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Sample records for fodder beet fields

  1. Ethanol production from fodder beet

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Kliza, S.

    1983-07-01

    Various yeasts such as two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces diastaticus, and Kluyveromyces marxianus were investigated for their ability to ferment fodder beet juice to alcohol. Juice extracted from fodder beet roots without any additives was used as a fermentation substrate. The fermentation kinetic parameters were determined and compared for each species of yeast tested. The best species for fodder beet juice fermentation was chosen and products obtained by fermentation of one hectare of fodder beet plants are given. (Refs. 8).

  2. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  3. Nutrient digestibility in sheep fed diets containing Roundup Ready or conventional fodder beet, sugar beet, and beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Hartnell, G F; Hvelplund, T; Weisbjerg, M R

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this digestibility assessment was to determine whether there are significant differences in the digestibility of Roundup Ready (glyphosate-tolerant) and conventional sugar beet, fodder beet, and beet pulp produced from sugar beet varieties when fed to sheep (seven wethers per treatment group). Three experiments were conducted in this assessment. Experiment 1 (35 wethers) compared one glyphosate-tolerant fodder beet variety with four conventional varieties, Exp. 2 (42 wethers) compared one glyphosate-tolerant sugar beet variety with five conventional varieties, and Exp. 3 (42 wethers) compared beet pulp derived from glyphosate-tolerant sugar beet with beet pulp from five European locations. The experimental phase consisted of a 2-wk preliminary period followed by a 1-wk collection period for Exp. 1 and 2, and a 1-wk preliminary period followed by a 1-wk digestibility collection period for Exp. 3. Diets were comprised of grass hay at 30, 30, and 20% of DM for Exp. 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with the balance being beet components. Urea and sodium sulfate were supplemented (8 and 2.9 g, respectively, for Exp. 1 and 2; and 6 g and 2.16 g, respectively, for Exp. 3) to supply sufficient dietary N and S. Each diet was fed to sheep (96 +/- 0.9 kg) in the three experiments to at or near maintenance energy levels. Treatment differences were considered significant at P < 0.05. Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and DE for glyphosate-tolerant fodder and sugar beets did not differ from those for commercial fodder and sugar beets in Exp. 1 and 2. There were differences (P < 0.05) in DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and DE digestibilities influenced by the different varieties of beet pulp in Exp. 3, but these were not unique to just the Roundup Ready sugar beet variety. Digestibilities and feeding values of Roundup Ready fodder beet, sugar beet, and beet pulp produced from Roundup Ready sugar beet varieties were not influenced by the introduction of the

  4. Effects of Inoculum Size on Solid-Phase Fermentation of Fodder Beets for Fuel Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, William R.; Westby, Carl A.

    1986-01-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% [vol/vol]) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times. PMID:16347193

  5. Effects of inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% (vol/vol)) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

  6. Effects of sodium meta bisulfite on diffusion fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors designed and tested a new process for converting fodder beets to ethanol: continuous diffusion-fermentation. This process utilizes the simultaneous diffusion-fermentation concept of the EX-FERM design; however, it overcomes the material handling problems inherent in that system by utilizing a counterflow tubular auger system. This process also eliminates the need for roller mills or presses and dryers which are required for alcohol recovery from solid phase fermentation. The latter is the only other currently feasible procedure for producing distillably worthwhile amounts of ethanol from fodder beets, sweet sorghum, and other similar feedstocks. Results on the use of sodium meta bisulfite (SMB) for contamination control with fermenting fodder beet cubes are reported.

  7. Continuous, farm-scale, solid-phase fermentation process for fuel ethanol and protein feed production from fodder beets

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.; Dobbs, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel ethanol (95%) was produced from fodder beets in two farm-scale processes. In the first process, involving conventional submerged fermentation of the fodder beets in a mash, ethanol and a feed (PF) rich in protein, fat, and fiber were produced. Ethanol yields of 70 L/metric ton (17 gal/ton) were obtained; however, resulting beers had low ethanol concentrations )3-5% (v/v)). The high viscosity of medium and low sugar, beet mashes caused mixing problems which prevented any further increase of beet sugar in the mash. This severely limited the maximum attainable ethanol concentration during fermentation, thereby making the beer costly to distill into fuel ethanol and the process energy inefficient. In order to achieve distillably worthwhile ethanol concentrations of 8-10% (v/v), a solid phase fermentation process (continuous) was developed and tested. In preliminary trials, this system produced fermented pulp with over 8% (v/v) ethanol corresponding to an ethanol yield of 87 L/metric ton (21 gal/ton). Production costs with this novel process are $0.47/L ($1.77/gal) and the energy balance is 2.11. These preliminary cost estimates indicate that fodder beets are potentially competitive with corn as an ethanol feedstock. Additional research, however, is warranted to more precisely refine individual costs, energy balances and the actual value of the PF.

  8. A continuous, farm-scale, solid-phase fermentation process for fuel ethanol and protein feed production from fodder beets.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A; Dobbs, T L

    1984-09-01

    Fuel ethanol (95%) was produced from fodder beets in two farm-scale processes. In the first process, involving conventional submerged fermentation of the fodder beets in a mash, ethanol and a feed (PF) rich in protein, fat, and fiber were produced. Ethanol yields of 70 L/metric ton (7 gal/ton) were obtained; however, resulting beers had low ethanol concentrations [3-5% (v/v)]. The high viscosity of medium and low sugar, beet mashes caused mixing problems which prevented any further increase of beet sugar in the mash. The severely limited the maximum attainable ethanol concentration during fermentation, thereby making the beer costly to distill into fuel ethanol and the process energy inefficient. In order to achieve distillably worthwhile ethanol concentrations of 8-10% (v/v), we developed and tested a solid-phase fermentation process (continuous). In preliminary trials, this system produced fermented pulp with over 8% (v/v) ethanol corresponding to an ethanol yield of 87 L/metric ton (21 gal/ton). Production costs with this novel process are $0.47/L ($1.77/gal) and the energy balance is 2.11. These preliminary cost estimates indicate that fodder beets are potentially competitive with corn as an ethanol feedstock. Additional research, however, is warranted to more precisely refine individual costs, energy balances and the actual value of the PF.

  9. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period.

    PubMed

    Sorathiya, L M; Patel, M D; Tyagi, K K; Fulsoundar, A B; Raval, A P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50%) of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  10. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    PubMed Central

    Sorathiya, L. M.; Patel, M. D.; Tyagi, K. K.; Fulsoundar, A. B.; Raval, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50%) of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding. PMID:27046988

  11. Versatile synthesis of PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their significant stimulating effect on fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Gusev, Alexander А; Kudrinsky, Alexey A; Zakharova, Olga V; Klimov, Alexey I; Zherebin, Pavel M; Lisichkin, George V; Vasyukova, Inna A; Denisov, Albert N; Krutyakov, Yurii A

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known bactericidal agents. However, information about the influence of AgNPs on the morphometric parameters and biochemical status of most important agricultural crops is limited. The present study reports the influence of AgNPs stabilized with cationic polymer polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) on growth, development, and biochemical status of fodder beet Beta vulgaris L. under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. PHMB-stabilized AgNPs were obtained via sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate in an aqueous solution. The average diameter of thus prepared AgNPs was 10 nm. It appears that the results of experiments with laboratory-grown beets in the nanosilver-containing medium, where germination of seeds and growth of roots were suppressed, do not correlate with the results of greenhouse experiments. The observed growth-stimulating action of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs can be explained by the change of activity of oxidases and, consequently, by the change of auxins amount in plant tissues. In beets grown in the presence of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs no negative deviations of biological parameters from normal values were registered. Furthermore, the SEM/EDS examination revealed no presence of silver in the tissues of the studied plants.

  12. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    PubMed

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  13. Fermentation studies on extracts of beet

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.M.

    1983-03-01

    Fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice were found to be good substrates for the production of ethanol. Two strains of flocculent yeast were selected to ferment fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice. Beet juice was found to have a high level of contaminating microorganisms. Elimination of these microorganisms from the beet juice before fermentation was an essential step if high fermentation efficiencies were to be achieved. Continuous fermentation of fodder beet juice and sugar beet juice provided higher fermenter productivities than rapid batch fermentation. Under New Zealand farming conditions, it is estimated that 4000 litres of ethanol per hectare could be produced on a nation-wide basis.

  14. Hybrid sugarbeets - fuel from fodder

    SciTech Connect

    Yarris, L.

    1980-05-01

    Plant geneticists at Utah University are exploring the possibility of developing a hybrid sugarbeet especially bred for use in making alcohol fuel. They are aiming at increasing sugar quantity in the beet without having to worry about the quality factors that affect sugar crystallization. A cross between European fodder beets and U.S. sugarbeets which would be resistant to curly top virus disease is envisaged.

  15. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  16. "We Were Beet Workers, and that Was All": Beet Field Laborers in the North Platte Valley, 1902-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipp, Dustin

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of the men, women, and children who labored in the beet fields of the North Platte Valley changed significantly as the sugar beet industry went through a period of rapid expansion prior to 1920 and then reached a relatively stable plateau. During the period of expansion, laborers were attracted by promises of reasonable wages, good…

  17. Effects silver nanoparticles and magnetic field on growth of fodder maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Berahmand, Ali Asghar; Ghafariyan Panahi, Ali; Sahabi, Hossein; Feizi, Hassan; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz; Shahtahmassebi, Nasser; Fotovat, Amir; Karimpour, Hossein; Gallehgir, Omran

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were done in 2008 and 2009 to study the effects of magnetic field and silver nanoparticles on fodder maize (Zea mays L.). These experiments were done with seven treatments based on a randomized complete block design in four replications. The treatments were as follows: magnetic field and silver nanoparticles + Kemira fertilizer (T1), magnetic field and silver nanoparticles + Humax fertilizer (T2), magnetic field and silver nanoparticles (T3), Kemira fertilizer (T4), Librel fertilizer (T5), Humax fertilizer (T6), and a control (T7). Results showed that fresh yield was higher in treatments T3 and T4. Treatments T3 and T4 had increased maize fresh yields of 35 and 17.5 % in comparison to the control, respectively. The dry matter yield of those plants exposed to magnetic field and silver nanoparticles was significantly higher than that from any of the other treatments. Magnetic field and silver nanoparticle treatments (T3 and T1) showed higher percentages for ears, and the lowest percentages were found in treatments T7 and T5. In general, the soil conditions for crop growth were more favorable in 2009 than in 2008, which caused the maize to respond better to treatments tested in the study; therefore, treatments had more significant effects on studied traits in 2008 than in 2009.

  18. Transgene escape in sugar beet production fields: data from six years farm scale monitoring.

    PubMed

    Darmency, Henri; Vigouroux, Yves; Gestat De Garambé, Thierry; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2007-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in Europe about the efficiency, sustainability, and environmental impact of the first genetically modified crops. The committees and regulators in charge of approving procedures have encouraged a field trial approach for safety assessment studies under current agronomic conditions. We describe the gene flow from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in a multi-year and multi-crop monitoring study on farmers' fields at two locations that has been carried out since 1995. We analyzed two sugar beet lines that have been genetically transformed for herbicide resistance. One sugar beet has resistance to glufosinate and the other to glyphosate. Large differences among lines, years and locations were observed. These differences provided a broad range of situations to estimate the risks. Sugar beet bolters produced the majority (86%) of the herbicide-resistant seeds harvested in the field. Direct pollen flow from sugar beet bolters to weed beets that were growing within the same field as well as in a neighboring field that was left fallow accounted for only 0.4% of the resistant seeds released over the years and locations. Descendants of the hybrids between the sugar beet and the weed beet produced the remaining 13.6% of resistant seeds. Herbicide-resistant seeds from the progeny of the weed beet were recorded up to 112 m away from the closest transgenic pollen donor. Indications were observed of non-randomness of the weed beet producing resistant progeny. We also analyzed pollen flow to male-sterile bait plants located within and outside of the sugar beet field. Herbicide-resistant pollen flow was recorded up to 277 m, and fitted with an inverse power regression. Using sugar beet varieties with no, or very low, sensitivity to bolting and destroying bolters are two necessary measures that could delay gene flow.

  19. Disease detection in sugar beet fields: a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach on different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hillnhütter, Christian; Mewes, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Steiner, Ulrike; Dehne, Heinz-Willhelm; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2009-09-01

    Depending on environmental factors fungal diseases of crops are often distributed heterogeneously in fields. Precision agriculture in plant protection implies a targeted fungicide application adjusted these field heterogeneities. Therefore an understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of pathogens is elementary. As shown in previous studies, remote sensing techniques can be used to detect and observe spectral anomalies in the field. In 2008, a sugar beet field site was observed at different growth stages of the crop using different remote sensing techniques. The experimental field site consisted of two treatments. One plot was sprayed with a fungicide to avoid fungal infections. In order to obtain sugar beet plants infected with foliar diseases the other plot was not sprayed. Remote sensing data were acquired from the high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imaging ROSIS in July 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 39 and from the HyMap sensor systems in August 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 45, respectively. Additionally hyperspectral signatures of diseased and non-diseased sugar beet plants were measured with a non-imaging hand held spectroradiometer at growth stage 49 in September. Ground truth data, in particular disease severity were collected at 50 sampling points in the field. Changes of reflection rates were related to disease severity increasing with time. Erysiphe betae causing powdery mildew was the most frequent leaf pathogen. A classification of healthy and diseased sugar beets in the field was possible by using hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from canopy reflectance.

  20. Occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchina) in sugar beet fields in Fars province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, N; Kheiri, A; Pakniat, M

    2004-01-01

    On a survey of plant parasitic nematode fauna, belonging to the suborder Tylenchina, about 110 soil and root samples were collected from different sugar beet field in fars Province in Iran. The samples were washed and the nematodes were extracted by Centrifugal Flotation Technique according to the modified method by De Grisse, 1969. They were fixed and transferred to glycerine, then permanent slides were mounted. Morphological and morphometrical characters of collected species were carefully studied and the characters were compared with the original descriptions and differences were discussed. In this study 18 species belonging to 11 different genera of subordes Tylenchina were identified as follows. Boleodorus thylactus, Ditylenchus destructor, D. dipsaci Geocenamus brevidens, G. rugosus, Helicotylenchus digonicus, H. pseudorobustus, H. vulgaris, Heterodera filipjevi, H. schachtii, Pratylenchus neglectus, P. thornei, Psilenchus hilarulus, P. hilarus, Stictylus mucronatus, Tylenchorhynchus ventrosinatus, Tylenchus davainei and Zygotylenchus guevarai. The species of the genera Ditylenchus, Heterodera, Pratylenchus and Psilenchus were comparatively more distributed than the others. This investigation revealed that sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachti) was found already in most sugar beet fields in this Province. Fathabod, Marvdasht and Tasuj-kwar were the most infested areas. Cysts collected from 100 gr. Of soil samples were 120 to 121 in number and the eggs and second stage larvae in each gr. of soil were 104.1 to 104.5 respectively.

  1. Real-Time Blob-Wise Sugar Beets VS Weeds Classification for Monitoring Fields Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milioto, A.; Lottes, P.; Stachniss, C.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are becoming an important tool for field monitoring and precision farming. A prerequisite for observing and analyzing fields is the ability to identify crops and weeds from image data. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting the sugar beet plants and weeds in the field based solely on image data. We propose a system that combines vegetation detection and deep learning to obtain a high-quality classification of the vegetation in the field into value crops and weeds. We implemented and thoroughly evaluated our system on image data collected from different sugar beet fields and illustrate that our approach allows for accurately identifying the weeds on the field.

  2. Seasonal OVOC fluxes from an agricultural field planted with sugar beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custer, T. G.; Schade, G. W.

    2005-12-01

    Although agricultural crops are generally not strong isoprenoid emitters, they do emit a variety of other atmospherically significant species collectively known as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), such as methanol, acetaldehyde, or various hexenal and hexenol compounds. Many OVOCs have longer atmospheric lifetimes than isoprenoid compounds and can affect the atmosphere's oxidative potential at higher elevations and far from sources. We performed selected OVOC flux measurements for select species above an agricultural field planted with sugar beets ( B. vulgaris) in northern Germany in 2004 to better understand the magnitude and controls over these OVOC emissions. Virtual disjunct eddy covariance was used to measure fluxes beginning immediately following seeding and continuing until past harvest. A commercial PTR-MS provided mixing ratios of methanol (m/z 33), acetaldehyde (m/z 45), acetone (m/z 59), and the sum of the isoprene oxidation products methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone (m/z 71) while 3D wind velocities were measured using a Gill R3 sonic anemometer. Here, we compare the fluxes of methanol and acetone over the growth cycle of sugar beet to plant development as measured by the leaf area index. Methanol fluxes ranged from approximately -0.05 to 0.15 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~1 to 15 ppbv) and showed a clear diurnal cycle after the sugar beets established a significant leaf area. Acetone fluxes ranged from approximately -0.2 to 0.2 mg C m-2 h-1 (mixing ratios from ~0.2 to 3 ppb). Higher specific emissions were found during earlier growth stages. Methanol flux correlated strongly with latent heat flux (or alternatively, with canopy conductance derived from the latent heat flux), while acetone flux did not. Acetone flux was small compared to methanol flux and sugar beet is likely not a significant acetone emitter. Weekly measurements of soil OVOC exchange using a flux chamber showed that the soil may have contributed significantly to the overall flux values

  3. The prevalence of 'Candidatus Arsenophonus phytopathogenicus' infecting the planthopper Pentastiridius leporinus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) increase nonlinearly with the population abundance in sugar beet fields.

    PubMed

    Bressan, A; Moral García, F J; Boudon-Padieu, E

    2011-12-01

    The planthopper Pentastiridius leporinus (L.) (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) has been identified as the main vector of 'Candidatus Arsenophonus phytopathogenicus', a plant pathogenic bacterium associated to a sugar beet disease in eastern France called syndrome 'basses richesses'. In a 2-yr survey (2006-07), we quantified the abundance of P. leporinus populations migrating into 29 sugar beet fields in eastern France. Sticky traps posted in these fields were monitored on a twice-weekly (2006) or weekly (2007) basis. Subsets of the captured planthoppers were tested for the presence of Ca. A. phytopathogenicus through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results showed that planthoppers colonized sugar beet fields in June and July of each year, following temporal patterns of migration that were fitted to logistic functions. The number of planthoppers migrating into sugar beet fields greatly varied among the fields and the years surveyed, averaging from a few (2-10) to over 400 planthoppers per trap. Interestingly, the prevalence of planthoppers infected by Ca. A. phytopathogenicus increased nonlinearly with the abundance of planthoppers captured on the traps. The proportion of infection for Ca. A. phytopathogenicus ranged from ≍0.07-1 (total infection) in small (2-10 planthoppers per trap) and large (400 planthoppers per trap) populations, respectively. We hypothesize that the outbreaks of P. leporinus in sugar beet fields, and the consequent increased rates of planthoppers infected by the Ca. A. phytopathogenicus, are key factors leading to the emergence of the sugar beet disease in eastern France.

  4. Effects of sugar beet chitinase IV on root-associated fungal community of transgenic silver birch in a field trial.

    PubMed

    Pasonen, Hanna-Leena; Lu, Jinrong; Niskanen, Anna-Maija; Seppänen, Sanna-Kaisa; Rytkönen, Anna; Raunio, Janne; Pappinen, Ari; Kasanen, Risto; Timonen, Sari

    2009-10-01

    Heterogenous chitinases have been introduced in many plant species with the aim to increase the resistance of plants to fungal diseases. We studied the effects of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on the intensity of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) colonization and the structure of fungal communities in the field trial of 15 transgenic and 8 wild-type silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) genotypes. Fungal sequences were separated in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and identified by sequencing the ITS1 region to reveal the operational taxonomic units. ECM colonization was less intense in 7 out of 15 transgenic lines than in the corresponding non-transgenic control plants, but the slight decrease in overall ECM colonization in transgenic lines could not be related to sugar beet chitinase IV expression or total endochitinase activity. One transgenic line showing fairly weak sugar beet chitinase IV expression without significantly increased total endochitinase activity differed significantly from the non-transgenic controls in the structure of fungal community. Five sequences belonging to three different fungal genera (Hebeloma, Inocybe, Laccaria) were indicative of wild-type genotypes, and one sequence (Lactarius) indicated one transgenic line. In cluster analysis, the non-transgenic control grouped together with the transgenic lines indicating that genotype was a more important factor determining the structure of fungal communities than the transgenic status of the plants. With the tested birch lines, no clear evidence for the effect of the heterologous expression of sugar beet chitinase IV on ECM colonization or the structure of fungal community was found.

  5. Effects of simulated acidic rainfalls on yields of field-grown radishes and garden beets

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L S; Cunningham, E A; Lewin, K F

    1981-01-01

    The effects of small additions of simulated acidic rain on radishes and garden beets grown under standard agronomic practices was determined. Only the foliage of plants was sprayed with simulated rain. The composition of the simulated rainfall approximated that of rain falling in the Long Island, NY area. (ACR)

  6. Impact of glyphosate-resistant sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Don W

    2016-12-19

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) sugar beet became commercially available to US sugar beet growers in 2008 and was rapidly adopted. Prior to the availability of GR sugar beet, growers would commonly make 3-5 herbicide applications. This often resulted in some crop injury, but was accepted to reduce the impact of weeds. In addition, non-GR sugar beet was cultivated 1-3 times and often followed by hand weeding. The introduction of GR sugar beet drastically reduced the complexity of weed management. Concerns about GR weeds in the United States also apply to sugar beet growers. Changes in weed management strategies will be required to keep this technology. Sugar beet is arguably one of the most suitable crops for GR technology because: (1) none of the herbicides registered for use in this crop was very effective without risking crop injury; (2) sugar beet cannot be grown in the same field year after year owing to disease concerns and thus requires a 3-4 year rotation; (3) pollen-mediated gene flow is negligible from the sugar beet crop because it is a biennial and harvested before it flowers; (4) the processing of harvested roots to extract the sucrose rapidly degrades the DNA in the extracted raw juice and subsequent refining so that no DNA is present in the finished sugar; (5) studies have shown that processed GR beet sugar is identical to non-GR beet sugar, as well as cane sugar. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Monitoring the spread of recombinant DNA from field plots with transgenic sugar beet plants by PCR and natural transformation of Pseudomonas stutzeri.

    PubMed

    Meier, Petra; Wackernagel, Wilfried

    2003-06-01

    Previous studies had shown that recombinant DNA can be detected for several months in soil after the deposition of litter from transgenic (tg) plants. Here we show by PCR monitoring of field releases of tg sugar beet plants that during the growth of the plants the soil close to the plants and also plant material contains recombinant DNA, in the form of extracellular molecules. Surprisingly, the monitoring also revealed the presence of tg DNA in many field plots (30-70%) in which tg plants were never grown. These studies and the further monitoring during other tg sugar beet release experiments by PCR and a novel bioassay (measuring the transforming potential of recombinant DNA for Pseudomonas stutzeri) indicated that recombinant DNA was only detectable in the surface soil of field plots and their vicinity where flowering of the tg beet plants was allowed. Recombinant DNA was found in soil at a distance of 50 m from pollen-producing plants surrounded by a strip with hemp plants as a containment regime. It is concluded that recombinant DNA is deposited in soil during the growth of tg sugar beets and that a major mechanism of recombinant DNA spread in the environment is the dispersal of pollen which allows recombinant DNA to persist in the field plot for at least a year.

  8. Isolation of protoplasts and regeneration of callus from suspension cultures of cultivated beets.

    PubMed

    Bhat, S R; Ford-Lloyd, B V; Callow, J A

    1985-12-01

    Conditions necessary for the isolation and culture of protoplasts from suspension cultures of sugar, fodder and garden beets were investigated. Good yields of protoplasts were obtained by treating cells with a mixture of cellulase, Macerozyme and Driselase enzymes. Nutritional requirements of beet protoplasts were found to be quite simple: protoplasts could be cultured in MS, B5 or PGo based media with 0.4 M glucose with the optimum result being produced on KM8p medium. Plating efficiency (P.E) was genotype-dependent with the sugar beet giving better P.E. than the fodder or garden beets used, and higher values being achieved with the use of desalted Driselase for isolation followed by culture on KMBp medium.

  9. Pulsed electric field-assisted modification of pectin from sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sen; Wang, Zhong-he

    2013-02-15

    This current work is concerned with the modification of sugar beet pulp (SBP) pectin assisted by pulsed electric filed (PEF) without solvent. Pectin-arachates with degree of esterification (DE) ranging from 49 to 84 were prepared in one-step modification. The results showed that the DE of pectin derivatives increased significantly with the PEF intensity from 18 to 30 kV cm((1) and total specific energy input from 124 to 345 J mL((1). Evidence of modification of pectin was provided by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction patterns and NMR spectra. Thermogravimetric investigation of modified pectin indicated a higher thermal stability than the untreated one. Results revealed that PEF technology is a promising method for industrial manufacture of pectin derivatives.

  10. Development of a field inoculation method to screen for sugar beet seedling resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. beta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium yellows is an important disease in many sugar beet production areas throughout the U.S. and yield losses can be devastating. Also seedling damping off caused by Fusarium can result in serious damage to the sugar beet stand establishment. This can lead to a severe loss in yield. The object...

  11. NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Field-Grown Leaves from Sugar Beet Plants Harbouring Different Levels of Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Jun; Ikeda, Seishi

    2017-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) is one of the most serious leaf diseases for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) worldwide. The breeding of sugar beet cultivars with both high CLS resistance and high yield is a major challenge for breeders. In this study, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiling of field-grown leaves for a subset of sugar beet genotypes harbouring different levels of CLS resistance. Leaves were collected from 12 sugar beet genotypes at four time points: seedling, early growth, root enlargement, and disease development stages. 1H-NMR spectra of foliar metabolites soluble in a deuterium-oxide (D2O)-based buffer were acquired and subjected to multivariate analyses. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR data from the sugar beet leaves shows clear differences among the growth stages. At the later time points, the sugar and glycine betaine contents were increased, whereas the choline content was decreased. The relationship between the foliar metabolite profiles and resistance level to CLS was examined by combining partial least squares projection to latent structure (PLS) or orthogonal PLS (OPLS) analysis and univariate analyses. It was difficult to build a robust model for predicting precisely the disease severity indices (DSIs) of each genotype; however, GABA and Gln differentiated susceptible genotypes (genotypes with weak resistance) from resistant genotypes (genotypes with resistance greater than a moderate level) before inoculation tests. The results suggested that breeders might exclude susceptible genotypes from breeding programs based on foliar metabolites profiled without inoculation tests, which require an enormous amount of time and effort. PMID:28134762

  12. Synchronized oviposition triggered by migratory flight intensifies larval outbreaks of beet webworm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The beet webworm (BWW), Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), a migrant species surviving in the belt zone of 36-54 degrees N, is one of the most destructive insect pests of crops and fodder plants in northern China. Flight capacity, preoviposition period (POP), period of first oviposi...

  13. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  14. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 33 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  15. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 28 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  16. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 24 experimental cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with...

  17. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 28 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  18. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 30 experimental cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with...

  19. Challenges to grow oilseed rape Brassica napus in sugar beet rotations.

    PubMed

    Stefanovska, T; Pidlisnyuk, V

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out in 1989-1991 and repeated in 2003-2006 to compare life cycle and dynamics of Heterodera schachtii Schm. on sugar beet, oilseed rape, fodder radish and to work out recommendations on how to decrease the risk of yield reduction while it grows in sugar-beet rotations. Research was carried out in plot experiment in natural conditions. Nematode community on rape, fodder radish and sugar beet was analyzed. Data of nematode community showed that composition of nematode species was very similar. Heterodera shachtii were dominated species with rape and sugar beet. All tested Brassica crops are susceptible to H. schachtii. However there is significant difference in population dynamics. The highest total number of brown cysts, eggs and juveniles of all ages was observed in winter rape. H.schachtii developed two generations on sugar beet and one generation on mustard. The voluntary seed germination after harvest contributes to increasing H. schachtii population. Therefore it is necessary to destroy oilseed rape voluntary chemically or physically. This operation should be done in about 2-4 weeks. The exact time can be calculated using the temperature- based model. Growing regular fodder radish and mustard as the trap crops can significantly reduce population of H. schachtii. The time of sowing is not earlier than August 20th. While estimating the time of destruction of trap crops it should be taken into consideration that H. schachtii can complete life cycle without foliage.

  20. Occurrence, sequence polymorphism and population structure of Circulifer tenellus virus 1 in a field population of the beet leafhopper

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential of Circulifer tenellus virus 1 (CiTV1) as a surrogate marker to determine population structure of the beet leafhopper (BLH; Circulifer tenellus [Baker]) was assessed. Prevalence, incidence, and nucleotide sequence polymorphism of CiTV1 present in BLH adults collected from the southern...

  1. Field Evaluation of a Kudzu/Cottonseed Oil Formulation on the Persistence of the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A plant extract (kudzu) was tested as a UV protectant for SeMNPV, with and without the addition of an oil/emulsifier (cottonseed oil/lecithin) formulation. Aqueous and oil emulsion formulations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), nucleopolyhedrovirus SeMNPV were applied to collards an...

  2. Genetic profiling of noncultivated bacteria from the rhizospheres of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) reveal field and annual variability but no effect of a transgenic herbicide resistance.

    PubMed

    Schmalenberger, Achim; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2003-01-01

    In this field study, we compared the bacterial communities inhabiting the rhizosphere of a transgenic, herbicide-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cultivar with those of its nonengineered counterpart, using a genetic profiling technique based on PCR amplifications of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). As a control for the plasticity of the bacterial community, we also analyzed the influence of herbicides, the field heterogeneity, and the annual variation. DNA was isolated from bacterial cell consortia that were directly collected from root material. PCR was carried out with primers that hybridized to evolutionarily conserved regions flanking variable regions 4 and 5 of the 16S rRNA gene. SSCP patterns of these PCR products were composed of approximately 50 distinguishable bands, as detected by silver staining of the gels after electrophoresis. Patterns of the replicates and the different treatments were highly similar, but digital image and similarity analyses revealed differences that corresponded to the positions of the replicates in the field. In addition, communities collected from sugar beet in two successive growing seasons could be distinguished. In contrast, no effect of the transgenic herbicide resistance was detectable. Sequencing of 24 dominant products of the SSCP profiles indicated the presence of bacteria from different phylogenetic groups, with Proteobacteria and members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group being most abundant.

  3. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  4. Analysis and field evaluation of volatile blend emitted by calling virgin females of beet armyworm moth,Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Tumlinson, J H; Mitchell, E R; Yu, H S

    1990-12-01

    The volatile blend emitted by calling virgin beet armyworm females was collected and analyzed by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Five compounds were detected and identified in this blend: (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z,Z)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z)-l 1-hexadecenyl acetate. They were emitted in a ratio of 47.9 ∶4.0∶40.2 ∶6.5 ∶ 1.7, respectively. This five-component blend and several other blends with one or more components deleted were formulated on rubber septa to release the components in about the same ratios as the females. Field tests of these formulations in bucket traps indicated that a blend of (Z)-9 tetradecen-1-ol, (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, and (Z)-l 1-hexadecenyl acetate was most effective for trapping beet armyworm males and that (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate actually decreased trap captures. Blends that did not contain both (Z)-9-tetradecen-l-ol and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate were ineffective as trap baits.

  5. Frequency distribution of mineral elements in samples of alfalfa and sugar beet leaves obtained from a common field in Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Kinnear, J.

    1982-07-01

    Baseline measurements were made of mineral composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) from one field each in the Imperial Valley of California. The fields are in a geothermal area being developed for energy production, and the purpose of the investigation was to ascertain variablility within a relatively large number of samples from a common area, so that subsequent samplings could be made to satisfactorily detect whether there were changes resulting from the geothermal activity. Means, standard deviations, frequency distribution, correlations, cluster trees, and other statistics were examined for over 20 elements at each site.Most elements were normally distributed, but there was three- to fourfold range in the concentration for each.

  6. Fern rhizomes as fodder in Norway.

    PubMed

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2016-09-06

    Although ferns are often known under collective names in Norway, e.g. blom, a substantial number of vernacular names for individual fern species are known, in particular for useful or poisonous taxa. In the past, the rhizomes (Norwegian: moldfôr) of selected species were collected for fodder. Only scattered records of such use are available from southern Norway, and the tradition's core area is found in the two North Norwegian counties of Nordland and Troms, in accordance with the longer winters encountered in the north, frequently leading to fodder shortage in early spring. The tradition extends northeastwards into Finnmark, but is less well documented there. Although numerous sources mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder, the fern species hiding behind the tradition are incompletely known. This paper aims at reviewing available data in terms of identifyng the species used for fodder, the history and geographical distribution of such use, and other relevant traditions, e.g. the timing and mode of collection, and the way the rhizomes were used. The study is based on data extracted from a variety of archival and literature sources; the latter retrived from my database of more than 7500 publications providing information on plant names and plant uses in Norway. More than 200 individual records mention the use of fern rhizomes for fodder in Norway. Only a fraction of these, typically made by botanist recording data on plant uses, provides information on the identity of the species used. Based on these, Dryopteris filix-mas and Matteuccia struthiopteris stand out as the most important species serving as sources of fern rhizomes for fodder. Locally, Dryopteris expansa was the preferred species, and this taxon may to some extent be overlooked in the records so far available. With a few exceptions, Norwegian folk tradition singles out Athyrium filix-femina as a harmful and poisonous species, causing livestock to go blind and lame, but whether this is true or not

  7. Beet Rust and Seedling Rust

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beet rust, caused by Uromyces betae, can cause pustules on most beet types, and can be a problem in various beet growing areas. Seedling rust, caused by Puccinia subnitens can cause lesions on young beets, primarily on cotyledons, and does not cause economic damage. This chapter describes the dise...

  8. Analysis and Modeling of spatio-temporal Patterns of Carbon and Water Fluxes in Production Fields of Winter Wheat and Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupisch, M.; Langensiepen, M.; van Wijk, M.; Stadler, A.; Ewert, F.

    2011-12-01

    Gas exchange of CO2 and water vapour are important processes that determine crop growth and yield. Understanding their spatio-temporal variability at field level is necessary for accurate simulation of crop growth in fields with heterogeneous growing conditions and for parameterizing soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models. Accordingly, relationships between the spatio-temporal patterns of assimilation and transpiration rates and environmental (e.g. soil) heterogeneity are of specific interest. A particular challenge refers then to the appropriate method of up-scaling of these relationships from the leaf to the canopy and field level. Therefore, gas-exchange (CO2 and water vapour) was measured at different points in winter wheat and sugar beet fieldsboth at leaf and at canopy level in a nearly biweekly cycle during the growing seasons 2010 and 2011. The measurements comprised also C/N-content of leaf, leaf area index, soil water content and soil nitrogen content. The results revealed a strong spatial heterogeneity of carbon and water canopy fluxes across the fields. While canopy measurements had a temporal variability with distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, the temporal (and spatial) variability of leaf level photosynthesisand transpirationwas comparably small.Further analysis suggests that the observed spatial and seasonal variability of canopy measurements was mainly caused by field heterogeneity in LAI and less by gas exchange rates per unit leaf area. However, both crops differed in their response to drought stress: while wheat responded mainly through irreversible reduction in green leaf area, the canopy assimilation rate of sugar beets decreases only temporarily with no observed effects in LAI. The obtained datasets from both years are the basis for parameterizing a crop growth model with canopy assimilation and transpiration components and for developing appropriate up-scaling methods from leaf to field. Our results indicate that it is

  9. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species.

