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Sample records for foer perioden 1997-1999

  1. New Mexico aggregate production sites, 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  2. CHLORDANES IN THE MID-ATLANTIC ATMOSPHERE: NEW JERSEY 1997-1999

    EPA Science Inventory

    To characterize the atmospheric dynamics and behavior of chlordane compounds in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, atmospheric concentrations were measured in 1997-1999 at three New Jersey locations as part of the New Jersey Atmospheric Deposition Network (NJADN) pro...

  3. [Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of lung cancer in the Manche (France) (1997-1999) according to patients socioeconomic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Madelaine, J; Guizard, A V; Lefevre, H; Lecarpentier, M M; Launoy, G

    2002-09-01

    In France, data on social environment influence on cancer management and prognosis are rare and no study has been conducted on lung cancer. This study was designed to investigate the associations between place of residence and occupation class, and diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of lung cancer. The study population consisted of the 585 cases of lung cancer collected by the cancer registry of the Manche department (France) over a three-year period (1997-1999). Distribution of qualitative variables was tested using chi(2) test. Multivariate analysis were conducted using logistic regressions. Differences in actuarial survival were tested using log-rank test. Difference in diagnostic conditions did not demonstrate any prominence by social characteristics. People living in rural areas did however have a higher probability of therapeutic abstention than people living in urban areas (adjusted odds ratio=2.20 [1.18-4.10]). Similarly, people without any occupational activity had a probability of therapeutic abstention higher than people with an occupational activity (adjusted odds ratio=3.40 [1.99-5.80]). Moreover, occupational class and place of residence had a significant influence on the place of diagnosis and treatment, lower class and rural people being less often managed in university hospitals. Regarding prognosis, our results do not give prominence to difference in survival according to social characteristics. This study suggests that the type of center providing patient care and the nature of treatment given could be associated with the socioeconomic status of the patient. Nevertheless, due to the small sample size, further studies in a larger series would be required to make any formal conclusion.

  4. NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program (UARP) and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program (ACMAP): Research Summaries 1997-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    under NASA UARP and ACMAP in a document entitled, Research Summaries 1997- 1999. Part 2 is entitled Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1999 An Assessment Report.

  5. Dense water formation in the Southern Adriatic Sea and spreading into the Ionian Sea in the period 1997 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manca, B. B.; Kovaĉević, V.; Gaĉić, M.; Viezzoli, D.

    2002-06-01

    Hydrographic and current measurements conducted during the period from March 1997 to March 1999 in the Southern Adriatic and in the Otranto Strait provide clues to the mechanisms of dense water formation and its spreading in the Ionian Sea. The hydrographic surveys covered the successive phases of preconditioning, convection, vertical mixing and spreading. The sub-basin scale cyclonic circulation, the presence of highly saline and dense water in the intermediate layer and winter outbreaks of cold and dry continental air are verified as necessary prerequisites to open-ocean deep convection. However, in two winters, surface cooling and surface buoyancy fluxes were not of sufficient intensity, and the convective mixing reached only intermediate depth of ˜400 m in 1998 and ˜700 m in 1999. The ventilated convective cell in the centre of the gyre had density of ˜29.16 kg m -3, which was lower than the typical density ( σθ˜29.24 kg m -3) of the water that resides in the bottom layer of the southern basin (Adriatic Deep Water-ADW). In addition, dense waters from the northern shelf region contributed in filling up the Southern Adriatic deep reservoir. During more severe winter in 1999, two concomitant processes were observed: convection in the centre of the gyre and advection along the shelf of much denser waters ( σθ˜29.34 kg m -3), which, originating from the Northern Adriatic (NAdDW), sunk at the shelf-break and mixed with the resident bottom water in the Southern Adriatic. Finally, the fate of the ADW and its spreading into the Ionian has been investigated. Transport rates in the bottom layer across the Strait of Otranto have been estimated from long-term current-meter measurements and are related to the intensity of the ADW formation during the study period (1997-1999). Sub-inertial flow fluctuations reach as much as 1 Sv and occur during post-convection, presumably as a consequence of violent mixing processes and spreading. At longer time-scales (seasonal and

  6. [Changes in the prevalence of statin use in Germany - findings from national health interview and examination surveys 1997-1999 and 2008-2011].

    PubMed

    Knopf, Hildtraud C; Busch, Markus A; Du, Yong; Truthmann, Julia; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Scheidt-Nave, Christa

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based guideline recommendations on lipid lowering drug treatment, in particular statin treatment, play an essential role in the management of dyslipidemias and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease events. In Germany, statutory health insurance data provide information on time trends in the prescription of lipid lowering drugs. However, population-based data regarding changes in user prevalence according to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics are lacking. Based on data from national health interview and examination surveys for adults in Germany 1997-1999 (GNHIES98) and 2008-2010 (DEGS1), the present analysis aims to close this information gap with a particular focus on the use of statins. The study population consisted of 7,099 participants (GNHIES98) and 7,091 participants (DEGS1) aged 18 to 79 years at the time of the respective surveys. Primary data on medication use within 7 days prior to the survey were collected using standardized medication interviews and brown-bag drug review. Unique product identifiers on original drug containers were scanned and coded according to the latest version of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Medical history was obtained in computer-assisted personal interviews. A history of stroke or coronary heart disease (CHD) was assessed among persons aged 40 to 79 years only, and previous stroke or CHD were defined as cardiovascular disease. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 30kg/m(2)) based on calculation from standardized measures of body weight and height. Information on socio-demographic variables and type of health insurance was collected using standardized self-administered questionnaires. In cross-sectional descriptive analyses we calculated the prevalence of statin use (ATC codes: C10AA, C10BA, C10BX) by survey as well as the changes between surveys stratified according to relevant preexisting diseases and other co-variables. The association between

  7. Changes in physical functioning among men and women aged 50-79 years in Germany: an analysis of National Health Interview and Examination Surveys, 1997-1999 and 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Buttery, A K; Du, Y; Busch, M A; Fuchs, J; Gaertner, B; Knopf, H; Scheidt-Nave, C

    2016-12-01

    This study examines changes in physical functioning among adults aged 50-79 years in Germany based on data from two German National Health Interview and Examination Surveys conducted in 1997-1999 (GNHIES98) and 2008-2011 (DEGS1). Using cross-sectional data from the two surveys (GNHIES98, n = 2884 and DEGS1, n = 3732), we examined changes in self-reported physical functioning scores (Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF)) by sex and age groups (50-64 and 65-79 years). Covariables included educational level, living alone, nine chronic diseases, polypharmacy (≥5 prescribed medicines), body mass index, sports activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Multimorbidity was defined as ≥2 chronic diseases. Multivariable models were fitted to examine consistency of changes in physical functioning among certain subgroups and to assess changes in mean SF-36 PF scores, adjusting for changes in covariables between surveys. Mean physical functioning increased among adults aged 50-79 years between surveys in unadjusted analyses, but this change was not as marked among men aged 65-79 years who experienced rising obesity (20.6 to 31.5%, p = 0.004) and diabetes (13.0 to 20.0%, p = 0.014). Prevalence of multimorbidity and polypharmacy use increased among men and women aged 65-79 years. In sex and age specific multivariable analyses, changes in physical functioning over time were consistent across subgroups. Gains in physical functioning were explained by improved education, lower body mass index and improved health-related behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, sports activity) in women, but less so among men. Physical functioning improved in Germany among adults aged 50-79 years. Improvements in the population 65-79 years were less evident among men than women, despite increases in multimorbidity prevalence among both sexes. Changes in health behaviours over time differed between sexes and help explain variations in physical functioning

  8. Evolution and status of the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (1997 1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharis, A.; Klein, B.; Nittis, K.; Roether, W.

    2002-06-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) was the major climatic event in the circulation and water mass properties of the Mediterranean in the last century. In this paper, we describe the present status of the EMT and its evolution since 1995 using hydrological and tracer data from 1997 to 1999. Few but important changes have been observed in the circulation pattern. The intrusion of the Asia Minor Current (AMC) that carries the saline Surface Levantine Waters into the Aegean has been reduced compared to the picture of late 1980s. This means that one of the mechanisms that increased the salt content of the Aegean during the peak of the EMT is no longer present. The Modified Atlantic Water (MAW) signal that has been weakened in the Levantine Basin during the early stages of the EMT has also been re-enhanced. The Aegean still functions as a source of deep (Cretan Deep Water, CDW) and intermediate waters (Cretan Intermediate Water, CIW) for the Eastern Mediterranean, although with modified characteristics. The most important changes in the thermohaline structure of the Cretan Sea (southern Aegean Sea) are the weakening of the signal of the old Mediterranean mid-depth waters and the modification of the properties of the CDW both leading to a reduced stratification. The outflowing CDW is no longer dense enough to reach the bottom of the adjacent basins, but ventilates layers between 1500 and 2500 m. Only the deep eastern Straits of the Cretan Arc are still active in the discharge of CDW, while at the western Strait (Antikithira), the density of the outflowing water was reduced significantly. The intermediate water CIW formed in the Aegean is characterized as a shallow CFC-12, temperature and salinity maximum layer, and differs much from the "old" CIW formed before the EMT, which was found in the layer below the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). The new CIW extends into the Ionian Basin through Antikithira Strait. It has lately been observed to enter the Adriatic, where its high salinity is expected to re-establish deep-water formation in this basin. The spreading of the CDW that had been deposited in the Cretan Passage in the first phase of the EMT has progressed further. The entire bottom layer of the Levantine Basin is now covered by the CDW. In the Ionian, the CDW has reached the Straits of Sicily and Otranto. Similar pathways in the Ionian are followed by the new shallower outflow of the CDW.

  9. Impacts of ENSO on the South American Summer Monsoon During 1997-1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, K.-M.; Zhou, Jia-Yu; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis, and CPC Merged Analysis Product (CMAP) rainfall, we have compared and contrasted the anomalies of the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM) during two extreme years of 1997/98 (EI Nino) and 1998/99 (La Nina). The results are assessed against a "canonical" ENSO response (CER) pattern for the SASM obtained from empirical mode decomposition based on a previous period (1980-1995). Overall, the SASM anomalies compare well with CER, but with some important differences. Anomalies occurring in the warm phase of the 1997-98 El Nino are very significant and robust, while those occurring in 1998/99 La Nina, appear to be reversed from 1997/98, but are relatively weak and less well-defined. The most pronounced signal in DJF 1997/98 is the development of drought conditions in northern Brazil, excessive rainfall over northern Peru and Ecuador, and over Uruguay and southern Brazil. The tropical rainfall anomalies are associated with the eastward shift of the Walker circulation, which is represented by pronounced low-level anomalous westerlies over the equatorial eastern Pacific and easterlies over northern Brazil. The easterlies are deflected sharply southeastward by the steep topography of the Andes, enhancing the low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the Andes near 15-20 S. The LLJ penetrates deep into the extratropics, yielding rainfall anomalies further poleward compared to CER. During DJF 1997/98, the eastward expansion of the warm tropospheric temperature over the Nino-3 region causes anomalous geopotential height to develop in the upper troposphere above the Altiplano, leading to a strengthened Bolivian High. An upper-tropospheric jet anomaly maximum is found over the subtropical continent near 30 S, due to increasing meridional gradient of tropospheric temperature, as well as teleconnection patterns linking the South Pacific and the South Atlantic. Consistent with the CER, the South Pacific High is weakened, and the South Atlantic High is strengthened in DJF 1997/98. However, rather than appearing as a coherent large scale signal over the entire Atlantic as in CER, the South Atlantic High anomalies in DJF 1997/98 split into two separate high pressure centers; one located south of the Amazon basin, and another over the southeastern South Atlantic. The former is induced as a Rossby-wave response by ENSO-Induced sinking motion over nor-them and eastern Brazil, and the latter may be associated with extratropical teleconnection signals. Anomalous convection observed over equatorial western Africa may also have contributed to the different circulation response over the Atlantic in DFJ 1997/99 compared to the CER. Comparison of the evolution of the SASM anomalies in 1997-99 with their corresponding annual cycles, suggest that the anomalies are phase-locked to and represent either enhancement or reduction of the annual variations. Results suggest that, from a system perspective the SASM was strengthened during the 1997/98 El Nino and weakened, albeit to a lesser extent, during the 1998/99 La Nina.

  10. Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on the Hanford Reach, 1997-1999 Interim Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Paul; Nugent, John; Price, William

    1999-02-15

    Pilot work conducted in 1997 to aid the development of the study for the 1998 Evaluation of Juvenile Fall Chinook Stranding on The Hanford Reach. The objectives of the 1997 work were to: (1) identify juvenile chinook production and rearing areas..., (2) identify sampling sites and develop the statistical parameters necessary to complete the study, (3) develop a study plan..., (4) conduct field sampling activities...

  11. National Science Foundation Support for Two-Year Colleges, Fiscal Years 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Div. of Undergraduate Education.

    This National Science Foundation (NSF) report, prepared by NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), analyzes the role the Foundation plays in recognizing and supporting the critical function of community colleges in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET) education. The Foundation aims to improve and strengthen SMET…

  12. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Graduate and Professional Education. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    The literature on graduate and professional education reflects many of the trends present in the literature on undergraduate education, including concerns about student learning; transforming the curriculum to be more inclusive; internationalization of the curriculum; incorporation of technology; growth in interdisciplinary education; and outcomes…

  13. Major limb amputations in Seremban Hospital: a review of 204 cases from 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Hazmy, W; Mahamud, M; Ashikin, N; Jamilah, S; Yee, L E; Shong, H K

    2001-06-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of 3 years duration beginning from the 1st January 1997 to the 31st December 1999 in order to identify the epidemiology of major limb amputations in Seremban Hospital. Two hundred and four patients were included in this study out of which 65.7% were male and 34.3% were female. The mean age of the amputees was 39.7 years old. Non traumatic amputations constitute 85.8% of the cases mainly due to diabetic ulcers or gangrene (91%) followed by peripheral vascular disease (7%) and malignancy (2%). Traumatic amputations represent 14.2% of the cases with road-traffic accident as the major cause (82.8%) followed by industrial accident (17.2%). Lower limb amputations were performed in 97.5% of the cases with below knee amputations as the commonest procedure (72%), followed by above knee amputations (27%) and Syme amputations (1%). Five patients had upper limb amputations done. Four of them were below elbow amputations while one had forequarter amputation done of the left shoulder. Of note, there were increasing number of amputations done over the last three years with alarming increasing trends of traumatic amputation. The three main risk factors for major limb amputations are diabetes mellitus, male gender and road traffic accident.

  14. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain). This is the first time that a molecular analysis was performed for the E. granulosus isolates from Tierra del Fuego.

  15. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Administration. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Several themes are prevalent in the literature on college administration. Motivating staff, planning, conflict management, ethics, power and influence, communication, strategy and decision making, vision, and financial issues are consistently discussed. However, common administrative processes such as planning, morale, and administrative climate…

  16. Remotely sensed seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton in the Ligurian Sea in 1997-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Lacroix, Genevieve; Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Djenidi, Salim

    2004-07-01

    Remotely sensed data and a one-dimensional hydrophysical model were used to study the seasonal dynamics of surface plant pigments concentration in the Ligurian-Provençal basin. The variations of phytoplankton biomass were estimated from the observations of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (1978-1986) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (September 1997 to October 1999) radiometers. The factors of physical environment analyzed included remotely sensed sea surface temperature (from advanced very high resolution radiometers), wind, air temperature, and atmospheric precipitation. The Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) model was used to explain the observed correlations between the physical forcing and the response of phytoplankton biomass. The general pattern of phytoplankton seasonal dynamics was typical to subtropical areas: maximum biomass during cold season from October to April and low biomass during summer months. The intensity of winter/spring bloom significantly varied during different years. The correlation was revealed between the summer/autumn air temperature contrast (expressed as the difference between the air temperatures in August and in November) and the maximum monthly averaged surface chlorophyll concentration during the subsequent winter/spring bloom. The features of seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton are regulated by the physical impacts influencing water stratification. The difference between two seasonal cycles (from September 1997 to October 1999) illustrates the response of phytoplankton growth to local meteorological conditions. In March-April 1999 the vernal bloom was much more pronounced; it resulted from deeper winter cooling and more intensive winter convection. Heating of surface water layer, wind mixing, and freshwater load with rains and river discharge either stimulate or depress the development of phytoplankton, depending on what limiting environmental factor (light or nutrient limitation) prevailed.

  17. A comparison of eastern and western Hong Kong phytoplankton from weekly samples (1997-1999)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Mike; Sen-Ming, Tang; Lai, Jessie

    2002-03-01

    Weekly phytoplankton samples were taken from western Hong Kong (Lamma) from Jan. 1997 to Dec. 1999 and from Port Shelter in Eastern Hong Kong from January 1998 to December 1999. During that time diatom blooms occurred repeatedly at both sites but never in synchrony. One species would bloom at one site and then weeks later it or another species would bloom at the other site; while the 1998 red tide of the mucus producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium mikimotoi occurred at both sites. It first occurred at the Port Shelter site in March and did not appear at the Lamma site until April. With the single exception of this species, no other dinoflagellate reached bloom concentrations at the Lamma site. In addition, dinoflagellate abundance at the Lamma site was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that at the Port Shelter site. This was correlated with a significantly higher turbidity (i. e. low Secchi transparency) and higher turbulence (stronger currents) at the Lamma site. Annual variation in surface temperature correlated with total surface phytoplankton abundance at both our sample sites. Phytoplankton abundance increased in spring as water temperatures warmed. In fall, as surface water temperatures began to decline and the monsoon rains became less frequent there was a reduction in phytoplankton abundance associated with the reduction in temperature and light. Because so many variables co-occur with temperature (e. g. the amount of rainfall light intensity and light duration etc.) it is not possible to cite temperature as the causal factor associated weth controlling phytoplankton abundance at our two sample sites. Our data support the rather controversial notion that percentage-wise, there are relatively more harmful bloom forming species in nutrient-rich coastal waters than there are in the world's oceans. 16% of the dinoflagellate species and 10.3% of the diatom species observed at our two sample sites were classed as harmful. These percentages were higher than those cited by Sournia (1995) for the worlds oceans (9.6% and 6.8% respectively). This raises the possibility that there are relatively more toxic species in the nutrient-rich coastal waters of the world than there are in the mid ocean nutrient-poor areas of the world. Some reasons for this are briefly discussed.

  18. THERMAL, MIXING, AND OXYGEN REGIMES OF THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. METAZOOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. News on Children and Violence on the Screen, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Feilitzen, Cecilia, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 1997 through 1999 newsletters of the UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, published three times a year. It provides topical information on research findings concerning children and media violence, children's media use, and activities aiming to limit gratuitous media violence.…

  1. Use of lufenuron for treating fungal infections of dogs and cats: 297 cases (1997-1999).

    PubMed

    Ben-Ziony, Y; Arzi, B

    2000-11-15

    To evaluate use of lufenuron for treating cutaneous fungal infections in dogs and cats. Retrospective study. 156 dogs and 201 cats with dermatophytosis or superficial dermatomycoses. Medical records were reviewed for dogs and cats that had been treated for dermatophytosis or other fungal infections by administration of lufenuron and 18 dogs and 42 cats that were not treated and served as a control group. Dogs were treated once by oral administration of lufenuron tablets at doses ranging from 54.2 to 68.3 mg/kg (24.6 to 31.0 mg/lb) of body weight. Samples of skin, scrapings, and hair were obtained daily from 14 dogs with dermatophytosis; mean durations from time of treatment to time of negative fungal culture results and resolution of gross lesions were 14.5 and 20.75 days, respectively. In all treated dogs, gross lesions resolved within approximately 21 days. Cats were treated once by oral administration of lufenuron suspension in doses ranging from 51.2 to 266 mg/kg (23.3 to 120.9 mg/lb). Samples were obtained daily from 23 cats; mean durations from time of treatment to time of negative fungal culture results and resolution of gross lesions were 8.3 and 12 days, respectively. Time to resolution of lesions in most untreated control animals was approximately 90 days. Adverse effects of treatment were not detected. Results of this study suggest that lufenuron provides an effective, convenient, and rapid method for treating fungal infections in dogs and cats.

  2. Daily birth numbers in Passo Fundo, South Brazil, 1997-1999: trends and periodicities.

    PubMed

    Mikulecky, M; Lisboa, H R K

    2002-08-01

    Between October 6, 1997 and April 30, 1999, 5011 births (mean: 8.76 per day) were registered in the city of Passo Fundo, South Brazil. The sequence of 572 daily birth numbers was not random (iteration test). Neyman distribution (m = yen ) showed the best fit. Clusters of days with higher birth numbers alternated with days with low numbers of births. Periodogram analysis revealed a significant periodicity of 6.98 days. The cosinor regression, testing 10 a priori supposed period lengths, found significant seasonality peaking in August-September and significantly highest birth numbers on Thursdays. Among the lunar and solar rotation cycles, the tropic lunar cycle and its 4th harmonic were most pronounced, in agreement with results concerning natality in Germany obtained by Svante Arrhenius in the 19th century. These findings confirm Derer-Halberg's concept of multiseptans. In addition to cycling, a significantly increasing linear trend with a daily increase of 0.0045 births was encountered. This documents a growth of the population in agreement with national statistical data.

  3. Molecular epidemiology studies on occupational and environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens, 1997-1999.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Binková, B

    2000-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology is a new and evolving area of research, combining laboratory measurement of internal dose, biologically effective dose, biologic effects, and influence of individual susceptibility with epidemiologic methodologies. Biomarkers evaluated were selected according to basic scheme: biomarkers of exposure--metabolites in urine, DNA adducts, protein adducts, and Comet assay parameters; biomarkers of effect--chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei, mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene, and the activation of oncogenes coding for p53 or p21 proteins as measured on protein levels; biomarkers of susceptibility--genetic polymorphisms of genes CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1, NAT2. DNA adducts measured by 32P-postlabeling are the biomarker of choice for the evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Protein adducts are useful as a biomarker for exposure to tobacco smoke (4-aminobiphenyl) or to smaller molecules such as acrylonitrile or 1,3-butadiene. Of the biomarkers of effect, the most common are cytogenetic end points. Epidemiologic studies support the use of chromosomal breakage as a relevant biomarker of cancer risk. The use of the Comet assay and methods analyzing oxidative DNA damage needs reliable validation for human biomonitoring. Until now there have not been sufficient data to interpret the relationship between genotypes, biomarkers of exposure, and biomarkers of effect for assessing the risk of human exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. PMID:10698723

  4. The 1997-1999 Abrupt Change of the Upper Ocean Temperature in the North Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Seung-Bum; Lee, Tong; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt warming of the north central Pacific Ocean from 1997 to 1999 is studied using an ocean data assimilation product. During this period, the average mixed-layer temperature in the region of 170-210(deg)E, 25-40(deg)N rises by 1.8 K. The major contributors to the warming are surface heat flux (1.3 K), geostrophic advection (0.7 K), and entrainment (0.7 K). For the geostrophic advection, the contributions by the zonal, meridional, and vertical components are 0.4, -0.1 and 0.3 K, respectively. Mixing and meridional Ekman advection have cooling effect. The significance of the geostrophic advection indicates the importance of ocean dynamics in controlling the abrupt warming tendency during the 1997-99 period and the inadequacy of a slab-mixed-layer model in simulating such warming tendency.

  5. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Legal Issues. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Historically, legal issues have not been well represented in the higher education research literature. Two sources, however, regularly discuss legal issues: the Journal of College and University Law and the Chronicle of Higher Education. Three main themes emerge in the literature on legal issues: (1) rethinking and refining of traditional…

  6. The 1997-1999 Abrupt Change of the Upper Ocean Temperature in the North Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Seung-Bum; Lee, Tong; Fukumori, Ichiro

    2004-01-01

    The abrupt warming of the north central Pacific Ocean from 1997 to 1999 is studied using an ocean data assimilation product. During this period, the average mixed-layer temperature in the region of 170-210(deg)E, 25-40(deg)N rises by 1.8 K. The major contributors to the warming are surface heat flux (1.3 K), geostrophic advection (0.7 K), and entrainment (0.7 K). For the geostrophic advection, the contributions by the zonal, meridional, and vertical components are 0.4, -0.1 and 0.3 K, respectively. Mixing and meridional Ekman advection have cooling effect. The significance of the geostrophic advection indicates the importance of ocean dynamics in controlling the abrupt warming tendency during the 1997-99 period and the inadequacy of a slab-mixed-layer model in simulating such warming tendency.

  7. METAZOOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  8. THERMAL, MIXING, AND OXYGEN REGIMES OF THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, 1997-1999. (R826552)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Curriculum. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Literature on college curriculum has been declining since the early 1990s, representing under 5 percent of the literature added to the ERIC database in 1996. One reason seems to be the emphasis on instruction; another is that information on curricular movements are often addressed in the literature on instructional change. Trends in 1996 in the…

  10. Higher Education Trends (1997-1999): Finance. ERIC-HE Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    The literature on financial issues in higher education is limited. Six major themes in the literature in l996 include the reduced federal role and increased state role in funding; managing costs, including deferred maintenance and capital spending in times of shrinking resources; concern about rising tuition and its impact on access; concern about…

  11. Water-quality data collected at Lake Anne, Reston, Virginia, 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conko, Kathryn M.; Kennedy, Margaret M.; Rice, Karen C.

    2000-01-01

    Samples from the Lake Anne watershed were collected and analyzed to assess the water quality from December 1997 through January 1999. Lake Anne is a stream impoundment in suburban Northern Virginia and its outflow is a sub-tributary of the Potomac River. Samples of wet deposition (precipitation), lake water, and streamwater that drain into and from Lake Anne were collected and analyzed. Trace-element clean sampling and analysis protocols were followed throughout the project. This report is a compilation of the precipitation, lake-water, and streamwater data collected in the Lake Anne watershed and the associated quality assurance/quality control data. Concentrations of the trace elements arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel, strontium, vanadium, and zinc, and of the major inorganic ions, aluminum, bicarbonate, calcium, chloride, hydrogen ion, iron, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, sodium, and sulfate are reported.

  12. Baseline indoor air quality measurements collected from 136 metropolitan New York region commercial office buildings between 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Springston, John P; Esposito, William A; Cleversey, Keith W

    2002-01-01

    Between January 1997 and December 1999, 648 surveys were performed in 136 commercial office buildings in the metropolitan New York region as part of an ongoing proactive indoor environmental quality (IEQ) program. Sampling was performed on a spot basis in "nonproblem" buildings, during normal business hours, either quarterly or semiannually. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were among the various physical and gaseous parameters sampled for. More than 15,000 data points were collected, and the results were analyzed to determine the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for each of those parameters. The data was then compared to various standards and/or guidelines applicable to the indoor environment. The results indicated that 98% of the CO2 readings were below 1000 ppm, and 99.9% of the CO readings were below 10 ppm. However, for TVOCs, nearly 88% of the readings exceeded the proposed European guideline value of 0.3 mg/m3. Ultimately, these results can be used to compare both baseline and periodic readings collected in future studies, and to help determine if potential problems exist within a building.

  13. Systemic Candida infection in University hospital 1997-1999: the distribution of Candida biotypes and antifungal susceptibility patterns.

    PubMed

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Na, S L; Soo-Hoo, T S

    2001-01-01

    A total of 102 Candida species were isolated from blood cultures from January 1997 to October 1999. Using assimilation of carbohydrate test, 52 (51.0%) of the Candida sp. were identified as C. parapsilosis, 25.5% (26) were C. tropicalis. C. albicans made up 11.8% (12), 6.9% (7) were C. rugosa, 3.8% (4) C. glabrata and 1% (1) C. guilliermondii. No C. dubliniensis was found in the study. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed that all Candida species were sensitive to nystatin, amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Although all isolates remained sensitive to fluconazole, intermediate susceptibility was found in 3 C. rugosa isolates. Antifungal agents with high frequency of resistance were econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. Candida species found to have resistance to these antifungal agents were non-C. albicans.

  14. Cadmium contents of oats (Avena sativa L.) in official variety, organic cultivation, and nitrogen fertilization trials during 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Eurola, Merja; Hietaniemi, Veli; Kontturi, Markku; Tuuri, Hannu; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Saastamoinen, Marketta; Rantanen, Olli; Kangas, Arjo; Niskanen, Markku

    2003-04-23

    The cadmium (Cd) contents of oats (Avena sativa L.) in Finland were examined over a 3 year period in three types of trials: official variety, organic vs conventional cultivation, and nitrogen fertilization trials. Large seasonal and regional variations were found in the Cd concentrations. In official variety trials, the mean Cd contents in 1997, 1998, and 1999 were 0.046, 0.029, and 0.052 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively, ranging from 0.008 to 0.120 mg kg(-1) dw. The concentrations were generally well below the maximum permitted level of 0.100 mg kg(-1) fresh weight. No significant differences were found between the organic and the conventional cultivation techniques. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increased the Cd contents of oats especially at high nitrogen rates (160 kg N hectare(-1) (ha)). Significant cultivar differences (p < 0.001) were determined in all trials. Cultivars Salo and Kolbu had consistently higher contents, and Belinda and Roope had lower Cd contents among the different growing conditions. Hence, it is possible to cultivate and develop oat cultivars less likely to accumulate Cd.

  15. Career and Technical Education, Career Pathways, and Work-Based Learning: Changes in Participation, 1997-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III; Aliaga, Oscar A.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the extent to which high school students are choosing to participate in work-related education after a decade of education reform in the United States. Using data from the "National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997," we first examined the characteristics of students enrolled in alternative curriculum concentrations: career…

  16. An evaluation of selenium concentrations in water, sediment, invertebrates, and fish from the Republican River Basin: 1997-1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, T.W.; Walther, M.J.; Petty, J.D.; Fairchild, J.F.; Lucero, J.; Delvaux, M.; Manring, J.; Armbruster, M.; Hartman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Republican River Basin of Colorado,Nebraska, and Kansas lies in a valley which contains PierreShale as part of its geological substrata. Selenium is anindigenous constituent in the shale and is readily leached intosurrounding groundwater. The Basin is heavily irrigated throughthe pumping of groundwater, some of which is selenium-contaminated, onto fields in agricultural production. Water,sediment, benthic invertebrates, and/or fish were collected from46 sites in the Basin and were analyzed for selenium to determinethe potential for food-chain bioaccumulation, dietary toxicity,and reproductive effects of selenium in biota. Resultingselenium concentrations were compared to published guidelines orbiological effects thresholds. Water from 38% of the sites (n = 18) contained selenium concentrations exceeding 5 μg L-1, which is reported to be a high hazard for selenium accumulation into the planktonic food chain. An additional 12 sites (26% of the sites) contained selenium in water between 3–5 μg L-1, constituting a moderate hazard. Selenium concentrations in sedimentindicated little to no hazard for selenium accumulation fromsediments into the benthic food chain. Ninety-five percent ofbenthic invertebrates collected exhibited selenium concentrationsexceeding 3 μg g-1, a level reported as potentially lethal to fish and birds that consume them. Seventy-five percent of fish collected in 1997, 90% in 1998, and 64% in 1999 exceeded 4 μg g-1selenium, indicating a high potential for toxicity andreproductive effects. However, examination of weight profilesof various species of collected individual fish suggestedsuccessful recruitment in spite of selenium concentrations thatexceeded published biological effects thresholds for health andreproductive success. This finding suggested that universalapplication of published guidelines for selenium may beinappropriate or at least may need refinement for systems similarto the Republican River Basin. Additional research is needed todetermine the true impact of selenium on fish and wildliferesources in the Basin.

  17. Human G3P[9] rotavirus strains possessing an identical genotype constellation to AU-1 isolated at high prevalence in Brazil, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Takeshi; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-03-01

    Rotavirus (RV) A is a very common cause of acute diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. Most human strains are classified into two major Wa-like and DS-1-like genotype constellations, whilst a minor third strain, AU-1, was described in 1989 among human RV isolates from Japan. AU-1 demonstrates a high degree of homology to a feline RV, FRV-1, which suggests interspecies transmission of feline RV. However, there has been no subsequent report of RVs possessing the AU-1 genotype throughout all 11 genes of the genome. Between March 1997 and December 1999, 157 RV-positive stool samples were collected from Brazilian children, and 16 of the RVs (10.2 %) were P[9] genotype. We analysed eight strains by almost full-genome sequencing. These eight strains were divided into two groups: five AU-1-like and three Wa-like strains. Four of the five AU-1-like strains had the AU-1-like genotype constellation throughout the 11 genes. The remaining AU-1-like strain was considered to be a reassortant strain comprosed of nine, two and one genes from the AU-1-like, Wa-like and G9 strains, respectively. The three Wa-like strains were considered to be reassortants comprising seven to eight genes and three to four genes from Wa-like and non-Wa-like strains, respectively. This report of human G3P[9] RV strains possessing the AU-1 genotype constellation throughout all genes demonstrates the stability and infectivity of the AU-1-like strain with its original genotype over distance and time.

  18. Managing Electronic Serials: Essays Based on the ALCTS Electronic Serials Institutes 1997-1999. ALCTS Papers on Library Technical Services & Collections, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluh, Pamela M., Ed.

    If managed well, electronic journals (e-journals) can be extremely efficient, saving money and space while improving access and speeding information delivery. With the help of the Internet, e-journals can also make library collections more accessible to both users and staff. Covering the process of managing electronic serials from licensing,…

  19. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Assessment of the Lake Roosevelt Walleye Population: Compilation of 1997-1999 Data, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Jason; McLellan, Holly; Scholz, Allan

    2002-03-01

    A walleye mark-recapture study was conducted on Lake Roosevelt between 1997 and 1999. The primary objective of the study was to describe the status and biological characteristics of the walleye population in Lake Roosevelt by determining its abundance, movement patterns, age structure, growth, condition, and mortality. The abundance estimates were also to be used to estimate the consumptive impact of walleye on stocked kokanee and rainbow trout. Walleye were collected by electrofishing and angling. Each walleye was tagged with an individually numbered Floy tag. The Jolly-Seber model was used to estimate the size of the walleye population in 1999, using each year of the study as a mark-recapture occasion. Mark-recapture data collected in 1998 was re-analyzed in 1999 with the data pooled in various combinations, using closed and open population models, in an attempt to provide an estimate of walleye abundance that was unbiased, accurate, and more precise. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye were determined from tag returns. Over the three study years, a total of 12,343 walleye {ge} 150 mm TL were collected by Eastern Washington University (EWU), Spokane Tribe of Indians, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, and of those, 10,770 were tagged and released. Of the 10,770 walleye marked and released, 775 were recaptured and returned to EWU. The 1999 abundance estimate ({+-} standard error) for walleye {ge} 150 mm TL was 129,183 ({+-} 45,578) and the estimated abundance ({+-} standard error) of walleye {ge} 200 mm TL was 101,508 ({+-} 35,603). A total of 38 population estimates were calculated for 1998. The estimates of the abundance of walleye {ge} 150 mm TL in Lake Roosevelt ranged from 84,335 to 180,568 fish. Estimates of the size of the walleye population {ge} 200 mm TL ranged from 14,971 to 173,702. The 1999 estimate, which used each study year as a mark-recapture occasion, was biased due to unequal capture probabilities. If biases were eliminated, the annual sampling strategy may be the most cost-effective. Of the reanalyzed 1998 estimates, the Schnabel corrected for tag loss and recruitment and the Jolly-Seber estimate, both calculated with the 200 mm minimum length, were recommended for modeling walleye consumption. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye marked on the spawning run ranged from 0 to 245 km over a range of 11 to 486 days. Minimum distances traveled between mark and recapture location by tagged walleye marked during the summer/fall ranged from 0 to 217 km over a range of 8 to 788 days. Walleye exhibited seasonal movement trends that included a migration to the spawning area in the upper Spokane River Arm in the spring, with peak spawning occurring in April and May, and a migration following spawning to summer habitats. Once at the summer habitat, walleye appeared to establish summer home ranges (SHR). Walleye collected in Lake Roosevelt in 1999 ranged in age from 0 to 8. Mean instantaneous and mean annual mortality were estimated at 0.62% and 46%. Mean condition factor (K{sub TL}) of the 343 walleye measured and weighed in 1999 was 0.83 (SD = 0.13). Walleye mortality rates appeared to be relatively stable. Mortality and growth were average when compared to other walleye producing waters. Walleye condition was low when compared to condition factors in 1980-83, 1988, 1989, and 1990. The K{sub TL}'s of walleye from Lake Roosevelt were slightly below average when compared to other walleye populations.

  20. Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families, 1997-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Jane, Ed.

    This collection of snapshots examines the well-being of America's children and adults through the lens of the 1999 National Survey of America's Families. Snapshots include: "Foreword: Snapshots of America's Families II: A View of the Nation and 13 States from the National Survey of America's Families" (Alyssa Wigton and Alan Weil);…

  1. Characterization of Air Particles Giving False Responses with Biological Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    cbserve the alpha group representing biologicals, natural and man-made foers and hairs, fertilizers and food products gave particles in which 67% showed...epithelial cells + 4- -+ 4- + + flyash + + + + fungus +. + 4 4.- glass particles + 4- + hematite D + + metal, white - ? paint spray or chips 1 . 4- . paper

  2. Applying Commercial Style Acquisition Practices to the Procurement of Commercially Available Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    95 v List of Tables Table Page 1. U S Commercial Transport Industry...how tunig knh me*_ __ Nov" s Oodmits ftn ama ftomen"-MunS onw at mew goi ftob vows foer 1 0 ea gait os ood man Im U *Askwye emu" bun addon0 amgood sammtow...AD-A258 143 AFIT/GCM/VLSYI92-6 DTIC S LECTES EC 1792D CA719 APPLYING COMMIERCIAL STYLE ACQUISITION PRACTICES TO THE PROCUREMENT OF COMMIERCIALLY

  3. Inventory Manager’s Workstation for the Aviation Supply Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    PHANTOM USER LOGIN MACRO ............... 148 APPENDIX H INVENTORY MANAGEMENT MACROS .............. 165 LIST OF REFERENCES...support the DSS software. Each of 42 MINE The Connectivity DcM ionnDecision Guide moreThenFile exchange foer spephera t no only? no Disk/cartrIdge yes...The Sun 3/160 executes a batch program that logs in a phantom user on the server. The phantom user enters ALIS. (2:30 am, nightly) * As the phantom

  4. Stroke in HIV-infected individuals with and without HCV coinfection in Spain in the combination antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Berenguer, Juan; Díaz, Asunción; Micheloud, Dariela; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Teresa; Fanciulli, Chiara; Resino, Salvador

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of stroke in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has been well analyzed in recent epidemiological studies. However, little is known about the specific contribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to stroke among HIV-infected individuals. The aims of this study were to analyze trends in the incidence rates of stroke in HIV-infected individuals during the combination antiretroviral (cART) era in Spain and to categorize them by the presence or absence of HCV coinfection. We analyzed hospital discharges with a diagnosis of stroke in Spain according to ICD-9-CM during 1997-2013. The study period was divided into four calendar periods (1997-1999, 2000-2003, 2004-2007, and 2008-2013). Patients were classified according to HCV serology. The number of HIV-infected patients was estimated based on data from the National Centre of Epidemiology. We calculated incidence rates (events per 10,000 patient-years) and in-hospital case fatality rates (CFR). The incidence of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) decreased in HIV-monoinfected patients (15.8 [1997-1999] to 6.5 [2008-2013]; P<0.001) and increased in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (1.3 [1997-1999] to 5.5 [2008-2013]; P<0.001). The incidence of ischemic stroke (IS) decreased in HIV-monoinfected patients (27.4 [1997-1999] to 21.7 [2008-2013]; P = 0.005) and increased in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (1.8 [1997-1999] to 11.9 [2008-2013]; P<0.001). The CFR was 3.3 times higher for HS than for IS for the whole study period. The CFR of HS in HIV-monoinfected patients decreased significantly (47.4% [1997-1999] to 30.6% [2008-2013]; P = 0.010) but did not change significantly among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients (41.4% [1997-1999] to 44.7% [2008-2013]; P = 0.784). The CFR of IS in the whole HIV-infected population decreased significantly (14.6% [1997-1999] to 10.9% [2008-2013]; P = 0.034), although no significant differences were found when each group was analyzed separately. In conclusion, after the introduction

  5. Case Study: The First Israeli BSW Program for Haredi Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehan, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The article summarizes a longitudinal case study of the very first Israeli program in social work targeted to the Haredi (ultra-Orthodox Jewish) population (1997-1999). The program's success played an important role in the last decade's dramatic change of attitude in the Israeli Council for Higher Education toward social work education and higher…

  6. The quarter-power scaling model does not imply size-invariant hydraulic resistance in plants

    Treesearch

    Annikki Makela; Harry T. Valentine

    2006-01-01

    West, Brown, and Enquist (1997, 1999) propose an integrated model of the structure and allometry of plant vascular systems, which has come to be known as the 'WBE model' (Enquist, 2002). The WBE model weaves together area-preserving branching (Leonardo da Vinci), elastic similarity (Greenhill, 1881), the constant ratio of foliage mass to sapwood area (...

  7. Resilient Children of Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Vlahov, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Method: Injection drug-using parents (n = 91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n = 117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest…

  8. Career Counseling: Applying the Systems Theory Framework of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Mary

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, career development and career counseling have increasingly been informed by concepts emanating from the constructivist worldview. For example, the Systems Theory Framework (STF; M. McMahon, 2002; M. McMahon & W. Patton, 1995; W. Patton & M. McMahon, 1997, 1999) of career development has been proposed as a metatheoretical account…

  9. A Learning Framework for the Small Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelliher, Felicity; Henderson, Joan Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to offer insight into the factors affecting individual and organisational learning in a small business; specifically the identification of the learning relationships that are unique to the small business environment. Design/methodology/approach: The authors apply Crossan et al.'s (1997, 1999) Organisational…

  10. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  11. A Preliminary Mapping of Web Queries Using Existing Image Query Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bernard J.

    End user searching on the Web has become the primary method of locating images for many people. This study investigates the nature of Web image queries by attempting to map them to known image classification schemes. In this study, approximately 100,000 image queries from a major Web search engine were collected in 1997, 1999, and 2001. A…

  12. Inhibition of Embryonic Genes to Control Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Russia BIFIP, Russia UAB, Alabama B.S./M.S. Ph.D. Postdoctoral training 1982 1997 1999- 2000 Biology/Biochemistry Biology... Biotechnology Gene Therapy RESEARCH AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE: Concluding with present position, list in chronological order, previous employment...Biology, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia 1992-1996 Research Scientist 1996-1999 Senior Research Scientist, Laboratory of

  13. Cornell University's Entrepreneurship Education & Outreach Program: Evaluation and Proposal. A White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlough, Charles; Streeter, Deborah H.

    In 1997-1999, the Department of Agriculture, Resource, and Managerial Economics of Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences conducted an entrepreneurship education and outreach program that was based on the Premier FastTrac Curriculum, which is a model delivery tool for entrepreneurship education. In 1997-1998, the program was…

  14. New York City Social Indicators Survey, 1999: Pulling Ahead, Falling Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Marcia K.; Teitler, Julien O.

    The New York City Social Indicators Survey examines New York City's social climate, surveying a representative sample of families regarding their perceptions of life in the city and indicators of their quality of life and experiences of hardship. The 1999 survey examined the period between 1997-1999, a time of strong economic performance and…

  15. Duration of Hospitalization and Post Discharge Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ting-Pong

    2006-01-01

    A retrospective cohort of discharged patients from all public psychiatric hospitals in Hong Kong (1997-1999) was linked to suicide data from Coroner's court. Patients hospitalized shorter than 15 days had significantly lower suicide rates than longer stay patients. The results were fairly consistent across immediate/late post discharge periods,…

  16. Behavior States and a Half-Full Glass: A Response to Mudford, Hogg, and Roberts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In this response to critiques (Mudford, Hogg and Roberts 1997, 1999) of the use of behavior states in research involving individuals with mental retardation, it is argued that the work on behavioral state analysis by Robert D. Guess has contributed to the field at the practical, empirical, and theoretical levels. (Contains references.) (CR)

  17. Behavior States and a Half-Full Glass: A Response to Mudford, Hogg, and Roberts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Michael

    2000-01-01

    In this response to critiques (Mudford, Hogg and Roberts 1997, 1999) of the use of behavior states in research involving individuals with mental retardation, it is argued that the work on behavioral state analysis by Robert D. Guess has contributed to the field at the practical, empirical, and theoretical levels. (Contains references.) (CR)

  18. Resilient Children of Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Zybert, Patricia A.; Vlahov, David

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Method: Injection drug-using parents (n = 91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n = 117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest…

  19. Factbook on Arkansas Public Higher Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This report provides extensive statistical data on public higher education in Arkansas for the 1997-1999 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources and expenditure patterns. The report includes data on…

  20. Soricid response to canopy gaps created by wind disturbance in the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Stanlee Miller

    2004-01-01

    We used drift fences with pitfall traps to compare soricid abundance, richness, and demographic parameters among intact multiple-tree windthrow gaps, salvaged gaps, and mature forest in a xeric southern Appalachian forest type during 1997-1999. We also tested whether capture rates were correlated with rainfall, and whether similar-sized species did not co-occur as...

