir joint venture). This study will focus on results obtained in our laboratory for three different ion implanted technologies: n-on- p mercury vacancies doped technology, n-on- p extrinsic doped technology, and p-on- n arsenic on indium technology. Special focus is given to 15 μm cutoff n/ p FPA fabricated in our laboratory demonstrating high uniformity, diffusion and shot noise limited photodiodes at 50 K.

  4. Diffractive microlens with a cascade focal plane fabricated by single mask UV-photolithography and common KOH:H2O etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Li, Hui; Liu, Kan; Luo, Jun; Xie, Changsheng; Ji, An; Zhang, Tianxu

    2010-10-01

    A diffractive microlens with a cascade focal plane along the main optical axis of the device is fabricated using a low-cost technique mainly including single mask ultraviolet (UV) photolithography and dual-step KOH:H2O etching. Based on the evolutionary behavior of converse pyramid-shaped microholes (CPSMs) preshaped over a {1 0 0}-oriented silicon wafer in KOH etchant, the first-step KOH etching is performed to transfer initial square micro-openings in a SiO2 film grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and patterned by single mask UV-photolithography, into CPSMs with needed dimension. After completely removing a thinned SiO2 mask, basic annular phase steps with a relatively steep sidewall and scheduled height can be shaped in the overlapped etching region between the neighboring silicon concave-arc microstructures evolved from CPSMs through the second-step KOH etching. Morphological measurements demonstrate a desirable surface of the silicon microlens with a roughness in nanometer scale and the feature height of the phase steps formed in the submicrometer range. Conventional optics measurements of the plastic diffractive microlens obtained by further hot embossing the fine microrelief phase map over the nickel mask made through a common electrochemical method indicate a highly efficient cascaded focusing performance.

  5. Determination of charge-carrier diffusion length in the photosensing layer of HgCdTe n-on-p photovoltaic infrared focal plane array detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, A. V.; Stuchinsky, V. A.; Brunev, D. V.; Zverev, A. V.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    In the present paper, we propose a method for evaluating the bulk diffusion length of minority charge carriers in the photosensing layer of photovoltaic focal plane array (FPA) photodetectors. The method is based on scanning a strip-shaped illumination spot with one of the detector diodes at a low level of photocurrents jph being registered; such scanning provides data for subsequent analysis of measured spot-scan profiles within a simple diffusion model. The asymptotic behavior of the effective (at jph ≠ 0) charge-carrier diffusion length ld eff as a function of jph for jph → 0 inferred from our experimental data proved to be consistent with the behavior of ld eff vs jph as predicted by the model, while the obtained values of the bulk diffusion length of minority carriers (electrons) in the p-HgCdTe film of investigated HgCdTe n-on-p FPA photodetectors were found to be in a good agreement with the previously reported carrier diffusion-length values for HgCdTe.

  6. Composite x-ray image assembly for large-field digital mammography with one- and two-dimensional positioning of a focal plane array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halama, G.; McAdoo, J.; Liu, H.

    1998-01-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of a novel large-field digital mammography technique, a 1024 x 1024 pixel Loral charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane array (FPA) was positioned in a mammographic field with one- and two-dimensional scan sequences to obtain 950 x 1800 pixel and 3600 x 3600 pixel composite images, respectively. These experiments verify that precise positioning of FPAs produced seamless composites and that the CCD mosaic concept has potential for high-resolution, large-field imaging. The proposed CCD mosaic concept resembles a checkerboard pattern with spacing left between the CCDs for the driver and readout electronics. To obtain a complete x-ray image, the mosaic must be repositioned four times, with an x-ray exposure at each position. To reduce the patient dose, a lead shield with appropriately patterned holes is placed between the x-ray source and the patient. The high-precision motorized translation stages and the fiber-coupled-scintillating-screen-CCD sensor assembly were placed in the position usually occupied by the film cassette. Because of the high mechanical precision, seamless composites were constructed from the subimages. This paper discusses the positioning, image alignment procedure, and composite image results. The paper only addresses the formation of a seamless composite image from subimages and will not consider the effects of the lead shield, multiple CCDs, or the speed of motion.

  7. Design and tolerance of a free-form optical system for an optical see-through multi-focal-plane display.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinda; Hua, Hong

    2015-11-20

    By elegantly combining recent advancements of free-form optical technology and multi-focal-plane (MFP) display technology, we developed a high-performance true 3D augmented reality (AR) display that is capable of rendering a large volume of 3D scenes with accurate focus cues; this display overcomes the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem in conventional AR display. In this paper, we concentrate on various aspects of engineering challenges in the design and integration of a free-form optical see-through eyepiece with MFP technology for our AR display prototype. We present the design and optimization strategy in coupling free-form optics with a rotational-symmetric lens system to achieve high image quality. A comprehensive tolerance analysis of this complicated optical system is also presented, including an effective tolerance method for random surface figure errors on aspheric and free-form surfaces. Finally, the image quality of the virtual display is evaluated, which shows the as-built performance matches very well with the optical design results and tolerance analysis.

  8. Demonstration of a snapshot full-Stokes division-of-aperture imaging polarimeter using Wollaston prism array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Tingkui; Zhang, Chunmin; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-12-01

    A snapshot full-Stokes division-of-aperture imaging polarimeter using a Wollaston prism array (WPA) is theoretically described and experimentally demonstrated. Two-dimensional spatial distributions of six polarization eigenstates, linear (0°, 90°, 45°, 135°), and left and right circular polarization states, are identified and separated by the WPA simultaneously and projected onto the six portions of a single focal-plane array by a lens array. The conditions of the measurement matrix formed by the six polarization modulation channels are naturally superior for immunity to Gaussian and Poisson noise. The unique properties of the WPA, such as its high extinction ratio, optical efficiency and transmittance, can further ensure the achievement of immunity. The snapshot principle and the conditions of the measurement matrix are discussed. A proof-of-concept system using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor for visible light is built and validated using laboratory and outdoor measurements.

  9. GRETINA as a Compton Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, P. C.; Weisshaar, D.; Gade, A.; Wiens, A.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Campbell, C. M.; Clark, R. M.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I. Y.; Rissanen, J.; Tabor, S. L.; Tripathi, V.; Albers, M.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; David, H. M.; Lauritsen, T.; Zhu, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Lister, C. J.; Merchan, E.; Prasher, V. S.; Miller, D.

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of GRETINA as a polarimeter using the tracking technique has been done by examing the gamma-rays emitted from polarized states following the 24Mg(p,p') reaction. Here we consider GRETINA as a traditional Compton polarimeter, where the intensity of the scattered radiation measured between physical detecting elements is used to determine its polarization sensitivity using techniques developed over the past decades. This provides a direct basic measure of the linear polarization of the array independent of the signal-decomposition and tracking algorithms, and directly comparable to traditional Compton polarimeters. The performance of GRETINA as a traditional Compton-polarimeter will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science and Office of Nuclear Physics under Contracts Number DE-AC02-05CH11231(LBNL) and Number DE-AC02-06CH11357(ANL).

  10. The San Fernando Observatory video Stokes polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, P. H.; Zeldin, L. K.; Loftin, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the suitability of the San Fernando Observatory's 61 cm (24 inch) aperture vacuum solar telescope and 3 m (118 inch) focal length vacuum spectroheliograph for Stokes Polarimetry measurements. The polarization characteristics of these two instruments was measured by determining their Mueller matrices as a function of telescope orientation, field angle, wavelength, grating type, and position of the measuring beam in the telescope entrance window. In general, the polarizing and depolarizing properties are small so that inversion of the system Mueller matrix will permit the accurate measurement of Stokes profiles for vector magnetic field determination. A proposed polarimeter design based on the use of a TV camera system to simultaneously scan six different polarization components of a given line profile is described. This design, which uses no rotating optics or electronic modulators and makes efficient use of the available irradiance, promises to yield high quality vector magnetograms.

  11. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  12. Pixel isolation of low dark-current large-format InAs/GaSb superlattice complementary barrier infrared detector focal plane arrays with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Hill, Cory J.; Rafol, Don; Keo, Sam; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Mumolo, Jason; Liu, John; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-01-01

    Low dark current and high fill factor are two crucial characteristics for the realization of the InAs/GaSb superlattice (SL) technology as third generation focal plane arrays (FPAs). Recent development proved high performance results for the complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design, and a high-quality etch technique is required to minimize surface leakage currents. We report on a n-CBIRD with 10.3 μm cutoff, exhibiting a responsivity of 1.7 A/W and dark current density of 1×10-5 A/cm2 at 77K under 0.2 V bias, without AR coating and without passivation. Results from four different mesa isolation techniques are compared on single element diodes: chemical wet etch using C4H6O6:H3PO4:H2O2:H2O, BCl3/Ar inductively coupled plasma (ICP), CH4/H2/Ar ICP, and CH4/H2/BCl3/Cl2/Ar ICP. The CH4/H2/BCl3/Cl2/Ar etched structures yielded more than 2.5 times improvement in dark current density and nearvertical sidewalls. Using this etching technique, we then implement a 1k x 1k p-CBIRD array with 11.5 μm cutoff and peak responsivity of 3 A/W. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded a 81% fill factor with 98% operability and performance results of 21% quantum efficiency, 53 mK NE▵T, and NEI of 6.9×1013 photons/sec-cm2.

  13. Interface and facet control during Czochralski growth of (111) InSb crystals for cost reduction and yield improvement of IR focal plane array substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Nathan W.; Perez-Rubio, Victor; Bolke, Joseph G.; Alexander, W. B.

    2014-10-01

    Focal plane arrays (FPAs) made on InSb wafers are the key cost-driving component in IR imaging systems. The electronic and crystallographic properties of the wafer directly determine the imaging device performance. The "facet effect" describes the non-uniform electronic properties of crystals resulting from anisotropic dopant segregation during bulk growth. When the segregation coefficient of dopant impurities changes notably across the melt/solid interface of a growing crystal the result is non-uniform electronic properties across wafers made from these crystals. The effect is more pronounced in InSb crystals grown on the (111) axis compared with other orientations and crystal systems. FPA devices made on these wafers suffer costly yield hits due to inconsistent device response and performance. Historically, InSb crystal growers have grown approximately 9-19 degree off-axis from the (111) to avoid the facet effect and produced wafers with improved uniformity of electronic properties. It has been shown by researchers in the 1960s that control of the facet effect can produce uniform small diameter crystals. In this paper, we share results employing a process that controls the facet effect when growing large diameter crystals from which 4, 5, and 6" wafers can be manufactured. The process change resulted in an increase in wafers yielded per crystal by several times, all with high crystal quality and uniform electronic properties. Since the crystals are grown on the (111) axis, manufacturing (111) oriented wafers is straightforward with standard semiconductor equipment and processes common to the high-volume silicon wafer industry. These benefits result in significant manufacturing cost savings and increased value to our customers.

  14. Isolating stem cells in the inter-follicular epidermis employing synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy and focal plane array imaging.

    PubMed

    Patel, Imran I; Harrison, Wesley J; Kerns, Jemma G; Filik, Jacob; Wehbe, Katia; Carmichael, Paul L; Scott, Andrew D; Philpott, Mike P; Frogley, Mark D; Cinque, Gianfelice; Martin, Francis L

    2012-10-01

    Normal function and physiology of the epidermis is maintained by the regenerative capacity of this tissue via adult stem cells (SCs). However, definitive identifying markers for SCs remain elusive. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy exploits the ability of cellular biomolecules to absorb in the mid-IR region (λ = 2.5-25 μm), detecting vibrational transitions of chemical bonds. In this study, we exploited the cell's inherent biochemical composition to discriminate SCs of the inter-follicular skin epidermis based on IR-derived markers. Paraffin-embedded samples of human scalp skin (n = 4) were obtained, and 10-μm thick sections were mounted for IR spectroscopy. Samples were interrogated in transmission mode using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) microspectroscopy (15 × 15 μm) and also imaged employing globar-source FTIR focal plane array (FPA) imaging (5.4 × 5.4 μm). Dependent on the location of derived spectra, wavenumber-absorbance/intensity relationships were examined using unsupervised principal component analysis. This approach showed clear separation and spectral differences dependent on cell type. Spectral biomarkers concurrently associated with segregation of SCs, transit-amplifying cells and terminally-differentiated cells of epidermis were primarily PO(2)(-) vibrational modes (1,225 and 1,080 cm(-1)), related to DNA conformational alterations. FPA imaging coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis also indicated the presence of specific basal layer cells potentially originating from the follicular bulge, suggested by co-clustering of spectra. This study highlights PO (2) (-) vibrational modes as potential putative SC markers.

  15. The Compton Polarimeter in Hall C of Jefferson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2013-04-01

    A new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab and used during the Qweak experiment which aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.1%. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light stored in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in a lead tungstate crystal. We extract the beam polarization by fitting the experimental asymmetry for each detector strip to the corresponding asymmetry calculated in QED. During the experiment, we took data to cross-calibrate Moller and Compton polarimeters in Hall C. We will share our preliminary conclusions from this comparison. In this talk, we will also present the results from Monte Carlo studies performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties of the polarization measurement along with comparing results from two independent extraction of the polarization involving very different time scales. The Compton polarimeter has achieved the design goals of 1% statistical uncertainty per hour and we expect to achieve less than 1% systematic uncertainty.

  16. BLAST-TNG: A Next Generation Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissel, Laura M.; Ade, Peter; Angilè, Francesco E.; Campbell Ashton, Peter; Austermann, Jason Edward; Billings, Tashalee; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Cunningham, Maria R.; Davis, Kristina; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dober, Bradley; Fukui, Yasuo; Galitzki, Nicholas; gao, jiansong; Gordon, Sam; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Hannes; Irwin, Kent; Jones, Paul; Klein, Jeffrey; li, dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; lourie, nathan; Lowe, Ian; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; McKenney, Christopher; Nati, Federico; Novak, Giles; Pascale, Enzo; pisano, giampaolo; Pereira Santos, Fábio; Scott, Douglas; Sinclair, Adrian; Diego Diego Soler, Juan; tucker, carole; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael; Williams, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of polarized thermal dust emission can be used to map magnetic fields in the interstellar medium. Recently, BLASTPol, the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry, has published the most detailed map ever made of a giant molecular cloud forming high-mass stars. I will present an overview of The Next Generation BLAST polarimeter (BLAST-TNG), the successor telescope to BLASTPol, which maps linearly polarized dust emission at 250, 350 and 500 μm. BLAST-TNG utilizes a 2.5-meter carbon-fiber primary mirror that illuminates focal plane arrays containing over 3,000 microwave kinetic inductance detectors. This new polarimeter has an order of magnitude increase in mapping speed and resolution compared to BLASTPol and we expect to make over 500,000 measurements of magnetic field orientation per flight. BLAST-TNG will have the sensitivity to map entire molecular cloud complexes as well as regions of diffuse high Galactic latitude dust. It also has the resolution (FWHM = 25’’ at 250 μm) necessary to trace magnetic fields in prestellar cores and dense filaments. BLAST-TNG will thus provide a crucial link between the low resolution Planck all-sky maps and the detailed but narrow field of view polarimetry capabilities of ALMA. For our first Antarctic flight in December 2017 we are putting out a call for shared-risk proposals to fill 25% of the available science time. In addition, BLAST-TNG data will be publicly released within a year of the publication of our first look papers, leaving a large legacy data set for the study of the role played by magnetic fields in the star formation process and the properties of interstellar dust.

  17. KVI Lamb-shift polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Beijers, J.P.M.; Kremers, H.R.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

    2006-03-15

    The design and operation of a Lamb-shift polarimeter is discussed. This polarimeter is used to measure the polarization of proton and deuteron beams extracted from the KVI polarized-ion source. The major components of the Lamb-shift polarimeter (LSP) are described in some detail. These include the deceleration lens system, cesium neutralization oven, spin filter, metastable-atom detection system, and the solenoid. Typical operating parameters of the LSP will be given together with some representative spin-polarization measurements. The design criterion of measuring the polarization of a H{sup +} or D{sup +} beam within 60 s and with a statistical uncertainty smaller than 2% has been met.

  18. A spectrum scanning Stokes polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, T. G.; House, L. L.; Hull, H. K.

    1980-02-01

    A photoelectric polarimeter for measuring line profiles in all four Stokes parameters has been built and operates on the SPO 40 cm coronagraph in a joint project with Sacramento Peak Observatory. A description of the optical and electronic systems and the calibration scheme is presented. Performance parameters determined from observations are also given. The polarimeter package consisting of a pair of KDP's, a quarter wave plate, and a polarizing beam splitter is located at the prime focus of the coronagraph. Modulation of the KDP's encodes polarization information into intensity signals that are electronically detected. The scanning of the spectrum, accomplished by rotating the grating, permits Stokes line profiles to be recorded on magnetic tape for processing. The instrument can be used to scan any line from 3900 to 7000 A with a spectral resolution of 0.01 A. Polarizations as small as 0.001% are detectable. The polarimeter and observing system are computer controlled.