    PubMed

    Fénart, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jean-François; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Cuguen, Joël

    2008-05-01

    Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to now, investigations of evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity within the B. vulgaris complex were addressed using few genetical markers and few accessions. In this study, we tackled this issue using a panel of complementary markers: five nuclear microsatellite loci, four mitochondrial minisatellite loci and one chloroplastic PCR-RFLP marker. We sampled 1,640 individuals that illustrate the actual distribution of inland ruderal beets of South Western France, weed beets and wild sea beets of northern France as well as the diversity of 35 contemporary European diploid cultivars. Nuclear genetic diversity in weed beets appeared to be as high as those of ruderal beets and sea beets, whereas the narrowness of cultivar accessions was confirmed. This genetic bottleneck in cultivars is even more important in the cytoplasmic genome as only one haplotype was found among all sugar beet cultivars. The large majority of weed beet populations also presented this unique cytoplasmic haplotype, as expected owing to their maternal cultivated origin. Nonetheless, various cytoplasmic haplotypes were found within three populations of weed beets, implying wild-to-weed seed flows. Finally, our findings gave new insights into the genetical relationships between the components of the B. vulgaris complex: (1) we found a very strong genetic divergence between wild sea beet and other relatives, which was unexpected given the recent evolutionary history and the full cross-compatibility of all taxa and (2) we definitely confirmed that the classification into cultivated, wild, ruderal and weed forms according to their

  10. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2014-01-23

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant

  11. Characterization of resistance mechanisms to powdery mildew (Erysiphe betae) in beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Prats, Elena; Emeran, Amero A; Rubiales, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Beet powdery mildew incited by Erysiphe betae is a serious foliar fungal disease of worldwide distribution causing losses of up to 30%. In the present work, we searched for resistance in a germplasm collection of 184 genotypes of Beta vulgaris including fodder (51 genotypes), garden (60 genotypes), leaf (51 genotypes), and sugar (22 genotypes) beet types. Resistant genotypes were identified in the four beet types under study. In addition, mechanisms underlying resistance were dissected through histological studies. These revealed different resistance mechanisms acting at different fungal developmental stages, i.e., penetration resistance, early and late cell death, or posthaustorial resistance. Most genotypes were able to hamper fungal development at several stages. The later are interesting for breeding aiming to resistance durability. Furthermore, characterization of defense mechanisms will be useful for further cellular and molecular studies to unravel the bases of resistance in this species.

  12. Breeding patterns and cultivated beets origins by genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium analyses.

    PubMed

    Mangin, Brigitte; Sandron, Florian; Henry, Karine; Devaux, Brigitte; Willems, Glenda; Devaux, Pierre; Goudemand, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity in worldwide population of beets is strongly affected by the domestication history, and the comparison of linkage disequilibrium in worldwide and elite populations highlights strong selection pressure. Genetic relationships and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were evaluated in a set of 2035 worldwide beet accessions and in another of 1338 elite sugar beet lines, using 320 and 769 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively. The structures of the populations were analyzed using four different approaches. Within the worldwide population, three of the methods gave a very coherent picture of the population structure. Fodder beet and sugar beet accessions were grouped together, separated from garden beets and sea beets, reflecting well the origins of beet domestication. The structure of the elite panel, however, was less stable between clustering methods, which was probably because of the high level of genetic mixing in breeding programs. For the linkage disequilibrium analysis, the usual measure (r (2)) was used, and compared with others that correct for population structure and relatedness (r S (2) , r V (2) , r VS (2)). The LD as measured by r (2) persisted beyond 10 cM within the elite panel and fell below 0.1 after less than 2 cM in the worldwide population, for almost all chromosomes. With correction for relatedness, LD decreased under 0.1 by 1 cM for almost all chromosomes in both populations, except for chromosomes 3 and 9 within the elite panel. In these regions, the larger extent of LD could be explained by strong selection pressure.

  13. First evidence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia as the causal agent of dry rot canker of sugar beet in Nebraska, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is the primary source of domestic sucrose in the United States. In 2011, a sugar beet field in Morrill County NE was noted with wilting and yellowing symptoms suggestive of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot (RCRR), an important disease of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia s...

  14. Influence of environment, crop age, and cultivar on the development and severity of Fusarium yellows in field-grown sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium yellows, caused by multiple Fusarium spp., is an important disease of sugar beet in many production regions and leads to considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity. Due to the increasing incidence of Fusarium yellows and the potential impacts of climate cha...

  15. Influence of environment, crop age, and variety on the development and severity of Fusarium yellows in field-grown sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium yellows, caused by multiple Fusarium spp., is an important disease of sugar beet in many production regions and leads to considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity. Due to the increasing incidence of Fusarium yellows and the potential impacts of climate cha...

  16. Transgenic sugar beet cultivars evaluated for resistance to bacterial root rot in Idaho, 2007

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial root rot caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is an important problem in sugar beets because of issues it causes in the field, storage, and factories. Thirty-three transgenic (roundup ready) sugar beet cultivars were grown in a commercial irrigated field. Four roots fro...

  17. Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharouni Kardani, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-06-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes.

  18. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  19. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  20. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  1. Length of efficacy for control of curly top in sugar beet with seed foliar insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top in sugar beet caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is an important yield limiting disease that can be reduced via neonicotinoid and pyrethroid insecticides. However the length of efficacy of these insecticides is poorly understood, so a series of field experiments was conducted with the ...

  2. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in commercial sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 commercial sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ro...

  3. Rhizoctonia root rot resistance in experimental sugar beet cultivars in Twin Falls County, ID, 2012

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia root rot continues to be a concerning problem in sugar beet production areas. To investigate resistance to this disease in 26 experimental sugar beet cultivars, field studies were conducted with three Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains. Based on means for the 26 cultivars, surface ...

  4. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis in sugar beet: identification of SNP markers associated to Fusarium resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium spp. cause severe damage in many agricultural crops including sugar beet. Sugar beet needs to be protected from these soil borne pathogens to guarantee an optimal sugar yield in the field. The genetic control is the key to overcoming this disease. Identification of single nucleotide polymor...

  5. Ft. Collins sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is a worldwide problem that can lead to loss of tonnage and lower percent sucrose in the field. BNYVV can also reduce the storability of roots. To identify germplasm with resistance to these problems, 50 sugar beet germplasm lines de...

  6. Preparation of fodder dicalcium phosphate from phosphorous-containing solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Teplov, Y.A.; Dmitrevskii, B.A.; Maksimenko, N.F.; Olifson, A.L.; Yarosh, E.B.

    1985-02-01

    Fodder dicalcium phosphate is produced in chemical plants by neutralization of electrothermal phosphoric acid with chalk, or by high-temperature defluorination of a mixture of phosphate raw material with phosphoric acid. The deficiencies of the first technology include the scarcity and high cost of phosphoric acid, and the disadvantages of the second include the high expenditure of energy and low concentration of useful substance in the product. This paper reports on studies which demonstrate the possibility of preparing fodder dicalcium phosphate from different types of phosphate raw material which is not inferior in quality to the product produced from expensive and scarce electrothermal phosphoric acid.

  7. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  8. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  9. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  10. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  11. 21 CFR 73.40 - Dehydrated beets (beet powder).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive dehydrated beets is a dark red powder prepared by dehydrating sound... specifications: Volatile matter, not more than 4 percent. Acid insoluble ash, not more than 0.5 percent. Lead (as...

  12. Effect of sugar beet root aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (Homoptera: Pemphigidae), on sugar beet yield and quality in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zarrabi, M

    2007-10-01

    Pemphigus fuscicornis (Koch) is a pest of sugar beet root in warm and dry regions of Iran. This belongs to the Middle East and south east of Asia fauna. Nymphs establish colonies in root sutures and feed heavily which cause wilting and yellowing in beet near harvest. This study was conducted to determine infestation indices, damage occurrence and the necessity for control measures of this pest. Nymph colonies were monitored in different experimental fields that were planted with commonly used monogerm variety Afshari and then five infested places were selected. Damaged root specimens were sampled from five foci and ranked for infestation, yield and sugar concentration. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in weight, sugar concentration and impurities between indices 1, 2, 3 and none infested beets. Only the sugar concentration of indices 4 showed significant differences with zero infested beets. In the other hand, no specimens were found with the highest population density index (indices 5). Therefore, the sugar beet root aphid populations did not reach to the level of economic damage in these experimental fields. Thus, the control measures such as chemical application and use of resistant varieties may be used when the colonies density increases to the indices four and five throughout the foci in such fields.

  13. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  14. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  15. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  16. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  17. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  18. Registration of sugar beet doubled haploid line KDH13 with resistance to beet curly top

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    KDH13 is a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) doubled haploid line (PI 663862) released as a genetic stock by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Development Foundation, Denver, CO. KDH13 is resistant to beet curly top (BCT) caused by Beet curly top virus which is transmitted by the ...

  19. Construction and characterization of a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library.

    PubMed

    Lange, Cornelia; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schulz, Britta; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library from the doubled haploid accession KWS2320 encompassing 115 200 independent clones was constructed and characterized. The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to be 39 kbp on average, thus representing 5.9-fold coverage of the sugar beet genome (758 Mbp). PCR screening of plate pools with primer pairs against nine sugar beet genes supported the insert size estimation. BLAST searches with 2951 fosmid end-sequences originating from 1510 clones (1536 clones attempted) revealed little contamination with organellar DNA (2.1% chloroplast DNA, 0.3% mitochondrial DNA). The sugar beet fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the sugar beet genome. Fosmids will be publicly available in the format of plate pools and individual clones.

  20. Suppression of Resistance-breaking Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Isolates by Beet Oak-leaf Virus in Sugar Beet.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania, a very serious disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). Resistance allele Rz1 has been widely incorporated into commercial cultivars. Recently, resistance-breaking strains of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (RB-BNYVV) were identified...

  1. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on nitrogen mineralization and crop yields.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Land application of food processing wastes has become an acceptable practice because of the nutrient value of the wastes and potential cost savings in their disposal. Spoiled beets and pulp are among the main by-products generated by the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing industry. Farmers commonly land apply these by-products at rates >224 Mg ha(-1) on a fresh weight basis. However, information on nutrient release in soils treated with these by-products and their subsequent impacts on crop yield is lacking. Field studies were conducted to determine the effects of sugar beet by-product application on N release and crop yields over two growing seasons. Treatments in the first year were two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year after by-product application, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet in the subsequent year. By-product treatments caused a significant reduction in wheat grain yield compared with the control. This was due to a decline in N availability as a result of immobilization. Based on microplots receiving 15N labeled beets, wheat took up <1% of spoiled beet-N (approximately 4.7 kg ha(-1)) during the year of by-product application. In the second cropping year, sugar beet root yields were significantly higher in the fertilized control and by-product treatments than the nonfertilized control. The lack of significant difference in sugar beet yield between the fertilized control and by-product treatments was likely due to the greater availability of N in the second year. Labeled 15N data also showed that the sugar beet crop recovered a 17% of sugar beet-N, an equivalent of 86 kg N ha(-1), during the second cropping year. There was no difference in sugar beet root yield, N uptake, or

  2. Precision fertilization of Wyoming sugar beets: A case study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field Studies were conducted on a farm in northwest Wyoming to compare variable-rate fertilization (VRF) with uniform-rate fertilization (URF) of sugar beets. Results from this study failed to show an economic advantage from VRF compared to URF, implying producers should be very cautious to adopt VR...

  3. Cultivar selection for bacterial root rot in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States, which has frequently been found in association with Rhizoctonia root rot. To reduce the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, st...

  4. Cultivar Selection for Sugar Beet Root Rot Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungal and bacterial root rots in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (Rs) and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (Lm) can lead to root yield losses greater than 50%. To reduce the impact of these root rots on sucrose loss in the field, storage, and factories, studies were conducted t...

  5. Innovative Equipment and Production Method for Mixed Fodder in the Conditions of Agricultural Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabiev, U. K.; Demchuk, E. V.; Myalo, V. V.; Soyunov, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    It is recommended to feed the cattle and poultry with grain fodder in the form of feed mixture balanced according to the content. Feeding of grain fodder in the form of stock feed is inefficient and economically unreasonable. The article is devoted to actual problem - the preparation of mixed fodder in the conditions of agricultural enterprises. Review and critical analyses of mixed fodder assemblies and aggregates are given. Structural and technical schemes of small-size mixed fodder aggregate with intensified attachments of vibrating and percussive action for preparation of bulk feed mixture in the conditions of agricultural enterprises were developed. The mixed fodder aggregate for its preparation in the places of direct consumption from own grain fodder production and purchased protein and vitamin supplements is also suggested. Mixed fodder aggregate allows to get prepared mixed fodder of high uniformity at low cost of energy and price of production that is becoming profitable for livestock breeding. Model line-up of suggested mixed fodder aggregate with different productivity both for small and big agricultural enterprises is considered.

  6. Evaluation of Factors Contributing to Excessive Nitrate Accumulation in Fodder Crops Leading to Ill-Health in Dairy Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, P. K.; Bedi, G. K.; Meenakshi; Mahajan, V.; Sharma, S.; Sandhu, K. S.; Gupta, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate nitrate content in commonly used fodder crops, viz., berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays), oats (Avena sativa), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and toriya (Brassica napus), collected from the fields of different villages of Punjab and farms of the university, and to evaluate the factors associated with nitrate accumulation in these crops. The nitrate level was highest in sorghum on dry matter basis, followed by oats and toriya, berseem, maize and bajra. The nitrate content was also determined in fodder samples harvested from young and mature stages and in different parts of plants. The stem part of forages had higher content than leaves; however, concentrations were low in mature crops as compared to immature ones. The environmental and soil factors associated with it are discussed and correlated with the experimental findings. PMID:21430916

  7. Beet pseudo-yellows virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beet pseudo-yellows virus (BPYV), a whitefly-transmitted virus (genus Crinivirus, family Closteroviridae). BPYV is particularly important in greenhouse production where its vector, the greenhouse whitefly, is often a chronic problem, as well as in cooler Mediterranean climates. Initial symptoms con...

  8. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  9. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  10. Identification of yeasts present in sour fermented foods and fodders.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, Wouter J

    2002-07-01

    This paper deals with rapid methods for identification of 50 yeast species frequently isolated from foods and fodders that underwent a lactic acid fermentation. However, many yeast species present in olive brine, alpechin, and other olive products were not treated. The methods required for identification include light microscopy, physiological growth tests (ID32C system of BioMérieux), assimilation of nitrate and of ethylamine as sole nitrogen sources, vitamin requirement, and maximum growth temperature. An identification key to treated yeast species is provided. In another table characteristics of all yeast species treated are listed.

  11. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet germplasm lines, 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to identify no...

  12. Beet curly top virus strains associated with sugar beet in Idaho, Oregon, and a survey collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top of sugar beet is a serious yield limiting disease in semi-arid production areas caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and vectored by the beet leafhopper. The primary means of control for BCTV is host resistance, but effectiveness of resistance can vary with BCTV strain. BCTV variation w...

  13. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet germplasm, 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to identify no...

  14. Beet curly top virus strains associated with sugar beet in Idaho, Oregon, and a survey collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top of sugar beet is a serious yield limiting disease in semi-arid production areas caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and vectored by the beet leafhopper (Circulifer tennellus). The primary means of control for BCTV is host resistance, but effectiveness of resistance can vary among BCTV s...

  15. Immunodetection of Two Curtoviruses Infecting Sugar Beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beet leafhopper-transmitted curly top virus is a serious problem in many different crops in the semiarid western U.S., including sugar beet, tomatoes and beans. Curly top is caused by a genetically diverse complex of phloem-limited curtoviruses. Due to the phloem restriction of curtoviruses and the ...

  16. Variability in Phoma species affecting sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phoma betae can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In ...

  17. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  18. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  19. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a) Sugar beet extract flavor base is...

  20. The effect of microwave treatment on animal fodder.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Graham; Rath, Craig; Devanny, Merita; Reeve, Jessica; Lancaster, Carmel; Doherty, Timothy; Harris, Gerry; Chaplin, Sarah; Laird, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Preliminary research has suggested that in vitro dry matter disappearance (DMD) of some poor quality animal fodder materials can be improved by microwave treatment. Laboratory scale experiments revealed that dry matter percentage of Lucerne hay increased by 1.7% as microwave treatment time increased from 0 to 80 seconds. The in vitro DMD of lucerne hay increased by 14.9% during the same microwave treatment. In addition it was also demonstrated that microwave treatment significantly increased starch digestion of oats compared to the control samples. These experiments were followed up with a larger sample experiment in which 25 kg bags of Lucerne fodder were treated for 7.5, 15, 22.5 or 30 minutes in an experimental 6 kW microwave chamber. Dry matter percentage increased by 7.2% as microwave treatment time increased from 0 to 30 minutes. Microwave treatment significantly increased DMD during an in vitro digestion study; however there were no significant differences between the various microwave treatment times. The 15 minute treatment resulted in the greatest increase in dry matter disappearance (5.9%). The crude protein retained in the digestion residues increased by 19.2% as microwave treatment increased from 0 to 30 minutes. These laboratory studies were followed up with an animal response study in which a Merino sheep group being fed the microwave treated lucerne gained 8.1% of their initial body weight by the end of the trial compared to a 0.4% increase in body weight for the control group.

  1. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight.

  2. Beet curly top virus strains associated with sugar beet in Idaho, Oregon, and a Western U.S. collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top of sugar beet is a serious, yield limiting disease in semi-arid production areas caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and transmitted by the beet leafhopper. One of the primary means of control for BCTV in sugar beet is host resistance but effectiveness of resistance can vary among BCTV ...

  3. Long distance pollen-mediated gene flow at a landscape level: the weed beet as a case study.

    PubMed

    Fénart, Stéphane; Austerlitz, Frédéric; Cuguen, Joël; Arnaud, Jean-François

    2007-09-01

    Gene flow is a crucial parameter that can affect the organization of genetic diversity in plant species. It has important implications in terms of conservation of genetic resources and of gene exchanges between crop to wild relatives and within crop species complex. In the Beta vulgaris complex, hybridization between crop and wild beets in seed production areas is well documented and the role of the ensuing hybrids, weed beets, as bridges towards wild forms in sugar beet production areas have been shown. Indeed, in contrast to cultivated beets that are bi-annual, weed beets can bolt, flower and reproduce in the same crop season. Nonetheless, the extent of pollen gene dispersal through weedy lineages remains unknown. In this study, the focus is directed towards weed-to-weed gene flow, and we report the results of a pollen-dispersal analysis within an agricultural landscape composed of five sugar beet fields with different levels of infestation by weed beets. Our results, based on paternity analysis of 3240 progenies from 135 maternal plants using 10 microsatellite loci, clearly demonstrate that even if weedy plants are mostly pollinated by individuals from the same field, some mating events occur between weed beets situated several kilometres apart (up to 9.6 km), with rates of interfield-detected paternities ranging from 11.3% to 17.5%. Moreover, we show that pollen flow appears to be more restricted when individuals are aggregated as most mating events occurred only for short-distance classes. The best-fit dispersal curves were fat-tailed geometric functions for populations exhibiting low densities of weed beets and thin-tailed Weibull function for fields with weed beet high densities. Thus, weed beet populations characterized by low density with geographically isolated individuals may be difficult to detect but are likely to act as pollen traps for pollen emitted by close and remote fields. Hence, it appears evident that interfield pollen-mediated gene flow

  4. Microbiological counts during beet sugar extraction.

    PubMed

    Robles-Gancedo, S; López-Díaz, T M; Otero, A

    2009-06-01

    In order to discover the main microbial populations present throughout the process of beet sugar extraction and to identify the steps where possible control measures could be implemented, four Spanish beet sugar extraction factories were investigated. Eighteen stages were sampled at each factory and analyzed for several microbial groups and physicochemical parameters. Beets, cossettes, and diffusion juices were the most contaminated samples during beet sugar extraction, and mesophiles, thermophiles, and yeasts were the most numerous microbiota. Differences in contamination among factories and among stages of the sugar extraction process were statistically significant (P < 0.01). Beets and cossettes showed high numbers of mesophiles and lactic acid bacteria, with gum-forming bacteria and yeasts being at levels of >6 log CFU/g. Diffusion juices were highly contaminated with aerobic mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and thermophiles. Beet-washing water, equipment, and air were also important sources of contamination; in contrast, diffusion water showed moderate levels of microorganisms due to the acid treatment performed. Gum-forming bacteria, which are present at high levels from the first step of the extraction, survive the diffusion process and remain in the diffusion juice, where they may produce "gums" responsible for obstruction of filters. Thermophiles were present, although at levels lower than expected in most samples. Other microbial groups, particularly yeasts, may also contribute to the destruction of sugar. No biocides were used during the beet sugar extraction in the factories investigated.

  5. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  6. Review on sugar beet salt stress studies in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayamim, S.; Noshad, H.; Jahadakbar, M. R.; Fotuhi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran.

  7. Incidence of the Beet Leafhopper-Transmitted Virescence Agent Phytoplasma in local Populations of the Beet Leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus, in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Munyaneza, Joseph E.; Crosslin, James M.; Upton, Jeffrey E.; Buchman, Jeremy L.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoplasma diseases are increasingly becoming important in vegetable crops in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, growers in the Columbia Basin and Yakima Valley experienced serious outbreaks of potato purple top disease that caused significant yield loss and a reduction in tuber processing quality. It was determined that the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent (BLTVA) phytoplasma was the causal agent of the disease in the area and that this pathogen was transmitted by the beet leafhopper, Circulifer tenellus Baker (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). To provide the most effective management of phytoplasmas, timing of insecticide applications targeted against insects vectoring these pathogens should be correlated with both insect abundance and infectivity. Beet leafhoppers were collected from a potato field and nearby weeds in Washington throughout the 2005, 2006, and 2007 growing seasons and tested for BLTVA by PCR to determine the incidence of this phytoplasma in the insects. In addition, overwintering beet leafhoppers were collected throughout Columbia Basin and Yakima Valley and tested for BLTVA to investigate if these insects might constitute a source of inoculum for this phytoplasma from one season to the next. Results showed that 29.6% of overwintering leafhoppers collected near potato fields carried the phytoplasma. BLTVA-infected leafhoppers were also found in both potatoes and nearby weedy habitats throughout the growing season. PCR testing indicated that a large proportion of beet leafhoppers invading potatoes were infected with the phytoplasma, with an average of 20.8, 34.8, and 9.2% in 2005, 2006, and 2007, respectively. Similarly, BLTVA infection rate in leafhoppers collected from weeds in the vicinity of potatoes averaged 28.3, 24.5, and 5.6% in 2005, 2006, and 2007, respectively. Information from this study will help develop action thresholds for beet leafhopper control to reduce incidence of purple top disease in potatoes. PMID:20578882

  8. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  9. Remote sensing of canopy dynamics and biochemical variables estimation of fodder crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Suchit K.; Das, S. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2010-04-01

    Non-destructive monitoring and diagnosis of plant nitrogen (N) concentration status is necessary for precision in N management. Leaf -N and chlorophyll (Chl) concentration of fodder crops are important indicators of plant N status. Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between canopy hyperspectral reflectance (325 to 1075 nm) and Chl or N concentration in field grown fodder crops [bajra (Pennisetum typhoides, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Kharif season and oat (Avena sativa) in Rabi season] without and with recommended dose of nitrogen of different crops. Nitrogen fertilizer application mainly affected leaf reflectance at 575 and 623 nm in sorghum, 565 and 657 nm in bajra and 563 and 716 nm in oat. The reflectance ratio at R581/R397 (R2=0.46**) and R619/R462 nm (R2=0.79***) had the highest correlation with sorghum and bajra leaf N concentration respectively with greatest R2 values. However in oat single reflectance at R542 (R2=0.53**) had the highest correlation with leaf N concentration. Similarly, sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl concentration were highly correlated with R677/R527 (R2=0.63**), R688/R409 (R2=0.71***) and R695 (R2=0.56** ), respectively. A linear relationship was found between sorghum leaf N and a simple ratio at R581/R397 (Intercept=8.85, slope=-2.64, R2=0.44). Bajra leaf N concentration was associated closely with ratio of R619/ R462, (R2= 0.78***). Oat leaf N concentration could be best estimate through single reflectance at R695 (Slope=-0.48, Intercept=0.15; R2=0.56). Similarly sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl could be best-estimated using reflectance ratio of R677/R527, R615/R411 and R695, respectively. Thus our results suggest that spectral reflectance measurements hold promise for the assessment of some physiological parameter at the leaf level real time monitoring of sorghum and bajra N status and N fertilizer management.

  10. Comparison of Biogenic Amines and Mycotoxins in Alfalfa and Red Clover Fodder Depending on Additives.

    PubMed

    Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Mlejnkova, Veronika; Kalhotka, Libor; Horky, Pavel; Konecna, Klara; Hodulikova, Lucia; Knotova, Daniela; Balabanova, Marie; Slama, Petr; Skarpa, Petr

    2017-04-14

    In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage. The experimental plot was located in Troubsko and Vatín, in the Czech Republic. Two varieties of Medicago sativa and one variety of Trifolium pratense were compared. Green fodder and subsequently produced silage reaching up to 23% of dry matter were evaluated and prepared using a bio-enzymatic additive and a chemical additive. Green fodder of Medicago sativa was more contaminated by Enterococci than Trifolium pratense fodder. The obvious difference was determined by the quality of silage leachate. The silage prepared from Medicago sativa fodder was more contaminated with butyric acid. Fungi were present in higher counts in the anaerobic environment of green fodder and contaminated it with zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Lower counts of fungi were found in silage, although the zearalenone content did not change. Lower content of deoxynivalenol was detected in silage, compared with green fodder. Silages treated with a chemical additive were found not to contain butyric acid. Lower ethanol content was determined, and the tendency to reduce the risk of biogenic amines occurrence was evident. The additives proved to have no influence on the content of mycotoxins.

  11. Comparison of Biogenic Amines and Mycotoxins in Alfalfa and Red Clover Fodder Depending on Additives

    PubMed Central

    Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Mlejnkova, Veronika; Kalhotka, Libor; Horky, Pavel; Konecna, Klara; Hodulikova, Lucia; Knotova, Daniela; Balabanova, Marie; Slama, Petr; Skarpa, Petr

    2017-01-01

    In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage. The experimental plot was located in Troubsko and Vatín, in the Czech Republic. Two varieties of Medicago sativa and one variety of Trifolium pratense were compared. Green fodder and subsequently produced silage reaching up to 23% of dry matter were evaluated and prepared using a bio-enzymatic additive and a chemical additive. Green fodder of Medicago sativa was more contaminated by Enterococci than Trifolium pratense fodder. The obvious difference was determined by the quality of silage leachate. The silage prepared from Medicago sativa fodder was more contaminated with butyric acid. Fungi were present in higher counts in the anaerobic environment of green fodder and contaminated it with zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Lower counts of fungi were found in silage, although the zearalenone content did not change. Lower content of deoxynivalenol was detected in silage, compared with green fodder. Silages treated with a chemical additive were found not to contain butyric acid. Lower ethanol content was determined, and the tendency to reduce the risk of biogenic amines occurrence was evident. The additives proved to have no influence on the content of mycotoxins. PMID:28420109

  12. Fusarium stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium stalk blight of sugar beet can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. The causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum. In addition, Fusarium solani has been demonstrated to cause a rot of sugar beet seed stalk, and other species have been reported associated with sugar beet fruit, but...

  13. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  14. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  15. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  16. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  18. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  19. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  20. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  1. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  2. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Flexible Marketing Allotments For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35...

  4. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this...

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  6. Management of severe curly top in sugar beet with insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Curtovirus species is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. The insecticide seed treatment Poncho Beta has proven to be effective in controlling curly top in sugar beet, but was only evaluated under light to moderat...

  7. Energy beets: an undiscovered crop for the Southeastern US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy beets (Beta vulgaris), which are sugar beets grown for non-food sources, are a potential winter cash crop for growers in the southeastern U.S. that are planted in the autumn and harvested in the spring, complementing current summer crop rotations. The end-product from energy beets will be in...

  8. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  9. Production of ethyl alcohol from sugar beets

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, D.H.; Doney, D.L.; Orien, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of processing sugar beets prior to fermentation of EtOH were compared. Water slurries of whole beets, expressed juice, and industrially produced diffusion juice were fermented readily by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without the addition of nutrient supplements. Yields of alcohol in both the slurries and juices were 43-47%. Heating the slurries or juices to boiling for 1 min often increased the yield of alcohol and the vigor of the fermentation; however, some yields of greater than 46% were obtained in unheated expressed juice. Difficulty in processing slurries of homogenized or ground whole beets, together with the restriction on the concentration of sugar in the slurry imposed by dilution with water, would probably favor some method of separating the beet tissues from the juice prior to fermentation in an industrial process. Alcohol yields of 4 cultivars varying in sugar content ranged from 38.4 to 46.0% of sugar and 18.0 to 26.1 gallon of alcohol per ton of fresh beets.

  10. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    PubMed

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  11. Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma

    2011-01-01

    The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban.

  12. Project 722: Seedling diseases of sugar beet – diversity and host interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In five years of testing, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. were commonly isolated from infected field-isolated diseased sugar beet seedlings. Which fungus is more commonly isolated from seedlings has varied over the seasons. For example, R. solani was the most frequently isolated pathogen in 201...

  13. First report of the stubby root nematode Paratrichodorus allius on sugar beet in Minnesota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stubby root nematodes (Paratrichodorus and Trichodorus) are migratory ectoparasites that feed on roots, transmit tobraviruses, and cause significant crop loss. In June 2015, three soil samples from a sugar beet field near Felton (Clay County), MN were submitted to the Nematology Laboratory at North ...

  14. A Colletotrichum sp. causing root rot in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In fall of 2014 sugar beets were observed in a field in Washington State with shallow, dark, firm lesions on the surface. When examined under magnification, minute black “dots” were observed on the surface of the lesions. Isolations were made from the lesions and a Colletotrichum species was consist...

  15. Seedling vigor and stand establishment: transcriptome profiling of sugar beet under temperature stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Michigan, an average of 60% of sugar beet seeds germinate and survive to harvest under field conditions, and planting occurs in early spring when soil temperatures approach 55 deg F (~12 deg C). Large temperature deviations above or below that may induce heat or cold stress that may be lead to a ...

  16. Modeling sugar content of farmer-managed sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We measured or estimated leaf and root physical and chemical traits of spatio-temporally heterogeneous field-grown sugar beet throughout its ontogeny during three growing seasons. The objective was to quantify the impact of temporal changes in these traits on root sugar content [S(R); g 100g**-1 roo...

  17. Experimental Sugar Beet Cultivars Evaluated for Resistance Bacterial Root Rot in Idaho, 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, a study was conducted to identify resistan...

  18. Commercial Sugar Beet Cultivars Evaluated for Resistance to Bacterial Root Rot in Idaho, 2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial root rot of sugar beet caused by Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum is a disease problem recently described in the United States. To ameliorate the impact of bacterial root rot on sucrose loss in the field, storage piles, and factories, a study was conducted to identify resistan...

  19. Influence of Rhizoctonia-Bacterial root rot complex on storability of sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The root rot complex, caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, can lead to yield loss in the field but may also lead to problems with sucrose loss in storage. Thus, studies were conducted to investigate if placing sugar beet roots suffering from root rot together with healthy roo...

  20. Black Tea and Lignin as Ultraviolet Protectants for the Beet Armyworm Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of major constraints to use baculoviruses for biocontrol of insect pests in field conditions is their sensitivity to breakdown by sunlight. In this study, we evaluated black tea and lignin (Reax 85A) as potential ultraviolet (UV) protectants for beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (L...

  1. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y.; Tahir, Muhammad N.; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N.; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L-1 resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that Se

  2. Selenium Supplementation Affects Physiological and Biochemical Processes to Improve Fodder Yield and Quality of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Water Deficit Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Fahim; Naeem, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad Y; Tahir, Muhammad N; Zulfiqar, Bilal; Salahuddin, Muhammad; Shabbir, Rana N; Aslam, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is one of the most complex challenges that pose serious threats to livelihoods of poor people who rely heavily on agriculture and livestock particularly in climate-sensitive developing countries of the world. The negative effects of water scarcity, due to climate change, are not limited to productivity food crops but have far-reaching consequences on livestock feed production systems. Selenium (Se) is considered essential for animal health and has also been reported to counteract various abiotic stresses in plants, however, understanding of Se regulated mechanisms for improving nutritional status of fodder crops remains elusive. We report the effects of exogenous selenium supply on physiological and biochemical processes that may influence green fodder yield and quality of maize (Zea mays L.) under drought stress conditions. The plants were grown in lysimeter tanks under natural conditions and were subjected to normal (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. Foliar spray of Se was carried out before the start of tasseling stage (65 days after sowing) and was repeated after 1 week, whereas, water spray was used as a control. Drought stress markedly reduced the water status, pigments and green fodder yield and resulted in low forage quality in water stressed maize plants. Nevertheless, exogenous Se application at 40 mg L(-1) resulted in less negative leaf water potential (41%) and enhanced relative water contents (30%), total chlorophyll (53%), carotenoid contents (60%), accumulation of total free amino acids (40%) and activities of superoxide dismutase (53%), catalase (30%), peroxidase (27%), and ascorbate peroxidase (27%) with respect to control under water deficit conditions. Consequently, Se regulated processes improved fodder yield (15%) and increased crude protein (47%), fiber (10%), nitrogen free extract (10%) and Se content (36%) but did not affect crude ash content in water stressed maize plants. We propose that

  3. Sodium Absorption by Intact Sugar Beet Plants

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Adel M; Ulrich, Albert

    1971-01-01

    Sodium absorption by intact sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris) was found to be mediated by at least two distinct mechanisms when uptake was studied over a wide range of Na and K concentrations. The first mechanism operates at low Na concentrations (<1 milliequivalent per liter); presence of K completely blocks this mechanism for Na. The second mechanism operates at high Na concentrations (>1 milliequivalent per liter), transporting Na as well as K; but apparently this mechanism is not active for Na absorption in young sugar beet plants up to the 10-leaf stage. PMID:16657872

  4. Molecular and Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Sea, Ruderal and Cultivated Beets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beta vulgaris genetic resources are essential for broadening genetic base of sugar beet and developing cultivars adapted to adverse environmental conditions. Wild beets (sea beets, B. vulgaris spp. maritima and their naturalized introgressions with cultivated beets known as ruderal beets) harbor su...

  5. Land application of sugar beet by-products: effects on runoff and percolating water quality.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Rosen, Carl J; Gupta, Satish C; McNearney, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Water quality concerns, including greater potential for nutrient transport to surface waters resulting in eutrophication and nutrient leaching to ground water, exist when agricultural or food processing industry wastes and by-products are land applied. Plot- and field-scale studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of sugar beet by-products on NO3-N and P losses and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in runoff and NO3-N concentrations in percolating waters. In the runoff plot study, treatments in the first year included two rates (224 and 448 Mg ha(-1) fresh weight) of pulp and spoiled beets and a nonfertilized control. In the second year, no by-products were applied on the treated plots, the control treatment was fertilized with N fertilizer, and an additional treatment was added as a nonfertilized control in buffer areas. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in the year of by-product application and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the following year. In the percolation field study, the treatments were the control, pulp (224 Mg ha(-)(1)), and spoiled beets (224 Mg ha(-1)). Results from the runoff plot showed that both by-products caused immobilization of soil inorganic N and thus reduced NO3-N losses in runoff and soil waters during the first growing season. There was some risk of NO3-N exceeding the drinking water limit of 10 mg L(-1), especially between the period of wheat harvest and soil freezing in fall when pulp was applied at 448 Mg ha(-1). The field-scale study showed that by-product application at 224 Mg ha(-1) did not result in increased ground water NO3-N concentrations. Application of spoiled beets at both rates caused significantly higher BODs in runoff in the first year of application. The concentrations of total and soluble reactive P (SRP) were also higher from both rates of spoiled beet application and from the higher application rate of pulp during the 2-yr study period. These high BODs and total P and SRP concentrations in runoff waters

  6. Beta maritima: the Origin of Beets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Along the undisturbed shores, especially of the Mediterranean Sea and the European North Atlantic Ocean, is a widespread plant called Beta maritima (Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima) by the botanists, or more commonly sea beet. Nothing for the inexperienced observer's eye distinguishes it from surr...

  7. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  8. Extraction and characterization of sugar beet polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 65 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We separated SBP into three fractions. The first fraction, extracted under acid conditions, was labeled pectin, the second was comprised of two sub fractions solubilized under alkaline conditions and wa...

  9. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    PubMed

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  10. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  11. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Fodder Resource Uses and Assessment of Nitrogen Flows on Livestock Farming with Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahase, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    With understanding the livestock farming on cattle breeding practiced increasing of self-production of fodders by the farmland's operation as “Livestock Farming with crop production”, we investigated the utilizations of actual fodder resources and farmland for two selected different types of livestock farming systems: “Multiple Type” which practices cattle raising with fodder cultivation, and “Grazing Type” which practices grazing and fodder cultivation with similar feed self-sufficiency rates. We also prepared and compared material and nitrogen flow of both livestock farming systems. The amount of nitrogen flow is clearly different between the two types though feed self-sufficiency rates are at similar level. Moreover, we defined “Internal Nitrogen Rate (INR)” which indicates the rate of internal nitrogen use to total nitrogen use in cattle raising, “Internal Nitrogen Circulation Rate (NCR)” which indicates the ratio of nitrogen amount in internal circulation to the nitrogen amount introduced from outside, and Nitrogen Outflow Potential (Op), which is the balance of nitrogen amount between input to farmlands and uptake by plants, and analyzed the balance of the amounts of nitrogen flows in both livestock farming type. It is suggested that “Grazing type”, which had the values of relatively high NCR and absolutely low Op, was the livestock farming type with high rates of nitrogen procurement from the interregional farming and low risk of nitrogen outflow.