  1. Alignment of Idaho State Standards With The Idaho Direct Mathematics Assessment In Grades 4, 6, and 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffler, James

    2004-01-01

    The process used for this alignment was an abbreviated version of the alignment work and models developed by Norman L. Webb (1997, 1999, 2001, and 2002), and used in alignment studies of the Idaho state assessment system. While the full Webb alignment includes four dimensions, this study only considers two of the dimensions -- Depth of Knowledge…

  2. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  3. IDEA 1997--"Inclusion Is the Law."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sultana, Qaisar

    This paper stresses that the word "inclusion" is not used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and that the law calls for students with disabilities to be provided with a free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive environment. Ten 1997-1999 court cases that address the placement of students with…

  4. Associations between change in sleep duration and inflammation: findings on C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 in the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Miller, Michelle A; Gimeno, David; Kumari, Meena; Davey Smith, George; Shipley, Martin J

    2013-09-15

    Cross-sectional evidence suggests associations between sleep duration and levels of the inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. This longitudinal study uses data from the London-based Whitehall II study to examine whether changes in sleep duration are associated with average levels of inflammation from 2 measures 5 years apart. Sleep duration (≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 hours on an average week night) was assessed in 5,003 middle-aged women and men in 1991/1994 and 1997/1999. Fasting levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that shorter sleep is associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers. Longitudinal analyses showed that each hour per night decrease in sleep duration between 1991/1994 and 1997/1999 was associated with higher levels of C-reactive protein (8.1%) and interleukin-6 (4.5%) averaged across measures in 1997/1999 and 2002/2004. Adjustment for longstanding illness and major cardiometabolic risk factors indicated that disease processes may partially underlie these associations. An increase in sleep duration was not associated with average levels of inflammatory markers. These results suggest that both short sleep and reductions in sleep are associated with average levels of inflammation over a 5-year period.

  5. Terrorist Innovations in Weapons of Mass Effect: Preconditions, Causes, and Predictive Indicators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    explosives to attack a monument built up to honor the founder of the Civil Guard, the newspapers El Diario Vasco and Unidad , a few discotheques, a social...Administración II. Los sistemas administrativos (2000), Enciclopedia del nacionalismo (1997, 1999), Ciencia de la Administración. I. Teoría de la

  6. Importance of Coarse Woody Debris to Avian Communities in Loblolly Pine Forests

    Treesearch

    Steven M Lohr; Sidney A. Gauthreaux; John C. Kilgo

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the importance of standing (snags) aud down course woody debris (DCWD)) to bird communities in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests, we compared breeding (1997-1999) und nonbreeding (1997- 1998, 1998-1999) responses of birds among two course woody debris (CWD) removal and control treatments. In each of four blocks, we estahblished four...

  7. Decreased tuberculosis incidence and declining clustered case rates, Madrid.

    PubMed

    Iñigo, Jesús; Arce, Araceli; Palenque, Elia; García de Viedma, Darío; Chaves, Fernando

    2008-10-01

    To determine effect of recent tuberculosis transmission rates on incidence rates, we conducted 2 prospective population-based molecular epidemiologic studies in Madrid during 1997-1999 (4% immigrants) and 2002-2004 (14.9% immigrants). Case rates decreased in association with declining clustered case rates among Spanish-born persons. New strains were introduced through immigration.

  8. A Learning Framework for the Small Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelliher, Felicity; Henderson, Joan Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to offer insight into the factors affecting individual and organisational learning in a small business; specifically the identification of the learning relationships that are unique to the small business environment. Design/methodology/approach: The authors apply Crossan et al.'s (1997, 1999) Organisational…

  9. Use of Ottawa Ankle Decision Rules to Evaluate Blunt Ankle Trauma Case Studies by United States Air Force Health Care Providers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    CARE PROVIDERS William Anthony Novak APPROVED Carol Ledbetter, PhD, RN-C, CS, FNP Date Eugene Levine, PhD Date Patricia McMullen, CRNP, CNS, MS, JD...Services University (MSN) May, 1999 Major: FNP Bethesda, Maryland (1997-1999) California State University Major: Nursing Sacramento, California (1992-1994...and worked in an orthopedic clinic. One PA and one FNP reported working in both an emergency department and primary/family clinic. A Novak Thesis 39

  10. Adherence to the Otitis Media with Effusion Clinical Practice Guideline by Providers in a United States Air Force Medical Treatment Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    1982 BSN May 1982 Major: Nursing 1987-1989 MS May 1989 Major: Nursing 1997-1999 MSN May 1999 Major: FNP Current: Family Nurse...physician (MD), pediatric nurse practitioner (PNP), family nurse practitioner ( FNP ), or physician assistant (PA). Environmental risk factors...evaluated after treatment. Type of provider was determined for both visits: advanced practice nurse (PNP and FNP ), physician assistant, or medical doctor

  11. Population parameters and dynamic pool models of commercial fishes in the Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Du, Feiyan; Lin, Zhaojin; Sun, Dianrong; Huang, Shuolin

    2012-01-01

    Length-frequency data of eight commercial fish species in the Beibu Gulf (Golf of Tonkin), northern South China Sea, were collected during 2006-2007. Length-weight relationships and growth and mortality parameters were analyzed using FiSAT II software. Five species had isometric growth, two species had negative allometric growth, and one species had positive allometric growth. Overall, the exploitation rates of the eight species were lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999: for four species ( Saurida tumbil, Saurida undosquamis, Argyrosomus macrocephalus, and Nemipterus virgatus) it was lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999, for two species ( Parargyrops edita and Trichiurus haumela) it remained the same, and for the other two species ( Trachurus japonicus and Decapterus maruadsi) it was higher in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999. The exploitation rates might have declined because of the decline in fishing intensity caused by high crude oil prices. The optimum exploitation rate, estimated using Beverton-Holt dynamic pool models, indicated that although fishes in the Beibu Gulf could sustain high exploitation rates, the under-size fishes at first capture resulted in low yields. To increase the yield per recruitment, it is more effective to increase the size at first capture than to control fishing effort.

  12. Epidemic waves of cholera in the last two decades in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Langa, José Paulo; Sema, Cynthia; De Deus, Nilsa; Colombo, Mauro Maria; Taviani, Elisa

    2015-07-04

    Africa is increasingly affected by cholera. In Mozambique, cholera appeared in the early 1970s when the seventh pandemic entered Africa from the Indian subcontinent. In the following decades, several epidemics were registered in the country, the 1997-1999 epidemic being the most extended. Since then, Mozambique has been considered an endemic area for cholera, characterized by yearly outbreaks occurring with a seasonal pattern. At least three pandemic variants are thought to have originated in the Indian subcontinent and spread worldwide at different times. To understand the epidemiology of cholera in Mozambique, whether the disease re-emerges periodically or is imported by different routes of transmission, we investigated clinical V. cholerae O1 isolated during 1997-1999 and 2012-2014 epidemics. By detecting and characterizing seven genetic elements, the mobilome profile of each isolate was obtained. By comparing it to known seventh pandemic reference strains, it was possible to discern among different V. cholerae O1 variants active in the country. During 1997-1999, epidemic strains showed two different genetic profiles, both related to a pandemic clone that originated from India and was reported in other African countries in the 1990s. Isolates from 2012-2014 outbreaks showed a genetic background related to the pandemic strains currently active as the prevalent causative agent of cholera worldwide. Despite cholera being endemic in Mozambique, the epidemiology of the disease in the past 20 years has been strongly influenced by the cholera seventh pandemic waves that originated in the Indian subcontinent.

  13. Short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health: results from the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Helena; Fransson, Eleonor I; Westerlund, Hugo; Head, Jenny A

    2013-10-01

    To investigate short- and long-term effects of major organisational change on minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health for women and men in different employment grades. Minor psychiatric disorder and self-rated health among 6710 British civil servants (1993 women and 4717 men) in three employment grades from the Whitehall II study were examined from 1985 to 1988 under stable employment conditions. The short-term effects of organisational change were investigated in 1991-1993 after a time of major restructuring aiming at increasing the influence of market forces in the civil service and the long-term effects were investigated in 1997-1999. Those who had experienced organisational change and those who anticipated organisational change reported more negative short-term health effects (minor psychiatric disorder and poor self-rated health) compared with those who reported no change. No major differences were found depending on employment grade or gender. The negative health effects had diminished during 1997-1999 for those who reported that a major change had happened before 1991-1993. Those who anticipated an organisational change in 1991-1993 still reported more ill-health in 1997-1999 (both minor psychiatric disorder and self-reported health) than those in the comparison group. The results indicate that organisational change affects employees' health negatively in the short term but also that it is possible to recover from such negative effects. As it was not possible to discern any definite difference between the gender and grades, the results point at the importance of working proactively to implement organisational change for women and men at all levels.

  14. Current status of quality in Japanese clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Kodama, Yasuo; Ono, Shunsuke; Mutoh, Mizue; Kawashima, Susumu; Fujimura, Akio

    2005-08-01

    The changes in the quality of Japanese clinical trials were evaluated by comparing the results of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) audits conducted from April 1997 to March 2000 (fiscal year (FY) 1997-1999) with those from April 2001 to March 2002 (FY2001). During both of the periods inspections were undertaken by the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR). The audit findings in the former period were based on the audits that covered 331 hospitals and 775 trials conducted under the old GCP guideline. The audits in the latter period targeted 147 hospitals and 238 trials conducted under the old or new GCP guideline. The total number of deficiencies detected by GCP audits in the former three-year period (FY 1997-1999) was 1529, and the corresponding number in the latter single year (FY 2001) was 912. Two remarkable changes in OPSR's findings were observed between FY 1997-1999 and FY 2001 as follows; the proportion of protocol deviations increased from 14.7% (225/1529) to 53.1% (484/912), while the proportion of errors in case report forms (CRFs) decreased from 43.6% (666/1529) to 15.4% (140/912). The new GCP guideline sets very high standards for a hospital's qualification: to have sufficient equipment and hospital resources, to have capacity for promptly responding to urgent trial-related problems, to have an IRB, and to have appropriate staff including clinical research coordinators (CRCs) assigned to the clinical trial. Our results suggest that the impact of the regulatory changes of applicable standard is large for a hospital's qualification for conducting clinical trials in Japan.

  15. Reliability of Japanese clinical trials estimated from GCP audit findings.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kodama, Y; Ono, S; Maida, C; Fujimura, A; Miyamoto, E

    2008-08-01

    To describe the reliability of Japanese clinical trials, we compared the results of a Good Clinical Practice (GCP) audit conducted between April 1997 and March 2000 (fiscal year (FY) 1997 - 1999) with those from April 2004 - March 2005 (FY2004). The number and proportion of various types of deficiencies described in GCP audit reports were compared between the 2 periods. The audit findings in the former period were based on official audits that covered 331 hospitals and 775 trials. The audits in the latter period targeted 114 hospitals and 189 trials. The inspection of former period was undertaken by the Organization for Pharmaceuticals Safety and Research (OPSR). On the other hand, the latter period was undertaken by the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The total number of deficiencies detected in GCP audits was 1,529 in the former 3-year period (FY1997 - 1999) and 819 in the latter period (FY2004). The total number of deficiencies detected and reported was more than 1.5-fold on an annual basis in the latter period. By category of deficiencies, the proportion of protocol deviations increased from 14.7 (225/1,529) to 45.7% (374/819), while the proportion of errors in case report forms (CRFs) decreased from 43.6 (666/ 1,529) to 27.1% (222/819). There were two remarkable changes in audit findings between FY1997 - 1999 and FY2004; the increase in the proportion of protocol deviations and the decrease in the proportion of CRF-related deficiencies. We think that in Japan the improvement of research environments is needed to provide reliable clinical data responsible for the regulatory standard of GCP.

  16. Diets of short-tailed shearwaters in the southeastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L.; Baduini, Cheryl; Jahncke, Jaime

    2002-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the southeastern Bering Sea exhibited a number of anomalous conditions, including a major die-off of short-tailed shearwaters ( Puffinus tenuirostris), a trans-equatorial migrant that constitutes a major portion of the marine bird biomass in the southeastern Bering Sea. As part of a larger study of the ecological role of the inner or structural front over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf, in 1997-1999, we collected short-tailed shearwaters to determine diet composition. In spring 1997, we found that short-tailed shearwaters were consuming predominately the euphausiid Thysanoessa raschii, a diet expected on the basis of past studies. However, in subsequent years, short-tailed shearwater diets in spring contained increasingly larger proportions of fish, in particular, sandlance ( Ammodytes hexapterus), as well as other species of euphausiids ( T. inermis in 1999). In summer and fall collections, short-tailed shearwater diets were more varied than in spring, and included both fish (age-0 gadids, 21-35% by weight) and a wider variety of euphausiid species (T. inermis and T. spinifera). In summer and fall, crab zoea (August 1998) and copepods (August 1999) were eaten by shearwaters collected while feeding within the inner front. Diets in 1997-1999 were broader than those found in previous studies of short-tailed shearwaters over the inner shelf and Bristol Bay, which had documented diets composed almost solely of T. raschii. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that euphausiids were less available to short-tailed shearwaters foraging over the middle and coastal domains of the southeastern Bering Sea in 1997-1999 than has previously been true. Our results are also consistent with hypothesis that the inner front can affect the availability of prey to shearwaters.

  17. Examining the offender-victim overlap among police officers: the role of social learning and job-related stress.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    This study uses data from the Police Stress and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland 1997-1999 to examine the offender-victim overlap among police officers in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV). Specifically, the study examines the role of parental violence, child maltreatment, and job-related stress on perpetrating violence and victimization. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that one element of job-related stress (negative emotions) was positive and significant in predicting IPV perpetration, whereas parental violence, child maltreatment, and negative emotions were found to be positive and significant in predicting victimization. The study's limitations and future research are discussed.

  18. Alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among Native American college students: an exploratory quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Ridolfo, Heather

    2011-01-01

    We examine alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among US Native American college students by using 4 years of College Alcohol Study data (1993, 1997, 1999, and 2001; n = 267). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to quantitatively examine this population using advanced statistical analyses and a nationally representative sample of US college students. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses show that Native American college students have unique rates and patterns of substance use that must be addressed accordingly. It is suggested that specialized future research and policy are needed to properly address alcohol and drug use among this population. Limitations of the study are noted.

  19. Prediction failure of a wolf landscape model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    I compared 101 wolf (Canis lupus) pack territories formed in Wisconsin during 1993-2004 to the logistic regression predictive model of Mladenoff et al. (1995, 1997, 1999). Of these, 60% were located in putative habitat suitabilities 50% remained unoccupied by known packs after 24 years of recolonization. This model was a poor predictor of wolf re-colonizing locations in Wisconsin, apparently because it failed to consider the adaptability of wolves. Such models should be used cautiously in wolf-management or restoration plans.

  20. Incidence and mortality of tuberculosis disease in Spain between 1997 and 2010: impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status.

    PubMed

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Gijón, Lorena; Díaz, Asunción; Gil, Angel; Resino, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    To estimate incidence and mortality of TB disease in Spain, as well as TB recurrence and its mortality, and to analyse its trend from 1997 to 2010 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients (HIV(+) group), compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (HIV(-) group). We performed a retrospective study using data from Minimum Basic Data Set. The outcome variables were new TB diagnosis, TB recurrences, and mortality; which were analysed through three calendar periods related to widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART): a) From 1997 to 1999 for early-period cART; b) from 2000 to 2003 for mid-period cART; and c) from 2004 to 2008 for late-period cART. We studied 86,093 HIV-uninfected patients and 17,031 HIV infected patients. TB diagnosis in HIV(-) group (events per 100,000 patients-yr) decreased from 20.16 (1997-1999) to 16.31 (2000-2003; p < 0.001), and later to 13.48 (2004-2010; p < 0.001); and among HIV(+) group (events per 1000 patients-yr) it decreased from 19.23 (1997-1999) to 10.93 (2000-2003; p < 0.001), and later to 6.35 (2004-2010; p < 0.001). For the mortality, HIV(-) group (events per 1,000,000 patients-yr) decreased from 11.5 (1997-1999) to 9.8 (2000-2003; p < 0.001), and later to 7.2 (2004-2010; p < 0.001); and HIV(+) group (events per 10,000 patients-yr) decreased from 20.69 (1997-1999) to 13.20 (2000-2003; p < 0.001), and later to 6.83 (2004-2010; p < 0.001). During the whole period, the diagnostic rate and mortality of TB remained 100-fold higher in HIV(+) group than HIV(-) group (p < 0.001). Moreover, HIV (+) group had higher percentage of patients with TB recurrence than HIV(-) group (p < 0.001). TB diagnosis and mortality decreased in Spain between 1997 and 2010, in both HIV infected patients and people without HIV infection; but these rates remained higher in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coastal Inlets Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    e N u m b e 50 10 20 30 C u m W C u m u 00 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013** Calendar Year Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 4...Flow 14 Verification & Validation Cases Bouss-2D: Advanced phase -resolving wave propagation and t f ti d l Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 21 rans...Structures , Noyo Bay, CA Half Moon Bay, CA SWG M t d Shi Ch l TX : a agor a p anne , Galveston Bay, TX Sargent Beach, TX NAE P i t J dith H b RI

  2. The close lightning electromagnetic environment: Dart-leader electric field change versus distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, David E.; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Uman, Martin A.; Schnetzer, George H.; Rambo, Keith J.; Stapleton, Michael V.; Fisher, Richard J.

    2001-07-01

    Net electric field changes due to dart leaders in triggered lightning from experiments conducted in 1997, 1998, and 1999 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing at Camp Blanding, Florida, are analyzed and compared with similar data obtained in 1993 at Camp Blanding and at Fort McClellan, Alabama. In 1997-1999 the fields were measured at 2-10 stations with distances from the lightning channel ranging from 10 to 621 m, while in 1993 the fields were measured at three distances, 30, 50, and 110 m, in Florida and at two distances, about 10 and 20 m, in Alabama. With a few exceptions, the 1997-1999 data indicate that the distance dependence of the leader electric field change is close to an inverse proportionality (r-1), in contrast to the 1993 data in which a somewhat weaker distance dependence was observed. The typically observed r-1 dependence is consistent with a uniform distribution of leader charge along the bottom kilometer or so of the channel.

  3. Insecticide-treated bednets to prevent anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Aleppo Governorate, Syria: results from two trials.

    PubMed

    Jalouk, L; Al Ahmed, M; Gradoni, L; Maroli, M

    2007-04-01

    The increasing incidence of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Syria, coupled with the inefficacy of residual insecticide spraying to control the disease, have led to the further evaluation of the preventive efficacy of insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) through large-scale field studies. Two trials were performed in the historical ACL-endemic areas of the Aleppo Governorate. In 1997-1999, a matched-cluster randomized trial was conducted in five intervention (ITNs) and five control (untreated bednets) villages, which involved a population of 10354 in 1321 households. In 2001-2003, a second study was performed in four villages (a population of 9325 in 858 households), which allowed the evaluation of the impact of the interruption of ITN intervention on ACL incidence rates. Both studies not only confirmed the high efficacy of ITNs in preventing ACL during 1 year post-intervention [about 85% (95% CL 76-98%) in the 1997-1999 trial], but also suggested that the interruption of this control measure might restore the pre-intervention disease incidence within 1-2 years. These findings underline the need for a sustainable and durable implementation of ITN-based control of the disease.

  4. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Methods Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Results Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Conclusions Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. PMID:25155547

  5. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. © 2014 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  6. Primary varicella and herpes zoster among HIV-infected children from 1989 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sarah M; Shah, Samir S; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Rutstein, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes zoster in perinatally HIV-infected children. Secondary objectives included assessing the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and varicella zoster virus immunization on primary varicella and herpes zoster incidence and identifying risk factors for herpes zoster. We hypothesized that the incidence of herpes zoster has decreased in this population as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy and routine varicella zoster virus immunization. This retrospective cohort study included HIV-infected children at a pediatric HIV clinic from 1989 to 2006. Incidence rates for 3 intervals (1989-1996, 1997-1999, and 2000-2006) were compared on the basis of introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1996) and varicella zoster virus vaccination (1999). A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was developed for the time to herpes zoster among the subset of patients with primary varicella infection. In 356 patients followed for 1721 person-years, the incidence of herpes zoster according to period was 30.0 per 1000 person-years in 1989-1996, 31.9 per 1000 person-years in 1997-1999, and 6.5 per 1000 person-years in 2000-2006. There was no difference in incidence-rate ratio between 1989-1996 and 1997-1999. However, there was a significant difference in herpes zoster incidence when comparing 1989-1999 with 2000-2006. The incidence of primary varicella zoster virus infection and herpes zoster in the 57 patients who received the varicella zoster virus vaccine was 22.3 per 1000 and 4.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Highly active antiretroviral therapy at the time of primary varicella zoster virus infection was protective against herpes zoster and increased herpes zoster-free survival. The incidence of herpes zoster has decreased since 1989. The decline occurred after 2000, likely representing the combined effect of immunization and highly active antiretroviral therapy. The use

  7. Temporal variability in the life history and reproductive biology of female dugongs in Torres Strait: The likely role of sea grass dieback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Helene; Kwan, Donna

    2008-09-01

    The extensive sea grass meadows in Torres Strait enable it to be a globally important habitat for the dugong, Dugong dugon, a marine mammal of cultural and dietary significance to Torres Strait Islanders and the basis for the substantial island-based fishery in the Torres Strait Protected Zone. Torres Strait sea grass communities are subjected to episodic diebacks which are now believed to be largely natural events. Information on dugong life history was obtained from specimens obtained from female dugongs as they were butchered for food by Indigenous hunters at two major dugong hunting communities in Torres Strait: Daru (9.04°S, 143.21°E) in 1978-1982 (a time of sea grass dieback and recovery) and Mabuiag Island (9.95°S, 142.15°E) in 1997-1999 (when sea grasses were abundant). Dugongs sampled in 1997-1999 had their first calf at younger ages (minimum of 6 cf. 10 years), and more frequently (interbirth interval based on all possible pregnancies 2.6±0.4 (S.E.) yr cf. 5.8±1.0 yr) than the dugongs sampled in 1978-1982. Pregnancy rates increased monotonically during 1978-1982, coincident with sea grass recovery. The age distribution of the female dugongs collected in 1997-1999 also suggested a low birth rate between 1973 and 1983 and/or or a high level of mortality for animals born during this period. These results add to the evidence from other regions that the life history and reproductive rate of female dugongs are adversely affected by sea grass loss, the effect of which cannot be separated from a possible density-dependent response to changes in dugong population size. Many green turtles in Torres Strait were also in poor body condition coincident with the 1970s sea grass dieback. The impacts of future sea grass diebacks need to be anticipated when management options for the traditional Torres Strait fisheries for dugongs and green turtles are evaluated.

  8. Analysis of Wartime Consumption Rates for Chemical Defensive Equipment. Volume 3. Appendix D. Post-Processor Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    101.18 113.96 123.0 -N-----5 CTIC CATA - 10 RMXL FO]R WVCl&A KR DAYS 1 DRDI 15 Mv% tM OF O-eiICA&L RT•M••M 25 MIL DAS FJIF FOER EKH ODY OF BATTLE OaNm 1...0.68 0.68 6.66s 0.08 0.6 AG 0.68 .0.6 0.68 6.68 0.68e 66 0. 68 0. 68 ~e 0.0 AVEVM NM. RMAIE PER DAY PER 160M ~ TM AfW I CaMrWi 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 MCG 2...I6 IN W3’PPLM2 FR’ T - TMS CJ1Rw 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TOTAL 1 0.95 3.42 2.14 0.19 3.05 5.02 4.25 0.60 19.1 2 4.37 3.29 5.57 2.22 3.93 0.0 6.60 3.94 23.1 3

  9. Comparison of modelled and measured ozone concentrations and meteorology for a site in south-west Sweden: implications for ozone uptake calculations.

    PubMed

    Klingberg, Jenny; Danielsson, Helena; Simpson, David; Pleijel, Håkan

    2008-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level ozone concentrations and meteorology (temperature, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), solar radiation) at the monitoring site Ostad (south-west Sweden) were compared to data from the corresponding grid in the EMEP photo-oxidant model for 1997, 1999 and 2000. The influence of synoptic weather on the agreement between model and measurements was studied. Implications of differences between modelled and observed inputs for ozone flux calculations for wheat and potato were investigated. The EMEP model output of ozone, temperature and VPD correlated well with measurements during daytime. Deviations were larger during the night, especially in calm conditions, attributed to local climatological conditions at the monitoring site deviating from average conditions of the grid. These differences did not lead to significant differences in calculated ozone uptake, which was reproduced remarkably well. The uptake calculations were sensitive to errors in the ozone and temperature input data, especially when including a flux threshold.

  10. Ion Propulsion Development Projects in US: Space Electric Rocket Test I to Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations are reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, Space Electric Rocket Test (SERT) I, which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technologies employed on the early cesium engine flights, the applications technology satellite series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space 1 flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high level of flight readiness.

  11. Social class inequalities in health among occupational cohorts from Finland, Britain and Japan: a follow up study.

    PubMed

    Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kivimäki, Mika; Martikainen, Pekka; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Shipley, Martin; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Lallukka, Tea

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether relative occupational social class inequalities in physical health functioning widen, narrow or remain stable among white collar employees from three affluent countries. Health functioning was assessed twice in occupational cohorts from Britain (1997-1999 and 2003-2004), Finland (2000-2002 and 2007) and Japan (1998-1999 and 2003). Widening inequalities were seen for British and Finnish men, whereas inequalities among British and Finnish women remained relatively stable. Japanese women showed reverse inequalities at follow up, but no health inequalities were seen among Japanese men. Health behaviours and social relations explained 4-37% of the magnitude in health inequalities, but not their widening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Lung and heart-lung transplantation in Rabin medical center: early experience with 70 cases].

    PubMed

    Kramer, Mordechai R; Saute, Milton; Eidelman, Leonid; Aravot, Dan; Fink, Gershon; Shitrit, David; Izbicky, Gabriel; Izvicky, Gavriel; Dayan, Daniel Ben; Bakal, Ilana; Kogan, Alex; Gendel, Boris; Vidne, Bernardo; Sahar, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a relatively new field in solid organ transplantation. We present our early experience with the first 70 cases at the Rabin Medical Center during the years 1997-2003. Forty seven patients underwent single lung, eight double lung and eight heart-lung transplantations. The patients treated included 49 men and 21 women aged 5-66 years. There were 26 cases with emphysema COPD. 30 patients with pulmonary fibrosis. 5 patients with pulmonary hypertension/Eisenmenger and 9 patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Although early results (1997-1999) showed 1 and 3 year survival of only 50%, in the last 3 years (2000-2003), survival reached 84% and 82% at 1 and 3 years respectively. Improvement in the success rate is due to better patient selection, new immunosuppressive regimen and, most importantly, excellent teamwork. We conclude that lung transplantation is a viable option for selected patients with end-stage lung disease.

  13. Alteration Map Showing Major Faults and Veins and Associated Water-Quality Signatures of the Animas River Watershed Headwaters Near Silverton, Southwest Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, Dana J.; Yager, Douglas B.; Mast, M. Alisa; Dalton, J. Brad

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced to provide hard-copy and digital data for alteration assemblages in the historical mining area centered on the Tertiary San Juan and Silverton calderas. The data have direct application to geoenvironmental and mineral exploration objectives. This dataset represents alteration mapping for the upper Animas River watershed near Silverton, Colorado. The map is based on detailed 1:12,000-scale field mapping, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, mineral mapping by remote sensing (AVIRIS) data, and 1:24,000-scale aerial photographic interpretation. Geologic structures were compiled and generalized from multiple published and unpublished sources (Burbank and Luedke, 1964; Steven and others, 1974; Luedke and Burbank 1975a, b; Lipman, 1976; Luedke and Burbank, 1987; Luedke, 1996) (see Index Map). Unpublished mapping of the Ironton quadrangle by D.J. Bove and J.P. Kurtz in 1997-1999 was included.

  14. Estimation of slip distribution using an inverse method based on spectral decomposition of Green's function utilizing Global Positioning System (GPS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Honglin; Kato, Teruyuki; Hori, Muneo

    2007-07-01

    An inverse method based on the spectral decomposition of the Green's function was employed for estimating a slip distribution. We conducted numerical simulations along the Philippine Sea plate (PH) boundary in southwest Japan using this method to examine how to determine the essential parameters which are the number of deformation function modes and their coefficients. Japanese GPS Earth Observation Network (GEONET) Global Positioning System (GPS) data were used for three years covering 1997-1999 to estimate interseismic back slip distribution in this region. The estimated maximum back slip rate is about 7 cm/yr, which is consistent with the Philippine Sea plate convergence rate. Areas of strong coupling are confined between depths of 10 and 30 km and three areas of strong coupling were delineated. These results are consistent with other studies that have estimated locations of coupling distribution.

  15. A Synopsis of Ion Propulsion Development Projects in the United States: SERT 1 to Deep Space I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Patterson, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The historical background and characteristics of the experimental flights of ion propulsion systems and the major ground-based technology demonstrations were reviewed. The results of the first successful ion engine flight in 1964, SERT I which demonstrated ion beam neutralization, are discussed along with the extended operation of SERT II starting in 1970. These results together with the technology employed on the early cesium engine flights. the Applications Technology Satellite (ATS) series, and the ground-test demonstrations, have provided the evolutionary path for the development of xenon ion thruster component technologies, control systems, and power circuit implementations. In the 1997-1999 period, the communication satellite flights using ion engine systems and the Deep Space I flight confirmed that these auxiliary and primary propulsion systems have advanced to a high-level of flight-readiness.

  16. Temporal variability in phytodetritus and megabenthic activity at the seabed in the deep Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bett, Brian J.; Malzone, M. Gabriella; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.; Wigham, Benjamin D.

    We report a ten-year study of the abundance and activity of megabenthos on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, northeast Atlantic, together with observations on the occurrence of phytodetritus at the deep-sea floor (4850 m). Using the Southampton Oceanography Centre time-lapse camera system, ‘Bathysnap’, we have recorded a radical change in the abundance and activity of megabenthos between the two periods of study (1991-1994 and 1997-2000). In 1991-1994, the larger megabenthos occurred at an abundance of c. 71.6/ha and were dominated by large holothurians. In addition, there were very substantial populations of smaller megabenthic ophiuroids (c. 4979/ha). Together, the total megabenthos are estimated to track over some 17 cm 2/m 2/d (exploiting 100% of the surface of the seabed in c. 2.5 years). In 1997-2000, the larger megabenthos increased to an abundance of c. 204/ha and were joined by exceptional numbers of a small holothurian species ( Amperima rosea, 6457/ha) and ophiuroids (principally Ophiocten hastatum, 53,539/ha). The total megabenthos population was tracking at an estimnated rate of c. 247 cm 2/m 2/d (exploiting 100% of seabed in just 6 weeks). Coincident with these increases in the abundance and activity of the megabenthos, there were apparently no mass depositions of aggregated phytodetritus to the seabed in the summers of 1997-1999. Mass occurrences of phytodetritus had been noted during the summer months of the three years previously studied (1991, 1993 and 1994), with covering between 50 and 96% of the sediment surface. There is a statistically significant (p<0.02) negative correlation between maximum extent of this seabed cover of phytodetritus and seabed tracking by megabenthos. Additional studies [Lampitt et al., Progr. Ocean. 50 (2001)], indicate that there were no substantial changes in surface ocean primary productivity, in export flux, or in the composition of the flux that might otherwise account for the apparent absence of observable

  17. Dataset of aggregate producers in New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents data, including latitude and longitude, for aggregate sites in New Mexico that were believed to be active in the period 1997-1999. The data are presented in paper form in Part A of this report and as Microsoft Excel 97 and Data Interchange Format (DIF) files in Part B. The work was undertaken as part of the effort to update information for the National Atlas. This compilation includes data from: the files of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); company contacts; the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, New Mexico Bureau of Mine Inspection, and the Mining and Minerals Division of the New Mexico Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department (Hatton and others, 1998); the Bureau of Land Management Information; and direct communications with some of the aggregate operators. Additional information on most of the sites is available in Hatton and others (1998).

  18. Spaceborne GPS Current Status and Future Visions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Hartman, Kate; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), developed by the Department of Defense, is quickly revolutionizing the architecture of future spacecraft and spacecraft systems. Significant savings in spacecraft life cycle cost, in power, and in mass can be realized by exploiting Global Positioning System (GPS) technology in spaceborne vehicles. These savings are realized because GPS is a systems sensor-it combines the ability to sense space vehicle trajectory, attitude, time, and relative ranging between vehicles into one package. As a result, a reduced spacecraft sensor complement can be employed on spacecraft and significant reductions in space vehicle operations cost can be realized through enhanced on- board autonomy. This paper provides an overview of the current status of spaceborne GPS, a description of spaceborne GPS receivers available now and in the near future, a description of the 1997-1999 GPS flight experiments and the spaceborne GPS team's vision for the future.

  19. Population dynamics of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on citrus in South Africa, with implications for biological control.

    PubMed

    Wakgari, W M; Giliomee, J H

    2001-08-01

    The population dynamics of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, was studied intensively in four easy-peel citrus orchards in the Western Cape Province of South Africa over three consecutive years (1997-1999). Key factor analysis was used to determine and quantify the contribution of individual mortality factors to the total generation mortality. Key stage mortality, determined from a cohort life table, was in the third instar and pre-ovipositing female stages. Mortality of C. destructor was caused primarily by parasitoids, predators and miscellaneous factors. Parasitoids and miscellaneous factors acted as density-dependent regulatory agents during the pre-ovipositional and first instar stages respectively. This has implications for biological control of C. destructor. Some of the mortality factors acted either randomly with no reference to the population densities or in an inverse density-dependent manner during the egg-crawler, second or third instar stages.

  20. Infertility and spontaneous abortion among female hairdressers: the Hordaland Health Study.

    PubMed

    Baste, Valborg; Moen, Bente E; Riise, Trond; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Øyen, Nina

    2008-12-01

    The authors investigated the risks of negative reproductive outcome among female hairdressers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1997-1999, and 16,907 women in their forties were invited (response 71%). Information on infertility, delayed conception, spontaneous abortions, smoking, education, and occupation was collected. Infertility and spontaneous abortion were higher among female hairdressers than among women in other occupations (adjusted relative risks = 1.30; 95% confidence intervals = 1.08 to 1.55 and 1.31; 1.07 to 1.60, respectively). There was a significant interaction between work and smoking habits. Smoking increased the risk of infertility among women in other occupations, but this was not found among hairdressers. Female hairdressers have an increased risk of infertility and spontaneous abortions that might be due to their occupational chemical exposure. The risk was primarily found among never smokers.

  1. Origins of the SHEBA freshwater anomaly in the Mackenzie River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, M.; Porcelli, A.; Zhang, J.

    2006-05-01

    The formation of a low salinity anomaly observed in the southern Beaufort Gyre in fall 1997 is examined, using output from a numerical sea ice - ocean climate model. The anomaly forms from locally reduced fall ice growth and from advection of river water. With regard to the latter, we find anomalous northwestward advection of water from the Mackenzie River delta (MRD) during 1997-1999, which fed a low salinity anomaly that circulated and deepened in the Beaufort Gyre until summer 2002, when it dissipated. The MRD salinity anomaly was especially fresh in 1997 because unusually convergent sea ice the previous summer and fall 1996 suppressed fall ice growth. The model shows a high correlation between advection from the MRD and salinity anomalies in the southern Beaufort Gyre until about 2002, when the correlation weakens as local sea ice melt/growth becomes the dominant forcing.

  2. Predictors of shared decision making and level of agreement between consumers and providers in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P; Matthias, Marianne S; Collins, Linda; Thompson, John; Coffman, Melinda; Torrey, William C

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine elements of shared decision making (SDM), and to establish empirical evidence for factors correlated with SDM and the level of agreement between consumer and provider in psychiatric care. Transcripts containing 128 audio-recorded medication check-up visits with eight providers at three community mental health centers were rated using the Shared Decision Making scale, adapted from Braddock's Informed Decision Making Scale (Braddock et al. 1997, 1999, 2008). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that greater consumer activity in the session and greater decision complexity significantly predicted the SDM score. The best predictor of agreement between consumer and provider was "exploration of consumer preference," with a four-fold increase in full agreement when consumer preferences were discussed more completely. Enhancing active consumer participation, particularly by incorporating consumer preferences in the decision making process appears to be an important factor in SDM.

  3. Predictors of Shared Decision Making and Level of Agreement between Consumers and Providers in Psychiatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Sadaaki; Salyers, Michelle P.; Matthias, Marianne S.; Collins, Linda; Thompson, John; Coffman, Melinda; Torrey, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively examine elements of shared decision making (SDM), and to establish empirical evidence for factors correlated with SDM and the level of agreement between consumer and provider in psychiatric care. Transcripts containing 128 audio-recorded medication check-up visits with eight providers at three community mental health centers were rated using the Shared Decision Making scale, adapted from Braddock’s Informed Decision Making Scale (Braddock et al., 1997; 1999; 2008). Multilevel regression analyses revealed that greater consumer activity in the session and greater decision complexity significantly predicted the SDM score. The best predictor of agreement between consumer and provider was “exploration of consumer preference,” with a four-fold increase in full agreement when consumer preferences were discussed more completely. Enhancing active consumer participation, particularly by incorporating consumer preferences in the decision making process appears to be an important factor in SDM. PMID:23299226

  4. A Benchmark Problem for Development of Autonomous Structural Modal Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.; Woodard, Stanley E.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes modal identification results obtained using an autonomous version of the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm on a dynamically complex, laboratory structure. The benchmark problem uses 48 of 768 free-decay responses measured in a complete modal survey test. The true modal parameters of the structure are well known from two previous, independent investigations. Without user involvement, the autonomous data analysis identified 24 to 33 structural modes with good to excellent accuracy in 62 seconds of CPU time (on a DEC Alpha 4000 computer). The modal identification technique described in the paper is the baseline algorithm for NASA's Autonomous Dynamics Determination (ADD) experiment scheduled to fly on International Space Station assembly flights in 1997-1999.

  5. Near-infrared analysis of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) on different spectrometers--basic considerations for a reliable network.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Boris; Schulz, Hartwig

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and transferability of near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for estimating the content and composition of the volatile fraction in fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) as an example of medicinal and spice plants. A master calibration with spectra obtained on a scanning monochromator was generated using 345 samples from three different harvests (1997-1999). A subset of 70 samples from 1999 was also measured on a dispersive grating and a scanning diode array system to gain an insight into the influence of sample presentation and scanning techniques. For all instruments, calibrations with standard errors in the range of the reference method were achieved. Furthermore the influence of storage on NIR spectra and, additionally, the potential of transferring spectra between both scanning monochromators was studied.

  6. Initial results from the European Network of Health Promoting Schools program on development of health education in Finland.

    PubMed

    Turunen, H; Tossavainen, K; Jakonen, S; Salomäki, U; Vertio, H

    1999-12-01

    The European Network of Health Promoting School (ENHPS) program aims to foster healthy lifestyles for school populations by developing supportive teaching and learning environments conducive to promotion of health. Most European countries have joined the network since its organization in 1993. This paper describes how the European, national, and local aims of the ENHPS program have been realized in Finnish schools during the first year of the second triennium (1997-1999). Substantial development related to health promotion has occurred in the Finnish ENHPS schools. A safe school environment was emphasized, and networking with other schools was encouraged at the international and national levels. Attitudes toward the ENHPS program generally were positive. However, Finnish schools have emphasized developing "structures" for health promotion. In the future, efforts should concentrate on students' active participation in the activities of health promotion in everyday teaching and learning situations.

  7. CAND-LO 2014-15 study: changing epidemiology of candidemia in Lombardy (Italy).

    PubMed

    Prigitano, Anna; Cavanna, Caterina; Passera, Marco; Ossi, Cristina; Sala, Eugenio; Lombardi, Gianluigi; Grancini, Anna; De Luca, Concetta; Bramati, Simone; Gelmi, Marina; Tejada, Milvana; Grande, Romualdo; Farina, Claudio; Lallitto, Fabiola; Tortorano, Anna Maria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor recent changes in the epidemiology of candidemia and in the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida isolates in one Italian region (Lombardy) in 2014-2015 in comparison with two other studies performed in the same area in 1997-1999 and in 2009. A laboratory-based surveillance was conducted in 11 microbiology laboratories. Identification of Candida isolates from 868 episodes and antifungal susceptibility testing (YeastOne) was performed locally. A progressive increase in the rate of candidemia up to 1.27/1000 admissions and 1.59/10,000 patient days was documented. In all the three surveys, Candida albicans remains the most frequently isolated species, ranging from 52 to 59 % of the etiology of BSIs. The epidemiological shift to the more resistant C. glabrata, observed between 1997-1999 and 2009 surveys, was not confirmed by our more recent data. The pattern of etiology of BSIs occurred in 2014-2015 overlaps that of the 90s. Acquired antifungal resistance is a rare event. No isolate had an amphoterin B minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, mg/L) value higher than the epidemiological cutoff. All the echinocandin MIC distributions are typical for wild-type organisms except for those of two C. glabrata isolates. Fluconazole resistance declined from 24.9 % in the 2009 survey to 5.4 % in the recent one. Data from regional surveys may highlight the influence of therapeutic practices on the epidemiology of Candida BSIs and may optimize empirical therapies.

  8. Recent trends of persistent organic pollutants in air in central Europe - Air monitoring in combination with air mass trajectory statistics as a tool to study the effectivity of regional chemical policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorská, A.; Lammel, G.; Holoubek, I.

    We use air mass back trajectory analysis of persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels monitored at a regional background site, Košetice, Czech Republic, as a tool to study the effectiveness of emission reduction measures taken in the last decade in the region. The representativity of the chosen trajectory starting height for air sampling near ground was ensured by excluding trajectories starting at time of inversions lower than their starting height. As the relevant pollutant sources are exclusively located in the atmospheric boundary layer, trajectory segments above this layer were also excluded from the analysis. We used a linear time weight to account for the influence of dispersion and deposition on trace components abundances and to quantify the ground source loading, a continuous measure for the influence of surface emissions. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and two time periods, the years 1997-1999 and 2004-2006, were studied. The pollutant levels transported to Košetice decreased for all substances except HCB. Except for lindane seasonal emissions were insignificant. Increasing emissions of HCB were at least partly linked to the 2002 floods in the Danube basin. Major emissions of 1997-1999 which decreased significantly were in France (lindane), western Poland, Hungary and northern ex-Yugoslavia (technical HCH), and the Czech Republic (DDT). Emissions remaining in 2004-2006 include HCB and DDT in the northern Czech Republic, HCB and PCBs in Germany. Besides changes in emission strength meteorological factors influence the level of transported pollutant concentrations. The prevailing air flow pattern limits the geographic coverage of this analysis to central Europe and parts of western Europe. However, no POP monitoring stations exist in areas suitable for a possible extension of the study area.

