Science.gov

Sample records for foer perioden 1997-1999

  1. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summaries 1997- 1999. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1999 An Assessment Report.

  2. Dense water formation in the Southern Adriatic Sea and spreading into the Ionian Sea in the period 1997 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manca, B. B.; Kovaĉević, V.; Gaĉić, M.; Viezzoli, D.

    2002-06-01

    Hydrographic and current measurements conducted during the period from March 1997 to March 1999 in the Southern Adriatic and in the Otranto Strait provide clues to the mechanisms of dense water formation and its spreading in the Ionian Sea. The hydrographic surveys covered the successive phases of preconditioning, convection, vertical mixing and spreading. The sub-basin scale cyclonic circulation, the presence of highly saline and dense water in the intermediate layer and winter outbreaks of cold and dry continental air are verified as necessary prerequisites to open-ocean deep convection. However, in two winters, surface cooling and surface buoyancy fluxes were not of sufficient intensity, and the convective mixing reached only intermediate depth of ˜400 m in 1998 and ˜700 m in 1999. The ventilated convective cell in the centre of the gyre had density of ˜29.16 kg m -3, which was lower than the typical density ( σθ˜29.24 kg m -3) of the water that resides in the bottom layer of the southern basin (Adriatic Deep Water-ADW). In addition, dense waters from the northern shelf region contributed in filling up the Southern Adriatic deep reservoir. During more severe winter in 1999, two concomitant processes were observed: convection in the centre of the gyre and advection along the shelf of much denser waters ( σθ˜29.34 kg m -3), which, originating from the Northern Adriatic (NAdDW), sunk at the shelf-break and mixed with the resident bottom water in the Southern Adriatic. Finally, the fate of the ADW and its spreading into the Ionian has been investigated. Transport rates in the bottom layer across the Strait of Otranto have been estimated from long-term current-meter measurements and are related to the intensity of the ADW formation during the study period (1997-1999). Sub-inertial flow fluctuations reach as much as 1 Sv and occur during post-convection, presumably as a consequence of violent mixing processes and spreading. At longer time-scales (seasonal and

  3. Evolution and status of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (1997 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharis, A.; Klein, B.; Nittis, K.; Roether, W.

    2002-06-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) was the major climatic event in the circulation and water mass properties of the Mediterranean in the last century. In this paper, we describe the present status of the EMT and its evolution since 1995 using hydrological and tracer data from 1997 to 1999. Few but important changes have been observed in the circulation pattern. The intrusion of the Asia Minor Current (AMC) that carries the saline Surface Levantine Waters into the Aegean has been reduced compared to the picture of late 1980s. This means that one of the mechanisms that increased the salt content of the Aegean during the peak of the EMT is no longer present. The Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) signal that has been weakened in the Levantine Basin during the early stages of the EMT has also been re-enhanced. The Aegean still functions as a source of deep (Cretan Deep Water, CDW) and intermediate waters (Cretan Intermediate Water, CIW) for the Eastern Mediterranean, although with modified characteristics. The most important changes in the thermohaline structure of the Cretan Sea (southern Aegean Sea) are the weakening of the signal of the old Mediterranean mid-depth waters and the modification of the properties of the CDW both leading to a reduced stratification. The outflowing CDW is no longer dense enough to reach the bottom of the adjacent basins, but ventilates layers between 1500 and 2500 m. Only the deep eastern Straits of the Cretan Arc are still active in the discharge of CDW, while at the western Strait (Antikithira), the density of the outflowing water was reduced significantly. The intermediate water CIW formed in the Aegean is characterized as a shallow CFC-12, temperature and salinity maximum layer, and differs much from the "old" CIW formed before the EMT, which was found in the layer below the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). The new CIW extends into the Ionian Basin through Antikithira Strait. It has lately been observed to enter the Adriatic, where its high salinity is expected to re-establish deep-water formation in this basin. The spreading of the CDW that had been deposited in the Cretan Passage in the first phase of the EMT has progressed further. The entire bottom layer of the Levantine Basin is now covered by the CDW. In the Ionian, the CDW has reached the Straits of Sicily and Otranto. Similar pathways in the Ionian are followed by the new shallower outflow of the CDW.

  4. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 1997 through 1999 newsletters of the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, published three times a year. It provides topical information on research findings concerning children and media violence, children's media use, and activities aiming to limit gratuitous media violence.…

  5. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  6. National Science Foundation Support for Two-Year Colleges, Fiscal Years 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Undergraduate Education.

    This National Science Foundation (NSF) report, prepared by NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), analyzes the role the Foundation plays in recognizing and supporting the critical function of community colleges in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education. The Foundation aims to improve and strengthen SMET…

  7. Remotely sensed seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in the Ligurian Sea in 1997-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Lacroix, Genevieve; Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Djenidi, Salim

    2004-07-01

    Remotely sensed data and a one-dimensional hydrophysical model were used to study the seasonal dynamics of surface plant pigments concentration in the Ligurian-Provençal basin. The variations of phytoplankton biomass were estimated from the observations of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (1978-1986) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (September 1997 to October 1999) radiometers. The factors of physical environment analyzed included remotely sensed sea surface temperature (from advanced very high resolution radiometers), wind, air temperature, and atmospheric precipitation. The Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) model was used to explain the observed correlations between the physical forcing and the response of phytoplankton biomass. The general pattern of phytoplankton seasonal dynamics was typical to subtropical areas: maximum biomass during cold season from October to April and low biomass during summer months. The intensity of winter/spring bloom significantly varied during different years. The correlation was revealed between the summer/autumn air temperature contrast (expressed as the difference between the air temperatures in August and in November) and the maximum monthly averaged surface chlorophyll concentration during the subsequent winter/spring bloom. The features of seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton are regulated by the physical impacts influencing water stratification. The difference between two seasonal cycles (from September 1997 to October 1999) illustrates the response of phytoplankton growth to local meteorological conditions. In March-April 1999 the vernal bloom was much more pronounced; it resulted from deeper winter cooling and more intensive winter convection. Heating of surface water layer, wind mixing, and freshwater load with rains and river discharge either stimulate or depress the development of phytoplankton, depending on what limiting environmental factor (light or nutrient limitation) prevailed.

  8. THERMAL, MIXING, AND OXYGEN REGIMES OF THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. METAZOOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. The 1997-1999 Abrupt Change of the Upper Ocean Temperature in the North Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Seung-Bum; Lee, Tong; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt warming of the north central Pacific Ocean from 1997 to 1999 is studied using an ocean data assimilation product. During this period, the average mixed-layer temperature in the region of 170-210(deg)E, 25-40(deg)N rises by 1.8 K. The major contributors to the warming are surface heat flux (1.3 K), geostrophic advection (0.7 K), and entrainment (0.7 K). For the geostrophic advection, the contributions by the zonal, meridional, and vertical components are 0.4, -0.1 and 0.3 K, respectively. Mixing and meridional Ekman advection have cooling effect. The significance of the geostrophic advection indicates the importance of ocean dynamics in controlling the abrupt warming tendency during the 1997-99 period and the inadequacy of a slab-mixed-layer model in simulating such warming tendency.

  11. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Administration. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Several themes are prevalent in the literature on college administration. Motivating staff, planning, conflict management, ethics, power and influence, communication, strategy and decision making, vision, and financial issues are consistently discussed. However, common administrative processes such as planning, morale, and administrative climate…

  12. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Legal Issues. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Historically, legal issues have not been well represented in the higher education research literature. Two sources, however, regularly discuss legal issues: the Journal of College and University Law and the Chronicle of Higher Education. Three main themes emerge in the literature on legal issues: (1) rethinking and refining of traditional…

  13. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  14. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Graduate and Professional Education. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    The literature on graduate and professional education reflects many of the trends present in the literature on undergraduate education, including concerns about student learning; transforming the curriculum to be more inclusive; internationalization of the curriculum; incorporation of technology; growth in interdisciplinary education; and outcomes…

  15. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain). This is the first time that a molecular analysis was performed for the E. granulosus isolates from Tierra del Fuego.

  16. Water-quality data collected at Lake Anne, Reston, Virginia, 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Kennedy, Margaret M.; Rice, Karen C.

    2000-01-01

    Samples from the Lake Anne watershed were collected and analyzed to assess the water quality from December 1997 through January 1999. Lake Anne is a stream impoundment in suburban Northern Virginia and its outflow is a sub-tributary of the Potomac River. Samples of wet deposition (precipitation), lake water, and streamwater that drain into and from Lake Anne were collected and analyzed. Trace-element clean sampling and analysis protocols were followed throughout the project. This report is a compilation of the precipitation, lake-water, and streamwater data collected in the Lake Anne watershed and the associated quality assurance/quality control data. Concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, strontium, vanadium, and zinc, and of the major inorganic ions, aluminum, bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, hydrogen ion, iron, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, sodium, and sulfate are reported.

  17. Major limb amputations in Seremban Hospital: a review of 204 cases from 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Hazmy, W; Mahamud, M; Ashikin, N; Jamilah, S; Yee, L E; Shong, H K

    2001-06-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 3 years duration beginning from the 1st January 1997 to the 31st December 1999 in order to identify the epidemiology of major limb amputations in Seremban Hospital. Two hundred and four patients were included in this study out of which 65.7% were male and 34.3% were female. The mean age of the amputees was 39.7 years old. Non traumatic amputations constitute 85.8% of the cases mainly due to diabetic ulcers or gangrene (91%) followed by peripheral vascular disease (7%) and malignancy (2%). Traumatic amputations represent 14.2% of the cases with road-traffic accident as the major cause (82.8%) followed by industrial accident (17.2%). Lower limb amputations were performed in 97.5% of the cases with below knee amputations as the commonest procedure (72%), followed by above knee amputations (27%) and Syme amputations (1%). Five patients had upper limb amputations done. Four of them were below elbow amputations while one had forequarter amputation done of the left shoulder. Of note, there were increasing number of amputations done over the last three years with alarming increasing trends of traumatic amputation. The three main risk factors for major limb amputations are diabetes mellitus, male gender and road traffic accident.

  18. Impacts of ENSO on the South American Summer Monsoon During 1997-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.-M.; Zhou, Jia-Yu; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis, and CPC Merged Analysis Product (CMAP) rainfall, we have compared and contrasted the anomalies of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) during two extreme years of 1997/98 (EI Nino) and 1998/99 (La Nina). The results are assessed against a "canonical" ENSO response (CER) pattern for the SASM obtained from empirical mode decomposition based on a previous period (1980-1995). Overall, the SASM anomalies compare well with CER, but with some important differences. Anomalies occurring in the warm phase of the 1997-98 El Nino are very significant and robust, while those occurring in 1998/99 La Nina, appear to be reversed from 1997/98, but are relatively weak and less well-defined. The most pronounced signal in DJF 1997/98 is the development of drought conditions in northern Brazil, excessive rainfall over northern Peru and Ecuador, and over Uruguay and southern Brazil. The tropical rainfall anomalies are associated with the eastward shift of the Walker circulation, which is represented by pronounced low-level anomalous westerlies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and easterlies over northern Brazil. The easterlies are deflected sharply southeastward by the steep topography of the Andes, enhancing the low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the Andes near 15-20 S. The LLJ penetrates deep into the extratropics, yielding rainfall anomalies further poleward compared to CER. During DJF 1997/98, the eastward expansion of the warm tropospheric temperature over the Nino-3 region causes anomalous geopotential height to develop in the upper troposphere above the Altiplano, leading to a strengthened Bolivian High. An upper-tropospheric jet anomaly maximum is found over the subtropical continent near 30 S, due to increasing meridional gradient of tropospheric temperature, as well as teleconnection patterns linking the South Pacific and the South Atlantic. Consistent with the CER, the South Pacific High is weakened, and the South Atlantic High is strengthened in DJF 1997/98. However, rather than appearing as a coherent large scale signal over the entire Atlantic as in CER, the South Atlantic High anomalies in DJF 1997/98 split into two separate high pressure centers; one located south of the Amazon basin, and another over the southeastern South Atlantic. The former is induced as a Rossby-wave response by ENSO-Induced sinking motion over nor-them and eastern Brazil, and the latter may be associated with extratropical teleconnection signals. Anomalous convection observed over equatorial western Africa may also have contributed to the different circulation response over the Atlantic in DFJ 1997/99 compared to the CER. Comparison of the evolution of the SASM anomalies in 1997-99 with their corresponding annual cycles, suggest that the anomalies are phase-locked to and represent either enhancement or reduction of the annual variations. Results suggest that, from a system perspective the SASM was strengthened during the 1997/98 El Nino and weakened, albeit to a lesser extent, during the 1998/99 La Nina.

  19. An evaluation of selenium concentrations in water, sediment, invertebrates, and fish from the Republican River Basin: 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, T.W.; Walther, M.J.; Petty, J.D.; Fairchild, J.F.; Lucero, J.; Delvaux, M.; Manring, J.; Armbruster, M.; Hartman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Republican River Basin of Colorado,Nebraska, and Kansas lies in a valley which contains PierreShale as part of its geological substrata. Selenium is anindigenous constituent in the shale and is readily leached intosurrounding groundwater. The Basin is heavily irrigated throughthe pumping of groundwater, some of which is selenium-contaminated, onto fields in agricultural production. Water,sediment, benthic invertebrates, and/or fish were collected from46 sites in the Basin and were analyzed for selenium to determinethe potential for food-chain bioaccumulation, dietary toxicity,and reproductive effects of selenium in biota. Resultingselenium concentrations were compared to published guidelines orbiological effects thresholds. Water from 38% of the sites (n = 18) contained selenium concentrations exceeding 5 μg L-1, which is reported to be a high hazard for selenium accumulation into the planktonic food chain. An additional 12 sites (26% of the sites) contained selenium in water between 3–5 μg L-1, constituting a moderate hazard. Selenium concentrations in sedimentindicated little to no hazard for selenium accumulation fromsediments into the benthic food chain. Ninety-five percent ofbenthic invertebrates collected exhibited selenium concentrationsexceeding 3 μg g-1, a level reported as potentially lethal to fish and birds that consume them. Seventy-five percent of fish collected in 1997, 90% in 1998, and 64% in 1999 exceeded 4 μg g-1selenium, indicating a high potential for toxicity andreproductive effects. However, examination of weight profilesof various species of collected individual fish suggestedsuccessful recruitment in spite of selenium concentrations thatexceeded published biological effects thresholds for health andreproductive success. This finding suggested that universalapplication of published guidelines for selenium may beinappropriate or at least may need refinement for systems similarto the Republican River Basin. Additional research is needed todetermine the true impact of selenium on fish and wildliferesources in the Basin.

  20. Systemic Candida infection in University hospital 1997-1999: the distribution of Candida biotypes and antifungal susceptibility patterns.

    PubMed

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Na, S L; Soo-Hoo, T S

    2001-01-01

    A total of 102 Candida species were isolated from blood cultures from January 1997 to October 1999. Using assimilation of carbohydrate test, 52 (51.0%) of the Candida sp. were identified as C. parapsilosis, 25.5% (26) were C. tropicalis. C. albicans made up 11.8% (12), 6.9% (7) were C. rugosa, 3.8% (4) C. glabrata and 1% (1) C. guilliermondii. No C. dubliniensis was found in the study. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed that all Candida species were sensitive to nystatin, amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Although all isolates remained sensitive to fluconazole, intermediate susceptibility was found in 3 C. rugosa isolates. Antifungal agents with high frequency of resistance were econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. Candida species found to have resistance to these antifungal agents were non-C. albicans.

  1. Career and Technical Education, Career Pathways, and Work-Based Learning: Changes in Participation, 1997-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III; Aliaga, Oscar A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the extent to which high school students are choosing to participate in work-related education after a decade of education reform in the United States. Using data from the "National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997," we first examined the characteristics of students enrolled in alternative curriculum concentrations: career…

  2. Cadmium contents of oats (Avena sativa L.) in official variety, organic cultivation, and nitrogen fertilization trials during 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Eurola, Merja; Hietaniemi, Veli; Kontturi, Markku; Tuuri, Hannu; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Saastamoinen, Marketta; Rantanen, Olli; Kangas, Arjo; Niskanen, Markku

    2003-04-23

    The cadmium (Cd) contents of oats (Avena sativa L.) in Finland were examined over a 3 year period in three types of trials: official variety, organic vs conventional cultivation, and nitrogen fertilization trials. Large seasonal and regional variations were found in the Cd concentrations. In official variety trials, the mean Cd contents in 1997, 1998, and 1999 were 0.046, 0.029, and 0.052 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively, ranging from 0.008 to 0.120 mg kg(-1) dw. The concentrations were generally well below the maximum permitted level of 0.100 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. No significant differences were found between the organic and the conventional cultivation techniques. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increased the Cd contents of oats especially at high nitrogen rates (160 kg N hectare(-1) (ha)). Significant cultivar differences (p < 0.001) were determined in all trials. Cultivars Salo and Kolbu had consistently higher contents, and Belinda and Roope had lower Cd contents among the different growing conditions. Hence, it is possible to cultivate and develop oat cultivars less likely to accumulate Cd.

  3. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil);…

  4. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Assessment of the Lake Roosevelt Walleye Population: Compilation of 1997-1999 Data, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason; McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    A walleye mark-recapture study was conducted on Lake Roosevelt between 1997 and 1999. The primary objective of the study was to describe the status and biological characteristics of the walleye population in Lake Roosevelt by determining its abundance, movement patterns, age structure, growth, condition, and mortality. The abundance estimates were also to be used to estimate the consumptive impact of walleye on stocked kokanee and rainbow trout. Walleye were collected by electrofishing and angling. Each walleye was tagged with an individually numbered Floy tag. The Jolly-Seber model was used to estimate the size of the walleye population in 1999, using each year of the study as a mark-recapture occasion. Mark-recapture data collected in 1998 was re-analyzed in 1999 with the data pooled in various combinations, using closed and open population models, in an attempt to provide an estimate of walleye abundance that was unbiased, accurate, and more precise. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye were determined from tag returns. Over the three study years, a total of 12,343 walleye {ge} 150 mm TL were collected by Eastern Washington University (EWU), Spokane Tribe of Indians, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and of those, 10,770 were tagged and released. Of the 10,770 walleye marked and released, 775 were recaptured and returned to EWU. The 1999 abundance estimate ({+-} standard error) for walleye {ge} 150 mm TL was 129,183 ({+-} 45,578) and the estimated abundance ({+-} standard error) of walleye {ge} 200 mm TL was 101,508 ({+-} 35,603). A total of 38 population estimates were calculated for 1998. The estimates of the abundance of walleye {ge} 150 mm TL in Lake Roosevelt ranged from 84,335 to 180,568 fish. Estimates of the size of the walleye population {ge} 200 mm TL ranged from 14,971 to 173,702. The 1999 estimate, which used each study year as a mark-recapture occasion, was biased due to unequal capture probabilities. If biases were eliminated, the annual sampling strategy may be the most cost-effective. Of the reanalyzed 1998 estimates, the Schnabel corrected for tag loss and recruitment and the Jolly-Seber estimate, both calculated with the 200 mm minimum length, were recommended for modeling walleye consumption. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye marked on the spawning run ranged from 0 to 245 km over a range of 11 to 486 days. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye marked during the summer/fall ranged from 0 to 217 km over a range of 8 to 788 days. Walleye exhibited seasonal movement trends that included a migration to the spawning area in the upper Spokane River Arm in the spring, with peak spawning occurring in April and May, and a migration following spawning to summer habitats. Once at the summer habitat, walleye appeared to establish summer home ranges (SHR). Walleye collected in Lake Roosevelt in 1999 ranged in age from 0 to 8. Mean instantaneous and mean annual mortality were estimated at 0.62% and 46%. Mean condition factor (K{sub TL}) of the 343 walleye measured and weighed in 1999 was 0.83 (SD = 0.13). Walleye mortality rates appeared to be relatively stable. Mortality and growth were average when compared to other walleye producing waters. Walleye condition was low when compared to condition factors in 1980-83, 1988, 1989, and 1990. The K{sub TL}'s of walleye from Lake Roosevelt were slightly below average when compared to other walleye populations.

  5. Human G3P[9] rotavirus strains possessing an identical genotype constellation to AU-1 isolated at high prevalence in Brazil, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Takeshi; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Rotavirus (RV) A is a very common cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Most human strains are classified into two major Wa-like and DS-1-like genotype constellations, whilst a minor third strain, AU-1, was described in 1989 among human RV isolates from Japan. AU-1 demonstrates a high degree of homology to a feline RV, FRV-1, which suggests interspecies transmission of feline RV. However, there has been no subsequent report of RVs possessing the AU-1 genotype throughout all 11 genes of the genome. Between March 1997 and December 1999, 157 RV-positive stool samples were collected from Brazilian children, and 16 of the RVs (10.2 %) were P[9] genotype. We analysed eight strains by almost full-genome sequencing. These eight strains were divided into two groups: five AU-1-like and three Wa-like strains. Four of the five AU-1-like strains had the AU-1-like genotype constellation throughout the 11 genes. The remaining AU-1-like strain was considered to be a reassortant strain comprosed of nine, two and one genes from the AU-1-like, Wa-like and G9 strains, respectively. The three Wa-like strains were considered to be reassortants comprising seven to eight genes and three to four genes from Wa-like and non-Wa-like strains, respectively. This report of human G3P[9] RV strains possessing the AU-1 genotype constellation throughout all genes demonstrates the stability and infectivity of the AU-1-like strain with its original genotype over distance and time.

  6. Managing Electronic Serials: Essays Based on the ALCTS Electronic Serials Institutes 1997-1999. ALCTS Papers on Library Technical Services & Collections, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluh, Pamela M., Ed.

    If managed well, electronic journals (e-journals) can be extremely efficient, saving money and space while improving access and speeding information delivery. With the help of the Internet, e-journals can also make library collections more accessible to both users and staff. Covering the process of managing electronic serials from licensing,…

  7. Inventory Manager’s Workstation for the Aviation Supply Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    PHANTOM USER LOGIN MACRO ............... 148 APPENDIX H INVENTORY MANAGEMENT MACROS .............. 165 LIST OF REFERENCES...support the DSS software. Each of 42 MINE The Connectivity DcM ionnDecision Guide moreThenFile exchange foer spephera t no only? no Disk/cartrIdge yes...The Sun 3/160 executes a batch program that logs in a phantom user on the server. The phantom user enters ALIS. (2:30 am, nightly) * As the phantom

  8. Factbook on Arkansas Public Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report provides extensive statistical data on public higher education in Arkansas for the 1997-1999 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources and expenditure patterns. The report includes data on…

  9. An Extension and Test of the Communication-Flow Optimization Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    specific context of information systems research (Avison et al., 1999; Baskerville , 1997; 1999; Baskerville & Wood-Harper, 1996; 1998; Myers, 1997; Olesen...7-13. Baskerville , R. (1997). Distinguishing action research from participative case studies. Journal of Systems and Information Technology, 1(1...25-45. Baskerville , R. (1999). Investigating information systems with action research. Communications of The Association for Information Systems, 2

  10. IDEA 1997--"Inclusion Is the Law."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper stresses that the word "inclusion" is not used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that the law calls for students with disabilities to be provided with a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. Ten 1997-1999 court cases that address the placement of students with…

  11. Associations between change in sleep duration and inflammation: findings on C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 in the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Miller, Michelle A; Gimeno, David; Kumari, Meena; Davey Smith, George; Shipley, Martin J

    2013-09-15

    Cross-sectional evidence suggests associations between sleep duration and levels of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. This longitudinal study uses data from the London-based Whitehall II study to examine whether changes in sleep duration are associated with average levels of inflammation from 2 measures 5 years apart. Sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 hours on an average week night) was assessed in 5,003 middle-aged women and men in 1991/1994 and 1997/1999. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that shorter sleep is associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers. Longitudinal analyses showed that each hour per night decrease in sleep duration between 1991/1994 and 1997/1999 was associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (8.1%) and interleukin-6 (4.5%) averaged across measures in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Adjustment for longstanding illness and major cardiometabolic risk factors indicated that disease processes may partially underlie these associations. An increase in sleep duration was not associated with average levels of inflammatory markers. These results suggest that both short sleep and reductions in sleep are associated with average levels of inflammation over a 5-year period.

  12. A Preliminary Mapping of Web Queries Using Existing Image Query Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    End user searching on the Web has become the primary method of locating images for many people. This study investigates the nature of Web image queries by attempting to map them to known image classification schemes. In this study, approximately 100,000 image queries from a major Web search engine were collected in 1997, 1999, and 2001. A…

  13. A Learning Framework for the Small Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelliher, Felicity; Henderson, Joan Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to offer insight into the factors affecting individual and organisational learning in a small business; specifically the identification of the learning relationships that are unique to the small business environment. Design/methodology/approach: The authors apply Crossan et al.'s (1997, 1999) Organisational…

  14. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  15. Inhibition of Embryonic Genes to Control Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Russia BIFIP, Russia UAB, Alabama B.S./M.S. Ph.D. Postdoctoral training 1982 1997 1999- 2000 Biology/Biochemistry Biology... Biotechnology Gene Therapy RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Concluding with present position, list in chronological order, previous employment...Biology, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia 1992-1996 Research Scientist 1996-1999 Senior Research Scientist, Laboratory of

  16. Behavior States and a Half-Full Glass: A Response to Mudford, Hogg, and Roberts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In this response to critiques (Mudford, Hogg and Roberts 1997, 1999) of the use of behavior states in research involving individuals with mental retardation, it is argued that the work on behavioral state analysis by Robert D. Guess has contributed to the field at the practical, empirical, and theoretical levels. (Contains references.) (CR)

  17. Resilient Children of Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Vlahov, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Method: Injection drug-using parents (n = 91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n = 117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest…

  18. Cost Effectiveness Analysis, A DTIC Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    FOer Cot. *Otical materials. -Life cycle costs. l: aircraft. SiW.alDESCRIPTORS: *D~pa-tosnt of Defense. -Cost nrcssnZ. Cacl-es. Czt *.Cal ae’eludef...Kennebunkportc Maine, on 11-13 June DESCRIPTIVE NOTE: Final reot.. 1974. (U) MAY 74 8P Genet.Russell M. REPT. NO. ASIC -74-024 DESCRIPTIVE NOTE: Final...Fcrce egviDTent (U) The paper deals withi the’so- czt ).leo siocretar. IDEN4TIFIERS: Life cycle costing. *Logistics problem, i.e. witn’the probleśof

  19. Use of Ottawa Ankle Decision Rules to Evaluate Blunt Ankle Trauma Case Studies by United States Air Force Health Care Providers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    CARE PROVIDERS William Anthony Novak APPROVED Carol Ledbetter, PhD, RN-C, CS, FNP Date Eugene Levine, PhD Date Patricia McMullen, CRNP, CNS, MS, JD...Services University (MSN) May, 1999 Major: FNP Bethesda, Maryland (1997-1999) California State University Major: Nursing Sacramento, California (1992-1994...and worked in an orthopedic clinic. One PA and one FNP reported working in both an emergency department and primary/family clinic. A Novak Thesis 39

  20. Adherence to the Otitis Media with Effusion Clinical Practice Guideline by Providers in a United States Air Force Medical Treatment Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    1982 BSN May 1982 Major: Nursing 1987-1989 MS May 1989 Major: Nursing 1997-1999 MSN May 1999 Major: FNP Current: Family Nurse...physician (MD), pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP), family nurse practitioner ( FNP ), or physician assistant (PA). Environmental risk factors...evaluated after treatment. Type of provider was determined for both visits: advanced practice nurse (PNP and FNP ), physician assistant, or medical doctor

  1. Population parameters and dynamic pool models of commercial fishes in the Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Du, Feiyan; Lin, Zhaojin; Sun, Dianrong; Huang, Shuolin

    2012-01-01

    Length-frequency data of eight commercial fish species in the Beibu Gulf (Golf of Tonkin), northern South China Sea, were collected during 2006-2007. Length-weight relationships and growth and mortality parameters were analyzed using FiSAT II software. Five species had isometric growth, two species had negative allometric growth, and one species had positive allometric growth. Overall, the exploitation rates of the eight species were lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999: for four species ( Saurida tumbil, Saurida undosquamis, Argyrosomus macrocephalus, and Nemipterus virgatus) it was lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999, for two species ( Parargyrops edita and Trichiurus haumela) it remained the same, and for the other two species ( Trachurus japonicus and Decapterus maruadsi) it was higher in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999. The exploitation rates might have declined because of the decline in fishing intensity caused by high crude oil prices. The optimum exploitation rate, estimated using Beverton-Holt dynamic pool models, indicated that although fishes in the Beibu Gulf could sustain high exploitation rates, the under-size fishes at first capture resulted in low yields. To increase the yield per recruitment, it is more effective to increase the size at first capture than to control fishing effort.