  19. Electro-Optical Characteristics of P+n In0.53Ga0.47As Hetero-Junction Photodiodes in Large Format Dense Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWames, R.; Littleton, R.; Witte, K.; Wichman, A.; Bellotti, E.; Pellegrino, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper is concerned with focal plane array (FPA) data and use of analytical and three-dimensional numerical simulation methods to determine the physical effects and processes limiting performance. For shallow homojunction P+n designs the temperature dependence of dark current for T < 300 K depends on the intrinsic carrier concentration of the In0.53Ga0.47As material, implying that the dominant dark currents are generation and recombination (G-R) currents originating in the depletion regions of the double layer planar heterostructure (DLPH) photodiode. In the analytical model differences from bulk G-R behavior are modeled with a G-R like perimeter-dependent shunt current conjectured to originate at the InP/InGaAs interface. In this description the fitting property is the effective conductivity, σ eff( T), in mho cm-1. Variation in the data suggests σ eff (300 K) values of 1.2 × 10-11-4.6 × 10-11 mho cm-1). Substrate removal extends the quantum efficiency (QE) spectral band into the visible region. However, dead-layer effects limit the QE to 10% at a wavelength of 0.5 μm. For starlight-no moon illumination conditions, the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated to be 50 at an operating temperature of 300 K. A major result of the 3D numerical simulation of the device is the prediction of a perimeter G-R current not associated with the properties of the metallurgical interface. Another is the prediction that for a junction positioned in the larger band gap InP cap layer the QE is bias-dependent and that a relatively large reverse bias ≥0.9 V is needed for the QE to saturate to the shallow homojunction value. At this higher bias the dark current is larger than the shallow homojunction value. The 3D numerical model and the analytical model agree in predicting and explaining the measured radiatively limited diffusion current originating at the n-side of the junction. The calculations of the area-dependent G-R current for the condition studied are also in agreement

  20. Identification of microplastic in effluents of waste water treatment plants using focal plane array-based micro-Fourier-transform infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Mintenig, S M; Int-Veen, I; Löder, M G J; Primpke, S; Gerdts, G

    2017-01-01

    The global presence of microplastic (MP) in aquatic ecosystems has been shown by various studies. However, neither MP concentrations nor their sources or sinks are completely known. Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered as significant point sources discharging MP to the environment. This study investigated MP in the effluents of 12 WWTPs in Lower Saxony, Germany. Samples were purified by a plastic-preserving enzymatic-oxidative procedure and subsequent density separation using a zinc chloride solution. For analysis, attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) and focal plane array (FPA)-based transmission micro-FT-IR imaging were applied. This allowed the identification of polymers of all MP down to a size of 20 μm. In all effluents MP was found with quantities ranging from 0 to 5 × 10(1) m(-3) MP > 500 μm and 1 × 10(1) to 9 × 10(3) m(-3) MP < 500 μm. By far, polyethylene was the most frequent polymer type in both size classes. Quantities of synthetic fibres ranged from 9 × 10(1) to 1 × 10(3) m(-3) and were predominantly made of polyester. Considering the annual effluxes of tested WWTPs, total discharges of 9 × 10(7) to 4 × 10(9) MP particles and fibres per WWTP could be expected. Interestingly, one tertiary WWTP had an additionally installed post-filtration that reduced the total MP discharge by 97%. Furthermore, the sewage sludge of six WWTPs was examined and the existence of MP, predominantly polyethylene, revealed. Our findings suggest that WWTPs could be a sink but also a source of MP and thus can be considered to play an important role for environmental MP pollution.

  1. A low-cost polarimeter for an undergraduate laboratory to study the polarization pattern of skylight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abayaratne, Chula P.; Bandara, Vibodha

    2017-03-01

    A simple, low-cost, fully automated polarimeter, which demonstrates fundamental properties of skylight scattering and polarization for undergraduate physics students, is described. The polarimeter includes a microprocessor-based control unit, a Sun tracker, an elevation-azimuth mount with two degrees of freedom, and a polarization sensor unit equipped with a light-dependent resistor for measuring light intensity. Results obtained in the principal plane of the Sun using the polarimeter on a relatively clear day, together with the theoretically expected results for a molecular atmosphere, are presented. A root-mean-square error comparison indicates fairly good agreement between theory and experiment. Construction and experimentation with the polarimeter will provide students with insight into important physical concepts involved in skylight scattering and polarization as well as improve their instrumentation capabilities.

  2. Earth observing scanning polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Travis, Larry

    1993-01-01

    Climate forcing by tropospheric aerosols is receiving increased attention because of the realization that the climate effects may be large, while our knowledge of global aerosol characteristics and temporal changes is very poor. Tropospheric aerosols cause a direct radiative forcing due simply to their scattering and absorption of solar radiation, as well as an indirect effect as cloud condensation nuclei which can modify the shortwave reflectivity of clouds. Sulfate aerosols tend to increase planetary albedo through both the direct and indirect effects; a cooling due to anthropogenic sulfate aerosols has been estimated of order 1 W/sq m, noting that this is similar in magnitude to the present anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming. Other aerosols, including those from biomass burning and wind-blown desert dust are also of potential climatic importance. At present, the only global monitoring of tropospheric aerosols is a NOAA operational product, aerosol optical thickness, obtained using channel-1 (0.58-0.68 mu m) radiances from the AVHRR. With this single channel radiance data, one must use an approach which is based on the inferred excess of reflected radiance owing to scattering by the aerosols over that expected from theoretical calculations. This approach is suited only for situations where the surface has a low albedo that is well known a priori. Thus, the NOAA operational product is restricted to coverage over the ocean at AVHRR scan angles well away from sun glint, and aerosol changes are subject to confusion with changes caused by either optically thin or subpixel clouds. Because optically thin aerosols have only a small effect on the radiance, accurate measurements for optical thickness less than 0.1 (which is a typical background level) are precluded. Moreover, some of the largest and most important aerosol changes are expected over land. The Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument, based upon design heritage and analysis techniques

  3. POET: POlarimeters for Energetic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P.; Legere, J.; Macri, J.; Ryan, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Angelini, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Black, J. K.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kaaret, P.; Zhang, B.; Ioka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Toma, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Wu, X.

    2008-01-01

    POET (Polarimeters for Energetic Transients) is a Small Explorer mission concept proposed to NASA in January 2008. The principal scientific goal of POET is to measure GRB polarization between 2 and 500 keV. The payload consists of two wide FoV instruments: a Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) capable of polarization measurements in the energy range from 2-15 keV and a high energy polarimeter (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment - GRAPE) that will measure polarization in the 60-500 keV energy range. Spectra will be measured from 2 keV up to 1 MeV. The POET spacecraft provides a zenith-pointed platform for maximizing the exposure to deep space. Spacecraft rotation will provide a means of effectively dealing with systematics in the polarization response. POET will provide sufficient sensitivity and sky coverage to measure statistically significant polarization for up to 100 GRBs in a two-year mission. Polarization data will also be obtained for solar flares, pulsars and other sources of astronomical interest.

  4. A Si Integrated Waveguiding Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevorkian, A. P.

    1987-09-01

    The technology and characteristics of a silicon-based polarimeter are presented. This device features guided mode polarization splitting, non-taper solution for guided light detection and electronic signal processing. The overall fabrication process is fully compatible with standard Si technology.

  5. Mixed Linear/Square-Root Encoded Single-Slope Ramp Provides Low-Noise ADC with High Linearity for Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Chris J.; Hancock, Bruce R.; Newton, Kenneth W.; Cunningham, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Single-slope analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are particularly useful for onchip digitization in focal plane arrays (FPAs) because of their inherent monotonicity, relative simplicity, and efficiency for column-parallel applications, but they are comparatively slow. Squareroot encoding can allow the number of code values to be reduced without loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by keeping the quantization noise just below the signal shot noise. This encoding can be implemented directly by using a quadratic ramp. The reduction in the number of code values can substantially increase the quantization speed. However, in an FPA, the fixed pattern noise (FPN) limits the use of small quantization steps at low signal levels. If the zero-point is adjusted so that the lowest column is onscale, the other columns, including those at the center of the distribution, will be pushed up the ramp where the quantization noise is higher. Additionally, the finite frequency response of the ramp buffer amplifier and the comparator distort the shape of the ramp, so that the effective ramp value at the time the comparator trips differs from the intended value, resulting in errors. Allowing increased settling time decreases the quantization speed, while increasing the bandwidth increases the noise. The FPN problem is solved by breaking the ramp into two portions, with some fraction of the available code values allocated to a linear ramp and the remainder to a quadratic ramp. To avoid large transients, both the value and the slope of the linear and quadratic portions should be equal where they join. The span of the linear portion must cover the minimum offset, but not necessarily the maximum, since the fraction of the pixels above the upper limit will still be correctly quantized, albeit with increased quantization noise. The required linear span, maximum signal and ratio of quantization noise to shot noise at high signal, along with the continuity requirement, determines the number of

  6. The First Multichroic Polarimeter Array on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Characterization and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, S. P.; Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Choi, S. K.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive receiver for the 6-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and measures the small angular scale polarization anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The full focal plane is composed of three detector arrays, containing over 3000 transition edge sensors (TES detectors) in total. The first two detector arrays, observing at 146 gigahertz, were deployed in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The third and final array is composed of multichroic pixels sensitive to both 90 and 146 gigahertz and saw first light in February 2015. Fabricated at NIST, this dichroic array consists of 255 pixels, with a total of 1020 polarization sensitive bolometers and is coupled to the telescope with a monolithic array of broad-band silicon feedhorns. The detectors are read out using time-division SQUID multiplexing and cooled by a dilution refrigerator at 110 meter Kelvins. We present an overview of the assembly and characterization of this multichroic array in the lab, and the initial detector performance in Chile. The detector array has a TES detector electrical yield of 85 percent, a total array sensitivity of less than 10 microns Kelvin root mean square speed, and detector time constants and saturation powers suitable for ACT CMB observations.

  7. A 3D CZT hard x-ray polarimeter for a balloon-borne payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caroli, E.; Alvarez, J. M.; Auricchio, N.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Curado da Silva, R. M.; Del Sordo, S.; Ferrando, P.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Galvèz, J. L.; Gloster, C. P.; Hernanz, M.; Isern, J.; Kuvvetli, I.; Maia, J. M.; Meuris, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Zappettini, A.

    2012-09-01

    Today it is widely recognised that a measurement of the polarization status of cosmic sources high energy emission is a key observational parameter to understand the active production mechanism and its geometry. Therefore new instrumentation operating in the hard X/soft γ rays energy range should be optimized also for this type of measurement. In this framework, we present the concept of a small high-performance spectrometer designed for polarimetry between 100 and 1000 keV suitable as a stratospheric balloon-borne payload dedicated to perform an accurate and reliable measurement of the polarization status of the Crab pulsar, i.e. the polarization level and direction. The detector with 3D spatial resolution is based on a CZT spectrometer in a highly segmented configuration designed to operate as a high performance scattering polarimeter. We discuss different configurations based on recent development results and possible improvements currently under study. Furthermore we describe a possible baseline design of the payload, which can be also seen as a pathfinder for a high performance focal plane detector in new hard X and soft gamma ray focussing telescopes and/or advanced Compton instruments. Finally we present preliminary data from Montecarlo undergoing studies to determine the best trade-off between polarimetric performance and detector design complexity.

  8. The First Multichroic Polarimeter Array on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Characterization and Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S. P.; Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Choi, S. K.; Datta, R.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Henderson, S. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Hubmayr, J.; Koopman, B. J.; Lanen, J. V.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Nati, F.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Simon, S. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive receiver for the 6-m Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and measures the small angular scale polarization anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The full focal plane is composed of three detector arrays, containing over 3000 transition edge sensors (TES detectors) in total. The first two detector arrays, observing at 146 GHz, were deployed in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The third and final array is composed of multichroic pixels sensitive to both 90 and 146 GHz and saw first light in February 2015. Fabricated at NIST, this dichroic array consists of 255 pixels, with a total of 1020 polarization sensitive bolometers and is coupled to the telescope with a monolithic array of broad-band silicon feedhorns. The detectors are read out using time-division SQUID multiplexing and cooled by a dilution refrigerator at 110 mK. We present an overview of the assembly and characterization of this multichroic array in the lab, and the initial detector performance in Chile. The detector array has a TES detector electrical yield of 85 %, a total array sensitivity of less than 10 \\upmu K√{ {s}}, and detector time constants and saturation powers suitable for ACT CMB observations.

  9. Multi-spectral Infrared Photodetectors and Focal Plane Arrays based on Band-engineered Type-II Indium-Arsenic / Gallium-Antimony Superlattices and its Variants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Edward Kwei-wei

    designs used in LWIR detectors were more "resistant" to the surface traps generated from the optimized ICP etching developed, than higher bandgap superlattices from the SWIR to the MWIR. Empirical evidence suggests that such a phenomenon could be explained through relative surface trap positions to the Fermi level, as well as to the conduction and valence band-edges of the designed superlattice. From an optical standpoint, high quantum efficiencies demand thick active regions and therefore high aspect ratio trenches to be defined in the semiconductor in order to preserve the optical detector volume or fill factor. Etched trenches as deep as 12microm and roughly 3microm in width have been demonstrated. These achievements provide the foundation for focal plane array development, especially for multi-spectral detectors where multiple p-n junctions are stacked together. Understanding how to etch the superlattice pixel has enabled a wide variety of hybrid IR FPAs to be demonstrated. Prior to multi-color camera development, single color cameras were first evaluated in the MWIR and LWIR. Background limited performances were achieved in both wavelength regimes with temperature sensitivities as low as 9mK (MWIR F#2.3 lens) and 19mK (LWIR F#2.0 lens) where as high as 99% of the pixels were found operable. The milestones achieved and realized make T2SLs a prime candidate for multi-color sensing. As requirements for infrared sensing become more stringent, demanding identification of the object rather than mere detection, imagers sensitive to a single waveband are no longer adequate in some applications. In these scenarios, the ability to see in multiple infrared wavebands through a single aperture camera is indispensable. In this work, dual-band material structures that sense the active SWIR to the passive LWIR were designed in combinations of SWIR/MWIR, MWIR/MWIR, MWIRL/LWIR, and LWIR/LWIR to operate as back-to-back diodes where both bands could either be imaged sequentially or

  10. Hyperspectral imaging polarimeter design and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loe, Richard S.; Duggin, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The integration and calibration of a hyperspectral imaging polarimeter is described. The system was designed to exploit subtle spectral details in visible and near-IR hyperspectral polarimetric images. All of the system components were commercial-off-the-shelf. This device uses a tunable liquid crystal filter and 16-bit cooled CCD camera. The challenges of calibrating a hyperspectral polarimeter are discussed.

  11. Compact inline optical electron polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Pirbhai, M; Ryan, D M; Richards, G; Gay, T J

    2013-05-01

    A compact optical electron polarimeter using a helium target is described. It offers a maximum fluorescence detection efficiency of ~20 Hz/nA, which is an order of magnitude higher than that of earlier designs. With an argon target, this device is expected to have a polarimetric figure-of-merit of 270 Hz/nA. By relying on a magnetic field to guide a longitudinally spin-polarized electron beam, the present instrument employs fewer electrodes. It also uses a commercially available integrated photon counting module. These features allow it to occupy a smaller volume and make it easier to operate.

  12. Applications of the INPOL polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palarczyk, M.; Rapaport, J.; Hicks, K.; Huatala, C.; Yang, X.; Prout, D. L.; Anderson, B.; Baldwin, A.; Madey, R.; Manley, D.; Watson, J.; Zhang, W.; Suleiman, R.; Ahmidouch, A.; Khayat, M.; Foster, C. C.; Goodman, C. D.; Savopulos, G.; Sowinski, J.; Luther, B. A.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Cooper, D. A.; Sugarbaker, E.; Niculescu, I.; Carr, R.; Howes, R.; Islam, M. S.; Ober, D.; Perera, N.; Sages, H.; Thomas, G.; West, J.; van Heerden, I.

    1996-10-01

    The INPOL polarimeter moved from LAMPF, upgraded and placed in operation at IUCF, measures polarization transfer parameters (D_ij) up to 200 MeV incident proton energy with an effective analyzing power (A_eff) of about 30%. Also, due to the large flight path and under good beam conditions, it can be a useful device to measure transitions to weak and difficult to isolate states, such as low lying states in ^127Xe. The determination of σB(GT) for the 124 keV transition is of great interest for the Homestake Iodine Solar Neutrino Detector. Results will be presented from recent experiments.

  13. The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The Absolute Spectrum Polarimeter (ASP) is an Explorer-class mission to map the absolute intensity and linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background and diffuse astrophysical foregrounds over the full sky from 30 GHz to 5 THz. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r much greater than 1O(raised to the power of { -3}) and Compton distortion y < 10 (raised to the power of{-6}). We describe the ASP instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the signature of an inflationary epoch in the early universe using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  14. A derivative standard for polarimeter calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Saez, P.

    1996-10-01

    A long-standing problem in polarized electron physics is the lack of a traceable standard for calibrating electron spin polarimeters. While several polarimeters are absolutely calibrated to better than 2%, the typical instrument has an inherent accuracy no better than 10%. This variability among polarimeters makes it difficult to compare advances in polarized electron sources between laboratories. The authors have undertaken an effort to establish 100 nm thick molecular beam epitaxy grown GaAs(110) as a material which may be used as a derivative standard for calibrating systems possessing a solid state polarized electron source. The near-bandgap spin polarization of photoelectrons emitted from this material has been characterized for a variety of conditions and several laboratories which possess well calibrated polarimeters have measured the photoelectron polarization of cathodes cut from a common wafer. Despite instrumentation differences, the spread in the measurements is sufficiently small that this material may be used as a derivative calibration standard.

  15. Polarization modulation polarimeter for an HPLC detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindo, Yohji; Yazawa, Masanori; Izuka, Mituharu; Aoyama, Hideki; Kinnbara, Masao; Maeda, Shiro

    1997-04-01

    A polarization modulation polarimeter for a HPLC detector has been designed and constructed based on a principle, the electrical null-point detection method, which is entirely different from that of a commercially available polarimeters, the optical null-point detection method. The Mueller matrix method is used to analyze and evaluate important factors determining its performance. It is revealed that a crystal quartz Rochon prism must be used as a polarizer, and should be mounted on a rotatable stage equipped with a mechanism for precise adjustment to set its azimuth angle at 0 degrees as precisely as possible. Furthermore, all optical components used should have the least amount of the residual static birefringence. The total performance of our polarimeter is found to be equivalent to that of commercially available polarimeters.

  16. Note: A portable rotating waveplate polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobach, Søren; Hidic, Adnan; Arlt, Jan J.; Hilliard, Andrew J.

    2017-03-01

    We describe the construction and performance of a polarimeter based on a quarter-wave plate rotated by a model airplane motor. The motor rotates at a high angular frequency of ω ˜2 π ×160 Hz, which enables the polarimeter to monitor the polarization state of an incident beam of light in real-time. We show that a simple analysis of the polarimeter signal using the fast Fourier transform on a standard digital oscilloscope provides an excellent measure of the polarization state for many laboratory applications. The polarimeter is straightforward to construct, portable, and features a high-dynamic range, facilitating a wide range of optics laboratory tasks that require free-space or fiber-based polarization analysis.