  9. Plasma Homocysteine and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Type 1 Diabetes: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Julie A.; Thorpe, Suzanne R.; Klein, Richard L.; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Plasma homocysteine (tHcy) has been positively associated with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in non-diabetic populations and in a few cross-sectional studies of diabetic patients. We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of a single measure of tHcy with common and internal carotid IMT over a 6-year period in type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS tHcy levels were measured once, in plasma obtained in 1997-1999 from patients (n=599) in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, the observational follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Common and internal carotid IMT were determined twice, in EDIC “Year 6” (1998-2000) and “Year 12” (2004-2006), using B-mode ultra-sonography. RESULTS After adjustment, plasma tHcy [median (interquartile range): 6.2 (5.1, 7.5) μmol/L] was significantly correlated with age, diastolic blood pressure, renal dysfunction, and smoking (all p<0.05). In an unadjusted model only, increasing quartiles of tHcy correlated with common and internal carotid IMT, again at both EDIC time-points (p<0.01). However, multivariate logistic regression revealed no significant associations between increasing quartiles of tHcy and the 6-year change in common and internal carotid IMT (highest vs. lowest quintile) when adjusted for conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS In a type 1 diabetes cohort from the EDIC study, plasma tHcy measured in samples drawn in 1997-1999 was associated with measures of common and internal carotid IMT measured both one and seven years later, but not with IMT progression between the two time-points. The data do not support routine measurement of tHcy in people with Type 1 diabetes. PMID:25063949

  10. Long-term Adherence to Healthy Dietary Guidelines and Chronic Inflammation in the Prospective Whitehall II Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Virtanen, Marianna; Lowe, Gordon; Hamer, Mark; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in the cause of cardiovascular diseases and may contribute to the association linking an unhealthy diet to chronic age-related diseases. However, to date the long-term associations between diet and inflammation have been poorly described. Our aim was to assess the extent to which adherence to a healthy diet and dietary improvements over a 6-year exposure period prevented subsequent chronic inflammation over a 5-year follow-up in a large British population of men and women. Methods Data were drawn from 4600 adults (mean ± standard deviation, age 49.6 ± 6.1 years, 28% were women) from the prospective Whitehall cohort II study. Adherence to a healthy diet was measured using Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) scores in 1991-1993 (50.7 ± 11.9 points) and 1997-1999 (51.6 ± 12.4 points). Chronic inflammation, defined as average levels of serum interleukin-6 from 2 measures 5 years apart, was assessed in 1997-1999 and 2002-2004. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and health status, participants who maintained a high AHEI score (ie, a healthy diet, n = 1736, 37.7%) and those who improved this score over time (n = 681, 14.8%) showed significantly lower mean levels of interleukin-6 (1.84 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-1.98 and 1.84 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.70-1.99, respectively) than those who had a low AHEI score (n = 1594, 34.6%) over the 6-year exposure period (2.01 pg/mL, 95% CI, 1.87-2.17). Conclusions These data suggest that maintaining and improving adherence to healthy dietary recommendations may reduce the risk of long-term inflammation. PMID:25305231

  11. [The use of molecular biology techniques in the articles published in Revista Médica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Herskovic, V; Jacard, M; Reyes, H

    2000-04-01

    Molecular biology is a new branch of biological sciences, with novel laboratory techniques that are being progressively applied into biomedical and clinical research and, furthermore, into medical practice. To evaluate the use of molecular biology techniques in Chilean biomedical and clinical research and its evolution in the recent decade. All papers published as research articles, clinical experiences or case reports, in Revista Médica de Chile, during two time periods: 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, were reviewed to find out whether molecular biology techniques had been used or not. This journal publishes roughly 40% of papers generated in Chile, in biomedical or clinical topics, while another 15% appears in foreign journals. Among 341 papers published in 1987-1989, 57 (16.7%) had used one or more molecular biology techniques; in contrast, among 318 papers published in 1997-1999, 91 (28.8%) had used them (p < 0.001). Most papers using molecular biology techniques were research articles. Immunology, genetics, endocrinology, hematology, hepatology and rheumatology were the specialties providing a greater number and proportion of papers using molecular biology techniques. Chilean universities were the main institutions sponsoring these articles and FONDECYT (the Chilean Government Research Granting Office) was the main source of funding. The University of Chile (State-owned) provided most centers where these publications had been generated, followed by the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. Molecular biology techniques have been rapidly and progressively incorporated as research tools in biomedicine and clinical medicine, in Chile. At the present time, these techniques are predominantly used in research conducted in University settings and funded by Governmental research grants.

  12. Validity assessment of the symptom checklist SCL-90-R and shortened versions for the general population in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Yuliia; Dembitskyi, Serhii

    2016-08-26

    The Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) is a widely used symptomatic distress questionnaire. A translated version of the SCL-90-R has been applied in Ukrainian general population surveys several times but has not yet been validated in this country. The SCL-90-R and its short versions (BSI-53, SCL-27, BSI-18, SCL-14 and SCL-9-K) were investigated in order to comparatively assess their properties and applications in Ukraine. Secondary analysis of three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1997, 1999 and 2014) using SCL-90-R was applied. Two thousand sixty nine respondents participated in 2014; the sample size for the 1997 and 1999 surveys was 1810 respondents per wave. Statistical data analysis is based on calculating internal consistencies with Cronbach's Alpha, confirmatory factor analysis, nonparametric correlations and effect sizes for the equivalence of the full and short versions. The scales of SCL-90-R and its shortened versions showed equally high internal consistencies. With regard to factorial validity, 2014 data confirmed the dimensional structure of all versions. Unsatisfactory results were found in 1997 and 1999 for SCL-90-R and in 1997 for SCL-27, based on the Chi-square criterion (χ2/degrees of freedom > 5), though other indexes suggested satisfactory model fit (RMSEA < 0.06; CFI, TLI > 0.95). Analysis of the equivalence of shortened and full versions of the SCL-90-R has shown the presence of small effect sizes. BSI-18 and SCL-9-K are recommended for use in general population surveys as more economical versions of SCL-90-R. Both versions revealed satisfactory validity in 1997, 1999 and 2014.

  13. Practice to introduce complementary foods to infants in Taiwan--changes from 1997 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia-Rong; Tzeng, Min-Su; Kao, Mei-Ding; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand present infant complementary foods eating and compare trends over the past 10 years in Taiwan. We investigated the methods used to introduce infants to complementary foods, difficulties encountered, sources of information and the principle caregiver's knowledge about infant feeding. This study focused on findings from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) and compared with those from the 1997-1999 Child NAHSIT. Interviews in both surveys were carried out by trained interviewers. In 2005-2008 survey, 50% of infants aged 7-12 months had started eating baby cereals or juice at age 4-6 months as recommended. The proportions of infants aged 10-12 months who were introduced to particular complementary foods at recommended periods varied from biscuits (51.1%) to tofu (1.1%). The proportions were higher in 2005-2008 than in 1997-1999 for only 3 items. In both survey, more than 80% of mothers were the one who made the decision to introduce their children to complementary foods. More than 75% of caregivers fed baby cereals to their babies from milk bottles. In 2005-2008, the most commonly encountered problem was that the child wouldn't eat. Nutrition knowledge of the caregivers have improved since 1999, but still needs fostering. The timing to introduce complementary foods become later than ten years ago. Whether the delay will affect the normal dietary intakes of children after one year of age needs attention. The government should not only promote breastfeeding, but also reevaluate current evidence-based recommendation on complementary food introduction time.

  14. [Sick leave among workers employed in restructured enterprise].

    PubMed

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    Ownership and restructuring transformations that are taking now place in Poland, as well as the situation on the labor market have their impact on the indicators, which illustrate the workers' health situation, including temporary work disability preceding the issue of the certification granting the disability pension. The aim of this analysis was to identify the changes in the extent and causes of sickness absence among workers after restructuring. The study was carried out in one of the largest transport industry enterprises during the years of its restructuring (1984-1994), covering 8588 workers, and after its restructuring (1997-1999), covering 2702 workers. Following the restructuring, the enterprise's staff was rejuvenated so that the number of workers aged over 50 years decreased by almost fifty percent. The analysis was based on the sickness absence rate calculated as the ratio between the number of days of work disability in a given period of time and the number of person-days in the same period. In 1997-1999, a 33% decrease in sickness absence among women and a 25% decrease among men were observed in the study enterprise as compared with the period of 1989-1994. However, the enhanced absence was also found due to the following diseases: mental disorders (a threefold increase in men); diseases of the musculoskeletal system (by 54% in men and by 43% in women); endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (a threefold increase in women). Following the restructuring, considerable changes in the sickness absence structure, by causes of diseases, were revealed. A substantial decrease in the share of male and female absence due to diseases of the respiratory and circulatory systems and almost threefold decrease in complications of pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium in women were noted. In addition, over twofold increase in male and female sickness absence due to diseases of the musculoskeletal system, and lower but significant

  15. Response of ozone and nitrate to stationary source NO x emission reductions in the eastern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Thomas J.; Vermeylen, Francoise M.; Rury, Melissa; Likens, Gene E.; Lee, Brian; Bowker, George E.; McCluney, Lance

    2011-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the impact of reduced stationary source NO x emissions on ground-level concentrations of ozone (O 3) and dry-NO 3 (HNO 3(g) + NO 3-(p)) in the eastern United States (EUS). Total anthropogenic NO x and VOC emissions have declined 32% and 20%, respectively, from 1997 to 2005 in the 20 eastern states participating in a NO x Budget Trading Program (NBP). Annual and ozone season (OS) NO x emissions from electric generating units (EGUs) have declined 48% and 66%, respectively, in the EUS. From 1997-1999 to 2006-2008 measured decline in meteorologically adjusted (met-adj) daily maximum 8-h (dm8h) O 3, has been 8 ppb or 14% for the EUS during the May-September OS, with the largest declines occurring in the highest concentration category (99th percentile). Random coefficient models, with NBP and Acid Rain Program (ARP) regulated NO x emissions as the independent variable, show highly significant relations ( p ≤ 0.0001) to dm8h O 3 for 1997-2008 during the OS. Regional declines within the EUS range from 11% to 16%. The patterns of the O 3 trends are in general agreement with other recent studies. Rural and urban sites both show similar levels of decline from pre- to post-NBP periods. Dry-NO 3 during the OS shows a substantial decline from 3.1 to 1.8 μg NO 3 m -3. Random coefficient models show regional results ranging from 32% to 39% declines, and measured results show a 35-46% decline in dry-NO 3 from 1997-1999 to 2006-2008. These results suggest that regulating NO x emissions has been highly effective in reducing both ozone and dry-NO 3 concentrations during the OS. Overall, a 32% reduction in total annual anthropogenic NO x emissions from 1997 to 2005 has been accompanied by a 7-8 ppb, or 12-13% decline in OS dm8h O 3 concentration, and a 34% decline in dry-NO 3 concentration in the 20-state NBP region. Model results indicate a 50% further reduction in NBP regulated NO x emissions will reduce O 3 concentrations an additional 3-5% and dry

  16. Serological markers for monitoring historical changes in malaria transmission intensity in a highly endemic region of Western Kenya, 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jacklyn; Hamel, Mary J; Drakeley, Chris J; Kariuki, Simon; Shi, Ya Ping; Lal, Altaf A; Nahlen, Bernard L; Bloland, Peter B; Lindblade, Kim A; Were, Vincent; Otieno, Kephas; Otieno, Peter; Odero, Chris; Slutsker, Laurence; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2014-11-22

    Monitoring local malaria transmission intensity is essential for planning evidence-based control strategies and evaluating their impact over time. Anti-malarial antibodies provide information on cumulative exposure and have proven useful, in areas where transmission has dropped to low sustained levels, for retrospectively reconstructing the timing and magnitude of transmission reduction. It is unclear whether serological markers are also informative in high transmission settings, where interventions may reduce transmission, but to a level where considerable exposure continues. This study was conducted through ongoing KEMRI and CDC collaboration. Asembo, in Western Kenya, is an area where intense malaria transmission was drastically reduced during a 1997-1999 community-randomized, controlled insecticide-treated net (ITN) trial. Two approaches were taken to reconstruct malaria transmission history during the period from 1994 to 2009. First, point measurements were calculated for seroprevalence, mean antibody titre, and seroconversion rate (SCR) against three Plasmodium falciparum antigens (AMA-1, MSP-119, and CSP) at five time points for comparison against traditional malaria indices (parasite prevalence and entomological inoculation rate). Second, within individual post-ITN years, age-stratified seroprevalence data were analysed retrospectively for an abrupt drop in SCR by fitting alternative reversible catalytic conversion models that allowed for change in SCR. Generally, point measurements of seroprevalence, antibody titres and SCR produced consistent patterns indicating that a gradual but substantial drop in malaria transmission (46-70%) occurred from 1994 to 2007, followed by a marginal increase beginning in 2008 or 2009. In particular, proportionate changes in seroprevalence and SCR point estimates (relative to 1994 baseline values) for AMA-1 and CSP, but not MSP-119, correlated closely with trends in parasite prevalence throughout the entire 15-year study

  17. Nitrogenase activity and nifH expression in a marine intertidal microbial mat.

    PubMed

    Steppe, T F; Paerl, H W

    2005-02-01

    N(2) fixation, diazotrophic community composition, and organisms actively expressing genes for N(2) fixation were examined over at 3-year period (1997-1999) for intertidal microbial mats on a sand flat located in the Rachel Carson National Estuarine Research Reserve (RCNERR) (Beaufort, NC, USA). Specifically, diel variations of N(2) fixation in the mats from the RCNERR were examined. Three distinct diel patterns of nitrogenase activity (NA) were observed. NA responses to short-term inhibitions of photosynthesis corresponded to one of the three patterns. High rates of NA were observed during peak O(2) production periods for diel experiments during summer months. Different types of NA diel variations correspond to different stages of mat development. Chloramphenicol treatments indicated that the mechanism of protein synthesis supporting NA changed throughout the day. Analysis of mat DNA and RNA gave further evidence suggesting that in addition to cyanobacteria, other functional groups were responsible for the NA observed in the RCNERR mats. The role of microbial diversity in the N(2) fixation dynamics of these mats is discussed.

  18. Resilient children of injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Zybert, Patricia A; Vlahov, David

    2004-11-01

    To examine associations between resilience in children of injection drug users and children's coping strategies, parenting stress, and children's social support. Injection drug-using parents (n=91) and their children aged 6 to 11 (n=117) were recruited in Baltimore (1997-1999). Resilience was defined as scoring in the lowest quartile of the Child Behavior Checklist total psychopathology score. Coping strategies used by resilient and nonresilient children, the extent and types of social support that they received, and the level of parenting stress reported by their parents were compared and contrasted. Rates of depressive, anxiety, and disruptive behavior disorders were 15.4%, 22.2%, and 21.4%, respectively, for the entire sample. Compared with the nonresilient, resilient children were less likely to use two avoidance coping strategies (internalizing [p=.002] and externalizing [p=.017]). The level of actual support received by resilient and nonresilient children did not differ significantly (p=.202). Perceived support was greater among resilient children (as reported by their parents; p <.001), and their parents reported lower parenting stress (p=.042). A significant proportion of children of injection drug users are in need of clinical care. Interventions to help children of substance-abusing parents modify their coping style merit exploration.

  19. Use of remote sensing techniques to determine the effects of grazing on vegetation cover and dune elevation at assateague island national seashore: Impact of horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Stoppelaire, G. H.; Gillespie, T.W.; Brock, J.C.; Tobin, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of grazing by feral horses on vegetation and dune topography at Assateague Island National Seashore were investigated using color-infrared imagery, lidar surveys, and field measurements. Five pairs of fenced and unfenced plots (300 m2) established in 1993 on sand flats and small dunes with similar elevation, topography, and vegetation cover were used for this study. Color-infrared imagery from 1998 and field measurements from 2001 indicated that there was a significant difference in vegetation cover between the fenced and unfenced plot-pairs over the study period. Fenced plots contained a higher percentage of vegetation cover that was dominated by American beachgrass (Ammophila breviligulata). Lidar surveys from 1997, 1999, and 2000 showed that there were significant differences in elevation and topography between fenced and unfenced plot-pairs. Fenced plots were, on average, 0.63 m higher than unfenced plots, whereas unfenced plots had generally decreased in elevation after establishment in 1993. Results demonstrate that feral horse grazing has had a significant impact on dune formation and has contributed to the erosion of dunes at Assateague Island. The findings suggest that unless the size of the feral horse population is reduced, grazing will continue to foster unnaturally high rates of dune erosion into the future. In order to maintain the natural processes that historically occurred on barrier islands, much larger fenced exclosures would be required to prevent horse grazing. ?? 2004 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  20. The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Muzika, R M; Guyette, R P; Zielonka, T; Liebhold, A M

    2004-07-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO(2) and SO(2) were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O(3) alone was not related to growth, the maximum O(3) value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  1. Late summer survival of adult female and juvenile spectacled eiders on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Barry, Grand J.; Morse, J.A.; Fondell, T.F.

    2000-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to examine survival of adult female and juvenile Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) from 30 days after hatch until departure from the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) during 1997-1999. Juvenile survival was 71.4%; adult female survival was 88.5%. Mink (Mustella vison) were the most common predator identified for both adults and juveniles. Detectable levels of lead were found in bones of 74% of juvenile carcasses recovered and 21% had levels indicative of acute exposure. Average age at departure was 59 ?? 1 days old for juveniles and 56 ?? 1 days after hatch for adults. Most broods (60.5%) departed the YKD synchronously. Overall our data indicate that mortality during the latter half of brood-rearing is higher than previously thought. We conclude that brood rearing is a period of high mortality for brood-rearing females and that lead poisoning is responsible for reductions in juvenile survival to fledging. Received 15 February 2000, accepted 1 April 2000.

  2. Comparative in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin in a North American surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Hoban, D J; Bouchillon, S K; Johnson, J L; Zhanel, G G; Butler, D L; Miller, L A; Poupard, J A

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of gemifloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, was compared to three marketed fluoroquinolones; ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin against over 4,000 recent clinical isolates covering 29 species isolated in the United States and Canada between 1997-1999. Based on MIC(90)s, gemifloxacin was the most potent fluoroquinolone tested against a majority of Gram-positive isolates: Streptococcus pneumoniae, penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae, macrolide resistant S. pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible (MIC > or = 4 microg/mL) S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, viridans streptococci, Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hemolyticus, and S. saprophyticus. Against Enterobacteriaceae and aerobic non-Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negatives, gemifloxacin was usually comparable to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin and more potent than ofloxacin for the following species: Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii, Proteus mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter lwoffii, A. baumannii, Burkholderia cepacia, Haemophilus influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Gemifloxacin was generally 16-64 fold more potent than the other fluoroquinolones tested against Gram-positive organisms and retains excellent activity comparable with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against a majority of Gram-negative pathogens.

  3. Initial poststocking mortality, oxytetracycline marking, and year-class contribution of black-nosed crappies stocked into Tennessee reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isermann, D.A.; Bettoli, P.W.; Sammons, S.M.; Churchill, T.N.

    2002-01-01

    Initial poststocking mortality, oxytetracycline mark persistence, and year-class contribution were evaluated for black-nosed crappies, a morphological variant of the black crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus, stocked into Tennessee reservoirs during 1997-1999. Average initial poststocking mortality was low (x?? = 13%, N = 44). Lake temperature and the difference between lake and hauling tank water temperatures were significant in explaining variability in arcsine-transformed mortality estimates; however, the variability explained by these factors was low (R2 = 0.15). Oxytetracycline immersion was a highly effective marking tool; 97-100% of all crappies treated were marked, and 99% of the marks were visible 36-110 weeks after marking. All control otoliths were correctly scored as unmarked during the evaluation, and mortality rates did not differ between marked and unmarked crappies. Year-class contribution was variable across reservoirs and was highest in Normandy Reservoir (34-93% at ages 1-3). Contribution at ages 1 and 2 was 11-24% in Woods Reservoir. Stocking did not supplement the crappie population in Lake Graham. Black-nosed crappies made up a significant portion (>50%) of the crappies harvested by anglers in Center Hill Reservoir 3 years after stocking was initiated. Conversely, black-nosed crappies made up a relatively small percentage (???12%) of the crappies harvested in Cherokee Reservoir in the 4 years after initial stocking.

  4. Temporal dynamics of emergency department and hospital admissions of pediatric asthmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel; Levine, Elissa; Timmins, Sidey; Weiss, Sheila R.; Bollinger, Mary E.; Blaisdell, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that can result in exacerbations leading to urgent care in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals. We examined seasonal and temporal trends in pediatric asthma ED (1997-1999) and hospital (1986-1999) admission data so as to identify periods of increased risk of urgent care by age group, gender, and race. All pediatric ED and hospital admission data for Maryland residents occurring within the state of Maryland were evaluated. Distinct peaks in pediatric ED and hospital asthma admissions occurred each year during the winter-spring and autumn seasons. Although the number and timing of these peaks were consistent across age and racial groups, the magnitude of the peaks differed by age and race. The same number, timing, and relative magnitude of the major peaks in asthma admissions occurred statewide, implying that the variables affecting these seasonal patterns of acute asthma exacerbations occur statewide. Similar gross seasonal trends are observed worldwide. Although several environmental, infectious, and psychosocial factors have been linked with increases in asthma exacerbations among children, thus far they have not explained these seasonal patterns of admissions. The striking temporal patterns of pediatric asthma admissions within Maryland, as described here, provide valuable information in the search for causes.

  5. On the Making of Quantum Chemistry in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karachalios, Andreas

    During the 1990s several historians of science have studied the emergence of quantum chemistry as an autonomous discipline in different national contexts (Nye, 1993; Simões, 1993; Simões, forthcoming; Gavroglu and Simões, 1994; Karachalios, 1997a). Beyond these disciplinary studies, a number of contributions to special aspects of this theme have appeared (Schweber, 1990; Gavroglu, 1995; Simões and Gavroglu, 1997, 1999a,b; Schwarz et al., 1999). In this literature the birth of quantum chemistry has generally been associated with two dates: the 1927 paper of Walter Heitler and Fritz London and the year 1931 in which Linus Pauling and John Clarke Slater independently explained the tetrahedral orientation of the four bonds of the carbon atom. To these dates we might also add a third: in 1928 London published a paper, 'Zur Quantentheorie der homöopolaren Valenzzahlen' (London, 1928), in which he gave a quantum mechanical explanation of the classical chemical notion of valency. There he showed a relationship between the valency numbers and the spectroscopical multiplicity, namely that valency=multiplicity-1. This relation established a bridge between physical and chemical facts. Taken together, these developments constitute important events for the international development of quantum chemistry.

  6. Participant satisfaction with a school telehealth education program using interactive compressed video delivery methods in rural Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Bynum, Ann B; Cranford, Charles O; Irwin, Cathy A; Denny, George S

    2002-08-01

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors can affect the impact of telehealth education programs that use interactive compressed video technology. This study assessed program satisfaction among participants in the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences' School Telehealth Education Program delivered by interactive compressed video. Variables in the one-group posttest study were age, gender, ethnicity, education, community size, and program topics for years 1997-1999. The convenience sample included 3,319 participants in junior high and high schools. The School Telehealth Education Program provided information about health risks, disease prevention, health promotion, personal growth, and health sciences. Adolescents reported medium to high levels of satisfaction regarding program interest and quality. Significantly higher satisfaction was expressed for programs on muscular dystrophy, anatomy of the heart, and tobacco addiction (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). Females, African Americans, and junior high school students reported significantly greater satisfaction (p < 0.001 to p = 0.005). High school students reported significantly greater satisfaction than junior high school students regarding the interactive video equipment (p = 0.011). White females (p = 0.025) and African American males (p = 0.004) in smaller, rural communities reported higher satisfaction than White males. The School Telehealth Education Program, delivered by interactive compressed video, promoted program satisfaction among rural and minority populations and among junior high and high school students. Effective program methods included an emphasis on participants' learning needs, increasing access in rural areas among ethnic groups, speaker communication, and clarity of the program presentation.

  7. Temporal dynamics of emergency department and hospital admissions of pediatric asthmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimes, Daniel; Levine, Elissa; Timmins, Sidey; Weiss, Sheila R.; Bollinger, Mary E.; Blaisdell, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic disease that can result in exacerbations leading to urgent care in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals. We examined seasonal and temporal trends in pediatric asthma ED (1997-1999) and hospital (1986-1999) admission data so as to identify periods of increased risk of urgent care by age group, gender, and race. All pediatric ED and hospital admission data for Maryland residents occurring within the state of Maryland were evaluated. Distinct peaks in pediatric ED and hospital asthma admissions occurred each year during the winter-spring and autumn seasons. Although the number and timing of these peaks were consistent across age and racial groups, the magnitude of the peaks differed by age and race. The same number, timing, and relative magnitude of the major peaks in asthma admissions occurred statewide, implying that the variables affecting these seasonal patterns of acute asthma exacerbations occur statewide. Similar gross seasonal trends are observed worldwide. Although several environmental, infectious, and psychosocial factors have been linked with increases in asthma exacerbations among children, thus far they have not explained these seasonal patterns of admissions. The striking temporal patterns of pediatric asthma admissions within Maryland, as described here, provide valuable information in the search for causes.

  8. Satellite estimation of photosynthetically active radiation in Southeast Asia: Impacts of smoke and cloud cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Matsunaga, Tsuneo; Hoyano, Akira; Aoki, Masatoshi; Komori, Daisuke; Boonyawat, Samakkee

    2004-02-01

    Since large-scale variations in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) influence the terrestrial carbon sources and sinks through the plant photosynthesis variations, large-scale evaluation of PAR is required. In the present study a simple PAR estimation model was developed for Southeast Asia, where large-scale forest fires occurred during El Niño years. The model considered the smoke aerosol released by forest fires using satellite-based smoke detection methods. A comparison study with ground-based solar radiation data for Malaysia and Thailand indicated that the current model could estimate monthly PAR with 10% (root-mean-square) accuracy and would successfully trace the seasonal and year-to-year variations in PAR, including the forest fire periods. During the peak-smoke month in Indonesia, September 1997, the reduction of PAR by smoke reached 63-75% in the center of the Kalimantan and Sumatra Islands. From the analyses of the smoke and cloud cover impacts on PAR in 1997-1999, annual PAR variations were found to be mostly regulated by smoke variations on the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, and Kalimantan Islands and cloud cover variations on the Indo-China Peninsula. Thus annual variations in PAR changed with location. These variations did not simply correlate with year-to-year variations in cloud cover associated with the El Niño and La Niña cycle, but exhibited more complicated spatial variations due to the existence of smoke in Southeast Asia.

  9. Tour de France versus Vuelta a España: which is harder?

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesus; Santalla, Alfredo; Earnest, Conrad; Chicharro, Jose L

    2003-05-01

    To compare the total exercise loads (intensity x volume) of the Vuelta a España and Tour de France during the last year. Seven professional road cyclists (28 +/- 1 yr; [OV0312]O(2max): 74.6 +/- 2.2 mL.kg-1.min-1) who participated in both Tour and Vuelta during the years 1997, 1999, 2000, or 2001 were collected as subjects. They wore a heart rate (HR) telemeter during each stage of the two races, and exercise intensity was divided into three phases according to the reference HR values obtained during a previous ramp cycle-ergometer test: phase I (RCP). Total volume and intensity were integrated as a single variable. The score for volume x intensity in each phase was computed by multiplying the accumulated duration in this phase by a multiplier for this particular phase. The total score for Tour and Vuelta was obtained by summating the results of the three phases. The total loads (volume x intensity) did not significantly differ between the two races (P > 0.05), despite a significantly longer total exercise time of the Tour (P < 0.05) (5552 +/- 176 vs 5086 +/- 290 min). The physiological loads imposed on cyclists' bodies do not differ between the Tour and Vuelta, despite the longer duration of daily stages in the former race.

  10. Evolution of genetic polymorphisms of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (PfMSP) in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kuesap, Jiraporn; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Ketprathum, Kanchanok; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-02-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a major public health problem in Thailand due to the emergence of multidrug resistance. The understanding of genetic diversity of malaria parasites is essential for developing effective drugs and vaccines. The genetic diversity of the merozoite surface protein-1 (PfMSP-1) and merozoite surface protein-2 (PfMSP-2) genes was investigated in a total of 145 P. falciparum isolates collected from Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand during 3 different periods (1997-1999, 2005-2007, and 2009-2010). Analysis of genetic polymorphisms was performed to track the evolution of genetic change of P. falciparum using PCR. Both individual genes and their combination patterns showed marked genetic diversity during the 3 study periods. The results strongly support that P. falciparum isolates in Thailand are markedly diverse and patterns changed with time. These 2 polymorphic genes could be used as molecular markers to detect multiple clone infections and differentiate recrudescence from reinfection in P. falciparum isolates in Thailand.

  11. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  12. The effects of gray scale image processing on digital mammography interpretation performance.

    PubMed

    Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D; Zeng, Donglin; Muller, Keith; Aylward, Stephen R; Park, Sungwook; Kuzmiak, Cherie; Koomen, Marcia; Pavic, Dag; Walsh, Ruth; Baker, Jay; Gimenez, Edgardo I; Freimanis, Rita

    2005-05-01

    To determine the effects of three image-processing algorithms on diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography in comparison with conventional screen-film mammography. A total of 201 cases consisting of nonprocessed soft copy versions of the digital mammograms acquired from GE, Fischer, and Trex digital mammography systems (1997-1999) and conventional screen-film mammograms of the same patients were interpreted by nine radiologists. The raw digital data were processed with each of three different image-processing algorithms creating three presentations-manufacturer's default (applied and laser printed to film by each of the manufacturers), MUSICA, and PLAHE-were presented in soft copy display. There were three radiologists per presentation. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for GE digital mass cases was worse than screen-film for all digital presentations. The area under the receiver operating characteristic for Trex digital mass cases was better, but only with images processed with the manufacturer's default algorithm. Sensitivity for GE digital mass cases was worse than screen film for all digital presentations. Specificity for Fischer digital calcifications cases was worse than screen film for images processed in default and PLAHE algorithms. Specificity for Trex digital calcifications cases was worse than screen film for images processed with MUSICA. Specific image-processing algorithms may be necessary for optimal presentation for interpretation based on machine and lesion type.

  13. Self-management education en masse: effectiveness of the Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down mass media campaign.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2008-11-17

    Despite the availability of a range of Australian self-management support programs targeting the individual patient and/or health professional, three-quarters of Australians have at least one long-term medical condition, suggesting that a more comprehensive public health approach is needed. Use of mass media to deliver community health messages is a well established public health strategy. It may enhance more targeted approaches with its ability to reach large numbers of people simultaneously, including those difficult to identify, high-risk groups and those difficult to reach through traditional medical delivery. By simultaneously influencing large numbers of people, well designed health messages have the potential to promote and maintain behavioural change over time. Back Pain: Don't Take It Lying Down (1997-1999), a mass media campaign of the Victorian WorkCover Authority, can be seen as a prototype of a successful public health strategy designed to enhance people's self-management abilities. One of the main messages of the campaign was that there is a lot you can do to help yourself, which emphasises shifting the responsibility of control onto the individual. The success of the campaign makes a compelling evidence-based case for using a similar strategy to enhance the self-management abilities of the population.

  14. Artificial radionuclides in sediments of the Don River Estuary and Azov Sea.

    PubMed

    Matishov, Genady G; Matishov, Dimitry G; Namjatov, Alexey A; Carroll, JoLynn; Dahle, Salve

    2002-01-01

    The Don River Estuary-Azov Sea system is an extension of the shallow continental shelf area of the Black Sea. A large data set of artificial radionuclides in bottom sediments of the Azov Sea has been compiled in order to examine the storage and migration of radionuclides within this highly restricted inland sea and to estimate the annual dose received by individuals in the local population who regularly consume fish. In recent years (1997-1999), the radionuclide content of surface sediments has been: 137Cs < or = 0.5-100 Bq/kg d.w. (mean = 33.8 +/- 25.9 Bq/kg d.w., n = 57), 90Sr = 0.2-5.7 Bq/kg d.w. (mean = 2.1 +/- 1.4 Bq/kg d.w., n = 34) and 239,240Pu = 0.31-0.51 Bq/kg d.w. (n = 2). In general, 137Cs activities increase with distance from the mouth of the Don River and correlate negatively with sediment grain size (r2 = 0.77, n = 21). The annual 137Cs-derived dose received by an individual through the trophic chain water-fish-humans (approximately 10(-6) Sv/yr) is well below regulatory recommended limits, indicating that current levels of radioactivity in the environment pose no threat to commercial fisheries operations for the bordering nations of Russia and Ukraine.

  15. [Effects of fishing on the marine ecosystem of Beibu Gulf].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Qiu, Yong-Song; Jia, Xiao-Ping; Zhong, Zhi-Hui

    2008-07-01

    By using Ecopath with Ecosim 5.1 software, the Ecosim model of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem in 1959-1960 was constructed, which included about 20 functional groups such as fishery, marine mammals, sea-birds, sharks, pelagic fishes, demersal fishes, and benthic crustaceans, etc. Through the comparison with the investigation data in 1997-1999, the effects of fishing on the structure and function of Beibu Gulf marine ecosystem were analyzed. The results indicated that with the increasing fishing pressure in past forty years, the ecosystem structure and function shifted drastically, with the biomass of long-lived, high trophic level and piscivorous fishes declined while short-lived and small fishes and benthic invertebrates dominated gradually. The biomass of piscivorous species in 1999 was only 6% of that in 1960, while cephalopods increased 2.7 times or more. The trophic level of the catch declined from 3.2 in 1960 to 2.98 in 1999, which fitted the rule of "fishing down the food web" and suggested that the present exploitation patterns were unsustainable. Based on the data of the 1990s, the changes of the ecosystem under decreasing fishing pressure were predicted. This study validated the feasibility of Ecosim model in predicting the effects of fishing pressure on marine ecosystem.

  16. Redox history of the Earth's interior since approximately 3900 Ma: implications for prebiotic molecules.

    PubMed

    Delano, J W

    2001-01-01

    The history of the oxidation state in the Earth's mantle has been constrained using (a) the whole-rock abundances of Cr and V in ancient volcanics, and (b) the composition of Cr-rich spinels in ancient volcanics. Results indicate that the Earth's mantle has been at-or-near its current oxidation state (+/- 0.5 log-unit fO2) since at least 3600 Ma, and probably since at least 3960 Ma. Volatiles released into the Earth's atmosphere by high-temperature (T > or = 1300 K) volcanism during this time have been dominated by H2O, CO2, and SO2. This blend of volatiles is known to provide smaller yields of prebiotic, organic molecules by atmospheric and surface processes than gas mixtures containing higher concentrations of reduced species such as H2, CO, and H2S (e.g., Miller, 1998; Zolotov and Shock, 2000). The results discussed in this article independently support the conclusion of Canil (1997, 1999). If the atmosphere was reducing (e.g., CH4, H2, H2S, NH3, CO) at any time during the last approximately 3900 Ma, high-temperature volcanic outgassing was not the cause of it.

  17. Seismic imaging of arc magma and fluids under the central part of northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Toru; Hasegawa, Akira; Zhao, Dapeng

    2001-11-01

    A dense seismic network was temporarily deployed during 1997-1999 in the central part of northeastern Japan by Japanese university research groups. Using the local earthquake arrival time data recorded by the network, we have determined high-resolution three-dimensional images of P-wave velocity ( Vp), S-wave velocity ( Vs) and Vp/ Vs ratio in this area. Our results show that low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are extensively distributed in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front. In the lower crust, low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/ Vsareas are visible but they are confined to the individual volcanic areas. In contrast, the upper crust of volcanic areas shows low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs rather than high Vp/ Vs. These observations suggest that partial melting materials exist in the uppermost mantle along the volcanic front and they spread up to the midcrust of the volcanic areas. Low Vp, low Vs and low Vp/ Vs in the upper crust of the volcanic areas suggest the presence of H 2O (rather than melt) there. Deep low-frequency microearthquakes, perhaps caused by the rapid movement of fluids, are located mostly at the edge of partial melting zones, particularly at their upper surface. Distinct S-wave reflectors (bright spots) with large reflection coefficients are distributed in the midcrust with slightly low Vp/ Vs, suggesting that most of them are filled with H 2O.

  18. The effect of chewing gum on self-reported nicotine withdrawal: is it the flavor, the act of chewing, or both?

    PubMed

    Cortez-Garland, Monica; Cohen, Lee M; Vanderveen, Joseph W; Cook, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    A healthy alternative that has been shown to lessen the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms during brief periods of nicotine abstinence (e.g., 3-4 h) is confectionary chewing gum (Cohen and colleagues, 1997, 1999, & 2001). The current study sought to build upon this line of research by examining the impact of chewing gum on nicotine withdrawal severity over an extended period of nicotine abstinence (e.g., 24 h) while also identifying the specific attributes of chewing gum that may be responsible for the reported decreases in withdrawal. Specifically, the acts of chewing, flavor, as well as the combination of the two, were independently examined. Twenty-four dependent cigarette smokers participated in three experimental conditions (e.g., a flavorless gum base, flavor strips, and flavored chewing gum) as well as a no product control across four weeks while abstaining from smoking for 24 h each week. Using repeated measures ANOVAs, a significant difference in withdrawal severity was reported by participants across conditions, F(3, 69)=2.89, p < .05. Follow-up analyses revealed that the flavored gum condition yielded significantly lower withdrawal scores than the flavorless gum base and no product control conditions. These findings indicate that chewing gum appears useful in lessening the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms over a 24-hour period of nicotine abstinence and that it is a combination of flavor and chewing that appears to lead to this effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the financial performance of Islamic and conventional bank in Malaysia during and after economic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Jaffar, Aidatullaini; Abdullah, Nur Lina; Harun, Nurzalina

    2013-09-01

    This paper is a continuation of our former work. In this paper, we compare the financial performance of the two banking systems that exist in Malaysia over two periods of time, during economic crisis (1997-1999) and after economic crisis (2001-2003). In order to see the conventional as well as Islamic bank's performance over these two periods of time, the study uses 10 financial ratios which are broadly categorized into 4 groups: (a) profitability ratios; (b) liquidity ratios; (c) risk and solvency ratios; and (d) efficiency ratios. Next, the study used T-test in determining the significance of the differential performance of the two banks over two periods of time. By using inter-bank comparison, the study found that, conventional bank has better performance, efficient, more profitable and has greater risk as compared to Islamic bank. However, in terms of utilizing asset, Islamic bank is better than conventional bank. As an overall, conventional bank is better in much aspect due to the longer history and experience in the industry than Islamic bank that start their operation in 1983.

  20. 2P Vortex Wake Pattern in Vortex-Induced Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govardhan, R.; Williamson, C. H. K.

    1999-11-01

    Flow-visualization in the free vibration experiments of Khalak & Williamson (1997,1999) indicated the existence of the 2P wake vortex pattern (2 pairs of vortices per cycle; as defined in the forced vibration experiments of Williamson & Roshko, 1988), in support of Brika & Laneville (1993), although these visualization techniques are distinctly unclear at high Reynolds numbers (Re ~10^3-10^4 ). Forced vibrations [Sheridan et al. (1998), Techet et al. (1998)] show the 2P mode under some conditions. However, a large number of accurate numerical simulations, at low Re ~200, as well as 2D simulations at higher Re ~500 (Blackburn & Henderson 1999), clearly do not find the 2P mode. There has thus been some debate as to the existence of the 2P mode as a steady state pattern. Hence, DPIV measurements in the wake of the elastically-mounted cylinder have been performed to finally resolve this question. The present results show that the 2P mode is remarkably repeatable and continues indefinitely. The reason for this apparent disparity between experiments and DNS therefore seems to be either a Reynolds number effect or the fact that the computed flow is constrained to be 2D. Further, it is shown that this pattern corresponds with the splitting of a region of vorticity due to the strain rate field of neighbouring vortices. wake patterns show interesting differences. Supported by ONR Contracts N00014-94-1-1197 & N00014-95-1-0332.

  1. Highly endemic, waterborne toxoplasmosis in north Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bahia-Oliveira, Lílian Maria Garcia; Jones, Jeffrey L; Azevedo-Silva, Juliana; Alves, Cristiane C F; Oréfice, Fernando; Addiss, David G

    2003-01-01

    In Campos dos Goytacazes, northern Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, reports of uveitis consistent with toxoplasmosis led to a survey of the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 1997-1999. The survey population was selected randomly from schools, randomly chosen communities, and an army battalion. Serum samples from 1,436 persons were tested. With results adjusted for age, 84% of the population in the lower socioeconomic group was seropositive, compared with 62% and 23% of the middle and upper socioeconomic groups, respectively (p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was performed, drinking unfiltered water was found to increase the risk of seropositivity for the lower socioeconomic (odds ratio [OR]: 3.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 6.9) and middle socioeconomic (OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.3) populations. We also found a high T. gondii seroprevalence in this Brazilian community. Drinking unfiltered water increased the risk of T. gondii seropositivity, indicating the potential importance of oocyst transmission in water in this region.

  2. Work disability following major organisational change: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, M; Kivimäki, M; Singh-Manoux, A; Gimeno, D; Shipley, M J; Vahtera, J; Akbaraly, T N; Marmot, M G; Ferrie, J E

    2010-05-01

    Privatisation and private sector practices have been increasingly applied to the public sector in many industrialised countries. Over the same period, long-term work disability has risen substantially. We examined whether a major organisational change--the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines--was associated with an increased risk of work disability. The study uses self-reported data from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study. Associations between transfer to an executive agency assessed at baseline (1991-1994) and work disability ascertained over a period of approximately 8 years at three follow-up surveys (1995-1996, 1997-1999 and 2001) were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. In age- and sex-adjusted models, risk of work disability was higher among the 1263 employees who were transferred to an executive agency (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.46 to 2.48) compared with the 3419 employees whose job was not transferred. These findings were robust to additional adjustment for physical and mental health and health behaviours at baseline. Increased work disability was observed among employees exposed to the transfer of public sector work to executive agencies run on private sector lines. This may highlight an unintentional cost for employees, employers and society.

  3. Water and the density of silicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richet, Pascal; Whittington, Alan; Holtz, François; Behrens, Harald; Ohlhorst, Susanne; Wilke, Max

    A review of published and newly measured densities for 40 hydrous silicate glasses indicates that the room-temperature partial molar volume of water is 12.0+/-0.5cm3/mol. This value holds for simple or mineral compositions as well as for complex natural glasses, from rhyolite to tephrite compositions, prepared up to 10-20kbar pressures and containing up to 7wt% H2O. This volume does not vary either with the molar volume of the water-free silicate phase, with its degree of polymerization or with water speciation. Over a wide range of compositions, this constant value implies that the volume change for the reaction between hydroxyl ions and molecular water is zero and that, at least in glasses, speciation does not depend on pressure. Consistent with data from Ochs and Lange (1997, 1999), systematics in volume expansion for SiO2-M2O systems (M=H, Li, Na, K) suggests that the partial molar thermal expansion coefficient of H2O is about 4× 10-5 K-1 in silicate glasses.

  4. [Socioeconomic and educational inequities as independent predictors for mortality in a developing country: A cohort study in San Francisco, Chile].

    PubMed

    Koch, Elard; Romero, Tomás; Manríquez, Leopoldo; Paredes, Mario; Ortúzar, Esteban; Taylor, Alan; Román, Carolinne; Kirschbaum, Aída; Díaz, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The socioeconomic position (SEP) and educational level of individuals have an inverse correlation with mortality in developed societies. To assess in a society undergoing a socioeconomic transition, the mortality risk associated to a low SEP (combination of education and income, scale 0-25 points, reference > 10 points) and low education (education years, reference > 8 years), adjusting for other known risk factors. In this prospective cohort study, a random sample of 920 subjects, living in San Francisco de Mostazal, Chile, aged more than 20 years (395 males) was examined for the first time in 1997-1999 and re-examined in 2005-2006. All had information about economic household income and level of education. A Cox regression model was used to evaluate the association between mortality and socioeconomic measures. The crude mortality hazard ratio (HR) was 3.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.88-3.87) and 6.05 (95% CI 5.04-7.26) for low SEP and low educational level, respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, smoking, alcohol intake and family history of cardiovascular disease, the figures were 1.23 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) and 1.54 (95% CI 1.23-1.85) for low SEP and low educational level, respectively. In a society in socioeconomic transition, low SEP and especially low educational level are risk factors for mortality even after adjusting for known mortality risk factors.