  2. Diets of short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; Baduini, Cheryl; Jahncke, Jaime

    2002-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the southeastern Bering Sea exhibited a number of anomalous conditions, including a major die-off of short-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus tenuirostris), a trans-equatorial migrant that constitutes a major portion of the marine bird biomass in the southeastern Bering Sea. As part of a larger study of the ecological role of the inner or structural front over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, in 1997-1999, we collected short-tailed shearwaters to determine diet composition. In spring 1997, we found that short-tailed shearwaters were consuming predominately the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii, a diet expected on the basis of past studies. However, in subsequent years, short-tailed shearwater diets in spring contained increasingly larger proportions of fish, in particular, sandlance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), as well as other species of euphausiids ( T. inermis in 1999). In summer and fall collections, short-tailed shearwater diets were more varied than in spring, and included both fish (age-0 gadids, 21-35% by weight) and a wider variety of euphausiid species (T. inermis and T. spinifera). In summer and fall, crab zoea (August 1998) and copepods (August 1999) were eaten by shearwaters collected while feeding within the inner front. Diets in 1997-1999 were broader than those found in previous studies of short-tailed shearwaters over the inner shelf and Bristol Bay, which had documented diets composed almost solely of T. raschii. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that euphausiids were less available to short-tailed shearwaters foraging over the middle and coastal domains of the southeastern Bering Sea in 1997-1999 than has previously been true. Our results are also consistent with hypothesis that the inner front can affect the availability of prey to shearwaters.

  3. Current status of quality in Japanese clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kodama, Yasuo; Ono, Shunsuke; Mutoh, Mizue; Kawashima, Susumu; Fujimura, Akio

    2005-08-01

    The changes in the quality of Japanese clinical trials were evaluated by comparing the results of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) audits conducted from April 1997 to March 2000 (fiscal year (FY) 1997-1999) with those from April 2001 to March 2002 (FY2001). During both of the periods inspections were undertaken by the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR). The audit findings in the former period were based on the audits that covered 331 hospitals and 775 trials conducted under the old GCP guideline. The audits in the latter period targeted 147 hospitals and 238 trials conducted under the old or new GCP guideline. The total number of deficiencies detected by GCP audits in the former three-year period (FY 1997-1999) was 1529, and the corresponding number in the latter single year (FY 2001) was 912. Two remarkable changes in OPSR's findings were observed between FY 1997-1999 and FY 2001 as follows; the proportion of protocol deviations increased from 14.7% (225/1529) to 53.1% (484/912), while the proportion of errors in case report forms (CRFs) decreased from 43.6% (666/1529) to 15.4% (140/912). The new GCP guideline sets very high standards for a hospital's qualification: to have sufficient equipment and hospital resources, to have capacity for promptly responding to urgent trial-related problems, to have an IRB, and to have appropriate staff including clinical research coordinators (CRCs) assigned to the clinical trial. Our results suggest that the impact of the regulatory changes of applicable standard is large for a hospital's qualification for conducting clinical trials in Japan.

  4. Reliability of Japanese clinical trials estimated from GCP audit findings.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kodama, Y; Ono, S; Maida, C; Fujimura, A; Miyamoto, E

    2008-08-01

    To describe the reliability of Japanese clinical trials, we compared the results of a Good Clinical Practice (GCP) audit conducted between April 1997 and March 2000 (fiscal year (FY) 1997 - 1999) with those from April 2004 - March 2005 (FY2004). The number and proportion of various types of deficiencies described in GCP audit reports were compared between the 2 periods. The audit findings in the former period were based on official audits that covered 331 hospitals and 775 trials. The audits in the latter period targeted 114 hospitals and 189 trials. The inspection of former period was undertaken by the Organization for Pharmaceuticals Safety and Research (OPSR). On the other hand, the latter period was undertaken by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The total number of deficiencies detected in GCP audits was 1,529 in the former 3-year period (FY1997 - 1999) and 819 in the latter period (FY2004). The total number of deficiencies detected and reported was more than 1.5-fold on an annual basis in the latter period. By category of deficiencies, the proportion of protocol deviations increased from 14.7 (225/1,529) to 45.7% (374/819), while the proportion of errors in case report forms (CRFs) decreased from 43.6 (666/ 1,529) to 27.1% (222/819). There were two remarkable changes in audit findings between FY1997 - 1999 and FY2004; the increase in the proportion of protocol deviations and the decrease in the proportion of CRF-related deficiencies. We think that in Japan the improvement of research environments is needed to provide reliable clinical data responsible for the regulatory standard of GCP.

  5. Prediction failure of a wolf landscape model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    I compared 101 wolf (Canis lupus) pack territories formed in Wisconsin during 1993-2004 to the logistic regression predictive model of Mladenoff et al. (1995, 1997, 1999). Of these, 60% were located in putative habitat suitabilities 50% remained unoccupied by known packs after 24 years of recolonization. This model was a poor predictor of wolf re-colonizing locations in Wisconsin, apparently because it failed to consider the adaptability of wolves. Such models should be used cautiously in wolf-management or restoration plans.

  6. Examining the offender-victim overlap among police officers: the role of social learning and job-related stress.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    This study uses data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland 1997-1999 to examine the offender-victim overlap among police officers in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Specifically, the study examines the role of parental violence, child maltreatment, and job-related stress on perpetrating violence and victimization. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that one element of job-related stress (negative emotions) was positive and significant in predicting IPV perpetration, whereas parental violence, child maltreatment, and negative emotions were found to be positive and significant in predicting victimization. The study's limitations and future research are discussed.

  7. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of ARP 220

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-27

    the fine struc- ture lines from ionic species are, to the contrary, extremely weak. Luhman et al. (1998, 2003) found that in Arp, like in other ULIRGs...resolution. GONZÁLEZ-ALFONSO ET AL.250 Vol. 613 as observed in Arp 220 and other ULIRGs, have been dis- cussed elsewhere (Fischer et al. 1997, 1999; Luhman ...Lyman continuum from nuclear starbursts or AGN is absorbed by dust rather than by gas, may explain these properties of Arp 220, as was proposed by Luhman

  8. Coastal Inlets Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    e N u m b e 50 10 20 30 C u m W C u m u 00 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013** Calendar Year Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 4...Flow 14 Verification & Validation Cases Bouss-2D: Advanced phase -resolving wave propagation and t f ti d l Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 21 rans...Structures , Noyo Bay, CA Half Moon Bay, CA SWG M t d Shi Ch l TX : a agor a p anne , Galveston Bay, TX Sargent Beach, TX NAE P i t J dith H b RI

  9. The close lightning electromagnetic environment: Dart-leader electric field change versus distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David E.; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Uman, Martin A.; Schnetzer, George H.; Rambo, Keith J.; Stapleton, Michael V.; Fisher, Richard J.

    2001-07-01

    Net electric field changes due to dart leaders in triggered lightning from experiments conducted in 1997, 1998, and 1999 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing at Camp Blanding, Florida, are analyzed and compared with similar data obtained in 1993 at Camp Blanding and at Fort McClellan, Alabama. In 1997-1999 the fields were measured at 2-10 stations with distances from the lightning channel ranging from 10 to 621 m, while in 1993 the fields were measured at three distances, 30, 50, and 110 m, in Florida and at two distances, about 10 and 20 m, in Alabama. With a few exceptions, the 1997-1999 data indicate that the distance dependence of the leader electric field change is close to an inverse proportionality (r-1), in contrast to the 1993 data in which a somewhat weaker distance dependence was observed. The typically observed r-1 dependence is consistent with a uniform distribution of leader charge along the bottom kilometer or so of the channel.

  10. Insecticide-treated bednets to prevent anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aleppo Governorate, Syria: results from two trials.

    PubMed

    Jalouk, L; Al Ahmed, M; Gradoni, L; Maroli, M

    2007-04-01

    The increasing incidence of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Syria, coupled with the inefficacy of residual insecticide spraying to control the disease, have led to the further evaluation of the preventive efficacy of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) through large-scale field studies. Two trials were performed in the historical ACL-endemic areas of the Aleppo Governorate. In 1997-1999, a matched-cluster randomized trial was conducted in five intervention (ITNs) and five control (untreated bednets) villages, which involved a population of 10354 in 1321 households. In 2001-2003, a second study was performed in four villages (a population of 9325 in 858 households), which allowed the evaluation of the impact of the interruption of ITN intervention on ACL incidence rates. Both studies not only confirmed the high efficacy of ITNs in preventing ACL during 1 year post-intervention [about 85% (95% CL 76-98%) in the 1997-1999 trial], but also suggested that the interruption of this control measure might restore the pre-intervention disease incidence within 1-2 years. These findings underline the need for a sustainable and durable implementation of ITN-based control of the disease.

  11. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  12. Temporal variability in phytodetritus and megabenthic activity at the seabed in the deep Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Brian J.; Malzone, M. Gabriella; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Wigham, Benjamin D.

    We report a ten-year study of the abundance and activity of megabenthos on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, northeast Atlantic, together with observations on the occurrence of phytodetritus at the deep-sea floor (4850 m). Using the Southampton Oceanography Centre time-lapse camera system, ‘Bathysnap’, we have recorded a radical change in the abundance and activity of megabenthos between the two periods of study (1991-1994 and 1997-2000). In 1991-1994, the larger megabenthos occurred at an abundance of c. 71.6/ha and were dominated by large holothurians. In addition, there were very substantial populations of smaller megabenthic ophiuroids (c. 4979/ha). Together, the total megabenthos are estimated to track over some 17 cm 2/m 2/d (exploiting 100% of the surface of the seabed in c. 2.5 years). In 1997-2000, the larger megabenthos increased to an abundance of c. 204/ha and were joined by exceptional numbers of a small holothurian species ( Amperima rosea, 6457/ha) and ophiuroids (principally Ophiocten hastatum, 53,539/ha). The total megabenthos population was tracking at an estimnated rate of c. 247 cm 2/m 2/d (exploiting 100% of seabed in just 6 weeks). Coincident with these increases in the abundance and activity of the megabenthos, there were apparently no mass depositions of aggregated phytodetritus to the seabed in the summers of 1997-1999. Mass occurrences of phytodetritus had been noted during the summer months of the three years previously studied (1991, 1993 and 1994), with covering between 50 and 96% of the sediment surface. There is a statistically significant (p<0.02) negative correlation between maximum extent of this seabed cover of phytodetritus and seabed tracking by megabenthos. Additional studies [Lampitt et al., Progr. Ocean. 50 (2001)], indicate that there were no substantial changes in surface ocean primary productivity, in export flux, or in the composition of the flux that might otherwise account for the apparent absence of observable

  13. Population dynamics of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on citrus in South Africa, with implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Wakgari, W M; Giliomee, J H

    2001-08-01

    The population dynamics of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, was studied intensively in four easy-peel citrus orchards in the Western Cape Province of South Africa over three consecutive years (1997-1999). Key factor analysis was used to determine and quantify the contribution of individual mortality factors to the total generation mortality. Key stage mortality, determined from a cohort life table, was in the third instar and pre-ovipositing female stages. Mortality of C. destructor was caused primarily by parasitoids, predators and miscellaneous factors. Parasitoids and miscellaneous factors acted as density-dependent regulatory agents during the pre-ovipositional and first instar stages respectively. This has implications for biological control of C. destructor. Some of the mortality factors acted either randomly with no reference to the population densities or in an inverse density-dependent manner during the egg-crawler, second or third instar stages.

  14. Predictors of Shared Decision Making and Level of Agreement between Consumers and Providers in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P.; Matthias, Marianne S.; Collins, Linda; Thompson, John; Coffman, Melinda; Torrey, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine elements of shared decision making (SDM), and to establish empirical evidence for factors correlated with SDM and the level of agreement between consumer and provider in psychiatric care. Transcripts containing 128 audio-recorded medication check-up visits with eight providers at three community mental health centers were rated using the Shared Decision Making scale, adapted from Braddock’s Informed Decision Making Scale (Braddock et al., 1997; 1999; 2008). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that greater consumer activity in the session and greater decision complexity significantly predicted the SDM score. The best predictor of agreement between consumer and provider was “exploration of consumer preference,” with a four-fold increase in full agreement when consumer preferences were discussed more completely. Enhancing active consumer participation, particularly by incorporating consumer preferences in the decision making process appears to be an important factor in SDM. PMID:23299226

  15. Ion Propulsion Development Projects in US: Space Electric Rocket Test I to Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations are reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT) I, which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technologies employed on the early cesium engine flights, the applications technology satellite series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space 1 flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high level of flight readiness.

  16. A Synopsis of Ion Propulsion Development Projects in the United States: SERT 1 to Deep Space I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations were reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, SERT I which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technology employed on the early cesium engine flights. the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space I flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high-level of flight-readiness.

  17. Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

  18. Spaceborne GPS Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense, is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor-it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed on spacecraft and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on- board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-1999 GPS flight experiments and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  19. Near-infrared analysis of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) on different spectrometers--basic considerations for a reliable network.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Boris; Schulz, Hartwig

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and transferability of near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for estimating the content and composition of the volatile fraction in fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) as an example of medicinal and spice plants. A master calibration with spectra obtained on a scanning monochromator was generated using 345 samples from three different harvests (1997-1999). A subset of 70 samples from 1999 was also measured on a dispersive grating and a scanning diode array system to gain an insight into the influence of sample presentation and scanning techniques. For all instruments, calibrations with standard errors in the range of the reference method were achieved. Furthermore the influence of storage on NIR spectra and, additionally, the potential of transferring spectra between both scanning monochromators was studied.

  20. A Benchmark Problem for Development of Autonomous Structural Modal Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Woodard, Stanley E.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes modal identification results obtained using an autonomous version of the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm on a dynamically complex, laboratory structure. The benchmark problem uses 48 of 768 free-decay responses measured in a complete modal survey test. The true modal parameters of the structure are well known from two previous, independent investigations. Without user involvement, the autonomous data analysis identified 24 to 33 structural modes with good to excellent accuracy in 62 seconds of CPU time (on a DEC Alpha 4000 computer). The modal identification technique described in the paper is the baseline algorithm for NASA's Autonomous Dynamics Determination (ADD) experiment scheduled to fly on International Space Station assembly flights in 1997-1999.

  1. Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: implications for ozone uptake calculations.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Jenny; Danielsson, Helena; Simpson, David; Pleijel, Håkan

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold.

  2. Long-term Adherence to Healthy Dietary Guidelines and Chronic Inflammation in the Prospective Whitehall II Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Virtanen, Marianna; Lowe, Gordon; Hamer, Mark; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in the cause of cardiovascular diseases and may contribute to the association linking an unhealthy diet to chronic age-related diseases. However, to date the long-term associations between diet and inflammation have been poorly described. Our aim was to assess the extent to which adherence to a healthy diet and dietary improvements over a 6-year exposure period prevented subsequent chronic inflammation over a 5-year follow-up in a large British population of men and women. Methods Data were drawn from 4600 adults (mean ± standard deviation, age 49.6 ± 6.1 years, 28% were women) from the prospective Whitehall cohort II study. Adherence to a healthy diet was measured using Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores in 1991-1993 (50.7 ± 11.9 points) and 1997-1999 (51.6 ± 12.4 points). Chronic inflammation, defined as average levels of serum interleukin-6 from 2 measures 5 years apart, was assessed in 1997-1999 and 2002-2004. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and health status, participants who maintained a high AHEI score (ie, a healthy diet, n = 1736, 37.7%) and those who improved this score over time (n = 681, 14.8%) showed significantly lower mean levels of interleukin-6 (1.84 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-1.98 and 1.84 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.70-1.99, respectively) than those who had a low AHEI score (n = 1594, 34.6%) over the 6-year exposure period (2.01 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.87-2.17). Conclusions These data suggest that maintaining and improving adherence to healthy dietary recommendations may reduce the risk of long-term inflammation. PMID:25305231

  3. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

    We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

  4. Plasma Homocysteine and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 1 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Julie A.; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Klein, Richard L.; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been positively associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in non-diabetic populations and in a few cross-sectional studies of diabetic patients. We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of a single measure of tHcy with common and internal carotid IMT over a 6-year period in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS tHcy levels were measured once, in plasma obtained in 1997-1999 from patients (n=599) in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, the observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Common and internal carotid IMT were determined twice, in EDIC “Year 6” (1998-2000) and “Year 12” (2004-2006), using B-mode ultra-sonography. RESULTS After adjustment, plasma tHcy [median (interquartile range): 6.2 (5.1, 7.5) μmol/L] was significantly correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure, renal dysfunction, and smoking (all p<0.05). In an unadjusted model only, increasing quartiles of tHcy correlated with common and internal carotid IMT, again at both EDIC time-points (p<0.01). However, multivariate logistic regression revealed no significant associations between increasing quartiles of tHcy and the 6-year change in common and internal carotid IMT (highest vs. lowest quintile) when adjusted for conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS In a type 1 diabetes cohort from the EDIC study, plasma tHcy measured in samples drawn in 1997-1999 was associated with measures of common and internal carotid IMT measured both one and seven years later, but not with IMT progression between the two time-points. The data do not support routine measurement of tHcy in people with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:25063949

  5. Analysis of Wartime Consumption Rates for Chemical Defensive Equipment. Volume 3. Appendix D. Post-Processor Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    101.18 113.96 123.0 -N-----5 CTIC CATA - 10 RMXL FO]R WVCl&A KR DAYS 1 DRDI 15 Mv% tM OF O-eiICA&L RT•M••M 25 MIL DAS FJIF FOER EKH ODY OF BATTLE OaNm 1...0.68 0.68 6.66s 0.08 0.6 AG 0.68 .0.6 0.68 6.68 0.68e 66 0. 68 0. 68 ~e 0.0 AVEVM NM. RMAIE PER DAY PER 160M ~ TM AfW I CaMrWi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MCG 2...I6 IN W3’PPLM2 FR’ T - TMS CJ1Rw 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL 1 0.95 3.42 2.14 0.19 3.05 5.02 4.25 0.60 19.1 2 4.37 3.29 5.57 2.22 3.93 0.0 6.60 3.94 23.1 3

  6. [Sick leave among workers employed in restructured enterprise].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Ownership and restructuring transformations that are taking now place in Poland, as well as the situation on the labor market have their impact on the indicators, which illustrate the workers' health situation, including temporary work disability preceding the issue of the certification granting the disability pension. The aim of this analysis was to identify the changes in the extent and causes of sickness absence among workers after restructuring. The study was carried out in one of the largest transport industry enterprises during the years of its restructuring (1984-1994), covering 8588 workers, and after its restructuring (1997-1999), covering 2702 workers. Following the restructuring, the enterprise's staff was rejuvenated so that the number of workers aged over 50 years decreased by almost fifty percent. The analysis was based on the sickness absence rate calculated as the ratio between the number of days of work disability in a given period of time and the number of person-days in the same period. In 1997-1999, a 33% decrease in sickness absence among women and a 25% decrease among men were observed in the study enterprise as compared with the period of 1989-1994. However, the enhanced absence was also found due to the following diseases: mental disorders (a threefold increase in men); diseases of the musculoskeletal system (by 54% in men and by 43% in women); endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (a threefold increase in women). Following the restructuring, considerable changes in the sickness absence structure, by causes of diseases, were revealed. A substantial decrease in the share of male and female absence due to diseases of the respiratory and circulatory systems and almost threefold decrease in complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium in women were noted. In addition, over twofold increase in male and female sickness absence due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and lower but significant

  7. Kinetic modeling of primary and secondary oxygen atom fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyukin, Igor; Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    The first quantitative measurements of the interstellar heavy (oxygen and neon) neutral atoms obtained on the IBEX spacecraft were presented in Park et al. (ApJS, 2015). Qualitative analysis of these data shows that the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen atoms was also measured along with the primary interstellar atoms. This component is formed near the heliopause due to process of charge exchange of interstellar oxygen ions with hydrogen atoms and its existence in the heliosphere was previously predicted theoretically (Izmodenov et al, 1997, 1999, 2001). Quantitative analysis of fluxes of interstellar heavy neutral atoms is only possible with the help of a model which takes into account both filtration of the primary and origin of the secondary interstellar oxygen in the region of interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium as well as a detailed simulation of the motion of interstellar atoms inside the heliosphere. This simulation must take into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal dependences of ionization, the process of charge exchange with the protons of the solar wind and the effect of the solar gravitational attraction. This paper presents the results of modeling interstellar oxygen and neon atoms in the heliospheric shock layer and inside the heliosphere based on a new three-dimensional kinetic-MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (Izmodenov and Alexashov, ApJS, 2015) and the comparison of this results with the data obtained on the IBEX spacecraft.

  8. [Evaluation of the Malaria Evaluation Program in the national laboratory network in Colombia].

    PubMed

    García, Marisol; Mendoza, Nohora

    2002-06-01

    In 1995, the Parasitology Group--National Reference Laboratory--at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) started a national malaria diagnosis program with the Public Health Laboratory Network which included training, indirect quality control, external quality control, technical assistance, advisory, reference and counter-reference, together with an annual review of the program. The purpose of this study was to carry out a three year (1997-1999) analysis of the program. In the indirect quality control program, average positive and negative concordances of 98% and 97%, respectively, and a kappa index of 0.95 were obtained by the state public health laboratories. In the external quality control program, an average concordance of 74.2% was obtained with an 89.2% participation of the registered laboratories. At the municipal level, the indirect quality control had an average concordance of 91.4% in positivity, 92.5% concordance in negativity, and a kappa index of 0.84. On the other hand, indirect quality control has been scarcely implemented by the state public health laboratories in the municipalities under their jurisdiction. In general, the program shows a good performance, despite some economic and conflict-related difficulties in the country, because people responsible at all levels for the Malaria Program have permanently carried out all other activities of the network, either according to annual programming or upon request. However, it is important to improve its coverage and the participation in its activities.

  9. The effect of chewing gum on self-reported nicotine withdrawal: is it the flavor, the act of chewing, or both?

    PubMed

    Cortez-Garland, Monica; Cohen, Lee M; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Cook, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    A healthy alternative that has been shown to lessen the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms during brief periods of nicotine abstinence (e.g., 3-4 h) is confectionary chewing gum (Cohen and colleagues, 1997, 1999, & 2001). The current study sought to build upon this line of research by examining the impact of chewing gum on nicotine withdrawal severity over an extended period of nicotine abstinence (e.g., 24 h) while also identifying the specific attributes of chewing gum that may be responsible for the reported decreases in withdrawal. Specifically, the acts of chewing, flavor, as well as the combination of the two, were independently examined. Twenty-four dependent cigarette smokers participated in three experimental conditions (e.g., a flavorless gum base, flavor strips, and flavored chewing gum) as well as a no product control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 24 h each week. Using repeated measures ANOVAs, a significant difference in withdrawal severity was reported by participants across conditions, F(3, 69)=2.89, p < .05. Follow-up analyses revealed that the flavored gum condition yielded significantly lower withdrawal scores than the flavorless gum base and no product control conditions. These findings indicate that chewing gum appears useful in lessening the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms over a 24-hour period of nicotine abstinence and that it is a combination of flavor and chewing that appears to lead to this effect.

  10. Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

  11. A tale of two rivers: channel adjustments to restorative floods in the Green River in Dinosaur N.M. as compared to those in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon N.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. S.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    Sediment mass balance is a critical system attribute in assessing the potential for restoration of dam-impacted rivers. We compared channel response to large floods on the Green River in Lodore Canyon to similar changes measured along the Colorado River in part of Grand Canyon National Park, a reach with similar geomorphic organization, regulatory constraints, and habitat management goals. The post-dam sediment mass balance of the Green River is indeterminate or in surplus, but the mass balance of the Colorado River is in deficit. Analysis of repeat measurements at 36 cross sections along a 20 km reach of Lodore Canyon show that the sand storage condition in 2006 was no different than the condition observed in 1994, despite an increased frequency of high magnitude floods. Four high magnitude floods occurred in 1997, 1999, 2005, and 2006, but only one, the 1999 flow, triggered channel adjustments to the bed and banks that were significantly different than those of the post- dam 2-year return flood. This condition of relative equilibrium contrasts the sand storage condition of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, where sand bar area and volume have declined despite specific dam releases intended to rebuild sand bars. The contrasting patterns of channel adjustment in these rivers indicate that the opportunities and cost of restoration are likely to differ in relation to the sediment supply available for channel restoration.

  12. Water and the density of silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richet, Pascal; Whittington, Alan; Holtz, François; Behrens, Harald; Ohlhorst, Susanne; Wilke, Max

    A review of published and newly measured densities for 40 hydrous silicate glasses indicates that the room-temperature partial molar volume of water is 12.0+/-0.5cm3/mol. This value holds for simple or mineral compositions as well as for complex natural glasses, from rhyolite to tephrite compositions, prepared up to 10-20kbar pressures and containing up to 7wt% H2O. This volume does not vary either with the molar volume of the water-free silicate phase, with its degree of polymerization or with water speciation. Over a wide range of compositions, this constant value implies that the volume change for the reaction between hydroxyl ions and molecular water is zero and that, at least in glasses, speciation does not depend on pressure. Consistent with data from Ochs and Lange (1997, 1999), systematics in volume expansion for SiO2-M2O systems (M=H, Li, Na, K) suggests that the partial molar thermal expansion coefficient of H2O is about 4× 10-5 K-1 in silicate glasses.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: OGLE microlensing events in Galactic Bulge (Udalski+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalski, A.; Zebrun, K.; Szymanski, M.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P.

    2006-09-01

    We present the Catalog of microlensing events detected toward the Galactic bulge in three observing seasons, 1997-1999, during the OGLE-II microlensing survey. The search for microlensing events was performed using a database of about 4x109 photometric measurements of about 20.5 million stars from the Galactic bulge. The Catalog comprises 214 microlensing events found in the fields covering about 11 square degrees on the sky and distributed in different parts of the Galactic bulge. The sample includes 20 binary microlensing events, 14 of them are caustic crossing. In one case a double star is likely lensed. We present distribution of the basic parameters of microlensing events and show preliminary rate of microlensing in different regions of the Galactic bulge. The latter reveals clear dependence on the Galactic coordinates. The dependence on l indicates that the majority of lenses toward the Galactic bulge are located in the Galactic bar. Models of the Galactic bar seem to reasonably predict the observed spatial distribution of microlensing events in the Galactic bulge. All data presented in the Catalog and photometry of all events are available from the OGLE Internet archive. (3 data files).

  14. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Smith, Donald; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Mercado, Adriana; Aro, Antonio; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2004-10-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that maternal bone lead burden is associated with increasing maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels over the course of pregnancy and that this association is modified by rates of maternal bone resorption. A total of 193 Mexican women were evaluated (1997-1999) in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Whole blood lead and plasma lead levels were measured in each trimester. Urine was analyzed for cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone resorption. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured at 4 weeks postpartum. The relation between whole blood, plasma, and bone lead and NTx was assessed using mixed models. Plasma lead concentrations followed a U-shape, while NTx levels increased significantly during pregnancy. In a multivariate model, the authors observed a significant and positive interaction between NTx and bone lead when plasma lead was used as the outcome variable. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with plasma lead. Results for whole blood lead were similar but less pronounced. These results confirm previous evidence that bone resorption increases during pregnancy, with a consequential significant release of lead from bone, constituting an endogenous source of prenatal exposure. They also provide a rationale for testing strategies (e.g., nutritional supplementation with calcium) aimed at decreasing prenatal lead exposure.

  15. Current status of measles in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Zhou, Jianhui; Fujino, Motoko

    2003-03-01

    Approximately 20,000 to 30,000 cases of measles are reported annually in Japan, although the actual number of measles infections is considered to be five to ten times higher than the number of reported cases. Despite the availability of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines, regional outbreaks in Okinawa, transmission in adults, and secondary vaccine failures continue. Recent advances in molecular technology have contributed to molecular epidemiological studies, new concepts of asymptomatic infection, and the identification of different characteristics among measles virus genotypes. Measles virus strains isolated in Japan since 1984 were classified into the genotypes C1 (-1985), D3 (1985-1990), D5 (1990-1997), and Chicago-type D3 (1997-1999) from the results of sequencing the hemagglutinin gene. After 2000, the D5 genotype emerged, and, recently, the H1 genotype, which is now dominant, was introduced from Korea. Some of the currently circulating wild-types have different characteristics (high growth rate at 39 degrees C-40 degrees C). The cumulative vaccine coverage has reached 81%, but most measles cases involved unvaccinated individuals. Measles is a preventable disease and can be eradicated by increasing the vaccine coverage, and promoting the motivation for vaccination, in accordance with the worldwide measles strategy.