  17. LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-08-1-0295 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1. Scott Tyo 5e. TASK...and tested at the University of Arizona, and preliminary images are shown in this final report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote Sensing , polarimetry 16...7.0 LWIR Microgrid Polarimeter for Remote Sensing Studies J. Scott Tyo College of Optical Sciences University of Arizona Tucson, AZ, 85721 tyo

  18. Polarimeter for the General Fusion SPECTOR machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carle, Patrick; Froese, Aaron; Wong, Adrian; Howard, Stephen; O'Shea, Peter; Laberge, Michel

    2016-11-01

    A polarimeter has been designed to measure Faraday rotation and help to understand the profile of its safety factor, q, on the recently built SPECTOR magnetized target fusion machine at General Fusion. The polarimeter uses two counter-rotating, circularly polarized, 118.8 μm beams to probe the plasma. Grad-Shafranov simulations have been used to investigate the effect of measurement error and chord geometry.

  19. A correlation polarimeter for noise-like signals. [optimum estimation of linearly polarized electromagnetic wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlson, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Optimum estimation (tracking) of the polarization plane of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave is determined when the signal is a narrow-band Gaussian random process with a polarization plane angle which is also a Gaussian random process. This model is compared to previous work and is applicable to space communication. The estimator performs a correlation operation similar to an amplitude-comparison monopulse angle tracker, giving the name correlation polarimeter. Under large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the estimator is causal. Performance of the causal correlation polarimeter is evaluated for arbitrary SNR. Optimum precorrelation filtering is determined. With low SNR, the performance of this system is far better than that of previously developed systems. Practical implementation is discussed. A scheme is given to reduce the effect of linearly polarized noise.

  20. Polarimeter with linear response for measuring optical activity in organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Jorge L.; Montoya, Marcial; Garcia-Torales, G.; Gonzalez Alvarez, Alejandro

    2005-08-01

    A polarimeter designed for measuring small rotation angles on the polarization plane of light is described. The experimental device employs one fixed polarizer and a rotating analyzer. The system generates a periodical intensity signal, which is then Fourier analyzed. The coefficients of Fourier Transform contain information about rotation angles produced by organic compounds that exhibited optical activity. The experimental device can be used to determine the sugar concentration in agave juice.

  1. A Burst Chasing X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joanne; Hill, Joe; Barthelmy, S.; Black, K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Kaaret, P.; McConnell, M.; Bloser, P.; Macri, J.; Legere, J.; Ryan, J.; Smith, B., Jr.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    Tihs is a viewgraph presentation of a discussion of the X-ray Polarimeter. Gamma-ray bursts are one of the most powerful explosions in the universe and have been detected out to distances of almost 13 billion light years. The exact origin of these energetic explosions is still unknown but the resulting huge release of energy is thought to create a highly relativistic jet of material and a power-law distribution of electrons. There are several theories describing the origin of the prompt GRB emission that currently cannot be distinguished. Measurements of the linear polarization would provide unique and important constraints on the mechanisms thought to drive these powerful explosions. We present the design of a sensitive, and extremely versatile gamma-ray burst polarimeter. The instrument is a photoelectric polarimeter based on a time-projection chamber. The photoelectric time-projection technique combines high sensitivity with broad band-pass and is potentially the most powerful method between 2 and 100 keV where the photoelectric effect is the dominant interaction process We present measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays obtained with a prototype detector and describe the two mission concepts, the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GRBP) for thc U S Naval Academy satellite MidSTAR-2, and thc Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) onboard POET, a broadband polarimetry concept for a small explorer mission.

  2. 8-9 and 14-15 Micron Two-Color 640x486 GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Array Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Singh, A.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Luong, E. M.; Mumolo, J. M.; Tran, N. Q.; Vincent, J. D.; Shott, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    An optimized long-wavelength two-color Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) device structure has been designed. This device structure was grown on a three inch semi-insulating GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). This wafer was processed into several 640x486 format monolithically integrated 8-9 and 14-15 micron two color (or dual wavelength) QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs). These FPAs were then hybridized to 640x486 silicon CMOS readout multiplexers. A thinned (i.e., substrate removed) FPA hybrid was integrated into a liquid helium cooled dewar to perform electrical and optical characterization and to demonstrate simultaneous two-color imagery. The 8-9 micron detectors in the FPA have shown background limited performance (BLIP) at 70 K operating temperature, at 300 K background with f/2 cold stop. The 14-15 micron detectors of the FPA have reached BLIP at 40 K operating temperature at the same background conditions. In this presentation we discuss the performance of this long-wavelength dualband QWIP FPA in quantum efficiency, detectivity, noise equivalent temperature difference (NEAT), uniformity, and operability.

  3. Focal Plane Array Technology for IR Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    Bulk Crystals CdTe, CdSe , CdS, CdO, ZnTe, Cd(SSe) Continue: (HgCd)Te, (CdZn)Te Crystal growth: Vertical Bridgman Method (VBM), Horizontal Bridgman ...Method (HBM), Vertical Zone Melting (VZM), Vapour Phase Transport Method (VPTM), Travelling Heater Method (THM) Continue: Bridgman Growth from Melt of...growth of (HgCd)Te, is shown in Figs.2.1-2.2. Our Bridgman growth from melt of constant composition (BGCC) is based on a demand to ensure melt of

  4. Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation is sketched in Figure 2(b) (the figure also shows the tapping tool and where to tap). At this point the fasteners for the PCB are torqued slightly so the PCB can still move. The PCB location is adjusted again with the tapping tool. This process is repeated 3 to 4 times until the final torque is achieved. The oversized mounting holes are then filled with a liquid bonding agent to secure the board in position (not shown in the sketch). A 10- to 30-micron mounting accuracy has been achieved utilizing this method..

  5. Medical Applications of IR Focal Plane Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    near infrared reflectometer was designed and fabricated using laser (814 nm and 751 nm ) diodes and separate photodiode detector circuits. Because the...States pioneered the clinical use of infrared imaging in the late 1960s in neurology, surgery, oncology, dentistry , and dermatology. It became very...medicine, dermatology, ophthalmology, and dentistry . The impact of the above findings and developments form the basis for the continued exploitation of

  6. Precision Laser Annealing of Focal Plane Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Daniel A.; DeRose, Christopher; Starbuck, Andrew Lea; Verley, Jason C.; Jenkins, Mark W.

    2015-09-01

    We present results from laser annealing experiments in Si using a passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser. Exposure with laser at fluence values above the damage threshold of commercially available photodiodes results in electrical damage (as measured by an increase in photodiode dark current). We show that increasing the laser fluence to values in excess of the damage threshold can result in annealing of a damage site and a reduction in detector dark current by as much as 100x in some cases. A still further increase in fluence results in irreparable damage. Thus we demonstrate the presence of a laser annealing window over which performance of damaged detectors can be at least partially reconstituted. Moreover dark current reduction is observed over the entire operating range of the diode indicating that device performance has been improved for all values of reverse bias voltage. Additionally, we will present results of laser annealing in Si waveguides. By exposing a small (<10 um) length of a Si waveguide to an annealing laser pulse, the longitudinal phase of light acquired in propagating through the waveguide can be modified with high precision, <15 milliradian per laser pulse. Phase tuning by 180 degrees is exhibited with multiple exposures to one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer at fluence values below the morphological damage threshold of an etched Si waveguide. No reduction in optical transmission at 1550 nm was found after 220 annealing laser shots. Modeling results for laser annealing in Si are also presented.

  7. A polarimeter for the high resolution ultraviolet spectrometer/polarimeter. [Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The design requirements of the polarimeter were established by the scientific optical objectives of the experiment to be launched aboard the Solar Max Mission which will study active solar regions. The polarization of the light is accomplished by a rotating magnesium fluoride quarter wave plate. The quarter wave plates are rotated in 22 1/2 degree steps about an axis coincidental with the light beam. As the light beam passes through the wave plate, the transformation that occurs can be expressed by mathematical equations. By having the wave plates calibrated, the data obtained from solar flares can be analyzed and meaningful information provided to the investigators. The polarimeter has two wave plates with different optical characteristics to provide both redundancy and versatility. A four mirror polarizer was added behind one wave plate to provide additional polarization. The mechanical design, testing, and operation of the polarimeter for the high resolution ultraviolet spectrometer/polarimeter are described.

  8. A Burst Chasing X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Barthelmy, Scott; Black, J. kevin; Deines-Jones, Philip; Jahoda, Keith; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kaaret, Philip; McConnell, Mark L.; Bloser, Peter F.; Macri, John R.; Legere, Jason S.; Ryan, James M.; Smith, Billy R., Jr.; Zhang, Bing

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are one of the most powerful explosions in the universe and have been detected out to distances of almost 13 billion light years. The exact origin of these energetic explosions is still unknown but the resulting huge release of energy is thought to create a highly relativistic jet of material and a power-law distribution of electrons. There are several theories describing the origin of the prompt GRB emission that currently cannot be distinguished. Measurements of the linear polarization would provide unique and important constraints on the mechanisms thought to drive these powerful explosions. We present the design of a sensitive, and extremely versatile gamma-ray burst polarimeter. The instrument is a photoelectric polarimeter based on a time-projection chamber. The photoelectric time-projection technique combines high sensitivity with broad band-pass and is potentially the most powerful method between 2 and 100 keV where the photoelectric effect 1s the dominant interaction process We present measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays obtained with a prototype detector and describe the two mission concepts, the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GRBP) for thc U S Naval Academy satellite MidSTAR-2, and thc Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) onboard POET, a broadband polarimetry concept for a small explorer mission.

  9. Models comparison for JET polarimeter data

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzotta, C.; Orsitto, F. P.; Giovannozzi, E.; Boboc, A.; Tudisco, O.; Zabeo, L.; Brombin, M.; Murari, A.

    2008-03-12

    A complete comparison between the theory and the measurements in polarimetry was done by using the Far Infrared Polarimeter at JET. More than 300 shots were analyzed, including a wide spectrum of JET scenarios in all critical conditions for polarimetry: high density, high and very low fields, high temperatures.This work is aimed at the demonstration of the robustness of the theoretical models for the JET polarimeter measurements in the perspective of using these models for ITER like plasma scenarios . In this context, an assessment was performed on how the line-integrated plasma density along the central vertical chord of FIR polarimeter could be evaluated using the Cotton-Mouton effect and its possible concrete use to correct fringe jumps of the interferometer.The models considered are: i) the rigorous numerical solution of the Stokes propagation equations, using dielectric tensor evaluated from JET equilibrium and Thomson scattering [1,2]; ii) two types of approximated solutions [2,3] and iii) the Guenther empirical model [4] that considers the mutual effect between Cotton-Mouton and Faraday rotation angle. The model calculations have been compared with polarimeter measurements for the Cotton-Mouton phase shift.The agreement with theory is satisfactory within the limits of experimental errors [3].

  10. PoET: Polarimeters for Energetic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McConnell, Mark; Barthelmy, Scott; Hill, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This presentation focuses on PoET (Polarimeters for Energetic Transients): a Small Explorer mission concept proposed to NASA in January 2008. The principal scientific goal of POET is to measure GRB polarization between 2 and 500 keV. The payload consists of two wide FoV instruments: a Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) capable of polarization measurements in the energy range from 2-15 keV and a high energy polarimeter (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment - GRAPE) that will measure polarization in the 60-500 keV energy range. Spectra will be measured from 2 keV up to 1 MeV. The PoET spacecraft provides a zenith-pointed platform for maximizing the exposure to deep space. Spacecraft rotation will provide a means of effectively dealing with systematics in the polarization response. PoET will provide sufficient sensitivity and sky coverage to measure statistically significant polarization for up to 100 GRBs in a two-year mission. Polarization data will also be obtained for solar flares, pulsars and other sources of astronomical interest.

  11. Imaging polarimeters for solar extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Fineschi, Silvano; Fontenla, Juan M.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Accounts are given of EUV/FUV polarimetric instrument concepts for solar research which observe linear polarization in the spectral lines which originate in the outer solar atmosphere. The coronagraph/polarimeter instruments discussed employ all-reflective optical systems using ultrasmooth, low-scatter normal incidence mirrors and reflective polarization analyzers. The reflecting polarization analyzers operate at the Brewster angle.

  12. An integrated thermo-structural model to design a polarimeter for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Varano, I.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.; Laux, U.

    2016-07-01

    The GTC (Gran Telescopio Canarias), with an equivalent aperture of 10.4 m, effective focal length of 169.9 m, located at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos , in La Palma, Canary Islands, will host on its Cassegrain focus the GRAPE polarimeter (GRAntecan PolarimEter). At such focus the plate scale is 1.21 arcsec/mm and the unvignetted FOV 8 arcmin. The instrument will provide full Stokes polarimetry in the spectral range 380-1500 nm, feeding simultaneously up to two spectrographs. At the moment an interface to HORS (High Optical Resolution Spectrograph) is being defined, located on the Nasmyth platform, it has a FWHM resolving power of about 25,000 (5 pixel) within a spectral range of 400-680 nm. The rotator and instrumental flanges for the Cassegrain focus are currently under definition. Hereafter I present the state of art of the mechanical design of the polarimeter, whose strategy is based on an integrated model of Zemax design into ANSYS FEM static and dynamic analyses with thermal loads applied, in order to retrieve tip-tilt, decentering errors and other significant parameters to be looped back to the Zemax model. In such a way it is possible to compare and refine the results achieved through the tolerance analysis.

  13. Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP), phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Evaluations performed during a Phase B study directed towards defining an optimal design for the Earth Observing Scanning Polarimeter (EOSP) instrument is summarized. An overview of the experiment approach is included which provides a summary of the scientific objectives, the background of the measurement approach, and the measurement method. In the instrumentation section, details of the design are discussed starting with the key instrument features required to accomplish the scientific objectives and a system characterization in terms of the Stokes vector/Mueller matrix formalism. This is followed by a detailing of the instrument design concept, the design of the individual elements of the system, the predicted performance, and a summary of appropriate instrument testing and calibration. The selected design makes use of key features of predecessor polarimeters and is fully compatible with the Earth Observing System spacecraft requirements.

  14. Chromospheric LAyer SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; McKenzie, David E.; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Trujillo-Bueno, Javier; De Pontieu, Bart; Kubo, Masahito; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kano, Ryouhei; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Masaki; Rachmeler, Laurel A.; Kobayashi, Ken; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Asensio Ramos, Andres; del Pino Aleman, Tanausu; Štępán, Jiri; Belluzzi, Luca; Larruquert, Juan Ignacio; Auchère, Frédéric; Leenaarts, Jorrit; Carlsson, Mattias J. L.

    2016-07-01

    The sounding rocket Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) was launched on September 3rd, 2015, and successfully detected (with a polarization accuracy of 0.1 %) the linear polarization signals (Stokes Q and U) that scattering processes were predicted to produce in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (Lyα 121.567 nm). Via the Hanle effect, this unique data set may provide novel information about the magnetic structure and energetics in the upper solar chromosphere. The CLASP instrument was safely recovered without any damage and we have recently proposed to dedicate its second flight to observe the four Stokes profiles in the spectral region of the Mg II h and k lines around 280 nm; in these lines the polarization signals result from scattering processes and the Hanle and Zeeman effects. Here we describe the modifications needed to develop this new instrument called the "Chromospheric LAyer SpectroPolarimeter" (CLASP2).

  15. Statistical Earthquake Focal Mechanism Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    The new whole Earth focal mechanism forecast, based on the GCMT catalog, has been created. In the present forecast, the sum of normalized seismic moment tensors within 1000 km radius is calculated and the P- and T-axes for the focal mechanism are evaluated on the basis of the sum. Simultaneously we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms. This average angle shows tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The method was originally proposed by Kagan and Jackson (1994, JGR). Recent interest by CSEP and GEM has motivated some improvements, particularly to extend the previous forecast to polar and near-polar regions. The major problem in extending the forecast is the focal mechanism calculation on a spherical surface. In the previous forecast as our average focal mechanism was computed, it was assumed that longitude lines are approximately parallel within 1000 km radius. This is largely accurate in the equatorial and near-equatorial areas. However, when one approaches the 75 degree latitude, the longitude lines are no longer parallel: the bearing (azimuthal) difference at points separated by 1000 km reach about 35 degrees. In most situations a forecast point where we calculate an average focal mechanism is surrounded by earthquakes, so a bias should not be strong due to the difference effect cancellation. But if we move into polar regions, the bearing difference could approach 180 degrees. In a modified program focal mechanisms have been projected on a plane tangent to a sphere at a forecast point. New longitude axes which are parallel in the tangent plane are corrected for the bearing difference. A comparison with the old 75S-75N forecast shows that in equatorial regions the forecasted focal mechanisms are almost the same, and the difference in the forecasted focal mechanisms rotation angle is close to zero. However, though the forecasted focal mechanisms are similar

  16. XUV polarimeter for undulator radiation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gluskin, E.; Mattson, J.E.; Bader, S.D.; Viccaro, P.J. ); Barbee, T.W. Jr. ); Brookes, N. ); Pitas, A. ); Watts, R. )

    1991-01-01

    A polarimeter for x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet (XUV) radiation was built to measure the spatial spectral dependence of the polarization of the light produced by the new undulator at the U5 beamline at NSLS. The fourth-harmonic radiation was measured, and it does not agree with predictions based on ideal simulation codes in the far-field approximation. 13 ref., 7 figs.

  17. Snapshot imaging polarimeters using spatial modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haitao

    The recent demonstration of a novel snapshot imaging polarimeter using the fringe modulation technique shows a promise in building a compact and moving-parts-free device. As just demonstrated in principle, this technique has not been adequately studied. In the effort of advancing this technique, we build a complete theory framework that can address the key issues regarding the polarization aberrations caused by using the functional elements. With this model, we can have the necessary knowledge in designing, analyzing and optimizing the systems. Also, we propose a broader technique that uses arbitrary modulation instead of sinusoidal fringes, which can give us more engineering freedom and can be the solution of achromatizing the system. In the hardware aspect, several important progresses are made. We extend the polarimeter technique from visible to middle wavelength infrared by using the yttrium vanadate crystals. Also, we incorporate a Savart Plate polarimter into a fundus camera to measure the human eye's retinal retardance, useful information for glaucoma diagnosis. Thirdly, a world-smallest imaging polarimeter is proposed and demonstrated, which may open many applications in security, remote sensing and bioscience.