  5. Forecasting the arrival of shock-accelerated solar energetic particles of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Slocum, P. L.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    2001-10-01

    Energetic particles accelerated at interplanetary shocks can result in an increased radiation dose for astronauts as well as an increased risk to satellite hardware. These shocks are known to occasionally accelerate protons to energies greater than 100 MeV and can result in very high fluxes. Advanced warning of the arrival of strong interplanetary shocks can enable steps to be taken to minimize the potential risks. In an effort to monitor and assess the radiation risk to astronauts, two real-time count rate monitors were implemented in the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) on the ACE spacecraft. These rates measure protons with energies >10 and >30 MeV. Since ACE is located at the L1 Lagrangian point, these rates provide information and warning up to 1 hour before an interplanetary shock reaches Earth. Using ACE and GOES, data we have examined examples of shocks and associated energetic particles that have been detected at ACE and were later observed near Earth in an effort to develop more fully the forecasting capability of ACE. Because of the limited amount of solar activity during 1997-1999, this current work is primarily a proof of concept.

  6. Automated semen analysis: 'zona pellucida preferred' sperm morphometry and straight-line velocity are related to pregnancy rate in subfertile couples.

    PubMed

    Garrett, C; Liu, D Y; Clarke, G N; Rushford, D D; Baker, H W G

    2003-08-01

    Standard semen analysis has low objectivity and reproducibility and is not closely related to fertility. We assess the prognostic value of automated measurements of sperm motility and morphology. During 1997-1999, 1191 infertile couples with no known absolute barrier to conception were assessed by conventional semen analysis, and automated measurements of average straight-line velocity (VSL) and the percentage of sperm with characteristics that conform to those of sperm which bind to the zona pellucida of the human oocyte (%Z). During follow-up to 2001, there were 336 natural pregnancies. Only %Z, VSL and female age were independently significantly related to pregnancy rate by Cox regression analysis. Pregnancy rate was higher with above average %Z and VSL, indicating a continuous rather than a threshold relationship. The likelihood of pregnancy within 12 cycles can be evaluated for specific values of %Z, VSL and female age using the Cox regression model. The automated semen measures of sperm morphometry (%Z) and velocity (VSL) are related to pregnancy rates in subfertile couples and should assist clinicians in counselling subfertile patients about their prognosis for a natural pregnancy. Objective automated methods should replace the traditional manual assessments of semen quality.

  7. [Which betalactam antibiotic use as a marker of multiresistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa?].

    PubMed

    Cavallo, J-D; Fabre, R; Garrabé, E

    2003-10-01

    The determination of an indicating antibiotic for multiresistance, as methicillin in staphylococci, can be useful for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Until now, the majority of the hygienists used ticarcillin, ceftazidim or imipenem in their investigations as markers of multiresistance for this species. Piperacillin has never been proposed for this purpose. To evaluate this choice, 2098 non-repetitive P. aeruginosa strains collected from 15 teaching hospitals in 1997-1999 were analysed, for eight antibiotics (ticarcillin, piperacillin, ceftazidim, imipenem, tobramycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, fosfomycin) according (i) to the results of the minimal inhibiting concentrations obtained by dilution in Mueller-Hinton agar, (ii) to their susceptibility following the criteria of Comité de l'antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie and (iii) to the determination of the mechanisms of resistance to the beta-lactam antibiotics. The low rates of sensitivity to the beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and fosfomycin were more frequent for piperacillin-resistant strains than for ceftazidim-resistant ones. Resistance to the other beta-lactam antibiotics are poor markers of multiresistance. In the light of the presented data, piperacillin seems to be, among the beta-lactam antibiotics, the best candidate as a marker of multiresistance for P. aeruginosa, followed by ceftazidim. This multiresistance is mainly found in strains overproducing AmpC cephalosporinase or transferable beta-lactamases. These mechanisms are well detected by resistance to piperacillin.

  8. The effect of major and minor depression on Medicare home healthcare services use.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce; Delavan, Rachel L; Sheeran, Thomas H; Bruce, Martha L

    2009-04-01

    To examine the associations between major and minor depression and categories of Medicare home healthcare use. Observational prospective study (1997-1999). Visiting nurse agency in suburban New York State. PARTCIPANTS: Five hundred thirty-nine new Medicare admissions aged 65 and older (mean age 78.4), 65.1% female, and 15.0% nonwhite. Approximately 13.5% were diagnosed with major depression and another 10.8% with minor depression. Consensus "best estimate"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses for major and minor depression assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV (SCID) plus medical charts. Major and minor depression appear to have little association with probability and amount of use of the types of Medicare home health care (skilled nurse, home health aide, therapist (physical, occupational, and speech), and medical social services). Overall, patients with minor depression appear to have utilization similar to that of patients with major depression. It seems likely that any potential incremental depression effect on utilization is being offset by the transitional medical state of the patients that entered Medicare home healthcare directly from a hospital, nursing home, or rehabilitation facility, and the overall severity of disability and chronic illness present in long-term home healthcare patients. Further research is required to determine whether similar findings occur in other home healthcare agencies and whether these are present under the current Medicare Prospective Payment System reimbursement mechanism.

  9. Generalized surficial geology map of the Pueblo 1 degree by 2 degrees quadrangle, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, D.W.; Straub, A.W.; Berry, M.E.; Baker, M.L.; Brandt, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty-three types of surficial geologic deposits and residual materials of Quaternary age are described in a pamphlet and located on a map of the greater Pueblo area, in part of the Front Range, in the Wet and Sangre de Cristo Mountains, and on the plains east of Colorado Springs and Pueblo. Deposits formed by landslides, wind, and glaciers, as well as colluvium, residuum, alluvium, and others are described in terms of predominant grain size, mineral or rock composition (e.g., gypsiferous, calcareous, granitic, andesitic), thickness, and other physical characteristics. Origins and ages of the deposits and geologic hazards related to them are noted. Many lines drawn between units on our map were placed by generalizing contacts on published maps. However, in 1997-1999 we mapped new boundaries as well. The map was projected to the UTM projection. This large map area extends from near Salida (on the west edge), eastward about 107 mi (172 km), and from Antero Reservoir and Woodland Park on the north edge to near Colorado City at the south edge (68 mi; 109 km).

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: OGLE microlensing events in Galactic Bulge (Udalski+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalski, A.; Zebrun, K.; Szymanski, M.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Wozniak, P.

    2006-09-01

    We present the Catalog of microlensing events detected toward the Galactic bulge in three observing seasons, 1997-1999, during the OGLE-II microlensing survey. The search for microlensing events was performed using a database of about 4x109 photometric measurements of about 20.5 million stars from the Galactic bulge. The Catalog comprises 214 microlensing events found in the fields covering about 11 square degrees on the sky and distributed in different parts of the Galactic bulge. The sample includes 20 binary microlensing events, 14 of them are caustic crossing. In one case a double star is likely lensed. We present distribution of the basic parameters of microlensing events and show preliminary rate of microlensing in different regions of the Galactic bulge. The latter reveals clear dependence on the Galactic coordinates. The dependence on l indicates that the majority of lenses toward the Galactic bulge are located in the Galactic bar. Models of the Galactic bar seem to reasonably predict the observed spatial distribution of microlensing events in the Galactic bulge. All data presented in the Catalog and photometry of all events are available from the OGLE Internet archive. (3 data files).

  11. A tale of two rivers: channel adjustments to restorative floods in the Green River in Dinosaur N.M. as compared to those in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon N.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, J. S.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    Sediment mass balance is a critical system attribute in assessing the potential for restoration of dam-impacted rivers. We compared channel response to large floods on the Green River in Lodore Canyon to similar changes measured along the Colorado River in part of Grand Canyon National Park, a reach with similar geomorphic organization, regulatory constraints, and habitat management goals. The post-dam sediment mass balance of the Green River is indeterminate or in surplus, but the mass balance of the Colorado River is in deficit. Analysis of repeat measurements at 36 cross sections along a 20 km reach of Lodore Canyon show that the sand storage condition in 2006 was no different than the condition observed in 1994, despite an increased frequency of high magnitude floods. Four high magnitude floods occurred in 1997, 1999, 2005, and 2006, but only one, the 1999 flow, triggered channel adjustments to the bed and banks that were significantly different than those of the post- dam 2-year return flood. This condition of relative equilibrium contrasts the sand storage condition of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, where sand bar area and volume have declined despite specific dam releases intended to rebuild sand bars. The contrasting patterns of channel adjustment in these rivers indicate that the opportunities and cost of restoration are likely to differ in relation to the sediment supply available for channel restoration.

  12. [Follicular conjunctivitis due to Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Basualdo, J A; Huarte, L; Bautista, E; Niedfeld, G; Alfonso, G; Rosso, N; Geronés, M; Galeppi, I

    2001-01-01

    During two years (1997-1999) an investigation of possible infections of chlamydial etiology in outpatients with follicular conjunctivitis was carried out, through the use of specific assays. Fifty-seven selected patients with presumptive inclusion conjunctivitis were diagnosed by means of ophthalmoscopic examination and bilateral tarsal-conjunctiva swabbing for microorganisms. The possible presence of Chlamydia trachomatis was tested by immunofluorescence microscopy and isolation in cell culture of McCoy line. Of the 57 conjunctivitis patients screened, 37 (65%) proved to be positive by cell culture (CC) and 27 (47%) by direct immunofluorescence (IFD). A good agreement between the two assays was observed, where the CC was more sensitive than IFD. Of these 37 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis, 23 (62%) were women, with over one-third of them ranging in age from 45 to 65 years. Their clinical records revealed an evolution period of 1 to 12 months. Eighteen (78%) of these women reported previous genital pathology, while 4 (29%) of the 14 men had a history of urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis. A high frequency of follicular conjunctivitis by Chlamydia (65%) in the screened patients was observed, without any evidence of urogenital signs and symptoms at the moment of the study.

  13. Effects of reformulated gasoline and motor vehicle fleet turnover on emissions and ambient concentrations of benzene.

    PubMed

    Harley, Robert A; Hooper, Daniel S; Kean, Andrew J; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Hesson, James M; Balberan, Nancy T; Stevenson, Eric D; Kendall, Gary R

    2006-08-15

    Gasoline-powered motor vehicles are a major source of toxic air contaminants such as benzene. Emissions from light-duty vehicles were measured in a San Francisco area highway tunnel during summers 1991, 1994-1997, 1999, 2001, and 2004. Benzene emission rates decreased over this time period, with a large (54 +/- 5%) decrease observed between 1995 and 1996 when California phase 2 reformulated gasoline (RFG) was introduced. We attribute this one-year change in benzene mainly to RFG effects: 36% from lower aromatics in gasoline that led to a lower benzene mass fraction in vehicle emissions, 14% due to RFG effects on total nonmethane organic compound mass emissions, and the remaining 4% due to fleet turnover. Fleet turnover effects accumulate over longer time periods: between 1995 and 2004, fleet turnover led to a 32% reduction in the benzene emission rate. A approximately 4 microg m(-3) decrease in benzene concentrations was observed at a network of ambient air sampling sites in the San Francisco Bay area between the late 1980s and 2004. The largest decrease in annual average ambient benzene concentrations (1.5 +/- 0.7 microg m(-3) or 42 +/- 19%) was observed between 1995 and 1996. The reduction in ambient benzene between spring/summer months of 1995 and 1996 due to phase 2 RFG was larger (60 +/- 20%). Effects of fuel changes on benzene during fall/winter months are difficult to quantify because some wintertime fuel changes had already occurred prior to 1995.

  14. Current status of measles in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tetsuo; Zhou, Jianhui; Fujino, Motoko

    2003-03-01

    Approximately 20,000 to 30,000 cases of measles are reported annually in Japan, although the actual number of measles infections is considered to be five to ten times higher than the number of reported cases. Despite the availability of effective and safe live attenuated vaccines, regional outbreaks in Okinawa, transmission in adults, and secondary vaccine failures continue. Recent advances in molecular technology have contributed to molecular epidemiological studies, new concepts of asymptomatic infection, and the identification of different characteristics among measles virus genotypes. Measles virus strains isolated in Japan since 1984 were classified into the genotypes C1 (-1985), D3 (1985-1990), D5 (1990-1997), and Chicago-type D3 (1997-1999) from the results of sequencing the hemagglutinin gene. After 2000, the D5 genotype emerged, and, recently, the H1 genotype, which is now dominant, was introduced from Korea. Some of the currently circulating wild-types have different characteristics (high growth rate at 39 degrees C-40 degrees C). The cumulative vaccine coverage has reached 81%, but most measles cases involved unvaccinated individuals. Measles is a preventable disease and can be eradicated by increasing the vaccine coverage, and promoting the motivation for vaccination, in accordance with the worldwide measles strategy.

  15. Chromatographic analysis of banned antibacterial growth promoters in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Samanidou, Victoria F; Evaggelopoulou, Evaggelia N

    2008-06-01

    The issue of antimicrobial use in animals used as food is of global concern. Antimicrobials are used in animal agriculture to improve health and welfare of animals, meat quality, the economic efficiency of growth and production and public health by decreasing shedding of zoonotic pathogens. However, large quantities are often used without professional supervision. The growth-promotant (now reclassified as zootechnical feed additives) effect of low levels of antibiotics in animal feeds was first described in the late 1940s. Already in 1969 the Swann Committee recommended that use of antibiotics as a supplement in animal feedstuff should be restricted to those with little or no application as therapeutic agents for humans and animals, which would not impair the efficacy of therapeutic antibiotics through the development of resistant strains of organisms. Antimicrobials like avoparcin, ardacin, zinc bacitracin, virginiamycin, tylosin, spriramycin, carbadox and olaquindox were withdrawn within the period 1997-1999. Four others (monensin sodium, salinomycin sodium, avilamycin and flavophospholipol) were still permitted for use as growth promoters in animal feed to animals marketed in the European Union (EU). Since January 2006, they have been banned as well. This review focuses on the analytical methods developed to be an effective tool for monitoring compliance with the ban.

  16. Coat condition of ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar: I. Differences by age, sex, density and tourism, 1996-2006.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Alison

    2009-03-01

    An index of coat condition can be a non-invasive tool for tracking health and stress at population level. Coat condition in ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta, was recorded during September-November birth seasons of 1996, 1997, 1999, and 2001-2006 at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar. Condition was scored on a scale from 0: full, fluffy coat with guard hairs present, to 5: half or more of body hairless. Adult males did not differ overall from adult females. Coats were worse in adults than in 2-year-old subadults; 1-year-old juveniles were intermediate. Mothers and adult males lost coat condition as the season progressed: non-mother females maintained condition. Years 1999-2002 scored better coats than either 1996-1997 or 2003-2006. Lemurs in high population density areas had worse coats than in natural forest, but tourist presence had less effect than density. Monitoring coat condition in an apparently healthy population reveals differences between population segments, and in a forest fragment with limited immigration or emigration it can track progressive changes, correcting impressions of progressive improvement or degradation over time. Above all it gives a baseline for response to climate changes or eventual pathology. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Association of nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in nondiabetic young women.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Ciaran J; Curhan, Gary C; Schernhammer, Eva S; Forman, John P

    2013-07-15

    Exogenous melatonin ameliorates insulin resistance in animals, while among humans, polymorphisms in the melatonin receptor gene are associated with insulin resistance. We aimed to investigate the association of endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion with insulin resistance in humans. We analyzed the association between endogenous nocturnal melatonin secretion, estimated by measuring the main melatonin metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, from the first morning urinary void, and the prevalence of insulin resistance based on fasting blood samples collected in a cross-sectional study of 1,075 US women (1997-1999) without diabetes, hypertension, or malignancy. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin level was standardized to urinary creatinine level; insulin resistance was defined as an insulin sensitivity index value (using the McAuley formula) less than 7.85. Logistic regression models included adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, alcohol intake, dietary glycemic index, family history of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, uric acid, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Higher nocturnal melatonin secretion was inversely associated with insulin levels and insulin resistance. In fully adjusted models, the odds ratio for insulin resistance was 0.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.28, 0.74) among women in the highest quartile of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin:creatinine ratio compared with women in the lowest quartile. Nocturnal melatonin secretion is independently and inversely associated with insulin resistance.

  18. Use of serum biochemistry to evaluate nutritional status and health of incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hollmén, T; Franson, J C; Hario, M; Sankari, S; Kilpi, M; Lindström, K

    2001-01-01

    During 1997-1999, we collected serum samples from 156 common eider (Somateria mollissima) females incubating eggs in the Finnish archipelago of the Baltic Sea. We used serum chemistry profiles to evaluate metabolic changes in eiders during incubation and to compare the health and nutritional status of birds nesting at a breeding area where the eider population has declined by over 50% during the past decade, with birds nesting at two areas with stable populations. Several changes in serum chemistries were observed during incubation, including (1) decreases in serum glucose, total protein, albumin, beta-globulin, and gamma-globulin concentrations and (2) increases in serum uric acid, creatine kinase, and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. However, these changes were not consistent throughout the 3-yr period, suggesting differences among years in the rate of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein utilization during incubation. The mean serum concentrations of free fatty acids, glycerol, and albumin were lowest and the serum alpha- and gamma-globulin levels were highest in the area where the eider population has declined, suggesting a role for nutrition and diseases in the population dynamics of Baltic eiders.

  19. Leadership behavior in relation to dominance and reproductive status in gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, R.O.; Jacobs, A.K.; Drummer, T.D.; Mech, L.D.; Smith, D.W.

    2002-01-01

    We analyzed the leadership behavior of breeding and nonbreeding gray wolves (Canis lupus) in three packs during winter in 1997-1999. Scent-marking, frontal leadership (time and frequency in the lead while traveling), initiation of activity, and nonfrontal leadership were recorded during 499 h of ground-based observations in Yellowstone National Park. All observed scent-marking (N = 158) was done by breeding wolves, primarily dominant individuals. Dominant breeding pairs provided most leadership, consistent with a trend in social mammals for leadership to correlate with dominance. Dominant breeding wolves led traveling packs during 64% of recorded behavior bouts (N = 591) and 71% of observed travel time (N = 64 h). During travel, breeding males and females led packs approximately equally, which probably reflects high parental investment by both breeding male and female wolves. Newly initiated behaviors (N = 104) were prompted almost 3 times more often by dominant breeders (70%) than by nonbreeders (25%). Dominant breeding females initiated pack activities almost 4 times more often than subordinate breeding females (30 vs. 8 times). Although one subordinate breeding female led more often than individual nonbreeders in one pack in one season, more commonly this was not the case. In 12 cases breeding wolves exhibited nonfrontal leadership. Among subordinate wolves, leadership behavior was observed in subordinate breeding females and other individuals just prior to their dispersal from natal packs. Subordinate wolves were more often found leading packs that were large and contained many subordinate adults.

  20. Geologic map and digital database of the Apache Canyon 7.5' quadrangle, Ventura and Kern counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Cossette, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    The Apache Canyon 7.5-minute quadrangle is located in southwestern California about 55 km northeast of Santa Barbara and 65 km southwest of Bakersfield. This report presents the results of a geologic mapping investigation of the Apache Canyon quadrangle that was carried out in 1997-1999 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Southern California Areal Mapping Project. This quadrangle was chosen for study because it is in an area of complex, incompletely understood Cenozoic stratigraphy and structure of potential importance for regional tectonic interpretations, particularly those involving the San Andreas fault located just northwest of the quadrangle and the Big Pine fault about 10 km to the south. In addition, the quadrangle is notable for its well-exposed sequences of folded Neogene nonmarine strata including the Caliente Formation of Miocene age from which previous workers have collected and described several biostratigraphically significant land-mammal fossil assemblages. During the present study, these strata were mapped in detail throughout the quadrangle to provide an improved framework for possible future paleontologic investigations. The Apache Canyon quadrangle is in the eastern part of the Cuyama 30-minute by 60-minute quadrangle and is largely part of an erosionally dissected terrain known as the Cuyama badlands at the east end of Cuyama Valley. Most of the Apache Canyon quadrangle consists of public lands in the Los Padres National Forest.

  1. Novel experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection model mimicking long-term host–pathogen interactions in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    MOSER, CLAUS; VAN GENNIP, MARIA; BJARNSHOLT, THOMAS; JENSEN, PETER ØSTRUP; LEE, BAOLERI; HOUGEN, HANS PETTER; CALUM, HENRIK; CIOFU, OANA; GIVSKOV, MICHAEL; MOLIN, SØREN; HØIBY, NIELS

    2009-01-01

    The dominant cause of premature death in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chronic lung infection often lasts for decades with just one clone. However, as a result of inflammation, antibiotic treatment and different niches in the lungs, the clone undergoes significant genetic changes, resulting in diversifying geno- and phenotypes. Such an adaptation may generate different host responses. To experimentally reflect the year-long chronic lung infection in CF, groups of BALB/c mice were infected with clonal isolates from different periods (1980, 1988, 1997, 1999 and 2003) of the chronic lung infection of one CF patient using the seaweed alginate embedment model. The results showed that the non-mucoid clones reduced their virulence over time, resulting in faster clearing of the bacteria from the lungs, improved pathology and reduced pulmonary production of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). In contrast, the mucoid clones were more virulent and virulence increased with time, resulting in impaired pulmonary clearing of the latest clone, severe inflammation and increased pulmonary MIP-2 and G-CSF production. In conclusion, adaptation of P. aeruginosa in CF is reflected by changed ability to establish lung infection and results in distinct host responses to mucoid and non-mucoid phenotypes. PMID:19239431

  2. Factors which influence acoustic surveys of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    Traditionally, many marine mammal populations have been estimated by visual surveys. These count the animals that are available-either seals hauled-out on the ice or whales at the water's surface. Corrections are then made to include the animals that were not seen either because they were in (seals) or under (whales) the water. However when the majority of the animals in a population are not available to a visual survey this approach may be less effective. So we investigated whether acoustic surveys offered promise for estimating the distribution and abundance of Antarctic pack-ice seals. Four acoustic surveys were conducted (October 1996, 1997; December 1997, 1999) between longitudes 600E and 1500E. Surveys were bounded to the south by fast-ice, shelf-ice or the Antarctic continent and to the north by the edge of the pack-ice. No crabeater seals were heard. Leopard and Ross seals were highly vociferous in December coinciding with their breeding season. To predict the area surveyed we modeled transmission loss and measurements of received background levels. To identify the number of seals calling we modeled calling behavior. A preliminary estimate of 0.13 male leopard seals/km2 was calculated which is in the high-density range described from the literature.

  3. Kinetic modeling of primary and secondary oxygen atom fluxes at 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balyukin, Igor; Katushkina, Olga; Alexashov, Dmitry; Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    The first quantitative measurements of the interstellar heavy (oxygen and neon) neutral atoms obtained on the IBEX spacecraft were presented in Park et al. (ApJS, 2015). Qualitative analysis of these data shows that the secondary component of the interstellar oxygen atoms was also measured along with the primary interstellar atoms. This component is formed near the heliopause due to process of charge exchange of interstellar oxygen ions with hydrogen atoms and its existence in the heliosphere was previously predicted theoretically (Izmodenov et al, 1997, 1999, 2001). Quantitative analysis of fluxes of interstellar heavy neutral atoms is only possible with the help of a model which takes into account both filtration of the primary and origin of the secondary interstellar oxygen in the region of interaction of the solar wind with the local interstellar medium as well as a detailed simulation of the motion of interstellar atoms inside the heliosphere. This simulation must take into account the temporal and heliolatitudinal dependences of ionization, the process of charge exchange with the protons of the solar wind and the effect of the solar gravitational attraction. This paper presents the results of modeling interstellar oxygen and neon atoms in the heliospheric shock layer and inside the heliosphere based on a new three-dimensional kinetic-MHD model of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (Izmodenov and Alexashov, ApJS, 2015) and the comparison of this results with the data obtained on the IBEX spacecraft.

  4. Dengue vector prevalence and virus infection in a rural area in south India.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S C; Thenmozhi, V; Katholi, C R; Manavalan, R; Munirathinam, A; Gajanana, A

    2004-04-01

    We conducted a 2-year (1997-1999) longitudinal, entomological and virological study in three dengue endemic villages in Vellore district, Tamil Nadu, to understand the dynamics of dengue transmission. Aedes aegypti (Linn.), Ae. albopictus (Skuse) and Ae. vittatus (Bigot) were the prevalent vector species. Aedes aegypti was breeding throughout the year with a Breteau index ranging from 9.05 to 45.49. Aedes albopictus and Ae. vittatus were prevalent mainly in the rainy season. Small water holding containers (cemented tanks/cisterns) were the perennial breeding source of Ae. aegypti, and its abundance was significantly higher in semi-urbanized central areas than the peripheral areas of the villages. From 271 pools (4016 specimens) of adult females, eight dengue virus (DENV) isolates were obtained of which seven were from Ae. aegypti and one from Ae. albopictus. This is the first report of DENV isolation from Ae. albopictus in rural India. Infection rates in the two species were comparable. However, due to higher and perennial prevalence, Ae. aegypti is considered as primary vector with Ae. albopictus playing a secondary role. Despite circulation of all four serotypes (DENV 1-4) detected mainly during the transmission season, the high anthropophilic index of the vectors and their abundance, no human dengue case was reported, suggesting silent dengue transmission.

  5. Opioid and amphetamine dependence is associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): An epidemiological register study with 73,201 Swedish in- and outpatients 1997-2013.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Disa; Berge, Jonas; Nilsson, Anna C; Kral, Alex H; Bjorkman, Per; Hakansson, Anders C

    2017-02-01

    While methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasing in prevalence globally, Sweden is still a low-prevalence country enabling studies on the natural MRSA spread in subpopulations unaffected by a surrounding highly infected population. Substance dependence and injection drug use have been risk factors for MRSA carriage and infection in other countries. In this retrospective, longitudinal register study, we investigated MRSA epidemiology 1997-2013 in opioid and amphetamine-dependent individuals, in comparison with alcohol-dependent subjects. Data from the national Swedish in- and outpatients registers included 73,201 individuals from 1997, 1999, 2004, 2009 and 2013. We analyzed substance use disorder and demographic predictors for MRSA using generalized estimating equations. The main finding was that both opioid (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.16, 3.67) and amphetamine dependence (AOR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.70, 4.16) were significantly associated with MRSA diagnosis compared with alcohol dependence, when adjusting for age, sex and year. These findings are of value to understand the dynamics of MRSA epidemiology among substance dependent persons with presumably low socioeconomic status and potential injection drug use, and implicate repeated surveillance of MRSA among these patients.

  6. [Evaluation of the Malaria Evaluation Program in the national laboratory network in Colombia].

    PubMed

    García, Marisol; Mendoza, Nohora

    2002-06-01

    In 1995, the Parasitology Group--National Reference Laboratory--at the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) started a national malaria diagnosis program with the Public Health Laboratory Network which included training, indirect quality control, external quality control, technical assistance, advisory, reference and counter-reference, together with an annual review of the program. The purpose of this study was to carry out a three year (1997-1999) analysis of the program. In the indirect quality control program, average positive and negative concordances of 98% and 97%, respectively, and a kappa index of 0.95 were obtained by the state public health laboratories. In the external quality control program, an average concordance of 74.2% was obtained with an 89.2% participation of the registered laboratories. At the municipal level, the indirect quality control had an average concordance of 91.4% in positivity, 92.5% concordance in negativity, and a kappa index of 0.84. On the other hand, indirect quality control has been scarcely implemented by the state public health laboratories in the municipalities under their jurisdiction. In general, the program shows a good performance, despite some economic and conflict-related difficulties in the country, because people responsible at all levels for the Malaria Program have permanently carried out all other activities of the network, either according to annual programming or upon request. However, it is important to improve its coverage and the participation in its activities.

  7. Correlates of HPV vaccine uptake in school-based routine vaccination of preadolescent girls in Norway: A register-based study of 90,000 girls and their parents.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bo Terning; Campbell, Suzanne; Burger, Emily; Nygård, Mari

    2015-08-01

    To assess demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural correlates of HPV vaccination of preadolescent girls in a publicly funded, school-based vaccination programme. Data for all Norwegian girls born 1997-1999, eligible for routine school-based HPV vaccination in 2009-2011 (n=90,842), and their registered mother and father, were merged from national registries. Correlates of girl vaccination status were analysed by unadjusted and multivariable logistic regression. In total, 78.2% of the girls received the first dose of the HPV vaccine, 74.6% received three doses, and 94.8% received the MMR vaccine. Correlates associated with initiation of HPV vaccination included parental age, income and education, maternal occupational status and cervical screening attendance, and girl receipt of the MMR vaccine. Rates of completion of HPV vaccination among initiators were high, and disparities in completion were negligible. Maternal and paternal correlates of daughter HPV vaccination status were similar. Routine school-based vaccination generally provides equitable delivery, yet some disparities exist. Information campaigns designed to reach the sub-groups with relatively low vaccine uptake could reduce disparities. In none of the sub-groups investigated did uptake of the HPV vaccine approach that of the MMR vaccine, further demonstrating a general potential for improvement in HPV vaccine uptake. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Hair-relaxer use and risk of preterm birth among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether hair-relaxer use is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth among African-American women. We used data from the Black Women's Health Study. The participants were enrolled in 1995 and provided follow-up information in 1997, 1999, and 2001. Among 6130 singleton births reported by women <45 years of age during follow-up, 497 were preterm (<37 weeks gestation) because of premature rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labor for no known reason. In a case-control analysis, we compared the 497 preterm births with the 5633 births of longer gestation, and we used generalized estimation equation models to estimate multivariable odds ratios of preterm birth for users of hair relaxers. With control for confounding factors, the odds ratio for preterm birth among ever users of hair relaxers relative to never users was 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.8). No elevations were seen in risk for use started at a young age or for frequent use for long durations. These data suggest that hair-relaxer use does not play a role in the etiology of preterm birth in Black women.

  9. Organizational justice and sleeping problems: The Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Elovainio, Marko; Ferrie, Jane E; Gimeno, David; De Vogli, Roberto; Shipley, Martin; Brunner, Eric J; Kumari, Meena; Vahtera, Jussi; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that organizational injustice contributes to sleeping problems. Poor sleep quality can be a marker of prolonged emotional stress and has been shown to have serious effects on the immune system and metabolism. Data were from the prospective Whitehall II study of white-collar British civil servants (3143 women and 6895 men, aged 35-55 years at baseline). Age, employment grade, health behaviors, and depressive symptoms were measured at Phase 1 (1985-1988) and baseline sleeping problems were assessed at Phase 2 (1989-1990). Organizational justice was assessed twice, at Phases 1 and 2. The outcome was mean of sleeping problems during Phases 5 (1997-1999) and 7 (2003-2004). In men, low organizational justice at Phase 1 and Phase 2 were associated with overall sleeping problems, sleep maintenance problems, sleep onset problems, and nonrefreshing sleep at Phases 5 and 7. In women, a significant association was observed between low organizational justice and overall sleeping problems and sleep onset problems. These associations were robust to adjustments for age, employment grade, health behaviors, job strain, depressive symptoms, and sleeping problems at baseline. This study shows that perceived unfair treatment at workplace is associated with increased risk of poor sleep quality in men and women, one potential mechanism through which justice at work may affect health.

  10. Trends in sociodemographic and health-related indicators in Bangladesh, 1993-2007: will inequities persist?

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain; Krämer, Alexander; Khandoker, Aklimunnessa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Islam, Anwar

    2011-08-01

    To assess levels, trends and gaps between the poorest and the richest in selected health and human development indicators in Bangladesh. Data for selected indicators associated with sociodemographic characteristics among ever-married women, contraception use, child vaccination, antenatal care practices and health conditions were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1993-94, 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004 and 2007. Results for the whole sample and for the poorest and the richest wealth quintiles are presented. Positive trends were noted in urbanization, availability of electricity, age at first marriage, use of modern contraception, access to skilled antenatal care, child vaccination, knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and overweight and obesity. In contrast, negative trends were seen in factors such as literacy, infant and child mortality, fertility rate, home delivery and malnutrition and underweight. However, changes in these indicators differed between the poorest and richest quintiles. For instance, only the richest quintile experienced rapid urbanization, whereas illiteracy declined more among the poorest. Noteworthy gaps were found in almost all factors. Rich-poor gaps in urbanization, age at marriage, fertility, condom use, home delivery and overweight increased; in contrast, gaps in education, water and sanitation, use of contraception (except condoms) and child vaccination declined. Persistent inequities in Bangladesh endanger equitable and sustainable human development in the country. Pro-poor development strategies based on the principles of equity and quality should be implemented to narrow existing gaps and further promote holistic and equitable human development.

  11. The current status of research on the structure of evaluative space

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Catherine J.; Gollan, Jackie; Berntson, Gary G.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of evaluative space shapes emotional life. Although behavior may be constrained to a single bipolar dimension, for example as defined by the opposing movements of approach and withdrawal, the mechanisms underlying the affect system must be capable of an astonishing range of emotional experience and expression. The model of evaluative space (ESM; J. T. Cacioppo, W. L. Gardner, & G. G. Berntson, 1997, 1999) proposes that behavioral predispositions are the ultimate output of the affect system, which is defined by operating characteristics that differ both for positivity and negativity, as well as across levels of the nervous system. In this article, we outline the current status of theory and research on the structure of evaluative space. First, we summarize the basic tenets of the model, as well as recent research supporting these ideas and counterarguments that have been raised by other theorists. To address these counterarguments, we discuss the postulates of affective oscillation and calibration, two mechanistic features of the affect system proposed to underlie the durability and adaptability of affect. We summarize empirical support for the functional consequences of the principles of affective oscillation and calibration, with a focus on how oscillation and the “stickiness” of affect can lead to the emergence of ambivalence, whereas affective calibration and the flexibility of the affect system produce asymmetries in affective processing (e.g., the negativity bias). Finally, we consider the clinical implications of disorder in the structure of evaluative space for the comprehension and treatment of depression and anxiety. PMID:20346389

  12. Impact of bone lead and bone resorption on plasma and whole blood lead levels during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Smith, Donald; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Mercado, Adriana; Aro, Antonio; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2004-10-01

    The authors tested the hypotheses that maternal bone lead burden is associated with increasing maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels over the course of pregnancy and that this association is modified by rates of maternal bone resorption. A total of 193 Mexican women were evaluated (1997-1999) in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. Whole blood lead and plasma lead levels were measured in each trimester. Urine was analyzed for cross-linked N-telopeptides (NTx) of type I collagen, a biomarker of bone resorption. Patella and tibia lead levels were measured at 4 weeks postpartum. The relation between whole blood, plasma, and bone lead and NTx was assessed using mixed models. Plasma lead concentrations followed a U-shape, while NTx levels increased significantly during pregnancy. In a multivariate model, the authors observed a significant and positive interaction between NTx and bone lead when plasma lead was used as the outcome variable. Dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with plasma lead. Results for whole blood lead were similar but less pronounced. These results confirm previous evidence that bone resorption increases during pregnancy, with a consequential significant release of lead from bone, constituting an endogenous source of prenatal exposure. They also provide a rationale for testing strategies (e.g., nutritional supplementation with calcium) aimed at decreasing prenatal lead exposure.

  13. [Maltreatment: study from the perspective of the police department for the protection of the child and the adolescent in Salvador, Bahia].

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Clara de Rebolças; de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Alves, Alessandra Castro; Gurgel, Clarissa Araújo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional study describes the occurrences of maltreatment recorded over three years (1997-1999) in a Brazilian Police Department for the Protection of the Child and the Adolescent. Socio-demographic and physical data of victims, aggressors and denouncers were investigated in a sample consisting of 2073 cases. The victims were aged between 0-18 years, of which 56.1% were girls. Data were entered into EPI INFO 2000 software and analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test to determine significant differences (p<0.05). All manifestations of abuse, except physical abuse, tend to occur more frequently in females, and tend to be more prevalent in the 11-to-15 year-old subgroup. Physical abuse was the most common offense (64.7%). Injuries of face and jaw were found in 65.3% of the cases. Most of the aggressors were males (71.8%). There was a positive correlation between gender (female) and sexual abuse. Physical violence against boys was more intensive, as indicated by the presence of more severe body lesions. Health professionals should increase their diagnostic skills and raise the awareness of their communities to take action for reducing the incidence and the impact of violence upon children and adolescents.

  14. Early life ecology of Alaska plaice ( Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus) in the eastern Bering Sea: Seasonality, distribution, and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Doyle, Miriam J.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Wilderbuer, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    We examined the patterns of abundance and distribution of Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus, eggs, larvae and pelagic juveniles over the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to better understand factors controlling transport and recruitment of flatfish in the Bering Sea. Ichthyoplankton data were derived from plankton surveys conducted in 1997, 1999, 2002, 2003, and 2005. Temperature, salinity, depth, and abundance of microzooplankton were measured concurrently. Eggs and larvae were primarily collected from depths < 200 m, with the majority occurring over bottom depths ranging 50-100 m. Eggs were present throughout the water column, though densities of preflexion stage larvae were concentrated at depths 10-20 m. There was no evidence of vertical migration for pre-flexion stages. Spawning in Alaska plaice occurs primarily east of Port Moller in April and May, and eggs and larvae appear to drift to the north and northeast, an observation based on satellite-tracked drifter information, model output, and collections of older, later-stage postlarvae. Connectivity between spawning areas and nursery habitats is likely influenced by wind forcing, so climate-mediated changes to dispersal trajectory or timing is expected to have significant impacts on recruitment in this species, though entrainment in consistent, directional currents may modify these effects.

  15. Study of nitrogen containing compounds in the polar troposphere.

    PubMed

    Ianniello, Antonietta; Sparapani, Roberto; Allegrini, Ivo; Vazzana, Caterina; Mazziotti, Carla; De Teran, Gomez; Montagnoli, Mauro; Fino, Alessandra; Felici, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen compounds play a critical role in tropospheric photochemistry and are crucial to understand the chemical and physical evolution of atmospheric pollutants in polar areas. Measurements of these species in remote areas are rare, although their relevance is well established. Sampling campaigns of gaseous and particulate atmospheric trace species were performed in Arctic and in Antarctica during three consecutive years (1997-1999), using a proper combination of annular denuders and filter pack. After sampling, the ionic species were extracted with aqueous solutions and analysed by means of ion chromatography. Quality assurance on the sampling and analytical steps allowed accurate and precise measurements of all relevant compounds, which are thought to be important to nitrogen chemistry, at very low concentration levels. In addition, the measurements also included a multistage low-pressure impactor for the collection of particulate matter in different size regions (0.035-15.9 mm). Results obtained from these campaigns demonstrate that the minor components may be measured at levels as low as a few nanograms per cubic meter. The reported concentrations are to be considered among the first observations of nitrogen containing compounds in polar sites.

  16. Evaluation of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae vaccines in pigs by intradermal challenge and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Eamens, G J; Chin, J C; Turner, B; Barchia, I

    2006-08-25

    In a vaccine trial, pigs were challenged intradermally with eight E. rhusiopathiae strains of serovars 1a, 1b or 2 given concurrently. The strains were derived from six herds affected with vaccine breakdowns in 1997-1999, one herd without vaccine breakdown and a serovar 2 reference strain. Responses to two commercial bacterins (one implicated in the vaccine breakdowns), and two experimental bacterins (based on field isolates from affected herds) showed distinct differences in protection, particularly in clinical responses measured at 72 h. Less protection was afforded against serovar 1 challenge by the vaccine implicated in the vaccine breakdowns. Antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were significantly different between treatments, and highlighted a similar post-vaccinal antibody response was produced against serovar 2 lysate by all vaccines, but only those providing significant protection against serovar 1 [corrected] produced significantly elevated antiserovar I lysate [corrected] antibodies. Vaccination in general significantly reduced CMI responses to the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin. This experimental pig challenge system was readily able to confirm suboptimal performance of a commercial bacterin that had passed potency tests in mice but was associated with vaccine failure in commercial herds. This vaccine was also the most immunosuppressive to CMI responses associated with E. rhusiopathiae-specific and non-specific stimulation. The best vaccine response was associated with the highest mean serovar 1 antibody response and the highest CMI response (by lymphoproliferation assay) to serovar 2.

  17. Survival of dusky Canada goose goslings in relation to weather and annual nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fondell, T.F.; Miller, David A.; Grand, J.B.; Michael, Anthony R.

    2008-01-01

    The dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) population has been in long-term decline, likely due to reduced breeding productivity, but gosling survival of this population had not been examined. We studied gosling survival in broods of radiomarked adult females on the western Copper River Delta, Alaska, USA, during 1997-1999 and 2001-2003. Survival estimates for dusky Canada goose goslings to 45 days (x- = 0.32) were below estimates from most previous studies of geese. Daily survival of goslings increased with age and decreased with date of hatch. Precipitation during the first 3 days post-hatch was negatively related to gosling survival and this effect increased with date. Annual estimates of gosling survival were positively correlated with annual estimates of nest success, suggesting overlap in factors affecting nest and gosling survival. Nest success probably also directly affected gosling survival, because survival decreased with hatch date and more broods hatched from renests during years with low nest success. Gosling survival appears to play an important role in limiting current productivity of this population. Management directed at increasing nest success would likely also improve gosling survival. We recommend additional research directed at examining sources of gosling mortality and the link between nest success and gosling survival.

  18. Chronic multisymptom illness: a comparison of Iraq and Afghanistan deployers with veterans of the 1991 Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler C; Powell, Teresa M; Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D

    2014-12-15

    Symptoms and illnesses reported by veterans of the 1991 Gulf War era are a cause of potential concern for those military members who have deployed to the Gulf region in support of more recent contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the present study, we quantified self-reported symptoms from participants in the Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective study representing all US service branches, including both active duty and Reserve/National Guard components (2001-2008). Self-reported symptoms were uniquely compared with those in a cohort of subjects from the 1991 Gulf War to gain context for the present report. Symptoms were then aggregated to identify cases of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) based on the case definition from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalence of self-reported CMI symptoms was compared with that collected in 1997-1999 from a study population of US Seabees from the 1991 Gulf War, as well as from deployed and nondeployed subgroups. Although overall symptom reporting was much less in the Millennium Cohort than in the 1991 Gulf War cohort, a higher prevalence of reported CMI was noted among deployed compared with nondeployed contemporary cohort members. An increased understanding of coping skills and resilience and development of well-designed screening instruments, along with appropriate clinical and psychological follow-up for returning veterans, might help to focus resources on early identification of potential long-term chronic disease manifestations.

  19. Preface paper to the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program special issue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodrich, D.C.; Chehbouni, A.; Goff, B.; MacNish, B.; Maddock, T.; Moran, S.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Williams, D.G.; Watts, C.; Hipps, L.H.; Cooper, D.I.; Schieldge, J.; Kerr, Y.H.; Arias, H.; Kirkland, M.; Carlos, R.; Cayrol, P.; Kepner, W.; Jones, B.; Avissar, R.; Begue, A.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Boulet, G.; Branan, B.; Brunel, J.P.; Chen, L.C.; Clarke, T.; Davis, M.R.; DeBruin, H.; Dedieu, G.; Elguero, E.; Eichinger, W.E.; Everitt, J.; Garatuza-Payan, J.; Gempko, V.L.; Gupta, H.; Harlow, C.; Hartogensis, O.; Helfert, M.; Holifield, C.; Hymer, D.; Kahle, A.; Keefer, T.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Lhomme, J.-P.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lo, Seen D.; Luquet, D.; Marsett, R.; Monteny, B.; Ni, W.; Nouvellon, Y.; Pinker, R.; Peters, C.; Pool, D.; Qi, J.; Rambal, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Santiago, F.; Sano, E.; Schaeffer, S.M.; Schulte, M.; Scott, R.; Shao, X.; Snyder, K.A.; Sorooshian, S.; Unkrich, C.L.; Whitaker, M.; Yucel, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere Program (SALSA) is a multi-agency, multi-national research effort that seeks to evaluate the consequences of natural and human-induced environmental change in semi-arid regions. The ultimate goal of SALSA is to advance scientific understanding of the semi-arid portion of the hydrosphere-biosphere interface in order to provide reliable information for environmental decision making. SALSA approaches this goal through a program of long-term, integrated observations, process research, modeling, assessment, and information management that is sustained by cooperation among scientists and information users. In this preface to the SALSA special issue, general program background information and the critical nature of semi-arid regions is presented. A brief description of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, the initial location for focused SALSA research follows. Several overarching research objectives under which much of the interdisciplinary research contained in the special issue was undertaken are discussed. Principal methods, primary research sites and data collection used by numerous investigators during 1997-1999 are then presented. Scientists from about 20 US, five European (four French and one Dutch), and three Mexican agencies and institutions have collaborated closely to make the research leading to this special issue a reality. The SALSA Program has served as a model of interagency cooperation by breaking new ground in the approach to large scale interdisciplinary science with relatively limited resources.