  16. NRC materials licensing business process reengineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cool, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued 6550 active licenses that authorize possession and use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear material. In October 1994, the NRC staff began to examine the process used to issue these licenses to identify ways to improve the process. In addition to examining the current process, the staff was directed to develop a new process design that would accomplish the following goals: (1) Maintain or raise the level of public safety achieved by the current process, (2) Perform licensing reviews and associated tasks an order of magnitude faster than the current process, (3) Exploit modern information technology as a fundamental part of the new process, and (4) Reduce the resources needed to carry out the licensing program to meet the projected 1997-1999 staffing levels. The method used for this examination is called Business Process Reengineering (BPR). BPR is the process of fundamentally changing the way work is performed so as to achieve radical performance improvements in speed, cost, and quality. Features of the new licensing process, scheduled to begin in 1996, are outlined in this paper.

  17. Geologic map and digital database of the Apache Canyon 7.5' quadrangle, Ventura and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Cossette, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Apache Canyon 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in southwestern California about 55 km northeast of Santa Barbara and 65 km southwest of Bakersfield. This report presents the results of a geologic mapping investigation of the Apache Canyon quadrangle that was carried out in 1997-1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project. This quadrangle was chosen for study because it is in an area of complex, incompletely understood Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of potential importance for regional tectonic interpretations, particularly those involving the San Andreas fault located just northwest of the quadrangle and the Big Pine fault about 10 km to the south. In addition, the quadrangle is notable for its well-exposed sequences of folded Neogene nonmarine strata including the Caliente Formation of Miocene age from which previous workers have collected and described several biostratigraphically significant land-mammal fossil assemblages. During the present study, these strata were mapped in detail throughout the quadrangle to provide an improved framework for possible future paleontologic investigations. The Apache Canyon quadrangle is in the eastern part of the Cuyama 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle and is largely part of an erosionally dissected terrain known as the Cuyama badlands at the east end of Cuyama Valley. Most of the Apache Canyon quadrangle consists of public lands in the Los Padres National Forest.

  18. Chromatographic analysis of banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Samanidou, Victoria F; Evaggelopoulou, Evaggelia N

    2008-06-01

    The issue of antimicrobial use in animals used as food is of global concern. Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to improve health and welfare of animals, meat quality, the economic efficiency of growth and production and public health by decreasing shedding of zoonotic pathogens. However, large quantities are often used without professional supervision. The growth-promotant (now reclassified as zootechnical feed additives) effect of low levels of antibiotics in animal feeds was first described in the late 1940s. Already in 1969 the Swann Committee recommended that use of antibiotics as a supplement in animal feedstuff should be restricted to those with little or no application as therapeutic agents for humans and animals, which would not impair the efficacy of therapeutic antibiotics through the development of resistant strains of organisms. Antimicrobials like avoparcin, ardacin, zinc bacitracin, virginiamycin, tylosin, spriramycin, carbadox and olaquindox were withdrawn within the period 1997-1999. Four others (monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, avilamycin and flavophospholipol) were still permitted for use as growth promoters in animal feed to animals marketed in the European Union (EU). Since January 2006, they have been banned as well. This review focuses on the analytical methods developed to be an effective tool for monitoring compliance with the ban.

  19. Early life ecology of Alaska plaice ( Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: Seasonality, distribution, and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Wilderbuer, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    We examined the patterns of abundance and distribution of Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus, eggs, larvae and pelagic juveniles over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to better understand factors controlling transport and recruitment of flatfish in the Bering Sea. Ichthyoplankton data were derived from plankton surveys conducted in 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Temperature, salinity, depth, and abundance of microzooplankton were measured concurrently. Eggs and larvae were primarily collected from depths < 200 m, with the majority occurring over bottom depths ranging 50-100 m. Eggs were present throughout the water column, though densities of preflexion stage larvae were concentrated at depths 10-20 m. There was no evidence of vertical migration for pre-flexion stages. Spawning in Alaska plaice occurs primarily east of Port Moller in April and May, and eggs and larvae appear to drift to the north and northeast, an observation based on satellite-tracked drifter information, model output, and collections of older, later-stage postlarvae. Connectivity between spawning areas and nursery habitats is likely influenced by wind forcing, so climate-mediated changes to dispersal trajectory or timing is expected to have significant impacts on recruitment in this species, though entrainment in consistent, directional currents may modify these effects.

  20. Satellite estimation of photosynthetically active radiation in Southeast Asia: Impacts of smoke and cloud cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Hoyano, Akira; Aoki, Masatoshi; Komori, Daisuke; Boonyawat, Samakkee

    2004-02-01

    Since large-scale variations in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) influence the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks through the plant photosynthesis variations, large-scale evaluation of PAR is required. In the present study a simple PAR estimation model was developed for Southeast Asia, where large-scale forest fires occurred during El Niño years. The model considered the smoke aerosol released by forest fires using satellite-based smoke detection methods. A comparison study with ground-based solar radiation data for Malaysia and Thailand indicated that the current model could estimate monthly PAR with 10% (root-mean-square) accuracy and would successfully trace the seasonal and year-to-year variations in PAR, including the forest fire periods. During the peak-smoke month in Indonesia, September 1997, the reduction of PAR by smoke reached 63-75% in the center of the Kalimantan and Sumatra Islands. From the analyses of the smoke and cloud cover impacts on PAR in 1997-1999, annual PAR variations were found to be mostly regulated by smoke variations on the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Kalimantan Islands and cloud cover variations on the Indo-China Peninsula. Thus annual variations in PAR changed with location. These variations did not simply correlate with year-to-year variations in cloud cover associated with the El Niño and La Niña cycle, but exhibited more complicated spatial variations due to the existence of smoke in Southeast Asia.

  1. Evolution of genetic polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Ketprathum, Kanchanok; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major public health problem in Thailand due to the emergence of multidrug resistance. The understanding of genetic diversity of malaria parasites is essential for developing effective drugs and vaccines. The genetic diversity of the merozoite surface protein-1 (PfMSP-1) and merozoite surface protein-2 (PfMSP-2) genes was investigated in a total of 145 P. falciparum isolates collected from Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand during 3 different periods (1997-1999, 2005-2007, and 2009-2010). Analysis of genetic polymorphisms was performed to track the evolution of genetic change of P. falciparum using PCR. Both individual genes and their combination patterns showed marked genetic diversity during the 3 study periods. The results strongly support that P. falciparum isolates in Thailand are markedly diverse and patterns changed with time. These 2 polymorphic genes could be used as molecular markers to detect multiple clone infections and differentiate recrudescence from reinfection in P. falciparum isolates in Thailand.

  2. Comparison of the financial performance of Islamic and conventional bank in Malaysia during and after economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Jaffar, Aidatullaini; Abdullah, Nur Lina; Harun, Nurzalina

    2013-09-01

    This paper is a continuation of our former work. In this paper, we compare the financial performance of the two banking systems that exist in Malaysia over two periods of time, during economic crisis (1997-1999) and after economic crisis (2001-2003). In order to see the conventional as well as Islamic bank's performance over these two periods of time, the study uses 10 financial ratios which are broadly categorized into 4 groups: (a) profitability ratios; (b) liquidity ratios; (c) risk and solvency ratios; and (d) efficiency ratios. Next, the study used T-test in determining the significance of the differential performance of the two banks over two periods of time. By using inter-bank comparison, the study found that, conventional bank has better performance, efficient, more profitable and has greater risk as compared to Islamic bank. However, in terms of utilizing asset, Islamic bank is better than conventional bank. As an overall, conventional bank is better in much aspect due to the longer history and experience in the industry than Islamic bank that start their operation in 1983.

  3. Seismic imaging of arc magma and fluids under the central part of northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Akira; Zhao, Dapeng

    2001-11-01

    A dense seismic network was temporarily deployed during 1997-1999 in the central part of northeastern Japan by Japanese university research groups. Using the local earthquake arrival time data recorded by the network, we have determined high-resolution three-dimensional images of P-wave velocity ( Vp), S-wave velocity ( Vs) and Vp/ Vs ratio in this area. Our results show that low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are extensively distributed in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front. In the lower crust, low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are visible but they are confined to the individual volcanic areas. In contrast, the upper crust of volcanic areas shows low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs rather than high Vp/ Vs. These observations suggest that partial melting materials exist in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front and they spread up to the midcrust of the volcanic areas. Low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs in the upper crust of the volcanic areas suggest the presence of H 2O (rather than melt) there. Deep low-frequency microearthquakes, perhaps caused by the rapid movement of fluids, are located mostly at the edge of partial melting zones, particularly at their upper surface. Distinct S-wave reflectors (bright spots) with large reflection coefficients are distributed in the midcrust with slightly low Vp/ Vs, suggesting that most of them are filled with H 2O.

  4. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  5. The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Muzika, R M; Guyette, R P; Zielonka, T; Liebhold, A M

    2004-07-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO(2) and SO(2) were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O(3) alone was not related to growth, the maximum O(3) value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  6. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  7. Factors which influence acoustic surveys of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    Traditionally, many marine mammal populations have been estimated by visual surveys. These count the animals that are available-either seals hauled-out on the ice or whales at the water's surface. Corrections are then made to include the animals that were not seen either because they were in (seals) or under (whales) the water. However when the majority of the animals in a population are not available to a visual survey this approach may be less effective. So we investigated whether acoustic surveys offered promise for estimating the distribution and abundance of Antarctic pack-ice seals. Four acoustic surveys were conducted (October 1996, 1997; December 1997, 1999) between longitudes 600E and 1500E. Surveys were bounded to the south by fast-ice, shelf-ice or the Antarctic continent and to the north by the edge of the pack-ice. No crabeater seals were heard. Leopard and Ross seals were highly vociferous in December coinciding with their breeding season. To predict the area surveyed we modeled transmission loss and measurements of received background levels. To identify the number of seals calling we modeled calling behavior. A preliminary estimate of 0.13 male leopard seals/km2 was calculated which is in the high-density range described from the literature.

  8. Highly endemic, waterborne toxoplasmosis in north Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia-Oliveira, Lílian Maria Garcia; Jones, Jeffrey L; Azevedo-Silva, Juliana; Alves, Cristiane C F; Oréfice, Fernando; Addiss, David G

    2003-01-01

    In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84% of the population in the lower socioeconomic group was seropositive, compared with 62% and 23% of the middle and upper socioeconomic groups, respectively (p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was performed, drinking unfiltered water was found to increase the risk of seropositivity for the lower socioeconomic (odds ratio [OR]: 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 6.9) and middle socioeconomic (OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3) populations. We also found a high T. gondii seroprevalence in this Brazilian community. Drinking unfiltered water increased the risk of T. gondii seropositivity, indicating the potential importance of oocyst transmission in water in this region.

  9. Generalized surficial geology map of the Pueblo 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.W.; Straub, A.W.; Berry, M.E.; Baker, M.L.; Brandt, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-three types of surficial geologic deposits and residual materials of Quaternary age are described in a pamphlet and located on a map of the greater Pueblo area, in part of the Front Range, in the Wet and Sangre de Cristo Mountains, and on the plains east of Colorado Springs and Pueblo. Deposits formed by landslides, wind, and glaciers, as well as colluvium, residuum, alluvium, and others are described in terms of predominant grain size, mineral or rock composition (e.g., gypsiferous, calcareous, granitic, andesitic), thickness, and other physical characteristics. Origins and ages of the deposits and geologic hazards related to them are noted. Many lines drawn between units on our map were placed by generalizing contacts on published maps. However, in 1997-1999 we mapped new boundaries as well. The map was projected to the UTM projection. This large map area extends from near Salida (on the west edge), eastward about 107 mi (172 km), and from Antero Reservoir and Woodland Park on the north edge to near Colorado City at the south edge (68 mi; 109 km).

  10. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  11. Association of nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in nondiabetic young women.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Ciaran J; Curhan, Gary C; Schernhammer, Eva S; Forman, John P

    2013-07-15

    Exogenous melatonin ameliorates insulin resistance in animals, while among humans, polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor gene are associated with insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the association of endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in humans. We analyzed the association between endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion, estimated by measuring the main melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, from the first morning urinary void, and the prevalence of insulin resistance based on fasting blood samples collected in a cross-sectional study of 1,075 US women (1997-1999) without diabetes, hypertension, or malignancy. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was standardized to urinary creatinine level; insulin resistance was defined as an insulin sensitivity index value (using the McAuley formula) less than 7.85. Logistic regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary glycemic index, family history of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, uric acid, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Higher nocturnal melatonin secretion was inversely associated with insulin levels and insulin resistance. In fully adjusted models, the odds ratio for insulin resistance was 0.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.74) among women in the highest quartile of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin:creatinine ratio compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nocturnal melatonin secretion is independently and inversely associated with insulin resistance.

  12. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  13. Initial poststocking mortality, oxytetracycline marking, and year-class contribution of black-nosed crappies stocked into Tennessee reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isermann, D.A.; Bettoli, P.W.; Sammons, S.M.; Churchill, T.N.

    2002-01-01

    Initial poststocking mortality, oxytetracycline mark persistence, and year-class contribution were evaluated for black-nosed crappies, a morphological variant of the black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, stocked into Tennessee reservoirs during 1997-1999. Average initial poststocking mortality was low (x?? = 13%, N = 44). Lake temperature and the difference between lake and hauling tank water temperatures were significant in explaining variability in arcsine-transformed mortality estimates; however, the variability explained by these factors was low (R2 = 0.15). Oxytetracycline immersion was a highly effective marking tool; 97-100% of all crappies treated were marked, and 99% of the marks were visible 36-110 weeks after marking. All control otoliths were correctly scored as unmarked during the evaluation, and mortality rates did not differ between marked and unmarked crappies. Year-class contribution was variable across reservoirs and was highest in Normandy Reservoir (34-93% at ages 1-3). Contribution at ages 1 and 2 was 11-24% in Woods Reservoir. Stocking did not supplement the crappie population in Lake Graham. Black-nosed crappies made up a significant portion (>50%) of the crappies harvested by anglers in Center Hill Reservoir 3 years after stocking was initiated. Conversely, black-nosed crappies made up a relatively small percentage (???12%) of the crappies harvested in Cherokee Reservoir in the 4 years after initial stocking.

  14. [Effects of fishing on the marine ecosystem of Beibu Gulf].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Qiu, Yong-Song; Jia, Xiao-Ping; Zhong, Zhi-Hui

    2008-07-01

    By using Ecopath with Ecosim 5.1 software, the Ecosim model of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem in 1959-1960 was constructed, which included about 20 functional groups such as fishery, marine mammals, sea-birds, sharks, pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, and benthic crustaceans, etc. Through the comparison with the investigation data in 1997-1999, the effects of fishing on the structure and function of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem were analyzed. The results indicated that with the increasing fishing pressure in past forty years, the ecosystem structure and function shifted drastically, with the biomass of long-lived, high trophic level and piscivorous fishes declined while short-lived and small fishes and benthic invertebrates dominated gradually. The biomass of piscivorous species in 1999 was only 6% of that in 1960, while cephalopods increased 2.7 times or more. The trophic level of the catch declined from 3.2 in 1960 to 2.98 in 1999, which fitted the rule of "fishing down the food web" and suggested that the present exploitation patterns were unsustainable. Based on the data of the 1990s, the changes of the ecosystem under decreasing fishing pressure were predicted. This study validated the feasibility of Ecosim model in predicting the effects of fishing pressure on marine ecosystem.

  15. Use of remote sensing techniques to determine the effects of grazing on vegetation cover and dune elevation at assateague island national seashore: Impact of horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Stoppelaire, G. H.; Gillespie, T.W.; Brock, J.C.; Tobin, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of grazing by feral horses on vegetation and dune topography at Assateague Island National Seashore were investigated using color-infrared imagery, lidar surveys, and field measurements. Five pairs of fenced and unfenced plots (300 m2) established in 1993 on sand flats and small dunes with similar elevation, topography, and vegetation cover were used for this study. Color-infrared imagery from 1998 and field measurements from 2001 indicated that there was a significant difference in vegetation cover between the fenced and unfenced plot-pairs over the study period. Fenced plots contained a higher percentage of vegetation cover that was dominated by American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata). Lidar surveys from 1997, 1999, and 2000 showed that there were significant differences in elevation and topography between fenced and unfenced plot-pairs. Fenced plots were, on average, 0.63 m higher than unfenced plots, whereas unfenced plots had generally decreased in elevation after establishment in 1993. Results demonstrate that feral horse grazing has had a significant impact on dune formation and has contributed to the erosion of dunes at Assateague Island. The findings suggest that unless the size of the feral horse population is reduced, grazing will continue to foster unnaturally high rates of dune erosion into the future. In order to maintain the natural processes that historically occurred on barrier islands, much larger fenced exclosures would be required to prevent horse grazing. ?? 2004 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  16. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin in a North American surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Hoban, D J; Bouchillon, S K; Johnson, J L; Zhanel, G G; Butler, D L; Miller, L A; Poupard, J A

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, was compared to three marketed fluoroquinolones; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin against over 4,000 recent clinical isolates covering 29 species isolated in the United States and Canada between 1997-1999. Based on MIC(90)s, gemifloxacin was the most potent fluoroquinolone tested against a majority of Gram-positive isolates: Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae, macrolide resistant S. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (MIC > or = 4 microg/mL) S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, viridans streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus, and S. saprophyticus. Against Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negatives, gemifloxacin was usually comparable to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and more potent than ofloxacin for the following species: Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter lwoffii, A. baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Gemifloxacin was generally 16-64 fold more potent than the other fluoroquinolones tested against Gram-positive organisms and retains excellent activity comparable with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against a majority of Gram-negative pathogens.

  17. Temporal dynamics of emergency department and hospital admissions of pediatric asthmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel; Levine, Elissa; Timmins, Sidey; Weiss, Sheila R.; Bollinger, Mary E.; Blaisdell, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that can result in exacerbations leading to urgent care in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals. We examined seasonal and temporal trends in pediatric asthma ED (1997-1999) and hospital (1986-1999) admission data so as to identify periods of increased risk of urgent care by age group, gender, and race. All pediatric ED and hospital admission data for Maryland residents occurring within the state of Maryland were evaluated. Distinct peaks in pediatric ED and hospital asthma admissions occurred each year during the winter-spring and autumn seasons. Although the number and timing of these peaks were consistent across age and racial groups, the magnitude of the peaks differed by age and race. The same number, timing, and relative magnitude of the major peaks in asthma admissions occurred statewide, implying that the variables affecting these seasonal patterns of acute asthma exacerbations occur statewide. Similar gross seasonal trends are observed worldwide. Although several environmental, infectious, and psychosocial factors have been linked with increases in asthma exacerbations among children, thus far they have not explained these seasonal patterns of admissions. The striking temporal patterns of pediatric asthma admissions within Maryland, as described here, provide valuable information in the search for causes.

  18. On the Making of Quantum Chemistry in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachalios, Andreas

    During the 1990s several historians of science have studied the emergence of quantum chemistry as an autonomous discipline in different national contexts (Nye, 1993; Simões, 1993; Simões, forthcoming; Gavroglu and Simões, 1994; Karachalios, 1997a). Beyond these disciplinary studies, a number of contributions to special aspects of this theme have appeared (Schweber, 1990; Gavroglu, 1995; Simões and Gavroglu, 1997, 1999a,b; Schwarz et al., 1999). In this literature the birth of quantum chemistry has generally been associated with two dates: the 1927 paper of Walter Heitler and Fritz London and the year 1931 in which Linus Pauling and John Clarke Slater independently explained the tetrahedral orientation of the four bonds of the carbon atom. To these dates we might also add a third: in 1928 London published a paper, 'Zur Quantentheorie der homöopolaren Valenzzahlen' (London, 1928), in which he gave a quantum mechanical explanation of the classical chemical notion of valency. There he showed a relationship between the valency numbers and the spectroscopical multiplicity, namely that valency=multiplicity-1. This relation established a bridge between physical and chemical facts. Taken together, these developments constitute important events for the international development of quantum chemistry.

  19. Survival of dusky Canada goose goslings in relation to weather and annual nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, T.F.; Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Michael, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) population has been in long-term decline, likely due to reduced breeding productivity, but gosling survival of this population had not been examined. We studied gosling survival in broods of radiomarked adult females on the western Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA, during 1997-1999 and 2001-2003. Survival estimates for dusky Canada goose goslings to 45 days (x- = 0.32) were below estimates from most previous studies of geese. Daily survival of goslings increased with age and decreased with date of hatch. Precipitation during the first 3 days post-hatch was negatively related to gosling survival and this effect increased with date. Annual estimates of gosling survival were positively correlated with annual estimates of nest success, suggesting overlap in factors affecting nest and gosling survival. Nest success probably also directly affected gosling survival, because survival decreased with hatch date and more broods hatched from renests during years with low nest success. Gosling survival appears to play an important role in limiting current productivity of this population. Management directed at increasing nest success would likely also improve gosling survival. We recommend additional research directed at examining sources of gosling mortality and the link between nest success and gosling survival.

  20. Evaluation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccines in pigs by intradermal challenge and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Eamens, G J; Chin, J C; Turner, B; Barchia, I

    2006-08-25

    In a vaccine trial, pigs were challenged intradermally with eight E. rhusiopathiae strains of serovars 1a, 1b or 2 given concurrently. The strains were derived from six herds affected with vaccine breakdowns in 1997-1999, one herd without vaccine breakdown and a serovar 2 reference strain. Responses to two commercial bacterins (one implicated in the vaccine breakdowns), and two experimental bacterins (based on field isolates from affected herds) showed distinct differences in protection, particularly in clinical responses measured at 72 h. Less protection was afforded against serovar 1 challenge by the vaccine implicated in the vaccine breakdowns. Antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were significantly different between treatments, and highlighted a similar post-vaccinal antibody response was produced against serovar 2 lysate by all vaccines, but only those providing significant protection against serovar 1 [corrected] produced significantly elevated antiserovar I lysate [corrected] antibodies. Vaccination in general significantly reduced CMI responses to the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin. This experimental pig challenge system was readily able to confirm suboptimal performance of a commercial bacterin that had passed potency tests in mice but was associated with vaccine failure in commercial herds. This vaccine was also the most immunosuppressive to CMI responses associated with E. rhusiopathiae-specific and non-specific stimulation. The best vaccine response was associated with the highest mean serovar 1 antibody response and the highest CMI response (by lymphoproliferation assay) to serovar 2.

  1. Study of nitrogen containing compounds in the polar troposphere.

    PubMed

    Ianniello, Antonietta; Sparapani, Roberto; Allegrini, Ivo; Vazzana, Caterina; Mazziotti, Carla; De Teran, Gomez; Montagnoli, Mauro; Fino, Alessandra; Felici, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen compounds play a critical role in tropospheric photochemistry and are crucial to understand the chemical and physical evolution of atmospheric pollutants in polar areas. Measurements of these species in remote areas are rare, although their relevance is well established. Sampling campaigns of gaseous and particulate atmospheric trace species were performed in Arctic and in Antarctica during three consecutive years (1997-1999), using a proper combination of annular denuders and filter pack. After sampling, the ionic species were extracted with aqueous solutions and analysed by means of ion chromatography. Quality assurance on the sampling and analytical steps allowed accurate and precise measurements of all relevant compounds, which are thought to be important to nitrogen chemistry, at very low concentration levels. In addition, the measurements also included a multistage low-pressure impactor for the collection of particulate matter in different size regions (0.035-15.9 mm). Results obtained from these campaigns demonstrate that the minor components may be measured at levels as low as a few nanograms per cubic meter. The reported concentrations are to be considered among the first observations of nitrogen containing compounds in polar sites.

  2. Chronic multisymptom illness: a comparison of Iraq and Afghanistan deployers with veterans of the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C; Powell, Teresa M; Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2014-12-15

    Symptoms and illnesses reported by veterans of the 1991 Gulf War era are a cause of potential concern for those military members who have deployed to the Gulf region in support of more recent contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the present study, we quantified self-reported symptoms from participants in the Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective study representing all US service branches, including both active duty and Reserve/National Guard components (2001-2008). Self-reported symptoms were uniquely compared with those in a cohort of subjects from the 1991 Gulf War to gain context for the present report. Symptoms were then aggregated to identify cases of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) based on the case definition from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalence of self-reported CMI symptoms was compared with that collected in 1997-1999 from a study population of US Seabees from the 1991 Gulf War, as well as from deployed and nondeployed subgroups. Although overall symptom reporting was much less in the Millennium Cohort than in the 1991 Gulf War cohort, a higher prevalence of reported CMI was noted among deployed compared with nondeployed contemporary cohort members. An increased understanding of coping skills and resilience and development of well-designed screening instruments, along with appropriate clinical and psychological follow-up for returning veterans, might help to focus resources on early identification of potential long-term chronic disease manifestations.

  3. Promoting prevention with economic arguments – The case of Finnish occupational health services

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Background Both social and ethical arguments have been used to support preventive occupational health services (OHS). During the 1990s it became more common to support political argumentation for occupational health and safety by converting the consequences of ill health at work into monetary units. In addition, OHS has been promoted as a profitable investment for companies, and this aspect has been used by OHS providers in their marketing. Our intention was to study whether preventive occupational health services positively influence a company's economic performance. Methods We combined the financial statements provided by Statistics Finland and employers' reimbursement applications for occupational health services (OHS) costs to the Social Insurance Institution. The data covered the years 1997, 1999 and 2001 and over 6000 companies. We applied linear regression analysis to assess whether preventive OHS had had a positive influence on the companies' economic performance after two or four years. Results Resources invested in preventive OHS were not positively related to a company's economic performance. In fact, the total cost of preventive OHS per turnover was negatively correlated to economic performance. Conclusion Even if OHS has no effect on the economic performance of companies, it may have other effects more specific to OHS. Therefore, we recommend that the evaluation of prevention in OHS should move towards outcome measures, such as sickness absence, disability pension and productivity, when applicable, both in occupational health service research and in practice at workplaces. PMID:18430218

  4. Thermal decomposition of gaseous ammonium nitrate at low pressure: kinetic modeling of product formation and heterogeneous decomposition of nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Lin, M C

    2009-12-03

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH(4)NO(3) (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423-56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. The sublimation of NH(4)NO(3) at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH(3) and HNO(3), followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO(3), HNO(3) + M --> OH + NO(2) + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). The absolute yields of N(2), N(2)O, H(2)O, and NH(3), which can be unambiguously measured and quantitatively calibrated under a constant pressure at 5-6.2 torr He are kinetically modeled using the detailed [H,N,O]-mechanism established earlier for the simulation of NH(3)-NO(2) (Park, J.; Lin, M. C. Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. 1997, 34-1, 1-5) and ADN decomposition reactions (Park, J.; Chakraborty, D.; Lin, M. C. Proc. Combust. Inst. 1998, 27, 2351-2357). Since the homogeneous decomposition reaction of HNO(3) itself was found to be too slow to account for the consumption of reactants and the formation of products, we also introduced the heterogeneous decomposition of HNO(3) in our kinetic modeling. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO(3), HNO(3) + (B(2)O(3)/SiO(2)) --> OH + NO(2) + (B(2)O(3)/SiO(2)), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH(3) and H(2)O; the rate could be represented by k(2b) = 7.91 x 10(7) exp(-12 600/T) s(-1), which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO(3) decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. Notably, the concentration profiles of all species measured could be satisfactorily predicted by the existing [H,N,O]-mechanism with the heterogeneous initiation process.

  5. Thermal Decomposition of Gaseous Ammonium Nitrate at Low Pressure: Kinetic Modeling of Product Formation and Heterogeneous Decomposition of Nitric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Lin, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423-56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. The sublimation of NH4NO3 at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH3 and HNO3, followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO3, HNO3 + M → OH + NO2 + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). The absolute yields of N2, N2O, H2O, and NH3, which can be unambiguously measured and quantitatively calibrated under a constant pressure at 5-6.2 torr He are kinetically modeled using the detailed [H,N,O]-mechanism established earlier for the simulation of NH3-NO2 (Park, J.; Lin, M. C. Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. 1997, 34-1, 1-5) and ADN decomposition reactions (Park, J.; Chakraborty, D.; Lin, M. C. Proc. Combust. Inst. 1998, 27, 2351-2357). Since the homogeneous decomposition reaction of HNO3 itself was found to be too slow to account for the consumption of reactants and the formation of products, we also introduced the heterogeneous decomposition of HNO3 in our kinetic modeling. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO3, HNO3 + (B2O3/SiO2) → OH + NO2 + (B2O3/SiO2), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH3 and H2O; the rate could be represented by k2b = 7.91 × 107 exp(-12 600/T) s-1, which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO3 decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. Notably, the concentration profiles of all species measured could be satisfactorily predicted by the existing [H,N,O]-mechanism with the heterogeneous initiation process.