  13. Probiotic preparation reduces the faecal water genotoxicity in chickens fed with aflatoxin B1 contaminated fodder.

    PubMed

    Slizewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Libudzisz, Zdzislawa; Blasiak, Janusz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a probiotic preparation on the genotoxicity of faecal water of broiler chickens fed with a fodder contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) at 1 or 5mg per kg. Human blood lymphocytes were exposed to chicken's faecal water samples and DNA damage was measured using the comet assay. Genotoxicity of faecal water did not depend on the AFB(1) concentration in the fodder. The mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tail of the comets, for chickens fed with fodder with AFB(1) at 1 mg/kg was 16.80±0.66, at 5 mg/kg - 16.73±1.51 and in the controls - 12.79±0.66. The supplementation of fodder with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 10.02±0.39 for 1 mg/kg AFB(1) and to 11.89±0.72 for 5 mg/kg.

  14. Proteome analysis of sugar beet leaves under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Hajheidari, Mohsen; Abdollahian-Noghabi, Mohammad; Askari, Hossein; Heidari, Manzar; Sadeghian, Seyed Y; Ober, Eric S; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2005-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors limiting the yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The identification of candidate genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS) could greatly improve the efficiency of breeding for increased drought tolerance. Drought-induced changes in the proteome could highlight important genes. Two genotypes of sugar beet (7112 and 7219-P.69) differing in genetic background were cultivated in the field. A line-source sprinkler irrigation system was used to apply irrigated and water deficit treatments beginning at the four-leaf stage. At 157 days after sowing, leaf samples were collected from well-watered and drought-stressed plants for protein extraction and to measure shoot biomass and leaf relative water content. Changes induced in leaf proteins were studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitatively analyzed using image analysis software. Out of more than 500 protein spots reproducibly detected and analyzed, 79 spots showed significant changes under drought. Some proteins showed genotype-specific patterns of up- or downregulation in response to drought. Twenty protein spots were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), leading to identification of Rubisco and 11 other proteins involved in redox regulation, oxidative stress, signal transduction, and chaperone activities. Some of these proteins could contribute a physiological advantage under drought, making them potential targets for MAS.

  15. Metamitron-resistant Chenopodium album from sugar beet: cross-resistance profile.

    PubMed

    Mechant, E; Bulcke, R

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, in several of the Belgian sugar beet growing regions, farmers have been confronted with unsatisfactory control of fat hen (Chenopodium album L.). Greenhouse bioassays conducted on reference C. album populations and on "suspected" populations from sugar beet fields where poor fat hen control had been observed, revealed that all "suspected" populations were resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in the modern low rate weed control programs in sugar beet. These metamitron-resistant biotypes were all cross-resistant to atrazine. Since cross-resistance, particularly negative cross-resistance or reversed resistance, is known to play a major role in resistance management, other herbicides used in sugar beet and/or in rotational crops were tested to determine the cross-resistance profile of metamitron-resistant biotypes. Greenhouse bioassays were conducted using herbicides from different chemical families representing different modes of action. Cross-resistance was found for metribuzin, lenacil and chloridazon, all HRAC Group C1 herbicides that inhibit photosynthesis at PS II. The metamitron-resistant C. album populations examined showed negative cross-resistance to S-metolachlor (HRAC Group K3: inhibition of cell division), prosuifocarb (Group N: lipid synthesis, not AC-Case, inhibition), aclonifen and clomazone (both Group F3: inhibition of carotenoid biosynthesis).

  16. Leuconostoc spp. Associated with Root Rot in Sugar Beet and Their Interaction with Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Strausbaugh, Carl A

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc spp. Initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly understood; therefore, a more thorough investigation was conducted. In total, 203 Leuconostoc isolates were collected from recently harvested sugar beet roots in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon during 2010 and 2012: 88 and 85% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 6 and 15% L. pseudomesenteroides, 2 and 0% L. kimchi, and 4 and 0% unrecognized Leuconostoc spp., respectively. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, haplotype 11 (L. mesenteroides isolates) comprised 68 to 70% of the isolates in both years. In pathogenicity field studies with commercial sugar beet 'B-7', all Leuconostoc isolates caused more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) when combined with R. solani than when inoculated alone in both years. Also, 46 of the 52 combination treatments over the 2 years had significantly more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) than the fungal check. The data support the conclusion that a synergistic interaction leads to more rot when both Leuconostoc spp. and R. solani are present in sugar beet roots.

  17. Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

  18. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  19. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

    PubMed Central

    Pestsova, Elena; Meinhard, Juliane; Menze, Andreas; Fischer, Uwe; Windhövel, Andrea; Westhoff, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. Results To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Conclusion This study provides an important step

  20. The origin and evolution of weed beets: consequences for the breeding and release of herbicide-resistant transgenic sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Boudry, P; Mörchen, M; Saumitou-Laprade, P; Vernet, P; Van Dijk, H

    1993-12-01

    Populations of weed beets have expanded into European sugar beet production areas since the 1970s, thereby forming a serious new weed problem for this crop. We sampled seeds in different French populations and studied mitochondrial DNA, chloroplast DNA and life-cycle variability. Given the maternal inheritance of the mitochondrial and chloroplastic genomes and the nuclear determinism of the annual habit, we were able to determine the maternal origin and evolution of these weed beet populations. Our study shows that they carry the dominant allele "B" for annual habit at high frequency. The main cytoplasmic DNA type found in northern weed beet populations is the cytoplasmic male-sterile type characteristic of sugar beets. We were able to determine that these populations arise from seeds originating from the accidental pollinations of cultivated beets by adventitious beets in the seed production area, which have been transported to the regions where sugar beets are cultivated. These seeds are supposedly the origin of the weed forms and a frequently disturbed cultivated environment has selected for annual habit and early flowering genotypes. We discuss the consequences of the weed beet populations for the breeding, seed production and release of herbicide-resistant transgenic sugar beets.

  1. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  2. Developments in beet and cane sugar extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, C.; Schwartzberg, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the various types of extractors used in the extraction of sugar from beet and sugar cane. The types of extractors described are as follows:- Countercurrent Screw - Conveyor Extractors, (Tower Extractors, Slope Extractors), Countercurrent Drag Chain Extractors, Multistage Cross-Flow Extractors, Trommel Extractors, Multistage Scroll Extractors, Diffustion Batteries. Reduced capital costs and power expenditures and slightly higher cane sugar yields can be obtained by combined milking and diffusion extraction as opposed to multi-stage milling. The mechanical reliability of the machinery is emphasized and special attention is given to extraction procedures. Nowadays the trend in beet and cane sugar extraction is toward the use of larger and larger units which helps minimize labor and capital costs per unit of product.

  3. Sugar beet ( L.) growth reduction caused by hydrochar is related to nitrogen supply.

    PubMed

    Gajić, Ana; Koch, Heinz-Josef

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization allows rapid conversion of biomass into a carbon-rich, lignite-like product (hydrochar). It is assumed to have beneficial effects on soil properties and plant growth, but detailed studies are lacking, especially in the field. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of hydrochar incorporated into arable soils on soil mineral nitrogen (N) content and sugar beet growth. In 2010-2011, a field and a pot trial were conducted. Hydrochars (field: 10 Mg ha; pot: equivalent to 30 Mg ha) processed from sugar beet pulp (HSP) and beer draff (HBD) were tested against an untreated control. As a second factor, mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer level (field: 0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha; pot: 0, 100, 200 mg N kg soil) was varied. In both trials, hydrochars reduced initial sugar beet growth, especially when hydrochar with a high C/N ratio (38, HSP) was combined with a low N fertilizer level; high N supply partly compensated for the reduced seedling growth. Without N fertilization, no extractable N was present at the end of the pot trial in the HSP treatment, whereas in HBD even more N was extracted than in the control. This suggests remineralization of previously immobilized N when hydrochar with a low C/N ratio was applied (16, HBD). In the field, beet yield was equal at the high N fertilizer level in HSP and at all N levels in HBD treatment. Our results suggest that hydrochar can decrease plant-available N due to N immobilization. Other potential causes for the observed early growth reduction need to be studied more in detail.

  4. Effect of seed stimulation on germination and sugar beet yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prośba-Białczyk, U.; Szajsner, H.; Grzyś, E.; Demczuk, A.; Sacała, E.; Bąk, K.

    2013-03-01

    Germination and sugar beet yield after seed stimulation were investigated. The seeds came from the energ'hill technology and were subject to laser irradiation. The experiments were conducted in the laboratory and field conditions. Lengthening of germinal roots and hypocotyls was observed. A positive effect of the stimulation on the morphological features was observed for the Eh seeds and laser irradiation applied in a three-fold dose. The energ'hill seeds exhibited a significantly higher content of carotenoids in seedlings and an increase in the content of chlorophylls. Laser light irradiation favourably modified the ratio of chlorophyll a to b. The leaves and roots of plants developed from the energ'hill and irradiated seeds were characterized by higher dry matter content thanin non-stimulated seeds. Seed stimulation had a positive influence on yielding and the saccharose content.

  5. Improving the properties of fodder potato protein concentrate by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Miedzianka, J; Pęksa, A; Pokora, M; Rytel, E; Tajner-Czopek, A; Kita, A

    2014-09-15

    Protein hydrolysates of profitable properties were prepared from the fodder potato protein concentrate. The hydrolysis process was performed with the use of commercial available enzyme (Alcalase) over a 2 and 4 h incubation period. Chemical and amino acid composition as well as functional properties of resultant hydrolysates were determined. A 2 h long process occurred profitable to obtain preparations of well balanced amino acid composition as well as proved functional properties. The industrial preparation, modified within proteolytic enzyme, totally soluble (average 98%), was characterised by fivefold higher oil holding capacity (average 5.4 cm(3)/g) and much better foam capacity (more than 150%) as compared to the material underwent modification (13.00%, 2.1 cm(3)/g and 5.33%, respectively). Presented results suggested potential use of fodder potato protein not destined directly for food purposes as the suitable product for preparations characterised by high nutritive value and functional properties.

  6. Direct fermentation of fodder maize, chicory fructans and perennial ryegrass to hydrogen using mixed microflora.

    PubMed

    Kyazze, G; Dinsdale, R; Hawkes, F R; Guwy, A J; Premier, G C; Donnison, I S

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the feasibility of producing hydrogen by direct fermentation of fodder maize, chicory fructooligosaccharides and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in batch culture (pH 5.2-5.3, 35 degrees C, heat-treated anaerobically digested sludge inoculum). Gas was produced from each substrate and contained up to 50-80% hydrogen during the peak periods of gas production with the remainder carbon dioxide. Hydrogen yields obtained were 62.4+/-6.1mL/g dry matter added for fodder maize, 218+/-28mL/g chicory fructooligosaccharides added, 75.6+/-8.8mL H(2)/g dry matter added for wilted perennial ryegrass and 21.8+/-8mL H(2)/g dry matter added for fresh perennial ryegrass. Butyrate, acetate and ethanol were the main soluble fermentation products. Hydrogen yields of 392-501m(3)/hectare of perennial ryegrass per year and 1060-1309m(3)/hectare of fodder maize per year can be obtained based on the UK annual yield per hectare of these crops. These results significantly extend the range of substrates that can be used for hydrogen production without pre-treatment.

  7. Brief History of Cercospora Leaf Spot of Sugar Beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is most likely native to western and southern Asia and is believed to have arrived in Europe via the Mediterranean countries through Egypt. The cultivation of sugar beet as an alternate source of sugar is attributed Andreas Siegmund Marggraf in the 1740s. Subsequent pro...

  8. Enzymatic degradation studies of pectin and cellulose from red beets.

    PubMed

    Dongowski, G

    2001-10-01

    The influence of structural features of the cell wall polysaccharides pectin and cellulose on the enzymatic degradation of red beet was evaluated. Alcohol-insoluble substances and acetone-insoluble residues were prepared from red beets and characterized with respect to the content of dietary fibre, pectin fractions, neutral saccharide composition and water absorption. The high-methylated and high-acetylated pectin component was partly soluble in water and in EDTA. Pectin was hardly extractable from alcohol-insoluble substances as well as from red beets. Isolated pectin could not be completely degraded by pectolytic enzymes. After de-acetylation, the pectic acid from red beets was degradable in a similar rate like citrus pectic acid. From alcohol-insoluble substances, several cellulose and lignin fractions were prepared and analysed. A cellulose preparation from red beets was intensely degraded by cellulases with high activities as shown by the release of reducing end-groups, viscosity and scanning electron microscopy. Cell wall preparations from red beets were able to bind high amounts of water. A decrease in water absorption during enzymatic action or changes in viscosity and flow behaviour are sensitive markers for decomposition or depolymerization processes. Furthermore, an inhibitor of microbial enzymes was isolated from red beets and acetone-insoluble residues. The main reason for the poor enzymatic liquefaction or maceration of red beets by pectolytic and cellulolytic enzymes is the high degree of acetylation of the pectin component.

  9. Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

  10. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  11. Fusarium Wilt and Yellows of Sugar Beet and Dry Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Central High Plains (Colorado, Nebraska and Wyoming) is among the largest producer of dry edible beans and sugar beets in the United States. Sugar beet is an important cash crop in northeastern Colorado with approximately 30,000 acres planted and 944,000 tons harvested in 2012. Approximately 250...

  12. Initial assessment of energy beets in the Southeast Coastal Plain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Energy beets as a non-food biofuel feedstock can help the U.S. achieve its renewable fuel goals, but with current emphasis on cellulosic feedstocks, there has been minimal research and development effort for energy beets in commercial bioconversion operations. Research was initiated to examine and ...

  13. Biosynthetic origin of geosmin in red beets (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lu, Guiping; Edwards, Charles G; Fellman, John K; Mattinson, D Scott; Navazio, John

    2003-02-12

    Geosmin provides the characteristic but sometimes undesirable "earthy" flavor to red table beets. To date, it is not known whether geosmin is a byproduct of beet metabolism or synthesized by soil-borne microorganisms and taken up by the beets during maturation. Analysis of mature beet roots revealed that peels contained 6 times the amount of geosmin compared to the bodies and cores. Sterilized beet seeds were aseptically grown in a basal medium prior to analysis for the presence of geosmin. Using a headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSPME) method, the relative recovery of geosmin from beet seedling extracts was 72.0 +/- 4.2% with (-)-menthone as the internal standard. The presence of geosmin in aseptically grown beet seedlings was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using authentic geosmin as the standard. During aseptic growth, the concentration of geosmin in seedlings remained constant for up to 5 months but increased at 6 months. Geosmin added to the growth medium was not absorbed by the seedlings. These studies support the conclusion that red beets are capable of endogenous synthesis of geosmin.

  14. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    PubMed

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  15. An industrial hygiene evaluation of beet sugar processing plants.

    PubMed

    Mann, J H

    1990-06-01

    Industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at seven beet sugar processing plants to evaluate worker exposures to chemical contaminants used or generated in the process. Personal air sampling used to evaluate worker exposures showed overexposures to calcium oxide, carbon monoxide, respirable coal dust, sulfur dioxide, and sugar dust. The beet sugar industry is an old industry, lacking engineering controls found in many other industries.

  16. Analyzing the genomes of wild and cultivated beets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet is an important crop plant that accounts for roughly 25% of the world's sugar production per year. We have previously shown that sugar beet has a quite narrow genetic base, presumably due to a domestication bottleneck. To increase the crop ´s stress tolerance, the introduction of desirabl...

  17. Identification of unknown sterile fungi as Rhizoctonia zeae and potential for biological control for fungal root diseases of sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several soilborne diseases routinely damage sugar beet in production areas of the Central High Plains, and it is becoming more common to find fields infested simultaneously with multiple pathogens. Due to a shortage of available fungicides for effective management of multiple diseases, alternative ...

  18. Evaluation of Rhizoctonia zeae as a potential biological control option for fungal root diseases of sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Several common root diseases routinely damage sugar beet in Nebraska and other production areas of the Central High Plains, and it is becoming more common to find fields infested simultaneously with multiple pathogens. Due to the lack of available chemicals for economic management of soilborne dise...

  19. Glyphosate and fungicide effects on Cercospora leaf spot in four glyphosate-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) varieties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential for improved management of Cercospora leaf spot [CLS (Cercospora beticola)] using the herbicide glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant sugar beet varieties was investigated. Controlled field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine if glyphosate and glyphosate-fungicide co...

  20. First report of strobilurin resistance in Cercospora beticola in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in Michigan and Nebraska, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most important foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) worldwide. CLS is controlled mainly with fungicides, including strobilurins (FRAC group 11). Resistance to strobilurins in C. beticola has not been reported in the field ...

  1. The origin of metamitron resistant Chenopodium album populations in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Aper, J; De Riek, J; De Cauwer, B; Bulcke, R; Reheul, D

    2012-01-01

    Chenopodium album L. is a major weed in spring-planted crops in the temperate regions of the world. Since 2000, farmers have reported an unsatisfactory control of this weed in sugar beet fields in Belgium, France and The Netherlands. Frequently, the surviving C. album plants are resistant to metamitron, a key herbicide in this crop. Metamitron resistance in C. album is caused by a Ser264 to Gly mutation in the psbA gene on the chloroplast genome, which prevents binding of metamitron to its target site. This mutation causes also resistance to other herbicides with a similar mode of action, like metribuzin -applied in potato- and atrazine in particular. Atrazine has been applied very frequently in maize in the 1970s and the 1980s, but is now banned in Europe due to environmental reasons. The persistent use of atrazine in maize confronted Belgian and other European farmers in the early 1980s with atrazine resistant C. album with the same Ser264 to Gly mutation. The problems with atrazine resistant C. album disappeared when other herbicides were applied in maize. Unfortunately, this is not the case for metamitron resistant C. album in sugar beet, because no replacement herbicide is readily available. The history of atrazine use in maize brought up a question concerning the origin of the current metamitron resistant C. album populations. Have these populations been selected locally by regular use of metamitron in sugar beet or did the selection occur earlier by atrazine use when maize was grown in the same fields? This would have serious implications regarding the reversibility of herbicide resistance. Therefore, soil samples were collected on 16 fields with different histories: five fields with an organic management over 25 years, two fields with a history of atrazine resistant C. album, five fields with metamitron resistant C. album in sugar beet and four fields which were under permanent grassland for 10 years, preceded by a regular rotation in which sugar beet was a

  2. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  3. Influence of harvest timing, fungicides, and Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus on sugar beet storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root rots in sugar beet storage can lead to million dollar losses because of reduced sucrose recovery. Thus, studies were conducted to establish better chemical control options and a better understanding of the fungi involved in the rot complex. A water check and three fungicides (Mertect, Propuls...

  4. The role of sugar beet pulp polysaccharides in the sustainability of the sugar beet industry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet pulp was sequentially extracted with a microwave heating source under pressure to produce pectin, alkaline soluble polysaccharides and cellulose, which was converted into carboxymethyl-cellulose. The solution physical-chemical properties of these polysaccharides were compared to those obt...

  5. Beta vulgaris L. serine proteinase inhibitor gene expression correlates to insect pest resistance in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Analyzing genes that can be used for improving sugar beet resistance to the sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis Roder), one of the most destructive insect pests of sugar beet in North America, was a major goal in our investigation. We report on the expression patterns of a sugar beet...

  6. Kimberly sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet germplasm lines with resistance to BNYVV and storage rots, 11germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Kimberly sugar beet program were screened. The lines wer...

  7. Control of curly top in sugar beet with seed and foliar insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top in sugar beet is a serious widespread problem that is caused by Beet curly top virus and other closely species and vectored by the beet leafhopper. In order to find a means of reducing curly top in sugar beet, 15 combinations of insecticide seed (Poncho, Poncho Beta, and Poncho Votivo) an...

  8. Milled industrial beet color kinetics and total soluble solid contents by image analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Industrial beets are an emerging feedstock for biofuel and bioproducts industry in the US. Milling of industrial beets is the primary step in front end processing (FEP) for ethanol production. Milled beets undergo multiple pressings with water addition during raw beet juice extraction, and extracted...

  9. Endosperm: food for humankind and fodder for scientific discoveries.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Berger, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    The endosperm is an essential constituent of seeds in flowering plants. It originates from a fertilization event parallel to the fertilization that gives rise to the embryo. The endosperm nurtures embryo development and, in some species including cereals, stores the seed reserves and represents a major source of food for humankind. Endosperm biology is characterized by specific features, including idiosyncratic cellular controls of cell division and epigenetic controls associated with parental genomic imprinting. This review attempts a comprehensive summary of our current knowledge of endosperm development and highlights recent advances in this field.

  10. Impact of presowing laser irradiation of seeds on sugar beet properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacała, E.; Demczuk, A.; Grzyś, E.; Prośba-Białczyk, U.; Szajsner, H.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to establish the influence of biostimulation on the sugar beet seeds. The seeds came from the specialized breeding program energ'hill or were irradiated by the laser in two doses. The impact of the biostimulation was analyzed by determining the nitrate reductase activity and the nitrate, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents in leaves, as well as, the dry matter and sugar concentration in mature roots. The field experiment was established for two sugar beet cultivars. Biostimulation by irradiation and a special seed breeding program energ'hill had a positive influence on some examined parameters (particularly on nitrate reductase activity in Ruveta and in numerous cases on photosynthetic pigments in both cultivars). Regarding the dry matter accumulation and sugar concentration this impact was more favourable for Tiziana than for Ruveta cultivar.

  11. Assessment of change in soil water content properties irrigated with industrial sugar beet wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Sayyed Hassan; Najafi, Payam; Amini, Hussein

    2007-05-15

    In this research the effect of industrial sugar beet wastewater has been assessed on the soil water content properties in summer 2005. The evaluated parameters were the soil water content points such as Saturation Percent (SP), Field Capacity (FC), Permanent Wilting Point (PWP), gravitational water and Total Available Water (TAW). The pilot design was fully randomized with three replications and three treatments. The three treatments were: 1-normal water, 2-industrial sugar beet wastewater (50%) and normal water (50%) and 3-sugar beet wastewater (100%). The experiments have been carried out in the field, in 21 columns with the diameter 110 mm and the height of 400 mm. The soil was irrigated using surface irrigation method for 12 events with a constant volume and period. Based on the result, the SP, FC and PWP initial value were 46.5, 35 and 15%, respectively for all the treatments. At the end of the period, the values changed to 47, 36.6 and 17.5% for T2. They are also increased significantly to 48.5, 37 and 18.7% for T3 at the end of the period. The increasing of soil Organic Matter (OM) during the period is expected to be the main factor for this change. The result shows that although the FC and PWP parameters are increased during the period but TAW decreased significantly from the 20 to 18.5%. The other effects of wastewater on soil and leached water quality should be evaluated too.

  12. In vitro evaluation of different varieties of maize fodder for their methane generation potential and digestibility with goat rumen liquor

    PubMed Central

    Vaswani, Shalini; Kumar, Ravindra; Kumar, Vinod; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the methane generation potential and digestibility of different (normal and three high-quality protein maize [HQPM]) varieties of maize fodder with goat rumen liquor in vitro. Materials and Methods: Methane production potential and digestibility of different varieties of maize fodder were tested in in vitro gas production test. Seven varieties of maize, four normal (HTHM 5101, DHM 117, HM 5, and Shaktiman/900 M Gold), and three high-quality protein (HQPM 5, HQPM 7, and HQPM 9/Vivek) were grown in different plots under the same environmental and agro-climatic conditions. Fodders were harvested at 45-50 days of sowing, and the representative samples of fodder from different varieties of maize were collected for analysis. Dried and grinded form of these maize fodder varieties was tested for gas, methane, and digestibility using goat rumen microflora in in vitro gas syringes. Results: Gas production (ml/g dry matter [DM]) was highest for HM5 variety (97.66, whereas lowest for HQPM 9 variety (64.22). Gas production (ml/g degraded DM [DDM]) and methane (%) were statistically similar in different varieties of maize fodder. The methane production expressed as ml/g DM and ml/g DDM was significantly (p<0.05) highest for HM 5 (14.22 and 26.62) and lowest for DHM 117 variety (7.47 and 14.13). The in vitro DM digestibility (%) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (%) varied from 47.48 (HQPM 5) to 52.05 (HQPM 9) and 50.03 (HQPM 7) to 54.22 (HM 5), respectively. Conclusion: The present study concluded that DHM 117 maize variety fodder has lowest methane generation potential and incorporating it in the dietary regime of ruminants may contribute to lower methane production. PMID:27956770

  13. [Rapid determination of beet sugar content using near infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Ren, Jian; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Zhao, Li-Ying; Li, Mao-Mao

    2014-10-01

    In order to classify and set different prices on basis of difference of beet sugar content in the acquisition process and promote the development of beet sugar industry healthily, a fast, nondestructive, accurate method to detect sugar content of beet was determined by applying near infrared spectroscopy technology. Eight hundred twenty samples from 28 representative varieties of beet were collected as calibration set and 70 samples were chosen as prediction set. Then near infrared spectra of calibration set samples were collected by scanning, effective information was extracted from NIR spectroscopy, and the original spectroscopy data was optimized by data preprocessing methods appropriately. Then partial least square(PLS)regression was used to establish beet sugar quantitative prediction mathematical model. The performances of the models were evaluated by the root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV), the coefficient of determination (R2) of the calibration model and the standard error of prediction (SEP), and the predicted results of these models were compared. Results show that the established mathematical model by using first derivative (FD) and standard normal variate transformation (SNV) coupled with partial least squares has good predictive ability. The R2 of calibration models of sugar content of beet is 0.908 3, and the RMSECV is 0.376 7. Using this model to forecast the prediction set including 70 samples, the correlation coefficient is 0.921 4 between predicted values and measured values, and the standard error of prediction (SEP) is 0.439, without significant difference (p > 0.05) between predicted values and measured values. These results demonstrated that NIRS can take advantage of simple, rapid, nondestructive and environmental detection method and could be applied to predict beet sugar content. This model owned high accuracy and can meet the precision need of determination of beet sugar content. This detection method could be used to classify

  14. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    PubMed

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes.

  15. Stachybotrys atra Growth and Toxin Production in Some Building Materials and Fodder under Different Relative Humidities

    PubMed Central

    Nikulin, Marjo; Pasanen, Anna-Liisa; Berg, Seija; Hintikka, Eeva-Liisa

    1994-01-01

    Growth of Stachybotrys atra and its toxin production on some building materials and in animal fodder were studied at relative humidities ranging from 78 to 100%. Toxins were detected by biological assays and chemical methods. Strong growth of the fungus and presence of macrocyclic trichothecenes, mainly satratoxins G and H, were detected on wallpaper and gypsum boards and in hay and straw at saturation conditions. On pine panels, S. atra grew well, but neither biological toxicity nor production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was observed. PMID:16349391

  16. Beet sugar refining applications: Hydrate freeze separation program: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    The beet sugar segment is the most energy intensive of the food products industry, consuming some 40 trillion Btu per year of primary fuel (the equivalent of over 13.5 million barrels a year of oil). It takes about 6700 Btu to refine 1 pound of sugar from beets. Changing factory operations to use freeze crystallization as outlined in this report and demonstrated in this program, the energy use in the industry can be reduced by about 40%. A project to accomplish full scale changes in a factory is projected to have a simple payback of just over 3 years. The sugar industry now loses about 15% of the sugar extracted from the beet. This sugar is lost in the molasses, the concentrated impurities that are extracted with sugar from the beet. One proposed use of this process described in this report is to recover a fraction of this sugar that is now lost. 28 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. Successful application of dextranase in sugar beet factories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dextranases are sometimes applied to hydrolyze dextran polysaccharide in sugar manufacture when bacterial deterioration of sugar beet has occurred. Unfortunately, dextranases only have a small market and low volume sales compared to many other industrial enzymes. Consequently, research and develop...

  18. Bioremediation and fodder potentials of two Sargassum spp. in coastal waters of Shenzhen, South China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zonghe; Zhu, Xiaoshan; Jiang, Yuelu; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun

    2014-08-30

    In this study, the bioremediation potentials of two seaweeds (Sargassum hemiphyllum and S. henslowianum) against pollution in a coastal mariculture area of Shenzhen, South China, were investigated by comparing the growth, nutrient bioaccumulation capacity of plants from the seaweed bed (control site) with plants from the fish farm. Results indicated that both species are potential candidates for bioremediation in the fish farm areas in terms of their high growth rates and high bioaccumulation capacities on inorganic nutrients. Both Sargassum spp. contain high levels of crude protein (11.7-14.0%) and crude fat (2.2-2.7%), suggesting high nutritional values. The S. hemiphyllum may serve as a good aquaculture fodder with high nutritional compositions and low heavy metal contents. However, heavy metals (Cr, Pb and Cd) of S. henslowianum exceed the maximum allowable concentrations as aquatic feed, which restricts its fodder application. In general, the results of this study may contribute to the marine pollution bioremediation in the coastal areas of South China, especially in mariculture zones.

  19. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cloning of the coat protein gene from beet necrotic yellow vein virus and its expression in sugar beet hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, U; Commandeur, U; Frank, R; Landsmann, J; Koenig, R; Burgermeister, W

    1991-06-01

    Expression of the beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) coat protein (CP) gene in transgenic sugar beet hairy roots was accomplished as a step towards CP-mediated virus resistance. A cDNA for the CP gene and its 5' terminal untranslated leader sequence was prepared from BNYVV RNA, using two oligodeoxynucleotides to prime the synthesis of both strands. Second-strand synthesis and amplification of the cDNA were done by Taq DNA polymerase chain reactions. Run-off transcripts of the cloned cDNA sequence were obtained and translated in vitro, yielding immunoreactive CP. A binary vector construction containing the CP gene under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus was prepared and used for Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of sugar beet tissue. Stable integration and expression of the CP gene in sugar beet hairy roots was demonstrated by Southern, Northern, and Western blot analysis, respectively.

  1. Environmental implications of gene flow from sugar beet to wild beet--current status and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Detlef; Cuguen, Joel; Biancardi, Enrico; Sweet, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Gene flow via seed or pollen is a basic biological process in plant evolution. The ecological and genetic consequences of gene flow depend on the amount and direction of gene flow as well as on the fitness of hybrids. The assessment of potential risks of transgenic plants should take into account the fact that conventional crops can often cross with wild plants. The precautionary approach in risk management of genetically modified plants (GMPs) may make it necessary to monitor significant wild and weed populations that might be affected by transgene escape. Gene flow is hard to control in wind-pollinated plants like beet (Beta vulgaris). In addition, wild beet populations potentially can undergo evolutionary changes which might expand their geographical distribution. Unintended products of cultivated beets pollinated by wild beets are weed beets that bolt and flower during their first year of planting. Weed beets cause yield losses and can delay harvest. Wild beets are important plant genetic resources and the preservation of wild beet diversity in Europe has been considered in biosafety research. We present here the methodology and research approaches that can be used for monitoring the geographical distribution and diversity of Beta populations. It has recently been shown that a century of gene flow from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris has not altered the genetic diversity of wild Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcang. in the Italian sugar beet seed production area. Future research should focus on the potential evolution of transgenic wild beet populations in comparison to these baseline data. Two monitoring models are presented describing how endpoints can be measured: (1) "Pre-post" crop commercialization against today's baseline and (2) "Parallel" to crop commercialization against GMP free reference areas/ populations. Model 2 has the advantage of taking ongoing changes in genetic diversity and population dynamics into account. Model 1 is more applicable if

  2. [Physiological responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to drought stress during vegetative development period under drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yang; Geng, Qing-yun; Fei, Cong; Fan, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Beta 356) was subjected to drought stress during vegetative development by maintaining the soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil depth at 70%, 50% or 30% of field capacity to study the physiological traits of the leaves. Results showed that the compensation index was the highest in the 50% field capacity treatment. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, catalase (CAT) activity, and soluble sugar content began to increase 24 h after rehydration. Proline content began to increase 48 h after rehydration. In contrast, no compensation effect was observed in peroxidase (POD) activity after rehydration. Among the active oxygen scavenging enzymes, CAT was most sensitive to drought stress. Supplemental irrigation should be carried out promptly when the soil water content dropped to 50% of field capacity during vegetative development. Rehydration could promote self-repair functions in leaves, thus reducing the effects of drought on sugar beet yield and sugar content.

  3. Functional traits as indicators of fodder provision over a short time scale in species-rich grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Ansquer, Pauline; Duru, Michel; Theau, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fodder provision in species-rich grasslands, i.e. herbage growth, proportion of leaf, and leaf and stem digestibility, is difficult to predict for short periods of time, such as between two defoliations or less. The value of two methods based on plant traits for evaluating these agronomic properties was examined. Methods One method is based on plant trait measurements on the plant community (leaf dry matter content, plant height, flowering date); the other is on vegetation composition expressed as plant functional types (acquisitive versus conservative PFTs) established by measuring leaf dry matter content on pure grass stands. The experiment consisted of 18 fields with three different defoliation regimes (combinations of cutting and grazing) and two levels of fertilization. To establish a growth curve over the first growth cycle, herbage was sampled about 10 times in spring. Key Results Coefficients of correlation between agronomic properties of the vegetation and its functional composition were higher when the latter was assessed through PFT and an indicator of the plant nutrient status (Ni) instead of measured plant traits. The date at which the ceiling yield occurred for the standing herbage mass or only the leaf component, which varied by up to 500 degree-days between treatments, and the leaf proportion, depended entirely on the PFT, and largely so for the leaf digestibility. The standing herbage mass at the time of ceiling yield depended only on Ni, or mainly so in the case of the daily herbage growth rate. Similar plant digestibility between plant communities was found at flowering time, although there were big differences in PFT composition. The shape of the growth curve was flatter when there was great functional diversity in the plant community. Conclusions The PFT composition and the Ni were more reliable than the plant functional traits measured in the field for evaluating herbage growth pattern and digestibility in spring. PMID

  4. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Gap-Don

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (p<0.0001) and affected color traits. Lightness of emulsified pork sausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p<0.01), whereas lightness with red beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4℃ (p<0.05). Redness dramatically increased with red beet powder (p<0.0001). Color by sensory evaluation also showed a significant effect from red beet addition (p<0.05), whereas the other sensory properties such as flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not affected by the addition of red beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products.

  5. The Assessment of Red Beet as a Natural Colorant, and Evaluation of Quality Properties of Emulsified Pork Sausage Containing Red Beet Powder during Cold Storage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Moon, Sung-Sil; Jeong, Jin-Yeon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess red beet as a natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage and to investigate the effect of red beet on quality characteristics of emulsified pork sausage during 20 d of cold storage. Red beet was prepared as a powder and a substitute with sodium nitrite at 0.5% and 1.0% levels in emulsified pork sausage. Red beet significantly increased the moisture content and pH (p<0.0001) and affected color traits. Lightness of emulsified pork sausage decreased by the addition of red beet powder (p<0.01), whereas lightness with red beet treatments slightly increased during 20 d of cold storage at 4℃ (p<0.05). Redness dramatically increased with red beet powder (p<0.0001). Color by sensory evaluation also showed a significant effect from red beet addition (p<0.05), whereas the other sensory properties such as flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not affected by the addition of red beet powder (p>0.05). Texture and 2-thiobabituric acid reactive substance were also not affected by red beet addition (p>0.05). Therefore, red beet could be a good natural colorant in emulsified pork sausage but it needs additional processing, such as betalain concentration and extraction as a juice, to be used as an antioxidant in meat products. PMID:26761285

  6. Use of the GFP reporter as a vital marker for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, C L; Chen, D F; McCormac, A C; Scott, N W; Elliott, M C; Slater, A

    2001-02-01

    Molecular approaches to sugar beet improvement will benefit from an efficient transformation procedure that does not rely upon exploitation of selectable marker genes such as those which confer antibiotic or herbicide resistance upon the transgenic plants. The expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal has been investigated during a program of research that was designed to address the need to increase the speed and efficiency of selection of sugar beet transformants. It was envisaged that the GFP reporter could be used initially as a supplement to current selection regimes in order to help eliminate "escapes" and perhaps eventually as a replacement marker in order to avoid the public disquiet associated with antibiotic/herbicide-resistance genes in field-released crops. The sgfp-S65T gene has been modified to have a plant-compatible codon usage, and a serine to threonine mutation at position 65 for enhanced fluorescence under blue light. This gene, under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was introduced into sugar beet via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Early gene expression in cocultivated sugar beet cultures was signified by green fluorescence several days after cocultivation. Stably transformed calli, which showed green fluorescence at a range of densities, were obtained at frequencies of 3-11% after transferring the inoculated cultures to selection media. Cocultivated shoot explants or embryogenic calli were regularly monitored under the microscope with blue light when they were transferred to media without selective agents. Green fluorescent shoots were obtained at frequencies of 2-5%. It was concluded that the sgfp-S65T gene can be used as a vital marker for noninvasive screening of cells and shoots for transformation, and that it has potential for the development of selectable marker-free transgenic sugar beet.