  20. Promoting prevention with economic arguments – The case of Finnish occupational health services

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Background Both social and ethical arguments have been used to support preventive occupational health services (OHS). During the 1990s it became more common to support political argumentation for occupational health and safety by converting the consequences of ill health at work into monetary units. In addition, OHS has been promoted as a profitable investment for companies, and this aspect has been used by OHS providers in their marketing. Our intention was to study whether preventive occupational health services positively influence a company's economic performance. Methods We combined the financial statements provided by Statistics Finland and employers' reimbursement applications for occupational health services (OHS) costs to the Social Insurance Institution. The data covered the years 1997, 1999 and 2001 and over 6000 companies. We applied linear regression analysis to assess whether preventive OHS had had a positive influence on the companies' economic performance after two or four years. Results Resources invested in preventive OHS were not positively related to a company's economic performance. In fact, the total cost of preventive OHS per turnover was negatively correlated to economic performance. Conclusion Even if OHS has no effect on the economic performance of companies, it may have other effects more specific to OHS. Therefore, we recommend that the evaluation of prevention in OHS should move towards outcome measures, such as sickness absence, disability pension and productivity, when applicable, both in occupational health service research and in practice at workplaces. PMID:18430218

  1. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  2. Thermal Decomposition of Gaseous Ammonium Nitrate at Low Pressure: Kinetic Modeling of Product Formation and Heterogeneous Decomposition of Nitric Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Lin, M. C.

    2009-10-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3 (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423-56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. The sublimation of NH4NO3 at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH3 and HNO3, followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO3, HNO3 + M → OH + NO2 + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). The absolute yields of N2, N2O, H2O, and NH3, which can be unambiguously measured and quantitatively calibrated under a constant pressure at 5-6.2 torr He are kinetically modeled using the detailed [H,N,O]-mechanism established earlier for the simulation of NH3-NO2 (Park, J.; Lin, M. C. Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. 1997, 34-1, 1-5) and ADN decomposition reactions (Park, J.; Chakraborty, D.; Lin, M. C. Proc. Combust. Inst. 1998, 27, 2351-2357). Since the homogeneous decomposition reaction of HNO3 itself was found to be too slow to account for the consumption of reactants and the formation of products, we also introduced the heterogeneous decomposition of HNO3 in our kinetic modeling. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO3, HNO3 + (B2O3/SiO2) → OH + NO2 + (B2O3/SiO2), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH3 and H2O; the rate could be represented by k2b = 7.91 × 107 exp(-12 600/T) s-1, which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO3 decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. Notably, the concentration profiles of all species measured could be satisfactorily predicted by the existing [H,N,O]-mechanism with the heterogeneous initiation process.

  3. Thermal decomposition of gaseous ammonium nitrate at low pressure: kinetic modeling of product formation and heterogeneous decomposition of nitric acid.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Lin, M C

    2009-12-03

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, NH(4)NO(3) (AN), in the gas phase has been studied at 423-56 K by pyrolysis/mass spectrometry under low-pressure conditions using a Saalfeld reactor coated with boric acid. The sublimation of NH(4)NO(3) at 423 K was proposed to produce equal amounts of NH(3) and HNO(3), followed by the decomposition reaction of HNO(3), HNO(3) + M --> OH + NO(2) + M (where M = third-body and reactor surface). The absolute yields of N(2), N(2)O, H(2)O, and NH(3), which can be unambiguously measured and quantitatively calibrated under a constant pressure at 5-6.2 torr He are kinetically modeled using the detailed [H,N,O]-mechanism established earlier for the simulation of NH(3)-NO(2) (Park, J.; Lin, M. C. Technologies and Combustion for a Clean Environment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. 1997, 34-1, 1-5) and ADN decomposition reactions (Park, J.; Chakraborty, D.; Lin, M. C. Proc. Combust. Inst. 1998, 27, 2351-2357). Since the homogeneous decomposition reaction of HNO(3) itself was found to be too slow to account for the consumption of reactants and the formation of products, we also introduced the heterogeneous decomposition of HNO(3) in our kinetic modeling. The heterogeneous decomposition rate of HNO(3), HNO(3) + (B(2)O(3)/SiO(2)) --> OH + NO(2) + (B(2)O(3)/SiO(2)), was determined by varying its rate to match the modeled result to the measured concentrations of NH(3) and H(2)O; the rate could be represented by k(2b) = 7.91 x 10(7) exp(-12 600/T) s(-1), which appears to be consistent with those reported by Johnston and co-workers (Johnston, H. S.; Foering, L.; Tao, Y.-S.; Messerly, G. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1951, 73, 2319-2321) for HNO(3) decomposition on glass reactors at higher temperatures. Notably, the concentration profiles of all species measured could be satisfactorily predicted by the existing [H,N,O]-mechanism with the heterogeneous initiation process.

  4. A 16-year record of eolian dust in Southern Nevada and California, USA: Controls on dust generation and accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    An ongoing project monitors modern dust accumulation in the arid southwestern United States to (1) determine the rate and composition of dust inputs to soils and (2) relate dust accumulation to weather patterns to help predict the effects of climate change on dust production and accumulation. The 16-year records of 35 dust-trap sites in the eastern Mojave Desert and southern Great Basin reveal how generation and accumulation of dust, including the silt-clay, carbonate, and soluble-salt fractions, is affected by the amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall and the behavior of different source types (alluvium, dry playas, and wet playas). Accumulation rates (fluxes) of the silt-clay fraction of dust, including carbonates, range from about 2-20 g/m2/yr. Average rates are higher in the southern part of the study area (south of latitude 36.5??N) and annually fluctuate over a larger range than rates in the northern part of the area. Sites throughout the study area show peaks in dust flux in the 1984-1985 sampling period and again in 1997-1999; northern sites also show increased flux in 1987-1988 and southern sites in 1989-1991. These peaks of dust flux correspond with both La Nina (dry) conditions and with strong El Nino (wet) periods. The accumulation rates of different components of mineral dusts fluctuate differently. For example, soluble-salt flux increases in 1987-1988, coincident with a moderate El Nino event, and increases very strongly in 1997-1999, overlapping with a strong El Nino event. Both of these high-rainfall winters were preceded and accompanied by strong summer rains. In contrast, little or no change in soluble-salt flux occurred during other periods of high winter rainfall but little summer rain, e.g. 1992-1995. The differences between northern vs. southern sites and between sites with playa dust sources vs. alluvial dust sources indicate that regional differences in the response of precipitation and vegetation growth to ENSO influence and

  5. Recurrent short sleep, chronic insomnia symptoms and salivary cortisol: A 10-year follow-up in the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Abell, Jessica G; Shipley, Martin J; Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena

    2016-06-01

    Although an association between both sleep duration and disturbance with salivary cortisol has been suggested, little is known about the long term effects of poor quality sleep on diurnal cortisol rhythm. The aim of this study was to examine the association of poor quality sleep, categorised as recurrent short sleep duration and chronic insomnia symptoms, with the diurnal release of cortisol. We examined this in 3314 participants from an occupational cohort, originally recruited in 1985-1989. Salivary cortisol was measured in 2007-2009 and six saliva samples were collected: (1) waking, (2) waking+0.5h, (3) +2.5h, (4) +8h, (5) +12h and (6) bedtime, for assessment of the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope in cortisol secretion. Participants with the first saliva sample collected within 15min of waking and not on steroid medication were examined. Short sleep duration (≤5h) and insomnia symptoms (Jenkins scale, highest quartile) were measured in 1997-1999, 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Recurrent short sleep was associated with a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper morning rise in cortisol was observed among those reporting chronic insomnia symptoms at three time points and among those reporting short sleep twice, compared to those who never reported sleep problems. Participants reporting short sleep on three occasions had higher levels of cortisol later in the day, compared to those never reporting short sleep, indicated by a positive interaction with hours since waking (β=0.02 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03)). We conclude that recurrent sleep problems are associated with adverse salivary cortisol patterns throughout the day. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Low dietary potassium intakes and high dietary estimates of net endogenous acid production are associated with low bone mineral density in premenopausal women and increased markers of bone resorption in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen M; New, Susan A; Fraser, William D; Campbell, Marion K; Reid, David M

    2005-04-01

    The Western diet may be a risk factor for osteoporosis. Excess acid generated from high protein intakes increases calcium excretion and bone resorption. Fruit and vegetable intake could balance this excess acidity by providing alkaline salts of potassium. Algorithms based on dietary intakes of key nutrients can be used to approximate net endogenous acid production (NEAP) and to explore the association between dietary acidity and bone health. We investigated the relation between dietary potassium and protein, NEAP (with an algorithm including the ratio of protein to potassium intake), and potential renal acid load (with an algorithm including dietary protein, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, and calcium) and markers of bone health. Measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) (n = 3226) and urinary bone resorption markers (n = 2929) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck were performed in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women aged 54.9 +/- 2.2 y (x +/- SD) in 1997-1999. BMD (g/cm(2)), free pyridinoline (fPYD), and free deoxypyridinoline (fDPD) were expressed relative to creatinine. Dietary intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of potassium intake or the lowest with the highest NEAP showed a 6-8% increase in fPYD/creatinine and fDPD/creatinine. A difference of 8% in BMD was observed between the highest and lowest quartiles of potassium intake in the premenopausal group (n = 337). Dietary potassium, an indicator of NEAP and fruit and vegetable intake, may exert a modest influence on markers of bone health, which over a lifetime may contribute to a decreased risk of osteoporosis.

  7. Changes in concentrations of triazine and acetamide herbicides by bank filtration, ozonation, and chlorination in a public water supply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Thurman, E.M.; Lindsey, M.E.; Lee, E.C.; Smith, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The changes in triazine and acetamide concentrations in water during natural and artificial treatment by bank filtration, ozonation, filtration, and chlorination were measured at the well field and drinking water treatment plant of Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. The city's groundwater supply is affected by induced infiltration and transport of triazines and acetamide herbicides from the Platte River in late spring and early summer. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of infiltration and treatment on the presence of triazines and acetamides in drinking water. Samples of river water, well water, and public supply water at various stages of water treatment were collected from 1997-1999 during spring-runoff when the presence of herbicides in the Platte River is largest. In 1999, parent compounds were reduced by 76% of the concentration present in river water (33% by bank filtration, 41% by ozonation, and 1.5% by chlorination). Metabolites of herbicides for which analytical techniques existed were reduced by 21% (plus 26% by bank filtration, minus 23% by ozonation, and minus 24% by chlorination). However, increases in concentrations of specific metabolite compounds were identified after bank filtration and ozonation. After bank filtration, increases in cyanazine amide, cyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine acid were identified. After ozonation, concentrations of deisopropylatrazine, deethylatrazine, didealkylatrazine, atrazine amide-I, hydroxydeethylatrazine, hydroxydeisopopylatrazine, deethylcyanazine acid, and deethylcyanazine increased. Concentrations of cyanazine acid and ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acids of acetamides decreased during ozonation. Our findings suggest that bank filtration and ozonation of water in part can shift the assessment of risk to human health associated with the consumption of the water from the parent compounds to their degradation products.

  8. Cognitive behaviour therapy for low self-esteem: a preliminary randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Waite, Polly; McManus, Freda; Shafran, Roz

    2012-12-01

    Low self-esteem (LSE) is associated with psychiatric disorder, and is distressing and debilitating in its own right. Hence, it is frequent target for treatment in cognitive behavioural interventions, yet it has rarely been the primary focus for intervention. This paper reports on a preliminary randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for LSE using Fennell's (1997) cognitive conceptualisation and transdiagnostic treatment approach (1997, 1999). Twenty-two participants were randomly allocated to either immediate treatment (IT) (n=11) or to a waitlist condition (WL) (n=11). Treatment consisted of 10 sessions of individual CBT accompanied by workbooks. Participants allocated to the WL condition received the CBT intervention once the waitlist period was completed and all participants were followed up 11 weeks after completing CBT. The IT group showed significantly better functioning than the WL group on measures of LSE, overall functioning and depression and had fewer psychiatric diagnoses at the end of treatment. The WL group showed the same pattern of response to CBT as the group who had received CBT immediately. All treatment gains were maintained at follow-up assessment. The sample size is small and consists mainly of women with a high level of educational attainment and the follow-up period was relatively short. These preliminary findings suggest that a focused, brief CBT intervention can be effective in treating LSE and associated symptoms and diagnoses in a clinically representative group of individuals with a range of different and co-morbid disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magma intrusion near Volcan Tancitaro: Evidence from seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pinzon, Juan I.; Nunez-Cornu, Francisco J.; Rowe, Charlotte Anne

    2016-11-17

    Between May and June 2006, an earthquake swarm occurred near Volcan Tancítaro in Mexico, which was recorded by a temporary seismic deployment known as the MARS network. We located ~1000 events from this seismic swarm. Previous earthquake swarms in the area were reported in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. We relocate and analyze the evolution and properties of the 2006 earthquake swarm, employing a waveform cross-correlation-based phase repicking technique. Hypocenters from 911 events were located and divided into eighteen families having a correlation coefficient at or above 0.75. 90% of the earthquakes provide at least sixteen phase picks. We used the single-event location code Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Accelerometer Network to improve hypocenters based on the correlation-adjusted phase arrival times. We relocated 121 earthquakes, which show clearly two clusters, between 9–10 km and 3–4 km depth respectively. The average location error estimates are <1 km epicentrally, and <2 km in depth, for the largest event in each cluster. Depths of seismicity migrate upward from 16 to 3.5 km and exhibit a NE-SW trend. The swarm first migrated toward Paricutin Volcano but by mid-June began propagating back toward Volcán Tancítaro. In addition to its persistence, noteworthy aspects of this swarm include a quasi-exponential increase in the rate of activity within the first 15 days; a b-value of 1.47; a jug-shaped hypocenter distribution; a shoaling rate of ~5 km/month within the deeper cluster, and a composite focal mechanism solution indicating largely reverse faulting. As a result, these features of the swarm suggest a magmatic source elevating the crustal strain beneath Volcan Tancítaro.

  10. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-II). Difference Image Analysis of the Bulge Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    During 1997-1999 observing seasons (mid March to mid December) the OGLE-II project collected more than 11,000 2Kx8K frames (over 370 GB of pixel data) of the Galactic Bulge using 1.3m Warsaw Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Each of the 49 fields has roughly 200-300 measurements in I band. The fields span the range approximately from -10 to 10 deg in galactic longitude. I present a complete reanalysis of this data set using the optimal image subtraction method developed by Alard and Lupton (1998) and Alard (1999). Databases of difference measurements contain about 100,000 variable objects. This information is supplemented with colors from DoPhot photometry. Noise properties of our difference light curves are exceptionally good for this kind of massive monitoring program. The nongaussian tail in the distribution of residuals is totally negligible for usual applications. For faint stars the measurement errors are only 1.15 times photon noise. The difference photometry is always at least a factor of 2 better than results from DoPhot. Systematic effects due to blending are greatly relieved, the most important difference being the unbiased value of the variable light centroid. We discovered 512 microlensing events (compared to 214 from DoPhot photometry, Udalski et al. 2000). 305 of those were found fully algorithmically and have good quality light curves making them very well suited for optical depth determination. In the nearest future we plan to obtain an upper limit on the number of jupiters around microlenses as these should manifest themselves in the nongaussian tail of the residual distribution. Next possibilities include much better and larger extinction maps of the bulge and studies of the galactic bar. With 300-500 events we should be able to study the depth of the lens/source populations (Stanek 1996).

  11. Observation of a Distinct Transition in Transport Response to Injection Stress in the Floridan Aquifer System, Southeastern Florida, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. N.; Cunningham, K. J.; Foster, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) injects effluent approximately one km below land surface into the Boulder Zone (BZ) at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant (NDWWTP). The BZ is highly conductive and composed of fractured dolomite. MDWASD monitors upward effluent migration 450 m below land surface in the Avon Park Permeable Zone (APPZ). The BZ and APPZ---units within the Floridan aquifer system---are separated by a series of inter-bedded aquifers and leaky confining units with hydraulic conductivities that are orders of magnitude smaller than the BZ. MDWASD injected effluent at the NDWWTP during two distinct periods: (1) July 1997 to September 1999, and (2) August 2004 to January 2011. No effluent was injected between October 1999 and July 2004. A few months after the July 1997 injection, MDWASD observed effluent constituents in the APPZ (Figure 1). Some confinement bypass feature permits effluent constituents to be transported from the BZ to the APPZ. Bypass features may include poorly-cased wells, or natural conduits such as fractures, faults, or karst collapse systems. It is possible to describe confinement bypass features with conductance KA/L, where K is hydraulic conductivity, A is cross-sectional area, and L is length. MDWASD observed a distinct transition in the transport response to injection stress of total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration in the APPZ. The conductance required to describe early system response (1997-1999) is one order-of-magnitude larger than the conductance required to describe late system response (2004-2011). Hypotheses to explain transient conductance include clogging of bypass features by some geochemical or biological process that results from the mixing of effluent with groundwater; dissolution or precipitation; or changes in bypass-feature geometry forced by cyclical changes in aquifer-fluid pressure associated with injection. Hypotheses may be tested with geochemical analyses, tracer tests, hydraulic

  12. Magma intrusion near Volcan Tancitaro: Evidence from seismic analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Pinzon, Juan I.; Nunez-Cornu, Francisco J.; Rowe, Charlotte Anne

    2016-11-17

    Between May and June 2006, an earthquake swarm occurred near Volcan Tancítaro in Mexico, which was recorded by a temporary seismic deployment known as the MARS network. We located ~1000 events from this seismic swarm. Previous earthquake swarms in the area were reported in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. We relocate and analyze the evolution and properties of the 2006 earthquake swarm, employing a waveform cross-correlation-based phase repicking technique. Hypocenters from 911 events were located and divided into eighteen families having a correlation coefficient at or above 0.75. 90% of the earthquakes provide at least sixteen phase picks. Wemore » used the single-event location code Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Accelerometer Network to improve hypocenters based on the correlation-adjusted phase arrival times. We relocated 121 earthquakes, which show clearly two clusters, between 9–10 km and 3–4 km depth respectively. The average location error estimates are <1 km epicentrally, and <2 km in depth, for the largest event in each cluster. Depths of seismicity migrate upward from 16 to 3.5 km and exhibit a NE-SW trend. The swarm first migrated toward Paricutin Volcano but by mid-June began propagating back toward Volcán Tancítaro. In addition to its persistence, noteworthy aspects of this swarm include a quasi-exponential increase in the rate of activity within the first 15 days; a b-value of 1.47; a jug-shaped hypocenter distribution; a shoaling rate of ~5 km/month within the deeper cluster, and a composite focal mechanism solution indicating largely reverse faulting. As a result, these features of the swarm suggest a magmatic source elevating the crustal strain beneath Volcan Tancítaro.« less

  13. Magma intrusion near Volcan Tancítaro: Evidence from seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinzón, Juan I.; Núñez-Cornú, Francisco J.; Rowe, Charlotte A.

    2017-01-01

    Between May and June 2006, an earthquake swarm occurred near Volcan Tancítaro in Mexico, which was recorded by a temporary seismic deployment known as the MARS network. We located ∼1000 events from this seismic swarm. Previous earthquake swarms in the area were reported in the years 1997, 1999 and 2000. We relocate and analyze the evolution and properties of the 2006 earthquake swarm, employing a waveform cross-correlation-based phase repicking technique. Hypocenters from 911 events were located and divided into eighteen families having a correlation coefficient at or above 0.75. 90% of the earthquakes provide at least sixteen phase picks. We used the single-event location code Hypo71 and the P-wave velocity model used by the Jalisco Seismic and Accelerometer Network to improve hypocenters based on the correlation-adjusted phase arrival times. We relocated 121 earthquakes, which show clearly two clusters, between 9-10 km and 3-4 km depth respectively. The average location error estimates are <1 km epicentrally, and <2 km in depth, for the largest event in each cluster. Depths of seismicity migrate upward from 16 to 3.5 km and exhibit a NE-SW trend. The swarm first migrated toward Paricutin Volcano but by mid-June began propagating back toward Volcán Tancítaro. In addition to its persistence, noteworthy aspects of this swarm include a quasi-exponential increase in the rate of activity within the first 15 days; a b-value of 1.47; a jug-shaped hypocenter distribution; a shoaling rate of ∼5 km/month within the deeper cluster, and a composite focal mechanism solution indicating largely reverse faulting. These features of the swarm suggest a magmatic source elevating the crustal strain beneath Volcan Tancítaro.

  14. Skipjack tuna as a bioindicator of contamination by perfluorinated compounds in the oceans.

    PubMed

    Hart, Kimberly; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tao, Lin; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-09-15

    Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have emerged as global environmental contaminants. Studies have reported the widespread occurrence of PFCs in biota from marine coastal waters and in remote polar regions. However, few studies have reported the distribution of PFCs in biota from offshore waters and open oceans. In this study, concentrations of nine PFCs were determined in the livers of 60 skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from offshore waters and the open ocean along the Pacific Rim, including the Sea of Japan, the East China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Western North Pacific Ocean, during 1997-1999. At least one of the nine PFCs was found in every tuna sample analyzed. Overall, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) were the predominant compounds found in livers of tuna at concentrations of <1-58.9 and <1-31.6 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Long-chain perfluorocarboxylates such as perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) were common in the tuna livers. In livers of tuna from several offshore and open-ocean locations, concentrations of PFUnDA were greater than the concentrations of PFOS. The profiles and concentrations of PFCs in tuna livers suggest that the sources in East Asia are dominated by long-chain perfluorocarboxylates, especially PFUnDA. High concentrations of PFUnDA in tuna may indicate a shift in sources of PFCs in East Asia. The spatial distribution of PFOS in skipjack tuna reflected the concentrations previously reported in seawater samples from the Pacific and Indian Oceans, suggesting that tuna are good bioindicators of pollution by PFOS. Despite its predominance in ocean waters, PFOA was rarely found in tuna livers, indicative of the low bioaccumulation potential of this compound. Our study establishes baseline concentrations of PFCs in skipjack tuna from the oceans of the Asia-Pacific region, enabling future temporal trend studies of PFCs in oceans.

  15. Using sensitivity analysis in model calibration efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, Claire R.; Hill, Mary C.

    2003-01-01

    In models of natural and engineered systems, sensitivity analysis can be used to assess relations among system state observations, model parameters, and model predictions. The model itself links these three entities, and model sensitivities can be used to quantify the links. Sensitivities are defined as the derivatives of simulated quantities (such as simulated equivalents of observations, or model predictions) with respect to model parameters. We present four measures calculated from model sensitivities that quantify the observation-parameter-prediction links and that are especially useful during the calibration and prediction phases of modeling. These four measures are composite scaled sensitivities (CSS), prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), the value of improved information (VOII) statistic, and the observation prediction (OPR) statistic. These measures can be used to help guide initial calibration of models, collection of field data beneficial to model predictions, and recalibration of models updated with new field information. Once model sensitivities have been calculated, each of the four measures requires minimal computational effort. We apply the four measures to a three-layer MODFLOW-2000 (Harbaugh et al., 2000; Hill et al., 2000) model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS), located in southern Nevada and California. D’Agnese et al. (1997, 1999) developed and calibrated the model using nonlinear regression methods. Figure 1 shows some of the observations, parameters, and predictions for the DVRFS model. Observed quantities include hydraulic heads and spring flows. The 23 defined model parameters include hydraulic conductivities, vertical anisotropies, recharge rates, evapotranspiration rates, and pumpage. Predictions of interest for this regional-scale model are advective transport paths from potential contamination sites underlying the Nevada Test Site and Yucca Mountain.

  16. Evidence for the aetiology of injuries in Australian football

    PubMed Central

    Norton, K; Schwerdt, S; Lange, K

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To determine in Australian football (a) the influence of ground hardness and playing grade (level) on game speed and structure, and (b) player movement patterns throughout the game and across levels. Methods—The design consisted of several studies. Seventeen games played on grounds of different hardness in 2000 were used to determine game speed and structure. Four first grade and four second grade grand final games (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) were used to determine the game speed and structure on the same ground but at different levels. Fifty one players (44 first grade and seven second grade) were used to measure movement patterns within games and across levels during the 2000 season. Results—There was a significant relation between ground hardness and game speed, which could lead to higher injury rates when the ground is harder. There was a 6.7% difference in game speed between the first and second grade levels reflecting differences in injury incidence. The first grade games were also characterised by a greater number of shorter, high intensity play periods and longer stop periods than the second grade games. Midfield players in the first grade games covered about 24% greater distance than their second grade counterparts, and there was a significant difference in their playing speeds. Conclusions—Over the past 40 years, the game speed in the top level of Australian football has approximately doubled. Over the same time, the number of collisions and the estimated injury incidence have also doubled. This study provides additional support to the suggestion that these variables are strongly linked. Factors such as ground hardness, playing level, and time during the game influence game speed and are therefore important in injury development in Australian football. Key Words: aetiology; injuries; Australian football PMID:11726478

  17. Trends in acute otitis media-related health care utilization by privately insured young children in the United States, 1997-2004.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fangjun; Shefer, Abigail; Kong, Yuan; Nuorti, J Pekka

    2008-02-01

    The goal was to estimate the population effect of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on rates of acute otitis media-related ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions for <2-year-old children enrolled in private insurance plans. We performed a retrospective analysis of a defined population by using the 1997-2004 MarketScan databases, which included an average of >500,000 person-years of observations for children <2 years of age. Trends in rates of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-coded ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to acute otitis media were evaluated, and the national direct medical expenditures for these outcomes were estimated. In a comparison of 2004 with 1997-1999 (baseline period), rates of ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions attributable to acute otitis media decreased from 2173 to 1244 visits per 1000 person-years (42.7% reduction) and from 1244 to 722 prescriptions per 1000 person-years (41.9% reduction), respectively. Total, estimated, national direct medical expenditures for acute otitis media-related ambulatory visits and antibiotic prescriptions for children <2 years of age decreased from an average of $1.41 billion during 1997 to 1999 to $0.95 billion in 2004 (32.3% reduction). Acute otitis media-related health care utilization and associated antibiotic prescriptions for privately insured young children decreased more than expected (on the basis of efficacy estimates in prelicensure clinical trials) after the introduction of routine 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunization. Although other factors, such as clinical practice guidelines to reduce antibiotic use, might have contributed to the observed trend, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine may play an important role in reducing the burden of acute otitis media, resulting in substantial savings in medical care costs.

  18. Work Stress, Caregiving and Allostatic Load: Prospective results from Whitehall II cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis; Head, Jenny; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    Objective Studies investigating health effects of work and family stress usually consider these factors in isolation. The present study investigated prospective interactive effects of job strain and informal caregiving on allostatic load (AL), a multisystem indicator of physiological dysregulation. Methods Subjects were 7,007 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study. Phase 3 (1991-1994) served as the baseline, Phases 5 (1997-1999) and 7 (2002-2004) as follow-ups. Job strain (high job demands combined with low control) and caregiving (providing care to aged or disabled relatives) were assessed at baseline. AL index (possible range 0-9) was assessed at baseline and both follow-ups based on 9 cardiovascular, metabolic and immune biomarkers. Linear mixed effect models were used to examine the association of job strain and caregiving with AL. Results High caregiving burden (above the sample median weekly hours of providing care) predicted higher AL levels, with the effect strongest in those also reporting job strain [b = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.01– 0.71)]; however, the interaction between job strain and caregiving was not significant (p = 0.56). Regardless of job strain, participants with low caregiving burden (below sample median) had lower subsequent AL levels than non-caregivers [b = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06–0.37]. Conclusions The study provides some evidence for adverse effects of stress at work combined with family demands on physiological functioning. However, providing care to others may also have health protective effects if it does not involve excessive time commitment. PMID:25984826

  19. Andean region: measles on the way out.

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    In August 1996, health officials, program managers, epidemiologists, laboratory representatives, UNICEF, Rotary International, and Pan American Health Organization staff attended the VII Andean EPI Meeting in Quito, Ecuador, to review the progress of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI). All Andean countries have conducted catch-up measles vaccination campaigns targeting children 9 months to 15 years old. These campaigns achieved 90% vaccine coverage and a strong reduction in measles incidence (only 7 confirmed cases in 1996). Follow-up campaigns were conducted during 1995-1996 in Colombia, Peru, and Chile. They were expected in Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela during 1997-1999. The Andean countries implemented a national surveillance system for measles in 1995. Meeting representatives made eight recommendations regarding measles. For example, health officials should reach and maintain routine vaccination coverage greater than 95% for children 12-23 months old in each municipality. Laboratory representatives proposed recommendations on uniform criteria for measles diagnosis. The last indigenous wild poliovirus in the Americas was isolated in 1991. Imported wild poliovirus remains a concern. The Andean countries are expanding surveillance of neonatal tetanus activities. Since 1989 the frequency of neonatal tetanus has been falling in the Andean region, especially in Bolivia and Peru. The impact of migration on the control of neonatal tetanus should be a higher priority. Participants repeated the need for systematic use and continuous monitoring of EPI indicators (e.g., vaccination coverage). Three countries plan on analyzing surveys on missed opportunities for vaccination in 1996. Three countries presented progress reports on hepatitis B vaccination and surveillance. Participants issued recommendations on quality control of vaccines. The responsibility for quality control lies with the manufacturers and the government. Vaccines for invasive diseases (e

  20. [Assessing the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb].

    PubMed

    Oliván Gonzalvo, G

    2000-07-01

    To assess the health and nutritional status of illegal immigrant adolescents from Maghreb at the time of entry into foster care in Zaragoza, Spain. Cross-sectional study over a 3-year period (1997-1999). Health status via clinical history and physical examination was assessed according to standard protocols and individualized complementary laboratory examinations were performed. Nutritional status was assessed using the anthropometric method. Weight, height, head and upper arm circumferences, tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness, body-mass index and nutritional index were established and compared with national normal standards of reference (Z-score). Student s t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences. Forty male adolescents (22 Algerians and 18 Moroccans) were admitted during the study period. Mean age was 15 +/- 1.42 years (range: 13-17 years). Health status: anomaly in at least one body system (50%) and more than one anomaly (15%). Most frequent problems were odontologic (32. 5%), dermatological (17.5%), respiratory (12.5%), ophthalmological (7.5%), orthopedic (5%) and otic (2.5%). Tuberculous infection was detected in 5% and iron deficiency anemia in 2.5% of the patients. Nutritional status: except for head circumference (p < 0.05), no statistically significant differences were found in the other variables analyzed. Mean value of nutritional index was found to be within normal intervals. Individualized analysis showed a mild form of acute malnutrition in 12.5% of the patients. The adolescents studied showed prevalent odontological, dermatological and respiratory diseases due infection and lack of hygienic practices. Deficiency diseases, congenital anomalies and undiagnosed chronic diseases were observed in a small number of patients. Concerning nutritional status, a low percentage of patients showed a mild form of acute malnutrition, probably related to food deprivation and poor dietary habits experienced during the immigration

  1. General anesthesia: as a challenge and treatment need option in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Del Machuca Portillo, María Carmen; Hanke Herrero, Rosana; del López Valle, Lydia; Machuca Portillo, Guillermo; Bullón Fernández, Pedro

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the type and characteristics of the interventions, indications of dental treatment and procedures performed to patients treated under general anesthesia (GA) by pediatric dentistry residents, during the 1997-1999 period. A sample of 57 hospital records of patients treated as part of the Special Pediatric Course at the Puerto Rico Pediatric Hospital were reviewed. Statistical analysis was done using the chi-square test for inferences on proportions. MR patients made up 59.7% and NMR patients made up 40.3% of the sample studied. Ages ranged from 2 to 35 years with a mean age of 11 years (SD=8.54). MR patients were classified into 7 categories: mental retardation (38.2%), cerebral palsy (14.7%), epileptic (5.9%), mental syndromes (26.9%), hydrocephalic (5.9%), autism (5.9%) and others (2.9%). The NMR were classified into 5 categories: early childhood caries (65.2%), cardiac patients (8.7%), maxillofacial anomalies (4.3%), organic syndromes (13.1%) and others (8.7%). The dental procedures performed were: dental extractions 84%(MR) and 68% (NMR), restorative procedures 87.3%(MR) and 12.7%(NMR). Oral prophylaxis was performed in 76.8%, fissure sealants in 10.7% and topical fluoride applications in 21.8%. Dental extraction was a frequently performed procedure in both groups. The prevalence of exodontia and restorative procedures indicates the need to design and implement prevention programs for special pediatric patients.

  2. Evaluation of the Life History of Native Salmonids in the Malheur River Basin; Cooperative Bull Trout/Redband Trout Research Project, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwabe, Lawrence; Tiley, Mark; Perkins, Raymond R.

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the seasonal distribution of adult/sub-adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in the Malheur River basin. Due to the decline of bull trout in the Columbia Basin, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service listed bull trout as a threatened species in June 1998. Past land management activities; construction of dams; and fish eradication projects in the North Fork and Middle Fork Malheur River by poisoning have worked in concert to cumulatively impact native species in the Malheur Basin (Bowers et. al. 1993). Survival of the remaining bull trout populations is severely threatened (Buchanan 1997). 1999 Research Objects are: (1) Document the migratory patterns of adult/sub-adult bull trout in the North Fork Malheur River; (2) Determine the seasonal bull trout use of Beulah Reservoir and bull trout entrainment; and (3) Timing and location of bull trout spawning in the North Fork Malheur River basin. The study area includes the Malheur basin from the mouth of the Malheur River located near Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur River (Map 1). All fish collected and most of the telemetry effort was done on the North Fork Malheur River subbasin (Map 2). Fish collection was conducted on the North Fork Malheur River at the tailwaters of Beulah Reservoir (RK 29), Beulah Reservoir (RK 29-RK 33), and in the North Fork Malheur River at Crane Crossing (RK 69) to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. Radio telemetry was done from the mouth of the Malheur River in Ontario, Oregon to the headwaters of the North Fork Malheur. This report will reflect all migration data collected from 3/1/99 to 12/31/99.

  3. Changes in bird-migration patterns associated with human-induced mortality.

    PubMed

    Palacín, Carlos; Alonso, Juan C; Martín, Carlos A; Alonso, Javier A

    2017-02-01

    Many bird populations have recently changed their migratory behavior in response to alterations of the environment. We collected data over 16 years on male Great Bustards (Otis tarda), a species showing a partial migratory pattern (sedentary and migratory birds coexisting in the same breeding groups). We conducted population counts and radio tracked 180 individuals to examine differences in survival rates between migratory and sedentary individuals and evaluate possible effects of these differences on the migratory pattern of the population. Overall, 65% of individuals migrated and 35% did not. The average distance between breeding and postbreeding areas of migrant individuals was 89.9 km, and the longest average movement of sedentary males was 3.8 km. Breeding group and migration distance had no effect on survival. However, mortality of migrants was 2.4 to 3.5 times higher than mortality of sedentary birds. For marked males, collision with power lines was the main cause of death from unnatural causes (37.6% of all deaths), and migratory birds died in collisions with power lines more frequently than sedentary birds (21.3% vs 6.3%). The percentage of sedentary individuals increased from 17% in 1997 to 45% in 2012. These results were consistent with data collected from radio-tracked individuals: The proportion of migratory individuals decreased from 86% in 1997-1999 to 44% in 2006-2010. The observed decrease in the migratory tendency was not related to climatic changes (temperatures did not change over the study period) or improvements in habitat quality (dry cereal farmland area decreased in the main study area). Our findings suggest that human-induced mortality during migration may be an important factor shaping the migration patterns of species inhabiting humanized landscapes. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Impact of childhood asthma on growth trajectories in early adolescence: Findings from the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS).

    PubMed

    Movin, Maria; Garden, Frances L; Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Svensdotter, Frida; Andersson, David; Kruse, Andreas; Cowell, Chris T; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Indirect benefits of high coral cover for non-corallivorous butterflyfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratchett, M. S.; Blowes, S. A.; Coker, D.; Kubacki, E.; Nowicki, J.; Hoey, A. S.

    2015-06-01

    Extensive coral loss often leads to pronounced declines in the abundance of fishes, which are not necessarily limited to those fishes that are directly reliant on live coral for food or shelter. This study explored changes in the abundance of two non-corallivorous butterflyfish, Chaetadon auriga and Chaetodon vagabundus, during declines in coral cover at Lizard Island, northern Great Barrier Reef, caused by localised outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS). At North Reef, where COTS caused significant coral depletion, the abundance of C. auriga declined from 1995-1996 to 1997-1999, whereas abundance was unchanged at Washing Machine Reef, which was relatively unaffected by COTS. Abundance of C. vagabundus did not vary through the course of this study at either site. To better understand inter-specific differences in the responses of non-corallivorous butterflyfishes, feeding rates of C. auriga and C. vagabundus were quantified across sites with varying coral cover. Feeding rates of C. auriga were significantly and positively correlated with live coral cover. In contrast, feeding rates of C. vagabundus did not differ among sites with varying levels of live coral cover. This study shows that C. auriga is negatively affected by localised coral depletion, possibly because its prey is more abundant in coral-rich habitats. C. vagabundus, meanwhile, is generally unaffected by changes in coral cover. This study stresses the need for more detailed research in light of current and predicted declines in coral cover to elucidate specific differences in the dietary composition of C. auriga versus C. vagabundus, and the extent to which their prey is actually reliant on live coral.

  6. The Martian Upper Atmosphere Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougher, S. W.; Bell, J. M.; Baird, D. T.; Murphy, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    New Mars spacecraft datasets and 3-D modeling capabilities are emerging to characterize the Mars thermospheric circulation patterns for the first time. Upper atmosphere wind constraints are available from recent aerobraking and Mars Express measurements. Mars Global Surveyor (1997-1999) and Mars Odyssey (2001-2002) Accelerometer datasets obtained during aerobraking operations provide density and temperature distributions over limited local time and latitude regions at lower thermospheric altitudes ( ˜100-160 km) [e.g. Keating et al., 1998; 2002; 2003; Withers et al., 2003]. Latitudinal gradients of these fields (i.e. into the winter polar night) vary greatly with the changing Martian seasons. The winter polar warming features observed serve as a tracer of the strength and variability of the Martian thermospheric wind patterns during solstice conditions [Keating et al., 2003; Bougher et al., 2005].Accelerometer data is also being used to estimate cross-track (zonal) wind speeds in the Mars lower thermosphere ( ˜100-130 km) [Baird et al., 2005], yielding values as large as 300-400 m/sec. Most recently, the Mars Express SPICAM instrument discovered nitric oxide (NO) nightglow spectral features in the γ and δ -bands from limb observations (Ls = 74) [Bertaux et al., 2005]. These observed UV nightglow emissions are brightest in the winter polar night region. The solstice winds required to produce the Mars winter polar warming features are also responsible for transporting dayside produced N and O atoms to the nightside where radiative recombination and UV chemiluminescence occurs. These new dynamical constraints for the Martian upper atmosphere are now investigated using coupled MGCM (NASA Ames) and MTGCM (Michigan) simulations for aphelion (Ls = 90) and perihelion (Ls = 270) conditions appropriate to MGS and Odyssey aerobraking datasets described above. Seasonal variations in the thermospheric circulation, and the underlying mechanisms likely responsible for these

  7. Nitrogen cycling through swine production systems: ammonia, dinitrogen, and nitrous oxide emissions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Lowry A; Sharpe, Ron R; Parkin, Tim B; De Visscher, Alex; van Cleemput, Oswald; Byers, F Michael

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) emissions from animal systems have become a primary concern for all of livestock production. The purpose of this research was to establish the relationship of nitrogen (N) emissions to specific components of swine production systems and to determine accurate NH(3) emission factors appropriate for the regional climate, geography, and production systems. Micrometeorological instrumentation and gas sensors were placed over two lagoons in North Carolina during 1997-1999 to obtain information for determining ammonia emissions over extended periods and without interfering with the surrounding climate. Ammonia emissions varied diurnally and seasonally and were related to lagoon ammonium concentration, acidity, temperature, and wind turbulence. Conversion of significant quantities of ammonium NH(4)(+) to dinitrogen gas (N(2)) were measured in all lagoons with the emission rate largely dependent on NH(4)(+) concentration. Lagoon NH(4)(+) conversion to N(2) accounted for the largest loss component of the N entering the farm (43% as N(2)); however, small amounts of N(2)O were emitted from the lagoon (0.1%) and from field applications (0.05%) when effluent was applied nearby. In disagreement with previous and current estimates of NH(3) emissions from confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) systems, and invalidating current assumptions that most or all emissions are in the form of NH(3), we found much smaller NH(3) emissions from animal housing (7%), lagoons (8%), and fields (2%) using independent measurements of N transformation and transport. Nitrogen input and output in the production system were evaluated, and 95% of input N was accounted for as output N from the system.

  8. Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide and Nitric Oxide from a Repeatedly Burned Mediterranean Shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekberg, A.; Buchmann, N.; Gross, S.; Sörgel, K.; Weitz, A.

    2003-04-01

    Ecosystem carbon and nitrogen fluxes are closely coupled. Soil nitrogen availability and organic matter content affect soil carbon turnover as well as emissions of nitrogen oxides. Fire affects nutrient availability, typically leading to peaks in soil-atmosphere gas fluxes. However, little information on this subject is currently available from Mediterranean ecosystems. Our study is carried out within the framework of the EU project SPREAD (Forest Fire Spread Prevention and Mitigation). In the context of SPREAD, we study effects of repeated management fires on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO). The study is performed in a mountain bushland area at Quintos de Mora Biological Station, Montes de Toledo, central Spain (39°23'N, 4°00'W). The experiments are set up in a split plot design where autumn- and spring burns from three consecutive years (1997-1999) and one additional burn from 1994 are compared with unburned controls. During the first field campaign, conducted in November 2002, soil respiration (CO2 emission) was measured from 30 permanently installed frames by a manual chamber technique using infrared gas analysis (LI-6400-09, LI-COR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska). The preliminary results indicate no significant differences in CO2 emissions between different burns. Emissions of NO were not measured at this occasion, but in future field campaigns, we will use a luminol chemiluminescence detection technique (LMA-3D, Unisearch Associates Inc., Concord, Canada) with dynamic vented chambers to determine soil NO fluxes. Soil physical (bulk density, gravimetric soil water content, water-filled pore space) and chemical (pH, available ammonium a nitrate) properties are also determined. Additional field campaigns are scheduled to March, early summer and late summer 2003.

  9. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic Map of Boulder-Fort Collins-Greeley Area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colton, Roger B.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude data displayed over the geographic extent of rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Colton in 1976 (U.S.Geological Survey Map I-855-G) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Colton used his own mapping and published geologic maps having varied map unit schemes to compile one map with a uniform classification of geologic units. The resulting published color paper map was intended for planning for use of land in the Front Range Urban Corridor. In 1997-1999, under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project, Colton's map was digitized to provide data at 1:100,000 scale to address urban growth issues(see cross-reference). In general, the west part of the map shows a variety of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, major faults and brecciated zones along an eastern strip (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central part of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depicts a mantle of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and interspersed Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary rock outcrops. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone and shale formations (and sparse limestone) form hogbacks, intervening valleys, and in range-front folds, anticlines, and fault blocks. Localized dikes and sills of Tertiary rhyodacite and basalt intrude rocks near the range front, mostly in the Boulder area.

  10. Elemental carbon exposure at residence and survival after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    von Klot, Stephanie; Gryparis, Alexandros; Tonne, Cathryn; Yanosky, Jeffrey; Coull, Brent A; Goldberg, Robert J; Lessard, Darleen; Melly, Steven J; Suh, Helen H; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-07-01

    Particulate air pollution has been consistently related to cardiovascular mortality. Some evidence suggests that particulate matter may accelerate the atherosclerotic process. Effects of within-city variations of particulate air pollution on survival after an acute cardiovascular event have been little explored. We conducted a cohort study of hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction (MI) from the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area to investigate the long-term effects of within-city variation in traffic-related air pollution on mortality. The study builds on an ongoing community-wide investigation examining changes over time in MI incidence and case-fatality rates. We included confirmed cases of MI in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003. Long-term survival status was ascertained through 2005. A validated spatiotemporal land use regression model for traffic-related air pollution was developed and annual averages of elemental carbon at residence estimated. The effect of estimated elemental carbon on the long-term mortality of patients discharged after MI was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model, controlling for a variety of demographic, medical history, and clinical variables. Of the 3895 patients with validated MI, 44% died during follow-up. Exposure to estimated elemental carbon in the year of entry into the study was 0.44 microg/m on average. All-cause mortality increased by 15% (95% confidence interval = 0.03%-29%) per interquartile range increase in estimated yearly elemental carbon (0.24 microg/m) after the second year of survival. No association between traffic-related pollution and all-cause mortality was observed during the first 2 years of follow-up. Chronic traffic-related particulate air pollution is associated with increased mortality in hospital survivors of acute MI after the second year of survival.