  6. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  7. A 16-year record of eolian dust in Southern Nevada and California, USA: Controls on dust generation and accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    An ongoing project monitors modern dust accumulation in the arid southwestern United States to (1) determine the rate and composition of dust inputs to soils and (2) relate dust accumulation to weather patterns to help predict the effects of climate change on dust production and accumulation. The 16-year records of 35 dust-trap sites in the eastern Mojave Desert and southern Great Basin reveal how generation and accumulation of dust, including the silt-clay, carbonate, and soluble-salt fractions, is affected by the amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall and the behavior of different source types (alluvium, dry playas, and wet playas). Accumulation rates (fluxes) of the silt-clay fraction of dust, including carbonates, range from about 2-20 g/m2/yr. Average rates are higher in the southern part of the study area (south of latitude 36.5??N) and annually fluctuate over a larger range than rates in the northern part of the area. Sites throughout the study area show peaks in dust flux in the 1984-1985 sampling period and again in 1997-1999; northern sites also show increased flux in 1987-1988 and southern sites in 1989-1991. These peaks of dust flux correspond with both La Nina (dry) conditions and with strong El Nino (wet) periods. The accumulation rates of different components of mineral dusts fluctuate differently. For example, soluble-salt flux increases in 1987-1988, coincident with a moderate El Nino event, and increases very strongly in 1997-1999, overlapping with a strong El Nino event. Both of these high-rainfall winters were preceded and accompanied by strong summer rains. In contrast, little or no change in soluble-salt flux occurred during other periods of high winter rainfall but little summer rain, e.g. 1992-1995. The differences between northern vs. southern sites and between sites with playa dust sources vs. alluvial dust sources indicate that regional differences in the response of precipitation and vegetation growth to ENSO influence and

  8. Observation of a Distinct Transition in Transport Response to Injection Stress in the Floridan Aquifer System, Southeastern Florida, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.; Cunningham, K. J.; Foster, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) injects effluent approximately one km below land surface into the Boulder Zone (BZ) at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant (NDWWTP). The BZ is highly conductive and composed of fractured dolomite. MDWASD monitors upward effluent migration 450 m below land surface in the Avon Park Permeable Zone (APPZ). The BZ and APPZ---units within the Floridan aquifer system---are separated by a series of inter-bedded aquifers and leaky confining units with hydraulic conductivities that are orders of magnitude smaller than the BZ. MDWASD injected effluent at the NDWWTP during two distinct periods: (1) July 1997 to September 1999, and (2) August 2004 to January 2011. No effluent was injected between October 1999 and July 2004. A few months after the July 1997 injection, MDWASD observed effluent constituents in the APPZ (Figure 1). Some confinement bypass feature permits effluent constituents to be transported from the BZ to the APPZ. Bypass features may include poorly-cased wells, or natural conduits such as fractures, faults, or karst collapse systems. It is possible to describe confinement bypass features with conductance KA/L, where K is hydraulic conductivity, A is cross-sectional area, and L is length. MDWASD observed a distinct transition in the transport response to injection stress of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the APPZ. The conductance required to describe early system response (1997-1999) is one order-of-magnitude larger than the conductance required to describe late system response (2004-2011). Hypotheses to explain transient conductance include clogging of bypass features by some geochemical or biological process that results from the mixing of effluent with groundwater; dissolution or precipitation; or changes in bypass-feature geometry forced by cyclical changes in aquifer-fluid pressure associated with injection. Hypotheses may be tested with geochemical analyses, tracer tests, hydraulic

  9. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-II). Difference Image Analysis of the Bulge Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    During 1997-1999 observing seasons (mid March to mid December) the OGLE-II project collected more than 11,000 2Kx8K frames (over 370 GB of pixel data) of the Galactic Bulge using 1.3m Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Each of the 49 fields has roughly 200-300 measurements in I band. The fields span the range approximately from -10 to 10 deg in galactic longitude. I present a complete reanalysis of this data set using the optimal image subtraction method developed by Alard and Lupton (1998) and Alard (1999). Databases of difference measurements contain about 100,000 variable objects. This information is supplemented with colors from DoPhot photometry. Noise properties of our difference light curves are exceptionally good for this kind of massive monitoring program. The nongaussian tail in the distribution of residuals is totally negligible for usual applications. For faint stars the measurement errors are only 1.15 times photon noise. The difference photometry is always at least a factor of 2 better than results from DoPhot. Systematic effects due to blending are greatly relieved, the most important difference being the unbiased value of the variable light centroid. We discovered 512 microlensing events (compared to 214 from DoPhot photometry, Udalski et al. 2000). 305 of those were found fully algorithmically and have good quality light curves making them very well suited for optical depth determination. In the nearest future we plan to obtain an upper limit on the number of jupiters around microlenses as these should manifest themselves in the nongaussian tail of the residual distribution. Next possibilities include much better and larger extinction maps of the bulge and studies of the galactic bar. With 300-500 events we should be able to study the depth of the lens/source populations (Stanek 1996).

  10. Mercury in tree swallow food, eggs, bodies, and feathers at Acadia National Park, Maine, and an EPA superfund site, Ayer, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Longcore, Jerry R; Haines, Terry A; Halteman, William A

    2007-03-01

    We monitored nest boxes during 1997-1999 at Acadia National Park, Mt. Desert Island, ME and at an old-field site in Orono, ME to determine mercury (Hg) uptake in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs, tissues, and food boluses. Also, in 1998-1999 we monitored nest boxes at Grove Pond and Plow Shop Pond at a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site in Ayer, MA. We recorded breeding success at all locations. On average among locations, total mercury (THg) biomagnified 2 to 4-fold from food to eggs and 9 to 18-fold from food to feathers. These are minimum values because the proportion of transferable methyl mercury (MeHg) of the THg in insects varies (i.e., 35%-95% of THg) in food boluses. THg was highest in food boluses at Aunt Betty Pond at Acadia, whereas THg in eggs was highest at the Superfund site. A few eggs from nests at each of these locations exceeded the threshold (i.e., 800-1,000 ng/g, wet wt.) of embryotoxicity established for Hg. Hatching success was 88.9% to 100% among locations, but five eggs failed to hatch from 4 of the 11 clutches in which an egg exceeded this threshold. MeHg in feathers was highest in tree swallows at Aunt Betty Pond and the concentration of THg in bodies was related to the concentration in feathers. Transfer of an average of 80%-92% of the Hg in bodies to feathers may have enhanced nestling survival. Residues of Hg in tissues of tree swallows in the Northeast seem higher than those of the Midwest.

  11. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude symbols display over the geographic extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette 1973-1977 and published in 1979 (U.S. Geological Survey Map I-856-H) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999), was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (see cross-reference). In general, the mountainous areas in the west part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  12. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic Map of Boulder-Fort Collins-Greeley Area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colton, Roger B.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude data displayed over the geographic extent of rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Colton in 1976 (U.S.Geological Survey Map I-855-G) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Colton used his own mapping and published geologic maps having varied map unit schemes to compile one map with a uniform classification of geologic units. The resulting published color paper map was intended for planning for use of land in the Front Range Urban Corridor. In 1997-1999, under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project, Colton's map was digitized to provide data at 1:100,000 scale to address urban growth issues(see cross-reference). In general, the west part of the map shows a variety of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, major faults and brecciated zones along an eastern strip (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central part of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depicts a mantle of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and interspersed Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary rock outcrops. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone and shale formations (and sparse limestone) form hogbacks, intervening valleys, and in range-front folds, anticlines, and fault blocks. Localized dikes and sills of Tertiary rhyodacite and basalt intrude rocks near the range front, mostly in the Boulder area.

  13. Narcotics at street level in Denmark. A prospective investigation from 1995 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E; Nielsen, E; Rollmann, D

    2003-01-28

    This article describes an investigation of illicit drugs at street level in six selected police districts in different regions of Denmark. The investigation was carried out during a 6-year period from 1995 to 2000. During the period, a total of 1244 samples were examined, as about 200 samples were seized each year. A total of 94% of the seized samples were familiar drugs: heroin base, heroin hydrochloride, cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate. Only 2% of the samples contained designer drugs. From having constituted 53% of the samples in 1995, the frequency of heroin base fell during the period to 27% of the samples in 2000. The frequency of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. In the same period, the frequency of cocaine hydrochloride increased from 10% of the samples in 1995 to about 25% of the samples in 2000. Apart from a few exceptions, cocaine had the same extension in all regions of Denmark after 1996. Amphetamine was more frequent in the west of Denmark, while heroin hydrochloride was more frequent in central Denmark. The purity of heroin base was lower in the period 1997-1999 than in the other years. During the entire period, the purity of cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate fell, while the purity of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. No significant differences between the various regions of Denmark were detected during the period in the purity of heroin hydrochloride, heroin base, cocaine hydrochloride or amphetamine sulphate. MDMA was the most frequent designer drug, but other types of designer drugs such as MDA and MDE and the less common PMA, PMMA and MBDB were also found.

  14. Migration depths of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to total dissolved gas supersaturation in a Columbia River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The in situ depths of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. were studied to determine whether hydrostatic compensation was sufficient to protect them from gas bubble disease (GBD) during exposure to total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation from a regional program of spill at dams meant to improve salmonid passage survival. Yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss implanted with pressure-sensing radio transmitters were monitored from boats while they were migrating between the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River and the forebay of McNary Dam on the Columbia River during 1997-1999. The TDG generally decreased with distance from the tailrace of the dam and was within levels known to cause GBD signs and mortality in laboratory bioassays. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the mean depths of juvenile steelhead were similar throughout the study area, ranging from 2.0 m in the Snake River to 2.3 m near the McNary Dam forebay. The mean depths of yearling Chinook salmon generally increased with distance from Ice Harbor Dam, ranging from 1.5 m in the Snake River to 3.2 m near the forebay. Juvenile steelhead were deeper at night than during the day, and yearling Chinook salmon were deeper during the day than at night. The TDG level was a significant covariate in models of the migration depth and rates of each species, but no effect of fish size was detected. Hydrostatic compensation, along with short exposure times in the area of greatest TDG, reduced the effects of TDG exposure below those generally shown to elicit GBD signs or mortality. Based on these factors, our results indicate that the TDG limits of the regional spill program were safe for these juvenile salmonids.

  15. Species-specific allometric scaling under self-thinning: evidence from long-term plots in forest stands.

    PubMed

    Pretzsch, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Experimental plots covering a 120 years' observation period in unthinned, even-aged pure stands of common beech (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and common oak (Quercus Petraea) are used to scrutinize Reineke's (1933) empirically derived stand density rule [see text], N=tree number per unit area, [see text]=mean stem diameter), Yoda's (1963) self-thinning law based on Euclidian geometry ([see text] [see text]=mean biomass per tree), and basic assumptions of West, Brown and Enquist's (1997, 1999) fractal scaling rules ([see text] [see text] w=biomass per tree, d=stem diameter). RMA and OLS regression provides observed allometric exponents, which are tested against the exponents, expected by the considered rules. Hope for a consistent scaling law fades away, as observed exponents significantly correspond with the considered rules only in a minority of cases: (1) exponent r of [see text] varies around Reineke's constant -1.605, but is significantly different from r=-2, supposed by Euclidian or fractal scaling, (2) Exponent c of the self-thinning line [see text] roams roughly about the Euclidian scaling constant -3/2, (3) Exponent a of [see text] tends to follow fractal scaling 8/3. The unique dataset's evaluation displays that (4) scaling exponents and their oscillation are species-specific, (5) Euclidian scaling of one relation and fractal scaling of another are coupled, depending on species. Ecological implications of the results in respect to self-tolerance (common oak>Norway spruce>Scots pine>common beech) and efficiency of space occupation (common beech>Scots pine>Norway spruce>common oak) are stressed and severe consequences for assessing, regulating and scheduling stand density are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of urinary porphyrin excretion in neonates born to mothers exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ozalla, Dolores; Herrero, Carmen; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; To-Figueras, Jordi; Toll, Agustí; Sala, Maria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Lecha, Màrius; Sunyer, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a link between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyria cutanea tarda has been known for a long time. However, the epidemiologic data on effects on health caused by prenatal exposure have not provided convincing evidence that HCB alters porphyrin metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB in maternal serum and fetal cord blood in neonates born in a village (Flix) near a chlorinated solvent factory, to detect possible adverse effects in urinary porphyrin excretion caused by prenatal exposure, and to assess their relationship with HCB blood levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Porphyria Unit at a tertiary care facility in Barcelona, Spain, and the Pediatric Unit of the Móra d'Ebre Hospital, the reference hospital of the study area. We included in the study all neonates (n = 68) born in Móra d'Ebre Hospital 1997-1999 and their mothers. We obtained 68 urine specimens of singleton neonates on the third day after birth to test for urinary porphyrin excretion. We obtained 52 fetal cord blood and 56 maternal serum samples for HCB analysis. Total urinary porphyrins were quantified using spectrofluorometry. Porphyrin profile was determined by HPLC. Serum HCB was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. In total population, median HCB levels were 1.08 ng/mL in cord blood and 3.31 ng/mL in maternal serum. Total urinary porphyrin concentration was 37.87 micromol/mol creatinine. Coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were the major porphyrins excreted. We found no positive relationship between urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB levels. However, we observed an association between maternal smoking and coproporphyrin excretion. Although high environmental levels of HCB are reported in the town of Flix, we found no alteration in urinary porphyrin excretion. PMID:11836151

  17. Longitudinal melatonin production in female laboratory rats during 1997-2006: possible modulatory effects of changing solar activity.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Hella; Mecke, Dieter; Probst, Hansgeorg; Küpper, Heinz; Seebald, Eckhard; Herget, Ilse; Peschke, Elmar; Salewski, Lothar; Stehle, Thilo; Bartsch, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Earlier we reported that the urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) displayed seasonal rhythms in laboratory rats and hypothesized that the horizontal intensity H of the geomagnetic field may act as seasonal zeitgeber. To test this, long-term experiments were performed with female Sprague-Dawley rats. In experiment I (n=12: 1997-1999) nocturnal aMT6s displayed a winter-summer increase by 30% and a rhythm with a phase-length of 24 months peaking in July 1998. In experiment II (n=12; 1999-2000) the winter-summer increase amounted to 40%. The estimated rhythm had a phase-length of 18 months with a peak in September 2000. Compared to experiment I both the rhythm-adjusted mean (MESOR, + 28%) and amplitude (+68%) were elevated. In experiment III (n=30; 2003-2004) the winter-summer increment was just 20%. A circannual rhythm with a peak in April/May was found. The MESOR was 13% higher than in experiment I but the amplitude was depleted ( -14%). In experiment IV (n=15; 2005-2006) a slight winter-summer increase (+15%) was found and a low-amplitude rhythm of 24 months phase-length peaking in June 2006. The MESOR was similar to experiment I but the amplitude was depressed (-36%). These results demonstrate that female rats within two years of age show elevated aMT6s during summer/spring which supports our initial hypothesis. The apparent inter-experimental amplitude variation indicates the involvement of additional variables. Based on our initial hypothesis, we postulate an involvement of the solar cycle affecting H leading to year to year variations and present supportive analyses.

  18. Evolution of Tropical and Extratropical Precipitation Anomalies During the 1997 to 1999 ENSO Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Nelkin, Eric; Bolvin, David; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 1997-1999 ENSO period was very powerful, but also well observed. Multiple satellite rainfall estimates combined with gauge observations allow for a quantitative analysis of precipitation anomalies in the tropics and elsewhere accompanying the 1997-99 ENSO cycle. An examination of the evolution of the El Nino and accompanying precipitation anomalies revealed that a dry Maritime Continent preceded the formation of positive SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 30-60 day oscillations in the winter of 1996/97 may have contributed to this lag relationship. Furthermore, westerly wind burst events may have maintained the drought over the Maritime Continent. The warming of the equatorial Pacific was then followed by an increase in convection. A rapid transition from El Nino to La Nina occurred in May 1998, but as early as October-November 1997 precipitation indices captured substantial changes in Pacific rainfall anomalies. The global precipitation patterns for this event were in good agreement with the strong consistent ENSO-related precipitation signals identified in earlier studies. Differences included a shift in precipitation anomalies over Africa during the 1997-98 El Nino and unusually wet conditions over northeast Australia during the later stages of the El Nino. Also, the typically wet region in the north tropical Pacific was mostly dry during the 1998-99 La Nina. Reanalysis precipitation was compared to observations during this time period and substantial differences were noted. In particular, the model had a bias towards positive precipitation anomalies and the magnitudes of the anomalies in the equatorial Pacific were small compared to the observations. Also, the evolution of the precipitation field, including the drying of the Maritime Continent and eastward progression of rainfall in the equatorial Pacific was less pronounced for the model compared to the observations.

  19. SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

  20. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in health care: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in health care has become common. However, the literature lacks systematic review trend analysis on the application of MCDA in health care. Aim To systematically identify applications of MCDA to the areas of health care, and to report on publication trends. Methods English language studies published from January 1, 1980 until October 1, 2013 were included. Electronic databases searches were supplemented by searching conference proceedings and relevant journals. Studies considered for inclusion were those using MCDA techniques within the areas of health care, and involving the participation of decision makers. A bibliometric analysis was undertaken to present the publication trends. Results A total of 66 citations met the inclusion criteria. An increase in publication trend occurred in the years 1990, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2012. For the remaining years, the publication trend was either steady or declining. The trend shows that the number of publications reached its highest peak in 2012 (n = 9). Medical Decision Making was the dominant with the highest number published papers (n = 7). The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (n = 29). Medical Decision Making journal published the highest number of articles (n = 7). Analytic Hierarchy Process (n = 33) was the most used MCDA technique. Cancer was the most researched disease topic (n = 12). The most covered area of application was diagnosis and treatment (n = 26). Conclusion The review shows that MCDA has been applied to a broad range of areas in the health care, with the use of a variety of methodological approaches. Further research is needed to develop practice guidelines for the appropriate application and reporting of MCDA methods. PMID:25327341

  1. Magma intrusion near Volcan Tancitaro: Evidence from seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pinzon, Juan I.; Nunez-Cornu, Francisco J.; Rowe, Charlotte Anne

    2016-11-17

    Between May and June 2006, an earthquake swarm occurred near Volcan Tancítaro in Mexico, which was recorded by a temporary seismic deployment known as the MARS network. We located ~1000 events from this seismic swarm. Previous earthquake swarms in the area were reported in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. We relocate and analyze the evolution and properties of the 2006 earthquake swarm, employing a waveform cross-correlation-based phase repicking technique. Hypocenters from 911 events were located and divided into eighteen families having a correlation coefficient at or above 0.75. 90% of the earthquakes provide at least sixteen phase picks. We used the single-event location code Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Accelerometer Network to improve hypocenters based on the correlation-adjusted phase arrival times. We relocated 121 earthquakes, which show clearly two clusters, between 9–10 km and 3–4 km depth respectively. The average location error estimates are <1 km epicentrally, and <2 km in depth, for the largest event in each cluster. Depths of seismicity migrate upward from 16 to 3.5 km and exhibit a NE-SW trend. The swarm first migrated toward Paricutin Volcano but by mid-June began propagating back toward Volcán Tancítaro. In addition to its persistence, noteworthy aspects of this swarm include a quasi-exponential increase in the rate of activity within the first 15 days; a b-value of 1.47; a jug-shaped hypocenter distribution; a shoaling rate of ~5 km/month within the deeper cluster, and a composite focal mechanism solution indicating largely reverse faulting. As a result, these features of the swarm suggest a magmatic source elevating the crustal strain beneath Volcan Tancítaro.

  2. Evidence for the aetiology of injuries in Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Norton, K; Schwerdt, S; Lange, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine in Australian football (a) the influence of ground hardness and playing grade (level) on game speed and structure, and (b) player movement patterns throughout the game and across levels. Methods—The design consisted of several studies. Seventeen games played on grounds of different hardness in 2000 were used to determine game speed and structure. Four first grade and four second grade grand final games (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) were used to determine the game speed and structure on the same ground but at different levels. Fifty one players (44 first grade and seven second grade) were used to measure movement patterns within games and across levels during the 2000 season. Results—There was a significant relation between ground hardness and game speed, which could lead to higher injury rates when the ground is harder. There was a 6.7% difference in game speed between the first and second grade levels reflecting differences in injury incidence. The first grade games were also characterised by a greater number of shorter, high intensity play periods and longer stop periods than the second grade games. Midfield players in the first grade games covered about 24% greater distance than their second grade counterparts, and there was a significant difference in their playing speeds. Conclusions—Over the past 40 years, the game speed in the top level of Australian football has approximately doubled. Over the same time, the number of collisions and the estimated injury incidence have also doubled. This study provides additional support to the suggestion that these variables are strongly linked. Factors such as ground hardness, playing level, and time during the game influence game speed and are therefore important in injury development in Australian football. Key Words: aetiology; injuries; Australian football PMID:11726478

  3. Volcanic emissions of metals and halogens from White Island (New Zealand) and Erebus volcano (Antarctica) determined with chemical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Kyle, P. R.; Counce, D.

    2008-11-01

    Volcanic emission rates of As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Se, Cl, and F were determined at Erebus volcano, Antarctica and White Island, New Zealand, using chemical traps. The trace metal fluxes were determined by combining the species to S ratios in the solutions with SO 2 emission rates measured by correlation spectrometry at the two volcanoes. At Erebus volcano, fluxes for the metals Pb and Hg were 2.0 × 10 - 4 and 8.1 × 10 - 6 kg s - 11 , respectively. Fluxes for Cl, F, As, Sb and Se (0.35, 0.15, 2.5 × 10 - 4 , 1.2 × 10 - 5 , and 4.5 × 10 - 6 kg s - 1 , respectively) agreed within error limits for values determined previously by the LiOH impregnated filter method [Zreda-Gostynska, G., Kyle, P., Finnegan, D., Prestbo, K., 1997. Volcanic gas emissions from Mount Erebus and their impact on the Antarctic environment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(B7): 15039-15055.], demonstrating the utility of the chemical trap method. A fall in the As/S ratio from 7 × 10 - 4 in 1997/1999 to 3 × 10 - 4 in 2000 at Erebus coincided with a change in the frequency and style of eruptive activity that may have been due to injection of magma into the system. At White Island, chemical trap data indicated fluxes of Cl = 0.90, F = 0.0079, Pb = 2.7 × 10 - 4 , Hg = 1.1 × 10 - 5 , As = 1.3 × 10 - 4 , Sb = 1.9 × 10 - 5 and Se = 1.5 × 10 - 5 kg s - 1 . Samples collected 600 m downwind of the active crater were comparable to samples collected adjacent to the main gas vent, showing that this method can still be used at some distance from a degassing vent.

  4. Within-subject haemoglobin variation in elite athletes: a longitudinal investigation of 13 887 haemoglobin concentration readings.

    PubMed

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Knight, Emma J; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Gore, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) estimates individualized reference ranges for key blood markers, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), using predetermined population mean, between- and within-subject variances. Here, we aim to reassess previously published estimates for within-subject [Hb] variance and determine whether sex-, analyzer-, sport-, or season-specific values are required. Our reference population contains 7723 male (mean ± SD, 22.3 ± 4.6 years of age) and 6164 female (21.6 ± 4.3) athlete observations from 49 sports. [Hb] was calculated using one of three cytometers; Bayer-H3 (1997-1999, n = 4554), ADVIA-120 (1999-2010, n = 8636) and Sysmex XT-2000i (2010-2012, n = 697). The final model was a linear mixed model for [Hb] with analyzer (H3, ADVIA, Sysmex), sex (male, female), sport (power-endurance, endurance, skill, team, disabled and non-athletes), season (summer, winter), and the interaction between sex and sport as fixed effects and athlete as a random effect. The model included an exponential correlation structure to allow for within-subject autocorrelation, and allowed different within-subject variances for each sport. Within-subject [Hb] variance (g(2) /L(2) ) was significantly less for power endurance (35.09, 95% CI 33.50 to 36.76), disabled (25.82, 95% CI 21.71 to 35.28) and non-athletes (34.30, 95% CI 28.53 to 35.87) than for endurance (40.35, 95% CI 39.62 to 47.22) and team sports (38.70, 95% CI 37.68 to 39.76) athletes. No new evidence was found to justify adjusting the current within-subject [Hb] variance estimate.

  5. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Lino, Celeste Matos . E-mail: cmlino@ci.uc.pt; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-11-15

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 {mu}g/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 {mu}g/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 {mu}g/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For {sigma}-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in {sigma}-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America.

  6. Economic disparity in bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of legislation

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, A K; Macarthur, C; To, T M; Chipman, M L; Wright, J G; Parkin, P C

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation often focus on short term outcomes. The long term effect of helmet legislation on bicycle helmet use is unknown. Objective To examine bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of the law, and the influence of area level family income on helmet use. Methods The East York (Toronto) health district (population 107 822) was divided into income areas (designated as low, mid, and high) based on census tract data from Statistics Canada. Child cyclists were observed at 111 preselected sites (schools, parks, residential streets, and major intersections) from April to October in the years 1995–1997, 1999, and 2001. The frequency of helmet use was determined by year, income area, location, and sex. Stratified analysis was used to quantify the relation between income area and helmet use, after controlling for sex and bicycling location. Results Bicycle helmet use in the study population increased from a pre‐legislation level of 45% in 1995 to 68% in 1997, then decreased to 46% by 2001. Helmet use increased in all three income areas from 1995 to 1997, and remained above pre‐legislation rates in high income areas (85% in 2001). In 2001, six years post‐legislation, the proportion of helmeted cyclists in mid and low income areas had returned to pre‐legislation levels (50% and 33%, respectively). After adjusting for sex and location, children riding in high income areas were significantly more likely to ride helmeted than children in low income areas across all years (relative risk = 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 4.3)). Conclusion Over the long term, the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation varies by income area. Alternative, concurrent, or ongoing strategies may be necessary to sustain bicycle helmet use among children in mid and low income areas following legislation. PMID:16887944

  7. Determinants and trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Utz, Bettina; Bardají, Azucena; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinants and measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Methods In order to measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections, Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) data sets were analysed (BDHS; 1993–1994, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004, 2007, 2011). The BDHS 2011 data sets were analysed to identify the determinants of health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections. A total of 2813 adolescent girls (aged 10–19 years) were included for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Health facility-based deliveries have continuously increased among adolescents in Bangladesh over the past two decades from 3% in 1993–1994 to 24.5% in 2011. Rates of population-based and facility-based caesarean sections have increased linearly among all age groups of women including adolescents. Although the country's overall (population-based) caesarean section rate among adolescents was within acceptable range (11.6%), a rate of nearly 50% health facility level caesarean sections among adolescent girls is alarming. Among adolescent girls, use of antenatal care (ANC) appeared to be the most important predictor of health facility-based delivery (OR: 4.04; 95% CI 2.73 to 5.99), whereas the wealth index appeared as the most important predictor of caesarean sections (OR: 5.7; 95% CI 2.74 to 12.1). Conclusions Maternal health-related interventions should be more targeted towards adolescent girls in order to encourage them to access ANC and promote health facility-based delivery. Rising trends of caesarean sections require further investigation on indication and provider–client-related determinants of these interventions among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. PMID:27633641

  8. Changes in bird-migration patterns associated with human-induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Palacín, Carlos; Alonso, Juan C; Martín, Carlos A; Alonso, Javier A

    2017-02-01

    Many bird populations have recently changed their migratory behavior in response to alterations of the environment. We collected data over 16 years on male Great Bustards (Otis tarda), a species showing a partial migratory pattern (sedentary and migratory birds coexisting in the same breeding groups). We conducted population counts and radio tracked 180 individuals to examine differences in survival rates between migratory and sedentary individuals and evaluate possible effects of these differences on the migratory pattern of the population. Overall, 65% of individuals migrated and 35% did not. The average distance between breeding and postbreeding areas of migrant individuals was 89.9 km, and the longest average movement of sedentary males was 3.8 km. Breeding group and migration distance had no effect on survival. However, mortality of migrants was 2.4 to 3.5 times higher than mortality of sedentary birds. For marked males, collision with power lines was the main cause of death from unnatural causes (37.6% of all deaths), and migratory birds died in collisions with power lines more frequently than sedentary birds (21.3% vs 6.3%). The percentage of sedentary individuals increased from 17% in 1997 to 45% in 2012. These results were consistent with data collected from radio-tracked individuals: The proportion of migratory individuals decreased from 86% in 1997-1999 to 44% in 2006-2010. The observed decrease in the migratory tendency was not related to climatic changes (temperatures did not change over the study period) or improvements in habitat quality (dry cereal farmland area decreased in the main study area). Our findings suggest that human-induced mortality during migration may be an important factor shaping the migration patterns of species inhabiting humanized landscapes.