  7. A preliminary study on genotypic differences in transcript abundance of drought-responsive genes in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Abazar; Ranji, Zabihallah; Griffiths, Zhoward; Ober, Eric S

    2007-10-15

    In this study, four sugar beet genotypes of differing responses to drought were selected from a field experiment conducted under well-watered and water-limited conditions in 2004. In addition, two candidate genes: 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin (2-cys prx) and Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase (NDPK), thought to be associated with drought tolerance, were chosen from a previous proteomics study in sugar beet. An expression analysis of the two drought-regulated genes using semi-quantitative reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that there were genotypic differences in the transcript abundance of the candidate genes with the differences in the expression level of 2-cys prx being likely associated with the drought responses of the genotypes in a two-year field study. However, the expression analysis of the genes has to be investigated at different stages of the stress period on more genotypes.

  8. Metal levels in fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues sampled in ovine farms of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Rosa; Sabia, Serena; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Macchiato, Maria; Anastasio, Aniello; Ragosta, Maria; Paino, Salvatore

    2005-09-01

    We measured Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, and Pb levels in samples of fodder, milk, dairy products, and tissues collected from 12 ovine farms in the regions of Campania and Calabria (Southern Italy). The areas in which the farms are located show different levels of anthropogenic pressure. The main purpose of this study is the identification and the analysis of relationships among metal concentrations observed in samples representative of different links in the food chain. Particularly, we apply univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical techniques to identify the correlation structure of our data set and to evaluate the influence of anthropogenic activity. We discuss the results, focusing the analysis on the spatial and the temporal patterns of metal concentrations.

  9. Management of curly top in sugar beet with seed and foliar insecticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top in sugar beet can result in severe yield losses and is caused by Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and other closely related Curtovirus spp. which are vectored by the beet leafhopper. Neonicotinoid seed treatments (Cruiser, NipsIt, and Poncho) have been shown to be an effective suppleme...

  10. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS plant introduction lines, 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to iden...

  11. Ft. Collins sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and four check cultivars were screened for resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the causal agent of rhizomania, and storage rot. The rhizomania evaluation was conducted at the USDA-ARS...

  12. Evaluation of fungicide and biological treatments for control of fungal storage rots in sugar beet, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preventing sucrose losses in storage is important to the economic viability of the sugar beet industry. In an effort to establish additional measures for reducing sucrose losses in storage, ten fungicide and/or biological treatments were evaluated on sugar beet roots in a commercial sugar beet stor...

  13. Beet curly top resistance in germplasm from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins program, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ninety-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program, a resistant control germplasm (1996A008), and three commercial control cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible), Monohikari (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for response to Beet ...

  14. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS plant introduction lines, 2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to iden...

  15. [Transposition of the maize transposable element dSpm in transgenic sugar beets].

    PubMed

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic sugar beet plants carrying maize Spmn/dSpm transposable elements system have been constructed. Heterologous system of maize transposable elements Spm/dSpm was active in transgenic sugar beets that permits transposon-based gene tagging and obtaining of marker-free transgenic sugar beet.

  16. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS Kimberly germplasm lines, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to identify no...

  17. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

  18. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J.

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  19. Variability in Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beets in the United States – Final Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium yellows can cause significant reduction in root yield, sucrose percentage and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Research in our laboratory and others on variability in Fusarium oxysporum associated with sugar beets demonstrated that isolates that are pathogenic on sugar beet can be hig...

  20. Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Sugar Beet Farms. Agricultural Economic Report Number 584.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clauson, Annette L.; Hoff, Frederic L.

    This report analyzes production and financial characteristics of sugar beet producers in seven regions. Section 1 examines the structural characteristics of U.S. sugar beet producers. Sugar beet production; land use, tenure, irrigation, and livestock enterprises are considered. Section 2 discusses production costs, including cost estimates,…

  1. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS plant introduction lines, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to iden...

  2. USDA-ARS Ft. Collins germplasm screened for resistance to Beet curly top, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifty sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm lines produced by the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and two commercial check cultivars [SV2012RR (susceptible) and HM PM90 (resistant)] were screened for resistance to Beet curly top virus (BCTV). The curly top evaluation was conducted at the ...

  3. Estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products used as animal feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A veterinarian observed a reduction in embryo transfer success rates on beef and dairy farms in Minnesota, which were both feeding sugar beet by-products. Beet tailings and pelleted post-extraction beet pulp, associated with the affected farms were analyzed for estrogenicity by E-Screen (proliferati...

  4. Feruloyl oligosaccharides from cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T

    1994-06-01

    Cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp were separately hydrolyzed with Driselase. A feruloyl arabinobiose was isolated from both spinach cells and sugar beet. Four feruloyl oligosaccharides were obtained from sugar beet. The four oligosaccharides were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and FAB-MS.

  5. Tropical tannin-rich fodder intake modifies saliva-binding capacity in growing sheep.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Magaña, J J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Hoste, H; Capetillo-Leal, C M

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of feeding dietary tannins from Lysiloma latisiliquum fresh forage on the saliva tannin-binding capacity of hair sheep lambs without previous exposure to tannin-rich (TR) fodder. Twenty-four hair sheep lambs (13.6±3.04 kg LW) were fed a tannin-free diet at the beginning of the experimental period (from day 10 to 13). On day 14, lambs were distributed into three groups (n=8): control group (CG), fed with the tannin-free diet (from D10 to D112); tannin short-term group (TST), fed the basal diet and 650 g of L. latisiliquum forage (from D14 to D55); tannin long-term group (TLT), fed the basal diet and 650 g of L. latisiliquum forage (from D14 to D112). Saliva samples were collected from the mouth of each lamb in the morning before feeding time on D10 and D14 (baseline period), on D49 and D56 (period 1) and on D97 and D112 (period 2). The tannin binding response of salivary protein (∆% turbidity) was determined with the haze development test (HDT) using either tannic acid or L. latisiliquum forage acetone extract. A turbidity protein index (TPI) was calculated as (∆% turbidity/[salivary protein (mg)]). Differences in HDT and TPI in the different groups were compared by repeated measures ANOVA using Proc Mixed. All groups had similar ∆% turbidity throughout the experiment (P>0.05). At baseline and period 1, the TPI of the different groups was similar (P>0.05). On period 2 the TLT group showed higher TPI compared with CG (P<0.05). Meanwhile, CG and TST showed similar salivary TPI. The saliva of hair sheep lambs consuming TR L. latisiliquum fresh fodder (TLT group) increased their TPI compared with control lambs not exposed to tannins.

  6. Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-04-01

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses.

  7. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Treesearch

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  8. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g–1 protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1–17.5 mg g–1 SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  9. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load.

  10. Analytical characterization of beet root vacuole membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, F.; Branton, D.

    1980-10-01

    Vacuoles from beet root (Beta vulgaris L. var. esculenta Gurke) isolated by a mechanical procedure were osmotically lysed to separate the membrane and sap components for analysis. Approximately 62% of the vacuole proteins, 70% of the nondialyzable carbohydrates and almost all of the phospholipids and sterols were recovered in the membrane fraction. The vacuole membrane had a phospholipid:protein ratio of 0.68 and a sterol:phospholipid ratio of 0.21. Seventeen complex polar lipids including phosphatides ad glycolipids have been tentatively identified. Phosphatidylcholine (54%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (24%) were the most prominant phosphoglycerides besides phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, and phosphatidic acid (1, 4, 5, and 12%, respectively. A putative sulfoglycoside and two major ceramide glycoside-like lipids, resembling those of animal lysosomes, were identified by thin-layer chromatography. High-resolution SDS-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the polypeptides from the vacuole revealed 15 major bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 91,000 to 12,000. Selective elution experiments delineated those polypeptides that were peripheral membrane proteins or sap proteins adsorbed to the membrane, and those that exhibited hydrophobic interaction with the lipid core. Lectin labeling results indicated that most of the polypeptides from the membrane and from the sap were glycoproteins probably of the high-mannose type characteristic of lysosomal enzymes that have undergone several stages of posttranslational modification.

  11. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may... microorganisms in cane-sugar and/or beet-sugar mills as specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) They are...

  12. Aggregation Behavior and a Putative Aggregation Pheromone in Sugar Beet Root Maggot Flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Emmert, Susan Y.; Tindall, Kelly; Ding, Hongjian; Boetel, Mark A.; Rajabaskar, D.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2017-01-01

    Male-biased aggregations of sugar beet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), flies were observed on utility poles near sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. [Chenopodiaceae]) fields in southern Idaho; this contrasts with the approximately equal sex ratio typically observed within fields. Peak observation of mating pairs coincided with peak diurnal abundance of flies. Volatiles released by individual male and female flies were sampled from 08:00 to 24:00 hours in the laboratory using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Eleven compounds were uniquely detected from males. Three of these compounds (2-undecanol, 2-decanol, and sec-nonyl acetate) were detected in greater quantities during 12:00–24:00 hours than during 08:00–12:00 hours. The remaining eight compounds uniquely detected from males did not exhibit temporal trends in release. Both sexes produced 2-nonanol, but males produced substantially higher (ca. 80-fold) concentrations of this compound than females, again peaking after 12:00 hours. The temporal synchrony among male aggregation behavior, peak mating rates, and release of certain volatile compounds by males suggest that T. myopaeformis flies exhibit lekking behavior and produce an associated pheromone. Field assays using synthetic blends of the putative aggregation pheromone showed evidence of attraction in both females and males. PMID:28423428

  13. High level fructan accumulation in a transgenic sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Sévenier, R; Hall, R D; van der Meer, I M; Hakkert, H J; van Tunen, A J; Koops, A J

    1998-09-01

    We have transformed sugar beet into a crop that produces fructans. The gene encoding 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyl transferase (1-SST), which was isolated from Helianthus tuberosus, was introduced into sugar beet. In H. tuberosus, 1-SST mediates the first steps in fructan synthesis through the conversion of sucrose (GF) into low molecular weight fructans GF2, GF3, and GF4. In the taproot of sugar beet transformed with the 1-sst gene, the stored sucrose is almost totally converted into low molecular weight fructans. In contrast, 1-sst expression in the leaves resulted in only low levels of fructans. Despite the storage carbohydrate having been altered, the expression of the 1-sst gene did not have any visible effect on phenotype and did not affect the growth rate of the taproot as observed under greenhouse conditions.

  14. Metabolism of Red Beet Slices I. Effects of Washing 1

    PubMed Central

    Reed, D. J.; Kolattukudy, P. E.

    1966-01-01

    The changes in relative participation of pathways of glucose catabolism in red beet slices during washing have been examined using specifically 14C labeled glucoses. Washing of these slices brings about an increase in participation of the pentose phosphate pathway. The composition of the washing medium influences slightly the extent of change in pathway participation. The activity level of certain enzymes participating in the initial stages of glucose catabolism has been measured in fresh and washed beet slices. Fresh slices which barely metabolized gluconate were found to have very little 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity. Washing brings about a dramatic increase in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity and this increase was accompanied by a marked increase in the ability of the slices to metabolize gluconate. In red beet slices the TPNH generated via pentose phosphate pathway appears to be utilized for biosynthetic reductions rather than as respiratory substrate. PMID:16656302

  15. Sequence comparison and classification of beet luteovirus isolates.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, J R; Stevens, M; de Bruyne, E; Smith, H G; Bird, C; Hull, R

    1995-01-01

    Three distinct sequence groups were found among partial nucleotide sequences of 38 isolates of beet western yellows virus (BWYV) and beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV) from Europe, Iran and the USA. The first group contains both sugar beet and oilseed rape specific isolates, and the differentiating characteristic linked to this host range specificity are 2 single base pair changes in a 1,200 nucleotide region of the genome. It is proposed that the European BWYV strains that can be transferred at low frequency between rape and sugar beet belong to this group. Also belonging to this group are the published BWYV sequences of Veidt et al. and of the California BWYV-ST9 isolate. The second group contains mostly rape-derived isolates which have an intergenic region highly distinct from that of group-1 isolates but similar polymerase and coat protein regions. It is proposed that the rape-specific BWYV isolates which cannot be transmitted to sugar beet belong to this group. The third group contains mostly beet-specific isolates from Southern Europe and Iran, and may be adapted to the Mediterranean climate and flora. It is distinct from groups 1 and 2 in all three genome regions investigated and its polymerase and intergenic regions are as much related to those of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) and curcurbit aphid borne yellows virus (CABYV) as they are to those of group-1 and group-2. On the basis of sequence similarities and established nomenclature it is proposed to use BWYV for groups 1 and 2 (BWYV-1 and BWYV-2 respectively) and to use BMYV for group-3 isolates, which are distinct enough from the other two groups to merit a separate nomenclature.

  16. [Generation of sugar beet transgenic plants expressing bar gene].

    PubMed

    Mishutkina, Ia V; Kamionskaia, A M; Skriabin, K G

    2010-01-01

    The parameters of transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 for 5 domestic sorts and lines of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera (Alef) Krass) were optimized. The system of transgenic tissue selection based on resistance to phosphinothricin, allowing to avoid the appearing of chimeric shoots among initial transformants was developed. The transgenic plants of sugar beet sorts Ramonskaya single seed 47, L'govskaya single seed 52 and RMS 73, and LBO 17 and LBO 19 lines expressing the gene of phosphinothricin acetyl transferase bar have been obtained. The resistance of these sorts and lines to the effect of phosphinothricin in vitro has been shown.

  17. Riboflavin production by Aspergillus terreus from beet-molasses.

    PubMed

    Sabry, S A; Ghanem, K M; Ghozlan, H A

    1993-12-01

    Aspergillus terreus was used for riboflavin (vitamin B2) production in a medium containing beet molasses as the sole carbon source. Growth and the vitamin production of the fungus were markedly affected by the composition of the culture medium. A maximum riboflavin yield was achieved at the late exponential growth phase (16 day-old cultures) in the presence of (g/l): centrifuged beet-molasses, 90; L-asparagine, 1; MgSO4.7H2O, 0.5; K2HPO4/kH2PO4 (1:1), 5; and the medium initially adjusted to pH 8.

  18. Comparison of visible imaging, thermography and spectrometry methods to evaluate the effect of Heterodera schachtii inoculation on sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Joalland, Samuel; Screpanti, Claudio; Liebisch, Frank; Varella, Hubert Vincent; Gaume, Alain; Walter, Achim

    2017-01-01

    Phenotyping technologies are expected to provide predictive power for a range of applications in plant and crop sciences. Here, we use the disease pressure of Beet Cyst Nematodes (BCN) on sugar beet as an illustrative example to test the specific capabilities of different methods. Strong links between the above and belowground parts of sugar beet plants have made BCN suitable targets for use of non-destructive phenotyping methods. We compared the ability of visible light imaging, thermography and spectrometry to evaluate the effect of BCN on the growth of sugar beet plants. Two microplot experiments were sown with the nematode susceptible cultivar Aimanta and the nematode tolerant cultivar BlueFox under semi-field conditions. Visible imaging, thermal imaging and spectrometry were carried out on BCN infested and non-infested plants at different times during the plant development. Effects of a chemical nematicide were also evaluated using the three phenotyping methods. Leaf and beet biomass were measured at harvest. For both susceptible and tolerant cultivar, canopy area extracted from visible images was the earliest nematode stress indicator. Using such canopy area parameter, delay in leaf growth as well as benefit from a chemical nematicide could be detected already 15 days after sowing. Spectrometry was suitable to identify the stress even when the canopy reached full coverage. Thermography could only detect stress on the susceptible cultivar. Spectral Vegetation Indices related to canopy cover (NDVI and MCARI2) and chlorophyll content (CHLG) were correlated with the final yield (R = 0.69 on average for the susceptible cultivar) and the final nematode population in the soil (R = 0.78 on average for the susceptible cultivar). In this paper we compare the use of visible imaging, thermography and spectrometry over two cultivars and 2 years under outdoor conditions. The three different techniques have their specific strengths in identifying BCN symptoms

  19. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) into Danish populations of sea beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. maritima (L.) Arcangeli).

    PubMed

    Andersen, N S; Siegismund, H R; Meyer, V; Jørgensen, R B

    2005-04-01

    Gene flow from sugar beets to sea beets occurs in the seed propagation areas in southern Europe. Some seed propagation also takes place in Denmark, but here the crop-wild gene flow has not been investigated. Hence, we studied gene flow to sea beet populations from sugar beet lines used in Danish seed propagation areas. A set of 12 Danish, two Swedish, one French, one Italian, one Dutch, and one Irish populations of sea beets, and four lines of sugar beet were analysed. To evaluate the genetic variation and gene flow, eight microsatellite loci were screened. This analysis revealed hybridization with cultivated beet in one of the sea beet populations from the centre of the Danish seed propagation area. Triploid hybrids found in this population were verified with flow cytometry. Possible hybrids or introgressed plants were also found in the French and Italian populations. However, individual assignment test using a Bayesian method provided 100% assignment success of diploid individuals into their correct subspecies of origin, and a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MC MC) approach revealed clear distinction of individuals into groups according to their subspecies of origin, with a zero level of genetic admixture among subspecies. This underlines that introgression beyond the first hybridization is not extensive. The overall pattern of genetic distance and structure showed that Danish and Swedish sea beet populations were closely related to each other, and they are both more closely related to the population from Ireland than to the populations from France, the Netherlands, and Italy.

  20. The Impact of Multi-Sensor Data Assimilation on Plant Parameter Retrieval and Yield Estimation for Sugar Beet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodrius, M.; Migdall, S.; Bach, H.; Hank, T.

    2015-04-01

    Yield Maps are a basic information source for site-specific farming. For sugar beet they are not available as in-situ measurements. This gap of information can be filled with Earth Observation (EO) data in combination with a plant growth model (PROMET) to improve farming and harvest management. The estimation of yield based on optical satellite imagery and crop growth modelling is more challenging for sugar beet than for other crop types since the plants' roots are harvested. These are not directly visible from EO. In this study, the impact of multi-sensor data assimilation on the yield estimation for sugar beet is evaluated. Yield and plant growth are modelled with PROMET. This multi-physics, raster-based model calculates photosynthesis and crop growth based on the physiological processes in the plant, including the distribution of biomass into the different plant organs (roots, stem, leaves and fruit) at different phenological stages. The crop variable used in the assimilation is the green (photosynthetically active) leaf area, which is derived as spatially heterogeneous input from optical satellite imagery with the radiative transfer model SLC (Soil-Leaf-Canopy). Leaf area index was retrieved from RapidEye, Landsat 8 OLI and Landsat 7 ETM+ data. It could be shown that the used methods are very suitable to derive plant parameters time-series with different sensors. The LAI retrievals from different sensors are quantitatively compared to each other. Results for sugar beet yield estimation are shown for a test-site in Southern Germany. The validation of the yield estimation for the years 2012 to 2014 shows that the approach reproduced the measured yield on field level with high accuracy. Finally, it is demonstrated through comparison of different spatial resolutions that small-scale in-field variety is modelled with adequate results at 20 m raster size, but the results could be improved by recalculating the assimilation at a finer spatial resolution of 5 m.

  1. Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.

    PubMed

    Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  2. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajčevič, Marija; Jačimović, Radojko; Budič, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-01

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  3. Influence of barn drying of fodder on respiratory symptoms and function in dairy farmers of the Doubs region of France.

    PubMed Central

    Dalphin, J. C.; Polio, J. C.; Pernet, D.; Maheu, M. F.; Toson, B.; Dubiez, A.; Monnet, E.; Laplante, J. J.; Depierre, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--A previous study showed there to be fewer microorganisms (especially thermophilic actinomycetes) on farms with artificial barn drying of fodder than on those using traditional storage methods. A cross sectional study was performed to see whether barn drying provides protection against respiratory problems in dairy farmers. METHODS--The respiratory symptoms and function of a group of 123 farmers with daily exposure to cattle foddering from farms which had had a barn drying system for at least three years were compared with those of a representative sample of 274 farmers working in farms with traditional storage in five districts in the Doubs region of France. RESULTS--Both groups were comparable for mean age, weight, height, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, past history of respiratory disease, history of allergy, geographical location of the farm, and length of exposure. Retrospectively estimated exposure to fodder was greater in the group using a barn drying system than in the group working with traditional storage. Acute symptoms at exposure (rhinitis, eye irritation, dry cough, asthma symptoms) and chronic symptoms all tended to be less frequent in the barn drying group, although not individually significantly so. Mean (SD) respiratory function parameters were higher in the barn drying group than in the traditional group: % vital capacity (VC) 104 (14) v 102 (15); % forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 99 (14) v 94 (18); % FEV1/VC 96 (11) v 92 (16); % forced mid expiratory flow (FEF25-75) 87 (24) v 79 (25). CONCLUSION--The results of this cross sectional study suggest that barn drying of fodder may protect respiratory function in dairy farmers. PMID:8153940

  4. Seedling diseases of sugar beet – diversity and host interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seedling diseases cause loss of plant stand due to pre- and post-emergence damping-off and weakened plants due to root or hypocotyl infection. Several pathogens cause seedling disease of sugar beet, including Rhizoctonia solani, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Pythium species, and Fusarium species. Differe...

  5. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  6. Rhizomania Resistance in the Tandem Sugar Beet Variety

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania, caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is a major disease of sugarbeets world-wide. The ‘Holly’ resistance gene (Rz1) confers strong resistance to several BNYVV isolates and has been incorporated into most major sugarbeet breeding lines. However, the threat presented by resis...

  7. Rhizomania resistance in the Tandem® sugar beet variety.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizomania, caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), is a major disease of sugarbeets world-wide. The ‘Holly’ resistance gene (Rz1) confers strong resistance to several BNYVV isolates and has been incorporated into most major sugarbeet breeding lines. However, the threat presented by resis...

  8. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  9. Reducing sucrose loss in sugar beet storage with fungicides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root rots in sugar beet storage can lead to multi-million dollar losses because of reduced sucrose recovery. Thus, studies were conducted to establish better chemical control options and a better understanding of the fungi involved in the rot complex. A water check and three fungicides (Mertect, Pro...

  10. The 'C869' sugar beet genome: a draft assembly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet 'C869' is a diploid, self-fertile, public germplasm release used extensively as the seed parent of recombinant inbred lines designed to genetically dissect agronomic, disease, domestication, and other traits. From the original release, three additional generations of inbreeding were done,...

  11. Identification of extensin protein associated with sugar beet pectin.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, Alberto; Fishman, Marshall L; Fortis, Laurie L; Cooke, Peter H; Hotchkiss, Arland T

    2009-11-25

    Several studies have suggested that the emulsification properties associated with pectin obtained from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) are due to the presence of a protein-pectin complex. Nevertheless, the identity of the protein has remained elusive. Pectin, extracted from sugar beet pulp by microwave-assisted extraction, and a commercial sample were both subjected to protease digestion with trypsin. The resulting peptides were separated from the pectin solution by ultrafiltration using a 3 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) membrane and analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization with tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The partial sequences derived from the mass spectrometry analyses of the resulting tryptic peptides are found to be highly consistent with extensin protein matched from the B. vulgaris Genetic Index database and also correspond to previously reported extensin peptides found in sugar beet cell suspension cultures. Further attempts were made to disassociate the protein from pectin using 1 M NaCl and a 100 kDa MWCO membrane; however, no peptides were observed following trypsin digestion of the permeate solution. This evidence suggests the existence of a complex between the pectin and extensin that is not due to ionic interactions. Trypsin digestion of commercial sugar beet pectin also produced the peptide profile observed with the microwave-assisted extracted pectin sample. Atomic force microscopy established that the number of rod-like elements decreased following protease treatment compared to the untreated sample.

  12. The influence of the feeding Flour Beetle Tribolium confusum-infested fodder on the selected indices of the health status of rats.

    PubMed

    Lis, Ł B; Bakuła, T

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to demonstrate differences in the degree of fodder contamination with benzoquinones at various Tribolium confusum levels, the impact of infested feed on the beetle population and the impact of infested feed on the health status of rats. The feeding studies were done on female rats divided into 3 groups: a control group and two experimental groups. Experimental groups were fed with a fodder infested by 150 individuals of T. confusum per kg (group D1) and 300 individuals of T. confusum per kg (group D2). The insects were grown in the fodder for 5 months and the contaminated fodder was given to the laboratory animals for 8 weeks. After that period the rats were sacrificed, blood was drawn for morphological, biochemical and immunological analyses, as well as the samples of internal organs were taken for histopathology. Regardless of initial degree of infestation, after 5 months incubation period the content of benzoquinones in fodder reached the maximum level that reduced beetle population. The resulting concentration to benzoquinones had no effect upon feed intake nor growth of rate, whereas caused the presence of these substances in feces, urine and also in tissues which was indicated by pathological lesions observed in the study. The results obtained point to the possibility of the benzoquinones accumulation in the organisms of farm animals fed fodder containing pests.

  13. Local knowledge about fodder plants in the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Alissandra Trajano; Paivade Lucena, Reinaldo Farias; Ferreira dos Santos, Mércia Virgínia; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2015-02-10

    This study evaluated local knowledge of the fodder plants of the Caatinga in northeast Brazil (seasonal dry forest). Specifically, the goal was to catalog local knowledge regarding the use of native and exotic forage plants in two rural communities located in the state of Paraíba (northeast Brazil), to provide information for nutritional investigations and to verify how the knowledge of these resources is distributed. The communities were followed for three consecutive years, and interviews were conducted with 44 families (20 men and 24 women). Nine of these individuals were determined by the snowball technique to be key informants who held more specific knowledge about the topic. The data were structured into a database and statistically analyzed. Overall, 136 plants from 37 families and 113 genera were cited, and the knowledge of men was at a higher level than that of women (p < 0.05). Participants demonstrated a sophisticated knowledge of nutritional characteristics such as nutritional value, palatability, availability and productivity. Native plants were highlighted over the exotic, especially for species of the families Cactaceae, Bromeliaceae and Fabaceae. The great diversity of plants cited by the informants demonstrates the potential of local vegetation and the importance of traditional knowledge in the research process and in the characterization of forage resources. This diversity also favors the selection of promising species for future biotechnological investigations.

  14. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera. PMID:28134261

  15. Characterization of faecal microbial communities of dairy cows fed diets containing ensiled Moringa oleifera fodder.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiajie; Zeng, Bin; Chen, Zujing; Yan, Shijuan; Huang, Wenjie; Sun, Baoli; He, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyang; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Qingyan; Xi, Qianyun; Zhang, Yongliang

    2017-01-30

    Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) is a remarkable species with high nutritional value and good biomass production, which can be used as livestock fodder. In this study, we examined changes in the faecal microbiota of thirty dairy cows in response to alternative M. oleifera diets and their effects on nutrient digestion, milk traits and the faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids. No differences in milk yield and constituents were found between the control and the M. oleifera alternative groups. Cows fed M. oleifera silage had lower dry matter digestibility, as well as the propionate and isovalerate concentrations in M. oleifera treated group. Using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, 1,299,556 paired-end reads were obtained. Clustering analysis revealed 13 phyla and 93 genera across all samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the co-dominant phyla. Ten taxa displayed a significant difference in response to the high M. oleifera diet. In addition, strong correlations between Akkermansia and Prevotella with milk yield and protein indicated that some bacterial groups could be used to improve milk traits. Our results provided an insight into the microbiome-associated responses to M. oleifera in livestock diets, and could aid the development of novel applications of M. oleifera.

  16. Productivity and quality of sugar beet as affecting by sowing methods, weed control treatments and nitrogen fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Seadh, S E; Attia, A N; Said, E M; El-Maghraby, Samia S; Ibrahim, M E M

    2013-08-01

    Two field experiments were carried out at Kafr El-Hamam Research Station, Zagazig district, Sharkia Governorate, Agricultural Research Center, Egypt, during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 seasons to study the effect of sowing methods (manual and mechanical), weed control treatments (one hoeing, Goltix 70 WG (metamitron), Goltix+one hoeing and two hoeing) and nitrogen fertilizer levels (60, 80 and 100 kg N/fed) on yield, its components and quality of sugar beet cv. Hanrike. The obtained results could be summarized as follows; Mechanical sowing method of sugar beet significantly surpassed the traditional sowing method in root and foliage fresh weights/plant, root/top ratio, root length and diameter, root, top and sugar yields/fed in both seasons. Sowing methods showed significant effect on TSS, sucrose and purity percentages in both seasons, except purity% in the second season. Controlling weeds by two hand hoeings significantly recorded the highest values of root, top and sugar yields/fed and its components and purity percentage in both seasons. However, the highest percentages of TSS and sucrose were achieved from controlling weed by one hand hoeing in both seasons. Fertilizing sugar beet plants with 100 kg N/fed significantly increased yields and its components and markedly recorded the highest values in both seasons. From the obtained, it can be concluded that sowing sugar beet using mechanical sowing method (planter machine), controlling weeds by hand hoeing and mineral fertilizing with 100 kg N/fed could be recommended in order to maximize its productivity and quality under the environmental conditions of Sharkia Governorate, Egypt.

  17. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes.

    PubMed

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement.

  18. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G.; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. PMID:26463996

  19. Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Subrat Kumar; Nayyar, Shashi; Jindal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes related to hepatic and muscle function in buffaloes ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder in an arsenic affected area. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals) were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm); Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15th, and 30th day of treatment along with one sample on the 45th day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) were assayed in plasma. Results: Significantly (p<0.05) higher arsenic concentration was observed in tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood samples collected from the arsenic contaminated area. A significant positive correlation was noticed between arsenic concentrations of tube well water, fodder and untreated buffalo blood samples, collected from the arsenic affected area. ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the arsenic exposed buffaloes compared to control

  20. Effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder.

    PubMed

    Dash, Subrat Kumar; Nayyar, Shashi; Jindal, Rajesh

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the effect of Terminalia arjuna bark powder on some diagnostic enzymes related to hepatic and muscle function in buffaloes ingesting arsenic contaminated water and fodder in an arsenic affected area. A total of 25 samples of tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood were collected through a survey from arsenic contaminated areas and 20 samples from the uncontaminated, i.e., control areas of Ludhiana district, Punjab for determination of arsenic concentration. A total of 30 buffaloes (selected from above 45 animals) were divided into three groups of 10 each on the basis of blood arsenic level, viz., control group: Clinically healthy buffaloes from the uncontaminated area with the blood arsenic level within the normal limit (0-0.05 ppm); Arsenic exposed group: Buffaloes exposed to arsenic through intake of contaminated water and fodder in the arsenic affected area with the blood arsenic level above the normal limit of 0-0.05 ppm; treatment group: Arsenic exposed buffaloes treated with T. arjuna bark powder orally at 42 mg/kg b.w. OD for 30 days. Single blood samples were collected from control and arsenic exposed groups. Blood samples from the treatment group were collected on 0, 15(th), and 30(th) day of treatment along with one sample on the 45(th) day, i.e., after withdrawal of treatment. Activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and creatine kinase (CK) were assayed in plasma. Significantly (p<0.05) higher arsenic concentration was observed in tube well water, fodder and buffalo blood samples collected from the arsenic contaminated area. A significant positive correlation was noticed between arsenic concentrations of tube well water, fodder and untreated buffalo blood samples, collected from the arsenic affected area. ALP, GGT, LDH, and CK activities were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the arsenic exposed buffaloes compared to control. Treatment with T. arjuna bark powder

  1. Effect of curtovirus species competitiveness in host plants on transmission and incidence of Beet severe curly top virus and Beet mild curly top virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus Curtovirus, causes significant economic losses for sugarbeet and other crops throughout the western United States. Recent studies demonstrated the two most abundant curtovirus species in the US are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild c...

  2. Cowpea and Groundnut Haulms Fodder Trading and Its Lessons for Multidimensional Cowpea Improvement for Mixed Crop Livestock Systems in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Samireddypalle, Anandan; Boukar, Ousmane; Grings, Elaine; Fatokun, Christian A.; Kodukula, Prasad; Devulapalli, Ravi; Okike, Iheanacho; Blümmel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits. Significant (P < 0.05) genotypic dependent variations were observed in yields (kg/ha) of grains (537–1082) and haulms (1173–3368), though significant (P < 0.05) effects of location and year were observed. Grain and fodder yield had a tendency to be positively correlated (r = 0.26, P = 0.07). Haulms were analyzed for nitrogen (N), fiber fractions, in vitro digestibility, and metabolizable energy content. Highly significant variations were observed in all genotypic and livestock nutrition traits, although location and year had significant effects. Trade-offs between grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits were largely absent and haulm acid detergent lignin and grain yield were even inversely correlated (r = -0.28, P = 0.05), that is high grain yielders had decreased haulm lignin. However, haulm N and grain yield also tended to be negatively associated (r = -0.26, P = 0.07). Haulm fodder quality traits and haulm yield were mostly positively correlated (P < 0.05). Broad sense heritabilities for grain and fodder yield were 0.50 and 0.29, respectively, while heritability for haulm fodder quality traits ranged from 0.61 to 0.67, providing opportunities for concomitant increase in grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits. Selection of the 10 highest ranking genotypes for grain yield, haulm yield, haulm N, and haulm in vitro organic matter digestibility showed selection groups

  3. Cowpea and Groundnut Haulms Fodder Trading and Its Lessons for Multidimensional Cowpea Improvement for Mixed Crop Livestock Systems in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Samireddypalle, Anandan; Boukar, Ousmane; Grings, Elaine; Fatokun, Christian A; Kodukula, Prasad; Devulapalli, Ravi; Okike, Iheanacho; Blümmel, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits. Significant (P < 0.05) genotypic dependent variations were observed in yields (kg/ha) of grains (537-1082) and haulms (1173-3368), though significant (P < 0.05) effects of location and year were observed. Grain and fodder yield had a tendency to be positively correlated (r = 0.26, P = 0.07). Haulms were analyzed for nitrogen (N), fiber fractions, in vitro digestibility, and metabolizable energy content. Highly significant variations were observed in all genotypic and livestock nutrition traits, although location and year had significant effects. Trade-offs between grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits were largely absent and haulm acid detergent lignin and grain yield were even inversely correlated (r = -0.28, P = 0.05), that is high grain yielders had decreased haulm lignin. However, haulm N and grain yield also tended to be negatively associated (r = -0.26, P = 0.07). Haulm fodder quality traits and haulm yield were mostly positively correlated (P < 0.05). Broad sense heritabilities for grain and fodder yield were 0.50 and 0.29, respectively, while heritability for haulm fodder quality traits ranged from 0.61 to 0.67, providing opportunities for concomitant increase in grain yield and haulm fodder quality traits. Selection of the 10 highest ranking genotypes for grain yield, haulm yield, haulm N, and haulm in vitro organic matter digestibility showed selection groups overlapping

  4. Foam formation in biogas plants caused by anaerobic digestion of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Lucie; Lehnig, Marcus; Schenk, Joachim; Zehnsdorf, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The use of sugar beet in anaerobic digestion (AD) during biogas production can lead to process upsets such as excessive foaming in fermenters. In the present study, foam formation in sugar beet-fed digestates was studied in foaming tests. The increasing disintegration grade of sugar beet was observed to have a promoting effect on foaming in the digestate but did not affect the biogas yield. Chemical analysis of foam and digestate from sugar beet silage AD showed high concentrations of pectin, other carbohydrates and N-containing substances in the foam. Both pectin and sucrose showed little foaming in AD. Nevertheless, sucrose and calcium chloride had a promoting effect on foaming for pectin AD. Salts of divalent ions also enhanced the foam intensity in the case of sugar beet silage AD, whereas ammonium chloride and urea had a lessening effect on sugar beet-based foaming.