  18. GEMS X-ray Polarimeter Performance Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Strohmayer, Tod; Kallman, Tim; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne; Swank, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small explorer (GEMS) is an X-ray polarization telescope selected as a NASA small explorer satellite mission. The X-ray Polarimeter on GEMS uses a Time Projection Chamber gas proportional counter to measure the polarization of astrophysical X-rays in the 2-10 keV band by sensing the direction of the track of the primary photoelectron excited by the incident X-ray. We have simulated the expected sensitivity of the polarimeter to polarized X-rays. We use the simulation package Penelope to model the physics of the interaction of the initial photoelectron with the detector gas and to determine the distribution of charge deposited in the detector volume. We then model the charge diffusion in the detector,and produce simulated track images. Within the track reconstruction algorithm we apply cuts on the track shape and focus on the initial photoelectron direction in order to maximize the overall sensitivity of the instrument, using this technique we have predicted instrument modulation factors nu(sub 100) for 100% polarized X-rays ranging from 10% to over 60% across the 2-10 keV X-ray band. We also discuss the simulation program used to develop and model some of the algorithms used for triggering, and energy measurement of events in the polarimeter.

  19. Fast Solar Polarimeter: First Light Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnappa, N.; Feller, A.; Iglesia, F. A.; Solanki, S.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate measurements of magnetic fields on the Sun are crucial to understand various physical processes that take place in the solar atmosphere such as solar eruptions, coronal heating, solar wind acceleration, etc. The Fast Solar Polarimeter (FSP) is a new instrument that is being developed to probe magnetic fields on the Sun. One of the main goals of this polarimeter is to carry out high precision spectropolarimetric observations with spatial resolution close to the telescope diffraction limit. The polarimeter is based on pnCCD technology with split frame transfer and simultaneous multi-channel readout, resulting in frame rate upto 1 kHz. The FSP prototype instrument uses a small format pnCCD of 264x264 pixels which has been developed by PNSensor and by the semiconductor lab of the Max Planck Society. The polarization modulator is based on two ferro-electric liquid crystals (FLCs) interlaced between two static retarders. The first solar observations have been carried out with this prototype during May-June, 2013 at German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Here we present the instrument performance assessments and the first results on the magnetic field measurements. Further, we briefly discuss about the next phase of FSP which will be a dual beam system with 1k x 1k CCDs.

  20. Portable Imaging Polarimeter and Imaging Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    PHIPPS,GARY S.; KEMME,SHANALYN A.; SWEATT,WILLIAM C.; DESCOUR,M.R.; GARCIA,J.P.; DERENIAK,E.L.

    1999-11-01

    Polarimetry is the method of recording the state of polarization of light. Imaging polarimetry extends this method to recording the spatially resolved state of polarization within a scene. Imaging-polarimetry data have the potential to improve the detection of manmade objects in natural backgrounds. We have constructed a midwave infrared complete imaging polarimeter consisting of a fixed wire-grid polarizer and rotating form-birefringent retarder. The retardance and the orientation angles of the retarder were optimized to minimize the sensitivity of the instrument to noise in the measurements. The optimal retardance was found to be 132{degree} rather than the typical 90{degree}. The complete imaging polarimeter utilized a liquid-nitrogen cooled PtSi camera. The fixed wire-grid polarizer was located at the cold stop inside the camera dewar. The complete imaging polarimeter was operated in the 4.42-5 {micro}m spectral range. A series of imaging experiments was performed using as targets a surface of water, an automobile, and an aircraft. Further analysis of the polarization measurements revealed that in all three cases the magnitude of circular polarization was comparable to the noise in the calculated Stokes-vector components.

  1. Upgrade Plans for the C-Mod FIR Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, R.; Garnier, D.; Irby, J.; Brower, D. L.; Xu, P.; Bergerson, W. F.; Ding, W. X.; Guttenfelder, W.; Marmar, E. S.

    2014-10-01

    The 3-chord FIR polarimeter presently deployed on C-Mod is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. It operates under ITER-like plasma conditions and magnetic fields, and uses an optical layout similar to that proposed for ITER. The details of this system and some results from the C-Mod 2012 campaign will be presented, along with the design of the upgrade that is now being implemented. The new system will provide horizontal chords near the mid-plane and low loss etalon windows to improve both the signal level and our ability to study magnetic fluctuations. The laser table has been relocated from the C-Mod cell to a shielded and climate controlled location, and improvements have been made to its acoustic isolation. New collimation optics, and a beam-line needed to convey the FIR beams into the tokamak port have been designed. Improvements to the detector electronics will also be discussed, as will initial testing of the laser system and reference detectors during C-Mod operation. Supported by USDoE Award DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  2. Waveguide Metacouplers for In-Plane Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pors, Anders; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-06-01

    The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of the vectorial nature of light and a crucial parameter in a wide range of remote sensing applications. Nevertheless, the SOP is rather cumbersome to probe experimentally, as conventional detectors respond only to the intensity of the light, hence losing the phase information between orthogonal vector components. In this work, we propose a type of polarimeter that is compact and well suited for in-plane optical circuitry while allowing for immediate determination of the SOP through simultaneous retrieval of the associated Stokes parameters. The polarimeter is based on plasmonic phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces that facilitate normal incident light to launch in-plane photonic-waveguide modes propagating in six predefined directions with the coupling efficiencies providing a direct measure of the incident SOP. The functionality and accuracy of the polarimeter, which essentially is an all-polarization-sensitive waveguide metacoupler, is confirmed through full-wave simulations at the operation wavelength of 1.55 μ m .

  3. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  4. Polarimeters for the AGS polarized-proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Crabb, D.G.; Bonner, B.; Buchanan, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the three polarimeters which will be used to measure the beam polarization at the AGS polarized beam facility. The beam polarization will be measured before injection into the AGS, during acceleration, and after extraction from the AGS. The 200-MeV polarimeter uses scintillation-counter telescopes to measure the asymmetry in p-carbon inclusive scattering. The internal polarimeter can measure the beam polarization at up to five selected times during acceleration. A continuously spooled nylon filament is swung into the beam at the appropriate time and the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering measured by two scintillation-counter telescopes. This is a relative polarimeter which can be calibrated by the absolute external polarimeter located in the D extracted-beam line. This polarimeter uses scintillation counters in two double-arm magnetic spectrometers to measure clearly the asymmetry in pp elastic scattering from a liquid hydrogen target. The specific features and operation of each polarimeter will be discussed.

  5. A hard X-ray polarimeter utilizing Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakurai, H.; Noma, M.; Niizeki, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a 50-cm-diam prototype of a novel Compton-scattering-type polarimeter for hard X-rays in the energy range 30-100 keV. The characteristics of the prototype polarimeter were investigated for various conditions. It was found that, with polarized X-rays from a simple polarizer, the detection efficiency and the modulation factor of the polarimeter with a 40-mm thick scatterer were 3.2 percent and 0.57 percent, respectively, at about 60 keV.

  6. SPARO, the Submillimeter Polarimeter for Antarctic Remote Observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renbarger, T.; Chuss, D. T.; Novak, G.; Dotson, J. L.; Griffin, G.; Newcomb, M.; O'Brien, T. B.; Peterson, J. B.; Pernic, D.; Loewenstein, R. F.; Loverde, S.

    2000-12-01

    We report on a 9 pixel polarimeter, SPARO, the Submillimeter Polarimeter for Antarctic Remote Observing, for use on the Viper telescope, located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. We describe the design and performance of the polarimeter and highlight those characteristics that make SPARO unique. Chief among these characteristics are an increased beam size ( 4') for large-scale mapping of magnetic fields and innovations to the cryostat design to ensure smooth operation during the austral winter. We also include a discussion of systematic effects of the SPARO-Viper system and observations of NGC 6334 and the Galactic center obtained at South Pole during July 2000.

  7. Cotton-Mouton polarimeter with HCN laser on CHS

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, T.; Kawahata, K.; Ito, Y.; Okajima, S.; Nakayama, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Isobe, M.; Nishimura, S.; Suzuki, C.; Yoshimura, Y.; Nagaoka, K.; Takahashi, C.

    2006-10-15

    Polarimeters based on the Cotton-Mouton effect hold promise for electron density measurements. We have designed and installed a Cotton-Mouton polarimeter on the Compact Helical System. The Cotton-Mouton effect is measured as the phase difference between probe and reference beams. In this system, an interferometric measurement can be performed simultaneously with the same probe chord. The light source is a HCN laser (wavelength of 337 {mu}m). Digital complex demodulation is adopted for small phase analysis. The line averaged density evaluated from the polarimeter along a plasma center chord is almost consistent with that from the interferometer.

  8. A compton backscattering polarimeter for measuring longitudinal electron polarization

    SciTech Connect

    I. Passchier; Douglas W. Higinbotham; N. Vodinas; N. Papadakis; Kees de Jager; Ricardo Alarcon; T. Bauer; J.F.J. van den Brand; D. Boersma; T. Botto; M. Bouwhuis; H.J. Bulten; L. van Buuren; Rolf Ent; D. Geurts; M. Ferro-Luzzi; M. Harvey; Peter Heimberg; Blaine Norum; H.R. Poolman; M. van der Putte; E. Six; J.J.M. Steijger; D. Szczerba; H. de Vries

    1997-08-01

    Compton backscattering polarimetry provides a fast measurement of the polarization of an electron beam in a storage ring. Since the method is non-destructive, the polarization of the electrons can be monitored during internal target experiments. At NIKHEF a Compton polarimeter has been constructed to measure the polarization of the longitudinally polarized electrons stored in the AmPS ring. First results obtained with the polarimeter, the first Compton polarimeter to measure the polarization of a stored longitudinally polarized electron beam, are presented in this paper.

  9. A Review of Focal Reducer Interferometer Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    searches. G.Courtes has also proposed a design for a focal reducer for the E.S.O. 3.6m. Ritchey -Chretien telescope (Fig. 4b). He uses a Schmidt camera...spaced components, with a modified Wynne camera design (Fig. 7). The instrument proposed used folded optics and would operate at the F/8 Ritchey Cretien ...G.Courtes for the 3.6m Ritchey Chretien telescope . a, telescope focal plane and field lens; b, collimator; c, camera. Figure 5 The focal reducer of A.B

  10. The Gas Pixel Detector as a solar X-ray polarimeter and imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiani, Sergio; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Brez, Alessandro; di Cosimo, Sergio; Lazzarotto, Francesco; Muleri, Fabio; Rubini, Alda; Soffitta, Paolo; Spandre, Gloria

    pixels region (called cluster ) on which the track is projected. For every photoelectron we obtain the coordinates, on the pixels plane, of its emission point (that is also the photon absorption point) and the emission direction. Thus we can statistically measure the degree and the direction of polarization of the detected radiation. Using different mixtures of gas, it is possible to select properly the working energy band for the instrument. At the present we are able to perform such a measurement in the range of about 1 ÷ 30 keV. We want to stress that the current detector not only is 1.5x1.5 cm2 , but it weights only 50 g! We will show the possibility to use the GPD for solar observations on board of satellite missions. A possible use of the GPD is on the focal plane of an X-ray telescope or associated with a radiation collimation system or with a coded mask: because of the fact that it is a position sensitive instrument. We will investigate these possibilities for the usage of the GPD, especially for solar flares observations.

  11. Parallel detecting, spectroscopic ellipsometers/polarimeters

    DOEpatents

    Furtak, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    The parallel detecting spectroscopic ellipsometer/polarimeter sensor has no moving parts and operates in real-time for in-situ monitoring of the thin film surface properties of a sample within a processing chamber. It includes a multi-spectral source of radiation for producing a collimated beam of radiation directed towards the surface of the sample through a polarizer. The thus polarized collimated beam of radiation impacts and is reflected from the surface of the sample, thereby changing its polarization state due to the intrinsic material properties of the sample. The light reflected from the sample is separated into four separate polarized filtered beams, each having individual spectral intensities. Data about said four individual spectral intensities is collected within the processing chamber, and is transmitted into one or more spectrometers. The data of all four individual spectral intensities is then analyzed using transformation algorithms, in real-time.

  12. Recent Results from the C-Mod Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Irby, J. H.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Marmar, E. S.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Ernst, D.; Hughes, J. W.; Mumgaard, R.; Parker, R.; Scott, S.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; White, A. E.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    The C-Mod 3 chord FIR polarimeter, with a 2 MHz bandwidth, is capable of responding to both fast changes in the plasma equilibrium and high frequency fluctuations. It operates under ITER-like plasma conditions and magnetic fields, and uses an optical layout and FIR sources very similar to those proposed for the ITER polarimeter. Results from the polarimeter as a function of plasma density and current will be discussed, as well as the effects of lower hybrid power levels, phasing and plasma density on the current drive efficiency. The possible identification of some broadband fluctuations as primarily magnetic in nature, and gyrokinetic simulation results from the modeling of these fluctuations will also be presented. Estimates of the localization of this mode will be described. The polarimeter response to low frequency MHD modes will be compared with results from the Fast Two-Color-Interferometer. USDoE contract DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  13. Drift parameters optimization of a TPC polarimeter: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhee, K.; Radhakrishna, V.; Koushal, V.; Baishali, G.; Vinodkumar, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    Time Projection Chamber (TPC) based X-ray polarimeters using Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) are currently being developed to make sensitive measurement of polarization in 2-10 keV energy range. The emission direction of the photoelectron ejected via photoelectric effect carries the information of the polarization of the incident X-ray photon. Performance of a gas based polarimeter is affected by the operating drift parameters such as gas pressure, drift field and drift-gap. We present simulation studies carried out in order to understand the effect of these operating parameters on the modulation factor of a TPC polarimeter. Models of Garfield are used to study photoelectron interaction in gas and drift of electron cloud towards GEM. Our study is aimed at achieving higher modulation factors by optimizing drift parameters. Study has shown that Ne/DME (50/50) at lower pressure and drift field can lead to desired performance of a TPC polarimeter.

  14. The SLAC E-154 {sup 3}He polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Romalis, M. V.; Bogorad, P. L.; Cates, G. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Chupp, T. E.; Coulter, K. P.; Smith, T. B.; Welsh, R.; Hughes, E. W.; Johnson, J. R.; Thompson, A. K.

    1998-01-20

    We describe the NMR and Rb Zeeman frequency shift polarimeters used for determining the {sup 3}He polarization in a recent precision measurement of the neutron spin structure function g{sub 1} at SLAC (E-154). We performed a detailed study of the systematic errors associated with the calibration of the NMR polarimeter. A new technique was used for determining the {sup 3}He polarization from the frequency shift of the Rb Zeeman resonance.

  15. Calibration and Compensation of Instrumental Errors in Imaging Polarimeters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Polarimeters The microgrid polarimeter that we considered is designed to work in the long- wave infrared (LWIR) 7.8 - 9.8 Pm band and has a mosaic of...helps to characterize shape and surface characteristics of interesting targets in optical imagery from the UV through the LWIR and beyond. There are...discovered that polarization is important, but it can also be quite difficult to measure accurately. Optical systems designed to respond to polarization

  16. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment.

  17. Analysis and Evaluation of Technical Data on the Photochromic and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Materials. Appendix. Eye/Sensor Protection by an Optical Fuse Mirror at a Focal Plane: Feasibility Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-07

    Outside the focal point the film need not be free standing but may be supported on a suitale sustance . One could envision a mirror/fuse system, located...8217 5U7SRAII to* - free filf% nsSJ P I0H o n the-wl wctijtvity. radially or in de9 mq ri of ia. less thar, focused spot size for artica! gains 10 to S or i Wst0...1. 15 P ! 08 0, ~l 1. O7i t.343 V . 98 OS OMBE 11 1. 19 -k i.1901 0.1391 B. Om 0. b376 0.52 CB CAS63 loc 1.656-06 1.6573? 0.154S 0.010C 0.B6, C.263S

  18. Focal Choroidal Excavation

    PubMed Central

    Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation. PMID:28050329

  19. Focal Choroidal Excavation.

    PubMed

    Cebeci, Zafer; Bayraktar, Şerife; Oray, Merih; Kır, Nur

    2016-12-01

    Focal choroidal excavation is a choroidal pit that can be detected by optical coherence tomography. Central serous chorioretinopathy, choroidal neovascularization and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy are pathologies associated with focal choroidal excavation. In this article, we present the follow-up and treatment outcomes of three eyes of two patients with focal choroidal excavation.

  20. Statistical earthquake focal mechanism forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.; Jackson, David D.

    2014-04-01

    Forecasts of the focal mechanisms of future shallow (depth 0-70 km) earthquakes are important for seismic hazard estimates and Coulomb stress, and other models of earthquake occurrence. Here we report on a high-resolution global forecast of earthquake rate density as a function of location, magnitude and focal mechanism. In previous publications we reported forecasts of 0.5° spatial resolution, covering the latitude range from -75° to +75°, based on the Global Central Moment Tensor earthquake catalogue. In the new forecasts we have improved the spatial resolution to 0.1° and the latitude range from pole to pole. Our focal mechanism estimates require distance-weighted combinations of observed focal mechanisms within 1000 km of each gridpoint. Simultaneously, we calculate an average rotation angle between the forecasted mechanism and all the surrounding mechanisms, using the method of Kagan & Jackson proposed in 1994. This average angle reveals the level of tectonic complexity of a region and indicates the accuracy of the prediction. The procedure becomes problematical where longitude lines are not approximately parallel, and where shallow earthquakes are so sparse that an adequate sample spans very large distances. North or south of 75°, the azimuths of points 1000 km away may vary by about 35°. We solved this problem by calculating focal mechanisms on a plane tangent to the Earth's surface at each forecast point, correcting for the rotation of the longitude lines at the locations of earthquakes included in the averaging. The corrections are negligible between -30° and +30° latitude, but outside that band uncorrected rotations can be significantly off. Improved forecasts at 0.5° and 0.1° resolution are posted at http://eq.ess.ucla.edu/kagan/glob_gcmt_index.html.