  11. Determinants and trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Shahabuddin, A S M; Delvaux, Thérèse; Utz, Bettina; Bardají, Azucena; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the determinants and measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections among married adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Methods In order to measure the trends in health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections, Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) data sets were analysed (BDHS; 1993–1994, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004, 2007, 2011). The BDHS 2011 data sets were analysed to identify the determinants of health facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections. A total of 2813 adolescent girls (aged 10–19 years) were included for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results Health facility-based deliveries have continuously increased among adolescents in Bangladesh over the past two decades from 3% in 1993–1994 to 24.5% in 2011. Rates of population-based and facility-based caesarean sections have increased linearly among all age groups of women including adolescents. Although the country's overall (population-based) caesarean section rate among adolescents was within acceptable range (11.6%), a rate of nearly 50% health facility level caesarean sections among adolescent girls is alarming. Among adolescent girls, use of antenatal care (ANC) appeared to be the most important predictor of health facility-based delivery (OR: 4.04; 95% CI 2.73 to 5.99), whereas the wealth index appeared as the most important predictor of caesarean sections (OR: 5.7; 95% CI 2.74 to 12.1). Conclusions Maternal health-related interventions should be more targeted towards adolescent girls in order to encourage them to access ANC and promote health facility-based delivery. Rising trends of caesarean sections require further investigation on indication and provider–client-related determinants of these interventions among adolescent girls in Bangladesh. PMID:27633641

  12. The influence of Pacific Equatorial Water on fish diversity in the southern California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, Sam; Thompson, Andrew R.; Alin, Simone R.; Siedlecki, Samantha; Watson, William; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-08-01

    The California Undercurrent transports Pacific Equatorial Water (PEW) into the Southern California Bight from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. PEW is characterized by higher temperatures and salinities, with lower pH, representing a source of potentially corrosive (aragonite,Ω<1) water to the region. We use ichthyoplankton assemblages near the cores of the California Current and the California Undercurrent to determine whether PEW influenced fish diversity. We use hydrographic data to characterize the interannual and seasonal variability of estimated pH and aragonite saturation with depth. Although there is substantial variability in PEW presence as measured by spice on the 26.25-26.75 isopycnal layer, as well as in pH and aragonite saturation, we found fish diversity to be stable over the decades 1985-1996 and 1999-2011. We detected significant difference in species structure during the 1998 La Niña period, due to reduced species evenness. Species richness due to rare species was higher during the 1997/1998 El Niño compared to the La Niña but the effect on species structure was undetectable. Lack of difference in the species abundance structure in the decade before and after the 1997/1999 ENSO event showed that the assemblage reverted to its former structure following the ENSO perturbation, indicating resilience. While the interdecadal species structure remained stable, the long tail of the distributions shows that species richness increased between the decades consistent with intrusion of warm water with more diverse assemblages into the southern California region.

  13. The prevalence of asthma in children of elementary school age in western New York.

    PubMed

    Lwebuga-Mukasa, J S; Dunn-Georgiou, E

    2000-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of caregiver-reported asthma in children 4 to 13 years old in metropolitan western New York State, surveys were conducted during 1997-1999 in the Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Iroquois, and Gowanda school systems. Questionnaires (3,889) were sent to the homes of elementary school children in nine schools in western New York. The caregivers were asked to complete a 13-item questionnaire for the child. Of the questionnaires, 60.5% (2,353/3,889) were completed. Of all children, 18% had physician-diagnosed asthma. Of children diagnosed with asthma, 86% were taking medication. Symptoms were consistent with suspected undiagnosed asthma for 13% of the children. Buffalo had the highest rate of diagnosed asthma (20%) for the age group. Gowanda had a prevalence of 18%, Iroquois 16%, and Niagara Falls 15%. Variations were observed in asthma prevalence rates among different racial/ethnic groups. In general, boys had a significantly (P = .001) increased odds of being asthmatic compared with girls. Overall, African-Americans and Hispanic/Latino children had significantly (P = .012 and P = .005, respectively) higher asthma prevalence rates, two to five times those of their Caucasian peers. In Gowanda, the prevalence of diagnosed asthma among Native American children was 23%, compared to 15% among Caucasian children. Of diagnosed Native American children, 71% were female. In Gowanda, a significant association (P = .007) of asthma among children in split-grade classes was observed compared to nonsplit grades. Of Native American children in split grades, 60% were diagnosed asthmatics. These observations reveal a high prevalence of asthma in the age group of 4 to 13 year olds in western New York. Local variations in potential triggers of asthma need to be considered when advising asthmatics. The results suggest that some grades have a disproportionate amount of children with asthma. The implications of asthma for children's early education need to be examined

  14. Brightness induction magnitude declines with increasing distance from the inducing field edge

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Barbara; McCourt, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Brightness induction refers to a class of visual illusions where the perceived intensity of a region of space is influenced by the luminance of surrounding regions. These illusions are significant because they provide insight into the neural organization and processing strategies employed by the visual system. The nature of these processing strategies, however, has long been debated. Here we investigate the spatial characteristics of grating induction as a function of the distance from the inducing field edge to evaluate the viability of various competing models. In particular multiscale spatial filtering models and homogeneous filling-in models make very different predictions in regard to the magnitude of induction as a function of this distance. Filling-in explanations predict that the brightness/lightness of the filled-in region will be homogeneous, whereas multiscale filtering predicts a fall-off in induction magnitude with distance from the inducing field edge. Induction magnitude was measured using a narrow probe version of the quadrature-phase motion-cancellation paradigm (Blakeslee & McCourt, 2011) and a point-by-point brightness matching paradigm (McCourt, 1994; Blakeslee & McCourt, 1997; 1999). Both techniques reveal a decrease in the magnitude of induction with increasing distance from the inducing edge. A homogeneous filling-in mechanism cannot explain the induced structure in the test fields of these stimuli. The results argue strongly against filling-in mechanisms as well as against any mechanism that posits that induction is homogeneous. The structure of the induction is, however, well accounted for by the multiscale filtering (ODOG) model of Blakeslee and McCourt (1999). These results support models of brightness/lightness, such as filtering models, which preserve these gradients of induction. PMID:23262229

  15. Water level dynamics in wetlands and nesting success of Black Terns in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilbert, A.T.; Servello, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Black Tern (Chlidonias niger) nests in freshwater wetlands that are prone to water level fluctuations, and nest losses to flooding are common. We examined temporal patterns in water levels at six sites with Black Tern colonies in Maine and determined probabilities of flood events and associated nest loss at Douglas Pond, the location of the largest breeding colony. Daily precipitation data from weather stations and water flow data from a flow gauge below Douglas Pond were obtained for 1960-1999. Information on nest losses from three floods at Douglas Pond in 1997-1999 were used to characterize small (6% nest loss), medium (56% nest loss) and large (94% nest loss) flood events, and we calculated probabilities of these three levels of flooding occurring at Douglas Pond using historic water levels data. Water levels generally decreased gradually during the nesting season at colony sites, except at Douglas Pond where water levels fluctuated substantially in response to rain events. Annual probabilities of small, medium, and large flood events were 68%, 35%, and 13% for nests initiated during 23 May-12 July, with similar probabilities for early (23 May-12 June) and late (13 June-12 July) periods. An index of potential nest loss indicated that medium floods at Douglas Pond had the greatest potential effect on nest success because they occurred relatively frequently and inundated large proportions of nests. Nest losses at other colonies were estimated to be approximately 30% of those at Douglas Pond. Nest losses to flooding appear to be common for the Black Tern in Maine and related to spring precipitation patterns, but ultimate effects on breeding productivity are uncertain.

  16. Longitudinal dependence of equatorial ionospheric current system separated by 150 degrees longitudes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiagarajan, Arunachalam

    Longitudinal dependence of equatorial ionospheric current system separated by 150 degrees longitudes. A.Thiagarajan Huancayo(Hua) is the only station in equatorial region where the daytime rise in horizontal geomagnetic field (H) is associated with an increase of eastward geomagnetic field (Y) simultaneously. Indian longitude stations are one of the best regions to study about the Sq current system in low latitudes and mid latitudes. The paper describes the daily variations in the geomagnetic components of the ionospheric current at the equatorial stations, Huancayo (inclination 1.99°S) and Trivandrum (Trd) (Inclination: 0.17°S) for the period (1997-1999). It is shown that the amplitude of Del Y at Huancayo were more in most of the days than that of Trivandrum. Some evidences are seen indicating a close relationship between EEJ strength in Indian longitudes and Del Y in American longitudes. The range (Maximum-minimum of a day) of del Y is found to show more amplitude at Hua compared with Trd. There is close relation exists between amplitude EEJ at Trivandrum and of Y at Huancayo. It is suggested that the day-to-day variability in the time as well as in the magnitude of the daily peak of the X and Y field at the equatorial electro jet stations are due to the superimposition of a semi-diurnal wave of the electric field over the normal mean daily variation and that both the zonal and meridional components flows in the same E region of the ionosphere in the equatorial electro jet in American longitudes, as in Indian longitudes,

  17. Trends in sociodemographic and health-related indicators in Bangladesh, 1993–2007: will inequities persist?

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Alexander; Khandoker, Aklimunnessa; Prüfer-Krämer, Luise; Islam, Anwar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess levels, trends and gaps between the poorest and the richest in selected health and human development indicators in Bangladesh. Methods Data for selected indicators associated with sociodemographic characteristics among ever-married women, contraception use, child vaccination, antenatal care practices and health conditions were extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1993–94, 1996–1997, 1999–2000, 2004 and 2007. Results for the whole sample and for the poorest and the richest wealth quintiles are presented. Findings Positive trends were noted in urbanization, availability of electricity, age at first marriage, use of modern contraception, access to skilled antenatal care, child vaccination, knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and overweight and obesity. In contrast, negative trends were seen in factors such as literacy, infant and child mortality, fertility rate, home delivery and malnutrition and underweight. However, changes in these indicators differed between the poorest and richest quintiles. For instance, only the richest quintile experienced rapid urbanization, whereas illiteracy declined more among the poorest. Noteworthy gaps were found in almost all factors. Rich–poor gaps in urbanization, age at marriage, fertility, condom use, home delivery and overweight increased; in contrast, gaps in education, water and sanitation, use of contraception (except condoms) and child vaccination declined. Conclusion Persistent inequities in Bangladesh endanger equitable and sustainable human development in the country. Pro-poor development strategies based on the principles of equity and quality should be implemented to narrow existing gaps and further promote holistic and equitable human development. PMID:21836757

  18. Latino youth's internalising behaviours: links to immigrant status and neighbourhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Latinos are the fastest-growing immigrant group in the U.S.A. Yet, little is known about the emotional well-being of this population, such as the links among family, neighbourhood context and Latino immigrant youth mental health. Understanding this link will help determine which contexts negatively impact Latino immigrant youth mental health. Drawing data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighbourhoods collected in 1994-1995 and 1997-1999, this study examined links between Latino youth's internalising behaviours, based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and neighbourhood characteristics as a function of immigrant status. The sample included 1040 (aged 9-17) Latino immigrant youth seen twice over three years and identified as first, second or third generation. In this study, neighbourhoods are made up of two to three census tracts that reflect similar racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Using hierarchical linear regression models, the study also explored links between internalising behaviours and neighbourhood characteristics, including concentrated disadvantage, immigrant concentration and residential stability. First- and second-generation youth had higher internalising behaviour scores (i.e., worse mental health) than third-generation youth after controlling for youth internalising behaviours at Wave 1, maternal depression and family characteristics. First- and second-generation youth were more likely to live in high immigrant-concentrated neighbourhoods and first-generation youth were more likely to live in residentially unstable neighbourhoods. Controlling for neighbourhood clusters eliminated the immigrant-generation internalising association. However, second-generation Latino youth living in neighbourhoods with higher residential stability had higher levels of internalising behaviour problems compared to first- and third-generation youth living in similar neighbourhoods. We found that the interaction between immigrant generation

  19. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    DOE PAGES

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; ...

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity andmore » Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.« less

  20. Plasma clusterin and the risk of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schrijvers, Elisabeth M C; Koudstaal, Peter J; Hofman, Albert; Breteler, Monique M B

    2011-04-06

    Variants in the clusterin gene are associated with the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and clusterin levels have been found to be increased in brain and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with AD. Plasma clusterin was reported to be associated with brain atrophy, baseline disease severity, and rapid clinical progression in patients with AD. To evaluate the potential of plasma clusterin as a biomarker of the presence, severity, and risk of AD. A case-cohort study nested within the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study conducted in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Plasma levels of clusterin were measured at baseline (1997-1999) in 60 individuals with prevalent AD, a random subcohort of 926 participants, and an additional 156 participants diagnosed with AD during follow-up until January 1, 2007 (mean [SD], 7.2 [2.3] years). Prevalent AD, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and the risk of developing AD during follow-up. The likelihood of prevalent AD increased with increasing plasma levels of clusterin (odds ratio [OR] per SD increase of plasma clusterin level, 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.20; adjusted for age, sex, education level, apolipoprotein E status, diabetes, smoking, coronary heart disease, and hypertension). Among patients with AD, higher clusterin levels were associated with more severe disease (adjusted difference in MMSE score per SD increase in clusterin levels, -1.36; 95% CI, -2.70 to -0.02; P = .047). Plasma clusterin levels were not related to the risk of incident AD during total follow-up (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.85-1.17; P for trend = .77) or within 3 years of baseline (adjusted HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.84-1.42; P for trend = .65). Plasma clusterin levels were significantly associated with baseline prevalence and severity of AD, but not with incidence of AD.

  1. Economic disparity in bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of legislation.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, A K; Macarthur, C; To, T M; Chipman, M L; Wright, J G; Parkin, P C

    2006-08-01

    Studies evaluating the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation often focus on short term outcomes. The long term effect of helmet legislation on bicycle helmet use is unknown. To examine bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of the law, and the influence of area level family income on helmet use. The East York (Toronto) health district (population 107,822) was divided into income areas (designated as low, mid, and high) based on census tract data from Statistics Canada. Child cyclists were observed at 111 preselected sites (schools, parks, residential streets, and major intersections) from April to October in the years 1995-1997, 1999, and 2001. The frequency of helmet use was determined by year, income area, location, and sex. Stratified analysis was used to quantify the relation between income area and helmet use, after controlling for sex and bicycling location. Bicycle helmet use in the study population increased from a pre-legislation level of 45% in 1995 to 68% in 1997, then decreased to 46% by 2001. Helmet use increased in all three income areas from 1995 to 1997, and remained above pre-legislation rates in high income areas (85% in 2001). In 2001, six years post-legislation, the proportion of helmeted cyclists in mid and low income areas had returned to pre-legislation levels (50% and 33%, respectively). After adjusting for sex and location, children riding in high income areas were significantly more likely to ride helmeted than children in low income areas across all years (relative risk = 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 4.3)). Over the long term, the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation varies by income area. Alternative, concurrent, or ongoing strategies may be necessary to sustain bicycle helmet use among children in mid and low income areas following legislation.

  2. Radionuclide Data and Calculations and Loss-On-Ignition, X-Ray Fluorescence, and ICP-AES Data from Cores in Catchments of the Animas River, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Stan E.; Rice, Cyndi A.; Marot, Marci E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Interior Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) Initiative is focused on the evaluation of the effect of past mining practices on the water quality and the riparian and aquatic habitats of impacted stream reaches downstream from historical mining districts located primarily on Federal lands. This problem is manifest in the eleven western states (west of longitude 102 degrees) where the majority of hardrock mines that had past production are located on Federal lands. In areas of temperate climate and moderate to heavy precipitation, the effects of rapid chemical and physical weathering of sulfides exposed on mine-waste dumps and acidic drainage from mines have resulted in elevated metal concentrations in the stream water and stream-bed sediment. The result of these mineral weathering processes has an unquantified impact on the quality of the water and the aquatic and riparian habitats that may limit their recreational resource value. One of the confounding factors in these studies is the determination of the component of metals derived from hydrothermally altered but unmined portions of these drainage basins. Several watersheds have been studied to evaluate the effects of acid mine drainage and acid rock drainage on the near-surface environment. The Animas River watershed in southwestern Colorado contains a large number of past-producing metal mines that have affected the watershed. Beginning in October 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a collaborative study of these effects under the USGS-AML Initiative. In this report, we present the radionuclide and geochemical analytical results of sediment coring during 1997-1999 from two cores from oxbow lakes 0.5 mi. upstream from the 32nd Street Bridge near Durango, Colo., and from three cores from beaver ponds within the Mineral Creek drainage basin near Silverton, Colo.

  3. Comparison of plant and bacterial communities between a subtropical landfill topsoil 15years after restoration and a natural area.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun-Wen; Wong, James Tsz-Fung; Leung, Anna Oi-Wah; Ng, Charles Wang-Wai; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Engineered sanitary landfills are becoming more and more common worldwide. Ecosystem restoration of capped sanitary landfills is essential to restore the disturbed environment. Comparing plant communities, as well as bacterial communities, in landfills and natural areas, offers an efficient way to assess the restoration status. However, such studies on the restored engineered landfills are limited. Here we present an ecological restoration case in an engineered landfill in a subtropical region. Part of the South East New Territories (SENT) landfill in Hong Kong was capped and restored, by using 16 plant species growing on top of the final cover soil, during 1997-1999. In 2014, plant survey and soil properties analyses were conducted in a restored site (AT) and a natural site (CT, an undisturbed area, serving as a control). The similarity between the biota communities (i.e., plant and soil bacteria) of the two sites was assessed. Plant and soil bacterial communities at AT were significantly different (R=1, P<0.01, ANOSIM) from those at CT. A lower plant diversity but a higher soil bacterial diversity were observed at AT. The soil bacterial community structure was potentially driven by soil pH, moisture content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), N, and P. The engineered landfill had not been restored to an ecosystem similar to the natural environment 15years after restoration. Establishing similar soil properties in the landfill topsoil would be important to achieve a bacterial community similar to the natural area. This study can also offer a quick and inexpensive method for landfill engineers to assess the bacterial restoration of man-made ecosystems using plant and soil properties rather than DNA analyzing techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Volcanic emissions of metals and halogens from White Island (New Zealand) and Erebus volcano (Antarctica) determined with chemical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Kyle, P. R.; Counce, D.

    2008-11-01

    Volcanic emission rates of As, Sb, Pb, Hg, Se, Cl, and F were determined at Erebus volcano, Antarctica and White Island, New Zealand, using chemical traps. The trace metal fluxes were determined by combining the species to S ratios in the solutions with SO 2 emission rates measured by correlation spectrometry at the two volcanoes. At Erebus volcano, fluxes for the metals Pb and Hg were 2.0 × 10 - 4 and 8.1 × 10 - 6 kg s - 11 , respectively. Fluxes for Cl, F, As, Sb and Se (0.35, 0.15, 2.5 × 10 - 4 , 1.2 × 10 - 5 , and 4.5 × 10 - 6 kg s - 1 , respectively) agreed within error limits for values determined previously by the LiOH impregnated filter method [Zreda-Gostynska, G., Kyle, P., Finnegan, D., Prestbo, K., 1997. Volcanic gas emissions from Mount Erebus and their impact on the Antarctic environment. Journal of Geophysical Research, 102(B7): 15039-15055.], demonstrating the utility of the chemical trap method. A fall in the As/S ratio from 7 × 10 - 4 in 1997/1999 to 3 × 10 - 4 in 2000 at Erebus coincided with a change in the frequency and style of eruptive activity that may have been due to injection of magma into the system. At White Island, chemical trap data indicated fluxes of Cl = 0.90, F = 0.0079, Pb = 2.7 × 10 - 4 , Hg = 1.1 × 10 - 5 , As = 1.3 × 10 - 4 , Sb = 1.9 × 10 - 5 and Se = 1.5 × 10 - 5 kg s - 1 . Samples collected 600 m downwind of the active crater were comparable to samples collected adjacent to the main gas vent, showing that this method can still be used at some distance from a degassing vent.

  5. Factors associated with early age at menarche among Thai adolescents in Bangkok: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Noipayak, Pongsak; Rawdaree, Petch; Supawattanabodee, Busaba; Manusirivitthaya, Sumonmal

    2017-03-09

    The age at menarche in the Thai population has not been determined since 1997. This study recruited adolescents in Bangkok Metropolis to determine the age at menarche and its associations with health and socioeconomic status. This cross-sectional study used a two-step stratified sampling strategy to recruit 1,020 female students, aged 10-16 years, from schools in Dusit district, Bangkok, Thailand. Self-reported data on age at menarche and social determinants of health were collected from participants and their parents. A trained research nurse collected anthropometric data. Mean age at menarche was 11.8 ± 1.0 years, and age at menarche was significantly correlated with year of birth (r = -0.4, p < 0.001). Students from schools that are part of Bangkok Metropolis had the lowest mean age at menarche. Participants born in 2000-2003 having their first period at < 11.8 years numbered 5.5 times (95% CI: 3.80-8.18) and 5.0 times (95% CI: 3.6-8.0) greater than those born in 1997-1999 by univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively. Year of birth significantly associated with age at menarche in univariate and multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The mean age at menarche among female adolescents in Bangkok Metropolis was occurring earlier and was inversely associated with year of birth in this cohort. Only year of birth were associated with age at menarche in the multivariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders.

  6. Within-subject haemoglobin variation in elite athletes: a longitudinal investigation of 13 887 haemoglobin concentration readings.

    PubMed

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Knight, Emma J; Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Gore, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) estimates individualized reference ranges for key blood markers, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), using predetermined population mean, between- and within-subject variances. Here, we aim to reassess previously published estimates for within-subject [Hb] variance and determine whether sex-, analyzer-, sport-, or season-specific values are required. Our reference population contains 7723 male (mean ± SD, 22.3 ± 4.6 years of age) and 6164 female (21.6 ± 4.3) athlete observations from 49 sports. [Hb] was calculated using one of three cytometers; Bayer-H3 (1997-1999, n = 4554), ADVIA-120 (1999-2010, n = 8636) and Sysmex XT-2000i (2010-2012, n = 697). The final model was a linear mixed model for [Hb] with analyzer (H3, ADVIA, Sysmex), sex (male, female), sport (power-endurance, endurance, skill, team, disabled and non-athletes), season (summer, winter), and the interaction between sex and sport as fixed effects and athlete as a random effect. The model included an exponential correlation structure to allow for within-subject autocorrelation, and allowed different within-subject variances for each sport. Within-subject [Hb] variance (g(2) /L(2) ) was significantly less for power endurance (35.09, 95% CI 33.50 to 36.76), disabled (25.82, 95% CI 21.71 to 35.28) and non-athletes (34.30, 95% CI 28.53 to 35.87) than for endurance (40.35, 95% CI 39.62 to 47.22) and team sports (38.70, 95% CI 37.68 to 39.76) athletes. No new evidence was found to justify adjusting the current within-subject [Hb] variance estimate.

  7. Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and 10-y incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a relation between serum total homocysteine (tHcy), vitamin B-12, and folate and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is inconsistent and unresolved. In this cohort study, we aimed to investigate associations between intakes and serum concentrations of folate and vitamin B-12 or serum tHcy and 10-y AMD incidence. Serum folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy were determined from blood samples drawn in 1997-1999 from cohort members aged ≥55 y. AMD was assessed in 1760 survivors from retinal photographs taken in 2002-2004 and 2007-2009. Total intakes of folate and vitamin B-12 were assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire. After adjustment for age, sex, current smoking, white blood cell count, and fish consumption, each 1-SD increase in serum tHcy was associated with increased risk of incident early and any AMD [ORs (95% CIs): 1.33 (1.09, 1.63) and 1.33 (1.11, 1.60), respectively]. Participants with a serum vitamin B-12 deficiency (<185 pmol/L) had higher risk of incident early and late AMD [ORs (95% CIs): 1.58 (1.06, 2.36) and 2.56 (1.38, 4.73), respectively]. Folate deficiency (<11 nmol/L) was associated with 75% and 89% increased risk of incident early and any AMD, respectively, 10 y later. Participants who reported supplementary vitamin B-12 intake had 47% reduced risk of incident any AMD (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.85). Elevated serum tHcy and folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies predicted increased risk of incident AMD, which suggests a potential role for vitamin B-12 and folate in reducing AMD risk.

  8. SOCIAL ADVERSITY, GENETIC VARIATION, STREET CODE, AND AGGRESSION: A GENETICLLY INFORMED MODEL OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Ronald L.; Lei, Man Kit; Stewart, Eric A.; Brody, Gene H.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Philibert, Robert A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Elijah Anderson (1997, 1999) argues that exposure to extreme community disadvantage, residing in “street” families, and persistent discrimination encourage many African Americans to develop an oppositional culture that he labels the “code of the street.” Importantly, while the adverse conditions described by Anderson increase the probability of adopting the code of the street, most of those exposed to these adverse conditions do not do so. The present study examines the extent to which genetic variation accounts for these differences. Although the diathesis-stress model guides most genetically informed behavior science, the present study investigates hypotheses derived from the differential susceptibility perspective (Belsky & Pluess, 2009). This model posits that some people are genetically predisposed to be more susceptible to environmental influence than others. An important implication of the model is that those persons most vulnerable to adverse social environments are the same ones who reap the most benefit from environmental support. Using longitudinal data from a sample of several hundred African American males, we examined the manner in which variants in three genes - 5-HTT, DRD4, and MAOA - modulate the effect of community and family adversity on adoption of the street code and aggression. We found strong support for the differential susceptibility perspective. When the social environment was adverse, individuals with these genetic variants manifested more commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes, whereas when adversity was low they demonstrated less commitment to the street code and aggression than those with other genotypes. PMID:23785260

  9. National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Kenya, 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Mutonga, David; Langat, Daniel; Mwangi, David; Tonui, Julia; Njeru, Mercy; Abade, Ahmed; Irura, Zephania; Njeru, Ian; Dahlke, Melissa

    2013-11-01

    Kenya has experienced multiple cholera outbreaks since 1971. Cholera remains an issue of major public health importance and one of the 35 priority diseases under Kenya's updated Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response strategy. We reviewed the cholera surveillance data reported to the World Health Organization and the Kenya Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation from 1997 through 2010 to determine trends in cholera disease for the 14-year period. A total of 68 522 clinically suspected cases of cholera and 2641 deaths were reported (overall case-fatality rate [CFR], 3.9%), affecting all regions of the country. Kenya's largest outbreak occurred during 1997-1999, resulting in 26 901 cases and 1362 deaths (CFR, 5.1%). Following a decline in disease occurrence, the country experienced a resurgence of epidemic cholera during 2007-2009 (16 616 cases and 454 deaths; CFR, 2.7%), which declined rapidly to 0 cases. Cases were reported through July 2010, with no cases reported during the second half of the year. About 42% of cases occurred in children aged <15 years. Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Inaba, was the predominant strain recorded from 2007 through 2010, although serotype Ogawa was also isolated. Recurrent outbreaks have most frequently affected Nairobi, Nyanza, and Coast provinces, as well as remote arid and semiarid regions and refugee camps. Kenya has experienced substantial amounts of reported cases of cholera during the past 14 years. Recent decreases in cholera case counts may reflect cholera control measures put in place by the National Ministry of Health; confirmation of this theory will require ongoing surveillance.

  10. 'Coalition-In-Iraq' countries 'internal' civil violent deaths compared to the USA 'external' violence of September 11th 2001.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Stephen; Pritchard, Colin

    2004-05-01

    The atrocity of 9/11 exemplified 'external' caused civil violent deaths, which have major policy implications for the countries contributing armed forces to the 'Coalition-In-Iraq' [C.I.I]. C.I.I Government's resources for perennial 'internal' violent deaths (suicide, homicide and road), are likely to be threatened by alternative priorities. C.I.I 'internal' deaths are compared with those of 9/11 to provide information to determine relative risks. To uniformly compare mortality between countries we utilise the most recent WHO mortality data, taking the latest three years 1997-1999 and calculating an average annual number and rate of 'internal' deaths in each country, these are compared with the 9/11 fatalities, calculating a proportional ratio, as an indicator of differential damage to families and society. USA 'external' deaths were 3,074 people and annual average suicides were 30,966. Total 'internal' deaths exceeded 'external' more than 30 times. Every fortnight there are more USA 'internal' violent deaths than on 9/11. Except Australia and Bulgaria, every country had more suicides than died on 9/11. Apart from Bulgaria, total 'internal' deaths exceeded the 'external' toll in all other CAI countries- by 14 times in Japan; 6 in Republic of Korea, 4 in Italy, 3 in Spain and the UK, twice in Canada and 1.5 times in Australia. The extent of 'internal' civil violent deaths, such as suicide, highlight the perennial pressures upon psychiatric services and the need to defend resources at a time of competing priorities.

  11. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Its Association With Arsenic Exposure and Metabolism in the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jonathan D; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kuo, Chin-Chi; Guallar, Eliseo; Howard, Barbara V; Fabsitz, Richard R; Devereux, Richard B; Umans, Jason G; Francesconi, Kevin A; Goessler, Walter; Best, Lyle T; Tellez-Plaza, Maria

    2016-12-01

    At high levels, inorganic arsenic exposure is linked to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and cardiovascular disease. To our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the association between low-to-moderate arsenic exposure and incident PAD by ankle brachial index (ABI). We evaluated this relationship in the Strong Heart Study, a large population-based cohort study of American Indian communities. A total of 2,977 and 2,966 PAD-free participants who were aged 45-74 years in 1989-1991 were reexamined in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999, respectively, for incident PAD defined as either ABI <0.9 or ABI >1.4. A total of 286 and 206 incident PAD cases were identified for ABI <0.9 and ABI >1.4, respectively. The sum of inorganic and methylated urinary arsenic species (∑As) at baseline was used as a biomarker of long-term exposure. Comparing the highest tertile of ∑As with the lowest, the adjusted hazard ratios were 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 1.01) for ABI <0.9 and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.01, 4.32) for ABI >1.4. Increased arsenic methylation (as percent dimethylarsinate) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of ABI >1.4 (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.41). Long-term low-to-moderate ∑As and increased arsenic methylation were associated with ABI >1.4 but not with ABI <0.9. Further studies are needed to clarify whether diabetes and enhanced arsenic metabolism increase susceptibility to the vasculotoxic effects of arsenic exposure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sediment toxicity test results for the Urban Waters Study 2010, Bellingham Bay, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biedenbach, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The Washington Department of Ecology annually determines the quality of recently deposited sediments in Puget Sound as a part of Ecology's Urban Waters Initiative. The annual sediment quality studies use the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) approach, thus relying on measures of chemical contamination, toxicity, and benthic in-faunal effects (Chapman, 1990). Since 2002, the studies followed a rotating sampling scheme, each year sampling a different region of the greater Puget Sound Basin. During the annual studies, samples are collected in locations selected with a stratified-random design, patterned after the designs previously used in baseline surveys completed during 1997-1999 (Long and others, 2003; Wilson and Partridge, 2007). Sediment samples were collected by personnel from the Washington Department of Ecology, in June of 2010 and shipped to the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) laboratory in Corpus Christi, Texas (not shown), where the tests were performed. Sediment pore water was extracted with a pneumatic apparatus and was stored frozen. Just before testing, water-quality measurements were made and salinity adjusted, if necessary. Tests were performed on a dilution series of each sample consisting of 100-, 50-, and 25-percent pore-water concentrations. The specific objectives of this study were to: * Extract sediment pore water from a total of 30 sediment samples from the Bellingham Bay, Washington area within a day of receipt of the samples. * Measure water-quality parameters (salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfide, and ammonia) of thawed pore-water samples before testing and adjust salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen, if necessary, to obtain optimal ranges for the test species. * Conduct the fertilization toxicity test with pore water using sea urchin (Stronylocentrotus purpuratus) (S. purpuratus) gametes. * Perform quality control assays with reference pore water, dilution blanks and a positive control dilution series with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS

  13. Evaluation of organochlorine pesticides in serum from students in Coimbra, Portugal: 1997-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Lino, Celeste Matos . E-mail: cmlino@ci.uc.pt; Silveira, M. Irene Noronha da

    2006-11-15

    In 1997, 1999, 2000, and 2001, in an attempt to evaluate the contamination level of a Portuguese population, organochlorine pesticide residues were evaluated in human serum from students of the University of Coimbra. Concentrations of selected organochlorine pollutants ({alpha}-, {beta}-, and {gamma}-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, HE, HCB, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD) and endosulfan sulfate was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Our objective is to point out the general levels of pesticide contamination and the differences between the four populations; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender or the residence area of the subjects. Endosulfan sulfate, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently identified residues. Endosulfan sulfate present the highest concentrations for all subjects, 42.6 {mu}g/l, with concentrations ranging from undetected to 1295.5 {mu}g/l. Between DDT, isomers, and analogues, o,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDT presented the highest levels, 24.8 and 21.9 {mu}g/l, respectively. Mean total DDT levels were higher than mean total HCH levels. For {sigma}-DDT, the highest levels were found among female gender and urban samples. An opposite situation was found in {sigma}-HCH: males presented higher levels than females. The mean concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues, present in the student populations, showed that it is among the highest levels of contamination, when compared with others from Europe, Asia, and America.

  14. Upper Mantle Seismic Structure Beneath Southern Africa: Constraints on the Buoyancy Supporting the African Superswell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Martin B. C.; Grand, Stephen P.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Dirks, Paul H. G. M.

    2012-04-01

    We present new one-dimensional SH-wave velocity models of the upper mantle beneath the Kalahari craton in southern Africa obtained from waveform inversion of regional seismograms from an Mw = 5.9 earthquake located near Lake Tanganyika recorded on broadband seismic stations deployed during the 1997-1999 Southern African Seismic Experiment. The velocity in the lithosphere beneath the Kalahari craton is similar to that of other shields, and there is little evidence for a significant low velocity zone beneath the lithosphere. The lower part of the lithosphere, from 110 to 220 km depth, is slightly slower than beneath other shields, possibly due to higher temperatures or a decrease in Mg number (Mg#). If the slower velocities are caused by a thermal anomaly, then slightly less than half of the unusually high elevation of the Kalahari craton can be explained by shallow buoyancy from a hot lithosphere. However, a decrease in the Mg# of the lower lithosphere would increase the density and counteract the buoyancy effect of the higher temperatures. We obtain a thickness of 250 ± 30 km for the mantle transition zone, which is similar to the global average, but the velocity gradient between the 410 and 660 km discontinuities is less steep than in global models, such as PREM and IASP91. We also obtain velocity jumps of between 0.16 ± 0.1 and 0.21 ± 0.1 km/s across the 410 km discontinuity. Our results suggest that there may be a thermal or chemical anomaly in the mantle transition zone, or alternatively that the shear wave velocity structure of the transition zone in global reference models needs to be refined. Overall, our seismic models provide little support for an upper mantle source of buoyancy for the unusually high elevation of the Kalahari craton, and hence the southern African portion of the African Superswell.

  15. Low Goiter Rate Associated with Small Average Thyroid Volume in Schoolchildren after the Elimination of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peihua; Sun, Hong; Shang, Li; Zhang, Qinglan; He, Yingxia; Chen, Zhigao; Zhou, Yonglin; Zhang, Jingjing; Wang, Qingqing; Zhao, Jinkou; Shen, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    After the implementation of the universal salt iodization (USI) program in 1996, seven cross-sectional school-based surveys have been conducted to monitor iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) among children in eastern China. This study aimed to examine the correlation of total goiter rate (TGR) with average thyroid volume (Tvol) and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in Jiangsu province after IDD elimination. Probability-proportional-to-size sampling was applied to select 1,200 children aged 8-10 years old in 30 clusters for each survey in 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2009 and 2011. We measured Tvol using ultrasonography in 8,314 children and measured UIC (4,767 subjects) and salt iodine (10,184 samples) using methods recommended by the World Health Organization. Tvol was used to calculate TGR based on the reference criteria specified for sex and body surface area (BSA). TGR decreased from 55.2% in 1997 to 1.0% in 2009, and geometric means of Tvol decreased from 3.63 mL to 1.33 mL, along with the UIC increasing from 83 μg/L in 1995 to 407 μg/L in 1999, then decreasing to 243 μg/L in 2005, and then increasing to 345 μg/L in 2011. In the low goiter population (TGR < 3.9%), TGR was positively associated with average Tvol (r = 0.99); UIC showed a non-linear association with average Tvol, and UIC > 300 μg/L was associated with a smaller average Tvol in children. After IDD elimination in Jiangsu province in 2001, lower TGR was associated with smaller average Tvol. Average Tvol was more sensitive than TGR in detecting the fluctuation of UIC. A UIC of 300 μg/L may be defined as a critical value for population level iodine status monitoring.

  16. Insomnia symptoms and mortality: a register-linked study among women and men from Finland, Norway and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Podlipskytė, Aurelija; Sivertsen, Børge; Andruškienė, Jurgita; Varoneckas, Giedrius; Lahelma, Eero; Ursin, Reidun; Tell, Grethe S; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2016-02-01

    Evidence on the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality is limited and inconsistent. This study examined the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality in cohorts from three countries to show common and unique patterns. The Finnish cohort comprised 6605 employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002. The Norwegian cohort included 6236 participants from Western Norway, aged 40-45 years at baseline in 1997-1999. The Lithuanian cohort comprised 1602 participants from the City of Palanga, aged 35-74 years at baseline in 2003. Mortality data were derived from the Statistics Finland and Norwegian Cause of Death Registry until the end of 2012, and from the Lithuanian Regional Mortality Register until the end of 2013. Insomnia symptoms comprised difficulties initiating sleep, nocturnal awakenings, and waking up too early. Covariates were age, marital status, education, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, depression, shift work, sleep duration, and self-rated health. Cox regression analysis was used. Frequent difficulties initiating sleep were associated with all-cause mortality among men after full adjustments in the Finnish (hazard ratio 2.51; 95% confidence interval 1.07-5.88) and Norwegian (hazard ratio 3.42; 95% confidence interval 1.03-11.35) cohorts. Among women and in Lithuania, insomnia symptoms were not statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality after adjustments. In conclusion, difficulties initiating sleep were associated with mortality among Norwegian and Finnish men. Variation and heterogeneity in the association between insomnia symptoms and mortality highlights that further research needs to distinguish between men and women, specific symptoms and national contexts, and focus on more chronic insomnia.

  17. Avian community composition in response to high explosive testing operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory in Northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, David C.; Fresquez, Philip R.; Hansen, Leslie A.; Kaschube, Danielle R.

    2015-12-28

    Breeding bird abundance, species richness, evenness, diversity, composition, productivity, and survivorship were determined near a high-explosive detonation site at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, USA, during pre-operation (1997-1999) and operation (2000-2014) periods. The operation periods consisted of detonations (<23 kg in yield and <3 per breeding season) in open air (2000-2002), within foam containment (2003-2006) and within steel vessel containment (2007-2014) systems; the latter two were employed to reduce noise and dispersal of high-explosives residues. A total of 2952 bird captures, representing 80 species, was recorded during 18 years of mist net operations using the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship protocol. Individuals captured were identified to species, aged, sexed, and banded during May through August of each year. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in mean avian abundance and species evenness in any of the operation periods as compared with the pre-operation period. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the vessel containment period (2007-2014) than the pre-operation period. The time period of this study coincided with a wildfire (2000), a bark beetle infestation (2002), and two periods of drought (Nov 1999-Mar 2004 and Dec 2005-Dec 2014) that affected the study area. Furthermore, analysis of aerial photos determined that the average percent canopy cover of mature ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa) within 100 feet of mist net sites declined from 12% to 3% between 1991 and 2014 and the percent cover of shrubs slightly increased.

  18. Underestimating the Alcohol Content of a Glass of Wine: The Implications for Estimates of Mortality Risk.

    PubMed

    Britton, Annie; O'Neill, Darragh; Bell, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Increases in glass sizes and wine strength over the last 25 years in the UK are likely to have led to an underestimation of alcohol intake in population studies. We explore whether this probable misclassification affects the association between average alcohol intake and risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Self-reported alcohol consumption in 1997-1999 among 7010 men and women in the Whitehall II cohort of British civil servants was linked to the risk of mortality until mid-2015. A conversion factor of 8 g of alcohol per wine glass (1 unit) was compared with a conversion of 16 g per wine glass (2 units). When applying a higher alcohol content conversion for wine consumption, the proportion of heavy/very heavy drinkers increased from 28% to 41% for men and 15% to 28% for women. There was a significantly increased risk of very heavy drinking compared with moderate drinking for deaths from all causes and cancer before and after change in wine conversion; however, the hazard ratios were reduced when a higher wine conversion was used. In this population-based study, assuming higher alcohol content in wine glasses changed the estimates of mortality risk. We propose that investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. Prospectively, researchers need to collect more detailed information on alcohol including serving sizes and strength. The alcohol content in a wine glass is likely to be underestimated in population surveys as wine strength and serving size have increased in recent years. We demonstrate that in a large cohort study, this underestimation affects estimates of mortality risk. Investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  19. Mercury in tree swallow food, eggs, bodies, and feathers at Acadia National Park, Maine, and an EPA superfund site, Ayer, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Longcore, Jerry R; Haines, Terry A; Halteman, William A

    2007-03-01

    We monitored nest boxes during 1997-1999 at Acadia National Park, Mt. Desert Island, ME and at an old-field site in Orono, ME to determine mercury (Hg) uptake in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs, tissues, and food boluses. Also, in 1998-1999 we monitored nest boxes at Grove Pond and Plow Shop Pond at a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site in Ayer, MA. We recorded breeding success at all locations. On average among locations, total mercury (THg) biomagnified 2 to 4-fold from food to eggs and 9 to 18-fold from food to feathers. These are minimum values because the proportion of transferable methyl mercury (MeHg) of the THg in insects varies (i.e., 35%-95% of THg) in food boluses. THg was highest in food boluses at Aunt Betty Pond at Acadia, whereas THg in eggs was highest at the Superfund site. A few eggs from nests at each of these locations exceeded the threshold (i.e., 800-1,000 ng/g, wet wt.) of embryotoxicity established for Hg. Hatching success was 88.9% to 100% among locations, but five eggs failed to hatch from 4 of the 11 clutches in which an egg exceeded this threshold. MeHg in feathers was highest in tree swallows at Aunt Betty Pond and the concentration of THg in bodies was related to the concentration in feathers. Transfer of an average of 80%-92% of the Hg in bodies to feathers may have enhanced nestling survival. Residues of Hg in tissues of tree swallows in the Northeast seem higher than those of the Midwest.

  20. Premature delivery in HIV-infected women starting protease inhibitor therapy during pregnancy: role of the ritonavir boost?

    PubMed

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Warszawski, Josiane; Tubiana, Roland; Dollfus, Catherine; Faye, Albert; Rouzioux, Christine; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Ekoukou, Dieudonné; Blanche, Stéphane; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2012-05-01

    The association between combination antiretroviral (cARV) therapy use by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and risk of prematurity is still controversial. We explored this question, focusing on the initiation of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) during pregnancy, which is now standard care. Trends in prematurity (<37 gestational weeks) were studied among all singleton pregnancies in the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS) French Perinatal Cohort from 1990 through 2009 (n = 13 271). In-depth analysis was conducted in a more detailed substudy of the cohort, among women starting PI-based ARV therapy during pregnancy (n = 1253). Multivariable analysis adjusted for immunovirological status and known risk factors for prematurity. Prematurity increased from 9.2% during 1990-1993 (no therapy) and 9.6% during 1994-1996 (mostly zidovudine monotherapy) to 12.4% during 1997-1999 (dual-nucleoside analog therapy) and 14.3% during 2005-2009 (routine cARV therapy; P < .01). Prematurity was associated with cARV therapy, compared with zidovudine monotherapy, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.07; P < .01) when accounting for maternal age, intravenous drug use, geographic origin, and CD4 cell count. During 2005-2009, the prematurity rate was higher with boosted than with nonboosted PI therapy started during pregnancy (14.4% vs 9.1% [P = .05]; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.06-3.89; P = .03] in multivariate analysis). The difference concerned mainly induced preterm delivery for maternal or fetal indications (5.6% vs 1.6%; P = .02), The prematurity rate among HIV-infected pregnant women was twice that in the general population in France; this was not entirely explained by sociodemographic characteristics. Prematurity was independently associated with cARV therapy and, particularly, with the initiation of ritonavir-boosted PI therapy during pregnancy.