  5. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    PubMed Central

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  6. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  7. Sugar beet growth in a changing climate: past, present and future trends in southwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Pascal; Fuchs, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In the study, single factors and their impact on sugar beet cultivation against the background of past and projected climate change are being analyzed. The database consists of climate data by the German Weather Service and 1x1 km interpolated INTERMET raster data. Impact models were run to assess possible future trends using climate projection data of the REgional MOdel (REMO), emission scenario A1B, Run 1, data stream 2 for Germany, daily resolution, without bias correction, 10x10 km raster (n=150) (MPI on behalf of UBA 2006). Compared periods were: B:1971 2000; K:2021-2050; L:2071-2100. Agronomic data were collected from the field books of regional trials from 1974 2014 (n=448). Moreover, a business survey of regional farmers was carried out and evaluated. Impact models to predict timing for sowing, the date of field emergence and row closure, were derived from these data. The ontogenesis was simulated using a linear, temperature-based leaf-growth model. Sowing shifted forward by 7,3 days in regional field trials from 1974 2014. Progress-oriented, risk-tolerant farmers start sowing 10-14 days earlier compared to 1980. Recently, sowing is being conducted on average on 21 March in southwest Germany. For period K, 17 March, and for period L, 2 March is being projected as the average future sowing date while the same late frost risk applies compared to present climatic conditions. Shifting forward the sowing date with spring warming and, thus, exploiting the associated yield potential is the most promising agronomic adaptation strategy to the projected climate change on the farm level. In connection to earlier sowing, the field emergence tendentially shifted forward by 14 days in the field trials. Assuming sowing on 15 March, projection results show an advance of field emergence form 7 April in period B to 3 April in period L. Row closure in field trials in average shifted forward by 19,6 days. For period L, 29 May and thus, an earlier row closure of 9 days compared

  8. Photoacoustic and optothermal studies of tomato ketchup adulterated by the red beet (Beta vulgaris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicanic, D.; Westra, E.; Seters, J.; van Houten, S.; Huberts, D.; Colić-Barić, I.; Cozijnsen, J.; Boshoven, H.

    2005-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy and optothermal window (OW) technique were used to explore their potential to detect red beet added as a colorant to tomato ketchup. The associated changes of colour resulting in the changes of absorbance (and hence of PA and OT signals) were monitored in the 500 nm region corresponding to the absorption maximum of lycopene. Both methods were shown capable of quantifying about 1% of red beet (by mass) in the mixture of ketchup and red beet.

  9. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = -0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It's suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season.

  10. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = −0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It’s suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  11. Transgenic sugar beet tolerant to imidazolinone obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Kishchenko, E M; Komarnitskii, I K; Kuchuk, N V

    2011-01-01

    Sugar beet is highly sensitive to imidazolinone herbicides thus rotational restrictions exist. In order to develop imidazolinone tolerant sugar beets als gene from Arabidopsis thaliana encoding acetolactate synthase with S653N mutation was used for genetic transformation. Transgenic sugar beet plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aseptic seedlings using vacuum-infiltration. The efficiency of genetic transformation was 5.8%. RT-PCR analysis of obtained plants revealed accumulation of specific als transcript. The resistance to imidazolinone was proved for developed transgenic sugar beet plants in vitro and in greenhouse conditions after spraying with imazethapyr (Pursuit, BASF).

  12. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  13. Energy reduction in beet sugar processing by cossette liming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.M.; Camirand, W.M.; Neumann, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Under appropriate conditions of temperature and fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ application, demethylation occurs in the pectin in the cell walls of sugar beet cossettes, allowing Ca/sup 2 +/ to precipitate the pectin as calcium pectate. The calcium pectate will not degrade and pass into solution during subsequent hot extraction of sugar from the cossettes. This retention of pectin in the pulp was shown by 10 to 20% increases in solids weight in the pulp for a number of processing conditions. The toughened pulp produced by retention of calcium pectate allowed easier mechanical dewatering of the pulp which could save considerably on the heat normally required to dry the pulp for cattle feed. Beyond data reported in this paper, there are qualitative indications that the sugar juice extracted from limed cossettes is purer than standard juice, for pectin and colloidal materials remain in the pulp. Thus, much less purification of the juice with lime would be necessary than is required in standard beet-sugar processing, and the current 2% CaO used for purification may be cut almost in half. This represents another energy saving, for production of CaO at the factory is a major consumer of energy. These, along with other possible energy savings resulting from cossette liming (such as less water used for extraction, cold extraction, ion exchange of the purer juice), could produce an overall saving up to 20% of the energy currently used in beet-sugar processing. Some of these possibilities will be further investigated.

  14. Carbon-based stock feed additives: a research methodology that explores ecologically delivered C biosequestration, alongside live weights, feed use efficiency, soil nutrient retention, and perennial fodder plantations.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Mark P

    2010-01-30

    There is considerable interest in reliable and practical methods to sequester carbon (C) into agricultural soils to both reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and improve conventional productivity. This article outlines a research methodology to refine the efficacy and economics of using long-lived C species (biochars) as stock feed additives, produced from farm waste biomass, for ecologically delivered soil biosequestration, while generating renewable bioenergy. This article also draws attention to potential parallel outputs including annual feed use efficiency, fodder species expansion, soil nutrient retention, aquatic habitat protection, and forestry revegetation, using nitrogen-fixing perennial fodder plant species. A methodology to generate parallel results including standing fodder tree C sequestration, optimised production of Acacia spp. biochar, animal growth on high-tannin fodder with biochar feed additives, soil nutrient and stable C fractions, and economics of Acacia spp. bioenergy production. This form of research is contextually dependent on the regional agricultural production system, legislation, and surrounding ecosystem. Therefore, this article suggests the use of a scenario approach to include regionally specific levels of biochar integration with respect to the local prices for C, fossil fuels, meat and livestock, fertilisers, fodder, feed additives, water, renewable energy, revegetation and capital. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  16. Maize supplementation of Pelibuey sheep in a silvopastoral system: fodder selection, nutrient intake and resilience against gastrointestinal nematodes.

    PubMed

    Retama-Flores, C; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Cámara-Sarmiento, R; Canul-Ku, H L

    2012-01-01

    This trial evaluated the effect of maize supplementation on the ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and the resilience against gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection of hair sheep in a silvopastoral system containing tropical grasses and legume trees. In addition, it attempted to determine the metabolic cost of the natural GIN infection in supplemented and non-supplemented animals. Twenty-nine 3-month-old lambs (male and female), raised nematode free, were allocated to four groups: I-NS (infected, not supplemented, n = 8), I-S (infected, supplemented with maize at 1.5% live weight (LW), n = 7), T-NS (treated with moxidectin 0.2 mg/kg LW every 28 days, and not supplemented, n = 7) and T-S (treated with moxidectin and supplemented with maize at 1.5% LW, n = 7). During the 70-day trial, fodder intake, fodder selection, LW change (LWC), red blood cell counts (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht) and eggs per gram of feces (EPG) were measured every 14 days. Supplement consumption was recorded daily. Metabolizable energy (ME) and protein (MP) consumption from the feeds were estimated. Maize supplementation helped to improve the resilience of hair sheep lambs against GIN infections. The I-S and T-NS groups showed similar LWC, RBC, Hb and Ht (P > 0.05) and both were higher than those in the I-NS group (P < 0.05). No difference was found in EPG between the I-NS and the I-S groups (P > 0.05). No effect of sex was observed in the different variables. Although all groups showed low dry matter intake (DMI) (< 2% LW), supplemented groups (T-S and I-S) showed higher total DMI (fodder + maize; P < 0.05), hence higher ME and MP intakes than the non-supplemented groups (T-NS and I-NS). All groups showed similar fodder selection patterns. The estimated metabolic cost of parasitism was ME = 0.70 MJ/day and MP = 9.2 g/day in the I-S animals. Meanwhile, the cost in the I-NS animals was ME = 1.46 MJ/day and MP = 12.71 g/day. Maize supplementation was an economically viable strategy

  17. [The effect of fodder on the susceptibility of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) to nuclear polyhedrosis virus].

    PubMed

    Bakhvalov, S A; Bakhvalova, V N

    2009-01-01

    Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) growing on different feeding substrates was shown to affect their susceptibility to nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). The insects feeding on birch leaves had the lowest sensitivity to NPV than those on willow leaves, but the insects growing on pine needles showed the highest susceptibility. The sensitivity of the gypsy moths on willow leaves was higher than that of the gypsy moths on birch leaves and lower than that of those on pine needles. At the same time, it did not differ from that of the caterpillars on artificial feeding. The virus polyhedrons formed in the caterpillars on birch or willow leaves were more than those on another fodder.

  18. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes

    PubMed Central

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective. PMID:25492122

  19. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  20. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  1. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  2. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  3. First report of QoI resistance in Alternaria spp. infecting sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in Michigan, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) of sugar beet is caused by Alternaria spp. in the A. alternata species complex. ALS is common wherever sugar beet is grown, but historically has been a minor issue for sugar beet production in the USA with damage usually not affecting crop yield significantly. Occurrence o...

  4. Resistance to curly top of sugar beet in germplasm developed at USDA-ARS Ft. Collins, 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seventy-one sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and three control lines were screened for resistance to Beet curly top virus (BCTV) in 2013. Commercial cultivars ‘Monohikari’ (susceptible), ‘HM PM90’ (resistant) and Betaseed line Beta G6040 (resista...

  5. Prioritizing fodder species based on traditional knowledge: a case study of mithun (Bos frontalis) in Dulongjiang area, Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yanfei; Hu, Guoxiong; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Wang, Yuhua; Bu, Dengpan; Pei, Shengji; Ou, Xiaokun; Lu, Yang; Ma, Xuelan; Xu, Jianchu

    2017-05-04

    Livestock rearing is one of the oldest and most important types of smallholder farming worldwide. The sustainability of livestock production depends on the efficient utilization of locally available resources. Some traditional methods of raising livestock may offer valuable lessons in this regard. This study documented and evaluated local knowledge of wild forage plants in the Dulongjiang area in Southwest China in the context of rearing mithun (Bos frontalis) in order to provide a sound evidence base for tree fodder selection and the establishment of integrated tree-crop-livestock systems. The snowball technique was used to identify key informants with specific knowledge about the topic. Free listing and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 58 households. Participatory investigation and transit walks were used to investigate potential fodder species. Ethnobotanical information was collected, documented and organized. Overall, 142 wild forage plants from 58 families and 117 genera were identified. Species of the Poaceae, Rosaceae and Urticaceae families were most abundant, with 16, 14 and 11 species respectively identified as fodder plants. Our results indicated that tree/shrub forage plays a major role in the diet of mithun, unlike that of other ruminants. Mithun prefers to browse and move around the forest in search of food, particularly rough and even barbed leaves. Tree species like Debregeasia orientalis, Saurauia polyneura and Rubus species were identified as being important fodder sources. Farmers in this area have traditionally relied on common property resources such as community-managed forests and grasslands to feed their livestock. Farmers have strong incentive to raise mithuns rather than other livestock species due to Dulong people's cultural preferences. The wide variety of plants cited by the informants demonstrate the importance of traditional knowledge in gathering information about forage resources. This diversity also offers the

  6. East Europe Report: Economic and Industrial Affairs, No. 2416

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-28

    of insecticides (Pirimor 0.4 kg) 35. Harvest of beet cuts and transport 36. Harvest of beet roots and transport 37. Silaging of beet cuts, spreading...Grain maize 10. Edible peas 11. Fava beans 12. Winter rape 13. Poppies 14. Sugar beets 15. Fodder beets 16. Sugar beet seedlings 17. Sugar beet seed

  7. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity of verticillium dahliae isolates from sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of the disease, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms in Idaho was conducted in 2007...

  8. Response of sugar beet recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been little work done on host resistance to p...

  9. Response of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) recombinant inbred lines to post-harvest rot fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. During this storage period the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. Resistance to three post harvest rots was identified in two sugar beet germplasm in the 1970s, but there has been...

  10. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  12. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  13. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  14. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sugar processing subcategory. 409.10 Section 409.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The...

  15. Predict compositions and mechanical properties of sugar beet using hyperspectral scattering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sucrose, soluble solids, and moisture content and mechanical properties are important quality/property attributes of sugar beet. In this study, hyperspectral scattering images for the spectral region of 500-1,000 nm were acquired from 398 beet slices, from which relative mean spectra were calculated...

  16. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity in verticillium dahliae from sugar beet and historical strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of Verticillium wilt, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms (leaves with yellow or n...

  17. Evaluation of beet leafhopper transmitted virescence agent damage in the Columbia Basin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato purple top disease is caused by a phytoplasma known as Beet Leafhopper Transmitted Virescence Agent (BLTVA), which is vectored by the beet leafhopper (BLH, Circulifer tenellus Baker). Previous studies determined that BLTVA causes significant reduction in yield and tuber quality; however, dete...

  18. Insect resistance to sugar beet pests mediated by a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor transgene

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We transformed sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a Beta vulgaris root gene (BvSTI) that codes for a serine proteinase inhibitor. BvSTI is a root gene cloned from the F1016 breeding line that has moderate levels of resistance to the sugar beet root maggot ...

  19. Evaluation of genetic diversity and root traits of sea beet accessions of the Adriatic Sea coast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty nine sea beet [Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang.] accessions of the Adriatic coast were screened genetically and for their adaptive morpho-functional root traits in order to identify new sources of abiotic resistances for sugar beet breeding programs. Genetic diversity was evaluat...

  20. Verticillium dahliae Causes Wilt on Sugar Beet Following Potato in Eastern North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wilt is a serious disease on sugar beet that decreases content and purity of sugar, but does not significantly decrease root yield. The disease is typically reported as caused by the microorganism Verticillium albo-atrum. The disease has not been previously reported on sugar beet in the Red River ...

  1. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  2. Sugar Beet Resistance to Rhizoctonia Root and Crown Rot: Where does it fit in?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), Rhizoctonia root- or crown-rot is caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG-2-2). Seedling damping-off in sugar beet is caused by R. solani of both anastomosis groups, AG-2-2 and AG-4. Rhizoctonia solani subgroup AG-2-2 IV had been considered to be the primary cause of Rhi...

  3. Identification of a SNP marker associated with WB242 nematode resistance in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The beet-cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt) is one of the major diseases of sugar beet. The identification of molecular markers associated to the nematode resistance would be helpful for developing resistant varieties. The aim of this study was the identification of SNP (Single Nucleotide ...

  4. Beet curly top resistance in USDA-ARS plant introductions, 2013

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Curly top caused by Curtovirus species is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. In order to identify novel s...

  5. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Luoto, Susanne; Lambert, Wietske; Blomqvist, Anna; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Background During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Methods Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Conclusion Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2), and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible. PMID:18694503

  6. Phoma species on beet: more cause disease than just Phoma betae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phoma can cause damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) at multiple growth stages. It has historically been an important seedling disease, but this is largely managed by ensuring clean seed for planting. The pathogen also can cause a root rot, a leaf spot, and rotting of beets during storage. In the Un...

  7. Storage rot in sugar beet: variable response over time and with different host germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is commonly stored in outdoor piles prior to processing for food and animal feed. While in storage the crop is subject to multiple post-harvest rots. In the Michigan growing region, little loss due to storage rots is observed until beets have been in storage for several mo...

  8. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  9. A nine-scaffold genome assembly of the nine chromosome sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over the course of 20 months, we assembled a sugar beet genome (700 - 800 Mb) into a close representation of the nine haploid chromosomes of beet. This result was obtained by sequentially assembling sequences >40 kb in length, orienting these assemblies via optical mapping, and scaffolding with in v...

  10. Temperature, Moisture, and Fungicide Effects in Managing Rhizoctonia Root and Crown Rot of Sugar Beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and subgroups were tested for pathogenicity on resistant (FC708 CMS) and susceptible (Monohikari) seedl...

  11. A novel penicillium sp. causes rot in stored sugar beet roots in Idaho

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Penicillium vulpinum along with a number of other fungi can lead to the rot of stored sugar beet roots. However, Penicillium isolates associated with necrotic lesions on roots from a recent sugar beet storage study were determined to be different from P. vulpinum and other recognized Penicillium sp...

  12. Steam explosion and fermentation of sugar beets from Southern Florida and the Midwestern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beets have recently gained interest for cultivation in southern Florida for their economic potential as cattle feed, a feedstock for ethanol production and their use to improve the quality of water via soil nutrient accumulation. Sugar beets grown in southern Florida, Minnesota and Nebraska we...

  13. The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...

  14. Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Mahmood, Qaisar; Gul, Nayab; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the soil and plants (medicinal and fodder) grown in chromite mining-affected areas, Northern Pakistan. Soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for Pb and Cd concentrations using atomic absorption spectrometer. Soil pollution load indices (PLIs) were greater than 2 for both Cd and Pb, indicating high level of contamination in the study area. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in the soil surrounding the mining sites exceeded the maximum allowable limit (MAL) (0.6 mg kg(-1)), while the concentrations of Pb were lower than the MAL (350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for agriculture soil. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the soil of the mining-contaminated sites as compared to the reference site, which can be attributed to the dispersion of toxic heavy metals, present in the bed rocks and waste of the mines. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in majority of medicinal and fodder plant species grown in surrounding areas of mines were higher than their MALs set by World Health Organization/Food Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO) for herbal (10 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), respectively) and edible (0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1), respectively) plants. The high concentrations of Cd and Pb may cause contamination of the food chain and health risk.

  15. Effect of Sugar Beet Variety and Nonhost Plant on Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB Soil Inoculum Potential Measured in Soil DNA Extracts.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Sascha; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Märländer, Bernward; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-09-01

    A direct soil DNA extraction method from soil samples (250 g) was applied for detection of the soilborne sugar-beet-infecting pathogen Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 2-2IIIB using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay that showed specificity to AG2-2IIIB when tested against various R. solani AG. The assay showed a good relation between cycle threshold and amount of AG2-2IIIB sclerotia detected in three spiked field soils and was also able to detect the pathogen in naturally infested field soil samples. A field trial was conducted to quantify R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil inoculum potential (IP) before and after growing a susceptible and a resistant sugar beet variety as well as after subsequent growth of an expected nonhost winter rye. Plants of the susceptible sugar beet variety displayed a higher disease severity. A more than sixfold increase of the R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil IP was observed in contrast to the resistant variety that resulted in a constant IP. Growing winter rye significantly reduced soil IP to the initial level at sowing. Further research is required to better understand the interaction between disease occurrence and soil IP as well as the environmental influence on IP development.

  16. Management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant sugar beet for spring and autumn environmental benefit

    PubMed Central

    May, Mike J.; Champion, Gillian T.; Dewar, Alan M.; Qi, Aiming; Pidgeon, John D.

    2005-01-01

    When used in genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) crops, glyphosate provides great flexibility to manipulate weed populations with consequences for invertebrates and higher trophic levels, for example birds. A range of timings of band and overall spray treatments of glyphosate to GMHT sugar beet were compared with a conventional weed control programme in four field trials over 2 years. Single overall sprays applied between 200 and 250 accumulated day degrees (above a base air temperature of 3°C; °Cd) and band applied treatments applied at 10% or 20% ground cover within the crop rows generally gave significantly greater weed biomass and seed rain than conventional treatments, while later band sprays (more than 650°Cd) reduced seed return. Two overall sprays of glyphosate produced low weed biomass and generally lowest seed return of all treatments but tended to give some of the highest yields. However, the early overall sprays (200–250°Cd) and band sprays gave as good or better yields than the conventional and were generally equivalent to the two overall-spray programme. Viable seeds in the soil after the experiment were generally higher following the early overall (200–250°Cd) and the band spray treatments than following the conventional. The results show that altered management of GMHT sugar beet can provide alternative scenarios to those of the recent Farm Scale Evaluation trials. Without yield loss they can enhance weed seed banks and autumn bird food availability compared with conventional management, or provide early season benefits to invertebrates and nesting birds, depending on the system chosen. Conventional weed control does not have the flexibility to enable these scenarios that benefit both agriculture and environment, although there may be some options for increasing weed seed return in autumn. PMID:15695200

  17. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in garden beets (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, Edward; Zhou, Haihong; Krasinska, Karolina M; Chien, Allis; Becker, Christopher H

    2006-05-01

    Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (L-Aze) is a toxic and teratogenic non-protein amino acid. In many species, including man, L-Aze is misincorporated into protein in place of proline, altering collagen, keratin, hemoglobin, and protein folding. In animal models of teratogenesis, it causes a wide range of malformations. The role of L-Aze in human disease has been unexplored, probably because the compound has not been associated with foods consumed by humans. Herein we report the presence of L-Aze in the garden or table beet (Beta vulgaris).

  18. Sugar beet production as influenced by water stress

    SciTech Connect

    Flack, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    Irrigation water supplies are becoming expensive and scarce in the western United States. As a water management tool, production functions indicating relationships between crop yields and evapotranspiration have been utilized. Models have been developed using this information. Transferability of these models is dependent upon understanding the moisture extraction characteristics for a given crop under a given set of climatic and soil conditions. Therefore, a wide range of water stress conditions must be produced. The objective of our research was to generate production function data for sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) as influenced by drought stress under irrigation.

  19. Energy use reduction potential in the beet sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.S.; Heist, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories cogenerate steam and electricity for their own use. Fossil fuel boilers and low- to medium-pressure steam turbines are used exclusively for this purpose. Three alternative cogeneration technologies are evaluated, with economic feasibility found to depend on the price at which excess electricity can be sold.

  20. Energy use reduction potential in the beet sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, T.S.; Cleary, M.

    1985-01-01

    Process energy use data are presented for most of the forty operating beet sugar factories in the United States. Sixty percent of the processing capacity is in states that actively pursue cogeneration projects. Most of the present factories cogenerate steam and electricity for their own use. Fossil fuel boilers and low- to medium-pressure steam turbines are used exclusively for this purpose. Three alternative cogeneration technologies are evaluated, with economic feasibility found to depend on the price at which excess electricity can be sold.

  1. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  2. Area-wide mass trapping by pheromone-based attractants for the control of sugar beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar, Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Drmić, Zrinka; Tóth, Miklós; Lemić, Darija; Grubišić, Dinka; Pospišil, Milan; Bažok, Renata

    2017-10-01

    Owing to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over 4 years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km(2) in east Croatia. The mass trapping of SBW on the 'old' sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0.73% to 11.59%. Owing to the strong attack, mass trapping was not effective enough to avoid an insecticide application. However, it significantly reduced the number of insecticide applications, the amount of insecticide used, and the damage compared to the fields outside the mass trapping area. This is the first study to implement an AW program for SBW. It may not be possible to state from this study that trapping alone can reduce the SBW population below the economic threshold level. However, the data do suggest that trapping can play an important role in the reduction of insecticide applications and in creating an integrated pest management plan for dealing with SBW under similar circumstances. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Dietary sugar beet fiber ameliorates diarrhea as an acute gamma-radiation injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, S; Ito, S; Kasai, T; Hara, H

    2000-09-01

    Gamma radiation induces diarrhea as an acute injury. We have studied whether ingestion of sugar beet fiber influences radiation-induced diarrhea. Abdominal irradiation with gamma rays induced diarrhea in male Wistar/ST rats from 2 to 7 days after a single sublethal dose. The body weight of the irradiated rats was decreased temporarily at 4 days after irradiation regardless of the ingestion of sugar beet fiber. At day 8, it returned to almost the same level as that of unirradiated rats. A change in daily food intake resulted in a pattern similar to that for body weight. Dietary sugar beet fiber had little significant effect on the changes in body weight and daily food intake, and its ingestion significantly decreased gamma-ray-induced diarrhea. Changes in biochemical and histological parameters in intestinal mucosa (small intestine, cecum and colon) were not greatly influenced by the ingestion of sugar beet fiber through the periods of diarrhea. It was concluded that dietary sugar beet fiber ameliorated the diarrhea induced by abdominal irradiation. We suggest that the inhibitory effect of the ingestion of sugar beet fiber is due to its effects on the luminal environment, such as support for bacterial function in the luminal contents in the colon of animals that ingest sugar beet fiber.

  4. Integrated hydrolyzation and fermentation of sugar beet pulp to bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Rezić, Tonči; Oros, Damir; Marković, Iva; Kracher, Daniel; Ludwig, Roland; Santek, Božidar

    2013-09-28

    Sugar beet pulp is an abundant industrial waste material that holds a great potential for bioethanol production owing to its high content of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin. Its structural and chemical robustness limits the yield of fermentable sugars obtained by hydrolyzation and represents the main bottleneck for bioethanol production. Physical (ultrasound and thermal) pretreatment methods were tested and combined with enzymatic hydrolysis by cellulase and pectinase to evaluate the most efficient strategy. The optimized hydrolysis process was combined with a fermentation step using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for ethanol production in a single-tank bioreactor. Optimal sugar beet pulp conversion was achieved at a concentration of 60 g/l (39% of dry weight) and a bioreactor stirrer speed of 960 rpm. The maximum ethanol yield was 0.1 g ethanol/g of dry weight (0.25 g ethanol/g total sugar content), the efficiency of ethanol production was 49%, and the productivity of the bioprocess was 0.29 g/l·h, respectively.

  5. Plasma membrane ATPase of red beet forms a phosphorylated intermediate.

    PubMed

    Briskin, D P; Poole, R J

    1983-03-01

    When a plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was incubated in the presence of 40 micromolar [gamma-(32)P] ATP, 40 micromolar MgSO(4) at pH 6.5, a rapidly turning over phosphorylated protein was formed. Phosphorylation of the protein was substrate-specific for ATP, sensitive to diethylstilbestrol and vanadate, but insensitive to azide. When the dephosphorylation reaction was specifically studied, KCl was found to increase the turnover of the phosphorylated protein consistent with its stimulatory effect upon plasma membrane ATPase. The protein-bound phosphate was found to be most stable at a pH between 2 and 3 and under cold temperature, suggesting that the protein phosphate bond was an acyl-phosphate. When the phosphorylated protein was analyzed with lithium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis, a labeled polypeptide with a molecular weight of about 100,000 daltons was observed. Phosphorylation of this polypeptide was rapidly turning over and Mg-dependent. It is concluded that the phosphorylation observed represents a reaction intermediate of the red beet plasma membrane ATPase.

  6. Fresh and preserved green fodder modify effects of urinary acidifiers on urine pH of horses.

    PubMed

    Goren, G; Fritz, J; Dillitzer, N; Hipp, B; Kienzle, E

    2014-04-01

    Hay stabilises urine pH in horses. It is unknown whether this is an effect of structure or of chemical composition. In this study, four ponies (230-384 kg body weight [BW]) were fed six different diets with either a structure or a composition similar to hay with and without acidifiers in a cross-over experimental design in amounts to maintain body weight with the following main compounds: Fresh grass (GRASS), alfalfa hay (ALF), grass cobs (COBS), grass silage (SIL), straw (STR) or extruded straw (STRe) for 2 to 10 days. Urine pH was measured in all trials, blood pH, blood base excess and bicarbonate as well as mineral balance were determined in GRASS, ALF, STR and STRe. In the trials with straw and extruded straw, urine pH decreased significantly (STR control: 7.8 ± 0.23, acidifier: 5.2 ± 0.38) when acidifiers were added, whereas in all other diets that were based on fresh or preserved green fodder, pH did not decrease below 7. Blood pH was similarly affected by diet and acidifiers. Acidifiers had little effect on the pre-prandial blood pH, only in diet STR there was a significant reduction in relation to control. Post-prandial blood pH was significantly reduced by acidifiers in all diets. Blood bicarbonate and base excess showed corresponding effects. Faecal and renal mineral excretion and apparent mineral digestibility were not systematically affected by diet or acidifiers except for chloride. Chloride added as inorganic chloride salt had an even better apparent digestibility than chloride originating from feed. Because only green plant material stabilised acid base balance, chlorophyll and its metabolites are discussed as potential mediators of the effect of green fodder on acid base balance.

  7. Biodegradable composites from sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Liu, LinShu; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B; Liu, Cheng-Kung

    2005-11-16

    Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites were prepared by compression-heating. The resultant thermoplastics had a lower density, but they had tensile strength similar to that of pure PLA specimens as well as the same geometric properties. Tensile properties depended on the initial water content of sugar beet pulp and the process by which composites were manufactured. In comparison with sugar beet pulp, the composite showed improved water resistance. This can be attributed to the hydrophobic character of PLA and pulp-matrix interactions. The composite thermoplastics showed suitable properties for potential use as lightweight construction materials.

  8. Efficacy of Cry1Ac:Cry1F proteins in cotton leaf tissue against fall armyworm, beet armyworm, and soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Tindall, K V; Siebert, M Willrich; Leonard, B R; All, J; Haile, F J

    2009-08-01

    Cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants expressing Cry1Ac and Cry1F insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) were evaluated against selected lepidopteran pests including fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), and soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker). Studies were conducted in a range of environments, challenging various cotton tissue types from several varieties containing a combination of Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins. In fresh tissue bioassays of mature leaves and squares (flower buds) and in artificial field infestations of white flowers, plants containing Cry1Ac:Cry1F significantly reduced levels of damage (leaf defoliation, bract feeding, penetrated squares and bolls, and boll abscission) and induced significantly greater mortality (90-100%) of fall armyworm compared with that on non-Bt cotton plants. Plants containing Cry1Ac:Cry1F conferred high levels (100%) of soybean looper mortality and low levels (0.2%) of leaf defoliation compared with non-Bt cotton. Beet armyworm was relatively less sensitive to Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton plants compared with fall armyworm and soybean looper. However, beet armyworm larval development was delayed 21 d after infestation (DAI), and ingestion of plant tissue was inhibited (14 and 21 DAI) on the Cry1Ac:Cry1F plants compared with that on non-Bt cotton plants. These results show Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton varieties can be an effective component in a management program for these lepidopteran pest species. Differential susceptibility of fall armyworm, beet armyworm, and soybean looper larvae to Cry1Ac:Cry1F cotton reinforces the need to sample during plant development and respond with a foliar insecticide if local action thresholds are exceeded.

  9. Post-harvest regulated gene expression and splicing efficiency in storage roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Rotthues, Alexander; Kappler, Jeannette; Lichtfuss, Anna; Kloos, Dorothee U; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2008-05-01

    Sixteen post-harvest upregulated genes from sugar beet comprising five novel sequences were isolated by subtractive cloning. Transcription profiles covering a period of up to 49 days after harvest under controlled storage conditions and in field clamps are reported. Post-harvest induced genes are involved in wound response, pathogen defense, dehydration stress, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. An early induction of a cationic peroxidase indicates a response to post-harvest damage. Wound response reactions may also involve genes required for cell division such as a regulator of chromatin condensation and a precursor of the growth stimulating peptide phytohormone phytosulfokine-alpha. Surprisingly, also three putative non-protein coding genes were isolated. Two of these genes show intron specific and storage temperature dependent splicing of a precursor mRNA. The temperature dependent splicing of an intron containing sugar beet mRNA is also maintained in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The storage induced genes are integrated into a model that proposes the response to several post-harvest stress conditions. Temperature regulated splicing may be a mechanism to sense seasonal temperature changes.

  10. Preliming of sugar beet cossettes to reduce energy in sugar beet processing. Final technical report, August 1, 1978-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, J.M.

    1981-06-30

    In the United States, the beet sugar industry is the most intensive user of energy, per unit value of product shipped. Approximately 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ Btu of energy are required per ton of beets processed. The increasing cost and scarcity of energy has made the industry very receptive to process changes which can reduce energy requirements for sugar production. A two-year project was undertaken to determine the feasibility of liming fresh sugar beet cossettes, prior to extraction, as a means of reducing energy consumption. Fresh Ca(OH)/sub 2/ was added to cossettes for 10 min prior to introduction into the diffuser (extractor). It was found that up to 3.5 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/ton of beets sliced could be saved in pulp drying and 0.45 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/ton could be saved in production of lime (13.5% and 1.7%, respectively, of current overall energy requirements of the beet-sugar process). Quality of raw juice from the diffuser was much better with limed cossettes than with control cossettes. Experimental thin juice was slightly higher in lime salts and lower in quality than controls. Liming of cossettes by dipping in a slurry of 2.6% Ca(OH)/sub 2/ gave better results than mixing of cossettes with dry Ca(OH)/sub 2/ and would be much easier to implement in an existing plant.

  11. [The transfer of 90Sr and of 137Cs radionuclides in the chain of soil-fodder-animal products in the area contaminated as a consequence of the Chernobyl AES accident].

    PubMed

    Spirin, E V; Aleksakhin, R M; Kalmykov, M V; Ageets, V Iu; Averin, V S; Lazarev, N M; Cavellin, G D; Biesold, H

    2006-01-01

    The database on 137Cs and or 90Sr transfer factors in the soil-fodder-animal products chain compiled in the framework of the project "Radioecological Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident" under the French-German Initiative was analyzed. The 137Cs transfer factors were determined into 10 fodder types for farm animals. The 137Cs and 90Sr transfer from daily diet to milk is practically independent from milk yield and season and is about 0.83% and 0.16%. 137Cs transfer factor into beef (adult animals) is about to 2.4% from the daily uptake with fodder per 1 kg meat.

  12. Percolation transition, stipulated by the generation of ice in the sugar-beet tissue. (in Ukrainian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulavin, L. A.; Zabashta, Yu. F.; Fridman, A. Ya.; Kostyuk, A. I.

    The temperature dependence of sugar-beet parenchyma tissue dynamic shear modulus has been studied. The dynamic shear modulus investigation was performed employing low frequency reverse torsional pendulum at the temperature ranging from 200 to 280 K. Percolation transition (T_0 = 251 K), stipulated by the generation of ice in the sugar-beet tissue, is discovered. The quantity of ice in the sugar-beet at the temperatures lower than the percolation transition temperature was calculated on the dynamic shear modulus temperature dependence in terms of the percolation theory. It is concluded that this transition corresponds to the appearance of an infinite ice cluster. One can maintain that the sugar-beet survives above the percolation transition temperature.

  13. Review: Sugar beets as a substitute for grain for lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Evans, Essi; Messerschmidt, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Dairy cows are customarily given grains and highly digestible byproduct ingredients as additions to forage to support milk production. In many parts of the world growing seasons are short, and the grain crops that can be grown may not provide adequate yields. Sugar beets, on the other hand are relatively hardy, and dry matter yields surpass the yields of most grain crops. There are however, perceptions that beets may not be suitable as a feed ingredient due to the fact that the storage form of carbohydrate is sugar rather than starch. With little analytical support, sugar has been rejected in many feeding programs with the view that sugar reduces rumen pH, fiber digestion and microbial yield. This review explores available facts revolving around these concerns. Information regarding the feeding of sugar beets is provided and the use of sugar beets as a partial replacement for grain is proposed.

  14. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process u...

  15. Analysis of Mannitol, as Tracer of Bacterial Infections in Cane and Beet Sugar Factories

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mannitol, formed mainly by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria, is a sensitive marker of sugarcane and sugarbeet deterioration that can predict multiple processing problems. The delivery of consignments of deteriorated sugarcane or sugar beets to factories can detrimentally affect multiple process un...

  16. Airborne and ground-based remote sensing for the estimation of evapotranspiration and yield of bean, potato, and sugar beet crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayanthi, Harikishan

    The focus of this research was two-fold: (1) extend the reflectance-based crop coefficient approach to non-grain (potato and sugar beet), and vegetable crops (bean), and (2) develop vegetation index (VI)-yield statistical models for potato and sugar beet crops using high-resolution aerial multispectral imagery. Extensive crop biophysical sampling (leaf area index and aboveground dry biomass sampling) and canopy reflectance measurements formed the backbone of developing of canopy reflectance-based crop coefficients for bean, potato, and sugar beet crops in this study. Reflectance-based crop coefficient equations were developed for the study crops cultivated in Kimberly, Idaho, and subsequently used in water availability simulations in the plant root zone during 1998 and 1999 seasons. The simulated soil water profiles were compared with independent measurements of actual soil water profiles in the crop root zone in selected fields. It is concluded that the canopy reflectance-based crop coefficient technique can be successfully extended to non-grain crops as well. While the traditional basal crop coefficients generally expect uniform growth in a region the reflectance-based crop coefficients represent the actual crop growth pattern (in less than ideal water availability conditions) in individual fields. Literature on crop canopy interactions with sunlight states that there is a definite correspondence between leaf area index progression in the season and the final yield. In case of crops like potato and sugar beet, the yield is influenced not only on how early and how quickly the crop establishes its canopy but also on how long the plant stands on the ground in a healthy state. The integrated area under the crop growth curve has shown excellent correlations with hand-dug samples of potato and sugar beet crops in this research. Soil adjusted vegetation index-yield models were developed, and validated using multispectral aerial imagery. Estimated yield images were

  17. Isolation of diferulic bridges ester-linked to arabinan in sugar beet cell walls.

    PubMed

    Levigne, Sébastien; Ralet, Marie-Christine; Quéméner, Bernard; Thibault, Jean-François

    2004-09-13

    After degradation of sugar beet cell walls with Driselase and fractionation of the solubilised products by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, a dehydrodiferuloylated oligoarabinan was isolated. Its structure was assigned to two dimers of (1-->5)-linked arabinose units esterified by a central 8-O-4' ferulic dimer. These results provide the first direct evidence that pectic arabinans in sugar beet cell walls may be covalently cross-linked through dehydrodiferulates.

  18. [The "crystals" in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves].