  1. Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Kittle, Joe

    The emission regions of many types of X-ray sources are small and cannot be spatially resolved without interferometry techniques that haven't yet been developed. In order to understand the emission mechanisms and emission geometry, alternate measurement techniques are required. Most microphysical processes that affect X-rays, including scattering and magnetic emission processes are imprinted as polarization signatures. X-ray polarization also reveals exotic physical processes occurring in regions of very strong gravitational and magnetic fields. Observations of X-ray polarization will provide a measurement of the geometrical distribution of gas and magnetic fields without foreground depolarization that affects longer wavelengths (e.g. Faraday rotation in the radio). Emission from accretion disks has an inclination-dependent polarization. The polarization signature is modified by extreme gravitational forces, which bend light, essentially changing the contribution of each part of the disk to the integrated total intensity seen by distant observers. Because gravity has the largest effect on the innermost parts of the disk (which are the hottest, and thus contributes to more high energy photons), the energy dependent polarization is diagnostic of disk inclination, black hole mass and spin. Increasing the sensitive energy band will make these measurements possible. X-ray polarimetry will also enable the study of the origin of cosmic rays in the universe, the nature of black holes, the role of black holes in the evolution of galaxies, and the interaction of matter with the highest physically possible magnetic fields. These objectives address NASA's strategic interest in the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. We propose a two-year effort to develop the Next Generation X-ray Polarimeter (NGXP) that will have more than ten times the sensitivity of the current state of the art. NGXP will make possible game changing measurements of classes of astrophysical

  2. Determination of electron beam polarization using electron detector in Compton polarimeter with less than 1% statistical and systematic uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Amrendra

    2015-05-01

    The Q-weak experiment aims to measure the weak charge of proton with a precision of 4.2%. The proposed precision on weak charge required a 2.5% measurement of the parity violating asymmetry in elastic electron - proton scattering. Polarimetry was the largest experimental contribution to this uncertainty and a new Compton polarimeter was installed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab to make the goal achievable. In this polarimeter the electron beam collides with green laser light in a low gain Fabry-Perot Cavity; the scattered electrons are detected in 4 planes of a novel diamond micro strip detector while the back scattered photons are detected in lead tungstate crystals. This diamond micro-strip detector is the first such device to be used as a tracking detector in a nuclear and particle physics experiment. The diamond detectors are read out using custom built electronic modules that include a preamplifier, a pulse shaping amplifier and a discriminator for each detector micro-strip. We use field programmable gate array based general purpose logic modules for event selection and histogramming. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations and data acquisition simulations were performed to estimate the systematic uncertainties. Additionally, the Moller and Compton polarimeters were cross calibrated at low electron beam currents using a series of interleaved measurements. In this dissertation, we describe all the subsystems of the Compton polarimeter with emphasis on the electron detector. We focus on the FPGA based data acquisition system built by the author and the data analysis methods implemented by the author. The simulations of the data acquisition and the polarimeter that helped rigorously establish the systematic uncertainties of the polarimeter are also elaborated, resulting in the first sub 1% measurement of low energy (?1 GeV) electron beam polarization with a Compton electron detector. We have demonstrated that diamond based micro-strip detectors can be used for tracking in a

  3. Optimization of system parameters for a complete multispectral polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hollstein, Andre; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Juergen; Preusker, Rene

    2009-08-20

    We optimize a general class of complete multispectral polarimeters with respect to signal-to-noise ratio, stability against alignment errors, and the minimization of errors regarding a given set of polarization states. The class of polarimeters that are dealt with consists of at least four polarization optics each with a multispectral detector. A polarization optic is made of an azimuthal oriented wave plate and a polarizing filter. A general, but not unique, analytic solution that minimizes signal-to-noise ratio is introduced for a polarimeter that incorporates four simultaneous measurements with four independent optics. The optics consist of four sufficient wave plates, where at least one is a quarter-wave plate. The solution is stable with respect to the retardance of the quarter-wave plate; therefore, it can be applied to real-world cases where the retardance deviates from {lambda}/4. The solution is a set of seven rotational parameters that depends on the given retardances of the wave plates. It can be applied to a broad range of real world cases. A numerical method for the optimization of arbitrary polarimeters of the type discussed is also presented and applied for two cases. First, the class of polarimeters that were analytically dealt with are further optimized with respect to stability and error performance with respect to linear polarized states. Then a multispectral case for a polarimeter that consists of four optics with real achromatic wave plates is presented. This case was used as the theoretical background for the development of the Airborne Multi-Spectral Sunphoto- and Polarimeter (AMSSP), which is an instrument for the German research aircraft HALO.

  4. Optimization of system parameters for a complete multispectral polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Hollstein, André; Ruhtz, Thomas; Fischer, Jürgen; Preusker, René

    2009-08-20

    We optimize a general class of complete multispectral polarimeters with respect to signal-to-noise ratio, stability against alignment errors, and the minimization of errors regarding a given set of polarization states. The class of polarimeters that are dealt with consists of at least four polarization optics each with a multispectral detector. A polarization optic is made of an azimuthal oriented wave plate and a polarizing filter. A general, but not unique, analytic solution that minimizes signal-to-noise ratio is introduced for a polarimeter that incorporates four simultaneous measurements with four independent optics. The optics consist of four sufficient wave plates, where at least one is a quarter-wave plate. The solution is stable with respect to the retardance of the quarter-wave plate; therefore, it can be applied to real-world cases where the retardance deviates from lambda/4. The solution is a set of seven rotational parameters that depends on the given retardances of the wave plates. It can be applied to a broad range of real world cases. A numerical method for the optimization of arbitrary polarimeters of the type discussed is also presented and applied for two cases. First, the class of polarimeters that were analytically dealt with are further optimized with respect to stability and error performance with respect to linear polarized states. Then a multispectral case for a polarimeter that consists of four optics with real achromatic wave plates is presented. This case was used as the theoretical background for the development of the Airborne Multi-Spectral Sunphoto- and Polarimeter (AMSSP), which is an instrument for the German research aircraft HALO.

  5. Infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter using birefringent prisms.

    PubMed

    Craven-Jones, Julia; Kudenov, Michael W; Stapelbroek, Maryn G; Dereniak, Eustace L

    2011-03-10

    A compact short-wavelength and middle-wavelength infrared hyperspectral imaging polarimeter (IHIP) is introduced. The sensor includes a pair of sapphire Wollaston prisms and several high-order retarders to form an imaging Fourier transform spectropolarimeter. The Wollaston prisms serve as a birefringent interferometer with reduced sensitivity to vibration versus an unequal path interferometer, such as a Michelson. Polarimetric data are acquired through the use of channeled spectropolarimetry to modulate the spectrum with the Stokes parameter information. The collected interferogram is Fourier filtered and reconstructed to recover the spatially and spectrally varying Stokes vector data across the image. The IHIP operates over a ±5° field of view and implements a dual-scan false signature reduction technique to suppress polarimetric aliasing artifacts. In this paper, the optical layout and operation of the IHIP sensor are presented in addition to the radiometric, spectral, and polarimetric calibration techniques used with the system. Spectral and spectropolarimetric results from the laboratory and outdoor tests with the instrument are also presented.

  6. Performance of the PRAXyS X-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwakiri, W. B.; Black, J. K.; Cole, R.; Enoto, T.; Hayato, A.; Hill, J. E.; Jahoda, K.; Kaaret, P.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kubota, M.; Marlowe, H.; McCurdy, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tamagawa, T.

    2016-12-01

    The performance of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) polarimeter for the Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) Small Explorer was evaluated using polarized and unpolarized X-ray sources. The PRAXyS mission will enable exploration of the universe through X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV energy band. We carried out performance tests of the polarimeter at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL-NSLS) and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The polarimeter was tested with linearly polarized, monochromatic X-rays at 11 different energies between 2.5 and 8.0 keV. At maximum sensitivity, the measured modulation factors at 2.7, 4.5 and 8.0 keV are 27%, 43% and 59%, respectively and the measured angle of polarization is consistent with the expected value at all energies. Measurements with a broadband, unpolarized X-ray source placed a limit of less than 1% on false polarization in the PRAXyS polarimeter.

  7. Simulation studies on performance parameters of a TPC polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhee, K.; Koushal, V.; Radhakrishna, V.; Baishali, G.; A. M., Vinodkumar

    2014-07-01

    X-ray polarimeters based on Time Projection Chamber (TPC) geometry are currently being studied and developed to make sensitive measurement of polarization in 2-10keV energy range. TPC soft X-ray polarimeters exploit the fact that emission direction of the photoelectron ejected via photoelectric effect in a gas proportional counter carries the information of the polarization of the incident X-ray photon. Operating parameters such as pressure, drift field and driftgap affect the performance of a TPC polarimeter. Simulations presented here showcase the effect of these operating parameters on the modulation factor of the TPC polarimeter. Models of Garfield are used to study photoelectron interaction in gas and drift of electron cloud towards Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). The emission direction is reconstructed from the image and modulation factor is computed. Our study has shown that Ne/DME (50/50) at lower pressure and drift field can be used for a TPC polarimeter with modulation factor of 50-65%.

  8. Performance of the PRAXyS X-Ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwakiri, W.B.; Black, J. K.; Cole, R.; Enoto, T.; Hayato, A.; Hill, J. E.; Jahoda, K.; Kaaret, P.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kubota, M.; Marlowe, H.; McCurdy, R.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tamagawa, T.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) polarimeter for the Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) Small Explorer was evaluated using polarized and unpolarized X-ray sources. The PRAXyS mission will enable exploration of the universe through X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV energy band. We carried out performance tests of the polarimeter at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source (BNL-NSLS) and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The polarimeter was tested with linearly polarized, monochromatic X-rays at 11 different energies between 2.5 and 8.0 keV. At maximum sensitivity, the measured modulation factors at 2.7, 4.5 and 8.0 keV are 27%, 43% and 59%, respectively and the measured angle of polarization is consistent with the expected value at all energies. Measurements with a broadband, unpolarized X-ray source placed a limit of less than 1% on false polarization in the PRAXyS polarimeter.

  9. Intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter using stacked organic photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruonan; Sen, Pratik; O'Connor, B T; Kudenov, M W

    2017-02-20

    An intrinsic coincident full-Stokes polarimeter is demonstrated by using strain-aligned polymer-based organic photovoltaics (OPVs) that can preferentially absorb certain polarized states of incident light. The photovoltaic-based polarimeter is capable of measuring four Stokes parameters by cascading four semitransparent OPVs in series along the same optical axis. This in-line polarimeter concept potentially ensures high temporal and spatial resolution with higher radiometric efficiency as compared to the existing polarimeter architecture. Two wave plates were incorporated into the system to modulate the S3 Stokes parameter so as to reduce the condition number of the measurement matrix and maximize the measured signal-to-noise ratio. Radiometric calibration was carried out to determine the measurement matrix. The polarimeter presented in this paper demonstrated an average RMS error of 0.84% for reconstructed Stokes vectors after normalized to S0. A theoretical analysis of the minimum condition number of the four-cell OPV design showed that for individually optimized OPV cells, a condition number of 2.4 is possible.

  10. Design of a mid-IR polarimeter for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packham, C.; Escuti, M.; Boreman, G.; Quijano, I.; Ginn, J. C.; Franklin, B.; Axon, D. J.; Hough, J. H.; Jones, T. J.; Roche, P. F.; Tamura, M.; Telesco, C. M.; Levenson, N.; Rodgers, J. M.; McGuire, J. P.

    2008-07-01

    Mid-infrared polarimetry remains an underexploited technique; where available it is limited in spectral coverage from the ground, and conspicuously absent from the Spitzer, JWST and Herschel instrument suites. The unique characteristics of SOFIA afford unprecedented spectral coverage and sensitivity in the mid-infrared waveband. We discuss the preliminary optical design for a 5-40μm spectro-polarimeter for use on SOFIA, the SOFIA Mid-InfraRed Polarimeter (SMIRPh). The design furthers the existing 5-40μm imaging and spectroscopic capabilities of SOFIA, and draws on experience gained through the University of Florida's mid-IR imagers, spectrometer and polarimeter designs of T-ReCS and CanariCam. We pay special attention to the challenges of obtaining polarimetric materials suitable at both these wavelengths and cryogenic temperatures. Finally, we (briefly) present an overview of science highlights that could be performed from a 5-40μm imaging- and spectro-polarimeter on SOFIA. Combined with the synergy between the possible future far-IR polarimeter, Hale, this instrument would provide the SOFIA community with unique and exciting science capabilities, leaving a unique scientific legacy.

  11. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  12. Electron Beam Moller Polarimeter at Jlab Hall a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glamazdin, A.V.; Gorbenko, V.G.; Levchuk, L.G.; Pomatsalyuk, L.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sorokin, P.V.; Dale, D.S.; Doyle, B.; Gorringe, T.; Korsch, W.; Zeps, V.; Chen, J.O.; Chudakov, E.; Nanda, S.; Saha, A.; Gasparian, A.

    As part of the spin-physics program at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), a Mo ller polarimeter was developed to measure the polarization of electron beam of energies 0.8 to 5.0 GeV. A unique signature for Mo ller scattering is obtained using a series of three quadrupole magnets which provide an angular selection, and a dipole magnet for energy analysis. The design, commissioning and the first results of the polarization measurements of this polarimeter will be presented as well as future plans to use its small scattering angle capabilities to investigate physics in very low Q2 regime.

  13. Calibration method of microgrid polarimeters with image interpolation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenyue; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-02-10

    Microgrid polarimeters have large advantages over conventional polarimeters because of the snapshot nature and because they have no moving parts. However, they also suffer from several error sources, such as fixed pattern noise (FPN), photon response nonuniformity (PRNU), pixel cross talk, and instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) error. A characterization method is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy in visible waveband. We first calibrate the camera with uniform illumination so that the response of the sensor is uniform over the entire field of view without IFOV error. Then a spline interpolation method is implemented to minimize IFOV error. Experimental results show the proposed method can effectively minimize the FPN and PRNU.

  14. The ZIMPOL high contrast imaging polarimeter for SPHERE: polarimetric high contrast commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelfsema, Ronald; Bazzon, Andreas; Schmid, Hans Martin; Pragt, Johan; Govaert, Alain; Gisler, Daniel; Dominik, Carsten; Baruffolo, Andrea; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Costille, Anne; Dohlen, Kjetil; Downing, Mark; Elswijk, Eddy; de Haan, Menno; Hubin, Norbert; Kasper, Markus; Keller, Christoph; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Mouillet, David; Pavlov, Alexey; Puget, Pascal; Salasnich, Bernardo; Sauvage, Jean-Francois; Wildi, Francois

    2016-07-01

    SPHERE (Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research) is a second generation VLT instrument aimed at the direct detection of exo-planets. It has received its first light in May 2014. ZIMPOL (Zurich Imaging Polarimeter) is the imaging polarimeter subsystem of the SPHERE instrument. It's capable of both high accuracy and high sensitivity polarimetry but can also be used as a classical imager. It is located behind an extreme AO system and a stellar coronagraph. ZIMPOL operates at visible wavelengths which is best suited to detect the very faint reflected and hence polarized visible light from extra solar planets. During the SPHERE fourth commissioning period (October 2014) we have made deep coronagraphic observations of the bright star alpha Gru (mR = 1.75) to assess the high contrast polarimetric performance of SPHERE-ZIMPOL. We have integrated on the target for a total time of about 45 minutes during the meridian transit in the Very Broad Band filter (600 - 900 nm) with a classical Lyot coronagraph with 3 λ/D radius focal mask. We reduce the data by a combination of Polarized Background subtraction, Polarimetric Differential Imaging (PDI) and Angular Differential Imaging (ADI). We reach contrasts of 10-6 and 10-7 at a radial distances of respectively 7 and 14 lambda/D from the PSF core. At these radial distances we are respectively a factor of 10 and 2 above the photon noise limit. We discuss our results by considering the temporal and spatial speckle behavior close to the PSF core in combination with low order polarimetric aberrations.

  15. Research of aerial camera focal pane micro-displacement measurement system based on Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-juan; Zhao, Yu-liang; Li, Shu-jun

    2014-09-01

    The aerial camera focal plane in the correct position is critical to the imaging quality. In order to adjust the aerial camera focal plane displacement caused in the process of maintenance, a new micro-displacement measuring system of aerial camera focal plane in view of the Michelson interferometer has been designed in this paper, which is based on the phase modulation principle, and uses the interference effect to realize the focal plane of the micro-displacement measurement. The system takes He-Ne laser as the light source, uses the Michelson interference mechanism to produce interference fringes, changes with the motion of the aerial camera focal plane interference fringes periodically, and records the periodicity of the change of the interference fringes to obtain the aerial camera plane displacement; Taking linear CCD and its driving system as the interference fringes picking up tool, relying on the frequency conversion and differentiating system, the system determines the moving direction of the focal plane. After data collecting, filtering, amplifying, threshold comparing, counting, CCD video signals of the interference fringes are sent into the computer processed automatically, and output the focal plane micro displacement results. As a result, the focal plane micro displacement can be measured automatically by this system. This system uses linear CCD as the interference fringes picking up tool, greatly improving the counting accuracy and eliminated the artificial counting error almost, improving the measurement accuracy of the system. The results of the experiments demonstrate that: the aerial camera focal plane displacement measurement accuracy is 0.2nm. While tests in the laboratory and flight show that aerial camera focal plane positioning is accurate and can satisfy the requirement of the aerial camera imaging.

  16. Far infrared polarimeter with very low instrumental polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, Elia S.; De Petris, Marco; Lamagna, Luca; Maoli, Roberto; Melchiorri, Francesco; Palladino, Emilia; Savini, Giorgio; Mauskopf, Philip D.; Orlando, Angiola

    2003-02-01

    After a short analysis of the main problems involved in the construction of a Far Infrared polarimeter with very low instrumental noise, we describe the instrument that will be employed at MITO telescope to search for calibration sources and investigate polarization near the CMB anisotropy peaks in the next campaign (Winter 2002-03).