  9. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  10. Nitrogen cycling through swine production systems: ammonia, dinitrogen, and nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lowry A; Sharpe, Ron R; Parkin, Tim B; De Visscher, Alex; van Cleemput, Oswald; Byers, F Michael

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from animal systems have become a primary concern for all of livestock production. The purpose of this research was to establish the relationship of nitrogen (N) emissions to specific components of swine production systems and to determine accurate NH(3) emission factors appropriate for the regional climate, geography, and production systems. Micrometeorological instrumentation and gas sensors were placed over two lagoons in North Carolina during 1997-1999 to obtain information for determining ammonia emissions over extended periods and without interfering with the surrounding climate. Ammonia emissions varied diurnally and seasonally and were related to lagoon ammonium concentration, acidity, temperature, and wind turbulence. Conversion of significant quantities of ammonium NH(4)(+) to dinitrogen gas (N(2)) were measured in all lagoons with the emission rate largely dependent on NH(4)(+) concentration. Lagoon NH(4)(+) conversion to N(2) accounted for the largest loss component of the N entering the farm (43% as N(2)); however, small amounts of N(2)O were emitted from the lagoon (0.1%) and from field applications (0.05%) when effluent was applied nearby. In disagreement with previous and current estimates of NH(3) emissions from confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) systems, and invalidating current assumptions that most or all emissions are in the form of NH(3), we found much smaller NH(3) emissions from animal housing (7%), lagoons (8%), and fields (2%) using independent measurements of N transformation and transport. Nitrogen input and output in the production system were evaluated, and 95% of input N was accounted for as output N from the system.

  11. Magma intrusion near Volcan Tancítaro: Evidence from seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, Juan I.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco J.; Rowe, Charlotte A.

    2017-01-01

    Between May and June 2006, an earthquake swarm occurred near Volcan Tancítaro in Mexico, which was recorded by a temporary seismic deployment known as the MARS network. We located ∼1000 events from this seismic swarm. Previous earthquake swarms in the area were reported in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. We relocate and analyze the evolution and properties of the 2006 earthquake swarm, employing a waveform cross-correlation-based phase repicking technique. Hypocenters from 911 events were located and divided into eighteen families having a correlation coefficient at or above 0.75. 90% of the earthquakes provide at least sixteen phase picks. We used the single-event location code Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Accelerometer Network to improve hypocenters based on the correlation-adjusted phase arrival times. We relocated 121 earthquakes, which show clearly two clusters, between 9-10 km and 3-4 km depth respectively. The average location error estimates are <1 km epicentrally, and <2 km in depth, for the largest event in each cluster. Depths of seismicity migrate upward from 16 to 3.5 km and exhibit a NE-SW trend. The swarm first migrated toward Paricutin Volcano but by mid-June began propagating back toward Volcán Tancítaro. In addition to its persistence, noteworthy aspects of this swarm include a quasi-exponential increase in the rate of activity within the first 15 days; a b-value of 1.47; a jug-shaped hypocenter distribution; a shoaling rate of ∼5 km/month within the deeper cluster, and a composite focal mechanism solution indicating largely reverse faulting. These features of the swarm suggest a magmatic source elevating the crustal strain beneath Volcan Tancítaro.

  12. Brightness induction magnitude declines with increasing distance from the inducing field edge

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Brightness induction refers to a class of visual illusions where the perceived intensity of a region of space is influenced by the luminance of surrounding regions. These illusions are significant because they provide insight into the neural organization and processing strategies employed by the visual system. The nature of these processing strategies, however, has long been debated. Here we investigate the spatial characteristics of grating induction as a function of the distance from the inducing field edge to evaluate the viability of various competing models. In particular multiscale spatial filtering models and homogeneous filling-in models make very different predictions in regard to the magnitude of induction as a function of this distance. Filling-in explanations predict that the brightness/lightness of the filled-in region will be homogeneous, whereas multiscale filtering predicts a fall-off in induction magnitude with distance from the inducing field edge. Induction magnitude was measured using a narrow probe version of the quadrature-phase motion-cancellation paradigm (Blakeslee & McCourt, 2011) and a point-by-point brightness matching paradigm (McCourt, 1994; Blakeslee & McCourt, 1997; 1999). Both techniques reveal a decrease in the magnitude of induction with increasing distance from the inducing edge. A homogeneous filling-in mechanism cannot explain the induced structure in the test fields of these stimuli. The results argue strongly against filling-in mechanisms as well as against any mechanism that posits that induction is homogeneous. The structure of the induction is, however, well accounted for by the multiscale filtering (ODOG) model of Blakeslee and McCourt (1999). These results support models of brightness/lightness, such as filtering models, which preserve these gradients of induction. PMID:23262229

  13. The prevalence of asthma in children of elementary school age in western New York.

    PubMed

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, J S; Dunn-Georgiou, E

    2000-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of caregiver-reported asthma in children 4 to 13 years old in metropolitan western New York State, surveys were conducted during 1997-1999 in the Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Iroquois, and Gowanda school systems. Questionnaires (3,889) were sent to the homes of elementary school children in nine schools in western New York. The caregivers were asked to complete a 13-item questionnaire for the child. Of the questionnaires, 60.5% (2,353/3,889) were completed. Of all children, 18% had physician-diagnosed asthma. Of children diagnosed with asthma, 86% were taking medication. Symptoms were consistent with suspected undiagnosed asthma for 13% of the children. Buffalo had the highest rate of diagnosed asthma (20%) for the age group. Gowanda had a prevalence of 18%, Iroquois 16%, and Niagara Falls 15%. Variations were observed in asthma prevalence rates among different racial/ethnic groups. In general, boys had a significantly (P = .001) increased odds of being asthmatic compared with girls. Overall, African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino children had significantly (P = .012 and P = .005, respectively) higher asthma prevalence rates, two to five times those of their Caucasian peers. In Gowanda, the prevalence of diagnosed asthma among Native American children was 23%, compared to 15% among Caucasian children. Of diagnosed Native American children, 71% were female. In Gowanda, a significant association (P = .007) of asthma among children in split-grade classes was observed compared to nonsplit grades. Of Native American children in split grades, 60% were diagnosed asthmatics. These observations reveal a high prevalence of asthma in the age group of 4 to 13 year olds in western New York. Local variations in potential triggers of asthma need to be considered when advising asthmatics. The results suggest that some grades have a disproportionate amount of children with asthma. The implications of asthma for children's early education need to be examined

  14. Longitudinal dependence of equatorial ionospheric current system separated by 150 degrees longitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, Arunachalam

    Longitudinal dependence of equatorial ionospheric current system separated by 150 degrees longitudes. A.Thiagarajan Huancayo(Hua) is the only station in equatorial region where the daytime rise in horizontal geomagnetic field (H) is associated with an increase of eastward geomagnetic field (Y) simultaneously. Indian longitude stations are one of the best regions to study about the Sq current system in low latitudes and mid latitudes. The paper describes the daily variations in the geomagnetic components of the ionospheric current at the equatorial stations, Huancayo (inclination 1.99°S) and Trivandrum (Trd) (Inclination: 0.17°S) for the period (1997-1999). It is shown that the amplitude of Del Y at Huancayo were more in most of the days than that of Trivandrum. Some evidences are seen indicating a close relationship between EEJ strength in Indian longitudes and Del Y in American longitudes. The range (Maximum-minimum of a day) of del Y is found to show more amplitude at Hua compared with Trd. There is close relation exists between amplitude EEJ at Trivandrum and of Y at Huancayo. It is suggested that the day-to-day variability in the time as well as in the magnitude of the daily peak of the X and Y field at the equatorial electro jet stations are due to the superimposition of a semi-diurnal wave of the electric field over the normal mean daily variation and that both the zonal and meridional components flows in the same E region of the ionosphere in the equatorial electro jet in American longitudes, as in Indian longitudes,

  15. Trends in sociodemographic and health-related indicators in Bangladesh, 1993–2007: will inequities persist?

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Alexander; Khandoker, Aklimunnessa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Islam, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess levels, trends and gaps between the poorest and the richest in selected health and human development indicators in Bangladesh. Methods Data for selected indicators associated with sociodemographic characteristics among ever-married women, contraception use, child vaccination, antenatal care practices and health conditions were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1993–94, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004 and 2007. Results for the whole sample and for the poorest and the richest wealth quintiles are presented. Findings Positive trends were noted in urbanization, availability of electricity, age at first marriage, use of modern contraception, access to skilled antenatal care, child vaccination, knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and overweight and obesity. In contrast, negative trends were seen in factors such as literacy, infant and child mortality, fertility rate, home delivery and malnutrition and underweight. However, changes in these indicators differed between the poorest and richest quintiles. For instance, only the richest quintile experienced rapid urbanization, whereas illiteracy declined more among the poorest. Noteworthy gaps were found in almost all factors. Rich–poor gaps in urbanization, age at marriage, fertility, condom use, home delivery and overweight increased; in contrast, gaps in education, water and sanitation, use of contraception (except condoms) and child vaccination declined. Conclusion Persistent inequities in Bangladesh endanger equitable and sustainable human development in the country. Pro-poor development strategies based on the principles of equity and quality should be implemented to narrow existing gaps and further promote holistic and equitable human development. PMID:21836757

  16. Geologic map of the Boulder-Fort Collins-Greeley Area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colton, Roger B.

    1978-01-01

    This digital map shows the geographic extent of rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Colton in 1976 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Colton used his own geologic mapping and previously published geologic maps to compile one map having a single classification of geologic units. The resulting published color paper map (USGS Map I-855-G, Colton, 1978) was intended for land-use planning and to depict the regional geology. In 1997-1999, another USGS project designed to address urban growth issues was undertaken. This project, the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project, undertook to digitize Colton's map at 1:100,000 scale, making it useable in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). That product is described here. In general, the digitized map depicts in its western part Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Pennsylvanian and younger sedimentary rock units, major faults, and brecciated zones along an eastern strip (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The central and eastern parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) show a mantle of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and interspersed outcrops of sedimentary rock of Cretaceous or Tertiary age. A surficial mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age is differentiated and depicted as eolium (wind-blown sand and silt), alluvium (river gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslide deposits. At the mountain front, north-trending, Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations of sandstone, shale, and minor limestone dip mostly eastward and form folds, fault blocks, hogbacks and intervening valleys. Local dikes and sills of Tertiary rhyodacite and basalt intrude rocks near the range front, mostly in the Boulder area.

  17. Validation of Noah-simulated Soil Temperature in the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Youlong; Ek, Michael; Sheffield, Justin; Livneh, Ben; Huang, Maoyi; Wei, Helin; Song, Feng; Luo, Lifeng; Meng, Jesse; Wood, Eric

    2013-02-25

    Soil temperature can exhibit considerable memory from weather and climate signals and is among the most important initial conditions in numerical weather and climate models. Consequently, a more accurate long-term land surface soil temperature dataset is needed to improve weather and climate simulation and prediction, and is also important for the simulation of agricultural crop yield and ecological processes. The North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) has generated 31-years (1979-2009) of simulated hourly soil temperature data with a spatial resolution of 1/8o. This dataset has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. Thus, the ultimate purpose of the present work is to assess Noah-simulated soil temperature for different soil depths and timescales. We used long-term (1979-2001) observed monthly mean soil temperatures from 137 cooperative stations over the United States to evaluate simulated soil temperature for three soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm) for annual and monthly timescales. We used short-term (1997-1999) observed soil temperature from 72 Oklahoma Mesonet stations to validate simulated soil temperatures for three soil layers and for daily and hourly timescales. The results showed that the Noah land surface model (Noah LSM) generally matches observed soil temperature well for different soil layers and timescales. At greater depths, the simulation skill (anomaly correlation) decreased for all time scales. The monthly mean diurnal cycle difference between simulated and observed soil temperature revealed large midnight biases in the cold season due to small downward longwave radiation and issues related to model parameters.

  18. Seasonality in ENSO-related precipitation, river discharges, soil moisture, and vegetation index in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, GermáN.; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Gil, Marta MaríA.; Quiceno, Natalia; Mantilla, Ricardo I.

    2001-08-01

    An analysis of hydrologic variability in Colombia shows different seasonal effects associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Spectral and cross-correlation analyses are developed between climatic indices of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the annual cycle of Colombia's hydrology: precipitation, river flows, soil moisture, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our findings indicate stronger anomalies during December-February and weaker during March-May. The effects of ENSO are stronger for streamflow than for precipitation, owing to concomitant effects on soil moisture and evapotranspiration. We studied time variability of 10-day average volumetric soil moisture, collected at the tropical Andes of central Colombia at depths of 20 and 40 cm, in coffee growing areas characterized by shading vegetation ("shaded coffee"), forest, and sunlit coffee. The annual and interannual variability of soil moisture are highly intertwined for the period 1997-1999, during strong El Niño and La Niña events. Soil moisture exhibited greater negative anomalies during 1997-1998 El Niño, being strongest during the two dry seasons that normally occur in central Colombia. Soil moisture deficits were more drastic at zones covered by sunlit coffee than at those covered by forest and shaded coffee. Soil moisture responds to wetter than normal precipitation conditions during La Niña 1998-1999, reaching maximum levels throughout that period. The probability density function of soil moisture records is highly skewed and exhibits different kinds of multimodality depending upon land cover type. NDVI exhibits strong negative anomalies throughout the year during El Niños, in particular during September-November (year 0) and June-August (year 0). The strong negative relation between NDVI and El Niño has enormous implications for carbon, water, and energy budgets over the region, including the tropical Andes and Amazon River basin.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXIV. Trends of in vitro antimalarial drug responses in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ringwald, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In vitro response to chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin was assessed by the radioisotopic microtest in Yaoundé, Cameroon, during 2000-2004 and compared with our previous data obtained during 1996-1999. Based on the cut-off value of 100 nmol/L, 36.3% of isolates were chloroquine-susceptible (N = 175; geometric mean IC(50), 40.3 nmol/L) and 63.7% were chloroquine-resistant (N = 307; geometric mean IC(50), 211 nmol/L). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s from 1996 to 2004, but a significant linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increased proportion of chloroquine-resistant isolates was observed from 1996 (49%) to 2004 (69%). All chloroquine-susceptible isolates and most chloroquine-resistant isolates were susceptible to monodesethylamodiaquine (i.e., IC(50) < 60 nmol/L). Despite the positive correlation between chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine (r = 0.739, P < 0.05), the IC(50)s for monodesethylamodiaquine remained stable during 1997-2004, with no increase in the proportion of monodesethylamodiaquine-resistant isolates. Mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin were equally active against the chloroquine-susceptible and chloroquine-resistant parasites. The responses to these three drugs were positively correlated, and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s was observed during the study period compared with our earlier data in 1997-1999, probably because of their inverse relationship with chloroquine response. The in vitro results were in general agreement with the in vivo response to chloroquine and amodiaquine. In vitro drug susceptibility assay is a useful, complementary laboratory tool for determining the trend of response to drugs for which there is still no established molecular marker and may serve as an early warning system for emerging drug resistance.

  20. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    DOE PAGES

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; ...

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity andmore » Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.« less

  1. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Kaschube, Danielle R.

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.

  2. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia.

  3. Work Stress, Caregiving and Allostatic Load: Prospective results from Whitehall II cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis; Head, Jenny; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies investigating health effects of work and family stress usually consider these factors in isolation. The present study investigated prospective interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on allostatic load (AL), a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Methods Subjects were 7,007 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study. Phase 3 (1991-1994) served as the baseline, Phases 5 (1997-1999) and 7 (2002-2004) as follow-ups. Job strain (high job demands combined with low control) and caregiving (providing care to aged or disabled relatives) were assessed at baseline. AL index (possible range 0-9) was assessed at baseline and both follow-ups based on 9 cardiovascular, metabolic and immune biomarkers. Linear mixed effect models were used to examine the association of job strain and caregiving with AL. Results High caregiving burden (above the sample median weekly hours of providing care) predicted higher AL levels, with the effect strongest in those also reporting job strain [b = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.01– 0.71)]; however, the interaction between job strain and caregiving was not significant (p = 0.56). Regardless of job strain, participants with low caregiving burden (below sample median) had lower subsequent AL levels than non-caregivers [b = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06–0.37]. Conclusions The study provides some evidence for adverse effects of stress at work combined with family demands on physiological functioning. However, providing care to others may also have health protective effects if it does not involve excessive time commitment. PMID:25984826

  4. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark; Perkins, Raymond R.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  5. Water level dynamics in wetlands and nesting success of Black Terns in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, A.T.; Servello, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) nests in freshwater wetlands that are prone to water level fluctuations, and nest losses to flooding are common. We examined temporal patterns in water levels at six sites with Black Tern colonies in Maine and determined probabilities of flood events and associated nest loss at Douglas Pond, the location of the largest breeding colony. Daily precipitation data from weather stations and water flow data from a flow gauge below Douglas Pond were obtained for 1960-1999. Information on nest losses from three floods at Douglas Pond in 1997-1999 were used to characterize small (6% nest loss), medium (56% nest loss) and large (94% nest loss) flood events, and we calculated probabilities of these three levels of flooding occurring at Douglas Pond using historic water levels data. Water levels generally decreased gradually during the nesting season at colony sites, except at Douglas Pond where water levels fluctuated substantially in response to rain events. Annual probabilities of small, medium, and large flood events were 68%, 35%, and 13% for nests initiated during 23 May-12 July, with similar probabilities for early (23 May-12 June) and late (13 June-12 July) periods. An index of potential nest loss indicated that medium floods at Douglas Pond had the greatest potential effect on nest success because they occurred relatively frequently and inundated large proportions of nests. Nest losses at other colonies were estimated to be approximately 30% of those at Douglas Pond. Nest losses to flooding appear to be common for the Black Tern in Maine and related to spring precipitation patterns, but ultimate effects on breeding productivity are uncertain.

  6. Andean region: measles on the way out.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e

  7. Changes in concentrations of triazine and acetamide herbicides by bank filtration, ozonation, and chlorination in a public water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Thurman, E.M.; Lindsey, M.E.; Lee, E.C.; Smith, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The changes in triazine and acetamide concentrations in water during natural and artificial treatment by bank filtration, ozonation, filtration, and chlorination were measured at the well field and drinking water treatment plant of Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. The city's groundwater supply is affected by induced infiltration and transport of triazines and acetamide herbicides from the Platte River in late spring and early summer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of infiltration and treatment on the presence of triazines and acetamides in drinking water. Samples of river water, well water, and public supply water at various stages of water treatment were collected from 1997-1999 during spring-runoff when the presence of herbicides in the Platte River is largest. In 1999, parent compounds were reduced by 76% of the concentration present in river water (33% by bank filtration, 41% by ozonation, and 1.5% by chlorination). Metabolites of herbicides for which analytical techniques existed were reduced by 21% (plus 26% by bank filtration, minus 23% by ozonation, and minus 24% by chlorination). However, increases in concentrations of specific metabolite compounds were identified after bank filtration and ozonation. After bank filtration, increases in cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine acid were identified. After ozonation, concentrations of deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, atrazine amide-I, hydroxydeethylatrazine, hydroxydeisopopylatrazine, deethylcyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine increased. Concentrations of cyanazine acid and ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acids of acetamides decreased during ozonation. Our findings suggest that bank filtration and ozonation of water in part can shift the assessment of risk to human health associated with the consumption of the water from the parent compounds to their degradation products.

  8. Magma intrusion near Volcan Tancitaro: Evidence from seismic analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Pinzon, Juan I.; Nunez-Cornu, Francisco J.; Rowe, Charlotte Anne

    2016-11-17

    Between May and June 2006, an earthquake swarm occurred near Volcan Tancítaro in Mexico, which was recorded by a temporary seismic deployment known as the MARS network. We located ~1000 events from this seismic swarm. Previous earthquake swarms in the area were reported in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. We relocate and analyze the evolution and properties of the 2006 earthquake swarm, employing a waveform cross-correlation-based phase repicking technique. Hypocenters from 911 events were located and divided into eighteen families having a correlation coefficient at or above 0.75. 90% of the earthquakes provide at least sixteen phase picks. Wemore » used the single-event location code Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Accelerometer Network to improve hypocenters based on the correlation-adjusted phase arrival times. We relocated 121 earthquakes, which show clearly two clusters, between 9–10 km and 3–4 km depth respectively. The average location error estimates are <1 km epicentrally, and <2 km in depth, for the largest event in each cluster. Depths of seismicity migrate upward from 16 to 3.5 km and exhibit a NE-SW trend. The swarm first migrated toward Paricutin Volcano but by mid-June began propagating back toward Volcán Tancítaro. In addition to its persistence, noteworthy aspects of this swarm include a quasi-exponential increase in the rate of activity within the first 15 days; a b-value of 1.47; a jug-shaped hypocenter distribution; a shoaling rate of ~5 km/month within the deeper cluster, and a composite focal mechanism solution indicating largely reverse faulting. As a result, these features of the swarm suggest a magmatic source elevating the crustal strain beneath Volcan Tancítaro.« less

  9. Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biedenbach, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

  10. Skipjack tuna as a bioindicator of contamination by perfluorinated compounds in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tao, Lin; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have emerged as global environmental contaminants. Studies have reported the widespread occurrence of PFCs in biota from marine coastal waters and in remote polar regions. However, few studies have reported the distribution of PFCs in biota from offshore waters and open oceans. In this study, concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in the livers of 60 skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters and the open ocean along the Pacific Rim, including the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Western North Pacific Ocean, during 1997-1999. At least one of the nine PFCs was found in every tuna sample analyzed. Overall, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were the predominant compounds found in livers of tuna at concentrations of <1-58.9 and <1-31.6 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylates such as perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) were common in the tuna livers. In livers of tuna from several offshore and open-ocean locations, concentrations of PFUnDA were greater than the concentrations of PFOS. The profiles and concentrations of PFCs in tuna livers suggest that the sources in East Asia are dominated by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates, especially PFUnDA. High concentrations of PFUnDA in tuna may indicate a shift in sources of PFCs in East Asia. The spatial distribution of PFOS in skipjack tuna reflected the concentrations previously reported in seawater samples from the Pacific and Indian Oceans, suggesting that tuna are good bioindicators of pollution by PFOS. Despite its predominance in ocean waters, PFOA was rarely found in tuna livers, indicative of the low bioaccumulation potential of this compound. Our study establishes baseline concentrations of PFCs in skipjack tuna from the oceans of the Asia-Pacific region, enabling future temporal trend studies of PFCs in oceans.

  11. The influence of Pacific Equatorial Water on fish diversity in the southern California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, Sam; Thompson, Andrew R.; Alin, Simone R.; Siedlecki, Samantha; Watson, William; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-08-01

    The California Undercurrent transports Pacific Equatorial Water (PEW) into the Southern California Bight from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. PEW is characterized by higher temperatures and salinities, with lower pH, representing a source of potentially corrosive (aragonite,Ω<1) water to the region. We use ichthyoplankton assemblages near the cores of the California Current and the California Undercurrent to determine whether PEW influenced fish diversity. We use hydrographic data to characterize the interannual and seasonal variability of estimated pH and aragonite saturation with depth. Although there is substantial variability in PEW presence as measured by spice on the 26.25-26.75 isopycnal layer, as well as in pH and aragonite saturation, we found fish diversity to be stable over the decades 1985-1996 and 1999-2011. We detected significant difference in species structure during the 1998 La Niña period, due to reduced species evenness. Species richness due to rare species was higher during the 1997/1998 El Niño compared to the La Niña but the effect on species structure was undetectable. Lack of difference in the species abundance structure in the decade before and after the 1997/1999 ENSO event showed that the assemblage reverted to its former structure following the ENSO perturbation, indicating resilience. While the interdecadal species structure remained stable, the long tail of the distributions shows that species richness increased between the decades consistent with intrusion of warm water with more diverse assemblages into the southern California region.

  12. Radionuclide Data and Calculations and Loss-On-Ignition, X-Ray Fluorescence, and ICP-AES Data from Cores in Catchments of the Animas River, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stanley E.; Rice, Cyndi A.; Marot, Marci E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Interior Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is focused on the evaluation of the effect of past mining practices on the water quality and the riparian and aquatic habitats of impacted stream reaches downstream from historical mining districts located primarily on Federal lands. This problem is manifest in the eleven western states (west of longitude 102 degrees) where the majority of hardrock mines that had past production are located on Federal lands. In areas of temperate climate and moderate to heavy precipitation, the effects of rapid chemical and physical weathering of sulfides exposed on mine-waste dumps and acidic drainage from mines have resulted in elevated metal concentrations in the stream water and stream-bed sediment. The result of these mineral weathering processes has an unquantified impact on the quality of the water and the aquatic and riparian habitats that may limit their recreational resource value. One of the confounding factors in these studies is the determination of the component of metals derived from hydrothermally altered but unmined portions of these drainage basins. Several watersheds have been studied to evaluate the effects of acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage on the near-surface environment. The Animas River watershed in southwestern Colorado contains a large number of past-producing metal mines that have affected the watershed. Beginning in October 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a collaborative study of these effects under the USGS-AML Initiative. In this report, we present the radionuclide and geochemical analytical results of sediment coring during 1997-1999 from two cores from oxbow lakes 0.5 mi. upstream from the 32nd Street Bridge near Durango, Colo., and from three cores from beaver ponds within the Mineral Creek drainage basin near Silverton, Colo.

  13. The jack mackerel fishery and El Niño 1997 98 effects off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Dagoberto F.; Cubillos, Luis A.; P. Núñez, Sergio

    The jack mackerel fishery is one of the most important resources on the South Eastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, with landings higher than 3 million tonnes between 1990 and 1996. During 1997-1998, remarkable changes occurred in the length structure of jack mackerel catches, as juveniles (<26 cm FL) dominated the fishing grounds. That was attributed to the environmental effects of the 1997-98 El Niño on the feeding grounds of the jack mackerel off central-southern Chile. Anomalous sea surface temperatures were first detected in June 1997 and persisted into 1998. The response of the incidence of juveniles lagged one year after the ENSO phenomenon affected central-southern Chile, whereas there was a direct relationship between the proportion of juveniles and the intrusion of the 15°C isotherm towards the south. This isotherm reached its most southerly distribution in 1997-98, as a consequence of the El Niño. Jack mackerel is an oceanic and highly migrating species, so we propose that El Niño conditions affected the migratory pathway of the juveniles. It is postulated that the restoration of the nursery habitat north of 30°S may be delayed by more than 3-4 years. New juveniles will dominate in northern areas in the short-term, whereas the juveniles that migrated to southern areas during 1997-1999 are not expected to return back north. At present, the real situation of the stock is far from certain, but we think that environmental impacts associated to the El Niño can not be overlooked when planning the management of the jack mackerel fishery.