  1. Trends in non-medical use of anabolic steroids by U.S. college students: results from four national surveys.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Brower, Kirk J; West, Brady T; Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry

    2007-10-08

    This study assessed the prevalence, trends, and student- and college-level characteristics associated with the non-medical use of anabolic steroids (NMAS) among U.S. college students. Data were collected through self-administered mail surveys, from 15,282, 14,428, 13,953, and 10,904 randomly selected college students at the same 119 nationally representative colleges in 1993, 1997, 1999 and 2001, respectively. The prevalence of lifetime, past-year and past-month NMAS was 1% or less and generally did not change significantly between 1993 and 2001, with one exception: past-year NMAS increased significantly among men from 1993 (0.36%) to 2001 (0.90%). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that lifetime and past-year NMAS were associated with student-level characteristics such as being male and participation in intercollegiate athletics. Lifetime and past-year NMAS were also positively associated with several risky behaviors, including cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, drinking and driving, and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders. Nearly 7 out of every 10 lifetime non-medical users of anabolic steroids met past-year criteria for a DSM-IV alcohol use disorder. Although the overall prevalence of NMAS remained low between 1993 and 2001, findings suggest that continued monitoring is necessary because male student-athletes are at heightened risk for NMAS and this behavior is associated with a wide range of risky health behaviors. The characteristics associated with NMAS have important implications for future practice and research.

  2. The Association of Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Major Depression With Smoking in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  3. Economic disparity in bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of legislation

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, A K; Macarthur, C; To, T M; Chipman, M L; Wright, J G; Parkin, P C

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation often focus on short term outcomes. The long term effect of helmet legislation on bicycle helmet use is unknown. Objective To examine bicycle helmet use by children six years after the introduction of the law, and the influence of area level family income on helmet use. Methods The East York (Toronto) health district (population 107 822) was divided into income areas (designated as low, mid, and high) based on census tract data from Statistics Canada. Child cyclists were observed at 111 preselected sites (schools, parks, residential streets, and major intersections) from April to October in the years 1995–1997, 1999, and 2001. The frequency of helmet use was determined by year, income area, location, and sex. Stratified analysis was used to quantify the relation between income area and helmet use, after controlling for sex and bicycling location. Results Bicycle helmet use in the study population increased from a pre‐legislation level of 45% in 1995 to 68% in 1997, then decreased to 46% by 2001. Helmet use increased in all three income areas from 1995 to 1997, and remained above pre‐legislation rates in high income areas (85% in 2001). In 2001, six years post‐legislation, the proportion of helmeted cyclists in mid and low income areas had returned to pre‐legislation levels (50% and 33%, respectively). After adjusting for sex and location, children riding in high income areas were significantly more likely to ride helmeted than children in low income areas across all years (relative risk = 3.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 4.3)). Conclusion Over the long term, the effectiveness of bicycle helmet legislation varies by income area. Alternative, concurrent, or ongoing strategies may be necessary to sustain bicycle helmet use among children in mid and low income areas following legislation. PMID:16887944

  4. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of <2 drinks per day and a slightly lower risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.74-1.00) compared with never drinking. Alcohol use was generally not associated with colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of <2 drinks/day and RR, 1.44 [95% CI, 0.80-2.60] for current drinking of ≥2 drinks/day). The results of the current study do not support an association between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality among individuals with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour: results from the Whitehall II cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-05-23

    The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991-1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995-1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997-1999). Those who became caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4.78 compared with non-caregivers of high occupational social class). Caregivers were more likely to quit smoking if job demands were low (OR=2.92; 95% CI 1.07 to 7.92 compared with non-caregivers with low job demands), or if social support at work was high (OR=2.99, 95% CI 1.01 to 8.86 compared with caregivers with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment as a resource for people exposed to increased family demands. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Neighbourhood-level effects on psychoses: re-examining the role of context.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride, James B; Morgan, Craig; Fearon, Paul; Dazzan, Paola; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B

    2007-10-01

    The incidence of schizophrenia varies by individual-level characteristics and neighbourhood-level attributes. Few specific socio-environmental risk factors (SERFs) have been identified at the neighbourhood level. Cross-level interactions are poorly understood. We investigated these issues using data from the Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses (AESOP) study. All incidence cases of ICD-10 schizophrenia (F20) and other non-affective psychoses (F21-29), aged 16-64 years, across 33 wards in Southeast London were identified over a 2-year period (1997-1999). Census data provided the denominator for each ward. Multilevel Poisson regression simultaneously modelled individual- and neighbourhood-level SERFs, including socio-economic deprivation, voter turnout (proxy for social capital), ethnic fragmentation (segregation) and ethnic density. A total of 218 subjects were identified during 565 576 person-years at risk. Twenty-three per cent of variance in incidence of schizophrenia across wards could be attributed to neighbourhood-level risk factors [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.9-42.2]. Thus, 1% increases in voter turnout [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.99] and ethnic segregation (IRR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.99) were both independently associated with a reduced incidence of 5%, independent of age, sex, ethnicity, deprivation and population density. This was similar for other non-affective psychoses. There was some evidence that ethnic minority individuals were at greater risk of schizophrenia in areas with smaller proportions of minority groups (p=0.07). SERFs at individual and neighbourhood levels were implicated in the aetiology of psychosis, but we were unable to determine whether these associations were causal. Individual risk may be mediated by social capital, which could operate as a protective factor, perhaps moderating social stress in the onset of psychoses.

  7. Longitudinal association of antidepressant medication use with metabolic syndrome: Results of a 9-year follow-up of the D.E.S.I.R. cohort study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo Da Silva, Marine; Balkau, Beverley; Roussel, Ronan; Tichet, Jean; Fumeron, Frédéric; Fagherazzi, Guy; Nabi, Hermann

    2016-12-01

    To examine longitudinal associations between antidepressant medication use and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). 5014 participants (49.8% were men) from the D.E.S.I.R. cohort study, aged 30-65 years at baseline in 1994-1996, were followed over 9 years at 3-yearly intervals (1997-1999, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005). Antidepressant use and MetS, defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria (NCEP-ATP III) and the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) criteria, were assessed concurrently at four medical examinations. In fully-adjusted longitudinal logistic regression analyses based on generalized estimating equations, antidepressant users had a 9% (p=0.011) and a 6% (p=0.036) greater annual increase in the odds of having the MetS defined by NCEP-ATP III and AHA/NHLBI criteria respectively. Sex-specific analyses showed that this association was confined to men only. When the different types of antidepressant were considered, men who used selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), imipramine type antidepressants or "other" antidepressants had a 52% (p=0.028), 31% (p=0.011), and 16% (p=0.016) greater annual increase in the odds of having the MetS over time compared to non-users, respectively. These associations depended on the definition of the MetS. Our longitudinal data showed that antidepressant use was associated with an increased odds of having the MetS in men but not in women and this was mainly for SSRIs, imipramine type and "other" antidepressants. People on antidepressants may need to be checked regularly for the elements of the metabolic syndrome treatable by change in diet, physical activity and/or by medication therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Narcotics at street level in Denmark. A prospective investigation from 1995 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K W; Kaa, E; Nielsen, E; Rollmann, D

    2003-01-28

    This article describes an investigation of illicit drugs at street level in six selected police districts in different regions of Denmark. The investigation was carried out during a 6-year period from 1995 to 2000. During the period, a total of 1244 samples were examined, as about 200 samples were seized each year. A total of 94% of the seized samples were familiar drugs: heroin base, heroin hydrochloride, cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate. Only 2% of the samples contained designer drugs. From having constituted 53% of the samples in 1995, the frequency of heroin base fell during the period to 27% of the samples in 2000. The frequency of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. In the same period, the frequency of cocaine hydrochloride increased from 10% of the samples in 1995 to about 25% of the samples in 2000. Apart from a few exceptions, cocaine had the same extension in all regions of Denmark after 1996. Amphetamine was more frequent in the west of Denmark, while heroin hydrochloride was more frequent in central Denmark. The purity of heroin base was lower in the period 1997-1999 than in the other years. During the entire period, the purity of cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulphate fell, while the purity of heroin hydrochloride was unchanged. No significant differences between the various regions of Denmark were detected during the period in the purity of heroin hydrochloride, heroin base, cocaine hydrochloride or amphetamine sulphate. MDMA was the most frequent designer drug, but other types of designer drugs such as MDA and MDE and the less common PMA, PMMA and MBDB were also found.

  9. Evolution of Tropical and Extratropical Precipitation Anomalies During the 1997 to 1999 ENSO Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Nelkin, Eric; Bolvin, David; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The 1997-1999 ENSO period was very powerful, but also well observed. Multiple satellite rainfall estimates combined with gauge observations allow for a quantitative analysis of precipitation anomalies in the tropics and elsewhere accompanying the 1997-99 ENSO cycle. An examination of the evolution of the El Nino and accompanying precipitation anomalies revealed that a dry Maritime Continent preceded the formation of positive SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 30-60 day oscillations in the winter of 1996/97 may have contributed to this lag relationship. Furthermore, westerly wind burst events may have maintained the drought over the Maritime Continent. The warming of the equatorial Pacific was then followed by an increase in convection. A rapid transition from El Nino to La Nina occurred in May 1998, but as early as October-November 1997 precipitation indices captured substantial changes in Pacific rainfall anomalies. The global precipitation patterns for this event were in good agreement with the strong consistent ENSO-related precipitation signals identified in earlier studies. Differences included a shift in precipitation anomalies over Africa during the 1997-98 El Nino and unusually wet conditions over northeast Australia during the later stages of the El Nino. Also, the typically wet region in the north tropical Pacific was mostly dry during the 1998-99 La Nina. Reanalysis precipitation was compared to observations during this time period and substantial differences were noted. In particular, the model had a bias towards positive precipitation anomalies and the magnitudes of the anomalies in the equatorial Pacific were small compared to the observations. Also, the evolution of the precipitation field, including the drying of the Maritime Continent and eastward progression of rainfall in the equatorial Pacific was less pronounced for the model compared to the observations.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of malaria in Cameroon. XXIV. Trends of in vitro antimalarial drug responses in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Basco, Leonardo K; Ringwald, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In vitro response to chloroquine, monodesethylamodiaquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin was assessed by the radioisotopic microtest in Yaoundé, Cameroon, during 2000-2004 and compared with our previous data obtained during 1996-1999. Based on the cut-off value of 100 nmol/L, 36.3% of isolates were chloroquine-susceptible (N = 175; geometric mean IC(50), 40.3 nmol/L) and 63.7% were chloroquine-resistant (N = 307; geometric mean IC(50), 211 nmol/L). There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s from 1996 to 2004, but a significant linear trend (P < 0.05) toward an increased proportion of chloroquine-resistant isolates was observed from 1996 (49%) to 2004 (69%). All chloroquine-susceptible isolates and most chloroquine-resistant isolates were susceptible to monodesethylamodiaquine (i.e., IC(50) < 60 nmol/L). Despite the positive correlation between chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine (r = 0.739, P < 0.05), the IC(50)s for monodesethylamodiaquine remained stable during 1997-2004, with no increase in the proportion of monodesethylamodiaquine-resistant isolates. Mefloquine, lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin were equally active against the chloroquine-susceptible and chloroquine-resistant parasites. The responses to these three drugs were positively correlated, and a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the mean IC(50)s was observed during the study period compared with our earlier data in 1997-1999, probably because of their inverse relationship with chloroquine response. The in vitro results were in general agreement with the in vivo response to chloroquine and amodiaquine. In vitro drug susceptibility assay is a useful, complementary laboratory tool for determining the trend of response to drugs for which there is still no established molecular marker and may serve as an early warning system for emerging drug resistance.

  11. Validation of Noah-simulated Soil Temperature in the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Youlong; Ek, Michael; Sheffield, Justin; Livneh, Ben; Huang, Maoyi; Wei, Helin; Song, Feng; Luo, Lifeng; Meng, Jesse; Wood, Eric

    2013-02-25

    Soil temperature can exhibit considerable memory from weather and climate signals and is among the most important initial conditions in numerical weather and climate models. Consequently, a more accurate long-term land surface soil temperature dataset is needed to improve weather and climate simulation and prediction, and is also important for the simulation of agricultural crop yield and ecological processes. The North-American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) has generated 31-years (1979-2009) of simulated hourly soil temperature data with a spatial resolution of 1/8o. This dataset has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. Thus, the ultimate purpose of the present work is to assess Noah-simulated soil temperature for different soil depths and timescales. We used long-term (1979-2001) observed monthly mean soil temperatures from 137 cooperative stations over the United States to evaluate simulated soil temperature for three soil layers (0-10 cm, 10-40 cm, 40-100 cm) for annual and monthly timescales. We used short-term (1997-1999) observed soil temperature from 72 Oklahoma Mesonet stations to validate simulated soil temperatures for three soil layers and for daily and hourly timescales. The results showed that the Noah land surface model (Noah LSM) generally matches observed soil temperature well for different soil layers and timescales. At greater depths, the simulation skill (anomaly correlation) decreased for all time scales. The monthly mean diurnal cycle difference between simulated and observed soil temperature revealed large midnight biases in the cold season due to small downward longwave radiation and issues related to model parameters.

  12. Hearing handicap, rather than measured hearing impairment, predicts poorer quality of life over 10 years in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Schneider, Julie; Hickson, Louise; McMahon, Catherine M; Burlutsky, George; Leeder, Stephen R; Mitchell, Paul

    2012-06-01

    We aimed to determine the prospective association between measured hearing impairment, self-reported hearing handicap and hearing aid use with quality of life. 829 Blue Mountains Hearing Study participants (≥ 55 years) were examined between 1997-1999 and 2007-2009. The shortened version of the hearing handicap inventory was administered. Hearing levels were measured using pure-tone audiometry. Quality of life was assessed using the 36-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-36); higher scores reflect better quality of life. Hearing impairment at baseline compared with no impairment was associated with lower mean SF-36 mental composite score 10 years later (multivariable-adjusted p=0.03). Physical composite score and mean scores for seven of the eight SF-36 domains after 10-year follow-up were significantly lower among participants who self-reported hearing handicap at baseline. Differences in the adjusted means between participants with and without hearing handicap ranged from 2.7 (physical composite score) to 10.4 units ('role limitations due to physical problems' domain). Individuals who developed incident hearing impairment compared to those who did not, had adjusted mean scores 9.5- and 7.7-units lower in the 'role limitation due to physical problems', and 'bodily pain' domains, respectively, at the 10-year follow-up. Hearing aid users versus non-users at baseline showed a 1.82-point (p=0.03) and 3.32-point (p=0.01) increase in SF-36 mental composite score and mental health domain over the 10-year follow-up, respectively. Older adults with self-perceived hearing handicap constitute a potential risk group for overall deterioration in quality of life, while hearing aid use could help improve the well-being of hearing impaired adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Upper washita river experimental watersheds: land cover data sets (1974-2007) for two southwestern oklahoma agricultural watersheds.

    PubMed

    Starks, Patrick J; Steiner, Jean L; Stern, Alan J

    2014-07-01

    Land cover data sets were developed for 1997, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2006, and 2007 for the Little Washita River and Fort Cobb Reservoir experimental watersheds (LWREW and FCREW, respectively), located in southwestern Oklahoma, to support remote sensing based studies of soil water content. A previously unpublished retrospective land cover analysis covering the years 1974, 1981, 1985, 1989, and 1994 was conducted to complement these data sets to gain a sense of the dynamics of land cover in both the LWREW and FCREW over the 33 yr. Each of these studies used satellite-based sensors of various spatial, radiometric, and spectral resolutions, but the number of images used, image date, and methods used to analyze the images varied from study to study. Our purpose was to document the details of the retrospective land cover study, to compare land cover between watersheds with time, and to compare findings from the various studies to elucidate changes or trends in land cover in each watershed during the 33 yr the data sets represent. Information on how to access to the data sets is also given. The LWREW was a grassland watershed that changed little during the study period. The FCREW was divided between grassland and cropland, but the cropland portion exhibited dynamic behavior that appeared correlated with peanut ( L.) price supports and Conservation Reserve programs. Dynamic land use information coupled with information concerning conservation practices will enhance assessment of conservation practice effectiveness as well as improve modeling of the fate and transport of chemicals and nutrients in watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Human papillomavirus typing of invasive cervical cancers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Salamanca, Helena Frayle; Trevisan, Rossana; Bertorelle, Roberta; Parenti, Anna; Bonoldi, Emanuela; Zambon, Paola; Minucci, Daria

    2006-12-27

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are the necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Of the many different types identified so far, only a few of them account for the great majority of cases worldwide, with geographical differences in their distribution. Data on the local distribution are now of interest in view of the soon-to-come introduction of HPV type-specific prophylactic vaccines. We have investigated HPV type distribution in samples of 48 ICC cases occurred in women living in North-East Italy in the years 1997-1999. Cases were extracted from the Venetian Tumour Registry files, as incident cases whose specimens had been processed in two Pathology Departments. Search and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using GP5+/GP6+ primers, followed by direct sequencing or reverse dot blot. Three cases were PCR negative using the housekeeping primers and hence excluded. One case was negative by all HPV tests used. HPV 16 was present in 32 (72.7%) cases, as single infection in 28, in mixed infection in 4. Of the 44 positive cases, HPV 16 and HPV 18 accounted for 33 (75%), as single or mixed infections. The other high risk HPV types accounted for 11 (25%) of the remaining infections. Of the 32 HPV 16 positive cases, sequencing of the E6 gene could be performed in 25; the prototype isolate was identified in 7, and the variant T350G in 18; in 4 cases one or more additional mutations were present. Our results suggest that HPV 16 has a very high prevalence among women with invasive cervical cancer in Italy; therefore, the use of a prophylactic vaccine for HPV types 16 and 18 could prevent up to 75% of invasive cervical cancers in Italy.

  15. Sunlight-related factors and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thuan Quoc; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul; Smith, Wayne; Wang, Jie Jin

    2009-01-01

    To examine the associations among iris, skin, or hair color, and skin sun sensitivity and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM). The Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) recruited 3654 participants aged 49+ years at baseline (1992-1994, 82.4% participation rate). Re-examinations of 2335 participants (75.1% of survivors) were done after 5 years (1997-1999) and 1952 (76.5% of survivors) after 10 years (2002-2004). Retinal photographs were graded using the Wisconsin ARM Grading System and incident ARM confirmed using the side-by-side grading method. Iris, skin, and hair color, and sun-related skin damage were assessed and skin sun-sensitivity questions were asked at baseline. Ten-year ARM incidence was calculated using Kaplan Meier methods and discrete logistic models were used to assess associations after adjusting for age, sex, and smoking. After adjustment, no significant associations were found between iris or hair color and either late- or early-incident ARM. Compared to persons with fair skin, those with very fair skin had an increased risk of developing geographic atrophy (multivariate adjusted risk ratio, RR = 7.6; 95% confidence interval, CI = 3.0-19.6). In contrast, compared to persons with average skin sun sensitivity, persons who reported that their skin would usually burn and tan with difficulty had a reduced risk of neovascular ARM (RR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.0-0.7). Sun-related skin damage was not associated with late or early ARM. In this older cohort, we did not find a consistent pattern of association between sunlight-related factors and ARM incidence, except that persons with very fair skin might have an increased risk of geographic atrophy, consistent with our 5-year incidence data. The protective association between skin sensitivity to sun damage and neovascular ARM could have be the result of confounding by sun-avoidance behavior among persons sensitive to sunburn.

  16. Atomic Oscillator Strengths by Emission Spectroscopy and Lifetime Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, W. L.; Griesmann, U.; Kling, R.; Musielok, J.

    2002-11-01

    Over the last seven years, we have carried out numerous oscillator strength measurements for some light and medium heavy elements (Musielok et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000; Veres & Wiese 1996; Griesmann et al. 1997; Bridges & Wiese 1998; Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Gries- mann 2000; Bridges & Wiese to be published). Most recently we have determined numerous transitions of Mu II (Kling et al. 2001; Kling & Griesmann 2000) and are now working on Cl I (Bridges & Wiese to be published). See the summary statement at the end of the text. For the emission measurements, we have applied either a high-current wall-stabilized arc (described for example, in Musielok et al. (1999)), or a high-current hollow cathode, or a Penning discharge. The latter two sources were used for branching ratio measurements from common upper 1ev- els, while the wall-stabilized arc was operated at atmospheric pressure under the condition of partial local thermodynamic equilibrium, which allows the measurement of relative transition probabilities. Absolute data were obtained by combining the emission results with lifetime data measured by other research groups, especially the University of Hannover, with which we have closely collaborated. This group uses the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique. Our emission spectra were recorded for the light elements with a 2 m grating spectrometer, or, for Mu II, with an FT 700 vacuum ultraviolet Fourier transform spectrometer. The radiometric calibration was carried out with a tungsten strip lamp for the visible part of the spectrum and with a deuterium lamp for the ultraviolet. All measurements were made under optically thin conditions, which was checked by doubling the path length with a focusing mirror setup. Typical uncertainties of the measured oscillator strengths are estimated to be in the range 15%-20% (one-standard deviation). However, discrepancies with advanced atomic structure theories are sometimes much larger. In Tables 1-3 and Fig. 1, we

  17. Migration depths of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to total dissolved gas supersaturation in a Columbia River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The in situ depths of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. were studied to determine whether hydrostatic compensation was sufficient to protect them from gas bubble disease (GBD) during exposure to total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation from a regional program of spill at dams meant to improve salmonid passage survival. Yearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss implanted with pressure-sensing radio transmitters were monitored from boats while they were migrating between the tailrace of Ice Harbor Dam on the Snake River and the forebay of McNary Dam on the Columbia River during 1997-1999. The TDG generally decreased with distance from the tailrace of the dam and was within levels known to cause GBD signs and mortality in laboratory bioassays. Results of repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the mean depths of juvenile steelhead were similar throughout the study area, ranging from 2.0 m in the Snake River to 2.3 m near the McNary Dam forebay. The mean depths of yearling Chinook salmon generally increased with distance from Ice Harbor Dam, ranging from 1.5 m in the Snake River to 3.2 m near the forebay. Juvenile steelhead were deeper at night than during the day, and yearling Chinook salmon were deeper during the day than at night. The TDG level was a significant covariate in models of the migration depth and rates of each species, but no effect of fish size was detected. Hydrostatic compensation, along with short exposure times in the area of greatest TDG, reduced the effects of TDG exposure below those generally shown to elicit GBD signs or mortality. Based on these factors, our results indicate that the TDG limits of the regional spill program were safe for these juvenile salmonids.

  18. Long working hours and sleep disturbances: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane E; Gimeno, David; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Marmot, Michael G; Kivimäki, Mika

    2009-06-01

    To examine whether exposure to long working hours predicts various forms of sleep disturbance; short sleep, difficulty falling asleep, frequent waking, early waking and waking without feeling refreshed. Prospective study with 2 measurements of working hours (phase 3, 1991-1994 and phase 5, 1997-1999) and 2 measurements of subjective sleep disturbances (phase 5 and phase 7, 2002-2004). The Whitehall II study of British civil servants. Full time workers free of sleep disturbances at phase 5 and employed at phases 5 and 7 (n = 937-1594) or at phases 3, 5, and 7 (n = 886-1510). Working more than 55 hours a week, compared with working 35-40 hours a week, was related to incident sleep disturbances; demographics-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) 1.98 (1.05, 3.76) for shortened sleeping hours, 3.68 (1.58, 8.58) for difficulty falling asleep; and 1.98 (1.04, 3.77) for waking without feeling refreshed. Repeat exposure to long working hours was associated with odds ratio 3.24 (1.45, 7.27) for shortened sleep, 6.66 (2.64, 16.83) for difficulty falling asleep, and 2.23 (1.16, 4.31) for early morning awakenings. Some associations were attenuated after adjustment for other risk factors. To a great extent, similar results were obtained using working hours as a continuous variable. Imputation of missing values supported the findings on shortened sleep and difficulty in falling asleep. Working long hours appears to be a risk factor for the development of shortened sleeping hours and difficulty falling asleep.

  19. Application of multicriteria decision analysis in health care: a systematic review and bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) in health care has become common. However, the literature lacks systematic review trend analysis on the application of MCDA in health care. Aim To systematically identify applications of MCDA to the areas of health care, and to report on publication trends. Methods English language studies published from January 1, 1980 until October 1, 2013 were included. Electronic databases searches were supplemented by searching conference proceedings and relevant journals. Studies considered for inclusion were those using MCDA techniques within the areas of health care, and involving the participation of decision makers. A bibliometric analysis was undertaken to present the publication trends. Results A total of 66 citations met the inclusion criteria. An increase in publication trend occurred in the years 1990, 1997, 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2012. For the remaining years, the publication trend was either steady or declining. The trend shows that the number of publications reached its highest peak in 2012 (n = 9). Medical Decision Making was the dominant with the highest number published papers (n = 7). The majority of the studies were conducted in the US (n = 29). Medical Decision Making journal published the highest number of articles (n = 7). Analytic Hierarchy Process (n = 33) was the most used MCDA technique. Cancer was the most researched disease topic (n = 12). The most covered area of application was diagnosis and treatment (n = 26). Conclusion The review shows that MCDA has been applied to a broad range of areas in the health care, with the use of a variety of methodological approaches. Further research is needed to develop practice guidelines for the appropriate application and reporting of MCDA methods. PMID:25327341

  20. Temporal trends in self-reported functional limitations and physical disability among the community-dwelling elderly population: the Framingham heart study.

    PubMed

    Murabito, Joanne M; Pencina, Michael J; Zhu, Lei; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Shrader, Peter; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2008-07-01

    We sought to determine change in the prevalence of functional limitations and physical disability among the community-dwelling elderly population across 3 decades. We studied original participants of the Framingham Heart Study, aged 79 to 88 years, at examination 15 (1977-1979; 177 women, 103 men), examination 20 (1988-1990; 159 women, 98 men) and examination 25 (1997-1999; 174 women, 119 men). Self-reported functional limitation was defined using the Nagi scale, and physical disability was defined using the Rosow-Breslau and Katz scales. Functional limitations declined across examinations from 74.6% to 60.5% to 37.9% (P < .001) among women and from 54.2% to 37.8% to 27.8% (P<.001) among men. Physical disability declined from 74.5% to 48.5% to 34.6% (P < .001) among women and 42.3% to 33.3% to 22.8% (P = .009) among men. Among women, improvements in functional limitations (P = .05) were greater from examination 20 to 25, whereas for physical disability (P=.02), improvements were greater from examination 15 to 20. Improvements in function were constant across the 3 examinations in men. Among community-dwelling elders, the prevalence of functional limitations and physical disability declined significantly in both women and men from the 1970s to the 1990s. This may in part be due to improvements in technological devices used to maintain independence. Further work is needed to identify the underlining causes of the decline so preventative measures can be established that promote independence for the elderly population.

  1. Species-specific allometric scaling under self-thinning: evidence from long-term plots in forest stands.

    PubMed

    Pretzsch, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Experimental plots covering a 120 years' observation period in unthinned, even-aged pure stands of common beech (Fagus sylvatica), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and common oak (Quercus Petraea) are used to scrutinize Reineke's (1933) empirically derived stand density rule [see text], N=tree number per unit area, [see text]=mean stem diameter), Yoda's (1963) self-thinning law based on Euclidian geometry ([see text] [see text]=mean biomass per tree), and basic assumptions of West, Brown and Enquist's (1997, 1999) fractal scaling rules ([see text] [see text] w=biomass per tree, d=stem diameter). RMA and OLS regression provides observed allometric exponents, which are tested against the exponents, expected by the considered rules. Hope for a consistent scaling law fades away, as observed exponents significantly correspond with the considered rules only in a minority of cases: (1) exponent r of [see text] varies around Reineke's constant -1.605, but is significantly different from r=-2, supposed by Euclidian or fractal scaling, (2) Exponent c of the self-thinning line [see text] roams roughly about the Euclidian scaling constant -3/2, (3) Exponent a of [see text] tends to follow fractal scaling 8/3. The unique dataset's evaluation displays that (4) scaling exponents and their oscillation are species-specific, (5) Euclidian scaling of one relation and fractal scaling of another are coupled, depending on species. Ecological implications of the results in respect to self-tolerance (common oak>Norway spruce>Scots pine>common beech) and efficiency of space occupation (common beech>Scots pine>Norway spruce>common oak) are stressed and severe consequences for assessing, regulating and scheduling stand density are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of urinary porphyrin excretion in neonates born to mothers exposed to airborne hexachlorobenzene.

    PubMed Central

    Ozalla, Dolores; Herrero, Carmen; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; To-Figueras, Jordi; Toll, Agustí; Sala, Maria; Grimalt, Joan; Basagaña, Xavier; Lecha, Màrius; Sunyer, Jordi

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a link between hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and porphyria cutanea tarda has been known for a long time. However, the epidemiologic data on effects on health caused by prenatal exposure have not provided convincing evidence that HCB alters porphyrin metabolism. Our objectives were to analyze urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB in maternal serum and fetal cord blood in neonates born in a village (Flix) near a chlorinated solvent factory, to detect possible adverse effects in urinary porphyrin excretion caused by prenatal exposure, and to assess their relationship with HCB blood levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Porphyria Unit at a tertiary care facility in Barcelona, Spain, and the Pediatric Unit of the Móra d'Ebre Hospital, the reference hospital of the study area. We included in the study all neonates (n = 68) born in Móra d'Ebre Hospital 1997-1999 and their mothers. We obtained 68 urine specimens of singleton neonates on the third day after birth to test for urinary porphyrin excretion. We obtained 52 fetal cord blood and 56 maternal serum samples for HCB analysis. Total urinary porphyrins were quantified using spectrofluorometry. Porphyrin profile was determined by HPLC. Serum HCB was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection. In total population, median HCB levels were 1.08 ng/mL in cord blood and 3.31 ng/mL in maternal serum. Total urinary porphyrin concentration was 37.87 micromol/mol creatinine. Coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were the major porphyrins excreted. We found no positive relationship between urinary porphyrin excretion and HCB levels. However, we observed an association between maternal smoking and coproporphyrin excretion. Although high environmental levels of HCB are reported in the town of Flix, we found no alteration in urinary porphyrin excretion. PMID:11836151

  3. Longitudinal melatonin production in female laboratory rats during 1997-2006: possible modulatory effects of changing solar activity.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Hella; Mecke, Dieter; Probst, Hansgeorg; Küpper, Heinz; Seebald, Eckhard; Herget, Ilse; Peschke, Elmar; Salewski, Lothar; Stehle, Thilo; Bartsch, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Earlier we reported that the urinary excretion of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) displayed seasonal rhythms in laboratory rats and hypothesized that the horizontal intensity H of the geomagnetic field may act as seasonal zeitgeber. To test this, long-term experiments were performed with female Sprague-Dawley rats. In experiment I (n=12: 1997-1999) nocturnal aMT6s displayed a winter-summer increase by 30% and a rhythm with a phase-length of 24 months peaking in July 1998. In experiment II (n=12; 1999-2000) the winter-summer increase amounted to 40%. The estimated rhythm had a phase-length of 18 months with a peak in September 2000. Compared to experiment I both the rhythm-adjusted mean (MESOR, + 28%) and amplitude (+68%) were elevated. In experiment III (n=30; 2003-2004) the winter-summer increment was just 20%. A circannual rhythm with a peak in April/May was found. The MESOR was 13% higher than in experiment I but the amplitude was depleted ( -14%). In experiment IV (n=15; 2005-2006) a slight winter-summer increase (+15%) was found and a low-amplitude rhythm of 24 months phase-length peaking in June 2006. The MESOR was similar to experiment I but the amplitude was depressed (-36%). These results demonstrate that female rats within two years of age show elevated aMT6s during summer/spring which supports our initial hypothesis. The apparent inter-experimental amplitude variation indicates the involvement of additional variables. Based on our initial hypothesis, we postulate an involvement of the solar cycle affecting H leading to year to year variations and present supportive analyses.

  4. Influence of antiretroviral therapy on programmed death-1 (CD279) expression on T cells in lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Ehrhard, Simone; Wernli, Marion; Dürmüller, Ursula; Battegay, Manuel; Gudat, Fred; Erb, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection leads to T-cell exhaustion and involution of lymphoid tissue. Recently, the programmed death-1 pathway was found to be crucial for virus-specific T-cell exhaustion during human immunodeficiency virus infection. Programmed death-1 expression was elevated on human immunodeficiency virus-specific peripheral blood CD8+ and CD4+ T cells and correlated with disease severity. During human immunodeficiency infection, lymphoid tissue acts as a major viral reservoir and is an important site for viral replication, but it is also essential for regulatory processes important for immune recovery. We compared programmed death-1 expression in 2 consecutive inguinal lymph nodes of 14 patients, excised before antiretroviral therapy (antiretroviral therapy as of 1997-1999) and 16 to 20 months under antiretroviral therapy. In analogy to lymph nodes of human immunodeficiency virus-negative individuals, in all treated patients, the germinal center area decreased, whereas the number of germinal centers did not significantly change. Programmed death-1 expression was mostly found in germinal centers. The absolute extent of programmed death 1 expression per section was not significantly altered after antiretroviral therapy resulting in a significant-relative increase of programmed death 1 per shrunken germinal center. In colocalization studies, CD45R0+ cells that include helper/inducer T cells strongly expressed programmed death-1 before and during therapy, whereas CD8+ T cells, fewer in numbers, showed a weak expression for programmed death-1. Thus, although antiretroviral therapy seems to reduce the number of programmed death-1-positive CD8+ T lymphocytes within germinal centers, it does not down-regulate programmed death-1 expression on the helper/inducer T-cell subset that may remain exhausted and therefore unable to trigger immune recovery.

  5. Geologic map of the Boulder-Fort Collins-Greeley Area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colton, Roger B.

    1978-01-01

    This digital map shows the geographic extent of rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Colton in 1976 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Colton used his own geologic mapping and previously published geologic maps to compile one map having a single classification of geologic units. The resulting published color paper map (USGS Map I-855-G, Colton, 1978) was intended for land-use planning and to depict the regional geology. In 1997-1999, another USGS project designed to address urban growth issues was undertaken. This project, the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project, undertook to digitize Colton's map at 1:100,000 scale, making it useable in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). That product is described here. In general, the digitized map depicts in its western part Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Pennsylvanian and younger sedimentary rock units, major faults, and brecciated zones along an eastern strip (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The central and eastern parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) show a mantle of Quaternary unconsolidated deposits and interspersed outcrops of sedimentary rock of Cretaceous or Tertiary age. A surficial mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age is differentiated and depicted as eolium (wind-blown sand and silt), alluvium (river gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslide deposits. At the mountain front, north-trending, Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations of sandstone, shale, and minor limestone dip mostly eastward and form folds, fault blocks, hogbacks and intervening valleys. Local dikes and sills of Tertiary rhyodacite and basalt intrude rocks near the range front, mostly in the Boulder area.

  6. Seasonality in ENSO-related precipitation, river discharges, soil moisture, and vegetation index in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, GermáN.; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Gil, Marta MaríA.; Quiceno, Natalia; Mantilla, Ricardo I.

    2001-08-01

    An analysis of hydrologic variability in Colombia shows different seasonal effects associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. Spectral and cross-correlation analyses are developed between climatic indices of the tropical Pacific Ocean and the annual cycle of Colombia's hydrology: precipitation, river flows, soil moisture, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Our findings indicate stronger anomalies during December-February and weaker during March-May. The effects of ENSO are stronger for streamflow than for precipitation, owing to concomitant effects on soil moisture and evapotranspiration. We studied time variability of 10-day average volumetric soil moisture, collected at the tropical Andes of central Colombia at depths of 20 and 40 cm, in coffee growing areas characterized by shading vegetation ("shaded coffee"), forest, and sunlit coffee. The annual and interannual variability of soil moisture are highly intertwined for the period 1997-1999, during strong El Niño and La Niña events. Soil moisture exhibited greater negative anomalies during 1997-1998 El Niño, being strongest during the two dry seasons that normally occur in central Colombia. Soil moisture deficits were more drastic at zones covered by sunlit coffee than at those covered by forest and shaded coffee. Soil moisture responds to wetter than normal precipitation conditions during La Niña 1998-1999, reaching maximum levels throughout that period. The probability density function of soil moisture records is highly skewed and exhibits different kinds of multimodality depending upon land cover type. NDVI exhibits strong negative anomalies throughout the year during El Niños, in particular during September-November (year 0) and June-August (year 0). The strong negative relation between NDVI and El Niño has enormous implications for carbon, water, and energy budgets over the region, including the tropical Andes and Amazon River basin.

  7. Cadmium Exposure and Incident Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Devereux, Richard B.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Cadmium has been associated with peripheral arterial disease in cross-sectional studies but prospective evidence is lacking. Our goal was to evaluate the association of urine cadmium concentrations with incident peripheral arterial disease in a large population-based cohort. Methods and Results A prospective cohort study was performed with 2,864 adult American Indians 45-74 years old from Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study in 1989-91 and were followed through two follow-up examination visits in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. Participants were free of peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, at baseline and had complete baseline information on urine cadmium, potential confounders and ankle brachial index determinations in the follow-up examinations. Urine cadmium was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and corrected for urinary dilution by normalization to urine creatinine.. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were computed using Cox-proportional hazards models for interval-censored data. A total of 470 cases of incident peripheral arterial disease, defined as an ankle brachial index <0.9 or >1.4, were identified. After adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking status and pack-years, the hazard ratio comparing the 80th to the 20th percentile of urine cadmium concentrations was 1.41 (1.05, 1.81). The hazard ratio comparing the highest to the lowest tertile was 1.96 (1.32, 2.81). The associations persisted after excluding participants with ankle brachial index > 1.4 only as well as in subgroups defined by sex and smoking status. Conclusions Urine cadmium, a biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, was independently associated with incident peripheral arterial disease, providing further support for cadmium as a cardiovascular disease risk factor. PMID:24255048

  8. Regime shift of the South China Sea SST in the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Bijoy; Tkalich, Pavel; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-03-01

    Decadal variability of the South China Sea (SCS) sea surface temperature (SST) during 1982-2014 is investigated using observations and ocean reanalysis datasets. The SCS SST shows an abrupt transition from a cold-to-warm regime in the late 1990s. Based on the long-term SST variability two epochs are defined, 1982-1996 and 2000-2014 as cold and warm regimes respectively, spanning on either side of the 1997-1999 SCS warming. Despite the occurrence of strong El Nino induced warming events, the SST anomalies tend to be negative in the cold regime. Conversely during the warm regime, the positive SST anomalies have dominated over the La Nina driven cooling events. The cold (warm) SST regime is marked by net heat gain (loss) by the SCS. The long-term variations of net surface heat flux are mainly driven by the latent heat flux anomalies while the short wave flux plays a secondary role. Low-frequency variability of the South China Sea throughflow (SCSTF) appears to be closely related to the SCS SST regime shift. The SCSTF shows reversing trends during the cold and warm epochs. The weakened SCSTF in the warm regime has promoted the SCS warming by limiting the outward flow of warm water from the SCS. Meanwhile, enhanced SCSTF during the cold regime acts as a cooling mechanism and lead to persistent negative SST anomalies. The change in trend of the SCSTF and SST regime shift coincides with the switching of pacific decadal oscillation from a warm to cold phase in the late 1990s.

  9. Response of canopy nitrogen uptake to a rapid decrease in bulk nitrate deposition in two eastern Canadian boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Houle, D; Marty, C; Duchesne, L

    2015-01-01

    A few studies have reported a recent and rapid decline in NO3(-) deposition in eastern North America. Whether this trend can be observed at remote boreal sites with low rates of N deposition and how it could impact canopy uptake (CU) of N remain unknown. Here we report trends between 1997/1999 and 2012 for precipitation, throughfall N deposition as well as inorganic N CU for two boreal forest sites of Quebec, Canada, with contrasted N deposition rates and tree species composition. NO3(-) bulk deposition declined by approximately 50% at both sites over the studied period while no change was observed for NH4(+). As a result, the contribution of NH4(+) to inorganic N deposition changed from ~33% to more than 50% during the study period. On average, 52-59% of N deposition was intercepted by the canopy, the retention being higher for NH4(+) (60-67%) than for NO3(-) (45-54%). The decrease in NO3(-) bulk deposition and the increase in the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio had important impacts on N-canopy interactions. The contribution of NH4(+) CU to that of total inorganic N CU increased at both sites but the trend was significant only at Tirasse (lowest N deposition). At this site, absolute NO3(-) CU significantly decreased (as did total N CU) during the study period, a consequence of the strong relationship (r(2) = 0.88) between NO3(-) bulk deposition and NO3(-) CU. Our data suggest that N interactions with forest canopies may change rapidly with changes in N deposition as well as with tree species composition.

  10. Plant uptake of radiocaesium from artificially contaminated soil monoliths covering major European soil types.

    PubMed

    Waegeneers, Nadia; Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Thiry, Yves; Vallejo, V Ramón; Smolders, Erik; Madoz-Escande, Chantal; Bréchignac, François

    2009-06-01

    Uptake of (137)Cs was measured in different agricultural plant species (beans, lettuce, barley and ryegrass) grown in 5 undisturbed soil monoliths covering major European soil types. The first cultivation was made three years after soil contamination and plants were grown during 3 successive years. The plant-soil (137)Cs transfer factors varied maximally 12-fold among soils and 35-fold among species when grown on the same soil. Single correlations between transfer factors and soil properties were found, but they varied widely with plant type and can hardly be used as a predictive tool because of the few soils used. The variation of (137)Cs concentrations in plants among soils was related to differences in soil solution (137)Cs and K concentrations, consistent with previous observations in hydroponics and pot trials. Absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted based on a model validated for pot trials. The (137)Cs activity concentration in soil solution decreased significantly (11- to 250-fold) for most soils in the 1997-1999 period and is partly explained by decreasing K in soil solution. Transfer factors of lettuce showed both increasing and decreasing trends between 2 consecutive years depending on soil type. The trends could be explained by the variation in (137)Cs and K concentrations in soil solution. It is concluded that differences in (137)Cs transfer factors among soils and trends in transfer factors as a function of time can be explained from soil solution composition, as shown previously for pot trials, although absolute values of transfer factors could not be predicted.

  11. Regional Climate Studies with Variable-Resolution Stretched-Grid GCMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, Michael; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A variable resolution GCM using a global stretched grid with fine resolution over the area(s) of interest, is a viable new approach to regional and subregional climate studies and applications. It is an alternative to the widely used nested grid approach introduced a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. The first version of the SG-GCM based on the GEOS (Goddard Earth Observing System) GCM using a finite-difference approximation, has been developed and thoroughly tested during the last few years. Successful simulations have been performed with the SG-GCM for the anomalous regional climate events of the U.S. 1988 summer drought and 1993 summer flood. They have shown the practical feasibility of the SG-approach for regional climate modeling. The GEOS SG-DAS (Data Assimilation System) incorporating the SG-GCM has also been developed and tested. The assimilated regional fields and diagnostics are used for validating the SG-GCM regional simulations. Two new SG-GCMs are being developed. The first is the SG-version of the new NASANCAR FV-GCM (with the finite-volume (FV) dynamics), and the second is the SG-version of the new GCM with spectral-element dynamics. Both GCMs use the WAR CCM4 physics. Using these advanced numerics will provide increased computational efficiency for the new the SG-GCMs, and will allow us to employ more flexible stretching strategies beneficial for the efficient regional down-scaling. The major current developments are focused on: simulating the 1997-1999 (and beyond) ENSO cycle and related monsoonal circulations, with enhanced regional resolution; studying intraseasonal and interannual regional climate variability for the extended multiyear (AMIP-type) SG-GCM simulations; and studying the impact of ensemble integrations.

  12. A spatial database of bedding attitudes to accompany Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range Urban Corridor, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Moore, David W.; Murray, Kyle E.