  17. MOPTOP: a multi-colour optimised optical polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jermak, Helen; Steele, Iain A.; Smith, Robert J.

    2016-08-01

    We present the design and science case for the Liverpool Telescope's fourth-generation polarimeter; MOPTOP: a Multicolour OPTimised Optical Polarimeter which is optimised for sensitivity and bi-colour observations. We introduce an optimised polarimeter which is as far as possible limited only by the photon counting efficiency of the detectors. Using a combination of CMOS cameras, a continuously rotating half-wave plate and a wire grid polarising beamsplitter, we predict we can accurately measure the polarisation of sources to 1% at 19th magnitude in 10 minutes on a 2 metre telescope. For brighter sources we anticipate much low systematics (< 0.1%) than our current polarimeter. The design also gives the ability to measure polarization and photometric variability on timescales as short as a few seconds. Overall the instrument will allow accurate measurements of the intra-nightly variability of the polarisation of sources such as gamma-ray bursts and blazars (AGN orientated with the jet pointing toward the observer), allowing the constraint of magnetic field models revealing more information about the formation, ejection and collimation of jets.

  18. Canadian Led X-ray Polarimeter Mission CXP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspi, V.; Hanna, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Ramsey, B.; Ragan, K.; Vachon, B.; Elsner, R.; Heyl, J.; Pavlov, G.; Cumming, A.; Sutton, M.; Rowlands, N.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a Canadian-led X-ray Polarimetry Mission (CXP), to include a scattering X-ray Polarimeter and sensitive All-Sky X-ray Monitor (ASXM). Polarimetry would provide a new observational window on black holes, neutron stars, accretion disks and jets, and the ASXM would offer sensitive monitoring of the volatile X-ray sky. The envisioned polarimeter consists of a hollow scattering beryllium cone surrounded by an annular proportional counter, in a simple and elegant design that is reliable and low-risk. It would be sensitive in the 6-30 keV band to approx. 3% polarization in approx. 30 Galactic sources and 2 AGN in a baseline 1-yr mission, and have sensitivity greater than 10 times that of the previous X-ray polarimeter flown (NASA's OSO-8, 1975-78) for most sources. This X-ray polarimeter would tackle questions like, Do black holes spin?, How do pulsars pulse?, What is the geometry of the magnetic field in accreting neutron stars? Where and how are jets produced in microquasars and AGN?, What are the geometries of many of the most famous accretion-disk systems in the sky? This will be done using a novel and until-now unexploited technique that will greatly broaden the available observational phase space of compact objects by adding to timing and spectroscopy observations of polarization fraction and position angle as a function of energy. The All-Sky X-ray Monitor would scan for transients, both as potential targets for the polarimeter but also as a service to the worldwide astronomical community. The entire CXP mission could be flown for $40- 60M CDN, according to estimates by ComDev International, and could be built entirely in Canada. It would fall well within the CSA's SmallSat envelope and would empower the growing and dynamic Canadian High-Energy Astrophysics community with world leadership in a potentially high impact niche area.

  19. Development of real-time rotating waveplate Stokes polarimeter using multi-order retardation for ITER poloidal polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Imazawa, R. Kawano, Y.; Ono, T.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-15

    The rotating waveplate Stokes polarimeter was developed for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) poloidal polarimeter. The generalized model of the rotating waveplate Stokes polarimeter and the algorithm suitable for real-time field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processing were proposed. Since the generalized model takes into account each component associated with the rotation of the waveplate, the Stokes parameters can be accurately measured even in unideal condition such as non-uniformity of the waveplate retardation. Experiments using a He-Ne laser showed that the maximum error and the precision of the Stokes parameter were 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The rotation speed of waveplate was 20 000 rpm and time resolution of measuring the Stokes parameter was 3.3 ms. Software emulation showed that the real-time measurement of the Stokes parameter with time resolution of less than 10 ms is possible by using several FPGA boards. Evaluation of measurement capability using a far-infrared laser which ITER poloidal polarimeter will use concluded that measurement error will be reduced by a factor of nine.

  20. Development of real-time rotating waveplate Stokes polarimeter using multi-order retardation for ITER poloidal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imazawa, R.; Kawano, Y.; Ono, T.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    The rotating waveplate Stokes polarimeter was developed for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) poloidal polarimeter. The generalized model of the rotating waveplate Stokes polarimeter and the algorithm suitable for real-time field-programmable gate array (FPGA) processing were proposed. Since the generalized model takes into account each component associated with the rotation of the waveplate, the Stokes parameters can be accurately measured even in unideal condition such as non-uniformity of the waveplate retardation. Experiments using a He-Ne laser showed that the maximum error and the precision of the Stokes parameter were 3.5% and 1.2%, respectively. The rotation speed of waveplate was 20 000 rpm and time resolution of measuring the Stokes parameter was 3.3 ms. Software emulation showed that the real-time measurement of the Stokes parameter with time resolution of less than 10 ms is possible by using several FPGA boards. Evaluation of measurement capability using a far-infrared laser which ITER poloidal polarimeter will use concluded that measurement error will be reduced by a factor of nine.

  1. Intercomparison of Ground-Based Aerosol Retrievals Using Spex Spectro-Polarimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, M.; Rietjens, J.; van Harten, G.; di Noia, A.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Snik, F.; Keller, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Multi-angle spectro-polarimetry holds great potential as a remote sensing technique to derive aerosol information. A consortium of Dutch research institutes has developed a multi-angle spectro-polarimeter that is based on a novel method for measuring the state of linear polarization: spectral modulation. Through a series of carefully selected birefringent crystals, the polarization state of scattered sunlight is encoded in a sinusoidal modulation in the intensity spectrum.The technique is entirely passive. As consequence of the method is that spectral flux and state of polarization are measured simultaneouslyin a single measurement of a target scene. The technique has been employed in two instrument realizations, that are both referenced by the name SPEX: SPectro-polarimeter Experiment. A compact prototype SPEX instrument for space-based observations operates in the 400-800nm wavelength range and consists of nine fixed viewing apertures with a swath of 7 degrees each and an angular resolution of 1deg x 1deg. The space-SPEX instrument is currently being made fit to perform aerosol characterization campaigns on-board an ER-2 research aircraft together with NASA's Research Scanning Polarimeter. Another realization is groundSPEX, that was developed specifically for air-quality observations made from the ground. Both instruments were calibrated using 100% polarized light, assuming a bias-free linear response. This was validated in different ways. Using a recently developed polarization calibration stimulus we demonstrate the excellent polarimetric performance of the SPEX prototype: a polarimetric accuracy better than 0.002 + 0.01*DoLP. The overall random polarization error of groundSPEX was determined to be 0.005 by fitting the angular dependence of principle plane polarization measurements. We will present results of ground-based measurements with both SPEX instruments. We will intercompare aerosol characterization parameters such as Aerosol Optical Thickness

  2. Partial (focal) seizure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jacksonian seizure; Seizure - partial (focal); Temporal lobe seizure; Epilepsy - partial seizures ... Abou-Khalil BW, Gallagher MJ, Macdonald RL. Epilepsies. In: Daroff ... Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. ...

  3. Focal Mechanism determination of local M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vales, Dina; Custório, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    We determine the focal mechanisms of local small (ML<3.9) earthquakes that occurred between 2013 and 2014 in mainland Portugal. These low magnitude events were recorded by several stations that provide first-motion polarity solutions. However, only few stations are located near the epicenter and record a waveform with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) high enough to allow full waveform modelling. To overcome this limitation, we used a new approach called cyclic scanning of the polarity solutions (CSPS) (Fojtíková and Zahradnik, 2014), which performs a joint inversion of full waveform and first motion polarities to retrieve the focal mechanism. This methodology has the advantage of yielding reliable focal mechanism solutions, even when high SNR waveforms are available from only a few near field stations (or in the limiting case, only with one single station). To apply the CSPS method one needs to: i) run the the FOCal MEChanism (FOCMEC) code (Snoke, 2003) to obtain a suite of the DC solutions corresponding to the first motion polarities, and then ii) perform the waveform modelling in order to decrease the uncertainty. The ISOLated Asperities (ISOLA) software (Sokos and Zahradník, 2008, 2013) is used in this second step. We applied this method to weak events recorded by a network of 30 broadband seismic stations that transmit data in real-time to Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA), the institution responsible for seismic monitoring in Portugal. We interpret the obtained fault plane solutions in light of active faults and regional tectonics, and in comparison with focal mechanisms previously inferred for events in the region. The focal mechanisms obtained for small earthquakes allow us to significantly expand the database of available focal mechanisms in mainland Portugal, contributing to the understanding of active deformation in the region.

  4. Polarization microscope using a near infrared full-Stokes imaging polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Liang; Davis, Jeffrey; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ibn-Elhaj, Mohammed; Kroto, Shona; Brock, Neal; Pau, Stanley

    2015-02-23

    This paper presents a polarization microscope using an infrared (IR) full-Stokes imaging polarimeter. The IR polarimeter utilizes an optimized interference-based micropolarizer design, and provides full-Stokes images with resolution of 1608 × 1208 at 35 frames/second. The device fabrication, instrument calibration, performance evaluation, and measurement results are presented. The measurement error of the imaging polarimeter is less than 3.5%, and the standard deviations are less than 2%.

  5. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  6. NIRCA ASIC for the readout of focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâhlsson, Philip; Steenari, David; Øya, Petter; Otnes Berge, Hans Kristian; Meier, Dirk; Olsen, Alf; Hasanbegovic, Amir; Altan, Mehmet A.; Najafiuchevler, Bahram; Talebi, Jahanzad; Azman, Suleyman; Gheorghe, Codin; Ackermann, Jörg; Mæhlum, Gunnar; Johansen, Tor Magnus; Stein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    This work is a continuation of our preliminary tests on NIRCA - the Near Infrared Readout and Controller ASIC [1]. The primary application for NIRCA is future astronomical science and Earth observation missions where NIRCA will be used with mercury cadmium telluride image sensors (HgCdTe, or MCT) [2], [3]. Recently we have completed the ASIC tests in the cryogenic environment down to 77 K. We have verified that NIRCA provides to the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) regulated power, bias voltages, and fully programmable digital sequences with sample control of the analogue to digital converters (ADC). Both analog and digital output from the ROIC can be acquired and image data is 8b/10bencoded and delivered via serial interface. The NIRCA also provides temperature measurement, and monitors several analog and digital input channels. The preliminary work confirms that NIRCA is latch-up immune and able to operate down to 77 K. We have tested the performance of the 12-bit ADC with pre-amplifier to have 10.8 equivalent number of bits (ENOB) at 1.4 Msps and maximum sampling speed at 2 Msps. The 1.8-V and 3.3-V output regulators and the 10-bit DACs show good linearity and work as expected. A programmable sequencer is implemented as a micro-controller with a custom instruction set. Here we describe the special operations of the sequencer with regards to the applications and a novel approach to parallel real-time hardware outputs. The test results of the working prototype ASIC show good functionality and performance from room temperature down to 77 K. The versatility of the chip makes the architecture a possible candidate for other research areas, defense or industrial applications that require analog and digital acquisition, voltage regulation, and digital signal generation.

  7. Latest Generation CMOS Hybrid Focal Planes: First Astrometric Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT
 
 We
 present
 the
 first
 ground‐based
 astrometric
 testing
 results
conducted
using
the
second‐generation
 H4RG ‐10
A2
 CMOS
hybrid...format,
Teledyne
Imaging
Sensors
(TIS)
 H4RG 
Hybrid
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  8. MEMS Terahertz Focal Plane Array With Optical Readout

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    THz sensing can be achieved by integrating a metamaterial absorber with bi-material legs to form a sensor . Moveable mirror- like surfaces on the...optical readout system. In this thesis, the construction of the optical readout system for characterization of sensor pixels as well as THz imaging is...THz sensing can be achieved by integrating a metamaterial absorber with bi-material legs to form a sensor . Moveable mirror-like surfaces on the

  9. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  10. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  11. Monolithic Micromachined Quartz Resonator based Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-05

    Ping Kao, David L. Allara, Srinivas Tadigadapa. Study of Adsorption of Globular Proteins on Hydrophobic Surfaces, IEEE Sensors Journal, (11 2011): 0...David Allara, Srinivas Tadigadapa. Investigation of spontaneously adsorbed globular protein films using high-frequency bulk acoustic wave resonators...Conference. 2010/09/05 00:00:00, . : , 2012/05/08 20:19:32 9 Ping Kao, Matthew P. Chang, David Allara, Srinivas Tadigadapa. Systematic studies on globular

  12. Planck focal plane instruments: advanced modelization and combined analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonca, Andrea; Mennella, Aniello

    2012-08-01

    This thesis is the result of my work as research fellow at IASF-MI, Milan section of the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, part of INAF, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica. This work started in January 2006 in the context of the PhD school program in Astrophysics held at the Physics Department of Universita' degli Studi di Milano under the supervision of Aniello Mennella. The main topic of my work is the software modelling of the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) radiometers. The LFI is one of the two instruments on-board the European Space Agency Planck Mission for high precision measurements of the anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). I was also selected to participate at the International Doctorate in Antiparticles Physics, IDAPP. IDAPP is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) and coordinated by Giovanni Fiorentini (Universita' di Ferrara) with the objective of supporting the growing collaboration between the Astrophysics and Particles Physics communities. It is an international program in collaboration with the Paris PhD school, involving Paris VI, VII and XI Universities, leading to a double French-Italian doctoral degree title. My work was performed with the co-tutoring of Jean-Michel Lamarre, Instrument Scientist of the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), the bolometric instrument on-board Planck. Thanks to this collaboration I had the opportunity to work with the HFI team for four months at the Paris Observatory, so that the focus of my activity was broadened and included the study of cross-correlation between HFI and LFI data. Planck is the first CMB mission to have on-board the same satellite very different detection technologies, which is a key element for controlling systematic effects and improve measurements quality.

  13. Focal plane infrared readout circuit with automatic background suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Shaw, Timothy J. (Inventor); Wrigley, Chris J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A circuit for reading out a signal from an infrared detector includes a current-mode background-signal subtracting circuit having a current memory which can be enabled to sample and store a dark level signal from the infrared detector during a calibration phase. The signal stored by the current memory is subtracted from a signal received from the infrared detector during an imaging phase. The circuit also includes a buffered direct injection input circuit and a differential voltage readout section. By performing most of the background signal estimation and subtraction in a current mode, a low gain can be provided by the buffered direct injection input circuit to keep the gain of the background signal relatively small, while a higher gain is provided by the differential voltage readout circuit. An array of such readout circuits can be used in an imager having an array of infrared detectors. The readout circuits can provide a high effective handling capacity.

  14. Analysis and Modeling for Thermal Focal Plane Arrays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-10

    or de- cision, unless so designated by other documentation., Tia docuirent a bci aj-2t1 vd kmr pWlj-? rohlus. -rd WJ0: its a esearch 2002 HOGBACK ...SCIENTIFIC & TECHNICAL REPORT paration FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 2002 HOGBACK ROAD. SUITE 19 ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN 48104 10 JULY 1984 CDRL A004 Accession For NTIS...PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Nichols Research Corporation 2002 Hogback Road, Suite 19 Ann Arbor, MI 48104 .. 11

  15. New developments on InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussement, J.; Rouvié, A.; Oubensaid, E. H.; Huet, O.; Hamard, S.; Truffer, J.-P.; Pozzi, M.; Maillart, P.; Reibel, Y.; Costard, E.; Billon-Lanfrey, D.

    2014-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. The recent transfer of imagery activities from III-VLab to Sofradir provides a framework for the production activity with the manufacturing of high performances products: CACTUS320 SW and CACTUS640 SW. The developments, begun at III-Vlab towards VGA format with 15μm pixel pitch, lead today to the industrialization of a new product: SNAKE SW. On one side, the InGaAs detection array presents high performances in terms of dark current and quantum efficiency. On the other side, the low noise ROIC has different additional functionalities. Then this 640×512 @ 15μm module appears as well suited to answer the needs of a wide range of applications. In this paper, we will present the Sofradir InGaAs technology, some performances optimization and the last developments leading to SNAKE SW.

  16. Thermal Microphotonic Focal Plane Array (TM-FPA).

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Frederick Bossert; Lentine, Anthony L.; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Watts, Michael R.; Shaw, Michael J.; Rakich, Peter T.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Peters, David William; Zortman, William A.

    2009-10-01

    The advent of high quality factor (Q) microphotonic-resonators has led to the demonstration of high-fidelity optical sensors of many physical phenomena (e.g. mechanical, chemical, and biological sensing) often with far better sensitivity than traditional techniques. Microphotonic-resonators also offer potential advantages as uncooled thermal detectors including significantly better noise performance, smaller pixel size, and faster response times than current thermal detectors. In particular, microphotonic thermal detectors do not suffer from Johnson noise in the sensor, offer far greater responsivity, and greater thermal isolation as they do not require metallic leads to the sensing element. Such advantages make the prospect of a microphotonic thermal imager highly attractive. Here, we introduce the microphotonic thermal detection technique, present the theoretical basis for the approach, discuss our progress on the development of this technology and consider future directions for thermal microphotonic imaging. Already we have demonstrated viability of device fabrication with the successful demonstration of a 20{micro}m pixel, and a scalable readout technique. Further, to date, we have achieved internal noise performance (NEP{sub Internal} < 1pW/{radical}Hz) in a 20{micro}m pixel thereby exceeding the noise performance of the best microbolometers while simultaneously demonstrating a thermal time constant ({tau} = 2ms) that is five times faster. In all, this results in an internal detectivity of D*{sub internal} = 2 x 10{sup 9}cm {center_dot} {radical}Hz/W, while roughly a factor of four better than the best uncooled commercial microbolometers, future demonstrations should enable another order of magnitude in sensitivity. While much work remains to achieve the level of maturity required for a deployable technology, already, microphotonic thermal detection has demonstrated considerable potential.