  14. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been associated with peripheral arterial disease in cross-sectional studies but prospective evidence is lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the association of urine cadmium concentrations with incident peripheral arterial disease in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results A prospective cohort study was performed with 2,864 adult American Indians 45-74 years old from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989-91 and were followed through two follow-up examination visits in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. Participants were free of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, at baseline and had complete baseline information on urine cadmium, potential confounders and ankle brachial index determinations in the follow-up examinations. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and corrected for urinary dilution by normalization to urine creatinine.. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were computed using Cox-proportional hazards models for interval-censored data. A total of 470 cases of incident peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, were identified. After adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking status and pack-years, the hazard ratio comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations was 1.41 (1.05, 1.81). The hazard ratio comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 1.96 (1.32, 2.81). The associations persisted after excluding participants with ankle brachial index > 1.4 only as well as in subgroups defined by sex and smoking status. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, was independently associated with incident peripheral arterial disease, providing further support for cadmium as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:24255048

  15. Indirect benefits of high coral cover for non-corallivorous butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Blowes, S. A.; Coker, D.; Kubacki, E.; Nowicki, J.; Hoey, A. S.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive coral loss often leads to pronounced declines in the abundance of fishes, which are not necessarily limited to those fishes that are directly reliant on live coral for food or shelter. This study explored changes in the abundance of two non-corallivorous butterflyfish, Chaetadon auriga and Chaetodon vagabundus, during declines in coral cover at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, caused by localised outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS). At North Reef, where COTS caused significant coral depletion, the abundance of C. auriga declined from 1995-1996 to 1997-1999, whereas abundance was unchanged at Washing Machine Reef, which was relatively unaffected by COTS. Abundance of C. vagabundus did not vary through the course of this study at either site. To better understand inter-specific differences in the responses of non-corallivorous butterflyfishes, feeding rates of C. auriga and C. vagabundus were quantified across sites with varying coral cover. Feeding rates of C. auriga were significantly and positively correlated with live coral cover. In contrast, feeding rates of C. vagabundus did not differ among sites with varying levels of live coral cover. This study shows that C. auriga is negatively affected by localised coral depletion, possibly because its prey is more abundant in coral-rich habitats. C. vagabundus, meanwhile, is generally unaffected by changes in coral cover. This study stresses the need for more detailed research in light of current and predicted declines in coral cover to elucidate specific differences in the dietary composition of C. auriga versus C. vagabundus, and the extent to which their prey is actually reliant on live coral.

  16. The Martian Upper Atmosphere Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Bell, J. M.; Baird, D. T.; Murphy, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    New Mars spacecraft datasets and 3-D modeling capabilities are emerging to characterize the Mars thermospheric circulation patterns for the first time. Upper atmosphere wind constraints are available from recent aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyor (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey (2001-2002) Accelerometer datasets obtained during aerobraking operations provide density and temperature distributions over limited local time and latitude regions at lower thermospheric altitudes ( ˜100-160 km) [e.g. Keating et al., 1998; 2002; 2003; Withers et al., 2003]. Latitudinal gradients of these fields (i.e. into the winter polar night) vary greatly with the changing Martian seasons. The winter polar warming features observed serve as a tracer of the strength and variability of the Martian thermospheric wind patterns during solstice conditions [Keating et al., 2003; Bougher et al., 2005].Accelerometer data is also being used to estimate cross-track (zonal) wind speeds in the Mars lower thermosphere ( ˜100-130 km) [Baird et al., 2005], yielding values as large as 300-400 m/sec. Most recently, the Mars Express SPICAM instrument discovered nitric oxide (NO) nightglow spectral features in the γ and δ -bands from limb observations (Ls = 74) [Bertaux et al., 2005]. These observed UV nightglow emissions are brightest in the winter polar night region. The solstice winds required to produce the Mars winter polar warming features are also responsible for transporting dayside produced N and O atoms to the nightside where radiative recombination and UV chemiluminescence occurs. These new dynamical constraints for the Martian upper atmosphere are now investigated using coupled MGCM (NASA Ames) and MTGCM (Michigan) simulations for aphelion (Ls = 90) and perihelion (Ls = 270) conditions appropriate to MGS and Odyssey aerobraking datasets described above. Seasonal variations in the thermospheric circulation, and the underlying mechanisms likely responsible for these

  17. Regional Climate Studies with Variable-Resolution Stretched-Grid GCMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A variable resolution GCM using a global stretched grid with fine resolution over the area(s) of interest, is a viable new approach to regional and subregional climate studies and applications. It is an alternative to the widely used nested grid approach introduced a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. The first version of the SG-GCM based on the GEOS (Goddard Earth Observing System) GCM using a finite-difference approximation, has been developed and thoroughly tested during the last few years. Successful simulations have been performed with the SG-GCM for the anomalous regional climate events of the U.S. 1988 summer drought and 1993 summer flood. They have shown the practical feasibility of the SG-approach for regional climate modeling. The GEOS SG-DAS (Data Assimilation System) incorporating the SG-GCM has also been developed and tested. The assimilated regional fields and diagnostics are used for validating the SG-GCM regional simulations. Two new SG-GCMs are being developed. The first is the SG-version of the new NASANCAR FV-GCM (with the finite-volume (FV) dynamics), and the second is the SG-version of the new GCM with spectral-element dynamics. Both GCMs use the WAR CCM4 physics. Using these advanced numerics will provide increased computational efficiency for the new the SG-GCMs, and will allow us to employ more flexible stretching strategies beneficial for the efficient regional down-scaling. The major current developments are focused on: simulating the 1997-1999 (and beyond) ENSO cycle and related monsoonal circulations, with enhanced regional resolution; studying intraseasonal and interannual regional climate variability for the extended multiyear (AMIP-type) SG-GCM simulations; and studying the impact of ensemble integrations.

  18. Native Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp. infested by Rhagoletis mendax (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Great Lakes Region: a potential source of inoculum for infestation of cultivated blueberries.

    PubMed

    Smith, J J; Gavrilovic, V; Smitley, D R

    2001-12-01

    In this study, we addressed the question of whether or not native stands of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) and/or huckleberry (Gaylussacia spp.) support populations of blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran, in the Great Lakes region. Infestation of commercial blueberries by the blueberry maggot, R. mendax, is a serious problem in many areas where blueberries are grown. In the past 10-20 yr, commercial bighbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., production has expanded into places such as southern Ontario and southern Quebec where blueberry maggot had not previously been reported. In the mid-1990s, isolated infestations of commercial highbush blueberry were reported in southern Ontario. Because R. mendax was not considered endemic to that area, it was widely assumed that the pests had come into the fields via movement from exotic localities. Here we present an alternative hypothesis, that the blueberry maggots infesting newly established highbush plantations are derived from native blueberries growing in the vicinity. To test this hypothesis, in 1997-1999, we sampled potential native hosts for R. mendax (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp.) from 31 localities in the Great Lakes region, primarily in Michigan and Ontario. R. mendax was reared from fruits of native hosts collected at four sites in Michigan and one site each in Ontario, Indiana, and Ohio. V. corymbosum was the predominant host infested, with infestation of this host observed at five of the seven sites. However, two huckleberry species [Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenheim) K. Koch, and Gaylussacia dumosa (Andersson) Torrey & Gray] had the highest rates of infestation that we observed (25.4 and 17.6%, respectively). These data represent the first published reports of R. mendax infesting native host plants in the Great Lakes region, and support the hypothesis that infestations observed in commercial fields may have originated from infested native host plants.

  19. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  20. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types.

    PubMed

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Thiry, Yves; Vallejo, V Ramón; Smolders, Erik; Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Bréchignac, François

    2009-06-01

    Uptake of (137)Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil (137)Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of (137)Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution (137)Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The (137)Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in (137)Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in (137)Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  1. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition.

  2. Influence of antiretroviral therapy on programmed death-1 (CD279) expression on T cells in lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ehrhard, Simone; Wernli, Marion; Dürmüller, Ursula; Battegay, Manuel; Gudat, Fred; Erb, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection leads to T-cell exhaustion and involution of lymphoid tissue. Recently, the programmed death-1 pathway was found to be crucial for virus-specific T-cell exhaustion during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Programmed death-1 expression was elevated on human immunodeficiency virus-specific peripheral blood CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and correlated with disease severity. During human immunodeficiency infection, lymphoid tissue acts as a major viral reservoir and is an important site for viral replication, but it is also essential for regulatory processes important for immune recovery. We compared programmed death-1 expression in 2 consecutive inguinal lymph nodes of 14 patients, excised before antiretroviral therapy (antiretroviral therapy as of 1997-1999) and 16 to 20 months under antiretroviral therapy. In analogy to lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-negative individuals, in all treated patients, the germinal center area decreased, whereas the number of germinal centers did not significantly change. Programmed death-1 expression was mostly found in germinal centers. The absolute extent of programmed death 1 expression per section was not significantly altered after antiretroviral therapy resulting in a significant-relative increase of programmed death 1 per shrunken germinal center. In colocalization studies, CD45R0+ cells that include helper/inducer T cells strongly expressed programmed death-1 before and during therapy, whereas CD8+ T cells, fewer in numbers, showed a weak expression for programmed death-1. Thus, although antiretroviral therapy seems to reduce the number of programmed death-1-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes within germinal centers, it does not down-regulate programmed death-1 expression on the helper/inducer T-cell subset that may remain exhausted and therefore unable to trigger immune recovery.

  3. Dynamics of Chaetoceros socialis blooms in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, B. C.; Larouche, P.; Bélanger, S.; Klein, B.; Amiel, D.; Mei, Z.-P.

    The North Water, a large polynya in northern Baffin Bay, has an extensive period of continuous primary production lasting up to 6 months. The well-known richness of this polynya in higher trophic levels, including numerous marine mammals and birds, must be based on the magnitude and duration of that production. As part of the International North Water Polynya Study, we observed that two groups of phytoplankton were responsible for most of the primary production in 1997-1999: the large centric diatoms, Thalassiosira spp., and the smaller, colonial centric diatom, Chaetoceros socialis Lauder. We studied the phytoplankton community assemblage in the North Water in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999 using epifluorescence microscopy on samples fixed and filtered at sea, with unpreserved cells observed in July 1998. Blooms of C. socialis occurred at southern stations in June and throughout the polynya from July to September. Maximum concentrations reached 30,100 cells ml -1 (496 μg C l -1) in the western area in early July. Blooms of C. socialis directly followed those of Thalassiosira spp., which were more intense but also more transient. C. socialis appeared to maintain its population in the euphotic layer for up to 3 months by surviving at low nutrient levels, sinking to depths where dynamic physical regimes brought nutrient replenishment, and producing resting spores (up to 233 μg C l -1). The resting spores may survive low-nutrient periods and be introduced, some from fecal pellets, to waters of more favorable growth conditions; in July, 86% of fecal pellets and 76% of aggregates observed in shallow, floating sediment traps contained resting spores of C. socialis. Colonies of C. socialis were a potential mid-water food source and major contributor to the benthos: C. socialis contributed up to 91% of total phytoplankton cells (49% phytoplankton carbon) identified in moored sediment traps. Mats of polymer gels (mucous), likely formed from the

  4. The effect of soil hydrology on the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of plants' source water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kuilian; Feng, Xiahong

    2001-02-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the isotopic composition of plants' source water is the main factor affecting the isotopic composition of tree rings. Because of soil hydrological processes, soil water as the source water for plants may isotopically differ from precipitation that contains climatic information (such as surface temperature). This study addresses the effects of soil hydrological processes on the isotopic compositions of soil water and discusses how these effects affect interpretations of tree ring data in isotopic dendroclimatology. We collected precipitation, soil gas at two depths (20 and 50 cm), and twigs from a maple tree ( Acer saccharum) on a biweekly basis during the growing season in 1997-1999 at Hanover, NH, USA. Water was extracted from the twig samples by vacuum distillation. All water samples were analyzed for both δD and δ 18O. Soil CO 2 was extracted from soil gas and measured for the δ 18O values, and using the soil temperature and assuming isotopic equilibrium between CO 2 and H 2O, we calculated the δ 18O values of soil water. Comparisons among the isotopic time series of each type of sample indicate the following. (1) The isotopic composition of soil water is much less variable than that of precipitation, suggesting isotopic mixing between waters of different precipitation events. (2) In early spring, soil water at all depths is isotopically similar to winter precipitation, but with time the surface soil water becomes progressively enriched in deuterium and 18O due to infiltration of summer rain and enrichment through soil water evaporation. (3) The influence of summer precipitation decreases with increasing depth, and soil at 50 cm can only receive water from large storms. (4) Replacement of old soil water with new infiltrating water is dependent upon frequency and intensity of growing season precipitation, and it is generally more efficient in a wet year than in a dry year. (5) The tree we studied uses water mainly from near

  5. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, G.; Romero, O.; Merkel, U.; Donner, B.; Iversen, M.; Nowald, N.; Ratmeyer, V.; Ruhland, G.; Klann, M.; Wefer, G.

    2015-11-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analyzed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales possibly linked to the Atlantic Multidedadal Oscillation (AMO). High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production mostly by diatoms largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during boreal winter (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter but also in summer/fall enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on rather short timescales via the ballasting effect, thus leading to these episodic sedimentation events. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) weakened the relationships between fluxes and larger scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year in our study area, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by being incorporated into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost one year during the warm El Niño and

  6. [Active epidemiological surveillance and prevention of diseases caused by biomechanical overload of the upper limbs: experience at a territorial service of occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Pezzotti, C; Rocco, A

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays in the western countries, the Work Musculoscheletal Disorders (WMSDs) are the most relevant work-related diseases either for the large number of at-risk workers and for the high prevalence of cases among them. Among WMSDs, the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is considered a sentinel event in occupational medicine and epidemiological surveillance systems were set up to study its temporal occurrence and spatial spread. Surprisingly enough, in our country the epidemiology of the WMSDs is still unknown; although observations of important clusters of cases are increasing, these pathologies are still largely underreported by medical doctors. In the high industrialised province of Brescia, Northwestern Italy, only 1% of the 25.000 occupational disease, collected by the occupational medicine and prevention service of the National Health Service (SPSAL) since 1989 to 1997, were coded as WMSDs. Even if the notification of these work-related disorders is compulsory by low since 1973, up-to-now very few cases were reported to SPSALs, and consequently active prevention programs were very few too. For that reason, a project of active surveillance of WMSDs diagnosed on the general population was carried out to improve their identification and to evaluate the work-related etiological fraction as well as to address primary prevention projects. During 1997-1999 618 upper limb musculoskeletal disorders were collected from 2 orthopaedic hospital divisions where cases underwent surgical treatment. 369 of them were interviewed by telephone (253 female, 116 man) and 128 cases (34%) were classified as probable professionally exposed to some known hazard. Female were prevalent (71%), involved particularly in textile, garments, plastic, food production and domestic services. Among men, construction, metallurgic and mechanic were the more frequent jobs. 116 WMSDs were reported to the National Insurance Institute (INAIL). The collection of these WMSDs was the basis for specific

  7. Search for seasonal rhythmicity of pineal melatonin production in rats under constant laboratory conditions: spectral chronobiological analysis, and relation to solar and geomagnetic variables.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Hella; Mecke, Dieter; Probst, Hansgeorg; Küpper, Heinz; Seebald, Eckard; Salewski, Lothar; Stehle, Thilo; Bartsch, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Earlier we reported that in a number of experiments pineal melatonin production in rats under constant laboratory conditions displayed seasonal rhythms but subsequently were not always able to confirm this. Since there was no indication under which conditions such rhythms may be present, we performed four consecutive identical experiments with untreated female Sprague-Dawley rats within the same animal room during 1997-2006. Nocturnal urine samples (19-23, 23-3, 3-7 h) were collected at monthly intervals over 494-658 d with 12 animals each in experiments I and II (1997-1999, 1999-2000), 30 animals in experiment III (2002-2004), and 15 in experiment IV (2005-2006). 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) was measured by ELISA. The excreted aMT6s at each time interval as well as total nocturnal aMT6s-excretion (19-7 h) was submitted to standard statistical analyses as well as to a spectral chronobiological analysis to determine the period lengths of the components involved which was followed by processing with the single cosinor method. Seasonal rhythm components (circannual period length: 360 ± 60 d) were detected in experiment III (2002-2004) for the overall nocturnal excretion as well as for two sub-intervals (23-3 and 3-7 h) and in one night interval of experiment II (23-3 h). Multiple components with mostly short period lengths of around 100 d and some long ones of 500-650 d were found in the other experiments. Systematic MESOR and amplitude variations were observed during the experiments, being highest in experiment II (19-7 h, also 23-3 h and 3-7 h) and lowest in experiments I and IV. These results illustrate that seasonal melatonin rhythms are not a general phenomenon in female laboratory rats indicating an involvement of unknown environmental cues. As an extension of our earlier hypothesis regarding a seasonal Zeitgeber function of the horizontal intensity H of the geomagnetic field showing circannual variations, we assume further modulation by the 11-yrs' sunspot

  8. Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and current status of hemodialysis in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Djukanović, L; Radović, M; Baković, J; Budosan, I; Bukvić, D; Cveticanin, A; Davinić, S; Dragoljić, B; Djordjević, V; Djurić, S; Haviza-Lilić, B; Ilić, M; Janos, B; Jelacić, R; Jelić, S; Kostić, N; Mandić, M; Ostrić, V; Pljesa, S; Radisić, M; Radojević, M; Rakić, N; Rangelov, V; Ratković, M; Stojanović, M; Stojanović, R; Tintor, D; Vasić, V

    2002-09-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in Yugoslavia started in the sixties and followed the dialysis trends in the Western Europe. However, in the last decade the development of renal replacement therapy (RRT) slowed down. In this report the epidemiology of ESRD from 1997-1999 and the survey of the status of HD treatment in Yugoslavia in 1999 are presented. Epidemiological data are obtained by the annual center questionnaires (response rate: 92.6 -94.2%). The survey of HD status is based on a specific questionnaire and covered 2108 patients (65%). At the end of 1999 there were 56 RRT centers in Yugoslavia treating 3939 patients: 3232 (82%) patients by HD, 248 (6.3%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 459 (11.7%) living with transplanted kidney. In a three year period, incidence of ESRD ranged from 108-128 pmp, point prevalence from 435-463 pmp and mortality rate from 20.7-17.9. Numerous refugee patients were treated over the last 10 years. Main causes of ESRD were glomerulonephritis (30%); Balkan nephropathy represented 11% and diabetic nephropathy 7% of all primary renal diseases. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were the most common causes of death of RRT patients. Most centers are overcrowded and HD machines are worn out. Mean Kt/V was 1.19+/-0.08, mean URR% 58.8+/-7.4. The shortage of drugs prevented adequate management: 83% of HD patients had hemoglobin level less than 100 g/L but only 10.3 -17.8% were treated with rHuEpo; 64.5% of patients had phosphate levels higher than 1.7 mmol/L but only 33.5% used phosphate binders; 47% of patients had hypertension despite the antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of hepatitis B remained unchanged (about 14%) in HD population during the last three years, but the prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients decreased (31-23%). In conclusion, there is a well developed dialysis service in Yugoslavia but insufficient conditions for adequate treatment.

  9. The impact of prenatal diagnosis on neural tube defect (NTD) pregnancy versus birth incidence in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Van Allen, Margot I; Boyle, Erin; Thiessen, Paul; McFadden, Deborah; Cochrane, Douglas; Chambers, G Keith; Langlois, Sylvie; Stathers, Patricia; Irwin, Beverly; Cairns, Elizabeth; MacLeod, Patrick; Delisle, Marie-France; Uh, Soo-Hong

    2006-01-01

    The birth incidence of neural tube defect (NTD) cases in British Columbia (B.C.), and elsewhere in North America, is reported to be declining. This decline is being attributed to folic acid (FA) supplementation and food fortification, but 2nd trimester prenatal screening of pregnancies for NTDs and other congenital anomalies has increased during this timeframe, as well. This descriptive, population-based study evaluates the impact of prenatal screening of NTD-affected pregnancies on (1) pregnancy outcome and (2) reporting of NTD births to the provincial Health Status Registry (B.C.H.S.R.); and it assesses (3) the use of periconceptional FA supplementation. NTD cases were ascertained from medical records of health centres providing care to families with NTD-affected pregnancies and newborns; and from NTD cases reported to the B.C.H.S.R. In 1997-1999, the B.C.H.S.R. published a NTD incidence of 0.77/1000. In this study, 151 NTD-affected pregnancies were identified, with an incidence of 1.16/1000. Partial Reporting of induced abortions in a NTD incidence 45.5% low than the actual incidence. Medical records were available for review on 144/151 pregnancies. Prenatal screening identified 86.1% (124/144) of NTD-affected pregnancies, with 72.6% (90/124) resulting in pregnancy termination, and 27.4% (34/124) continuing to term. Use of FA supplementation in the periconceptional period was recorded in 36.4% of pregnancies (39/107). Thus in B.C. the decline in the NTD incidence is due predominantly to pregnancy terminations following prenatal diagnosis, which reduces the NTD incidence by 60%, from 1.16/1000 to 0.47/1000. Continued efforts for primary and the option of secondary prevention of NTDs are recommended in order to improve newborn health in B.C. and elsewhere. These interventions need to be monitored, however, for optimal health care planning.

  10. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Mild La Nina Conditions Developing, November 12, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Unusually warm ocean temperatures off Asia and cool waters in the eastern and equatorial Pacific are signaling La Nina's mild return, according to the latest sea-surface heights observed by the joint NASA-French space agency's TOPEX/Poseidon satellite.

    Lower than normal sea-surface heights in the eastern North Pacific and abnormally high sea-surface heights in the western and mid-latitude Pacific are expected to drive storms coming out of the Pacific this winter, the mission data indicate. Those conditions will most likely steer storms north into the Pacific Northwest and keep the southwestern United States dryer than normal.

    The latest measurements, processed after a 10-day data cycle November 4-13 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, are available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino . Sea-surface height is shown relative to normal (green) and reveals cooler water(blue and purple) measuring between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches) lower than average in the eastern North Pacific, from the Gulf of Alaska to central Alaska, and along the equator.

    Unusual conditions persist in the western and mid-latitude Pacific Ocean as well, with higher than average sea-surface heights(red and white) of between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches). These areas of increased sea-surface height and unusually warm water were present last year, but the increase in height has surpassed last year's measurements.

    The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements over the last seven and a half years have provided scientists with a comprehensive record of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring changing sea-surface heights to within 4centimeters (1.5 inches) precision.

    The U.S./French mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  11. Twenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigny, Christophe; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Ruegg, Jean-Claude; Huchon, Philippe; Feigl, Kurt L.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Asfaw, Laike; Kanbari, Khaled

    2007-06-01

    Since most of Tadjoura-Asal rift system sits on dry land in the Afar depression near the triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia plates, it is an ideal natural laboratory for studying rifting processes. We analyze these processes in light of a time series of geodetic measurements from 1978 through 2003. The surveys used triangulation (1973), trilateration (1973, 1979, and 1981-1986), leveling (1973, 1979, 1984-1985, and 2000), and the Global Positioning System (GPS, in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003). A network of about 30 GPS sites covers the Republic of Djibouti. Additional points were also measured in Yemen and Ethiopia. Stations lying in the Danakil block have almost the same velocity as Arabian plate, indicating that opening near the southern tip of the Red Sea is almost totally accommodated in the Afar depression. Inside Djibouti, the Asal-Ghoubbet rift system accommodates 16 ± 1 mm/yr of opening perpendicular to the rift axis and exhibits a pronounced asymmetry with essentially null deformation on its southwestern side and significant deformation on its northeastern side. This rate, slightly higher than the large-scale Arabia-Somalia motion (13 ± 1 mm/yr), suggests transient variations associated with relaxation processes following the Asal-Ghoubbet seismovolcanic sequence of 1978. Inside the rift, the deformation pattern exhibits a clear two-dimensional pattern. Along the rift axis, the rate decreases to the northwest, suggesting propagation in the same direction. Perpendicular to the rift axis, the focus of the opening is clearly shifted to the northeast, relative to the topographic rift axis, in the "Petit Rift," a rift-in-rift structure, containing most of the active faults and the seismicity. Vertical motions, measured by differential leveling, show the same asymmetric pattern with a bulge of the northeastern shoulder. Although the inner floor of the rift is subsiding with respect to the shoulders, all sites within the

  12. Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for

  13. In situ observations of the atmospheres of terrestrial planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti

    2005-11-01

    Direct observations of planetary atmospheres are scarce and significantly more data are needed for the understanding of their behavior. The principal theme of this dissertation is the exploration of planetary atmospheres by means of in situ observations, focusing on investigations performed by payloads operating on the planetary surface. The contextual frame includes the whole palette of planetary exploration including definition of scientific objectives, observational strategies, scientific payload and data analysis, as well as development of technological solutions and simulation models for planetary missions. Thus approach also led to the initiation of the planetary missions MetNet and NetLander to Mars. This work contributes to both in situ atmospheric observations and atmospheric modeling, which are strongly intertwined. Modeling efforts require observations to give solid background and foundation for the simulations, and on the other hand, definition of observational strategies and instrumentation gets guidance from modeling efforts to optimize the use of mission resources, as is successfully demonstrated in this dissertation. The dissertation consists of Summary and nine original scientific publications. Publications 1 to 7 and Summary address the development of new atmospheric science payloads for exploration missions to Mars and Titan, a Saturnian moon. Actual and planned missions included are the Mars-96 Program and its Small Surface Stations and Penetrators during the years 1988-1996, PPI/HASI onboard the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and its moon Titan in 1989-2005, the MET-P payload onboard the Mars Polar Lander in 1997-1999, the BAROBIT instrument for the Beagle 2 lander in 2001-2003, the NetLander Mars Mission in 1997-2001 and the ongoing Mars MetNet Mission, started in 2000. Specifically, Publication 4 reviews the sensor qualification process that facilitated the use of new type of atmospheric sensors at Mars, while Publications 2 and 7, as

  14. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 ?? 2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of

  15. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations of O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Gubalówka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O3 concentrations in the Vychodna and Gubałówka sites reached 160 and 200 microg/m3 (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as microg/m3; and at 25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg, 1 microg O3/m3 = 0.51 ppb O3). These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal 03 distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon and lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-h period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O3 levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O3 levels with elevation occurred. Concentrations of O3 determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O3 concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O3 distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O3 on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the AOT40 indices for forest trees and natural vegetation. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the entire Carpathian range were typical

  16. Spatial and temporal multiyear sea ice distributions in the Arctic: A neural network analysis of SSM/I data, 1988-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Alpatsky, I.V.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Arctic multiyear sea ice concentration maps for January 1988-2001 were generated from SSM/I brightness temperatures (19H, 19V, and 37V) using modified multiple layer perceptron neural networks. Learning data for the neural networks were extracted from ice maps derived from Okean and ERS satellite imagery to capitalize on the stability of active radar multiyear ice signatures. Evaluations of three learning algorithms and several topologies indicated that networks constructed with error back propagation learning and 3-20-1 topology produced the most consistent and physically plausible results. Operational neural networks were developed specifically with January learning data, and then used to estimate daily multiyear ice concentrations from daily-averaged SSM/I brightness temperatures during January. Monthly mean maps were produced for analysis by averaging the respective daily estimates. The 14-year series of January multiyear ice distributions revealed dense and persistent cover in the central Arctic surrounded by expansive regions of highly fluctuating interannual cover. Estimates of total multiyear ice area by the neural network were intermediate to those of other passive microwave algorithms, but annual fluctuations and trends were similar among all algorithms. When compared to Radarsat estimates of multiyear ice concentration in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (1997-1999), average discrepancies were small (0.9-2.5%) and spatial coherency was reasonable, indicating the neural network's Okean and ERS learning data facilitated passive microwave inversion that emulated backscatter signatures. During 1988-2001, total January multiyear ice area declined at a significant linear rate of -54.3 x 103 km2/yr-1 (-1.4%/yr-1). The most persistent and extensive decline in multiyear ice concentration (-3.3%/yr-1) occurred in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. In autumn 1996, a large multiyear ice recruitment of over 106 km2 (mostly in the Siberian Arctic) fully replenished

  17. A proficiency testing scheme for aromatic hydrocarbons in air by the manual thermal desorption-GC method: a comparison of laboratory performance with the uncertainty requirements of the European Union Ambient Air Directive.