    PubMed

    Semenova, G A; Romanova, A K

    2011-01-01

    Crystal containing cells widely distributed in plant tissues, though the origin of the crystals and their functions are still opened to question. Membrane vesicles in beet leaves are visible in electronic microscope. They originate in cytoplasm and penetrate into vacuole by pinocytosis with participation of tonoplast. In light microscope, vesicles are luminous likewise crystals in crystal cells. Such vesicles-"crystals" fulfill crystal cells also. The content of vesicles-"crystals" are electronic transparent at every path of leaf development. It was proposed that distinct vesicles-"crystals" in cytoplasm and vacuole and mass of them in crystal cells, vein bundles, and epidermal cells--all of them are lytic compartments. Later, obviously, true crystals are formed.

  19. An insensitive acetylcholinesterase confers resistance to methomyl in the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Byrne, F J; Toscano, N C

    2001-04-01

    Two forms of acetylcholinesterase were identified in field populations of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), collected from cotton in San Joaquin Valley, CA. Strains (BESS and BKRR) homogeneous for each variant were isolated and their relative susceptibilities to methomyl, chlorpyrifos, and chlorpyrifos-oxon assessed by topical application bioassay. In comparisons with a laboratory susceptible strain (DOW), BKRR and BESS expressed 68-fold and sevenfold resistance, respectively, to the carbamate methomyl. Neither strain was cross-resistant to chlorpyrifos or its oxygen analog (chlorpyrifos-oxon). In biochemical studies, the BKRR AChE enzyme was approximately 30-fold and sixfold more insensitive to methomyl and chlorpyrifos-oxon, respectively, compared with the DOW enzyme. The correlation between the toxicological and biochemical studies provides strong evidence that target-site insensitivity is an important mechanism of resistance to methomyl. The lack of significant cross-resistance to chlorpyrifos suggests that the insensitive AChE in these field populations was selected by methomyl alone and not by the organophosphate.

  20. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Kimberly M.; Broccardo, Carolyn J.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Wintermantel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet. PMID:28250378

  1. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Kimberly M; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Prenni, Jessica E; Wintermantel, William M

    2014-04-09

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  2. Direct prediction of bioethanol yield in sugar beet pulp using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Magaña, C; Núñez-Sánchez, N; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; García, P; Serrano, A; Pérez-Marín, D; Pemán, J M; Alcalde, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugar beets are a raw material for the production of sugar and ethanol. The decision on which end product to pursue could be facilitated by fast and reliable means of predicting the potential ethanol yield from the beets. A Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy-based approach was tested for the direct prediction of the potential bioethanol production from sugar beets. A modified partial least squares (MPLS) regression model was applied to 125 samples, ranging from 21.9 to 31.0 gL(-1) of bioethanol in sugar beet brei. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode in a Direct Contact Food Analyser (DCFA) FOSS-NIRSystems 6500 monochromator, with standard error of cross validation (SECV), standard error of prediction (SEP), coefficient of determination (r(2)) and coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.51, 0.49, 0.91 and 1.9 gL(-1), respectively. The NIR technique allowed direct prediction of the ethanol yield from sugar beet brei (i.e. the product obtained after sawing beets with a proper machine) in less than 3 min.

  3. How far can sodium substitute for potassium in red beet?

    PubMed

    Subbarao, G V; Wheeler, R M; Stutte, G W; Levine, L H

    1999-01-01

    Sodium (Na) movement between plants and humans is one of the more critical aspects of bioregenerative systems of life support, which NASA is studying for the establishment of long-term bases on the Lunar or Martian surface. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which Na can replace potassium (K) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) without adversely affecting metabolic functions such as water relations, photosynthetic rates, and thus growth. Two cultivars, Ruby Queen and Klein Bol, were grown for 42 days at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0%, 75%, 95%, and 98% Na substitution for K in a modified half-strength Hoagland solution. Total biomass of Ruby Queen was greatest at 95% Na substitution and equal at 0% and 98% Na substitution. For Klein Bol, there was a 75% reduction in total biomass at 98% Na substitution. Nearly 95% of the total plant K was replaced with Na at 98% Na substitution in both cultivars. Potassium concentrations in leaves decreased from 120 g kg-1 dwt in 0% Na substitution to 3.5 g kg-1 dwt at 98% Na substitution. Leaf chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic rate, and osmotic potential were not affected in either cultivar by Na substitution for K. Leaf glycinebetaine levels were doubled at 75% Na substitution in Klein Bol, but decreased at higher levels of Na substitution. For Ruby Queen, glycinebetaine levels in leaf increased with the first increase of Na levels and were maintained at the higher Na levels. These results indicate that in some cultivars of red beet, 95% of the normal tissue K can be replaced by Na without a reduction in growth.

  4. How far can sodium substitute for potassium in red beet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Levine, L. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Sodium (Na) movement between plants and humans is one of the more critical aspects of bioregenerative systems of life support, which NASA is studying for the establishment of long-term bases on the Lunar or Martian surface. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which Na can replace potassium (K) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) without adversely affecting metabolic functions such as water relations, photosynthetic rates, and thus growth. Two cultivars, Ruby Queen and Klein Bol, were grown for 42 days at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0%, 75%, 95%, and 98% Na substitution for K in a modified half-strength Hoagland solution. Total biomass of Ruby Queen was greatest at 95% Na substitution and equal at 0% and 98% Na substitution. For Klein Bol, there was a 75% reduction in total biomass at 98% Na substitution. Nearly 95% of the total plant K was replaced with Na at 98% Na substitution in both cultivars. Potassium concentrations in leaves decreased from 120 g kg-1 dwt in 0% Na substitution to 3.5 g kg-1 dwt at 98% Na substitution. Leaf chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic rate, and osmotic potential were not affected in either cultivar by Na substitution for K. Leaf glycinebetaine levels were doubled at 75% Na substitution in Klein Bol, but decreased at higher levels of Na substitution. For Ruby Queen, glycinebetaine levels in leaf increased with the first increase of Na levels and were maintained at the higher Na levels. These results indicate that in some cultivars of red beet, 95% of the normal tissue K can be replaced by Na without a reduction in growth.

  5. Carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown with excess Zn.

    PubMed

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; Rellán-Álvarez, R; Abadía, A; Abadía, J; López-Millán, A F

    2011-05-01

    The effects of Zn excess on carboxylate metabolism were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown hydroponically in a growth chamber. Root extracts of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn in the nutrient solution showed increases in several enzymatic activities related to organic acid metabolism, including citrate synthase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, when compared to activities in control root extracts. Root citric and malic acid concentrations increased in plants grown with 100μM Zn, but not in plants grown with 50μM Zn. In the xylem sap, plants grown with 50 and 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citrate and malate compared to the controls. Leaves of plants grown with 50 or 100μM Zn showed increases in the concentrations of citric and malic acid and in the activities of citrate synthase and fumarase. Leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase increased only in plants grown with 50μM Zn when compared to the controls. In plants grown with 300μM Zn, the only enzyme showing activity increases in root extracts was citrate synthase, whereas the activities of other enzymes decreased compared to the controls, and root citrate concentrations increased. In the 300μM Zn-grown plants, the xylem concentrations of citric and malic acids were higher than those of controls, whereas in leaf extracts the activity of fumarase increased markedly, and the leaf citric acid concentration was higher than in the controls. Based on our data, a metabolic model of the carboxylate metabolism in sugar beet plants grown under Zn excess is proposed.

  6. Investigation of copper sorption by sugar beet processing lime waste.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, J A; Strawn, D G; Scheckel, K G

    2013-01-01

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (∼250,000 Mg yr) that has little liming value in the region's calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairies using copper (Cu)-based hoof baths to prevent hoof diseases. A concern exists regarding soil Cu accumulation because spent hoof baths may be disposed of in waste ponds, with pond waters being used for irrigation. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the ability of lime waste to sorb Cu. Lime waste was mixed with increasing Cu-containing solutions (up to 100,000 mg Cu kg lime waste) at various buffered pH values (pH 6, 7, 8, and 9) and shaken over various time periods (up to 30 d). Copper sorption phenomenon was quantified using sorption maximum fitting, and the sorption mechanism was investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results showed that sorption onto lime waste increased with decreasing pH and that the maximum Cu sorption of ∼45,000 mg kg occurred at pH 6. X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that Cu(OH) was the probable species present, although the precipitate existed as small multinuclear precipitates on the surface of the lime waste. Such structures may be precursors for larger surface precipitates that develop over longer incubation times. Findings suggest that sugar beet processing lime waste can viably sorb Cu from liquid waste streams, and thus it may have the ability to remove Cu from spent hoof baths.

  7. Transfer of nitrogen from a tropical legume tree to an associated fodder grass via root exudation and common mycelial networks.

    PubMed

    Jalonen, Riina; Nygren, Pekka; Sierra, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by legume trees represents a substantial N input in agroforestry systems, which may benefit the associated crops. Applying (15)N labelling, we studied N transfer via common mycelial networks (CMN) and root exudation from the legume tree Gliricidia sepium to the associated fodder grass Dichantium aristatum. The plants were grown in greenhouse in shared pots in full interaction (treatment FI) or with their root systems separated with a fine mesh that allowed N transfer via CMN only (treatment MY). Tree root exudation was measured separately with hydroponics. Nitrogen transfer estimates were based on the isotopic signature of N (delta(15)N) transferred from the donor. We obtained a range for estimates by calculating transfer with delta(15)N of tree roots and exudates. Nitrogen transfer was 3.7-14.0 and 0.7-2.5% of grass total N in treatments FI and MY, respectively. Root delta(15)N gave the lower and exudate delta(15)N the higher estimates. Transfer in FI probably occurred mainly via root exudation. Transfer in MY correlated negatively with grass root N concentration, implying that it was driven by source-sink relationships between the plants. The range of transfer estimates, depending on source delta(15)N applied, indicates the need of understanding the transfer mechanisms as a basis for reliable estimates.

  8. Effect of replacing oat fodder with fresh and chopped oak leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, digestibility and metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, K; Bhar, R; Kannan, A; Jadhav, R V; Singh, Birbal; Mal, And G

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing oat fodder (OF) with fresh oak leaves (FOL) or chopped oak leaves (COL) on rumen fermentation and digestibility through in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT). Nine different diets were prepared by mixing OF with oak leaves (either FOL or COL) in different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100). The rations were evaluated through Hohenheim IVGPT with 200 mg substrate and 30 ml of buffered rumen liquor. All the syringes were incubated at 39°C for 24 h in buffered rumen liquor of cattle. After 24 h, the total gas production was recorded, and the contents were analyzed for in vitro methane production, protozoa no. and ammonia-N. Chopping (p<0.01) reduced the tannin fractions as well as non-tannin phenol. Increase in levels of oak decreased total gas production, methane, organic matter (OM) digestibility, and metabolizable energy (ME) values. The polyphenol content of the substrate did not show any significant difference on the protozoal count. In vitro studies revealed that the addition of oak leaves reduced the methane production and ammonia nitrogen levels; however, it also decreased the OM digestibility and ME values linearly as the level of the oak leaves increased in the diet. Chopping was effective only at lower inclusion levels. Further studies, especially in vivo studies, are needed to explore the safe inclusion levels of oak leaves in the diet of ruminants.

  9. Assisted phytoremediation of mixed metal(loid)-polluted pyrite waste: effects of foliar and substrate IBA application on fodder radish.

    PubMed

    Vamerali, Teofilo; Bandiera, Marianna; Hartley, William; Carletti, Paolo; Mosca, Giuliano

    2011-06-01

    Exogenous application of plant-growth promoting substances may potentially improve phytoremediation of metal-polluted substrates by increasing shoot and root growth. In a pot-based study, fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiformis Pers.) was grown in As-Zn-Cu-Co-Pb-contaminated pyrite waste, and treated with indolebutyric acid (IBA) either by foliar spraying (10 mgL(-1)), or by direct application of IBA to the substrate (0.1 and 1 mgkg(-1)) in association, or not, with foliar spraying. With the exception of foliar spraying, IBA reduced above-ground biomass, whilst direct application of IBA to the substrate surface reduced root biomass (-59%). Trace element concentrations were generally increased, but removals (mg per plant) greatly reduced with IBA application, together with greater metal leaching from the substrate. It is concluded that, in our case, IBA had a negative effect on plant growth and phytoextraction of trace elements, possibly due to unsuitable root indoleacetic acid concentration following soil IBA application, the direct chelating effect of IBA and the low microbial activity in the pyrite waste affecting its breakdown. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bacterial Community Associated with the Taproot of Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Okubo, Takashi; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Megumi; Kakizaki, Kaori; Hanzawa, Eiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asanome, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a metagenome of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in order to investigate the genes involved in plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, pyrroloquinoline quinone, siderophores, and plant disease suppression as well as methanol, sucrose, and betaine utilization. The most frequently detected gene among the PGPT categories encoded β-1,3-glucanase (18 per 105 reads), which plays a role in the suppression of plant diseases. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization (e.g., for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase), methanol utilization (e.g., for methanol dehydrogenase), siderophore production (e.g. isochorismate pyruvate lyase), and ACC deaminase were also abundant. These results suggested that such PGPTs are crucially involved in supporting the growth of sugar beet. In contrast, genes for IAA production (iaaM and ipdC) were less abundant (~1 per 105 reads). N2 fixation genes (nifHDK) were not detected; bacterial N2 -fixing activity was not observed in the 15N2 -feeding experiment. An analysis of nitrogen metabolism suggested that the sugar beet microbiome mainly utilized ammonium and nitroalkane as nitrogen sources. Thus, N2 fixation and IAA production did not appear to contribute to sugar beet growth. Taxonomic assignment of this metagenome revealed the high abundance of Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Streptomyces, suggesting that these genera have ecologically important roles in the taproot of sugar beet. Bradyrhizobium-assigned reads in particular were found in almost all categories of dominant PGPTs with high abundance. The present study revealed the characteristic functional genes in the taproot-associated microbiome of sugar beet, and suggest the opportunity to select sugar beet growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:25740621

  11. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    PubMed

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the beverage mix made with beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P < 0.001); however, no difference in the liking was identified for the beverage mix or beverage. Average hedonic scores were higher under informed condition compared to blind condition for all products, possibly because labels tend to reduce uncertainty about a product. Results from this study are representative of the responses from the general population and suggest that they are not affected by sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance.

  13. Effect of Plant Age and Transplanting Damage on Sugar Beets infected by Heterodera schachtii

    PubMed Central

    Olthof, Th. H. A.

    1983-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. Monogerm C.S.F. 1971) seeds sown into Vineland fine sandy loam, infested with 15,500 H. schachtii juveniles/pot, showed little growth during an 11-week test in the greenhouse. Seedlings transplanted at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age had 32, 30, and 31% less top weight and 71, 68, and 59% less root weight, respectively, compared to controls grown in nematode-free soil. Nematode reproduction in both direct-seeded and transplanted sugar beets was limited and related to root weight. Shoot/root ratios were increased by the nematodes in all nematode-infected beets compared to those grown in soil without nematodes. In contrast to seeding or transplanting sugar beets into nematode-infested Vineland fine sandy loam, an inoculation of Beverly fine sandy loam supporting 0 (seeds), 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old sugar beet seedlings with 7,400 juveniles/pot, followed by 11 weeks of growth in the growth-room, resulted in top weight losses of only 13, 3, 18, and 15% and losses in root weight of 44, 38, 36, and 38%, respectively. Nematode reproduction was high and all shoot/root ratios were increased by the nematode compared to the noninoculated controls. These experiments have shown that sugar beets sown into nematode-infested soil are damaged much more heavily by H. schachtii juveniles than seeds inoculated with the nematode immediately following sowing. Results indicate that an increase in tolerance of sugar beets to attack by H. schachtii does not occur beyond the first 2 weeks of growth and that transplanting damage lowers the tolerance of seedlings to nematode attack. PMID:19295846

  14. Tillage as a tool to manage crop residue: impact on sugar beet production.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Chélin, Marie; Degrune, Florine; Parvin, Nargish; Bodson, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Crop residues and plant cover represent a pool of organic matter that can be used either to restore organic matter in soils, and therefore maintain soil fertility, or that can be valorized outside of the field (e.g. energy production). However, it is crucial that the exportation of residues is not done to the detriment of the system sustainability. Three long term experiments have been settled in the loamy region in Belgium. All of them are designed to study the effect of residues management by several tillage systems (conventional plowing versus reduced tillage) on the whole soil-water-plant system. SOLRESIDUS is a field experiment where we study the impact of crop residue management while in SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS, we study the impact of cover crop management. SOLRESIDUS was started in 2008. In this field, four contrasted crop residues managements are tested in order to contrast as much as possible the responses from the soil-water plant system. Two practices characterize the four modalities: soil tillage (ploughing at 25 cm depth or reduce tillage at 10 cm max) and residue management (exportation or restitution). SOLCOUVERT and SOLCOUVERT-BIS were started in 2012 and 2013 respectively. In those fields cover crop management is also diverse: destruction of the cover crop by winter ploughing, spring ploughing, strip tillage (with a chemical destruction if needed) or shallow tillage (with a decompaction before cover crop sowing). Although although the overall project aims at studying the impact of management on the whole soil-water-plant system, here we will only present the results concerning crop production (sugar beet) in SOLCOUVERT experiments. The presented data will include germination rate, crop development (biomass quantification and BBCH stages) weeds population, disease occurrence, pest occurrences, nitrogen uptake by plants, quality and quantity of harvested products.

  15. Quantification of seed-soil contact of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) using X-ray Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Blunk, Sebastian; Malik, Ali Hafeez; de Heer, Martine I; Ekblad, Tobias; Bussell, Jennifer; Sparkes, Debbie; Fredlund, Kenneth; Sturrock, Craig J; Mooney, Sacha J

    2017-01-01

    Seed-soil contact is important to ensure successful germination, however, there is a paucity of reported studies that have quantified the microstructure at and around this critical interface, mainly due to the opacity of soil. Here we describe a novel methodology to non-destructively calculate the seed-soil contact area using X-ray Computed Tomography. Under controlled conditions, we observed that seed-soil contact was strongly influenced by the size and type of seed, with a seed-soil contact of ca. 15% for naked sugar beet seeds compared to ca. 32% for pelleted and coated seeds. Similar results were obtained for seeds sampled from the field albeit with a higher spatial variability. By application of this new quantification method it is hoped seed enhancement technologies can be optimised and ultimately seedbed preparation improved to ensure better germination.

  16. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  17. E-Screen evaluation of sugar beet feedstuffs in a case of reduced embryo transfer efficiencies in cattle: the role of phytoestrogens and zearalenone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The E-Screen assay was used to evaluate the estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products obtained from a dairy farm experiencing low success rates of embryo transfer. The beet tailings had ~ 3 fold the estradiol equivalents of the pelleted beet pulp (3.9 and 1.2 µg estradiol equivalents or E2Eq/kg dry m...

  18. Environmental conditions that contribute to development and severity of Sugar Beet Fusarium Yellows caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae: temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, continues to cause significant problems to sugar beet production by causing considerable reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, and juice purity in affected sugar beets. Environment plays a critical role in pathogen i...

  19. The characterization of sugar beet pectin using the EcoSEC® GPC system coupled to multi-angle light scattering, quasi-elastic light scattering, and differential viscometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need to increase the use of low valued co-products derived from the processing of sugar beets has prompted the investigation of the structure of the pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp. The characterization of sugar beet pectin is essential as it has the potential to be used in the production ...

  20. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  1. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Berłowska, Joanna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield. PMID:27722169

  2. Taproot promoters cause tissue specific gene expression within the storage root of sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Oltmanns, Heiko; Kloos, Dorothee U; Briess, Waltraud; Pflugmacher, Maike; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    The storage root (taproot) of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) originates from hypocotyl and primary root and contains many different tissues such as central xylem, primary and secondary cambium, secondary xylem and phloem, and parenchyma. It was the aim of this work to characterize the promoters of three taproot-expressed genes with respect to their tissue specificity. To investigate this, promoters for the genes Tlp, His1-r, and Mll were cloned from sugar beet, linked to reporter genes and transformed into sugar beet and tobacco. Reporter gene expression analysis in transgenic sugar beet plants revealed that all three promoters are active in the storage root. Expression in storage root tissues is either restricted to the vascular zone (Tlp, His1-r) or is observed in the whole organ (Mll). The Mll gene is highly organ specific throughout different developmental stages of the sugar beet. In tobacco, the Tlp and Mll promoters drive reporter gene expression preferentially in hypocotyl and roots. The properties of the Mll promoter may be advantageous for the modification of sucrose metabolism in storage roots.

  3. Radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice exposed to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoling; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Zesheng

    2009-08-01

    We investigated the radioprotective activity of betalains from red beets in mice irradiated by a (60)Co gamma (gamma) ray (6.0 Gy, at a dose of 1.5 Gy min(-1)). Mice were randomly divided into five groups, namely the control group and four experimental groups which were given one of four concentrations of betalains from red beets (0, 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg, equivalent to betanin) for 30 days. The four experimental groups of mice were then exposed to the (60)Co gamma-rays and were given betalains from red beets for a further 3 days. The number of white blood cells, karyota of the femur and the number of micronuclei in polychromatophilic erythrocytes of bone marrow in mice were determined. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, spleen index and thymus index were also determined. The results indicate that the administration of betalains from red beets is radioprotective in mice irradiated by (60)Co in vivo. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but appears to be mediated by the antioxidant activity of the betalains from red beets and modulation of the immune system.

  4. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Berłowska, Joanna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr; Kręgiel, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015-0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

  5. Registration of SR98 sugar beet germplasm with resistances to Rhizoctonia seedling and crown and root rot diseases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasms SR98 (PI 655951) and SR98/2 (659754) are being released as potential pollinators or populations from which to select pollinators for hybrid seed production, and were developed by the USDA-ARS, at East Lansing, MI, in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Developmen...

  6. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  7. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  8. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  9. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  10. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

  11. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... establishing, adjusting, or suspending sugar marketing allotments in the Federal Register. FOR FURTHER...

  12. Potassium Uptake Efficiency and Dynamics in the Rhizosphere of Maize, Wheat, and Sugar Beet Evaluated with a Mechanistic Model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant species differ in nutrient uptake efficiency. With a pot experiment, we evaluated potassium (K) uptake efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on a low-K soil. Sugar beet and wheat maintained higher shoot K concentrations, indica...

  13. Sugar beet breeding lines evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty-nine beet sugar beet breeding lines (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service breeding program at Fort Collins, CO, were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rcrr) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. The...

  14. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  15. Enzyme resistant carbohydrate based micro-scale materials from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pulp for food and pharmaceutical applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bio-based micro scale materials are increasingly used in functional food and pharmaceutical applications. The present study produced carbohydrate-based micro scale tubular materials from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) pulp (SBP), a by-product of sugar beet processing. The isolated carbohydrates wer...

  16. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model.

    PubMed

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E

    2008-05-15

    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  17. Early iron deficiency stress response in leaves of sugar beet.

    PubMed Central

    Winder, T L; Nishio, J N

    1995-01-01

    Iron nutrient deficiency was investigated in leaves of hydroponically grown sugar beets (Beta vulgaris) to determine how ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) gene expression is affected when thylakoid components of photosynthesis are diminished. Rubisco polypeptide content was reduced by 60% in severely iron-stressed leaves, and the reduction was directly correlated to chlorophyll content. The concentration of Rubisco protein in iron-stressed leaves was found to be regulated by availability of mRNAs, and CO2 fixation by Rubisco was reduced from 45 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1 in extracts from iron-sufficient leaves to 20 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1 in extracts from severely stressed leaves. The rate of CO2 fixation was directly correlated to leaf chlorophyll content. Rubisco in iron-sufficient control leaves was 59% activated, whereas in severely stressed leaves grown under the same light, Rubisco was 43% activated. RNA synthesis was reduced by about 50% in iron-deficient leaves, but 16S and 25S rRNA and ctDNA were essentially unaffected by iron stress. PMID:7659749

  18. Treatment of beet sugar wastewater by UAFB bioprocess.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Mehrdad; Borghei, Mehdi; Umrania, Valentina V

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the treatment of strong beet sugar wastewater by an upflow anaerobic fixed bed (UAFB) at pilot plant scale. Three fixed bed bioreactors (each 60 L) were filled with standard industrial packing, inoculated with anaerobic culture (chicken manure, cow manure, anaerobic sludge digested from domestic wastewater) and operated at 32-34 degrees C with 20 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent COD ranging between 2000-8000 mg/L. Under these conditions the maximum efficiency of organic content reduction in the reactor ranged from 75% to 93%. The reactor filled with standard pall rings made of polypropylene with an effective surface area of 206 m(2)/m(3) performed best in comparison to the reactor filled with cut polyethylene pipe 134 m(2)/m(3) and reactor filled with PVC packing (50 m(2)/m(3)). There was 2-7% decrease in efficiency with PE while it was 10-16% in case of PVC when compared to standard pall rings. The study provided a very good basis for comparing the effect of packing in reduction efficiency of the system.

  19. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  20. Uptake and incorporation of iron in sugar beet chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Solti, Adám; Kovács, Krisztina; Basa, Brigitta; Vértes, Attila; Sárvári, Eva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2012-03-01

    Chloroplasts contain 80-90% of iron taken up by plant cells. Though some iron transport-related envelope proteins were identified recently, the mechanism of iron uptake into chloroplasts remained unresolved. To shed more light on the process of chloroplast iron uptake, trials were performed with isolated intact chloroplasts of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Iron uptake was followed by measuring the iron content of chloroplasts in the form of ferrous-bathophenantroline-disulphonate complex after solubilising the chloroplasts in reducing environment. Ferric citrate was preferred to ferrous citrate as substrate for chloroplasts. Strong dependency of ferric citrate uptake on photosynthetic electron transport activity suggests that ferric chelate reductase uses NADPH, and is localised in the inner envelope membrane. The K(m) for iron uptake from ferric-citrate pool was 14.65 ± 3.13 μM Fe((III))-citrate. The relatively fast incorporation of (57)Fe isotope into Fe-S clusters/heme, detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy, showed the efficiency of the biosynthetic machinery of these cofactors in isolated chloroplasts. The negative correlation between the chloroplast iron concentration and the rate of iron uptake refers to a strong feedback regulation of the uptake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of Free Space in Translocation in Sugar Beet 1

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, Donald R.; Sovonick, Susan A.; Shock, Terri L.; Fellows, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    The involvement of the free space in phloem loading of sucrose was studied in sugar beet source leaves (Beta vulgaris, L.). Sucrose, supplied exogenously to the abraded upper surface of leaves at a concentration of 20 mm, was available for translocation at rates similar to those obtained with photosynthesis. The exogenous sucrose substituted as a source of translocate for assimilate derived from photosynthesis when the latter process was disrupted by plasmolysis of the leaf with 0.8 M mannitol. The mesophyll symplast was not completely disrupted by this treatment, however. Data from the sugar uptake experiments indicate that phloem loading can occur from the free space. Isotope trapping of labeled sugars derived from 14CO2 was used to intercept and identify sugars passing through the free space prior to phloem loading. Increased translocation rates induced by 4 mm ATP or increased light intensity were accompanied by increased trapping of sucrose but not of glucose. The data support the view that sucrose passes into the free space prior to phloem loading. Images PMID:16658995

  2. Evaluation of hydrogen production by clostridium strains on beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Avci, Ayşe; Kiliç, Nur Koçberber; Dönmez, Gönöl; Dönmez, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792, C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 and two newly isolated bacteria defined as the members of genus Clostridium - based on the 16S rRNA analysis and biochemical traits - were characterized with regard to their hydrogen production in media containing increasing beet molasses concentrations. The highest hydrogen yield was observed for C. acetobutylicum DSM 792 with a yield of 2.8 mol H2 mol-1 hexose in medium including 60 g L-1 molasses. This bacterium also produced the maximum amount of hydrogen (5908.8 mL L-1) at the same molasses concentration. A slightly lower hydrogen yield was measured for C. acetobutylicum DSM 1731 (2.5 mol H2 mol-1 hexose) when grown on 40 g L-1 molasses. The new isolates Clostridium roseum C and Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum PF produced hydrogen with yields of 2.0 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 and 60 g L-1 molasses and 2.1 mol H2 mol-1 hexose at 40 gL-1 molasses, respectively.

  3. Effect of replacing oat fodder with fresh and chopped oak leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, digestibility and metabolizable energy

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, K.; Bhar, R.; Kannan, A.; Jadhav, R.V.; Singh, Birbal; Mal, and G.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing oat fodder (OF) with fresh oak leaves (FOL) or chopped oak leaves (COL) on rumen fermentation and digestibility through in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT). Materials and Methods: Nine different diets were prepared by mixing OF with oak leaves (either FOL or COL) in different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100). The rations were evaluated through Hohenheim IVGPT with 200 mg substrate and 30 ml of buffered rumen liquor. All the syringes were incubated at 39°C for 24 h in buffered rumen liquor of cattle. After 24 h, the total gas production was recorded, and the contents were analyzed for in vitro methane production, protozoa no. and ammonia-N. Results: Chopping (p<0.01) reduced the tannin fractions as well as non-tannin phenol. Increase in levels of oak decreased total gas production, methane, organic matter (OM) digestibility, and metabolizable energy (ME) values. The polyphenol content of the substrate did not show any significant difference on the protozoal count. Conclusion: In vitro studies revealed that the addition of oak leaves reduced the methane production and ammonia nitrogen levels; however, it also decreased the OM digestibility and ME values linearly as the level of the oak leaves increased in the diet. Chopping was effective only at lower inclusion levels. Further studies, especially in vivo studies, are needed to explore the safe inclusion levels of oak leaves in the diet of ruminants. PMID:27047192

  4. A simple analytical method for dhurrin content evaluation in cyanogenic plants for their utilization in fodder and biofumigation.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Leoni, Onofrio; Malaguti, Lorena; Bernardi, Roberta; Lazzeri, Luca

    2011-08-10

    Cyanogenic plants have some potential as biocidal green manure crops in limiting several soilborne pests and pathogens. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and Sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor subsp. sudanense (P.) Stapf), in fact, contain the cyanogenic glucoside p-hydroxy-(S)-mandelonitrile-β-D-glucoside (dhurrin) as a substrate of its secondary defensive system able to release hydrogen cyanide following tissue lesions due to biotic or abiotic factors. Given that dhurrin content is correlated with the biofumigant efficacy of the plants, a high dhurrin content could be a positive character for utilization of sorghum and Sudangrass as biocidal green manure plants. For chemical characterization of the available germplasm, a simple, safe, and accurate method is necessary. In this paper, a new method for dhurrin analysis, based on methanol extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography, is reported and discussed. The feasibility of this analytical procedure was tested by evaluating dhurrin level in roots and stems during cultivation of four different sorghum and Sudangrass varieties in agronomic trials performed in 2008 in the Po valley (Italy). The dhurrin content ranged from 0.16 ± 0.04 to 7.14 ± 0.32 mg g(-1) on dried matter (DM) in stems and from 1.38 ± 0.02 to 6.57 ± 0.09 mg g(-1) on DM in roots, showing statistical differences among the tested germplasms that could be linked to the efficacy of their utilization as biofumigant plants. The method also opens new perspectives for the characterization of sorgum plants as fodder, for which the presence of dhurrin is considered to be negative for its well-known toxicity.

  5. Import-export balance of nitrogen and phosphorus in food, fodder and fertilizers in the Baltic Sea drainage area.

    PubMed

    Asmala, Eero; Saikku, Laura; Vienonen, Sanna

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements for life, but in excess they contribute to aquatic eutrophication. The Baltic Sea is a brackish semi-enclosed sea that is heavily influenced by anthropogenic loading of nutrients, resulting in a major environmental problem, eutrophication. In this study, the nutrient balance of the food production and consumption system in seven countries in the Baltic Sea drainage area was quantified for the period 2002-2005. The food production and consumption system accumulates nutrients in the Baltic Sea drainage area, due to extensive imports to the system. The average annual net surplus of nutrients was 1,800,000 tons N and 320,000 tons P in 2002-2005, or annually 28 kg N and 5 kg P per capita. The average total annual import was 2,100,000 tons N and 340,000 tons P during 2002-2005. The largest imports to the system were fertilizers, totaling 1,700,000 tons N and 290,000 tons P. Traded nutrients in food and fodder amounted to a net annual surplus of 180,000 tons N and 25,000 tons P. The nutrient load to the Baltic Sea due to the food consumption and production system was 21% N and 6% P of the respective annual net inputs to the region. This study shows that large amounts of nutrients to Baltic Sea drainage area are inputs from outside the region, eventually contributing to eutrophication. To reduce the nutrient imports, fertilizers should be used more efficiently, nutrients should be recycled more efficiently inside the region, and food system should be guided toward low-nutrient intensive diets.

  6. Effect of water quality on yield of sugar beet and sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Almodares, A; Sharif, M E

    2005-07-01

    To study the effects of quality of water on soil and plant, an experiment was conducted at Rudashat Drainage and Reclamation Experiment Station in 1999. Four irrigation water salinities (2, 5, 8 and 11 ds m(-1)) and two sugar crops (sugar beet and sweet sorghum) were used in this experiment. The results showed that under the same water quality, sweet sorghum used 2700 cubic meter per hectare less water than sugar beet. As the quality of irrigation water decreased, the soil salinity and exchangeable sodium percent increased which caused yield reduction for both plants. Sugar beet by accumulating Na and Cl in its leaves tolerated salinity but its usage as a forage crop caused some limitations, whereas sweet sorghum by not accumulating Na and Cl escape salinity and it can be used as a forage crop without any limitation.

  7. Decolorization of sugar syrups using commercial and sugar beet pulp based activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Mudoga, H L; Yucel, H; Kincal, N S

    2008-06-01

    Sugar syrup decolorization was studied using two commercial and eight beet pulp based activated carbons. In an attempt to relate decolorizing performances to other characteristics, surface areas, pore volumes, bulk densities and ash contents of the carbons in the powdered form; pH and electrical conductivities of their suspensions and their color adsorption properties from iodine and molasses solution were determined. The color removal capabilities of all carbons were measured at 1/100 (w/w) dosage, and isotherms were determined on better samples. The two commercial activated carbons showed different decolorization efficiencies; which could be related to their physical and chemical properties. The decolorization efficiency of beet pulp carbon prepared at 750 degrees C and activated for 5h using CO2 was much better than the others and close to the better one of the commercial activated carbons used. It is evident that beet pulp is an inexpensive potential precursor for activated carbons for use in sugar refining.

  8. Field performance of chitinase transgenic silver birches (Betula pendula): resistance to fungal diseases.

    PubMed

    Pasonen, H-L; Seppänen, S-K; Degefu, Y; Rytkönen, A; von Weissenberg, K; Pappinen, A

    2004-08-01

    A field trial of 15 transgenic birch lines expressing a sugar beet chitinase IV gene and the corresponding controls was established in southern Finland to study the effects of the level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression on birch resistance to fungal diseases. The symptoms caused by natural infections of two fungal pathogens, Pyrenopeziza betulicola (leaf spot disease) and Melampsoridium betulinum (birch rust), were analysed in the field during a period of 3 years. The lines that had shown a high level of sugar beet chitinase IV mRNA accumulation in the greenhouse also showed high sugar beet chitinase IV expression after 3 years in the field. The level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression did not significantly improve the resistance of transgenic birches to leaf spot disease. Instead, some transgenic lines were significantly more susceptible to leaf spot than the controls. The level of sugar beet chitinase IV expression did have an improving effect on most parameters of birch rust; the groups of lines showing high or intermediate transgene expression were more resistant to birch rust than those showing low expression. This result indicates that the tested transformation may provide a tool for increasing the resistance of silver birch to birch rust.