  17. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nick P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit patbs by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabric.ted parts were hybridized using a Suss FCI50 flip chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  18. Analysis of the thermal modes of Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pevtsov, E. Ph; Demenkova, T. A.; Luchnikov, P. A.; Vetrova, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques and programs for calculation and modeling of thermal characteristics of MEMS-designs of radiation thermal receivers are offered. Comparative estimates of characteristics of radiation receivers with heatsensitive thin films are executed. Results of researches can be used for development of original programs for modeling of thermal receivers of radiation.

  19. Focal plane arrays from UV up to VLWIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costard, E.; Nedelcu, A.; Achouche, M.; Reverchon, J. L.; Truffer, J. P.; Huet, O.; Dua, L.; Robo, J. A.; Marcadet, X.; Brière de l'Isle, N.; Facoetti, H.; Bois, P.

    2007-10-01

    Since 2002, the THALES Group has been manufacturing sensitive arrays using QWIP technology based on GaAs and related III-V compounds, at the Alcatel-Thales-III-V Lab (formerly part of THALES Research and Technology Laboratory). In the past researchers claimed many advantages of QWIPs. Uniformity was one of these and has been the key parameter for the production to start. Another widely claimed advantage for QWIPs was the so-called band-gap engineering and versatility of the III-V processing allowing the custom design of quantum structures to fulfil the requirements of specific applications such as very long wavelength (VLWIR) or multispectral detection. In this presentation, we give the status of our LWIR QWIP production line, and also the current status of QWIPs for MWIR (<5μm) and VLWIR (>15μm) arrays. As the QWIP technology cannot cover the full electromagnetic spectrum, we develop other semiconductor compounds for SWIR and UV applications. We present here the status of our first FPA realization in UV with GaN alloy, and at 1.5μm with InGaAs photodiodes.

  20. SWIR InGaAs focal plane arrays in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvié, A.; Huet, O.; Hamard, S.; Truffer, J. P.; Pozzi, M.; Decobert, J.; Costard, E.; Zécri, M.; Maillart, P.; Reibel, Y.; Pécheur, A.

    2013-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. The study of InGaAs FPA has begun few years ago with III-VLab, gathering expertise in InGaAs material growth and imaging technology respectively from Alcatel-Lucent and Thales, its two mother companies. This work has led to put quickly on the market a 320x256 InGaAs module. The recent transfer of imagery activities from III-VLab to Sofradir allows developing new high performances products, satisfying customers' new requirements. Especially, a 640x512 InGaAs module with a pitch of 15µm is actually under development to fill the needs of low light level imaging.

  1. Focal Plane Arrays of Voltage-Biased Superconducting Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Michael J.; Clarke, John; Gildemeister, J. M.; Lee, Adrian T.; Richards, P. L.; Schwan, Dan; Skidmore, J. T.; Spieler, Helmuth; Yoon, Jongsoo

    2001-01-01

    The 200-micrometer to 3-mm wavelength range has great astronomical and cosmological significance. Science goals include characterization of the cosmic microwave background, measurement of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in galaxy clusters, and observations of forming galaxies. Cryogenic bolometers are the most sensitive broadband detectors in this frequency range. Because single bolometer pixels are reaching the photon noise limit for many observations, the development of large arrays will be critical for future science progress. Voltage-biased superconducting bolometers (VSBs) have several advantages compared to other cryogenic bolometers. Their strong negative electrothermal feedback enhances their linearity, speed, and stability. The large noise margin of the SQUID readout enables multiplexed readout schemes, which are necessary for developing large arrays. In this paper, we discuss the development of a large absorber-coupled array, a frequency-domain SQUID readout multiplexer, and an antenna-coupled VSB design.

  2. Optically coupled focal plane arrays using lenslets and multiplexers

    DOEpatents

    Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1991-01-01

    A detector array including a substrate having an array of diffractive lenses formed on the top side of the substrate and an array of sensor elements formed on the backside of the substrate. The sensor elements within the sensor array are oriented on the backside so that each sensor is aligned to receive light from a corresponding diffractive lens of the lens array. The detector array may also include a second substrate having an array of diffractive elements formed on one of its surfaces, the second substrate being disposed above and in proximity to the top side of the other substrate so that the elements on the second substrate are substantially aligned with corresponding sensor elements and diffractive lenses on the other substrate.

  3. Operation experience of p-Carbon polarimeter in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Alekseev, I. G.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Atoian, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Eyser, O.; Kalinkin, D.; Kewisch, J.; Makdisi, Y.; Nemesure, S.; Poblaguev, A.; Schmidke, W. B.; Svirida, D.; Steski, D.; Webb, G.; Zelenski, A.; Tip, K.

    2015-05-03

    The spin physics program in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires fast polarimeter to monitor the polarization evolution on the ramp and during stores. Over past decade, the polarimeter has evolved greatly to improve its performance. These include dual chamber design, monitoring camera, Si detector selection (and orientation), target quality control, and target frame modification. The preamp boards have been modified to deal with the high rate problem, too. The ultra thin carbon target lifetime is a concern. Simulations have been carried out on the target interaction with beam. Modification has also been done on the frame design. Extra caution has been put on RF shielding to deal with the pickup noises from the nearby stochastic cooling kickers. This paper summarizes the recent operation performance of this delicate device.

  4. An upgraded interferometer-polarimeter system for broadband fluctuation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Brower, D. L.

    2016-11-01

    Measuring high-frequency fluctuations (above tearing mode frequencies) is important for diagnosing instabilities and transport phenomena. The Madison Symmetric Torus interferometer-polarimeter system has been upgraded to utilize improved planar-diode mixer technology. The new mixers reduce phase noise and allow more sensitive measurements of fluctuations at high frequency. Typical polarimeter rms phase noise values of 0.05°-0.07° are obtained with 400 kHz bandwidth. The low phase noise enables the resolution of fluctuations up to 250 kHz for polarimetry and 600 kHz for interferometry. The importance of probe beam alignment for polarimetry is also verified; previously reported tolerances of ≤0.1 mm displacement for equilibrium and tearing mode measurements minimize contamination due to spatial misalignment to within acceptable levels for chords near the magnetic axis.

  5. An ultraviolet polarimeter for the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, J.; Griner, D.; Montenegro, J.; Nola, F.; Rutledge, F.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Wyman, C. L.; Beckers, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission experiment contingency will include one instrument originally designed and built for OSO-8. The engineering model of the OSO-8 High Resolution Spectrometer has been rebuilt to make it lightworthy and to encompass several new functions, including solar ultraviolet polarimetry. The rebuilt package is designated as the High Resolution Ultraviolet Spectrometer/Polarimeter. The device that enables polarimetry is a dual channel rotating waveplate system. The waveplates are magnesium fluoride and will allow measurements to be made ranging from the Lyman alpha line to near visible ultraviolet. One wavelength channel will use the polarization characteristics of the spectrometer diffraction grating as the analyzer. The second channel has a built-in four-mirror polarizer. This paper describes the polarimeter design, operation, and calibration.

  6. A high-precision polarimeter for small telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Jeremy; Cotton, Daniel V.; Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna

    2017-02-01

    We describe Mini-HIPPI (Miniature HIgh Precision Polarimetric Instrument), a stellar polarimeter weighing just 650 gm but capable of measuring linear polarization to ∼10-5. Mini-HIPPI is based on the use of a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal modulator. It can easily be mounted on a small telescope and allows us to study the polarization of bright stars at levels of precision which are hitherto largely unexplored. We present results obtained with Mini-HIPPI on a 35-cm telescope. Measurements of polarized standard stars are in good agreement with predicted values. Measurements of a number of bright stars agree well with those from other high-sensitivity polarimeters. Observations of the binary system Spica show polarization variability around the orbital cycle.

  7. A New Polarimeter at the Universite de Montreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manset, Nadine; Bastien, Pierre

    1995-05-01

    We present Beauty and The Beast, a new polarimeter of the Universite de Montreal, formerly built for the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope (CFHT) but never commissioned there. This computer-controlled Pockels cell polarimeter has been restored to working order and offers a wide range of possibilities: almost all functions are under remote control, linear or circular polarization observations are both possible, a filter slide provides easy access to up to six different bandpasses, and the Pockels cell and Fabry lenses are kept at a constant temperature. In addition to controlling the instrument, the software allows the use of pre-defined sequences of observation, and does data acquisition and reduction. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  8. Calibration and exploitation of a narrowband imaging polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggin, Michael J.; Loe, Richard S.

    2002-05-01

    The integration and calibration of a narrow-band imaging polarimeter is described. The system is designed to exploit subtle spectral details in visible and near-IR polarimetric images. All of the system components were commercial off the shelf. This device uses a tunable liquid crystal filter and a 16-bit cooled CCD camera. The challenges of calibrating a narrow-band imaging polarimeter are discussed. We describe examples of image data collected in the laboratory, which show that spectral polarimetric data is superior to unpolarized intensity data in facilitating the extraction of detail in shadowed regions below a vegetative canopy. In particular, we introduce a polarization-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) algorithm that demonstrates significant contrast enhancement between a man-made object and a foilage background.

  9. Development of land based radar polarimeter processor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronke, C. W.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The processing subsystem of a land based radar polarimeter was designed and constructed. This subsystem is labeled the remote data acquisition and distribution system (RDADS). The radar polarimeter, an experimental remote sensor, incorporates the RDADS to control all operations of the sensor. The RDADS uses industrial standard components including an 8-bit microprocessor based single board computer, analog input/output boards, a dynamic random access memory board, and power supplis. A high-speed digital electronics board was specially designed and constructed to control range-gating for the radar. A complete system of software programs was developed to operate the RDADS. The software uses a powerful real time, multi-tasking, executive package as an operating system. The hardware and software used in the RDADS are detailed. Future system improvements are recommended.

  10. The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N..; Ishikawa, R.; Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Giono, G.; Holloway, T.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; DePontieu, B.; Casini, R.; Auchere F.; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Sainz, R. Manso; Belluzzi, L.; Ramos, A. Asensio; Stepan, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    To Understand energy release process in the Sun including solar flares, it is essentially important to measure the magnetic field of the atmosphere of the Sun. Magnetic field measurement of the upper layers (upper chromosphere and above) was technically difficult and not well investigated yet. Upper chromosphere and transition region magnetic field measurement by Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) sounding rocket to be launched in 2015. The proposal is already selected and developments of the flight components are going.

  11. The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahoda, Keith; Kallman, Timothy R.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Angelini, Lorella; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne E.; Jaeger, Theodore; Kaaret, Philip E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Okajima, Takashi; Petre, Robert; Schnittman, Jeremy; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Tamagawa, Toru; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2016-07-01

    The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) is one of three Small Explorer (SMEX) missions selected by NASA for Phase A study, with a launch date in 2020. The PRAXyS Observatory exploits grazing incidence X-ray mirrors and Time Projection Chamber Polarimeters capable of measuring the linear polarization of cosmic X-ray sources in the 2-10 keV band. PRAXyS combines well-characterized instruments with spacecraft rotation to ensure low systematic errors. The PRAXyS payload is developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Iowa, and RIKEN (JAXA) collaborating on the Polarimeter Assembly. The LEOStar-2 spacecraft bus is developed by Orbital ATK, which also supplies the extendable optical bench that enables the Observatory to be compatible with a Pegasus class launch vehicle. A nine month primary mission will provide sensitive observations of multiple black hole and neutron star sources, where theory predicts polarization is a strong diagnostic, as well as exploratory observations of other high energy sources. The primary mission data will be released to the community rapidly and a Guest Observer extended mission will be vigorously proposed.

  12. Design study of the PEPSI polarimeter for the LBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Woche, M.

    2002-07-01

    We present the conceptual design of the two polarimetric channels of the PEPSI spectropolarimeter for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The two direct Gregorian f/15 focii of the LBT will take up two identical but independent full-Stokes IQUV polarimeters that themselves fiberfeed a high-resolution Echelle spectrograph (see the accompanying paper by Zerbi et al.). The polarizing units will be based on super-achromatic Fresnel-rhomb retarders and Foster prisms. A total of four fibers are foreseen to simultaneously direct two ordinary and two extraordinary light beams to the Echelle spectrograph. Both polarimetric units are layed out in a modular design, each one optimized to the polarization state in which it is used. A number of observing modes can be chosen that are optimized to the type of polarization that is expected from the target, e.g. circularly and linearly polarized light simultaneously, or linearly polarized light in both polarimeters, or integral light from one and polarized light from the other telescope, a.s.o.. Calibration would be provided for each polarimeter separately.

  13. Multichannel interferometer/polarimeter system for the RTP tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lammeren, A. C. A. P.; Kim, S. K.; Donné, A. J. H.

    1990-10-01

    A nine-channel interferometer/polarimeter system is designed for the RTP tokamak (Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project, a =0.16 m, R =0.72 m, BT =2.5 T, Ip ≤ 200 kA, and plasma pulse duration 200 ms). A CO2-pumped dual-cavity FIR laser system is used to obtain two FIR laser beams of λ =432 μm with a frequency difference of 1 MHz. The FIR beams are expanded by a set of parabolic mirrors. Corner-cube mixers with Schottky diodes are used as detectors. The mixers are mounted on a linear rail system, such that their positions can be easily changed. The interferometer can be operated with a maximum of 19 channels, and will be extended with a polarimeter to measure the poloidal magnetic field distribution. It will be tried to increase the accuracy of the polarimeter by modulating the polarization of the incoming beam. A scheme for polarization modulation which is based on the idea of Dodel and Kunz will be presented in this paper. This scheme has the advantage that only one set of detectors is needed to measure the electron density and current density. The complete system will be presented along with some pilot experiments concerning the polarization modulation.

  14. The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahoda, Keith; Kallman, Timothy R.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Angelini, Lorella; Black, J. Kevin; Hill, Joanne E.; Jaeger, Theodore; Kaaret, Phillip E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Okajima, Takashi; Petre, Robert; Schnittman, Jeremy; Soong, Yang; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Tamagawa, Toru; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) is one of three Small Explorer (SMEX) missions selected by NASA for Phase A study, with a launch date in 2020. The PRAXyS Observatory exploits grazing incidence X-ray mirrors and Time Projection Chamber Polarimeters capable of measuring the linear polarization of cosmic X-ray sources in the 2-10 keV band. PRAXyS combines well-characterized instruments with spacecraft rotation to ensure low systematic errors. The PRAXyS payload is developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center with the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Iowa, and RIKEN (JAXA) collaborating on the Polarimeter Assembly. The LEOStar-2 spacecraft bus is developed by Orbital ATK, which also supplies the extendable optical bench that enables the Observatory to be compatible with a Pegasus class launch vehicle. A nine month primary mission will provide sensitive observations of multiple black hole and neutron star sources, where theory predicts polarization is a strong diagnostic, as well as exploratory observations of other high energy sources. The primary mission data will be released to the community rapidly and a Guest Observer extended mission will be vigorously proposed.

  15. Simple modification of Compton polarimeter to redirect synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benesch, J.; Franklin, G. B.; Quinn, B. P.; Paschke, K. D.

    2015-11-01

    Synchrotron radiation produced as an electron beam passes through a bending magnet is a significant source of background in many experiments. Using modeling, we show that simple modifications of the magnet geometry can reduce this background by orders of magnitude in some circumstances. Specifically, we examine possible modifications of the four dipole magnets used in Jefferson Lab's Hall A Compton polarimeter chicane. This Compton polarimeter has been a crucial part of experiments with polarized beams and the next generation of experiments will utilize increased beam energies, up to 11 GeV, requiring a corresponding increase in Compton dipole field to 1.5 T. In consequence, the synchrotron radiation (SR) from the dipole chicane will be greatly increased. Three possible modifications of the chicane dipoles are studied; each design moves about 2% of the integrated bending field to provide a gentle bend in critical regions along the beam trajectory which, in turn, greatly reduces the synchrotron radiation within the acceptance of the Compton polarimeter photon detector. Each of the modifications studied also softens the SR energy spectrum at the detector sufficiently to allow shielding with 5 mm of lead. Simulations show that these designs are each capable of reducing the background signal due to SR by three orders of magnitude. The three designs considered vary in their need for vacuum vessel changes and in their effectiveness.

  16. Terrace retro-reflector array for poloidal polarimeter on ITER.

    PubMed

    Imazawa, R; Kawano, Y; Ono, T; Kusama, Y

    2011-02-01

    A new concept of a terrace retro-reflector array (TERRA) as part of the poloidal polarimeter for ITER is proposed in this paper. TERRA reflects a laser light even from a high incident angle in the direction of the incident-light path, while a conventional retro-reflector array cannot. Besides, TERRA can be installed in a smaller space than a corner-cube retro-reflector. In an optical sense, TERRA is equivalent to a Littrow grating, the blaze angle of which varies, depending on the incident angle. The reflected light generates a bright and dark fringe, and the bright fringe is required to travel along the incident-light path to achieve the objects of laser-aided diagnostics. In order to investigate the propagation properties of laser light reflected by TERRA, we have developed a new diffraction formula. Conditions for the propagation of the bright fringe in the direction of the incident light have been obtained using the Littrow grating model and have been confirmed in a simulation applying the new diffraction formula. Finally, we have designed laser transmission optics using TERRA for the ITER poloidal polarimeter and have calculated the light propagation of the system. The optical design obtains a high transmission efficiency, with 88.6% of the incident power returned. These results demonstrate the feasibility of applying TERRA to the ITER poloidal polarimeter.

  17. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Vera-Iglesias, E; García-Arpa, M; Sánchez-Caminero, P; Romero-Aguilera, G; Cortina de la Calle, P

    2007-11-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare disease of the oral mucosa caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It appears as a benign epithelial growth, usually in the mucosa of the lower lip. It is mainly associated with HPV serotypes 13 and 32 and there is a clear racial predilection for the disease in Native Americans and Eskimos. We describe the case of a 17-year-old girl from Ecuador with multiple papular lesions in both lips that were clinically and histologically consistent with focal epithelial hyperplasia. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction detected HPV serotype 13.

  18. Vitelliform focal choroidal excavation.

    PubMed

    Or, Chris; Forooghian, Farzin

    2014-05-30

    Focal choroidal excavations (FCE) are characterized by foveal or perifoveal choroid excavations seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT). The authors report a case of FCE associated with a vitelliform lesion within the excavation. A case of FCE associated with a small vitelliform lesion has been described previously, but the larger extent of the vitelliform lesion observed in the current case has not been previously reported. This may represent a novel category of FCE, vitelliform focal choroidal excavation, in which deposition of vitelliform material is associated with its development.