    PubMed

    Stacey, P R; Wright, M D

    2001-08-01

    The Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (WASP) is a proficiency testing scheme for the analysis of occupational hygiene and environmental air samples and is operated in the UK by the Health and Safety Laboratory. Since 1997, WASP has offered samples of benzene, toluene and m-xylene, at environmental levels on Tenax, and has about 35 laboratories participating, mostly from industry, local government and consultancy organisations in the UK. The results reported cover the first 10 rounds of the environmental analytes (1997-1999) and demonstrate the important role of proficiency testing in assessing the quality of laboratory performance. Estimates are obtained for within-laboratory precision and the total variability at each analyte level. The estimates of within-laboratory precision suggest that laboratories have more difficulty analysing toluene and m-xylene than benzene. Linear relationships for the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDT) with loading level are evident for the analytes at occupational levels. At environmental levels, the relationship between loading level and reproducibility is much less well defined. The standard deviation for the proficiency testing assessment for all three analytes at the environmental level is 14%, as derived from the benzene data. Expanded uncertainty estimates (k = 1.96), for the analysis of samples since the scheme started, are obtained from the average total variance, and are 27% for benzene, 39% for toluene and 36% for m-xylene. Although the linear trend of performance against round number was not significant at the 95% level of confidence (p = 0.23 for benzene, p = 0.3 for toluene and p = 0.32 for m-xylene), there was a general improvement in RSDT from 26-34% to about 8-13% 10 rounds later. Currently, for a laboratory to meet one of the data quality objectives in the Ambient Air Directive (indicative measurement of benzene, expanded uncertainty +/- 30% or less), it would have to achieve a level of

  18. Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation of species distributions: A case study of the swift fox in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Sovada, M.A.; Slivinski, C.C.; Johnson, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate maps of species distributions are essential tools for wildlife research and conservation. Unfortunately, biologists often are forced to rely on maps derived from observed occurrences recorded opportunistically during observation periods of variable length. Spurious inferences are likely to result because such maps are profoundly affected by the duration and intensity of observation and by methods used to delineate distributions, especially when detection is uncertain. We conducted a systematic survey of swift fox (Vulpes velox) distribution in western Kansas, USA, and used Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) image restoration to rectify these problems. During 1997-1999, we searched 355 townships (ca. 93 km2) 1-3 times each for an average cost of $7,315 per year and achieved a detection rate (probability of detecting swift foxes, if present, during a single search) of ?? = 0.69 (95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = [0.60, 0.77]). Our analysis produced an estimate of the underlying distribution, rather than a map of observed occurrences, that reflected the uncertainty associated with estimates of model parameters. To evaluate our results, we analyzed simulated data with similar properties. Results of our simulations suggest negligible bias and good precision when probabilities of detection on ???1 survey occasions (cumulative probabilities of detection) exceed 0.65. Although the use of MCMC image restoration has been limited by theoretical and computational complexities, alternatives do not possess the same advantages. Image models accommodate uncertain detection, do not require spatially independent data or a census of map units, and can be used to estimate species distributions directly from observations without relying on habitat covariates or parameters that must be estimated subjectively. These features facilitate economical surveys of large regions, the detection of temporal trends in distribution, and assessments of landscape-level relations between

  19. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Gerhard; Romero, Oscar; Merkel, Ute; Donner, Barbara; Iversen, Morten; Nowald, Nico; Ratmeyer, Volker; Ruhland, Götz; Klann, Marco; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-05-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analysed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales. High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production (mostly by diatoms) largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter and occasionally in summer/autumn enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on short timescales via the ballasting effect. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) might have weakened the relationships between fluxes and large-scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by incorporating dust into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all bulk fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost 1 year during the warm El Niño and high fluxes in the following cold La Niña phase. For decadal timescales, Bakun (1990) suggested an intensification of coastal upwelling

  20. Tripling of methamphetamine/amphetamine use among homeless and marginally housed persons, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Das-Douglas, Moupali; Colfax, Grant; Moss, Andrew R; Bangsberg, David R; Hahn, Judith A

    2008-03-01

    Methamphetamine/amphetamine (MA)-related morbidity and mortality has been increasing in the United States. MA use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and syringe-sharing practices. Homeless and marginalized housed persons (H/M) have high rates of substance use and mental health disorders. Little is known about trends of MA use among the H/M. The objective of this study was to quantify increases in MA use among H/M in San Francisco and to determine which demographic and behavioral subgroups have experienced the greatest increases in MA use. We conducted serial cross-sectional population-based studies in three waves: 1996-1997, 1999-2000, and 2003 and studied 2,348 H/M recruited at shelters and lunch lines. The main outcome was self-reported current (30-day) MA use. We found a tripling of current MA use among H/M persons from 1996 to 2003, with a sevenfold increase in smoked MA use. MA use doubled to tripled in most demographic and behavioral subgroups, whereas it quadrupled in those under age 35, and there was a fivefold increase among HIV-infected persons. The increase in MA use among H/M places a vulnerable population at additional increased risk for HIV infection and MA-use related morbidity and mortality. Among HIV-infected H/M, the increase in MA use has important public health implications for the development and secondary transmission of drug-resistant HIV caused by synergistic neurocognitive decline, poor adherence to HIV medications, and increased sexual risk behavior. Clinicians caring for H/M persons should inquire about MA use, refer interested MA users to MA dependence treatment programs and provide targeted HIV sexual risk reduction counseling. For HIV-infected H/M MA users, clinicians should closely monitor adherence to HIV or other chronic medications, to avoid unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to elucidate the most effective prevention and treatment for MA use and dependence among the H/M.

  1. Processes affecting the response of sulfate concentrations to clearcutting in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsch, D.L.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of disturbance on the biogeochemical processes that affect the sulfur (S) cycle in forested ecosystems are important, but have been studied in only a few locations. In this investigation, the mechanisms that caused large decreases in stream SO42- concentrations after clearcutting a small forested catchment in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York in 1997 were identified through an examination of pH and SO42- concentrations in soil solutions, bulk deposition of SO42- in throughfall collectors, adsorbed SO 42- concentrations in buried soil bags, and spatial variations in SO42- concentrations in shallow groundwater. The load of SO42- -S in stream water during the first 2 years after clearcutting was about 2 kg ha-1.year-1 less than the background value of 8-10 kg ha-1 year-1. The 10 and 19% decrease in net throughfall flux of SO42- -S during the 2nd and 3rd year after the clearcut, respectively, reflects reduced dry deposition of S after removal of the canopy, but this decrease accounts for 0 and 43%, respectively, of the decrease in SO42- load in streamflow for these 2 years. The pH of B-horizon soil water decreased from 4.5 to 4.0 within 8 months after the clearcut, and SO42- concentrations decreased from 45 ??mol L-1 to less than 20 ??mol L-1 during this time. A strong correlation between SO 42- concentrations and pH values (r2=0.71, p<0.01) in B-horizon soil water during the post-harvest period (1997-1999) reflects increased SO42- adsorption in response to soil acidification. Sulfate concentrations in groundwater from 21 spatially distributed wells were inversely related to a topographic index that served as a surrogate for soil wetness; thus, providing additional evidence that SO 42- adsorption was the dominant cause of the decreased SO42- concentrations in the stream after clearcutting. These results are consistent with those from a 1985 whole-tree harvest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire in which increased SO 42

  2. The Coupled Roles of Dust and Clouds in the Mars Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd

    2000-01-01

    During the period October 1997 to September 1999 we obtained and analyzed over 100 millimeter-wave observations of Mars atmospheric CO line absorption for atmospheric temperature profiles. These measurements extend through one full Mars year (solar longitudes L(sub S) of 190 deg in 1997 to 180 deg in 1999) and coincide with atmospheric temperature profile and dust column measurements front the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. A comparison of Mars atmospheric temperatures retrieved by these distinct methods provides the first opportunity to place the long-term (1982-1999) millimeter retrievals of Mars atmospheric temperatures within the context of contemporaneous, spatially mapped spacecraft, observations. Profile comparisons of 0-30 km altitude atmospheric temperatures retrieved with the two techniques agree typically to within the 5 K calibration accuracy of the millimeter observations. At the 0.5 mbar pressure level (approximately 25 km altitude) the 30N/30S average for TES infrared temperatures and the disk-averaged millimeter temperatures are also well correlated in their seasonal and dust-storm-related variations over the 1997-1999 period. This period includes the Noachis Terra regional dust storm, which led to very abrupt heating (approximately 15 K at 0.5 mbar) of the global Mars atmosphere at L(sub S)=224 deg in 1997 [Christensen et al., 1998; Conrath et al., this issue; Smith et al., this issue]. Much colder (10-20 K) global atmospheric temperatures were observed during the 1997 versus 1977 perihelion periods (L(sub S)=200 deg-330 deg), consistent with the much (2 to 8 times) lower global dust loading of the atmosphere during the 1997 perihelion dust storm season versus the Viking period of the 1977a,b storms. The 1998-1999 Mars atmosphere revealed by both the millimeter and TES observations is also 10-15 K colder than presented by the Viking climatology during the aphelion season (L(sub S

  3. Manchester Spring Chinook Broodstock Project : Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Wastel, Michael R.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2000-11-01

    In spring 1995 the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) initiated captive broodstocks as part of conservation efforts for ESA-listed stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The need for this captive broodstock strategy was identified as critical in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Proposed Recovery Plan for Snake River Salmon. These captive broodstock programs are being coordinated by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Chinook Salmon Captive Propagation Technical Oversight Committee (CSCPTOC). Oregon's Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstock program currently focuses on three stocks captured as juveniles from the Grande Ronde River Basin: the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek, and the Lostine River. Idaho's Snake River program includes three stocks captured as eggs and juveniles from the Salmon River Basin: the Lemhi River, East Fork Salmon River, and West Fork Yankee Fork. The majority of captive fish from each stock of the Grande Ronde Basin will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the ODFW Bonneville Hatchery. A minority of the Salmon River Basin stocks will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the IDFG Eagle Hatchery. However, the IDFG and ODFW requested that a portion of each group also be reared in protective culture in seawater. In August 1996, NMFS began a BPA funded project (Project 96-067-00) to rear Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstocks in seawater at the NMFS Manchester Research Station. During 1997-1999, facilities modifications were undertaken at Manchester to provide secure facilities for rearing of these ESA-listed fish. This included construction of a building housing a total of twenty 6.1-m diameter fiberglass rearing tanks, upgrade of the Manchester salt water pumping and filtration/sterilization systems to a total capacity of 5,670 L/min (1,500 gpm), and installation

  4. Observations on permafrost ground thermal regimes from Antarctica and the Italian Alps, and their relevance to global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, Guglielmin

    2004-01-01

    Active-layer monitoring and the permafrost thermal regime are key indicators of climate change. The results of 3 years (1997-1999) of active-layer monitoring at one high-mountain site (La Foppa, 46°28'42″N; 10°11'18″E, 2670 m a.s.l.) and at one Antarctic site (Boulder Clay, 74°44'45″S; 164°01'17″E, 205 m a.s.l) are presented. The initial analysis of a thermal profile in a borehole (100.3 m deep) within mountain permafrost at Stelvio (3000 m a.s.l., 46°30'59″N; 10°28'35″E) is also presented. At the alpine site, the active-layer thickness variations (between 193 and 229 cm) relate to both the snow cover and to the air temperature changes. By contrast, at the Antarctic site, there is a strong direct linkage only between air temperature fluctuations and active-layer variations. At the alpine (La Foppa) site, the relationship between climate and active-layer thickness is complicated by thermal offset that is almost negligible at both the Stelvio and Antarctic sites. The permafrost temperature profile at Stelvio site contains a climate signal suitable for paleoclimate reconstruction. The permafrost at this site has a mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) of -1.9 °C (during 1998/1999), an active layer of about 2.5 m thick and a total thickness of ˜200 m. Analysis of the MAGST history, obtained by applying a simple heat conduction one-dimensional model, revealed the occurrence of a cold period from 1820 to 1940 followed by a warming period until 1978. Since the beginning of the 1980s, temperature dropped (less than 2 °C) until the middle 1990s, when a new period of warming started. All these climatic changes fit well with the glacial fluctuations in the area and with other paleoclimatic information derived from different proxy data.

  5. On the association between high temperature and mortality in warm climates.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Abbas; Tewtel-Salem, Mylene

    2005-05-01

    We conducted a time-series analysis of 1997-1999 data records of air temperature and all-cause mortality in Greater Beirut, using bi-linear Poisson auto-regressive models, and published our findings in the Science of the Total Environment [El-Zein, A., Tewtel-Salem, M., Nehme, G., 2004. A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut. Sci. Total Environ. 330, 71-80]. We compared our results to those of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87.], who subsequently reported that their original results were inaccurate and published new results [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87; Curriero, F.C., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., 2003. Letter to the Editor re. On the Use of Generalized Additive Models in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution and Health" and "Temperature and Mortality in 11 Cities of the Eastern United States". Am. J. Epidemiol. 158(1) 93-94.]. In this letter, we report two changes in the interpretation of our findings as a result of the change in the results of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87]. Their newly-reported results reinforce our conclusion that heat-related mortality can be a significant public health issue even in temperate to warm climates. However, our findings raise a question concerning the ability of socioeconomic indicators to explain differences in vulnerability to heat between high-income and low-income countries.

  6. Is the ``IR Coincidence'' Just That?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Jörn; Heinz, Sebastian; Pooley, Guy; Pottschmidt, Katja; Corbel, Stephane

    2005-06-01

    Previous work by Motch et al. suggested that in the low/hard state of GX 339-4 the soft X-ray power law extrapolated backward in energy agrees with the IR flux level. Corbel & Fender later showed that the typical hard-state radio power law extrapolated forward in energy meets the backward-extrapolated X-ray power law at an IR spectral break, which was explicitly observed twice in GX 339-4. This IR coincidence has been cited as further evidence that synchrotron radiation from a jet might make a significant contribution to the observed X-rays in hard-state black hole systems. We quantitatively explore this hypothesis with a series of simultaneous radio/X-ray observations of GX 339-4, taken during its 1997, 1999, and 2002 hard states. We fit these spectra, in detector space, with a simple, but remarkably successful, doubly broken power-law model that indeed requires an IR spectral break. For these observations, the break position and the integrated radio/IR flux have stronger dependences upon the X-ray flux than the simplest jet model predictions. If one allows for a softening of the X-ray power law with increasing flux, then the jet model can agree with the observed correlation. We also find evidence that the radio flux-X-ray flux correlation previously observed in the 1997 and 1999 GX 339-4 hard states shows a parallel track for the 2002 hard state. The slope of the 2002 correlation is consistent with observations taken in prior hard states; however, the radio amplitude is reduced. We then examine the radio flux-X-ray flux correlation in Cyg X-1 through the use of 15 GHz radio data obtained with the Ryle radio telescope and Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data from the All-Sky Monitor and pointed observations. We again find evidence of parallel tracks, and here they are associated with ``failed transitions,'' or the beginning of a transition, to the soft state. We also find that for Cyg X-1 the radio flux is more fundamentally correlated with the hard, rather than the

  7. Is the `IR Coincidence' Just That?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.

    2005-09-01

    Previous work by Motch (1985) suggested that in the low/hard state of GX 339-4 the soft X-ray power-law extrapolated backward in energy agrees with the IR flux level. Corbel & Fender (2002) later showed that the typical hard state radio power-law extrapolated forward in energy meets the backward extrapolated X-ray power-law at an IR spectral break, which was explicitly observed twice in GX 339-4. This `IR coincidence' has been cited as further evidence that synchrotron radiation from a jet might make a significant contribution to the observed X-rays in hard state black hole systems. We quantitatively explore this hypothesis with a series of simultaneous radio/X-ray observations of GX 339-4, taken during its 1997, 1999, and 2002 hard states. We fit these spectra, in detector space, with a simple, but remarkably successful, doubly broken power-law model that indeed requires an IR spectral break. For these observations, the break position and the integrated radio/IR flux have stronger dependences upon the X-ray flux than the simplest jet model predictions. If one allows for a softening of the X-ray power law with increasing flux, then the jet model can agree with the observed correlation. We also find evidence that the radio flux/X-ray flux correlation previously observed in the 1997 and 1999 GX 339-4 hard states shows a `parallel track' for the 2002 hard state. The slope of the 2002 correlation is consistent with observations taken in prior hard states; however, the radio amplitude is reduced. We then examine the radio flux/X-ray flux correlation in Cyg X-1 through the use of 15 GHz radio data, obtained with the Ryle radio telescope, and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data, from the All Sky Monitor and pointed observations. We again find evidence of `parallel tracks', and here they are associated with `failed transitions' to, or the beginning of a transition to, the soft state. We also find that for Cyg X-1 the radio flux is more fundamentally correlated with the hard

  8. Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1999: An Assessment Report. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    This document is issued in response to the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, Public Law 101-549, which mandates that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other key agencies submit triennial reports to the Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency. NASA specifically is charged with the responsibility of reporting on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part l of this report summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program for the period of 1997-1999. Part 2 (this document) is a compilation of several scientific assessments, reviews, and summaries. Section B (Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998), Section C (a summary of the 1998 Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate, SPARC, ozone trends report), Section D (the policymakers summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere), and Section E (the executive summary of the NASA Assessment of the Effects of High-Speed Aircraft in the Stratosphere: 1998) are summaries of the most recent assessments of our current understanding of the chemical composition and the physical structure of the stratosphere, with particular emphasis on how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. Section F (the executive summary of NASA's Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements, M&M 11) and Section G (the end-of-mission statement for the Photochemistry of ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer, POLARIS, campaign) describe the scientific results for a comprehensive modeling intercomparison exercise and an aircraft and balloon measurement campaign, respectively. Section H (Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling: Update to Evaluation Number 12 of the NASA

  9. Complex seismic anisotropy at the border of a very low velocity province at the base of the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wen, Lianxing

    2007-09-01

    We constrain the anisotropy associated with a very low velocity province (VLVP) at the base of the Earth's mantle using the SKS and SKKS waves sampling the region. Our selected high-quality data sets consist of 415 SKS and 111 SKKS waveforms for 127 deep earthquakes recorded at distances between 90° and 150° by the seismic stations in three temporary broadband PASSCAL seismic arrays: the Kaapvaal seismic array (1997-1999), the Tanzania seismic array (1994-1995), and the Ethiopia/Kenya seismic array (1999-2001), as well as the permanent stations in the Global Seismographic Network. These seismic data provide good sampling coverage for some portion of the VLVP and its surrounding areas. Our results show, when the SKS or SKKS phases sample the regions away from the border of the VLVP (inside or outside the VLVP), the apparent splitting parameters inferred from the SKS phases are consistent with those inferred from the SKKS phases, and their variations strongly correlate with seismic stations but not with the exit points at the core-mantle boundary of these seismic phases. However, when the SKS or SKKS phases sample near the border of the VLVP, the apparent splitting parameters inferred from the SKS phases and SKKS phases are different, and their variations no longer correlate with seismic stations. These features indicate that part of the shear wave splitting for the seismic data sampling the border of the VLVP has to originate from deep mantle, most likely near the border of the VLVP. We assume that the anisotropy in the shallow mantle beneath seismic stations has a horizontal hexagonal symmetry axis and infer the splitting parameters associated with the shallow anisotropy beneath the seismic stations using the SKS and SKKS waveforms for the seismic data sampling the regions away from the border of the VLVP. We then obtain the splitting parameters associated with the lowermost mantle anisotropy using the SKS and SKKS waveforms corrected for the inferred shallow

  10. Identification and quantification of microcystins from a Nostoc muscorum bloom occurring in Oukaïmeden River (High-Atlas mountains of Marrakech, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Oudra, B; Dadi-El Andaloussi, M; Vasconcelos, V M

    2009-02-01

    Health risks generated by cyanobacterial toxins in drinking and recreational waters are clearly recognised. During the monitoring programme on the distribution of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in various water bodies including reservoirs, ponds and rivers of Morocco, many toxigenic cyanobacteria bloom-forming species have been identified. Particular attention was given to the investigation of the toxicology of a benthic Nostoc species-Nostoc muscorum Ag. (cyanobacteria, Nostocales, Nostocaceae)-that was found dominant in Oukaïmeden river located at 2,600 m of altitude in High-Atlas mountains of Marrakech. The massive growth of the mat-forming N. muscorum occurred yearly during the period of March-October, when the water temperature was above 10 degrees C. During 1997-1999, samples were collected from either floating or benthic mats. Hepatotoxicity associated to gastrointestinal (diarrhoea) intoxication symptoms was confirmed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in mice of N. muscorum thallus extract. The survival time was estimated to be from 2-5 h, and the calculated i.p. LD(50) in mice ranged from 15 to 125 mg kg(-1) body weight. The application of the high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection confirmed the occurrence of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and three others microcystin variants from the methanolic Nostoc extract. The MC-LR represented a proportion of 39% of the total microcystin content however, the total concentration equivalents-eq-of MC-LR was estimated to be 139 microg MC-LR eq per gram dry weight. The existence of a benthic microcystin-producing N. muscorum strain under the particular environmental conditions of Oukaïmeden region may be a potential human health hazard and the ecological harmful effects of these cyanobacterial toxins need to be assessed. This paper constitutes the first report of the occurrence of a toxic benthic Nostoc in Morocco. So, the benthic species should be considered during monitoring of toxic

  11. Interannual correlations between sea surface temperature and concentration of chlorophyll pigment off Punta Eugenia, Baja California, during different remote forcing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Lluch-Cota, S. E.; Lluch-Cota, D. B.; Gutiérrez-de-Velasco, G.

    2014-05-01

    Interannual correlation between satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and surface chlorophyll a (Chl a) are examined in the coastal upwelling zone off Punta Eugenia on the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula, an area than has been identified as having intense biological productivity and oceanographic transition between midlatitude and tropical ocean conditions. We used empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis separately and jointly on the two fields from 1997 through 2007, a time period dominated by different remote forcing: ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) conditions (weak, moderate and strong) and the largest intrusion of subarctic water reported in the last 50 years. Coastal upwelling index anomalies (CUI) and the multivariate ENSO index (MEI) were used to identify the influence of local (wind stress) and remote (ENSO) forcing over the interannual variability of both variables. The spatial pattern of the individual EOF1 analysis showed the greater variability of SST and Chl a offshore, their corresponding amplitude time series presented the highest peaks during the strong 1997-2000 El Niño-La Niña cycles and during the 2002-2004 period associated to the intrusion of subarctic water. The MEI is well correlated with the individual SST principal component (R ≈ 0.67, P < 0.05) and poorly with the individual Chl a principal component (R = -0.13). The joint EOF1 and the SST-Chl a correlation patterns show the area where both variables covary tightly; a band near the coast where the largest correlations occurred (| R | > 0.4) mainly regulated by ENSO cycles. This was spatially revealed when we calculated the homogeneous correlations for the 1997-1999 El Niño-La Niña period and during the 2002-2004 period, the intrusion of subarctic water period. Both, SST and Chl a showed higher coupling and two distinct physical-biological responses: on average ENSO influence was observed clearly along the coast mostly in SST, while the subarctic water

  12. Observations of the Magnitude Dependence of Pn/Lg Ratios from Underground Explosions in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Patton, H. J.; Kim, W.

    2001-12-01

    Xie and Patton (1999, JGR) developed scaling relationships for seismic moment M0 and corner frequency fc determined from Pn and Lg spectra for many explosions and earthquakes located in central Asia. Scaling relationships were found to depend on the phase and the source type. Pn/Lg ratios ratios are predicted to increase significantly in a frequency range determined by Lg fc (lower limit) and Pn fc (upper limit). The increase slows down or stops outside this frequency range, and the range shifts to higher frequency with decreasing event magnitude. As a result, ratios from smaller events reach maxima at higher frequencies than do larger events. This predicted magnitude-dependent frequency shift of Pn/Lg ratios has been marked by controversy over whether direct observations support it or not. Here we summarize results from direct observations of Pn/Lg spectral ratios for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor explosions. These observations include (1) ratios from Lop Nor explosions between 1992-1996 recorded on multiple broad-band stations, (2) ratios from Semipalatinsk explosions between 1987-1989 recorded on the Chinese station WMQ, (3) ratios from chemical explosions at Semipalatinsk between 1997-1999 recorded on broad-band Kazakhstan network stations, and (4) ratios from Semipalatinsk explosions between 1987-1989 from the Borovoye Digital Seismogram Archive (Kim et al., 2001). Pn/Lg ratios are stacked in three event populations with mb values of ~ 6.0, 5.0 and 4.0, respectively. Additionally, Pn/Lg ratios are available from multiple stations from a mb=6.6 explosion. The stacked ratios are compared with one another for near-repeated paths or for paths for which corrections are known based on path Q-inversions. All of the stacked Pn/Lg ratios show magnitude-dependence and statistically support the predicted magnitude-dependent frequency shift. The observations also indicate more complexity in Pn/Lg ratios from the mb ~ 4 population, which is largely made up of recent chemical

  13. Superficial and subsuperficial features in the Karst Region of Cordisburgo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. The region of Cordisburgo, in the State of Minas Gerais, is developed on the metasediments of the Bambui Group, Lagoa do Jacare Formation (Upper Proterozoic). Its karst is considered to be one of the most significant regions in Minas Gerais State, although less prominent than the features of the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. The region of Cordisburgo, however, presents excellent examples of karst geomorphology. It is distinguished for both the magnificent potential of its endokarst and the important archaeological, paleontological, historical and tourist sites it offers. The region is also of chief historical importance: it is where Paleontology, Archaeology and Speleology were developed together for the first time in the Americas. This was done by the Danish naturalist Peter W. Lund (1801-1880). Like other karst scenarios, the exokarst evolved from the primitive endokarst favoring the development of expressive outcrops, dolines, uvalas and poljes. The third largest cave of the State of Minas Gerais is located in Cordisburgo with 4,620 meters. Other 15 caves, some of them which were studied by Lund in the 19th century, complete the intricate endokarst in this region. The importance of the cave Lapa Nova do Maquiné is reinforced by the State Decree n° 44120 (2005), which creates the Peter Lund Natural Monument as a Conservation Unit. It was created in order to protect the historical-scientific site of the Maquiné Cave and its surroundings. There is little research on the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, especially regarding the amount of CaCO3in comparison to the phyllites, quartz veins, etc. It is possible that pure limestone sites associated to non-carbonatic layers can be found there. Studies about the magnitude and the direction of underground water are still insufficient

  14. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - La Nina Conditions Likely to Prevail, October 10, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    the Southwest, the data show. 'Clearly, these unusual conditions, which have persisted for 2 1/2 years, will not be returning to normal any time soon,' Patzert said. 'This climate imbalance is big and we're definitely going through a decade of wild climatic behavior. But when we look back at the climate record over the past century, we've seen behavior like this before.'

    The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring the changing sea-surface height with unprecedented precision.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  15. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  16. Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L., Jr.; Stabeno, Phyllis; Walters, Gary; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Brodeur, Richard D.; Napp, Jeffery M.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2002-12-01

    We propose a new hypothesis, the Oscillating Control Hypothesis (OCH), which predicts that pelagic ecosystem function in the southeastern Bering Sea will alternate between primarily bottom-up control in cold regimes and primarily top-down control in warm regimes. The timing of spring primary production is determined predominately by the timing of ice retreat. Late ice retreat (late March or later) leads to an early, ice-associated bloom in cold water (e.g., 1995, 1997, 1999), whereas no ice, or early ice retreat before mid-March, leads to an open-water bloom in May or June in warm water (e.g., 1996, 1998, 2000). Zooplankton populations are not closely coupled to the spring bloom, but are sensitive to water temperature. In years when the spring bloom occurs in cold water, low temperatures limit the production of zooplankton, the survival of larval/juvenile fish, and their recruitment into the populations of species of large piscivorous fish, such as walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) and arrowtooth flounder ( Atheresthes stomias). When continued over decadal scales, this will lead to bottom-up limitation and a decreased biomass of piscivorous fish. Alternatively, in periods when the bloom occurs in warm water, zooplankton populations should grow rapidly, providing plentiful prey for larval and juvenile fish. Abundant zooplankton will support strong recruitment of fish and will lead to abundant predatory fish that control forage fish, including, in the case of pollock, their own juveniles. Piscivorous marine birds and pinnipeds may achieve higher production of young and survival in cold regimes, when there is less competition from large piscivorous fish for cold-water forage fish such as capelin ( Mallotus villosus). Piscivorous seabirds and pinnipeds also may be expected to have high productivity in periods of transition from cold regimes to warm regimes, when young of large predatory species of fish are numerous enough to

  17. Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, Andrew Allan

    Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change

  18. Impact of peatland restoration on nutrient and carbon leaching from contrasting sites in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasander, Harri; Sallantaus, Tapani; Koskinen, Markku

    2010-05-01

    Impacts of peatland restoration on nutrient and carbon leaching from contrasting sites in southern Finland Tapani Sallantaus1, Markku Koskinen2, Harri Vasander2 1)Finnish Environment Institute, Biodiversity unit, Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland, tapani.sallantaus@ymparisto.fi 2)Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland, markku.koskinen@helsinki.fi, harri.vasander@helsinki.fi Less than 20 % of the original mire area of southern Finland is still in natural state. Even many peatlands in today's nature conservation areas had been partly or totally drained before conservation. Until now, about 15000 ha of peatlands have been restored in conservation areas. Here we present data concerning changes in leaching due to restoration in two contrasting areas in southern Finland. The peatlands in Seitseminen have originally been fairly open, growing stunted pine, and unfertile, either bogs or poor fens. The responses of tree stand to drainage in the 1960s were moderate, and the tree stand before restoration was about 50 m3/ha, on average. The trees were partly harvested before filling in the ditches mainly in the years 1997-1999 . The peatlands of Nuuksio are much more fertile than those in Seitseminen, and had greatly responded to drainage, which took place already in the 1930s and 1950s. The tree stand consisted mainly of spruce and exceeded 300 m3/ha in large part of the area. The ditches were dammed in the autumn 2001 and the tree stand was left standing. Runoff water quality was monitored in three basins in both areas. To obtain the leaching rates, we used simulated runoff data obtained from the Finnish Environment Institute, Hydrological Services Division. The responses in leaching were in the same direction in both cases. However, especially when calculated per restored hectare (Table 1), the responses were much stronger in the more fertile areas of Nuuksio for organic carbon and nitrogen, but not so much

  19. [DNA-containing polygonal structures detected in somatic nuclei of Bursaria ovata during preparation to cryptobiosis].