  9. Turgor regulation of sucrose transport in sugar beet taproot tissue.

    PubMed

    Wyse, R E; Zamski, E; Tomos, A D

    1986-06-01

    Sink tissues that store osmotically active compounds must osmoregulate to prevent excessively high turgor. The ability to regulate turgor may be related to membrane transport of solutes and thus sink strength. To study this possibility, the kinetics of sugar uptake were determined in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot tissue discs over a range of cell turgors. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics with a high affinity saturating component below 20 millimolar and a low affinity linear component at higher concentrations. Glucose uptake exhibited only simple saturation type kinetics. The high affinity saturating component of sucrose and glucose uptake was inhibited by increasing cell turgor (decreasing external mannitol concentrations). The inhibition was evident as a decrease in V(max) but no effect on K(m). Sucrose uptake by tissue equilibrated in dilute buffer exhibited no saturating component. Ethylene glycol, a permeant osmoticum, had no effect on uptake kinetics, suggesting that the effect was due to changes in cell turgor and not due to decreased water potential per se. p-(Chloromercuri)benzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited sucrose uptake at low but not high cell turgor. High cell turgor caused the tissue to become generally leaky to potassium, sucrose, amino acids, and reducing sugars. PCMBS had no effect on sucrose leakage, an indication that the turgor-induced leakage of sucrose was not via back flow through the carrier. The ability of the tissue to acidify the external media was turgor dependent with an optimum at 300 kilopascals. Acidification was sharply reduced at cell turgors above or below the optimum. The results suggest that the secondary transport of sucrose is reduced at high turgor as a result of inhibition of the plasma membrane ATPase. This inhibition of ATPase activity would explain the reduced V(max) and leakiness to low molecular weight solutes. Cell turgor is an important regulator of sucrose uptake in this tissue and thus may be an

  10. Cold-inhibited phloem translocation in sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Grusak, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental studies were undertaken on a simplified single source leaf-single sink leaf, or single source leaf-double sink leaf sugar beet system to investigate the responsive nature of the long-distance phloem translocation system to localized cooling perturbations on the source leaf petiole. Experiments were performed by using a steady state (/sup 14/C)-labelling system for the source leaf, and translocation into the sink leaf (leaves) was monitored with a Geiger-Mueller system. A specially designed Peltier apparatus enabled cooling of the source petiole to 1/sup 0/C (or other desired temperatures) at various positions on the petiole, over different lengths, and at different rates of cooling. Initial experiment were designed to test the predictions of a mathematical recovery model of translocation inhibited by cold. The results did not support the mathematical model, but did suggest that vascular anastomoses may be involved in the recovery response. Selective petiolar incision/excision experiments showed that anastomoses were capable of re-establishing translocation following a disruption of flow. Studies with two monitored sink levels suggested that the inhibition to slow-coolings was not due to reduced translocation through the cooled source petiole region, but rather, was due to a repartitioning of flow among the terminal sinks (sink leaves and hypocotyl/crown region above the heat-girdled root). This repartitioning occurred via a redirection of flow through the vascular connections in the crown region of the plant, and appeared to be promoted by rapid, physical signals originating from the cooled region of the petiole.

  11. Leaf Phosphate Status, Photosynthesis, and Carbon Partitioning in Sugar Beet

    PubMed Central

    Rao, I. Madhusudana; Terry, Norman

    1989-01-01

    Sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1) were cultured hydroponically for 2 weeks in growth chambers with two levels of orthophosphate (Pi) supplied in half strength Hoagland solution. Low-P plants were supplied with 1/20th of the Pi supplied to control plants. With low-P treatment, the acid soluble leaf phosphate and total leaf P decreased by about 88%. Low-P treatment had a much greater effect on leaf area than on photosynthesis. Low-P decreased total leaf area by 76%, dry weight per plant by 60%, and the rate of photosynthesis per area at light saturation by 35%. Low-P treatment significantly decreased the total extractable activity of phosphoglycerate kinase (by 18%) and NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (by 16%), but did not decrease the total activities of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase (RuBPCase) and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase. Low-P treatment decreased the initial activities of three rate-limiting Calvin cycle enzymes, but had no effect on the initial activity of RuBPCase. Furthermore, low-P treatment significantly increased the total extractable activities of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (by 61%), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (by 53%), and transketolase (by 46%). The results suggest that low-P treatment affected photosynthetic rate through an effect on RuBP regeneration rather than through RuBPCase activity and that the changes in Calvin cycle enzymes with low-P resulted in an increased flow of carbon to starch. PMID:16666882

  12. Data on milk dioxin contamination linked with the location of fodder croplands allow to hypothesize the origin of the pollution source in an Italian valley.

    PubMed

    Desiato, Rosanna; Bertolini, Silvia; Baioni, Elisa; Crescio, Maria Ines; Scortichini, Giampiero; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Sparagna, Bruno; Cuttica, Giancarlo; Ru, Giuseppe

    2014-11-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) have similar toxic, endocrine-disrupting, and carcinogenic activity. They are classified as persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the environment and the tissues of living organisms. High concentrations of PCDD/F and dl-PCB have been detected in bovine milk collected in a Piedmont valley (Northwestern Italy) since 2004. This geographic study describes the local distribution of pollution from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since their presence in animal products could be traced back to the ingestion of contaminated fodder, dioxin levels in cow milk were related to the distribution of fodder cropland parcels. Specifically, the aim of the study was to determine, through an exploratory approach, whether the contamination was consistent with one common point source of contamination or different scattered sources. Data for PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations in the bulk milk from 27 herds, sampled over a 4-year period (2004-2007), were matched to the georeferenced land parcels the dairy farmers used for growing fodder. Isopleth maps of dioxin concentrations were estimated with ordinary kriging. The highest level of pollution for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was geographically juxtaposed: in both instances, the location of the local steel plant was within this extremely highly polluted area. The study results support the hypothesis for one common point source of contamination in the valley. The exploratory spatial analysis applied in this research may provide a valuable, novel approach to straightforward identification of a highly likely source of dioxin contamination of dairy products (even in the absence of top soil contamination data).

  13. Cultivar-specific seedling vigor and expression of a putative oxalate oxidase germin-like protein in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    de los Reyes, Benildo G; McGrath, J Mitchell

    2003-06-01

    For genetic screening and breeding purposes, an in vitro germination system that reflects relative field emergence potential was used to screen for germination-enhancing and stress-induced genes from germinating seedlings from two varieties of sugar beet. Three full-length germin-like protein (GLP) gene classes were recovered from stress-germinated seedlings of a superior emerging variety. GLP gene expression, oxalate oxidase protein activity, the H(2)O(2) content of stressed seedlings, but not catalase activity, were induced by stress germination conditions (e.g. excess water, NaCl, mannitol, or oxalate) in a good emerging hybrid and were not induced in a poor emerging variety. Only one of the three germin-like protein genes ( BvGer165) was differentially regulated, and was induced only in the good emerger. Hydrogen peroxide promoted germination and partially compensated solute-depressed germination percentages. Unlike other solute recovery by hydrogen peroxide regimes, recovery in oxalic acid plus H(2)O(2) was cultivar-independent. A block in oxalate metabolism is postulated to contribute to lower germination under stress in the lower emerging variety. Selection for stress-induced germin expression, or for down-stream targets, presents the first direct target to enable breeding for improved field emergence of sugar beet.

  14. Use of local pastoral species to increase fodder production of the saline rangelands in southern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlili, Abderrazak; Tarhouni, Mohamed; Cardà, Artemi; Neffati, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes associated with multiple destructive human activities accelerate the degradation process of the natural rangelands around the world and especially the vulnerable areas such as the dryland ecosystems (Anaya-Romero et al., 2015; Eskandari et al., 2016; Muños Rojas et al., 2016; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2016). The vegetation cover and the biomass production of these ecosystems are decreasing and this is resulting in land degradation due to the soil erosion and changes in soil quality due to the abuse and misuse of the soil resources (Cerdà et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016). To cope with such threats, it is necessary to develop some management techniques (restoration, plantation…) to enhance the biomass production and the carbon sequestration of the degraded rangelands (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016; Tarhouni et al., 2016). The valorization of saline water by planting pastoral halophyte species in salt-affected soils as well as the marginal areas are considered among the valuable tools to increase the rangeland production in dry areas. In this work, the ability of four plants (Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae), Atriplex mollis Desf. (Amaranthaceae), Lotus creticus L. (Fabaceae) and Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae)) to grow and to produce are tested under a field saline conditions (water and soil). Non-destructive method (Vegmeasure) is used to estimate the biomass production of these species. Chemical (crude protein, moisture and ash contents) and biochemical analyses (sugars, tannins and polyphenols contents) are also undertaken. Two years after plantation, the obtained results showed the ability of the four species to survive and to grow under high salinity degree. A strong positive correlation was obtained between the canopy cover and the dry biomass of the four studied species. Hence, the restoration of saline soils can be ensured by planting local halophytes. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has

  15. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Samuelian, Suren; Kleine, Michael; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P; Klein-Lankhorst, René M; Jung, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from hairy root clones and sugar beet plants infected or not with the beet cyst nematode and 8000 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were analysed. One TDF was found to be differentially expressed in both materials and was further investigated. Real-time PCR confirmed that this TDF is specifically up-regulated in resistant sugar beet upon nematode infection and its full-length cDNA was isolated. Sequence analysis suggests that the gene encodes a 317 amino acid polypeptide of unknown function. No homology to any sequence present in the public databases could be detected. To further elucidate its function in resistance to the beet cyst nematode, the cDNA was transformed into hairy roots of susceptible sugar beet under the control of the 35S promoter and hairy root clones were inoculated with nematodes. The number of developing females was significantly reduced in 12 out of 15 clones resulting from independent transgenic events suggesting that the gene can be used for inducing cyst nematode resistance in plants.

  16. Inducing effect of PGRs on small regulatory si/miRNA in resistance to sugar beet cyst nematode.

    PubMed

    Tsygankova, V A; Stefanovska, T R; Galkin, A P; Ponomarenko, S P; Blume, Ya B

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is an economically important plant parasite of sugar beet in Ukraine. The pest control options are limited. Sugar beet cyst nematode resistant varieties are not available on the market. Carbamate and organophosphate pesticides have been banned due to the high toxicity. The problem is aggravated by continuously increasing of oilseed rape (which is suitable host for H. schachtii) growing area due to biofuel demands. Several studies' results indicate that PGRs have role in management of plant parasitic nematodes but for sugar beet it is not studied well. We had an objective- studying of the role of four compositional PGRs created based of avermectin in suppression of sugar beet cyst nematode population on sugar beet and oilseed rape caused by enhancing of endogenous si/miRNA complementary to H. schachtii mRNA. Laboratory study was conducted in 2011 with using method DOT-blot hybridization si/miRNA with mRNA and by testing inhibitory activity in cell free system protein biosynthesis. That was shown that application of the PGRs enhances sugar beet and oilseeds rape plant immune-protective properties and resistance against plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schochtii through enhancement of synthesis of small regulatory si/miRNA related (complementary) to an mRNA structure of the parasitic organisms. As a result, translation of mRNA of the nematode is blocked and causes the mortality of plant parasite juveniles.

  17. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  18. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  19. Sex pheromone of the Spanish population of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Gloria; Guerrero, Angel; Quero, Carmen

    2010-07-01

    The pheromone composition of the Spanish population of the beet armyworm (BAW), Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was identified. Analysis of female gland extracts showed the presence of compounds Z9,E12-14:Ac (1), Z9-14:Ac (2), Z11-16:Ac (3), Z9,E12-14:OH (4), Z9-14:OH (5), and Z11-16:OH (6) in a ratio of 26:11:1:22:31:9. The amount of compound per gland ranged from 2.08 ng for 5 to 0.09 ng for 3. However, analysis of female volatiles by SPME revealed only the presence of compounds, 1, 2, 3, and 5 in a 34:40:4:22 ratio. In electroantennogram assays, compound 1 elicited the highest response, and the C14 acetates evoked higher electrophysiological responses than the corresponding alcohols or C16 isomers. In a wind tunnel, no behavioral difference was observed between formulations based on the gland extracts and female volatiles. In both cases, males responded as when virgin females were used as the attractant source. Compound 1 alone elicited upwind flight by males, but required the presence of compound 5 in a 80:20 to 40:60 ratio for full activity. Ternary mixtures of 1, 5 and the minor components did not improve the performance of the 1+5 blend in a 60:40 ratio. In the field, the mixture 1+5+3 in a 56:37:7 ratio was the most attractive formulation, and is expected to be useful in future pest control strategies.

  20. Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Cai, Daguang; Thurau, Tim; Tian, Yanyan; Lange, Tina; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Jung, Christian

    2003-04-01

    Sporamin, a sweet potato tuberous storage protein, is a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. Its capability of conferring insect-resistance on transgenic tobacco and cauliflower has been confirmed. To test its potential as an anti-feedant for the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.), the sporamin gene SpTI-1 was introduced into sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Twelve different hairy root clones expressing sporamin were selected for studying nematode development. Of these, 8 hairy root clones were found to show significant efficiency in inhibiting the growth and development of the female nematodes whereas 4 root clones did not show any inhibitory effects even though the SpTI-1 gene was regularly expressed in all of the tested hairy roots as revealed by northern and western analyses. Inhibition of nematode development correlated with trypsin inhibitor activity but not with the amount of sporamin expressed in hairy roots. These data demonstrate that the trypsin inhibitor activity is the critical factor for inhibiting growth and development of cyst nematodes in sugar beet hairy roots expressing the sporamin gene. Hence, the sweet potato sporamin can be used as a new and effective anti-feedant for controlling cyst nematodes offering an alternative strategy for establishing nematode resistance in crops.

  1. Effects of Pre-Converted Nitrite from Red Beet and Ascorbic Acid on Quality Characteristics in Meat Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Young-Boong

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid on color development in meat emulsions. The pH of meat emulsions containing red beet extract decreased with an increase in the amount of extract added. The redness of the treated meat emulsions was higher than that of the control with no added nitrite or fermented red beet extract (p<0.05), though the redness of the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract only was lower than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). The highest VBN, TBARS, and total viable count values were observed in the control, and these values in the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract were higher than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). E. coli and coliform bacteria were not found in any of the meat emulsions tested. Treatment T2, containing nitrite and ascorbic acid, had the highest overall acceptability score (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the T2 treatment and the T6 treatment, which contained 10% pre-converted nitrite from red beet extract and 0.05% ascorbic acid (p>0.05). The residual nitrite content of the meat emulsions treated with ascorbic acid was lower than in those treated without ascorbic acid (p<0.05). Thus, the combination of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid could be a viable alternative to synthetic nitrite for the stability of color development in meat emulsions.

  2. Effects of Pre-Converted Nitrite from Red Beet and Ascorbic Acid on Quality Characteristics in Meat Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid on color development in meat emulsions. The pH of meat emulsions containing red beet extract decreased with an increase in the amount of extract added. The redness of the treated meat emulsions was higher than that of the control with no added nitrite or fermented red beet extract (p<0.05), though the redness of the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract only was lower than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). The highest VBN, TBARS, and total viable count values were observed in the control, and these values in the meat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract were higher than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (p<0.05). E. coli and coliform bacteria were not found in any of the meat emulsions tested. Treatment T2, containing nitrite and ascorbic acid, had the highest overall acceptability score (p<0.05); however, there was no significant difference between the T2 treatment and the T6 treatment, which contained 10% pre-converted nitrite from red beet extract and 0.05% ascorbic acid (p>0.05). The residual nitrite content of the meat emulsions treated with ascorbic acid was lower than in those treated without ascorbic acid (p<0.05). Thus, the combination of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid could be a viable alternative to synthetic nitrite for the stability of color development in meat emulsions. PMID:28515652

  3. Stalk rot of sugar beet caused by Fusarium solani on the Pacific coast.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium stalk blight can cause loss of seed production in sugar beet. The only known causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2006, plants that had been grown as stecklings in Oregon and planted in the greenhouse in California for seed production showed symptoms of stalk blight. In add...

  4. Beet Juice-Induced Green Fabrication of Plasmonic AgCl/Ag Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, green, and fast approach (complete within 5 min) was explored for the fabrication of hybrid AgCl/Ag plasmonic nanoparticles under microwave (MW) irradiation. In this method, beet juice served as a reducing reagent, which is an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce. I...

  5. Sugar Beets, Segregation, and Schools: Mexican Americans in a Northern Colorado Community, 1920-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Ruben

    2003-01-01

    What was unique about the Mexican American experience in Fort Collins (Colorado) was the extent to which the Great Western Sugar Company colonized Mexican workers. They lived in Mexican colonies, separate neighborhoods, or remote locations on sugar beet farms. In public schools, Mexican Americans were perceived as intellectually inferior and were…

  6. Physico-chemical characterization of protein associated polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar Beet Pulp (SBP), contains 67 to 80% (dry weight) of potentially valuable polysaccharides. We have solubilized and separated polysaccharides from SBP into three fractions with steam assisted flash extraction (SAFE) employed to solubilize the first and second fractions. Pectin, the first fract...

  7. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The addition of 1% (wt/v) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), green, and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent ultraviolet (UV) radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodo...

  8. Preparation and properties of water and glycerol-plasticized sugar beet pulp plastics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP), the residue from sugar extraction, was compounded and turned into thermoplastic composite materials. The compounding was performed using a common twin screw compounding extruder and water and glycerol were used as plasticizers. The plasticization of SBP utilized the water-solu...

  9. Response of reproductive traits and longevity of beet webworm to temperature, and implications for migration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a facultative long-distance migratory insect pest of crops in many regions between latitudes 36-55°N. Reproductive performance of L. sticticalis is very sensitive to thermal conditions, such that outbreaks of larvae are clos...

  10. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses.

  11. Functional differentiation of the sugar beet root system as indicator of developmental phase change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Developmental phase transition in the plant root system has not been well characterized. In this study we compared the dynamics of sucrose accumulation with gene expression changes analyzed with cDNA-AFLP in the tap root system of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) during the first nine weeks after emerg...

  12. Study of sugar beet cyst nematode life cycle using plant tissue culture method.

    PubMed

    Shadmehr, Atena; Nouroozi, Payman; Garousi, Ghasemali; Ahmadi, Ali-Reza

    2007-09-01

    After optimization of sterilizing of cyst and larva second stage of Heterodera schachtii, possibility of using nematode on seedlings of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in in vitro conditions were studied using sterilized larvae of beet cyst nematode. For this purpose, non sterile cysts were extracted from infected soil and hatched into zinc chloride solution with concentration of 0.5 g L(-1). Then, for preparation of sterile second stage larvae, several sterilizing treatments were used. Mean comparisons were performed between sterilized live larvae number by Duncan's method. Results showed that 70% ethanol for 1 min followed by 2.5% hypochlorite sodium for 5 minutes and 0.1% hypochlorite sodium for 20 min were best treatments for disinfecting cysts and larvae, respectively. In parallel, two nematode susceptible sugar beet varieties were applied to produce seedlings in in vitro culture. PG(oB) medium containing different hormonal compositions was used for producing of hairy roots and inoculation of seedling with sterilized larvae. After nematode inoculation tests, daily observations were done by counting cysts and stained roots and larvae under stereomicroscope. Between 5-12 cysts formed on the roots of each seedling from two varieties 40 days after inoculation. As a result, it seems that this technique can be used for sugar beet germplasm evaluation to screen nematode resistant genotypes in in vitro controlled condition.

  13. Sugar beet cell wall protein confers fungal and pest resistance in genetically engineered plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet biomass and sugar yield are reduced by diseases caused by microbial pathogens and insect pest infestations. Since disease and pest control measures continue to rely on harmful chemical fungicides and insecticides, biotechnological approaches offer an alternate approach for disease and pe...

  14. Postharvest respiration rate and sucrose concentration of Rhizoctonia-infected sugar beet roots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR), caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2, is a common root disease on sugar beet that reduces yield and sucrose during the growing season and causes further losses by increasing respiration and reducing sucrose content during storage. The industry needs to identify...

  15. Beet Juice-Induced Green Fabrication of Plasmonic AgCl/Ag Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simple, green, and fast approach (complete within 5 min) was explored for the fabrication of hybrid AgCl/Ag plasmonic nanoparticles under microwave (MW) irradiation. In this method, beet juice served as a reducing reagent, which is an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce. I...

  16. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  17. High-throughput RAD-SNP genotyping for characterization of sugar beet genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High-throughput SNP genotyping provides a rapid way of developing resourceful set of markers for delineating the genetic architecture and for effective species discrimination. In the presented research, we demonstrate a set of 192 SNPs for effective genotyping in sugar beet using high-throughput mar...

  18. Response of BGMV and BGYMV resistant common bean to beet curly top virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop losses can be severe when susceptible large-seeded Andean dry and green bean cultivars are planted early in dry areas with a history of curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and closely related species. In order to assess the level of curly top resistance in 65 diverse dry and green ...

  19. Leuconostoc spp. associated with root rot in sugar beet and their interaction with rhizoctonia solani

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhizoctonia root and crown is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc. Since, the initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly underst...

  20. Identification of differentially expressed genes induced by beet curly top virus infection in sugarbeet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to beet curly top virus (BCTV) trait is crucial in Western USA. There is sparse public knowledge of genes regulating resistance. This research focused on gene expression profiling of resistance to the three BCTV strains: Cal/Logan (Cal), Worland (Wor), and severe. Differential gene exp...

  1. Influence of harvest timing, fungicides, and BNYVV on sugar beet storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root rots in sugar beet storage can lead to multi-million dollar losses because of reduced sucrose recovery. Thus, studies were conducted to establish better chemical control options and a better understanding of the fungi involved in storage rot. A water check and three fungicides (Mertect at 0.0...

  2. Ethanol fermentation of energy beets by self-flocculating and non-flocculating yeasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ningning; Steven Green, V; Ge, Xumeng; Savary, Brett J; Xu, Jianfeng

    2014-03-01

    Specialized varieties of sugar beets (Energy Beets™) are being developed for producing industrial sugars in Arkansas' Mississippi River Delta. To evaluate their suitability for producing regional fermentation feedstocks, we report initial cultivation trials and ethanol fermentation of raw beet juice and combined juice with pulp mash (JPM) liquefied with enzymes, comparing ethanol yields under different regimes by self-flocculating and non-flocculating yeasts. Nine varieties produced root yields averaging 115Mg/ha and 18.5% sucrose contents. Raw beet juice fermentation yielded ethanol up to 0.48g/g (sugar). JPM was directly fermented through either a sequential (SeqSF) or simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. For both yeast types, SSF was a more efficient process than SeqSF, with ethanol yields up to 0.47g/g (sugar) and volumetric productivity up to 7.81g/L/h. These results indicate the self-flocculating yeast is suitable for developing efficient bioprocesses to ferment industrial sugar from energy beets.

  3. Assessment of strobilurin resistance in Cercospora beticola in on sugar beet in Michigan and Nebraska, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the most important foliar disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) worldwide. CLS is controlled mainly with fungicides, including strobilurins (FRAC group 11). Resistance to strobilurins in C. beticola was first identified in 2011 from s...

  4. Comparative infectivity of homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses against beet armyworm larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) were assayed to determine the most effective NPV against beet armyworm larvae, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)(SeMNPV). Included were three isolates from S. exigua, one isolate each from S. littoralis Boisduval, S. litura...

  5. Sugar beet germplasm evaluated for resistance to rhizomania and fungal growth in storage in Idaho, 2011

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to rhizomania is a basic requirement for cultivars’ approval for commercialization. The objectives of this research were to identify germplasm accessions that carry resistance genes to rhizomania and storage root rots. Twenty-one sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasm from the USDA-ARS K...

  6. Fruit and vegetable extracts as radiation protectants for the beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extracts from 37 fruits and vegetables were tested as ultraviolet (UV) protectants for the nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Only one extract (black currant) provided almost complete protection following ultraviolet B/ultraviole...

  7. Whole genome sequencing of sugarbeet and identification of differentially expressed genes regulating beet curly top resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genome of KDH13 doubled haploid line has been sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2000 NGS platform. This line (PI663862) was released by USDA-ARS as a genetic stock resistant to beet curly top. Sequencing of a standard paired end and a 2kb-insert mate-pair genomic libraries, constructed from a leaf ...

  8. Fractionation of sugar beet pulp by introducing ion-exchange groups

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) was chemically modified with the goal to utilize this method for the preparation of water-soluble polysaccharides. Yields of the trimethylammoniumhydroxypropylated (TMAHP) polysaccharide fractions prepared under vacuum in absence of NaOH or KOH, as well as their molar masses, w...

  9. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain.

  10. Nucleic acid and protein elimination during the sugar manufacturing process of conventional and transgenic sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Klein, J; Altenbuchner, J; Mattes, R

    1998-02-26

    The fate of cellular DNA during the standard purification steps of the sugar manufacturing process from conventional and transgenic sugar beets was determined. Indigenous nucleases of sugar beet cells were found to be active during the first extraction step (raw juice production) which was carried out at 70 degrees C. This and the consecutive steps of the manufacturing process were validated in terms of DNA degradation by competitive PCR of added external DNA. Each step of the process proved to be very efficient in the removal of nucleic acids. Taken together, the purification steps have the potential to reduce the amount of DNA by a factor of > 10(14), exceeding by far the total amount of DNA present in sugar beets. Furthermore, the gene products of the transgenes neomycin phosphotransferase and BNYVV (rhizomania virus) coat protein CP21 were shown to be removed during the purification steps, so that they could not be detected in the resulting white sugar. Thus, sugar obtained from conventional and transgenic beets is indistinguishable or substantially equivalent with respect to purity.

  11. Yield potential of spring-harvested sugar beet depends on autumn planting time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar crops grown for biofuel production provide a source of simple sugars that can readily be made into advanced biofuels. In the mild climate of the southeastern USA, sugar beet can be grown as a winter crop, providing growers with an alternative crop. Experiments evaluated autumn planting dates...

  12. Colonization study of gfp-tagged Achromobacter marplatensis strain in sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Shi, YingWu; Li, Chun; Yang, HongMei; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yan; Chu, Min; Zeng, Jun; Lin, Qing; OuTiKuEr; Li, YuGuo; Huo, Xiangdong; Lou, Kai

    2017-04-01

    This study details the introduction of a gfp marker into an endophytic bacterial strain (Achromobacter marplatensis strain 17, isolated from sugar beet) to monitor its colonization of sugar beet (Beta. vulgaris L.). Stability of the plasmid encoding the gfp was confirmed in vitro for at least 72 h of bacterial growth and after the colonization of tissues, under nonselective conditions. The colonization was observed using fluorescence microscopy and enumeration of culturable endophytes in inoculated sugar beet plants that grew for 10 or 20 days. gfp-Expressing strains were re-isolated from the inner tissues of surface-sterilized roots and stems of inoculated plants, and the survival of the Achromobacter marplatensis 17:gfp strain in plants 20 days after inoculation, even in the absence of selective pressure, suggests that it is good colonizer. These results also suggest that this strain could be a useful tool for the delivery of enzymes or other proteins into plants. In addition, the study highlights that sugar beet plants can be used effectively for detailed in vitro studies on the interactions between A. marplatensis strain 17 and its host, particularly if a gfp-tagged strain of the pathogen is used.

  13. Fractionation of sugar beet pulp into pectin, cellulose, and arabinose by arabinases combined with ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Spangnuolo, M.; Crecchio, C.; Pizzigallo, M.D.R.; Ruggiero, P.

    1999-09-20

    Incubation of beet pulp with two arabinases ({alpha}-L-arabinofuranosidase and endo-arabinase), used singularly or in combination at different units of activity per gram of beet pulp, caused the hydrolysis of arabinasn, which produced a hydrolyzate consisting mainly of arabinose. Pectin and a residue enriched with cellulose were subsequently separated from the incubation mixture. The best enzymatic hydrolysis results were obtained when 100 U/g of beet pulp of each enzyme worked synergistically with yields of 100% arabinose and 91.7% pectin. These yields were higher than those obtained with traditional chemical hydrolysis. The pectin fraction showed a low content of neutral sugar content and the cellulose residue contained only a small amount of pentoses. Semicontinuous hydrolysis with enzyme recycling in an ultrafiltration unit was also carried out to separate arabinose, pectin, and cellulose from beet pulp in 7 cycles of hydrolysis followed by ultrafiltration. The yields of separation were similar to those obtained in batch experiments, with an enzyme consumption reduced by 3.5 times and some significant advantages over batch processes.

  14. Sugar Beets, Segregation, and Schools: Mexican Americans in a Northern Colorado Community, 1920-1960.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donato, Ruben

    2003-01-01

    What was unique about the Mexican American experience in Fort Collins (Colorado) was the extent to which the Great Western Sugar Company colonized Mexican workers. They lived in Mexican colonies, separate neighborhoods, or remote locations on sugar beet farms. In public schools, Mexican Americans were perceived as intellectually inferior and were…

  15. Effect of beet flour on films made from biological macromolecules: Native and modified plantain flour.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Guzmán, Romel; Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Famá, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Biological macromolecules such as starches of different amylaceous sources have been used in the formulation of edible films. However, there are few studies aimed at evaluating edible and intelligent films with response to pH changes from natural pigments, this despite the importance of these materials. In this context, films from native and modified plantain flour, plasticized with glycerol, with or without the addition of beet flour were developed. The chemical and structural composition of the flours, and its incidence on thickness, water solubility, contact angle, and mechanical and microstructural properties were evaluated, thus as its response to pH changes of the developed films. The observations showed that the incorporation of beet flour allowed to obtain intelligent films front to pH changes alkaline. Likewise, the betalains that were found in beet flour interacted more efficiently with the phosphated plantain flour, limiting well its immediate response to pH changes. In the same way, proteins and sugars of beet flour allowed to obtain more flexible films, due to the hydrogen bond interactions between these constituents and the plantain flours. This latter could justify the decrease of contact angle, and the increase on thickness and solubility of these films.

  16. Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L) as a Biofuel Feedstock in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet is a biennial plant, which produces an enlarged root and hypocotyl in the first year, in which it stores sucrose that provides energy used to flower in the next season. Technically, conversion of sugar to ethanol is a simple process requiring only yeast fermentation. A 2006 USDA study c...

  17. Antioxidant and Physicochemical Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide-Treated Sugar Beet Dietary Fibre.

    PubMed

    Mišan, Aleksandra; Sakač, Marijana; Medić, Đorđe; Tadić, Vanja; Marković, Goran; Gyura, Julliana; Pagano, Ester; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca; Šarić, Bojana; Milovanović, Ivan; Milić, Nataša

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to examine if hydrogen peroxide treatment of sugar beet fibre that aimed at improving its physicochemical properties would impair its antioxidant potential. Three different sugar beet fibres were obtained from sugar beet - non-treated fibre (NTF) from sugar beet cossettes extracted with sulphurous acid, treated fibre (TF) from NTF treated with hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution and commercially available Fibrex(®) . The antioxidant activity of extractable and non-extractable fibre fractions in ethanol/water mixture (80:20, v/v) of three fibre samples was estimated. Non-extractable fractions obtained after alkaline treatment of investigated fibres were much higher in phenolic compounds and possessed higher antioxidant potential than extractable fractions. Ferulic acid was proven to be the dominant phenolic acid. Regarding both extractable and non-extractable fractions, Fibrex(®) had the highest antioxidant activity in chemical tests, while NTF was superior in comparison with TF. Based on the results of Caco-2 cells-based test, all non-extractable fractions possessed potential for reactive oxygen species inhibition. Regarding the extractable fractions, only the TF manifested this effect.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Association mapping in multiple segregating populations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Stich, Benjamin; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Heckenberger, Martin; Möhring, Jens; Schechert, Axel; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2008-11-01

    Association mapping in multiple segregating populations (AMMSP) combines high power to detect QTL in genome-wide approaches of linkage mapping with high mapping resolution of association mapping. The main objectives of this study were to (1) examine the applicability of AMMSP in a plant breeding context based on segregating populations of various size of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), (2) compare different biometric approaches for AMMSP, and (3) detect markers with significant main effect across locations for nine traits in sugar beet. We used 768 F(n) (n = 2, 3, 4) sugar beet genotypes which were randomly derived from 19 crosses among diploid elite sugar beet clones. For all nine traits, the genotypic and genotype x location interaction variances were highly significant (P < 0.01). Using a one-step AMMSP approach, the total number of significant (P < 0.05) marker-phenotype associations was 44. The identification of genome regions associated with the traits under consideration indicated that not only segregating populations derived from crosses of parental genotypes in a systematic manner could be used for AMMSP but also populations routinely derived in plant breeding programs from multiple, related crosses. Furthermore, our results suggest that data sets, whose size does not permit analysis by the one-step AMMSP approach, might be analyzed using the two-step approach based on adjusted entry means for each location without losing too much power for detection of marker-phenotype associations.

  19. Multi-trait association mapping in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Stich, Benjamin; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schulz, Britta; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-10-01

    Association mapping promises to overcome the limitations of linkage mapping methods. The main objective of this study was to examine the applicability of multivariate association mapping with an empirical data set of sugar beet. A total of 111 diploid sugar beet inbreds was selected from the seed parent heterotic pool to represent a broad diversity with respect to sugar content (SC). The inbreds were genotyped with 26 simple sequence repeat markers chosen according to their map positions in proximity to previously identified quantitative trait loci for SC. For SC and beet yield (BY), the genotypic variances were highly significant (P < 0.01). Based on the global test of the bivariate mixed-model approach, four markers were significantly associated with SC, BY, or both at a false discovery rate of 0.025. All four markers were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with BY but only two with SC. The identification of markers associated with SC, BY, or both indicated that association mapping can be successfully applied in a sugar beet breeding context for detection of marker-phenotype associations. Furthermore, based on our results multivariate association mapping can be recommended as a promising tool to discriminate with a high mapping resolution between pleiotropy and linkage as reasons for co-localization of marker-phenotype associations for different traits.

  20. Molecular markers for improving control of soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in sugar beet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB) is an important pathogen of sugar beet worldwide causing leaf yellowing and vascular discoloration. The use of tolerant varieties is one of the most effective methods for managing this disease. In this study, a large germplasm collection,comprised of 29 sugar be...

  1. Physico-chemical characterization of alkaline soluble polysaccharides from sugar beet pulp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have studied the global structure of microwave-assisted alkaline soluble polysaccharides (ASP) isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp. The objective was to minimize the disassembly and possibly the degradation of these polysaccharides during extraction. Prior to ASP microwave assisted-extraction (...

  2. Biodegradable composites from polyester and sugar beet pulp with antimicrobial coating for food packaging

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Totally biodegradable, double-layered antimicrobial composite Sheets were introduced for food packaging. The substrate layers of the sheets were prepared from poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) or poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and SBP by a twin-screw extruder. The ac...

  3. Physico-chemical characterization of a cellulosic fraction from sugar beet pulp

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The residue of sugar beet pulp from which pectin and alkaline soluble polysaccharides have been removed by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) or conventional heat was treated with sodium monochloroacetate under alkaline pH to convert the residual cellulose present to carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)....

  4. Global structure of microwave-assisted flash extracted sugar beet pectin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have studied the global structure of microwave assisted, flash extracted pectins isolated from fresh sugar beet pulp. The objective was to minimize the disassembly and possibly the degradation of pectin molecules during extraction. We have characterized these pectins by HPSEC with light scatter...

  5. Sugar beet pulp and poly(lactic acid) composites using methylene diphenyl diisocyanate as coupling agent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Composites from sugar beet pulp (SBP) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were extruded in the presence of polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI). SBP particles were evenly distributed within the PLA matrix phase as revealed by confocal fluorescence microscopic analysis. The resultant composites w...

  6. The measurement of mannitol in sugar beet factories to monitor deterioration and processing problems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet deterioration can still be a major technological constraint in processing. The major (but not sole) contributor to deterioration in many countries, particularly when warm and humid conditions prevail, is infection by hetero-fermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides lactic acid bacteria. In...

  7. Sugar Beet Extract (Beta vulgaris L.) as a New Natural Emulsifier: Emulsion Formation.

    PubMed

    Ralla, Theo; Salminen, Hanna; Edelmann, Matthias; Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-05-24

    The interfacial and emulsion-forming properties of sugar beet extract (Beta vulgaris L.) were examined and compared to a Quillaja extract that is widely used within the food industry. We investigated the influence of extract concentration on surface activity at oil-water and air-water interfaces and on the formation of oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w, pH 7). Sugar beet extract reduced the interfacial tension up to 38% at the oil-water interface, and the surface tension up to 33% at the air-water surface. The generated emulsions were negatively charged (ζ ≈ -46 mV) and had the smallest particle sizes (d43) of ∼1.3 μm at a low emulsifier-to-oil ratio of 0.75:10. Applying lower or higher extract concentrations increased the mean particle sizes. The smallest emulsions were formed at an optimum homogenization pressure of 69 MPa. Higher homogenization pressures led to increased particle sizes. Overall, sugar beet extract showed high surface activity. Furthermore, the formation of small emulsion droplets was successful; however, the droplets were bigger compared to those from the Quillaja extract. These results indicate sugar beet as an effective natural emulsifier that may be utilized for a variety of food and beverage applications.

  8. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT–PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain. PMID:20512402

  9. The measurement of mannitol in sugar beet factories to monitor deterioration and processing problems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet deterioration can still be a major technological constraint in processing. The major (but not sole) contributor to deterioration in many countries, particularly when warm and humid conditions prevail, is infection by hetero-fermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides lactic acid bacteria. In...