  19. GDx-MM: An imaging Mueller matrix retinal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twietmeyer, Karen Marie

    2007-12-01

    Retinal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although widely studied, disease mechanisms are not completely understood, and diagnostic tests may not detect disease early enough for timely intervention. The goal of this research is to contribute to research for more sensitive diagnostic tests that might use the interaction of polarized light with retinal tissue to detect subtle changes in the microstructure. This dissertation describes the GDx-MM, a scanning laser polarimeter which measures a complete 16-element Mueller matrix image of the retina. This full polarization signature may provide new comparative information on the structure of healthy and diseased retinal tissue by highlighting depolarizing structures as well as structures with varying magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation. The three major components of this dissertation are: (1) Development of methods for polarimeter optimization and error analysis; (2) Design, optimization, assembly, calibration, and validation of the GDx-MM polarimeter; and (3) Analysis of data for several human subjects. Development involved modifications to a Laser Diagnostics GDx, a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope with incomplete polarization capability. Modifications included installation of polarization components, development of a data acquisition system, and implementation of algorithms to convert raw data into polarization parameter images. Optimization involved visualization of polarimeter state trajectories on the Poincare sphere and a condition number analysis of the instrument matrix. Retinal images are collected non-invasively at 20 mum resolution over a 15° visual field in four seconds. Validation of the polarimeter demonstrates a polarimetric measurement accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. Retinal polarization data was collected on normal human subjects at the University of Arizona and at Indiana University School of Optometry. Calculated polarization parameter

  20. X-ray sources of medical linear accelerators: focal and extra-focal radiation.

    PubMed

    Jaffray, D A; Battista, J J; Fenster, A; Munro, P

    1993-01-01

    A computerized tomography (CT) reconstruction technique has been used to make quantitative measurements of the size and shape of the focal spot in medical linear accelerators. Using this technique, we have measured the focal spots in a total of nine accelerators, including (i) two Varian Clinac 2100c's, (ii) two Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) Therac-25's, (iii) two AECL Therac 6's, (iv) a Siemens KD-2, (v) a Varian Clinac 600c (4 MV), and (vi) an AECL Therac-20. Some of these focal spots were monitored for changes over a 2-yr period. It has been found that (i) the size and shape of the source spot varies greatly between accelerators of different design ranging from 0.5 to 3.4 mm in full width at half maximum (FWHM); and (ii) for accelerators of the same design, the focal spots are very similar. In addition to the measurements of the focal spot, a new technique for measuring the magnitude and distribution of extra-focal radiation originating from the linear accelerator head (flattening filter, primary collimator) has also been developed. The extra-focal radiation produced by a Varian Clinac 2100c accelerator was measured using this technique and it was found that the extra-focal radiation accounts for as much as 8% of the total photon fluence reaching the isocenter. The majority (75%) of this extra-focal radiation originates from within a circle 6 cm in diameter at the target plane. The source MTFs for each of the measured focal spots have been calculated in order to assess their influence on the spatial resolution of verification images. The limiting spatial resolution (i.e., 10% modulation) for all the source MTFs is 1.8 mm-1 or greater when used for transmission radiography at a magnification of 1.2. The extra-focal radiation, which produces a low-frequency drop in the source MTFs of up to 8%, changes with field size. As a result, the source MTFs of linear accelerators depend not only on the design of individual accelerators and image magnification, but also

  1. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  2. Identification of errors in the electron density measurements of a tangential interferometer/polarimeter system during a tokamak discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, H.; Kawano, Y.; Itami, K.

    2012-10-15

    A new method for the comparative verification of electron density measurements obtained with a tangential interferometer and a polarimeter during a discharge is proposed. The possible errors associated with the interferometer and polarimeter are classified by the time required for their identification. Based on the characteristics of the errors, the fringe shift error of the interferometer and the low-frequency noise of the polarimeter were identified and corrected for the JT-60U tangential interferometer/polarimeter system.

  3. A New Cost-Effective Diode Laser Polarimeter Apparatus Constructed by Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisboa, Pedro; Sotomayor, Joo; Ribeiro, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a diode laser polarimeter apparatus by undergraduate students is described. The construction of the modular apparatus by undergraduate students gives them an insight into how it works and how the measurement of a physical or chemical property is conducted. The students use the polarimeter to obtain rotation angle values for the…

  4. Focal region fields of distorted reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buris, N. E.; Kauffman, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of the focal region fields scattered by an arbitrary surface reflector under uniform plane wave illumination is solved. The physical optics (PO) approximation is used to calculate the current induced on the reflector. The surface of the reflector is described by a number of triangular domain-wise 5th degree bivariate polynomials. A 2-dimensional Gaussian quadrature is employed to numerically evaluate the integral expressions of the scattered fields. No Freshnel or Fraunhofer zone approximations are made. The relation of the focal fields problem to surface compensation techniques and other applications are mentioned. Several examples of distorted parabolic reflectors are presented. The computer code developed is included, together with instructions on its usage.

  5. The x-ray polarimeter instrument on board the Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, J. E.; Black, J. K.; Jahoda, K.; Tamagawa, T.; Iwakiri, W.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kubota, M.; Kaaret, P.; McCurdy, R.; Miles, D. M.; Okajima, T.; Soong, Y.; Olsen, L.; Sparr, L.; Mosely, S. J.; Nolan, D.

    2016-07-01

    The Polarimeter for Relativistic Astrophysical X-ray Sources (PRAXyS) is one of three Small Explorer (SMEX) missions selected by NASA for Phase A study. The PRAXyS observatory carries an X-ray Polarimeter Instrument (XPI) capable of measuring the linear polarization from a variety of high energy sources, including black holes, neutron stars, and supernova remnants. The XPI is comprised of two identical mirror-Time Projection Chamber (TPC) polarimeter telescopes with a system effective area of 124 cm2 at 3 keV, capable of photon limited observations for sources as faint as 1 mCrab. The XPI is built with well-established technologies. This paper will describe the performance of the XPI flight mirror with the engineering test unit polarimeter.

  6. Self-referenced, microdegree, optical rotation polarimeter for biomedical applications: an analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Zeev; Goldberg, Doron

    2016-07-01

    We comprehensively analyze the performance of a type of optical rotation (OR) polarimeter, which has been designed from the outset to fit the special requirements of two major applications: general chiral detection during the separation of optical isomers by high-pressure liquid chromatography systems in the pharmaceutical industry, and monitoring of glucose in the interstitial fluid of diabetics by a fully implanted long-term optical sensor. Both very demanding applications call for an OR polarimeter that can be miniaturized while maintaining high resolution and accuracy in the microdegree range in the face of considerable noise from various sources. These two characteristics-miniature size and immunity to noise-set this polarimeter apart from the traditional OR polarimeters currently in use, which are both bulky and very susceptible to noise. The following detailed analysis demonstrates the advantages of this polarimeter and its potential as an analytic and diagnostic tool.

  7. A cylindrically symmetric "micro-Mott" electron polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayburn, N. B.; Brunkow, E.; Burtwistle, S. J.; Rutherford, G. H.; Gay, T. J.

    2016-05-01

    A small, novel, cylindrically symmetric Mott electron polarimeter is described. The effective Sherman function, Seff, or analyzing power, for 20 kV Au target bias with a 1.3 keV energy loss window is 0.16 ± 0.01, where uncertainty in the measurement is due primarily to uncertainty in the incident electron polarization. For an energy loss window of 0.5 keV, Seff reaches its maximum value of 0.24 ± 0.02. The device's maximum efficiency, I/Io, defined as the detected count rate divided by the incident particle rate, is 3.7 ± 0.2 × 10-4 at 20 keV. The figure-of-merit of the device, η, is defined as Seff2I/Io and equals 9.0 ± 1.6 × 10-6. Potential sources of false asymmetries due to detector electronic asymmetry and beam misalignment have been investigated. The new polarimeter's performance is compared to published results for similar compact retarding-field Mott polarimeters, and it is concluded that this device has a relatively large Seff and low efficiency. SIMION® electron trajectory simulations and Sherman function calculations are presented to explain the differences in performance between this device and previous designs. This design has an Seff that is insensitive to spatial beam fluctuations and, for an energy loss window >0.5 keV, negligible background due to spurious ion and X-ray production at the target.

  8. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Berdugo, Lucero

    2010-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign, asymptomatic disease. It appears as papules, principally on the lower lip, although it can also be found on the retro-commissural mucosa and tongue and, less frequently, on the upper lip, gingiva and palate. FEH is caused by human papillomavirus subtype 13 or 32. The condition occurs in many populations and ethnic groups. We present the clinical case of a 31-year-old male with lesions that clinically and histologically corresponded to FEH.

  9. Fast full 4x4 Mueller polarimeter for endoscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivet, Sylvain; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    A new set-up is proposed to measure the full polarimetric properties of a sample through an optical fiber, paving the way to full-Mueller endoscopic imaging. The technique combines a channeled spectrum polarimeter and an interferometer. This permits high-speed measurement of two Mueller matrices simultaneoulsy. The first matrix characterizes only the fiber while the second characterizes both fiber and sample. The instrument is validated on vacuum, a quarter-wave plate and a linear polarizer for single-point measurements. Insensitivity of the polarimetric measurement to fiber disturbances is proven while manipulating the fiber.

  10. Pedestal magnetic field measurements using a motional Stark effect polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Lanctot, M J; Holcomb, C T; Allen, S L; Fenstermacher, M E; Luce, T C

    2012-10-01

    Temperature-controlled, 0.15 nm interference filters were installed on an edge-viewing system of the motional Stark effect (MSE) polarimeter on the DIII-D tokamak. The upgraded system provides a factor of two reduction in the bandpass compared to the previous design, and linear control of the bandpass, which is unaltered by wavelength tuning. With the new system, there is a reduced dependence of the inferred polarization angle on the filter wavelength calibration. Recent measurements from the calibrated edge-viewing system show increased agreement with other MSE arrays.

  11. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis.

  12. Tiny Ultraviolet Polarimeter for Earth Stratosphere from Space Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivakhiv, O.; Geraimchuk, M.; Zbrutskyi, O.

    2015-09-01

    One of the reasons for climate change (i.e., stratospheric ozone concentrations) is connected with the variations in optical thickness of aerosols in the upper sphere of the atmosphere (at altitudes over 30 km). Therefore, aerosol and gas components of the atmosphere are crucial in the study of the ultraviolet (UV) radiation passing upon the Earth. Moreover, a scrupulous study of aerosol components of the Earth atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km (i.e., stratospheric aerosol), such as the size of particles, the real part of refractive index, optical thickness and its horizontal structure, concentration of ozone or the upper border of the stratospheric ozone layer is an important task in the research of the Earth climate change. At present, the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) of Ukraine, the National Technical University of Ukraine "KPI"and the Lviv Polytechnic National University are engaged in the development of methodologies for the study of stratospheric aerosol by means of ultraviolet polarimeter using a microsatellite. So fare, there has been created a sample of a tiny ultraviolet polarimeter (UVP) which is considered to be a basic model for carrying out space experiments regarding the impact of the changes in stratospheric aerosols on both global and local climate.

  13. Liquid Water Cloud Properties During the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Wasilewski, Andrzei P.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McGill, Matthew J.; Yorks, John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Platnick, Steven; Arnold, George; Van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Chowdhary, Jacek; Ottaviani, Matteo; Knobelspiesse, Kirk D.

    2015-01-01

    We present retrievals of water cloud properties from the measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) during the Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX) held between January 14 and February 6, 2013. The RSP was onboard the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft based at NASA Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility in Palmdale, California. The retrieved cloud characteristics include cloud optical thickness, effective radius and variance of cloud droplet size distribution derived using a parameter-fitting technique, as well as the complete droplet size distribution function obtained by means of Rainbow Fourier Transform. Multi-modal size distributions are decomposed into several modes and the respective effective radii and variances are computed. The methodology used to produce the retrieval dataset is illustrated on the examples of a marine stratocumulus deck off California coast and stratus/fog over California's Central Valley. In the latter case the observed bimodal droplet size distributions were attributed to two-layer cloud structure. All retrieval data are available online from NASA GISS website.

  14. Full-Stokes polychromatic polarimeter design for Arago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertenais, Martin; Neiner, Coralie; Petit, Pascal

    2016-07-01

    The UVMag consortium will propose the Arago space mission to the ESA call Cosmic Vision M5. This mission aims at characterizing all kind of stars and their environment simultaneously, to better understand the cycle of matter in our galaxy. It carries a single instrument, a spectropolarimeter, acquiring data from 119 to 888 nm and enabling the determination of the magnetic field of stars thanks to the Zeeman effect. One of the key instrumental point of this project is the development of an efficient polarimeter over the large spectral range and in space. We chose to use a polychromatic temporal modulation to achieve a measurement of all four Stokes parameters: I the intensity, Q and U the linear polarization states, and V the circular polarization. The modulator is composed by several birefringent Magnesium Fluoride plates, optimized to achromatize the extraction efficiency of the Stokes parameters from the FUV to the NIR. This polarization modulator is followed by a polarization beam-splitter to analyze the state of the light. After the polarization analysis, the light goes through a high-resolution spectrograph. We present the theoretical optimization and design of the polarimeter and of the whole instrument, as well as the first laboratory results on this concept.

  15. GRASSP (GRAnada Sprite Spectrograph and Polarimeter). Design and implementation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passas, María; Sánchez, Justo; Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco J.; Luque, Alejandro; Parra-Rojas, Francisco C.

    2013-04-01

    Transient luminous events (TLEs) are short optical emissions that occur in the upper atmosphere above storm systems. They appear between 15 and 90 km altitude and last between less than a millisecond to up to two seconds. So far there are no polarization studies of TLEs, nor high-resolution spectroscopy results which could help us to understand the kinetics and electrodynamics of these kind of optical emissions. The GRASSP (Granada Sprite Spectrograph and Polarimeter) instrument has been developed to measure simultaneously the polarization and the spectra of the light emitted from these TLEs with medium spectral resolution (0.45nm). By consulting a real-time lightning database, the telescope aims automatically to the region of the sky where a TLE is predicted to appear. The instrument is located outside the 2.2 m dome of the German-Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto, Sierra de Los Filabres, north of Almería (Andalucía, Southern Spain), at 2168 meters above mean sea level. From this location we can observe the western Mediterranean Sea zone (37°-45°N; 2°W-6°E) with an elevation of 10°-35° above the horizon, a region where the most TLE activity in Europe takes place. GRASSP is a prototype which consists of a spectrograph and a polarimeter, both installed on a telescope mount. The 6-channel imaging polarimeter will cover a spectral range from 500 - 750 nm, with a polarized / unpolarized sensitivity smaller than 5 %. It will present a circular field of view of 5° and a CCD of 2000 × 2000 pixels with a FOV of 15 µm/px. The goal is to find the 4 Stokes parameters in a single shot. To do so, the polarimeter consists of seven circular windows disposed over a telescope surface, six of them are located around the border of the circle and the last one is located in the center. This single window will show the unfiltered image and the six remaining ones include a different polarizer ( 0° 45° 90° 180° linear polarizers and left and right circular

  16. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Yolanda; Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Zambrano, Antonio

    2005-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a benign proliferation of the oral mucosa with well defined clinical and histological characteristics. It has been associated with infection of the oral mucosa by types 13 and 32 of the human papillomavirus (HPV), and to a lesser extent, with other types. Its clinical course is variable, although it usually persists for months or years; cases with spontaneous resolution have been described, as have others with prolonged persistence. We present the case of an Ecuadorian boy whose visit was motivated by lesions in the oral mucosa consistent with a diagnosis of FEH, which were confirmed in the histological study, and in which HPV type 13 DNA was identified.

  17. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  18. The MESA polarimetry chain and the status of its double scattering polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbacher, K.; Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Molitor, M.; Tioukine, V.

    2013-11-01

    We plan to have two independent polarimetry systems at MESA based on totally different physical processes. A first one tries to minimize the systematic uncertainties in double polarized Mo/ller scattering, which is to be achieved by stored hydrogen atoms in an atomic trap (Hydro-Mo/ller-Polarimeter). The other one relies on the equality of polarizing and analyzing power which allows to measure the effective analyzing power of a polarimeter with very high accuracy. Since the status of Hydro-Mo/ller is presented in a separate paper we concentrate on the double scattering polarimeter in this article.

  19. Characterizing and Modeling the Noise and Complex Impedance of Feedhorn-Coupled TES Polarimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J. W.; Beall, J. A.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Parker, L. P.; Staggs, S. T.; Visnjic, C.; Zhao, Y.; Austermann, J. E.; Halverson, N. W.; Henning, J. W.; Simon, S. M.; Becker, D.; Britton, J.; Cho, H. M.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Niemack, M. D.; Yoon, K. W.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.

    2009-12-16

    We present results from modeling the electrothermal performance of feedhorn-coupled transition edge sensor (TES) polarimeters under development for use in cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments. Each polarimeter couples radiation from a corrugated feedhorn through a planar orthomode transducer, which transmits power from orthogonal polarization modes to two TES bolometers. We model our TES with two- and three-block thermal architectures. We fit the complex impedance data at multiple points in the TES transition. From the fits, we predict the noise spectra. We present comparisons of these predictions to the data for two TESes on a prototype polarimeter.

  20. The MESA polarimetry chain and the status of its double scattering polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Aulenbacher, K.; Bartolomé, P. Aguar; Molitor, M.; Tioukine, V.

    2013-11-07

    We plan to have two independent polarimetry systems at MESA based on totally different physical processes. A first one tries to minimize the systematic uncertainties in double polarized Mo/ller scattering, which is to be achieved by stored hydrogen atoms in an atomic trap (Hydro-Mo/ller-Polarimeter). The other one relies on the equality of polarizing and analyzing power which allows to measure the effective analyzing power of a polarimeter with very high accuracy. Since the status of Hydro-Mo/ller is presented in a separate paper we concentrate on the double scattering polarimeter in this article.