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, G I; Samoshkin, A A

    2002-01-01

    earlier assumption (Sergejeva et al., 1987; Sergejeva, Bobyleva, 1988) that the Ma chromatin of Bursaria may undergo crystallization during encystment, i.e. in the state of preparation to cryptobiosis. The present data enable us first to suggest that the looping rosette-like chromatin may be transformed into crystal-like structures ("exotic liquid crystal structures") by means of a peculiar loop packing within the limits of an individual resette (Fig. 2-4), these structural transformations taking place without any visible loop destruction. In this paper, we first describe new morphological types of polygonal plates, differing from those earlier reported elsewhere for the Ma of Bursaria (Sergejeva, Bobylova, 1988), and also from the plates earlier described in studies on liquid crystals both in vivo and in vitro (see: Gianonni et al., 1969; Lerman, 1974; Livolant, 1991: Leforestier et al., 1993, 1997, 1999). The technical approaches used in the present work enabled us to obtain, for the first time, a direct evidence of the presence of DNA in the crystallized structures of somatic nuclei of ciliates during their preparation to cryptobiosis, the DNA-containing polygonal structures being highly morphologically diverse. Further studies into the reasons of this diversity are needed.

  20. Formation of Nanophase Iron in Lunar Soil Simulant for Use in ISRU Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Hill, Eddy; Day, James D. M.

    2005-01-01

    For the prospective return of humans to the Moon and the extensive amount of premonitory studies necessary, large quantities of lunar soil simulants are required, for a myriad of purposes from construction/engineering purposes all the way to medical testing of its effects from ingestion by humans. And there is only a limited and precious quantity of lunar soil available on Earth (i.e., Apollo soils) - therefore, the immediate need for lunar soil simulants. Since the Apollo era, there have been several simulants; of these JSC-1 (Johnson Space Center) and MLS-1 (Minnesota Lunar Simulant) have been the most widely used. JSC-1 was produced from glassy volcanic tuff in order to approximate lunar soil geotechnical properties; whereas, MLS-1 approximates the chemistry of Apollo 11 high-Ti soil, 10084. Stocks of both simulants are depleted, but JSC-1 has recently gone back into production. The lunar soil simulant workshop, held at Marshall Space Flight Center in January 2005, identified the need to make new simulants for the special properties of lunar soil, such as nanophase iron (np-Fe(sup 0). Hill et al. (2005, this volume) showed the important role of microscale Fe(sup 0) in microwave processing of the lunar soil simulants JSC-1 and MLS-1. Lunar soil is formed by space weathering of lunar rocks (e.g., micrometeorite impact, cosmic particle bombardment). Glass generated during micrometeorite impact cements rock and mineral fragments together to form aggregates called agglutinates, and also produces vapor that is deposited and coats soil grains. Taylor et al. (2001) showed that the relative amount of impact glass in lunar soil increases with decreasing grain size and is the most abundant component in lunar dust (less than 20 micrometer fraction). Notably, the magnetic susceptibility of lunar soil also increases with the decreasing grain size, as a function of the amount of nanophase-sized Fe(sup 0) in impact-melt generated glass. Keller et al. (1997, 1999) also

  1. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  2. Wind-wave coupling in the atmospheric boundary layer over a reservoir: field measurements and verification of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted at the Gorky Reservoir to test a quasi-linear model of the atmospheric boundary layer [1]. In the course of the experiment we simultaneously measured profiles of wind speed and surface wave spectra using instruments placed on the Froude buoy, which measures the following parameters: i) the module and the direction of the wind speed using ultrasonic wind sensor WindSonic Gill instruments, located on the 4 - levels from 0.1 x 5 m long; ii) profile of the surface waves with 3-channel string wave-gauge with a base of 5 cm, iii) the temperature of the water and air with a resistive sensor. From the measured profiles of wind speed, we calculated basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer: the friction velocity u*, the wind speed at the standard height of 10 m U10 and the drag coefficient CD. Data on CD(U10), obtained at the Gorky Reservoir, were compared with similar data obtained on Lake George in Australia during the Australian Shallow Water Experiment (AUSWEX) conducted in 1997 - 1999 [2,3]. A good agreement was obtained between measured data at two different on the parameters of inland waters: deep Gorky reservoir and shallow Lake George.To elucidate the reasons for this coincidence of the drag coefficients under strongly different conditions an analysis of surface waves was conducted.Measurements have shown that in both water bodies the surface wave spectra have almost the same asymptotics (spatial spectrum - k-3, the frequency spectrum -5), corresponding to the Phillips saturation spectrum.These spectra are typically observed for the steep surface waves, for which the basic dissipation mechanism is wave breaking. The similarity of the short-wave parts of the spectra can be regarded as a probable cause of coincidence of dependency of drag coefficient of the water surface on wind speed. Quantitative verification of this hypothesis was carried out in the framework of quasi-linear model of the wind

  3. Deformation near the Casa Diablo geothermal well field and related processes Long Valley caldera, Eastern California, 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, J.F.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Wilkinson, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    local leveling networks spanning the well field and the bounding graben were analyzed for several 2-year periods (1993-1995, 1995-1997, and 1997-1999). Annual rates of change across the normal faults bounding the graben have steadily decreased for each 2-year period between 1993 and 1999, reflecting the slowing decline in geothermal reservoir pressure. Horizontal control data from a two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) defined the lateral extent of subsidence at Casa Diablo. The EDM and leveling data elucidate the localized effect of the shallow source of subsidence and the broader effect of the deeper magmatic inflation source. Data from bench marks common to both the vertical and the horizontal control networks were used to assess the effect of subsidence on the EDM base station (CASA). Modeling of geodetic data collected during periods of little or no magmatic inflation indicated that the CASA two-color EDM station is being drawn toward the well field at a rate of 3-5 mm/yr. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inventory of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.; Poole, Forrest G.

    2002-01-01

    This compilation is an inventory of all known outcrops of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico. We have not attempted an interpretation of the regional stratigraphic or structural setting of the strata. Brief summaries of the stratigraphic setting of the Sonora rocks are given in Poole and Hayes (1971), Rangin (1978), Stewart and others (1984, 1990), and Poole and Madrid (1986; 1988b). More specific information on the setting of strata of specific ages are given by Stewart and others (2002) for the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian; by Poole and others (1995a) for Ordovician shelf strata; by Poole and others (1995b) for Ordovician deep-water openbasin strata; by Poole and others (1997, 1998, 2000a) for Silurian strata; and by Poole and others (2000a) for Mississippian strata. Other reports that discuss regional aspects of Paleozoic stratigraphy include López-Ramos (1982), Peiffer-Rangin, (1979, 1988), Pérez-Ramos (1992), and Stewart and others (1997, 1999a). Structurally, the major Paleozoic feature of Sonora is the Sonora allochthon, consisting of deep-water (eugeoclinal) strata emplaced in the Permian over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits (Poole and others, 1995a,b; Poole and Perry, 1997; 1998). The emplacement structure is generally considered to be a major Permian continental margin thrust fault that emplaced the deep-water rocks northward over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits. An alternate interpretation has been presented by Stewart and others (2002). He proposed that the emplacement of the Sonora allochthon was along a major Permian transpressional structure that was primarily a strike-slip fault with only a minor thrust component . The Mojave-Sonora megashear has been proposed to disrupt Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic trends in Sonora. This feature is a hypothetical, left-lateral, northwest-striking fault extending across northern Sonora and the southwestern United States (Silver and Anderson, 1974; Anderson and Schmidt, 1983). It is proposed to have

  5. An observational and modeling study of the regional impacts of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Radley M.

    Climate variability has large impacts on humans and their agricultural systems. Farmers are at the center of this agricultural network, but it is often agricultural planners---regional planners, extension agents, commodity groups and cooperatives---that translate climate information for users. Global climate models (GCMs) are a leading tool for understanding and predicting climate and climate change. Armed with climate projections and forecasts, agricultural planners adapt their decision-making to optimize outcomes. This thesis explores what GCMs can, and cannot, tell us about climate variability and change at regional scales. The question is important, since high-quality regional climate projections could assist farmers and regional planners in key management decisions, contributing to better agricultural outcomes. To answer these questions, climate variability and its regional impacts are explored in observations and models for the current and future climate. The goals are to identify impacts of observed variability, assess model simulation of variability, and explore how climate variability and its impacts may change under enhanced greenhouse warming. Chapter One explores how well Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric models, forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SST), simulate climatology and large-scale features during the exceptionally strong 1997--1999 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Reasonable performance in this 'proof of concept' test is considered a minimum requirement for further study of variability in models. All model versions produce appropriate local changes with ENSO, indicating that with correct ocean temperatures these versions are capable of simulating the large-scale effects of ENSO around the globe. A high vertical resolution model (VHR) provides the best simulation. Evidence is also presented that SST anomalies outside the tropical Pacific may play a key role in generating remote teleconnections even

  6. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-02-01

    Lower Granite Dam. A ''D'' equal to one indicates that there is no difference in survival rate after hydrosystem passage, while a ''D'' less than one indicates that transported smolts die at a greater rate after release, than smolts that have migrated through the hydrosystem. While the relative survival rates of transported and in-river migrants are important, the SARs must be also be sufficient to allow the salmon to persist and recover (Mundy et al. 1994). Decreased SARs could result from delayed hydrosystem mortality for either transported or in-river migrants, or both. Major objectives of CSS include: (1) development of a long-term index of transport SAR to in-river SAR for Snake River hatchery spring and summer chinook smolts measured at Lower Granite Dam; (2) develop a long-term index of survival rates from release of smolts at Snake River hatcheries to return of adults to the hatcheries; (3) compute and compare the overall SARs for selected upriver and downriver spring and summer chinook hatcheries; (4) begin a time series of SARs for use in hypothesis testing and in the regional long-term monitoring and evaluation program; (5) evaluate growth patterns of transported and in-river migrating smolts, and of upriver and downriver stocks. Primary CSS focus in this report for the 1997-1999 migration years included hatchery chinook tasks for objectives 1, 4 and 5.

  7. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collie, J.S.; Hermsen, J.M.; Valentine, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  8. Crustal structure beneath southern Africa: insight into how tectonic events affect the Mohorovičić discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Porter, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    The long and complex history of southern Africa makes it a geological nexus for understanding how crust forms, evolves and survives plate tectonic processes over billions of years. The goal of this study is to characterize the crustal thickness, composition, and Moho impedance contrasts across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and surrounding mobile belts, which range in age from Archean to Palaeozoic. We use data gathered from the 1997-1999 Southern Africa Seismic Experiment, the Africa Array (2006-2007) and the Global Seismographic Network (1993-2009) to generate P-wave receiver function Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacks across the region in order to provide a continuous 3-D image of crustal variations throughout southern Africa. We observe thickened crust associated with mobile belts and the intrusion of the Bushveld Complex relative to the less-deformed cratons. The southern Kaapvaal and eastern Zimbabwe Cratons have a well-defined Moho with an average depth of ˜34 km and Vp/Vs of ˜1.73, indicative of felsic average crustal composition. We explain the felsic composition observed in the Kaapvaal Craton in the context of significant crustal modification related to the deposition of the Ventersdorp lavas. We find that the Bushveld Province, the site of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion, has a thick (>40 km) crust with a Vp/Vs > 1.8, indicative of a mafic average crustal composition. The magnitude of Moho conversions beneath the Bushveld Province is variable, with the lowest amplitude conversion appearing between the eastern and western limbs of the Bushveld Complex, indicative of mafic underplating beneath the region. In the Limpopo Belt and western Zimbabwe Craton, we observe low amplitude Moho conversions beneath the Okavango Dyke Swarm, and attribute this to the reworking of the crust by mafic underplating and intrusion during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwanaland. The Namaqua-Natal event thickened the crust and created a gradational

  9. Thermal expansion behavior of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G.; Harlov, D.; Gottschalk, M.; Hudacek, W.; Wildermuth, S.

    2009-04-01

    the fluor-chlorapatite series is little affected by composition. This contrasts with relationships in alkali feldspars (Hovis and coworkers, 1997, 1999), which show that K-rich feldspars expand less than Na-rich feldspars. It contrasts also with the behavior of additional AlSi3 feldspars (Hovis and others, 2008), in which room-temperature chemical expansion limits the degree to which the structure can expand thermally. It also differs from expansion in kalsilite crystalline solutions (Hovis and coworkers, 2003, 2006), which depends on K:Na ratio. Among the minerals we have studied previously, only nepheline displays expansion behavior similar to that of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions in that thermal expansion shows little sensitivity to composition. In AlSi3 feldspars and kalsilite one observes a single crystallographically distinct alkali site and a dominating SiO4 tetrahedral framework that limits the vibrational characteristics of the alkali-site occupant(s). Fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions have no such structural framework. Moreover, the anion site in the latter changes structural character in the transition from fluorapatite to chlorapatite. This flexibility apparently allows anion vibrational characteristics, coupled with those of Ca polyhedral components, to change continuously and in a compensating manner across the series. The thermal expansion data also imply that volumes of F-Cl mixing in fluor-chlorapatite are constant from room temperature to 1000 °C. References: Cherniak, D.J. (2000) Rare earth element diffusion in apatite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 3871-3885. Harlov, D.E. and Förster, H-J. (2002) High grade fluid metasomatism on both a local and regional Scale: the Seward Peninsula, Alaska and the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy Part II: phosphate mineral chemistry. Journal of Petrology 43, 801-824. Holland, T.J.B. and Redfern, S.A.T. (1997) Unit-cell refinement: Changing the dependent variable, and use of regression

  10. Minidisk against ring infiltrometer measurements to assess the saturated hydraulic conductivity in Mediterranean vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) under Tillage and No-Tillage managements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the main crops in the Mediterranean region and it forms, along with wheat and olive, what it is known as the 'Mediterranean triad'. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2010), the European Union has 4.5 million hectares of land occupied by vineyards. Out of all, the Mediterranean region has the largest total area of vineyards. France, Italy and Spain together are responsible for 48% of global wine production. In Spain, the total surface occupied by vineyards is 1.048.104 ha (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 2009), which is translated in a 13% of world total (Wine Institute, 2014). In terms of environmental factors, vineyards are a source of sediments and water due to the tillage and the soil compaction, the lack of vegetation cover and the soil organic matter depletion (Novara et al., 2011; Lieskovsky' et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). The infiltration capacity of soils is a key component of the hydrological cycle that can control the non-sustainable rates of runoff and erosion (Cerdà, 1997,1999). In this way research focused on the soil hydrological properties will bring knowledge on how to control the high erosion rates (Cammeraat et al., 2010). Saturated hydraulic conductivity, ks, is the most determining physical parameter in terms of quantifying the components of the global water balance as it interferes in all those processes which are related with water and solute movement and transport through the soil. ks values are required for an adequate modelling of the infiltration and runoff generation processes. However, it is a variable with high variability when it comes to agricultural soils due to different soil managements and the fact that the soil is not a continuous media (Polo et al., 2003). For instance, Leonard and Andrieux (1998) reported in a study done in untilled vineyards in France high differences in infiltration rates through the use of rainfall simulations, which

  11. Time dependent deformation of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, Emily Kvietka Desmarais

    to a decollement structure 8 km under the south flank, and the locations of the microearthquakes suggest that both occur on the same structure. In 2007, Episode 56 of the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupianaha eruption occurred. This episode was exciting both because it was the largest intrusion in the last decade, and because it occurred concurrently with a flank slow-slip event. The intrusion started on Father's day (June 17th), 2007 with increased seismicity and abrupt tilts at the summit and rift zones. Quasi-static models of the total deformation determined from GPS, tilt, and InSAR indicate that the intrusion occurred on two en echelon dike segments in the upper East Rift Zone along with deformation consistent with slow-slip in the same areas of previous events. The ˜ 2 m maximum opening occurred on the eastern segment near Makaopui crater. Unlike previous intrusions in 1997, 1999, and 2000, the dike model was not sufficient to explain deformation on the western flank. Additionally, a coastal tiltmeter installed in anticipation of a slow-slip event recorded tilts consistent with those observed during the 2005 slow-slip event. These observations led to the conclusion that a concurrent slow-slip event occurred. Geodetic models indicate a similar amount of decollement slip occurred as in previous slow-slip events. Sub-daily GPS positions were used to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the dike intrusion. The time-dependent intrusion model shows that the intrusion began on the western en echelon segment before jumping to the eastern segment, which accumulated the majority of the 2 m of opening. Sub-daily GPS positions limit the number of stations available since there are very few continuous stations north of the East Rift Zone, where coverage is critical for separating the intrusion from the slow-slip. However, an ENVISAT interferogram at 08:22 on June 18, 2007 provides additional spatial coverage of deformation up to that point. Combining this image with the GPS and tilt

  12. Global irrigated area map (GIAM), derived from remote sensing, for the end of the last millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Biradar, C.M.; Noojipady, P.; Dheeravath, V.; Li, Y.; Velpuri, M.; Gumma, M.; Gangalakunta, O.R.P.; Turral, H.; Cai, X.; Vithanage, J.; Schull, M.A.; Dutta, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) has been produced for the end of the last millennium using multiple satellite sensor, secondary, Google Earth and groundtruth data. The data included: (a) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3-band and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 10 km monthly time-series for 1997-1999, (b) Syste me pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT VGT) NDVI 1 km monthly time series for 1999, (c) East Anglia University Climate Research Unit (CRU) rainfall 50km monthly time series for 1961-2000, (d) Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30) 1 km digital elevation data of the World, (e) Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (JERS-1 SAR) data for the rain forests during two seasons in 1996 and (f) University of Maryland Global Tree Cover 1 km data for 1992-1993. A single mega-file data-cube (MFDC) of the World with 159 layers, akin to hyperspectral data, was composed by re-sampling different data types into a common 1 km resolution. The MFDC was segmented based on elevation, temperature and precipitation zones. Classification was performed on the segments. Quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) used in hyperspectral data analysis were adopted to group class spectra derived from unsupervised classification and match them with ideal or target spectra. A rigorous class identification and labelling process involved the use of: (a) space-time spiral curve (ST-SC) plots, (b) brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) plots, (c) time series NDVI plots, (d) Google Earth very-high-resolution imagery (VHRI) 'zoom-in views' in over 11 000 locations, (e) groundtruth data broadly sourced from the degree confluence project (3 864 sample locations) and from the GIAM project (1 790 sample locations), (f) high-resolution Landsat-ETM+ Geocover 150m mosaic of the World and (g) secondary data (e.g. national and global land use and land cover data). Mixed classes were resolved based on decision tree

  13. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down

  14. EDITORIAL: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregue-Renaud, Rocio; Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Moya-Cessa, Hector

    2004-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is composed mainly of extended versions of talks and papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Puebla, Mexico on 9-13 June 2003. The Conference was hosted by Instituto de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This series of meetings began at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in March 1991. The second and third workshops were organized by the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, Russia, in 1992 and by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA, in 1993, respectively. Afterwards, it was decided that the workshop series should be held every two years. Thus the fourth meeting took place at the University of Shanxi in China and was supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The next three meetings in 1997, 1999 and 2001 were held in Lake Balatonfüred, Hungary, in Naples, Italy, and in Boston, USA, respectively. All of them were sponsored by IUPAP. The ninth workshop will take place in Besançon, France, in 2005. The conference has now become one of the major international meetings on quantum optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics, where most of the active research groups throughout the world present their new results. Accordingly this conference has been able to align itself to the current trend in quantum optics and quantum mechanics. The Puebla meeting covered most extensively the following areas: quantum measurements, quantum computing and information theory, trapped atoms and degenerate gases, and the generation and characterization of quantum states of light. The meeting also covered squeeze-like transformations in areas other than quantum optics, such as atomic physics, nuclear physics, statistical physics and relativity, as well as optical devices. There were many new participants at this meeting, particularly

  15. Phenology in Germany in the 20th century : methods, analyses and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    Perioden mit unterschiedlichem Trendverhalten identifiziert werden. - Es gab deutliche Unterschiede in den Trends von frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen. Die frühen Frühjahrsphasen haben sich stetig verfrüht, mit deutlicher Verfrühung zwischen 1931 und 1948, moderater Verfrühung zwischen 1948 und 1984 und starker Verfrühung zwischen 1984 und 1999. Die späten Frühjahrsphasen hingegen, wechselten ihr Trendverhalten in diesen Perioden von einer Verfrühung zu einer deutlichen Verspätung wieder zu einer starken Verfrühung. Dieser Unterschied in der Trendentwicklung zwischen frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen konnte auch für ganz Deutschland in den Perioden 1951 bis 1984 und 1984 bis 1999 beobachtet werden. Der bestimmende Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Frühjahrsphasen und ihr modifizierender Einfluss auf die Herbstphasen konnte bestätigt werden. Es zeigt sich jedoch, dass - die Phänologie bestimmende Funktionen der Temperatur nicht mit einem globalen jährlichen CO2 Signal korreliert waren, welches als Index für die globale Erwärmung verwendet wurde - ein Index für grossräumige regionale Zirkulationsmuster (NAO-Index) nur zu einem kleinen Teil die beobachtete phänologischen Variabilität erklären konnte. Das beobachtete unterschiedliche Trendverhalten zwischen frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen konnte auf die unterschiedliche Entwicklung von März- und Apriltemperaturen zurückgeführt werden. Während sich die Märztemperaturen im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts mit einer zunehmenden Variabilität in den letzten 50 Jahren stetig erhöht haben, haben sich die Apriltemperaturen zwischen dem Ende der 1940er und Mitte der 1980er merklich abgekühlt und dann wieder deutlich erwärmt. Es wurde geschlussfolgert, dass die Verfrühungen in der Frühjahrsphänologie in den letzten Dekaden Teile multi-dekadischer Fluktuationen sind, welche sich nach Spezies und relevanter saisonaler Temperatur unterscheiden. Aufgrund dieser Fluktuationen konnte kein Zusammenhang

  16. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    from tertian malaria, which is the most dangerous from the epidemiological point of view since the main vectors in Turkmenistan, are highly susceptible to P. vivax infection. The particular dangerous phenomenon is the higher incidence of imported tertian malaria in rural areas where sick people and those who carry the parasite come into close contact with highly susceptible vectors. Thus, the risk that new malaria outbreaks will occur and the disease will become reestablished in the country is very high. It is also influenced by major changes in water use in the country, which have aggravated the mosquito situation. In the area around the Karakum canal and river basins, 17 large reservoirs have been constructed, with very extensive filtration ponds around them, which have become breeding ground's for malaria mosquitoes. There are 1219 water areas without any economic significance in the country, covering a total area of 1054 ha, which require regular treatment with insecticides. With assistance from the WHO European Regional Office, Dr. Guido Sabatinelli in particular, Turkmenistan has developed a plan for preventive malaria control measures for 1999-2001, which has been approved in a decree issued by the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry. The material support received has made it possible to provide large-scale prophylaxis for people who suffered from malaria in 1997-1999, seasonal treatment for people living near the active foci of the disease and interseasonal prophylaxis for people visiting these areas. Seasonal treatment with Dellaguil was made in 4,590 people living in the active foci of malaria infection, and 2,281 fixed-term military personnel belonging to the units stationed in the active foci of malaria infection. In all foci of infection, every person with malaria or carrying the parasite underwent epidemiological investigation and all cases were entered in health clinic records. In 1999, four seminars were held to train 75 specialists from all

  17. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils. Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability. Many sites have been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. In 2000, the main cadmium actual transfer index ("ATI" by Márton 2004) maximum and minimum values in the case of maize 4-6 foliaged phenophase ranged between +22.0- -89.2%. compared with control soils. The grain "ATI" maximum and minimum values changed between +14.4- -89.2% as opposed to unterated plants. The highest yields reached around 10 t* ha-1. These study shows maize has ability to a different degree to cadmium bioaccumulation from soil to corn and by these way for "FOOD CHAIN". Key words: Phosphorous, Fertilization, Cadmium, Translocation, Corn Introduction Nowadays, sustainable (S) precision (P) agricultural (A) production (P)(SPAP) has become the major issue following global changes in all the world over. It is well known that it has strongly established on soils. The functioning and their ability to supply nutrients, store water, release gases, modify pollutants, decrease physical degradation and produce crops is profundly influenced by their fertiliy. During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils (ATSDR 1997, 1999; ANZECC 1992; CWP 1995; COC 2004; DEFRA 2002; EDF 1998; HSC 2005; IARC 1993; ). Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability (Magher 1991; NEPC 1998; NDH 1986; NTP 1991). Many sites have

  18. Step-by-step synchronous variations of planetary natural processes in 1997-1998 and their uniform mechanism: phenomenon of "galloping of the core"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    "For an explanation of observably step-by-step variations of geodynamic and geophysical processes the mechanism of sharp sporadic relative displacements of the core and the mantle and deformations of the mantle in the certain periods of time (the phenomenon of "galloping of the core") is offered. Apparently, this mechanism results in spasmodic variations of axial rotation of the Earth, causes gallop in value of a phase of Chandler motion of a pole, to sharp changes of the intense condition in zones of catastrophes" ([1], p. 61). According to geodynamic model the step changes first of all should to be observed in motion of a geocenter as it reflects relative displacement of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle [1]. A gallop of natural processes in northern and southern hemispheres is characterized by the certain asymmetry. In result the step changes are tested by trend components of secular changes of parameters. In another words and activity (intensity) and trends of its secular changes test synchronous certain steps. Geocenter. According to observation data of DORIS spasmodic changes of polar rotation of a geocenter in a projection to an equatorial coordinate plane in 1997-1999 are revealed. On data DORIS in values of polar coordinate of a geocenter were observed gallop up to 20-30 cm. Changes of trend components have tested gallop which can be estimated in -2 mm in coordinate x, -5 mm in coordinate y and in -10 mm in coordinate z. Trajectory of a geocenter. A bend of a trajectory of long - periodic trend "trace" of a geocenter (its epicentre) on a surface of the Earth in 1997-1998 has been discovered (Zotov, Barkin, Lyubushin, 2008). It serves as direct confirmation of the assumption about a fundamental role of interaction and the forced relative displacements of the basic shells of the Earth, first of all the core and the mantle, both their stimulating and directing role in all planetary processes (Barkin, 2002). Gravitational field. On the data of

  19. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    groups extended these studies to molten [19] and quasicrystalline metals. The stunning result was that among the distorted structures there was a region where quasicrystals were stable with the lowest energy among all the structures they tried and which had shown up elsewhere [20]. In addition to Jürgen Hafner's actual research work published in over 600 research papers, including numerous review articles, several contributions to books and one monograph, he has done a great deal to establish our field of electronic structure calculation as the basis for understanding materials in Austria and across Europe. The founding and expansion of the Computational Materials Science Centre (CMS) in Vienna owes much to him, as well as the development of the European Psi-k network where he served as acting chairman in 1997-1999. He has been one of the leaders of the 'Surfaces and Catalysis Working Group' of Psi-k, and the instigator of several 'Theory Meets Industry' workshops [21] to stimulate the transfer of our methodology to industrial problems. Jürgen Hafner has always aimed for the highest intellectual standards. His nose for finding the most advanced work going on elsewhere has resulted in many international cooperations, including some in the USA and Japan. His list of international joint research projects runs to many pages. This in turn has been a major contributor to European cooperation, and in making it now the leading area in the world for our field. Hafner's research has always been linked closely to understanding puzzling experimental results, and in this way he has helped to establish a good reputation for computational physics within the mainstream of condensed matter physics of materials. It has taken quite a long time to establish computer simulations as a respectable component of research in condensed matter physics. "It is not real theory" people sneered from one side, and "computer simulations are not like real experiments" from the other. In the late 1990s a