  10. The America Society of Sugar Beet Technologist, advancing sugarbeet research for 75 years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists (ASSBT) was created 75 years ago when a group of researchers that had been meeting informally as the Sugarbeet Roundtable adopted the constitution and by-laws that provided the basis for an organization that continues to foster the exchange of ideas a...

  11. The American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists advancing sugarbeet research for 75 years

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The American Society of Sugar Beet Technologists (ASSBT) was created 75 years ago when a group of researchers that had been meeting informally as the Sugarbeet Roundtable adopted the constitution and by-laws that provided the basis for an organization that continues to foster the exchange of ideas a...

  12. Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

    2014-08-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae.

  13. Machine vision analysis for industrial beet color change kinetics and total soluble solid content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A machine vision system (MVS) for the measurement of color change kinetics in crushed industrial beet to evaluate the total soluble solid content (°Brix) was developed in this study. It is expected that higher the °Brix faster the color change and modeling this color change kinetics helps in assessi...

  14. Polysaccharides isolated from sugar beet pulp by quaternization under acidic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugar beet pulp was extracted and chemically modified under acidic conditions using glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride in the presence of trifuoroacetic (TFA), HCl or H3PO4. The goal was to find out how the type of acid used and quaternization could affect the yield of soluble polysaccharide, its mo...

  15. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Isa C.; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Veloso, Maria M.; Simoes-Costa, Maria C.; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S.; Ricardo, Cândido P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  16. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isa C; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M; Veloso, Maria M; Simoes-Costa, Maria C; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  17. Killers, Fillers and Fodder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-02

    good agility, hand-eye coordina- tion"ae4- manual dexterity -’All tankers should also be required to-have excellent vision and not wear glasses. Tests...should be required to possess good agility, hand-eye coordina- tion, and manual dexterity. All tankers should also be required to have excellent vision...reason- ably good vision, but they ma wer glanses. Agility, ,han-ye coordi- nation and manual dimftrity are not tested. Who they are, and the standards

  18. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m(-3) day(-1). While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg(-1)VS h(-1)at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg(-1)VS h(-1). In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage.

  19. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage. PMID:27807538

  20. Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Váli, László; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Sárdi, Eva; Lugasi, Andrea; Kocsis, Ibolya; Blázovics, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) contains important bioactive agents (betaine and polyphenols), which have a wide range of physiologic effects. Because nutritive antioxidants may reduce the occurrence of complications and postoperative mortality, dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may greatly contribute to the survival of patients. Our aim was to determine the liver-protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-treated (n = 24) and fed with table beet (n = 8). For 10 days the second group was treated with lyophilized table beet (2 g/kg body weight daily) mixed into the rat chow. Hepatic ischemia was maintained for 45 min, followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion was carried out on animals from both groups. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration, Randox-total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry. Fatty acid (Shimadzu GC) and metal ion (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) concentrations were observed in the liver. As a result of feeding, global parameters (H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) of the liver were found to increase significantly, which indicated that the treatment had a positive effect on its redox state. The increase found in zinc and copper content may protect the hepatocytes against oxidative stress because these elements are required for the function of superoxide dismutase enzymes. In the table beet group the concentration of short-chain fatty acids decreased, whereas that of long-chain fatty acids increased. The changes in metal element and fatty acid concentrations confirmed that these elements have an essential function

  1. Efficient callus formation and plant regeneration are heritable characters in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Taguchi, Kazunori; Arakawa, Takumi; Kuroda, Yosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining dedifferentiated cells (callus) that can regenerate into whole plants is not always feasible for many plant species. Sugar beet is known to be recalcitrant for dedifferentiation and plant regeneration. These difficulties were major obstacles for obtaining transgenic sugar beets through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation procedure. The sugar beet line 'NK-219mm-O' is an exceptional line that forms callus efficiently and is easy to regenerate, but the inheritance of these characters was unknown. Another concern was whether these characters could coexist with an annual habitat that makes it possible to breed short life-cycle sugar beet suitable for molecular genetic analysis. Five sugar beet lines including NK-219mm-O were crossed with each other and subjected to in vitro culture to form callus. F1s with a NK-219mm-O background generally formed callus efficiently compared to the others, indicating that efficient callus formation is heritable. The regeneration potential was examined based on the phenotypes of calli after placement on regeneration medium. Five phenotypes were observed, of which two phenotypes regenerated shoots or somatic embryo-like structures. Vascular differentiation was evident in regenerable calli, whereas non-regenerable calli lacked normally developed vascular tissues. In a half-diallel cross, the callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F1s progeny having a NK-219mm-O background were high. Finally, we crossed NK-219mm-O with an annual line that had a poor in vitro performance. The callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F1 were high. The regenerated plants showed an annual habitat. Efficient callus formation and the high plant regeneration potential of NK-219mm-O were inherited and expressed in the F1. The annual habitat does not impair these high in vitro performances.

  2. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-11-09

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively). Variation in final protein isolation yield was mostly due to variation in nitrogen extractability (28-56%), although no consistent correlation with plant age was found. A significant effect of plant age was observed on the quality (color) of the extracted protein, that is, brown (indicative of polyphenol oxidase activity) and yellow for extracts from old and young plants, respectively.

  3. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet.

  4. PGE2 induces oenocytoid cell lysis via a G protein-coupled receptor in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular and humoral immune responses in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO activation begins with release of its inactive zymogen, PPO, from oenocytoids in response to prostaglandins (PGs). Based on the biomedical literatur...

  5. A sugar beet chlorophyll a/b binding protein promoter void of G-box like elements confers strong and leaf specific reporter gene expression in transgenic sugar beet

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Dietmar J; Kloos, Dorothee U; Hehl, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Background Modification of leaf traits in sugar beet requires a strong leaf specific promoter. With such a promoter, expression in taproots can be avoided which may otherwise take away available energy resources for sugar accumulation. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was utilized to generate an enriched and equalized cDNA library for leaf expressed genes from sugar beet. Fourteen cDNA fragments corresponding to thirteen different genes were isolated. Northern blot analysis indicates the desired tissue specificity of these genes. The promoters for two chlorophyll a/b binding protein genes (Bvcab11 and Bvcab12) were isolated, linked to reporter genes, and transformed into sugar beet using promoter reporter gene fusions. Transient and transgenic analysis indicate that both promoters direct leaf specific gene expression. A bioinformatic analysis revealed that the Bvcab11 promoter is void of G-box like regulatory elements with a palindromic ACGT core sequence. The data indicate that the presence of a G-box element is not a prerequisite for leaf specific and light induced gene expression in sugar beet. Conclusions This work shows that SSH can be successfully employed for the identification and subsequent isolation of tissue specific sugar beet promoters. These promoters are shown to drive strong leaf specific gene expression in transgenic sugar beet. The application of these promoters for expressing resistance improving genes against foliar diseases is discussed. PMID:15579211

  6. Ensiled sugar beets as dietary component and their effect on preference and dry matter intake by goats.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Katrin; Reimink, Anke; Messerschmidt, Ulrike; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the influence of ensiled sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) on preference and short-time dry matter (DM) intake of goats. Whole sugar beets were ensiled either without any silage additive (sugar beet silage (SBS)) or with a chemical additive (6 l/t) containing 85% formic and propionic acids (treated sugar beet silage (TBS)) and were chopped after ensiling. The influence of different proportions of SBS (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% of dietary DM) and TBS (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of DM) in partial mixed rations on short-time DM intake by goats (adult Saanen type wethers; n = 10) was studied in two separate, independent trials. Preference behaviour was investigated by offering the goats two different experimental diets per day and offer each possible combination of them (n = 10) once throughout the trial. On this basis, the mean DM intake (within 30 min and 3 h) of each experimental diet was determined. Both sugar beet silages showed good fermentation quality with low pH. By using the chemical silage additive, the production of ethanol was reduced and considerable amounts of sugar were preserved. In the short-term preference experiment, increasing concentrations of sugar beet silage in the ration increased DM intake (p < 0.05) in a linear way with a strong preference for those diets containing high amounts of sugar beet silage. Initial DM intake after 30 min was 4-5 fold increased for diets containing the highest beet concentration. It is assumed that the preference was positively influenced by sugar and sweet taste or the associated higher concentration of metabolisable energy.

  7. An improved CARV process for bioethanol production from a mixture of sugar beet mash and potato mash.

    PubMed

    Yun, Min-Soo; Park, Jeung-yil; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Shiroma, Riki; Ike, Masakazu; Tamiya, Seiji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2011-01-01

    A mixed mash of sugar beet roots and potato tubers with a sugar concentration of 23.7% w/v was used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Enzymatic digestion successfully reduced the viscosity of the mixture, enabling subsequent heat pretreatment for liquefaction/sterilization. An energy-consuming thick juice preparation from sugar beet for concentration and sterilization was omitted in this new process.

  8. Bioavailability of oxalic acid from spinach, sugar beet fibre and a solution of sodium oxalate consumed by female volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hanson, C F; Frankos, V H; Thompson, W O

    1989-03-01

    Oxalate bioavailability from sugar beet fibre (40 g), spinach (25 g) and a solution of sodium oxalate (182 mg) was tested in nine women using a triplicated 3 x 3 Latin square arrangement. Each test substance provided 120 mg oxalic acid. Throughout the study the volunteers consumed a control diet and the test substances were administered at breakfast on specified days. After an initial 2-day control period, oxalate was administered in three test periods that consisted of one test day followed by one control day. Urine collected during 24-hr periods was analysed daily for oxalate. Oxalate excretion did not differ among the five control days and was not increased significantly following the ingestion of sugar beet fibre by the volunteers. Oxalate excretion was greater (P less than 0.0001) for the mean of the spinach and sodium oxalate solution diets than for the mean of the sugar beet fibre and control diets. Oxalate bioavailability from sugar beet fibre was 0.7% compared with bioavailabilities of 4.5 and 6.2% for spinach and oxalate solutions, respectively. The low bioavailability of oxalate from sugar beet fibre may be attributable to its high ratio of minerals (calcium and magnesium) to oxalate, its complex fibre matrix or the loss of the soluble oxalate during processing of sugar beets.

  9. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  10. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Results Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Conclusion Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance. Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic. PMID

  11. Pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn: 1. Effects on feed intake, chewing behavior, and milk production of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Voelker, J A; Allen, M S

    2003-11-01

    The effects of increasing concentrations of dried, pelleted beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on intake, milk production, and chewing behavior were evaluated using eight ruminally and duodenally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were 79 +/- 17 (mean +/- SD) d in milk at the beginning of the experiment. Experimental diets with 40% forage (corn silage and alfalfa silage) and 60% concentrate contained 0, 6.1, 12.1, or 24.3% beet pulp substituted for high-moisture corn on a dry matter basis. Diet concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and starch were 24.3 and 34.6% (0% beet pulp), 26.2 and 30.5% (6% beet pulp), 28.0 and 26.5% (12% beet pulp), and 31.6 and 18.4% (24% beet pulp), respectively. Increasing beet pulp in the diet caused a linear decrease in dry matter intake (DMI). Time spent eating per day and per kilogram of DMI increased, and sorting against NDF tended to increase, with added beet pulp. Substituting beet pulp for corn caused a quadratic response in milk fat yield, with the highest yield for the 6% beet pulp treatment. A tendency was detected for a similar quadratic response in 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield. Lower plasma insulin concentration may have resulted in lower body condition gain for cows fed diets with higher beet pulp concentration. Partial substitution of pelleted beet pulp for high-moisture corn decreased intake but also may have permitted greater fat-corrected milk yield.

  12. Study of some physiological changes in sugar beet cv. 7233 in the presence of sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii and an antagonistic sterile fungus StFCh1-1 in the rhizosphere condition.

    PubMed

    Jalali, A A Hojat; Ghasempour, H R; Sharifi, S

    2007-11-01

    In this study, several physiological parameters of inoculated sugar beet plants, with the beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, were evaluated in the presence of an antagonistic sterile fungus StFCh1-1 in the rhizosphere condition. The sugar beet plant used in this bioassay was a multigerm cultivar, 7233, which is sensitive to the beet cyst nematode and has been adapted to cultivate in temperate and cool regions of the sugar beet production areas of Iran. In this regard a potent bioassay was conducted in the sterile glass tubes (20 x 3 cm phi ) containing 30 g autoclaved soil and planted with a sterile germinated seed of sugar beet, totally in 24 tubes. The seedling of sugar beet plant at four leaves stages in two treatments (nematode and nematode + fungus) was inoculated with 50 disinfected beet cyst nematodes. As a standard procedure the bioassay composed of four treatments including: fungus, nematode, nematode + fungus and untreated control. Two months after nematodes' inoculation some physiological parameters of plants were measured including: total chlorophyll, potassium and biomass. The two treated plants with nematode and nematode plus fungus showed significant decrease in biomass and chlorophyll contents but treatment with fungus alone showed no significant differences in the biomass and chlorophyll content of plants in comparison with the control. The potassium content of shoots in the invaded sugar beet plants was lowest, but it was highest in the roots. These changes might be indication of adaptive osmoregulation or acclimation responses in plants due to the nematodes as bio-stressors through the increase of metabolites and solutes. Also, these results confirmed that in plants inoculated with nematode plus fungus, a few number of female of nematodes were developed due to the antagonistic effects of sterile fungus StFCh1-1. Meanwhile, the fungus didn't have any detrimental effect on biomass, chlorophyll content and potassium in leaves of sugar beet cv

  13. [Epigenetic variation of the choriflowered--symflowered character in the symflowered sugar beet line SOAN-14].

    PubMed

    Iudanova, S S; Maletskaia, E I; Maletskiĭ, S I

    2012-07-01

    The effect of 5-azacytidine on the variation of the choriflowered (CF)-symflowered (SF) character in sugar beet was studied in several generations obtained via seed reproduction. The epimutagen (5-azacytidine) significantly reduced the number of flowers in glomerate inflorescences in the year of seed treatment and in the next generation (Az1), leading to the appearance of plants with single flowers in bract axils of a flower stalk. The CF character resulting from epimutagene treatment of sugar beet seeds (plants with genotype M(Z)M(Z) was inherited as a monohybrid character in both zygotic and apozygotic seed progenies. The proportion of the CF and SF phenotypes in the progenies was affected bythe chromatid number in the chromosomes (mixoploidy of the cell populations). Alleles of the Mm locus were found to affect the variation in phytomere organization of flower stalks.

  14. A study on cations and color removal from thin sugar juice by modified sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Arslanoglu, Hasan; Tumen, Fikret

    2012-06-01

    This article describes the use of citric acid modified sugar beet pulp as new ion-exchanger sorbent for the removal of metal cations and colorants from thin juice. The results of batch adsorption runs concerning the effects of contact time, material dosage, temperature and pH drop were presented and discussed. Experimental data on the removal of metal cations showed that the sorption process was rapid and reached equilibrium in 60 min. Modified material in acidic form caused to a significant pH drop in thin juice, which could result with sucrose inversion. Uptake of metal cations increased with temperature whereas that of color decreased. Neutralised type modified product gave more satisfying results. After six successive contacts, 49.7%, 37.5% and 43.7% removals for Ca-Mg, K and color, respectively, were obtained by using neutralised form of modified sugar beet pulp.

  15. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  16. Sodium and proline accumulation as osmoregulators in tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to salinity.

    PubMed

    Pakniyat, H; Armion, M

    2007-11-15

    Twenty eight sugar beet genotypes were analysed for their tolerance at 3 NaCl levels (0, 3000 and 6000 mg NaCl kg(-1) soil) and Na+, K+, Na+/K+ and free proline were measured from the leaf samples. Results showed that increasing salinity level caused an increase in Na+, Na+/K+ and proline, but a decrease in K+ content of leaf samples (p < or = 0.01). As compared to non-tolerant genotypes, tolerant ones accumulated more Na+ and Na+/K+ and proline and less K+. It seems that Na+ and proline accumulation in shoots are effective mechanisms for osmotic pressure adjustment and plant tolerance to salinity, a mechanism commonly seen in sugar beet ancestors.

  17. Biolistic transformation of highly regenerative sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ivic-Haymes, Snezana D; Smigocki, Ann C

    2005-03-01

    Leaves of greenhouse-grown sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants that were first screened for high regeneration potential were transformed via particle bombardment with the uidA gene fused to the osmotin or proteinase inhibitor II gene promoter. Stably transformed calli were recovered as early as 7 weeks after bombardment and GUS-positive shoots regenerated 3 months after bombardment. The efficiency of transformation ranged from 0.9% to 3.7%, and stable integration of the uidA gene into the genome was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The main advantages of direct bombardment of leaves to regenerate transformed sugar beet include (1) a readily available source of highly regenerative target tissue, (2) minimal tissue culture manipulation before and after bombardment, and (3) the overall rapid regeneration of transgenic shoots.

  18. Isolation and purification of feruloylated oligosaccharides from cell walls of sugar-beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Ralet, M C; Thibault, J F; Faulds, C B; Williamson, G

    1994-10-17

    Cell walls from sugar-beet pulp contain some feruloyl groups linked to the pectic neutral side-chains. Enzymic as well as chemical hydrolysis of the pulp yielded a series of feruloylated oligosaccharides, which have been purified by Sephadex LH-20 and Biogel P-2 chromatography in aqueous solvents. Feruloylated arabinose di-, tri-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-saccharides as well as feruloylated galactose disaccharides were obtained after hydrolysis of the pulp with a mixture of fungal carbohydrases (Driselase). Feruloylated arabinose and galactose monosaccharides were obtained through mild acid hydrolyses. Both arabinose and galactose residues in the side-chains are feruloylated, 50-55% of the feruloyl groups being linked to arabinose residues and 45-50% to galactose residues. It is concluded that 1 out of 56 arabinose residues and 1 out of 16 galactose residues present as pectic side-chains in sugar-beet pulp carry a feruloyl group.

  19. Optimization of production yield and functional properties of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Lv, Cheng; Wang, Yong; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-06-05

    A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum extraction condition to obtain higher yield, better color attribute as well as better rheological and emulsifying properties in pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp (SBP). A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the yield of sugar beet pulp pectin (SBPP) based on the composite design. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to quantify the integral effect of three processing parameters (extraction temperature, time and pH) on yield, yield stress, color attribute (tint value) and emulsifying activity index (EAI). Through the frequency analysis it was found that the optimal temperature, time and pH value of the extraction were 93.7 °C, 3 h, and 1.21, respectively. The yield, yield stress and tint value of the SBPP extracted at the optimal condition were 24.45%, above 0.1 Pa and -6.0, respectively.

  20. Electrical Evidence for Turgor Inhibition of Proton Extrusion in Sugar Beet Taproot

    PubMed Central

    Kinraide, Thomas B.; Wyse, Roger E.

    1986-01-01

    Sections of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot were incubated in various concentrations of mannitol. At 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 molar, the membrane electrical potential difference (Em) averaged about −130 millivolts; at 0.2 molar, about −90 millivolts; and at 0 molar, between −60 and −80 millivolts. Additions of 10 millivolts acetate to the incubation solutions (all at pH 5) enhanced the membrane polarity to about −200 millivolts. We conclude from these and previous findings that high turgor inhibits proton extrusion in the sugar beet, but that proton extrusion can be activated in fully turgid tissue by acidification of the cytoplasm. A possible function of this turgor effect may be the control of turgor itself. PMID:16665150

  1. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  2. Betaine and Beet Molasses Enhance L-Lactic Acid Production by Bacillus coagulans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses. PMID:24956474

  3. Breed effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn.

    PubMed

    Franco, D; Rois, D; Vázquez, J A; Purriños, L; González, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the Mos rooster breed growth performance, carcass, and meat quality. The breed effect (Mos vs. Sasso T-44) and finishing feed in the last month (fodder vs. corn) on animal growth, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty and amino acid profiles were studied using a randomized block design with initial weight as covariance. In total, 80 roosters (n = 30 of Sasso T-44 line and n = 50 of Mos breed) were used. They were separated by breed and allocated to 2 feeding treatment groups (concentrate and corn). Each feeding treatment group consisted of 15 and 25 roosters, for Sasso T-44 line and Mos breed, respectively. Finishing feeding did not affect growth parameters in the 2 genotypes of rooster tested (P > 0.05). Nonetheless, the comparison between both types of roosters led to significant differences in growth parameters (P < 0.05). Regarding carcass characteristics, no significant influences of finishing feeding treatment (P > 0.05) were found, and as expected, carcass weight clearly differed between genotypes due to the lower growth rate of Mos roosters. However, drumstick, thigh, and wing percentages were greater in the Mos breed than in the hybrid line. In color instrumental traits, roosters feeding with corn showed breast meat with significantly (P < 0.001) higher a* and b* values than those of cocks feeding with commercial fodder. Values of shear force were less than 2 kg for both genotypes, thus it can be classified as very tender meat. Finishing with corn significantly increased (P < 0.001) the polyunsaturated fatty acid content in the breast; the Mos breed had a polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio of 0.73. The amino acid profile of the indigenous breed was not similar to that of the commercial strain. Finishing feeding treatment had a greater influence than breed effect on amino acid profile.

  4. The Acquisition of Indigenous Plasmids by a Genetically Marked Pseudomonad Population Colonizing the Sugar Beet Phytosphere Is Related to Local Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lilley, A. K.; Bailey, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    The transfer of naturally occurring conjugative plasmids from the indigenous microflora to a genetically modified population of bacteria colonizing the phytospheres of plants has been observed. The marked strain (Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25EeZY6KX) was introduced as a seed dressing to sugar beets (Beta vulgaris var. Amethyst) as part of a field experiment to assess the ecology and genetic stability of deliberately released bacterial inocula. The sustained populations of the introduced strain, which colonized the phytosphere, were assessed throughout the growing season for the acquisition of plasmids conferring mercury resistance (Hg(supr)). Transconjugants were isolated only from root and leaf samples collected within a narrow temporal window coincident with the midseason maturation of the crop. Conjugal-transfer events were recorded during this defined period in two separate field release experiments conducted over consecutive years. On one occasion seven of nine individual plants sampled supported transconjugant P. fluorescens SBW25EeZY6KX, demonstrating that conjugative gene transfer between bacterial populations in the phytosphere may be a common event under specific environmental conditions. The plasmids acquired in situ by the colonizing inocula were identified as natural variants of restriction digest pattern group I, III, or IV plasmids from five genetically distinct groups of large, conjugative mercury resistance plasmids known to persist in the phytospheres of sugar beets at the field site. These data demonstrate not only that gene transfer may be a common event but also that the genetic and phenotypic stability of inocula released into the natural environment cannot be predicted. PMID:16535580

  5. Coupling Spore Traps and Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection of the Downy Mildew Pathogens of Spinach (Peronospora effusa) and Beet (P. schachtii)

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Steven J.; Anchieta, Amy; McRoberts, Neil; Koike, Steven T.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Voglmayr, Hermann; Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Martin, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew of spinach (Spinacia oleracea), caused by Peronospora effusa, is a production constraint on production worldwide, including in California, where the majority of U.S. spinach is grown. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detection of airborne inoculum of P. effusa in California. Among oomycete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences examined for assay development, the highest nucleotide sequence identity was observed between rDNA sequences of P. effusa and P. schachtii, the cause of downy mildew on sugar beet and Swiss chard in the leaf beet group (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between P. effusa and P. schachtii in the 18S rDNA regions for design of P. effusa- and P. schachtii-specific TaqMan probes and reverse primers. An allele-specific probe and primer amplification method was applied to determine the frequency of both P. effusa and P. schachtii rDNA target sequences in pooled DNA samples, enabling quantification of rDNA of P. effusa from impaction spore trap samples collected from spinach production fields. The rDNA copy numbers of P. effusa were, on average, ≈3,300-fold higher from trap samples collected near an infected field compared with those levels recorded at a site without a nearby spinach field. In combination with disease-conducive weather forecasting, application of the assays may be helpful to time fungicide applications for disease management. PMID:24964150

  6. Concurrent Beet Juice and Carbohydrate Ingestion: Influence on Glucose Tolerance in Obese and Nonobese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beals, Joseph W.; Binns, Scott E.; Davis, Janelle L.; Giordano, Gregory R.; Klochak, Anna L.; Paris, Hunter L.; Schweder, Melani M.; Peltonen, Garrett L.; Scalzo, Rebecca L.

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance and obesity are characterized by low nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Insulin sensitivity is improved with stimulation of NO generating pathways. Consumption of dietary nitrate (NO3−) increases NO formation, via NO3− reduction to nitrite (NO2−) by oral bacteria. We hypothesized that acute dietary nitrate (beet juice) ingestion improves insulin sensitivity in obese but not in nonobese adults. 12 nonobese (body mass index: 26.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2 (mean ± SE)) and 10 obese adults (34.0 ± 0.8 kg/m2) ingested beet juice, supplemented with 25 g of glucose (carbohydrate load: 75 g), with and without prior use of antibacterial mouthwash to inhibit NO3− reduction to NO2−. Blood glucose concentrations after beet juice and glucose ingestion were greater in obese compared with nonobese adults at 60 and 90 minutes (P = 0.004). Insulin sensitivity, as represented by the Matsuda Index (where higher values reflect greater insulin sensitivity), was lower in obese compared with nonobese adults (P = 0.009). Antibacterial mouthwash rinsing decreased insulin sensitivity in obese (5.7 ± 0.7 versus 4.9 ± 0.6) but not in nonobese (8.1 ± 1.0 versus 8.9 ± 0.9) adults (P = 0.048). In conclusion, insulin sensitivity was improved in obese but not in nonobese adults following coingestion of beet juice and glucose when oral bacteria nitrate reduction was not inhibited. Obese adults may benefit from ingestion of healthy nitrate-rich foods during meals. PMID:28203456

  7. Genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in elite sugar beet germplasm

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Characterization of population structure and genetic diversity of germplasm is essential for the efficient organization and utilization of breeding material. The objectives of this study were to (i) explore the patterns of population structure in the pollen parent heterotic pool using different methods, (ii) investigate the genome-wide distribution of genetic diversity, and (iii) assess the extent and genome-wide distribution of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in elite sugar beet germplasm. Results A total of 264 and 238 inbred lines from the yield type and sugar type inbreds of the pollen parent heterotic gene pools, respectively, which had been genotyped with 328 SNP markers, were used in this study. Two distinct subgroups were detected based on different statistical methods within the elite sugar beet germplasm set, which was in accordance with its breeding history. MCLUST based on principal components, principal coordinates, or lapvectors had high correspondence with the germplasm type information as well as the assignment by STRUCTURE, which indicated that these methods might be alternatives to STRUCTURE for population structure analysis. Gene diversity and modified Roger's distance between the examined germplasm types varied considerably across the genome, which might be due to artificial selection. This observation indicates that population genetic approaches could be used to identify candidate genes for the traits under selection. Due to the fact that r2 >0.8 is required to detect marker-phenotype association explaining less than 1% of the phenotypic variance, our observation of a low proportion of SNP loci pairs showing such levels of LD suggests that the number of markers has to be dramatically increased for powerful genome-wide association mapping. Conclusions We provided a genome-wide distribution map of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium for the elite sugar beet germplasm, which is useful for the application of genome-wide association

  8. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla).

    PubMed

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Vanhanen, Leo; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-23

    Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  9. Inhibition of Na+/H+ Antiport Activity in Sugar Beet Tonoplast by Analogs of Amiloride 1

    PubMed Central

    Blumwald, Eduardo; Cragoe, Edward J.; Poole, Ronald J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of amiloride and a series of amiloride analogs have been tested on the Na+/H+ antiport activity in intact vacuoles and tonoplast vesicles isolated from sugar beet cell suspension cultures. There is a competitive interaction between amiloride analogs and sodium. Substitution of one or both H-atoms of the 5-amino group of amiloride (apparent Ki about 150 micromolar) resulted in a 3- to 200-fold increase in inhibitory potency of the antiport activity. PMID:16665675

  10. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake.

    PubMed

    Mohdaly, Adel A A; Sarhan, Mohamed A; Smetanska, Iryna; Mahmoud, Awad

    2010-01-30

    Growing interest in the replacement of synthetic food antioxidants by natural ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and screening of raw materials to identify new antioxidants. The food-processing industry generates substantial quantities of phenolic-rich by-products that could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. In this study the antioxidant properties and total phenolic, flavonoid and flavonol contents of three industrial by-products, sugar beet pulp, sesame cake and potato peel, extracted with various solvents were examined. Since different antioxidant compounds have different mechanisms of action, several methods were used to assess the antioxidant efficacy of extracts. Among the six solvents tested, methanol gave the highest extract yield of potato peel and sugar beet pulp, while diethyl ether gave the highest extract yield of sesame cake. Methanol exhibited the highest extraction ability for phenolic compounds, with total phenolics amounting to 2.91, 1.79 and 0.81 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry weight in potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts respectively, and also showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in the three assays used. All three methods proved that potato peel extract had the highest antioxidant activity owing to its high content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. On the basis of the results obtained, potato peel, sugar beet pulp and sesame cake extracts could serve as natural antioxidants owing to their significant antioxidant activity. Therefore they could be used as preservative ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industries. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effect of Environment and Sugar Beet Genotype on Root Rot Development and Pathogen Profile During Storage.

    PubMed

    Liebe, Sebastian; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Storage rots represent an economically important factor impairing the storability of sugar beet by increasing sucrose losses and invert sugar content. Understanding the development of disease management strategies, knowledge about major storage pathogens, and factors influencing their occurrence is crucial. In comprehensive storage trials conducted under controlled conditions, the effects of environment and genotype on rot development and associated quality changes were investigated. Prevalent species involved in rot development were identified by a newly developed microarray. The strongest effect on rot development was assigned to environment factors followed by genotypic effects. Despite large variation in rot severity (sample range 0 to 84%), the spectrum of microorganisms colonizing sugar beet remained fairly constant across all treatments with dominant species belonging to the fungal genera Botrytis, Fusarium, and Penicillium. The intensity of microbial tissue necrotization was strongly correlated with sucrose losses (R² = 0.79 to 0.91) and invert sugar accumulation (R² = 0.91 to 0.95). A storage rot resistance bioassay was developed that could successfully reproduce the genotype ranking observed in storage trials. Quantification of fungal biomass indicates that genetic resistance is based on a quantitative mechanism. Further work is required to understand the large environmental influence on rot development in sugar beet.

  12. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin. PMID:21871058

  13. Zinc and copper uptake by silver beet grown in secondary treated effluent.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jaya; Levitan, Jason; Oyama, Noraisha

    2008-05-01

    The study was conducted in a hydroponics set-up to determine the suitability of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) contaminated wastewater as a growth medium for edible crops; to identify accumulation of Zn and Cu in different parts of the plants and to understand their effects on plant growth. Silver beet was found to produce adequate yields in the Zn (1.7 mg/L and 2.0mg/L) and Cu (0.35 mg/L and 1.1mg/L) spiked medium but not in the secondary treated domestic effluent. The plants grown in secondary treated effluent showed stunted growth and accumulated Zn and Cu to a high level in their shoots. In all other mediums Zn and Cu accumulated more in the roots. The stunted growth of silver beet in secondary treated wastewater and uptake of Zn in particular was considered to be due to the deficiency of nitrogen and other plant nutrients rather than the effect of heavy metals. The study also revealed that if there was adequate amount of macronutrients available for growth, silver beet could be grown in domestic effluent without the risk of Zn or Cu contamination to the undesired level through hydroponics.

  14. Progress towards the understanding and control of sugar beet rhizomania disease.

    PubMed

    McGrann, Graham R D; Grimmer, Michael K; Mutasa-Göttgens, Effie S; Stevens, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Rhizomania is a soil-borne disease that occurs throughout the major sugar beet growing regions of the world, causing severe yield losses in the absence of effective control measures. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), which is transmitted by the obligate root-infecting parasite Polymyxa betae. BNYVV has a multipartite RNA genome with all natural isolates containing four RNA species, although some isolates have a fifth RNA. The larger RNA1 and RNA2 contain the housekeeping genes of the virus and are always required for infection, whereas the smaller RNAs are involved in pathogenicity and vector transmission. RNA5-containing isolates are restricted to Asia and some parts of Europe, and these isolates tend to be more aggressive. With no acceptable pesticides available to restrict the vector, the control of rhizomania is now achieved almost exclusively through the use of resistant cultivars. A single dominant resistance gene, Rz1, has been used to manage the disease worldwide in recent years, although this gene confers only partial resistance. More recently, new variants of BNYVV have evolved (both with and without RNA5) that are able to cause significant yield penalties on resistant cultivars. These isolates are not yet widespread, but their appearance has resulted in accelerated searches for new sources of resistance to both the virus and the vector. Combined virus and vector resistance, achieved either by conventional or transgenic breeding, offers the sugar beet industry a new approach in its continuing struggle against rhizomania.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  16. Antioxidant activity of processed table beets (Beta vulgaris var, conditiva) and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Jiratanan, Thudnatkorn; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-05

    It has been shown that thermal processing of tomatoes and sweet corn results in increased antioxidant activities despite the loss of vitamin C. Until now, it is unclear whether this positive effect of thermal processing occurs with all crop produce. Therefore, analysis of a root vegetable (beets) and of a legume (green beans) was undertaken to address this question. Antioxidant activity of beets processed under typical commercial processing conditions remained constant despite an 8% loss of vitamin C, a 60% loss of color, and 30% loss of dietary folate. There was a slight but significant 5% increase in phenolic content of processed beets. In contrast, vitamin C and dietary folate content of green beans remained constant, whereas a 32% reduction in phenolic compounds occurred after typical commercial processing conditions. The antioxidant activity of green beans was reduced by 20%. These findings along with previous works suggest that the effects of thermal processing vary with the respective produce crop type. It also reinforces the concept that optimal health benefits may be achieved when a wide variety of plant foods (fruits, vegetables and whole grains) and preparation methods are incorporated into the diet.

  17. Pyrolysis kinetics of blends of Yeni Celtek lignite and sugar beet pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Devrim, Y.G.

    2008-07-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of the Yeni Celtek lignite/sugar beet pulp blends prepared at different ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, and 0:100) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in the present study. All the experiments were carried out in nitrogen atmosphere under non-isothermal conditions with a heating rate range of 30 K/min in the pyrolysis temperature interval of 298-1,173 K. The Arrhenius model is applied to determine the kinetic parameters from TG/DTG curves. Apparent activation energies of the lignite and sugar beet pulp were calculated as 51.55 kJ/mol and 97.27 kJ/mol, respectively. Activation energies of the blends were also calculated and were found to vary between 54.87 and 74.83 kJ/mol. Effects of blending ratio of lignite to sugar beet pulp on kinetic parameters were investigated and the results were discussed.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of sugar beet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) genes modulated by the Beta vulgaris host.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Smigocki, Ann C

    2016-10-03

    Sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis von Röder) is a major but poorly understood insect pest of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense responses are well documented, however, little information is available about complementary mechanisms for insect adaptive responses to overcome host resistance. To date, no studies have been published on SBRM gene expression profiling. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) generated more than 300 SBRM ESTs differentially expressed in the interaction of the pest with a moderately resistant (F1016) and a susceptible (F1010) sugar beet line. Blast2GO v. 3.2 search indicated that over 40% of the differentially expressed genes had known functions, primarily driven by fruit fly D. melanogaster genes. Expression patterns of 18 selected EST clones were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis predicted a dominance of metabolic and catalytic genes involved in the interaction of SBRM with its host. SBRM genes functioning during development, regulation, cellular process, signaling and under stress conditions were annotated. SBRM genes that were common or unique in response to resistant or susceptible interactions with the host were identified and their possible roles in insect responses to the host are discussed.

  19. Defensive role of tomato polyphenol oxidases against cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua).

    PubMed

    Bhonwong, Anongnut; Stout, Michael J; Attajarusit, Jutharat; Tantasawat, Piyada

    2009-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), enzymes that oxidize phenolics to quinones, have been implicated in plant resistance to insects. The role of PPO in resistance to cotton bollworm [Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)] and beet armyworm [Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was evaluated. Consumption, weight gains, and mortality of larvae feeding on foliage of transgenic tomato lines overexpressing PPO (OP lines) and of larvae feeding on foliage of transgenic tomato lines with suppressed PPO (SP lines) were compared with consumption, weight gains, and mortality of larvae feeding on non-transformed (NT) plants. Increases in foliage consumption and weight gains were observed for cotton bollworms feeding on leaves of SP plants compared to NT and OP plants. PPO activity was negatively correlated with both weight gains and foliar consumption of cotton bollworm, substantiating the defensive role of PPO against this insect. Similarly, beet armyworm consumed less foliage (both young and old leaves) from OP plants than SP plants. Larvae feeding on OP leaves generally exhibited lower weight gains than those feeding on SP leaves. These results indicate that tomato PPO plays a role in resistance to both cotton bollworm and beet armyworm.

  20. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function.