    2003-01-01

    This digital map shows bedding attitude symbols display over the geographic extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette 1973-1977 and published in 1979 (U.S. Geological Survey Map I-856-H) under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999), was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (see cross-reference). In general, the mountainous areas in the west part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle is comprised of eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  13. Cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: results of the Pandora project.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, Roberto; Degli Esposti, Ezio; Ruffo, Pierfrancesco; Buda, Stefano; Valpiani, Giorgia; Sturani, Alessandra

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Pandora project is to collect epidemiological information, check diagnostic and therapeutic pathways, and assess outcomes in a large hypertensive population. This report presents the results on patients enrolled in the study between 1997-1999. Twenty-one general practitioners working in the Ravenna Local Health Service took part in the study. They were supplied with IBM compatible PCs and were trained to enter the patient's data (age, gender, familiarity for cardiovascular diseases, smoking, hospitalisations for cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, blood pressure, total cholesterolemia, creatininemia, antihypertensive therapy) on So.Ge.Pa. software. Cardiovascular risk factors were assessed according to the WHO - ISH joint committee recommendations. 2,608 treated hypertensive patients were enrolled, 65% of whom showed inadequate blood pressure control. The prevalence of inadequate BP control was higher in patients on multiple-drug antihypertensive therapy compared with those on monotherapy (71.9% vs. 47.9%), in older than in younger patients (70.7% vs. 56.1%) and in patients with three cardiovascular risk factors, or diabetes, or affected target organs, compared to those with two or less risk factors (72.4% vs. 63.3%), (p < 0.001 for all). 63.6% of patients were at risk for age, 36.6% for family history of cardiovascular diseases and 31.7% for severe hypercholesterolemia. BP control was inadequate in a large percentage of patients, but it was particularly unsatisfactory in the elderly and in patients with high cardiovascular risk. A cluster of cardiovascular risk factors was found in both adequately and inadequately controlled hypertensive patients.

  14. Recent transmission of tuberculosis in Madrid: application of capture-recapture analysis to conventional and molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Iñigo, J; Arce, A; Martín-Moreno, J M; Herruzo, R; Palenque, E; Chaves, F

    2003-10-01

    Population-based studies using a combination of molecular techniques and conventional epidemiological methods have been used to study the dynamics of tuberculosis (TB) transmission but the relative utility of each technique has not yet been established. A prospective population-based molecular and epidemiological study of patients diagnosed with TB was conducted in three urban districts of Madrid (Spain) during 1997-1999. Analysis was performed using the capture-recapture method including covariates in which conventional epidemiological data and the information on clustered cases obtained by DNA fingerprinting were regarded as independent and complementary procedures. The estimate obtained by molecular analysis alone, that 31.6% of TB cases were due to recent transmission, was revised to 44.8% (95% CI: 31.4-58.2) using the capture-recapture method. The estimated completeness of the combined databases for identification of recent transmission was 59.2%. Underestimation of the true prevalence of recent transmission was higher with conventional epidemiology than molecular analysis, particularly for patients <35 years old and those with a history of imprisonment. In this study, use of the capture-recapture technique allowed us to combine epidemiological information obtained by conventional and molecular methods to quantify the number of cases of recently transmitted TB in the community and identify specific populations at high risk of disease. This information is clearly important because such groups are a prime target for improved TB control measures. In the long term, this combination of techniques may contribute significantly to control the spread of TB.

  15. The jack mackerel fishery and El Niño 1997 98 effects off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Dagoberto F.; Cubillos, Luis A.; P. Núñez, Sergio

    The jack mackerel fishery is one of the most important resources on the South Eastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, with landings higher than 3 million tonnes between 1990 and 1996. During 1997-1998, remarkable changes occurred in the length structure of jack mackerel catches, as juveniles (<26 cm FL) dominated the fishing grounds. That was attributed to the environmental effects of the 1997-98 El Niño on the feeding grounds of the jack mackerel off central-southern Chile. Anomalous sea surface temperatures were first detected in June 1997 and persisted into 1998. The response of the incidence of juveniles lagged one year after the ENSO phenomenon affected central-southern Chile, whereas there was a direct relationship between the proportion of juveniles and the intrusion of the 15°C isotherm towards the south. This isotherm reached its most southerly distribution in 1997-98, as a consequence of the El Niño. Jack mackerel is an oceanic and highly migrating species, so we propose that El Niño conditions affected the migratory pathway of the juveniles. It is postulated that the restoration of the nursery habitat north of 30°S may be delayed by more than 3-4 years. New juveniles will dominate in northern areas in the short-term, whereas the juveniles that migrated to southern areas during 1997-1999 are not expected to return back north. At present, the real situation of the stock is far from certain, but we think that environmental impacts associated to the El Niño can not be overlooked when planning the management of the jack mackerel fishery.

  16. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  17. Does modern high standard life style cause type 1 diabetes in children?

    PubMed

    Ludvigsson, Johnny; Holmqvist, Britt-Marie; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2013-02-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease which, in spite of intensive treatment, causes serious complications and increased mortality. The incidence is increasing, but the aetiology is unknown. As part of modern lifestyle, increased hygiene has been suspected as one contributing cause but so far there is no evidence. Several large epidemiological studies, mainly restricted to children with increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes, have so far given no clue. All Babies in Southeast Sweden is unique in its design as it has followed an unselected group of children from birth 1997-1999 and onwards with regular follow-ups. This report is based on questionnaires from initially 16 051 children of whom 80 have later on developed type 1 diabetes. The parents answered questionnaires at the birth of their child and then after 1, 2-3, 5-6 and 8 years. A number of parameters possibly related to hygiene were analysed with several statistical methods, both with univariate and in regression models. Our study cannot identify any crucial environmental factor. This indicates that hygiene-related parameters traditionally regarded as part of 'modern life style' do not play any important role for the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. There is no reason to recommend a change of that part of our lifestyle. We find weak associations to previous gastrointestinal infections, which gives a hint that development of type 1 diabetes may be related to problems in the gut and maybe one should look closer into the microbes living in the gut. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Atherosclerosis and incident depression in late life.

    PubMed

    Newson, Rachel S; Hek, Karin; Luijendijk, Hendrika J; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Tiemeier, Henning

    2010-11-01

    Depression is a prominent concern for older adults; therefore, it is important to identify causal mechanisms so that prevention and treatment strategies can be developed. The vascular depression hypothesis proposes that vascular factors precede the onset of depression in older adults. However, although cross-sectional associations have been established, owing to a lack of objective assessments and longitudinal data, the validity and temporal nature of this relationship is unclear. To examine whether atherosclerosis, an asymptomatic subclinical indicator of vascular burden, increases the risk of developing depression in older adults. Prospective, population-based study. Set within the Rotterdam study, participants were assessed on objective measures of generalized atherosclerosis at baseline (1997-1999) and followed up for an average of 6 years for incident depression. The baseline sample consisted of 3564 participants (56% female) with a mean age of 72 years who initially did not have depression or dementia. Depression was categorized into symptoms or syndromes and assessed in a multidimensional manner from physician and mental health specialist reports, pharmacy records (antidepressant usage), a clinical interview, and self-report. During 21 083 person-years, 429 incidents of depressive symptoms and 197 incidents of depressive syndromes occurred. Individual atherosclerotic measures and a composite measure were not predictive of incident depressive symptoms (composite measure hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.05) or incident depressive syndromes (composite measure hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.16). An a priori power analysis indicated a sufficient sample size (α = .05; 0.95 power). Atherosclerosis does not appear to increase the risk of incident depression in older adults. These findings do not support the vascular depression hypothesis and, alternatively, taking findings from prior studies into account, suggest either that

  19. Adiponectin trajectories before type 2 diabetes diagnosis: Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Tabák, Adam G; Carstensen, Maren; Witte, Daniel R; Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Jokela, Markus; Roden, Michael; Kivimäki, Mika; Herder, Christian

    2012-12-01

    The role of adiponectin in the natural history of diabetes is not well characterized. We set out to characterize prediagnosis trajectories of adiponectin in individuals who develop type 2 diabetes. In a case-cohort study (335 incident diabetes case and 2,474 noncase subjects) nested in the Whitehall II study, serum adiponectin was measured up to three times per participant (1991-1993, 1997-1999, and 2003-2004). Multilevel models adjusted for age and ethnicity were fitted to assess 13-year trajectories of log-transformed adiponectin preceding diabetes diagnosis or a randomly selected time point during follow-up (year(0)) based on 755/5,095 (case/noncase) person-examinations. Adiponectin levels were lower in diabetes case than in noncase subjects (median 7,141 [interquartile range 5,187-10,304] vs. 8,818 [6,535-12,369] ng/mL at baseline, P < 0.0001). Control subjects showed a modest decline in adiponectin throughout follow-up (0.3% per year, P < 0.0001) at higher levels in women than in men (difference at year(0): 5,358 ng/mL, P < 0.0001). Female case and early-onset case (age at diagnosis <52 years) subjects had a steeper decline than control subjects (slope difference -1.1% per year, P = 0.001 in females, -1.6% per year in early-onset case subjects, P = 0.034). In men, adiponectin slopes for case and noncase subjects were parallel. The slope differences by diabetes onset were largely attenuated after adjustment for changes in obesity, whereas the sex-specific slope differences were independent of obesity. Lower adiponectin levels were observed already a decade before the diagnosis of diabetes. The marked sex difference in trajectories suggests that sex-specific mechanisms affect the association between adiponectin levels and diabetes development.

  20. Malaria transmission in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau between 1995 and 2012: malaria resurgence did not negatively affect mortality.

    PubMed

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2014-01-01

    As Plasmodium falciparum prevalence decreases in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, so does immunity resulting in larger at risk populations and increased risk of malaria resurgence. In Bissau, malaria prevalence decreased from ∼50% to 3% between 1995 and 2003. The epidemiological characteristics of P. falciparum malaria within Bandim health and demographic surveillance site (population ∼100,000) between 1995 and 2012 are described. The population was determined by census. 3603 children aged <15 years that were enrolled in clinical trials at the Bandim health centre (1995-2012) were considered incident cases. The mean annual malaria incidence per thousand children in 1995-1997, 1999-2003, 2007, 2011, 2012 were as follows; age <5 years 22→29→4→9→3, age 5-9 years 15→28→4→33→12, age 10-14 years 9→15→1→45→19. There were 4 campaigns (2003-2010) to increase use of insecticide treated bed nets (ITN) amongst children <5 years. An efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime was routinely used until artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) was introduced in 2008. Long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLIN) were distributed in 2011. By 2012 there was 1 net per 2 people and 97% usage. All-cause mortality decreased from post-war peaks in 1999 until 2012 in all age groups and was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence. The cause of decreasing malaria incidence (1995-2007) was probably multifactorial and coincident with the use of an efficacious high-dose chloroquine treatment regime. Decreasing malaria prevalence created a susceptible group of older children in which malaria resurged, highlighting the need to include all age groups in malaria interventions. ACT did not hinder malaria resurgence. Mass distribution of LLINs probably curtailed malaria epidemics. All-cause mortality was not negatively affected by malaria resurgence.

  1. The Coupled Roles of Dust and Clouds in the Mars Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd

    2000-01-01

    During the period October 1997 to September 1999 we obtained and analyzed over 100 millimeter-wave observations of Mars atmospheric CO line absorption for atmospheric temperature profiles. These measurements extend through one full Mars year (solar longitudes L(sub S) of 190 deg in 1997 to 180 deg in 1999) and coincide with atmospheric temperature profile and dust column measurements front the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. A comparison of Mars atmospheric temperatures retrieved by these distinct methods provides the first opportunity to place the long-term (1982-1999) millimeter retrievals of Mars atmospheric temperatures within the context of contemporaneous, spatially mapped spacecraft, observations. Profile comparisons of 0-30 km altitude atmospheric temperatures retrieved with the two techniques agree typically to within the 5 K calibration accuracy of the millimeter observations. At the 0.5 mbar pressure level (approximately 25 km altitude) the 30N/30S average for TES infrared temperatures and the disk-averaged millimeter temperatures are also well correlated in their seasonal and dust-storm-related variations over the 1997-1999 period. This period includes the Noachis Terra regional dust storm, which led to very abrupt heating (approximately 15 K at 0.5 mbar) of the global Mars atmosphere at L(sub S)=224 deg in 1997 [Christensen et al., 1998; Conrath et al., this issue; Smith et al., this issue]. Much colder (10-20 K) global atmospheric temperatures were observed during the 1997 versus 1977 perihelion periods (L(sub S)=200 deg-330 deg), consistent with the much (2 to 8 times) lower global dust loading of the atmosphere during the 1997 perihelion dust storm season versus the Viking period of the 1977a,b storms. The 1998-1999 Mars atmosphere revealed by both the millimeter and TES observations is also 10-15 K colder than presented by the Viking climatology during the aphelion season (L(sub S

  2. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations of O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Gubalówka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O3 concentrations in the Vychodna and Gubałówka sites reached 160 and 200 microg/m3 (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as microg/m3; and at 25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg, 1 microg O3/m3 = 0.51 ppb O3). These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal 03 distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon and lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-h period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O3 levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O3 levels with elevation occurred. Concentrations of O3 determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O3 concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O3 distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O3 on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the AOT40 indices for forest trees and natural vegetation. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the entire Carpathian range were typical

  3. Present State of Knowledge of the Upper Atmosphere 1999: An Assessment Report. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurylo, M. J.; DeCola, P. L.; Kaye, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    This document is issued in response to the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, Public Law 101-549, which mandates that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and other key agencies submit triennial reports to the Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency. NASA specifically is charged with the responsibility of reporting on the state of our knowledge of the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly the stratosphere. Part l of this report summarizes the objectives, status, and accomplishments of the research tasks supported under NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program and Atmospheric Chemistry Modeling and Analysis Program for the period of 1997-1999. Part 2 (this document) is a compilation of several scientific assessments, reviews, and summaries. Section B (Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998), Section C (a summary of the 1998 Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate, SPARC, ozone trends report), Section D (the policymakers summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere), and Section E (the executive summary of the NASA Assessment of the Effects of High-Speed Aircraft in the Stratosphere: 1998) are summaries of the most recent assessments of our current understanding of the chemical composition and the physical structure of the stratosphere, with particular emphasis on how the abundance and distribution of ozone is predicted to change in the future. Section F (the executive summary of NASA's Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements, M&M 11) and Section G (the end-of-mission statement for the Photochemistry of ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer, POLARIS, campaign) describe the scientific results for a comprehensive modeling intercomparison exercise and an aircraft and balloon measurement campaign, respectively. Section H (Chemical Kinetics and Photochemical Data for Use in Stratospheric Modeling: Update to Evaluation Number 12 of the NASA

  4. Observations on permafrost ground thermal regimes from Antarctica and the Italian Alps, and their relevance to global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauro, Guglielmin

    2004-01-01

    Active-layer monitoring and the permafrost thermal regime are key indicators of climate change. The results of 3 years (1997-1999) of active-layer monitoring at one high-mountain site (La Foppa, 46°28'42″N; 10°11'18″E, 2670 m a.s.l.) and at one Antarctic site (Boulder Clay, 74°44'45″S; 164°01'17″E, 205 m a.s.l) are presented. The initial analysis of a thermal profile in a borehole (100.3 m deep) within mountain permafrost at Stelvio (3000 m a.s.l., 46°30'59″N; 10°28'35″E) is also presented. At the alpine site, the active-layer thickness variations (between 193 and 229 cm) relate to both the snow cover and to the air temperature changes. By contrast, at the Antarctic site, there is a strong direct linkage only between air temperature fluctuations and active-layer variations. At the alpine (La Foppa) site, the relationship between climate and active-layer thickness is complicated by thermal offset that is almost negligible at both the Stelvio and Antarctic sites. The permafrost temperature profile at Stelvio site contains a climate signal suitable for paleoclimate reconstruction. The permafrost at this site has a mean annual ground surface temperature (MAGST) of -1.9 °C (during 1998/1999), an active layer of about 2.5 m thick and a total thickness of ˜200 m. Analysis of the MAGST history, obtained by applying a simple heat conduction one-dimensional model, revealed the occurrence of a cold period from 1820 to 1940 followed by a warming period until 1978. Since the beginning of the 1980s, temperature dropped (less than 2 °C) until the middle 1990s, when a new period of warming started. All these climatic changes fit well with the glacial fluctuations in the area and with other paleoclimatic information derived from different proxy data.

  5. Is the ``IR Coincidence'' Just That?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Jörn; Heinz, Sebastian; Pooley, Guy; Pottschmidt, Katja; Corbel, Stephane

    2005-06-01

    Previous work by Motch et al. suggested that in the low/hard state of GX 339-4 the soft X-ray power law extrapolated backward in energy agrees with the IR flux level. Corbel & Fender later showed that the typical hard-state radio power law extrapolated forward in energy meets the backward-extrapolated X-ray power law at an IR spectral break, which was explicitly observed twice in GX 339-4. This IR coincidence has been cited as further evidence that synchrotron radiation from a jet might make a significant contribution to the observed X-rays in hard-state black hole systems. We quantitatively explore this hypothesis with a series of simultaneous radio/X-ray observations of GX 339-4, taken during its 1997, 1999, and 2002 hard states. We fit these spectra, in detector space, with a simple, but remarkably successful, doubly broken power-law model that indeed requires an IR spectral break. For these observations, the break position and the integrated radio/IR flux have stronger dependences upon the X-ray flux than the simplest jet model predictions. If one allows for a softening of the X-ray power law with increasing flux, then the jet model can agree with the observed correlation. We also find evidence that the radio flux-X-ray flux correlation previously observed in the 1997 and 1999 GX 339-4 hard states shows a parallel track for the 2002 hard state. The slope of the 2002 correlation is consistent with observations taken in prior hard states; however, the radio amplitude is reduced. We then examine the radio flux-X-ray flux correlation in Cyg X-1 through the use of 15 GHz radio data obtained with the Ryle radio telescope and Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data from the All-Sky Monitor and pointed observations. We again find evidence of parallel tracks, and here they are associated with ``failed transitions,'' or the beginning of a transition, to the soft state. We also find that for Cyg X-1 the radio flux is more fundamentally correlated with the hard, rather than the

  6. Is the `IR Coincidence' Just That?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M.

    2005-09-01

    Previous work by Motch (1985) suggested that in the low/hard state of GX 339-4 the soft X-ray power-law extrapolated backward in energy agrees with the IR flux level. Corbel & Fender (2002) later showed that the typical hard state radio power-law extrapolated forward in energy meets the backward extrapolated X-ray power-law at an IR spectral break, which was explicitly observed twice in GX 339-4. This `IR coincidence' has been cited as further evidence that synchrotron radiation from a jet might make a significant contribution to the observed X-rays in hard state black hole systems. We quantitatively explore this hypothesis with a series of simultaneous radio/X-ray observations of GX 339-4, taken during its 1997, 1999, and 2002 hard states. We fit these spectra, in detector space, with a simple, but remarkably successful, doubly broken power-law model that indeed requires an IR spectral break. For these observations, the break position and the integrated radio/IR flux have stronger dependences upon the X-ray flux than the simplest jet model predictions. If one allows for a softening of the X-ray power law with increasing flux, then the jet model can agree with the observed correlation. We also find evidence that the radio flux/X-ray flux correlation previously observed in the 1997 and 1999 GX 339-4 hard states shows a `parallel track' for the 2002 hard state. The slope of the 2002 correlation is consistent with observations taken in prior hard states; however, the radio amplitude is reduced. We then examine the radio flux/X-ray flux correlation in Cyg X-1 through the use of 15 GHz radio data, obtained with the Ryle radio telescope, and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data, from the All Sky Monitor and pointed observations. We again find evidence of `parallel tracks', and here they are associated with `failed transitions' to, or the beginning of a transition to, the soft state. We also find that for Cyg X-1 the radio flux is more fundamentally correlated with the hard

  7. Tripling of methamphetamine/amphetamine use among homeless and marginally housed persons, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Das-Douglas, Moupali; Colfax, Grant; Moss, Andrew R; Bangsberg, David R; Hahn, Judith A

    2008-03-01

    Methamphetamine/amphetamine (MA)-related morbidity and mortality has been increasing in the United States. MA use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and syringe-sharing practices. Homeless and marginalized housed persons (H/M) have high rates of substance use and mental health disorders. Little is known about trends of MA use among the H/M. The objective of this study was to quantify increases in MA use among H/M in San Francisco and to determine which demographic and behavioral subgroups have experienced the greatest increases in MA use. We conducted serial cross-sectional population-based studies in three waves: 1996-1997, 1999-2000, and 2003 and studied 2,348 H/M recruited at shelters and lunch lines. The main outcome was self-reported current (30-day) MA use. We found a tripling of current MA use among H/M persons from 1996 to 2003, with a sevenfold increase in smoked MA use. MA use doubled to tripled in most demographic and behavioral subgroups, whereas it quadrupled in those under age 35, and there was a fivefold increase among HIV-infected persons. The increase in MA use among H/M places a vulnerable population at additional increased risk for HIV infection and MA-use related morbidity and mortality. Among HIV-infected H/M, the increase in MA use has important public health implications for the development and secondary transmission of drug-resistant HIV caused by synergistic neurocognitive decline, poor adherence to HIV medications, and increased sexual risk behavior. Clinicians caring for H/M persons should inquire about MA use, refer interested MA users to MA dependence treatment programs and provide targeted HIV sexual risk reduction counseling. For HIV-infected H/M MA users, clinicians should closely monitor adherence to HIV or other chronic medications, to avoid unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to elucidate the most effective prevention and treatment for MA use and dependence among the H/M.

  8. On the association between high temperature and mortality in warm climates.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Abbas; Tewtel-Salem, Mylene

    2005-05-01

    We conducted a time-series analysis of 1997-1999 data records of air temperature and all-cause mortality in Greater Beirut, using bi-linear Poisson auto-regressive models, and published our findings in the Science of the Total Environment [El-Zein, A., Tewtel-Salem, M., Nehme, G., 2004. A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut. Sci. Total Environ. 330, 71-80]. We compared our results to those of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87.], who subsequently reported that their original results were inaccurate and published new results [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87; Curriero, F.C., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., 2003. Letter to the Editor re. On the Use of Generalized Additive Models in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution and Health" and "Temperature and Mortality in 11 Cities of the Eastern United States". Am. J. Epidemiol. 158(1) 93-94.]. In this letter, we report two changes in the interpretation of our findings as a result of the change in the results of Curriero et al. [Curriero, F.C., Heiner, K.S., Samet, J.M., Zeger, S.L., Strug, L., Patz, J.A., 2002. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155(1) 80-87]. Their newly-reported results reinforce our conclusion that heat-related mortality can be a significant public health issue even in temperate to warm climates. However, our findings raise a question concerning the ability of socioeconomic indicators to explain differences in vulnerability to heat between high-income and low-income countries.

  9. Observations of the Magnitude Dependence of Pn/Lg Ratios from Underground Explosions in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, J.; Patton, H. J.; Kim, W.

    2001-12-01

    Xie and Patton (1999, JGR) developed scaling relationships for seismic moment M0 and corner frequency fc determined from Pn and Lg spectra for many explosions and earthquakes located in central Asia. Scaling relationships were found to depend on the phase and the source type. Pn/Lg ratios ratios are predicted to increase significantly in a frequency range determined by Lg fc (lower limit) and Pn fc (upper limit). The increase slows down or stops outside this frequency range, and the range shifts to higher frequency with decreasing event magnitude. As a result, ratios from smaller events reach maxima at higher frequencies than do larger events. This predicted magnitude-dependent frequency shift of Pn/Lg ratios has been marked by controversy over whether direct observations support it or not. Here we summarize results from direct observations of Pn/Lg spectral ratios for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nor explosions. These observations include (1) ratios from Lop Nor explosions between 1992-1996 recorded on multiple broad-band stations, (2) ratios from Semipalatinsk explosions between 1987-1989 recorded on the Chinese station WMQ, (3) ratios from chemical explosions at Semipalatinsk between 1997-1999 recorded on broad-band Kazakhstan network stations, and (4) ratios from Semipalatinsk explosions between 1987-1989 from the Borovoye Digital Seismogram Archive (Kim et al., 2001). Pn/Lg ratios are stacked in three event populations with mb values of ~ 6.0, 5.0 and 4.0, respectively. Additionally, Pn/Lg ratios are available from multiple stations from a mb=6.6 explosion. The stacked ratios are compared with one another for near-repeated paths or for paths for which corrections are known based on path Q-inversions. All of the stacked Pn/Lg ratios show magnitude-dependence and statistically support the predicted magnitude-dependent frequency shift. The observations also indicate more complexity in Pn/Lg ratios from the mb ~ 4 population, which is largely made up of recent chemical

  10. Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease and current status of hemodialysis in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Djukanović, L; Radović, M; Baković, J; Budosan, I; Bukvić, D; Cveticanin, A; Davinić, S; Dragoljić, B; Djordjević, V; Djurić, S; Haviza-Lilić, B; Ilić, M; Janos, B; Jelacić, R; Jelić, S; Kostić, N; Mandić, M; Ostrić, V; Pljesa, S; Radisić, M; Radojević, M; Rakić, N; Rangelov, V; Ratković, M; Stojanović, M; Stojanović, R; Tintor, D; Vasić, V

    2002-09-01

    Maintenance hemodialysis (HD) in Yugoslavia started in the sixties and followed the dialysis trends in the Western Europe. However, in the last decade the development of renal replacement therapy (RRT) slowed down. In this report the epidemiology of ESRD from 1997-1999 and the survey of the status of HD treatment in Yugoslavia in 1999 are presented. Epidemiological data are obtained by the annual center questionnaires (response rate: 92.6 -94.2%). The survey of HD status is based on a specific questionnaire and covered 2108 patients (65%). At the end of 1999 there were 56 RRT centers in Yugoslavia treating 3939 patients: 3232 (82%) patients by HD, 248 (6.3%) by peritoneal dialysis, and 459 (11.7%) living with transplanted kidney. In a three year period, incidence of ESRD ranged from 108-128 pmp, point prevalence from 435-463 pmp and mortality rate from 20.7-17.9. Numerous refugee patients were treated over the last 10 years. Main causes of ESRD were glomerulonephritis (30%); Balkan nephropathy represented 11% and diabetic nephropathy 7% of all primary renal diseases. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases were the most common causes of death of RRT patients. Most centers are overcrowded and HD machines are worn out. Mean Kt/V was 1.19+/-0.08, mean URR% 58.8+/-7.4. The shortage of drugs prevented adequate management: 83% of HD patients had hemoglobin level less than 100 g/L but only 10.3 -17.8% were treated with rHuEpo; 64.5% of patients had phosphate levels higher than 1.7 mmol/L but only 33.5% used phosphate binders; 47% of patients had hypertension despite the antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of hepatitis B remained unchanged (about 14%) in HD population during the last three years, but the prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients decreased (31-23%). In conclusion, there is a well developed dialysis service in Yugoslavia but insufficient conditions for adequate treatment.

  11. Environmental factors and health problems among workers of the national project in Toshka.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, F C; Mohamed, M F; Moselhi, M; Neweir, K H

    2001-01-01

    The National Project in Toshka is a recognized agricultural one, as well as a comprehensive developmental project. The present study was carried out to investigate environmental factors and health problems among workers in this National Project. Environmental levels of vibration, noise, heat stress, total suspended particulates and respirable dust were measured in the different activities of the project during May 2000. The health records of Behera Company Incorporation, the project main implementing contractor, in the period 1997-1999 were analyzed. Workers were classified according to the nature of occupational exposure into three groups namely; earth workers, concrete workers, and services and administration workers. Records of occupational accidents of the same group of workers and in the same period were analyzed as well. Results showed that all the measured environmental factors were within the permissible levels of exposure in the different project activities. Workers showed a significant lower rate of total health problems in the last studied year (1999) as compared to the previous two years (1997-1998) (p=0.001). Prevalence rates of musculoskeletal disorders, urinary tract troubles, ear-nose-throat (ENT) problems and chest problems were significantly higher in earth and concrete workers than in services and administration workers (p=0.001, 0.011, 0.036 and 0.044, respectively). Both occupational accident frequency and severity rates were very low in comparison to other major construction projects such as the High Dam. These rates showed decreasing trends throughout the studied years; however, relatively higher rates were observed among earth workers than the other groups. Miscellaneous wounds were the commonest presentation of occupational injuries among the three occupational groups. In conclusion, the current use of modern technology accounted for the low levels of enviro mental exposure factors, as well as the high safety standards. Workers showed a

  12. Manchester Spring Chinook Broodstock Project : Progress Report, 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    McAuley, W. Carlin; Wastel, Michael R.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2000-11-01

    In spring 1995 the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) initiated captive broodstocks as part of conservation efforts for ESA-listed stocks of Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The need for this captive broodstock strategy was identified as critical in the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Proposed Recovery Plan for Snake River Salmon. These captive broodstock programs are being coordinated by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Chinook Salmon Captive Propagation Technical Oversight Committee (CSCPTOC). Oregon's Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstock program currently focuses on three stocks captured as juveniles from the Grande Ronde River Basin: the upper Grande Ronde River, Catherine Creek, and the Lostine River. Idaho's Snake River program includes three stocks captured as eggs and juveniles from the Salmon River Basin: the Lemhi River, East Fork Salmon River, and West Fork Yankee Fork. The majority of captive fish from each stock of the Grande Ronde Basin will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the ODFW Bonneville Hatchery. A minority of the Salmon River Basin stocks will be grown to maturity in freshwater at the IDFG Eagle Hatchery. However, the IDFG and ODFW requested that a portion of each group also be reared in protective culture in seawater. In August 1996, NMFS began a BPA funded project (Project 96-067-00) to rear Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon captive broodstocks in seawater at the NMFS Manchester Research Station. During 1997-1999, facilities modifications were undertaken at Manchester to provide secure facilities for rearing of these ESA-listed fish. This included construction of a building housing a total of twenty 6.1-m diameter fiberglass rearing tanks, upgrade of the Manchester salt water pumping and filtration/sterilization systems to a total capacity of 5,670 L/min (1,500 gpm), and installation

  13. Technical Note: Mean sea level variation in the Singapore Strait from long-term tide data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkalich, P.; Babu, M. T.; Vethamony, P.

    2012-06-01

    Winds over the South China Sea (SCS) are primarily responsible for the observed variability in sea level anomalies (SLAs) in the Singapore Strait (SS). The present study focuses on remote forcing contributing to local mean sea level changes in the SS in seasonal and inter-annual scales, and relating the long term mean sea level variation to El Niño/ENSO. As Tanjong Pagar (TP) tide station in the SS has nearly 23.5 yr (1984-2007) of time series data with less data gaps, this data was subject to harmonic and sea level analyses. The mean sea level changes suggest that the fluctuations are quasi-periodic. Rising and falling of sea level is noticed atleast 7 times in a period of 15 yr, with 3 distinct sharp falls (1984-1987, 1989-1992 and 1995-1996) and 4 sharp rises (1987-1988, 1992-1993, 1994-1995 and 1997-1999). These sea level falls are related to El Niño events. When we segregated the results into 2 time spans, we find that from 1984 to 1999 the sea level was on the rising trend in spite of sharp falls, and from 1999 to 2007 on gradual falling trend. More or less similar trend was observed by other researchers for the SCS with altimetry data. During the El Niño periods of 1987 and 1992, the inter-annual MSL variability is the highest, of the order of 7 cm. In one of the events, sea level recovered from a fall of 60 mm (in 1987) to a rise of 40 mm (in 1988). During 1992 to 1999, sea level was continuously on rising trend (from -50 mm to +60 mm), except in one year (1995-1996). The analysis shows a MSL rise rate of 15.7 mm yr-1, which is very closer to MSL in the SCS. The average rate of sea level rise around Singapore as shown by the Tanjong Pagar tidal station is 1.6 mm yr-1, and this matches with the global sea level rise.

  14. Twenty-five years of geodetic measurements along the Tadjoura-Asal rift system, Djibouti, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigny, Christophe; de Chabalier, Jean-Bernard; Ruegg, Jean-Claude; Huchon, Philippe; Feigl, Kurt L.; Cattin, Rodolphe; Asfaw, Laike; Kanbari, Khaled

    2007-06-01

    Since most of Tadjoura-Asal rift system sits on dry land in the Afar depression near the triple junction between the Arabia, Somalia, and Nubia plates, it is an ideal natural laboratory for studying rifting processes. We analyze these processes in light of a time series of geodetic measurements from 1978 through 2003. The surveys used triangulation (1973), trilateration (1973, 1979, and 1981-1986), leveling (1973, 1979, 1984-1985, and 2000), and the Global Positioning System (GPS, in 1991, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, and 2003). A network of about 30 GPS sites covers the Republic of Djibouti. Additional points were also measured in Yemen and Ethiopia. Stations lying in the Danakil block have almost the same velocity as Arabian plate, indicating that opening near the southern tip of the Red Sea is almost totally accommodated in the Afar depression. Inside Djibouti, the Asal-Ghoubbet rift system accommodates 16 ± 1 mm/yr of opening perpendicular to the rift axis and exhibits a pronounced asymmetry with essentially null deformation on its southwestern side and significant deformation on its northeastern side. This rate, slightly higher than the large-scale Arabia-Somalia motion (13 ± 1 mm/yr), suggests transient variations associated with relaxation processes following the Asal-Ghoubbet seismovolcanic sequence of 1978. Inside the rift, the deformation pattern exhibits a clear two-dimensional pattern. Along the rift axis, the rate decreases to the northwest, suggesting propagation in the same direction. Perpendicular to the rift axis, the focus of the opening is clearly shifted to the northeast, relative to the topographic rift axis, in the "Petit Rift," a rift-in-rift structure, containing most of the active faults and the seismicity. Vertical motions, measured by differential leveling, show the same asymmetric pattern with a bulge of the northeastern shoulder. Although the inner floor of the rift is subsiding with respect to the shoulders, all sites within the

  15. Interannual correlations between sea surface temperature and concentration of chlorophyll pigment off Punta Eugenia, Baja California, during different remote forcing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Lluch-Cota, S. E.; Lluch-Cota, D. B.; Gutiérrez-de-Velasco, G.

    2014-05-01

    Interannual correlation between satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and surface chlorophyll a (Chl a) are examined in the coastal upwelling zone off Punta Eugenia on the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula, an area than has been identified as having intense biological productivity and oceanographic transition between midlatitude and tropical ocean conditions. We used empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis separately and jointly on the two fields from 1997 through 2007, a time period dominated by different remote forcing: ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) conditions (weak, moderate and strong) and the largest intrusion of subarctic water reported in the last 50 years. Coastal upwelling index anomalies (CUI) and the multivariate ENSO index (MEI) were used to identify the influence of local (wind stress) and remote (ENSO) forcing over the interannual variability of both variables. The spatial pattern of the individual EOF1 analysis showed the greater variability of SST and Chl a offshore, their corresponding amplitude time series presented the highest peaks during the strong 1997-2000 El Niño-La Niña cycles and during the 2002-2004 period associated to the intrusion of subarctic water. The MEI is well correlated with the individual SST principal component (R ≈ 0.67, P < 0.05) and poorly with the individual Chl a principal component (R = -0.13). The joint EOF1 and the SST-Chl a correlation patterns show the area where both variables covary tightly; a band near the coast where the largest correlations occurred (| R | > 0.4) mainly regulated by ENSO cycles. This was spatially revealed when we calculated the homogeneous correlations for the 1997-1999 El Niño-La Niña period and during the 2002-2004 period, the intrusion of subarctic water period. Both, SST and Chl a showed higher coupling and two distinct physical-biological responses: on average ENSO influence was observed clearly along the coast mostly in SST, while the subarctic water

  16. In situ observations of the atmospheres of terrestrial planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti

    2005-11-01

    Direct observations of planetary atmospheres are scarce and significantly more data are needed for the understanding of their behavior. The principal theme of this dissertation is the exploration of planetary atmospheres by means of in situ observations, focusing on investigations performed by payloads operating on the planetary surface. The contextual frame includes the whole palette of planetary exploration including definition of scientific objectives, observational strategies, scientific payload and data analysis, as well as development of technological solutions and simulation models for planetary missions. Thus approach also led to the initiation of the planetary missions MetNet and NetLander to Mars. This work contributes to both in situ atmospheric observations and atmospheric modeling, which are strongly intertwined. Modeling efforts require observations to give solid background and foundation for the simulations, and on the other hand, definition of observational strategies and instrumentation gets guidance from modeling efforts to optimize the use of mission resources, as is successfully demonstrated in this dissertation. The dissertation consists of Summary and nine original scientific publications. Publications 1 to 7 and Summary address the development of new atmospheric science payloads for exploration missions to Mars and Titan, a Saturnian moon. Actual and planned missions included are the Mars-96 Program and its Small Surface Stations and Penetrators during the years 1988-1996, PPI/HASI onboard the Cassini/Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and its moon Titan in 1989-2005, the MET-P payload onboard the Mars Polar Lander in 1997-1999, the BAROBIT instrument for the Beagle 2 lander in 2001-2003, the NetLander Mars Mission in 1997-2001 and the ongoing Mars MetNet Mission, started in 2000. Specifically, Publication 4 reviews the sensor qualification process that facilitated the use of new type of atmospheric sensors at Mars, while Publications 2 and 7, as

  17. Association of chronic insomnia symptoms and recurrent extreme sleep duration over 10 years with well-being in older adults: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Abell, Jessica G; Shipley, Martin J; Ferrie, Jane E; Kivimäki, Mika; Kumari, Meena

    2016-02-01

    The extent to which aspects of sleep affect well-being in the long-term remains unclear. This longitudinal study examines the association between chronic insomnia symptoms, recurrent sleep duration and well-being at older ages. A prospective cohort of UK civil servants (the Whitehall II study). 4491 women and men (25.2% women) with sleep measured 3 times over 10 years and well-being once at age 55-79 years. Insomnia symptoms and sleep duration were assessed through self-reports in 1997-1999, 2003-2004 and 2007-2009. Indicators of well-being, measured in 2007-2009, were the Control, Autonomy, Self-realisation and Pleasure measure (CASP-19) of overall well-being (range 0-57) and the physical and mental well-being component scores (range 0-100) of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). In maximally adjusted analyses, chronic insomnia symptoms were associated with poorer overall well-being (difference between insomnia at 3 assessments vs none -7.0 (SE=0.4) p<0.001), mental well-being (difference -6.9 (SE=0.4), p<0.001) and physical well-being (difference -2.8 (SE=0.4), p<0.001) independently of the other sleep measures. There was a suggestion of a dose-response pattern in these associations. In addition, recurrent short sleep (difference between ≤ 5 h sleep reported at 3 assessments vs none -1.7 (SE=0.7), p<0.05) and recurrent long sleep (difference between >9 h reported at 2 or 3 assessments vs none -3.5 (SE=0.9), p<0.001) were associated with poorer physical well-being. We conclude that in older people, chronic insomnia symptoms are negatively associated with all aspects of well-being, whereas recurrent long and short sleep is only associated with reduced physical well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Risk factors for the development of severe typhoid fever in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Parry, Christopher M; Thompson, Corinne; Vinh, Ha; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Phuong, Le Thi; Ho, Vo Anh; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wain, John; Farrar, Jeremy J; Baker, Stephen

    2014-02-10

    Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Age, sex, prolonged duration of illness, and infection with an antimicrobial resistant organism have been proposed risk factors for the development of severe disease or fatality in typhoid fever. We analysed clinical data from 581 patients consecutively admitted with culture confirmed typhoid fever to two hospitals in Vietnam during two periods in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999. These periods spanned a change in the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes of the infecting organisms i.e. fully susceptible to standard antimicrobials, resistance to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (multidrug resistant, MDR), and intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (nalidixic acid resistant). Age, sex, duration of illness prior to admission, hospital location and the presence of MDR or intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility in the infecting organism were examined by logistic regression analysis to identify factors independently associated with severe typhoid at the time of hospital admission. The prevalence of severe typhoid was 15.5% (90/581) and included: gastrointestinal bleeding (43; 7.4%); hepatitis (29; 5.0%); encephalopathy (16; 2.8%); myocarditis (12; 2.1%); intestinal perforation (6; 1.0%); haemodynamic shock (5; 0.9%), and death (3; 0.5%). Severe disease was more common with increasing age, in those with a longer duration of illness and in patients infected with an organism exhibiting intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Notably an MDR phenotype was not associated with severe disease. Severe disease was independently associated with infection with an organism with an intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (AOR 1.90; 95% CI 1.18-3.07; p = 0.009) and male sex (AOR 1.61 (1.00-2.57; p = 0.035). In this group of patients hospitalised with typhoid fever infection with an organism with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was

  19. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997-1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20 ?? 2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM-EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10-20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio of

  20. Involvement and structure: A qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. Method We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. Results The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low

  1. Spatial and temporal multiyear sea ice distributions in the Arctic: A neural network analysis of SSM/I data, 1988-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, G.I.; Douglas, D.C.; Alpatsky, I.V.; Platonov, N.G.

    2004-01-01

    Arctic multiyear sea ice concentration maps for January 1988-2001 were generated from SSM/I brightness temperatures (19H, 19V, and 37V) using modified multiple layer perceptron neural networks. Learning data for the neural networks were extracted from ice maps derived from Okean and ERS satellite imagery to capitalize on the stability of active radar multiyear ice signatures. Evaluations of three learning algorithms and several topologies indicated that networks constructed with error back propagation learning and 3-20-1 topology produced the most consistent and physically plausible results. Operational neural networks were developed specifically with January learning data, and then used to estimate daily multiyear ice concentrations from daily-averaged SSM/I brightness temperatures during January. Monthly mean maps were produced for analysis by averaging the respective daily estimates. The 14-year series of January multiyear ice distributions revealed dense and persistent cover in the central Arctic surrounded by expansive regions of highly fluctuating interannual cover. Estimates of total multiyear ice area by the neural network were intermediate to those of other passive microwave algorithms, but annual fluctuations and trends were similar among all algorithms. When compared to Radarsat estimates of multiyear ice concentration in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas (1997-1999), average discrepancies were small (0.9-2.5%) and spatial coherency was reasonable, indicating the neural network's Okean and ERS learning data facilitated passive microwave inversion that emulated backscatter signatures. During 1988-2001, total January multiyear ice area declined at a significant linear rate of -54.3 x 103 km2/yr-1 (-1.4%/yr-1). The most persistent and extensive decline in multiyear ice concentration (-3.3%/yr-1) occurred in the southern Beaufort and Chukchi Seas. In autumn 1996, a large multiyear ice recruitment of over 106 km2 (mostly in the Siberian Arctic) fully replenished

  2. Ion/Ioff ratio enhancement and scalability of gate-all-around nanowire negative-capacitance FET with ferroelectric HfO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kyungmin; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2017-10-01

    and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Dr. Hiramoto is a fellow of Japan Society of Applied Physics and a member of IEEE and IEICE. He served as the General Chair of Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop in 2003 and the Program Chair in 1997, 1999, and 2001. He was on Committee of IEDM from 2003 to 2009. He was the Program Chair of Symposium on VLSI Technology in 2013 and was the General Chair in 2015. He is the Program Chair of International Conference on Solid-State Devices and Materials (SSDM) in 2016.

  3. The effect of soil hydrology on the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of plants' source water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kuilian; Feng, Xiahong

    2001-02-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the isotopic composition of plants' source water is the main factor affecting the isotopic composition of tree rings. Because of soil hydrological processes, soil water as the source water for plants may isotopically differ from precipitation that contains climatic information (such as surface temperature). This study addresses the effects of soil hydrological processes on the isotopic compositions of soil water and discusses how these effects affect interpretations of tree ring data in isotopic dendroclimatology. We collected precipitation, soil gas at two depths (20 and 50 cm), and twigs from a maple tree ( Acer saccharum) on a biweekly basis during the growing season in 1997-1999 at Hanover, NH, USA. Water was extracted from the twig samples by vacuum distillation. All water samples were analyzed for both δD and δ 18O. Soil CO 2 was extracted from soil gas and measured for the δ 18O values, and using the soil temperature and assuming isotopic equilibrium between CO 2 and H 2O, we calculated the δ 18O values of soil water. Comparisons among the isotopic time series of each type of sample indicate the following. (1) The isotopic composition of soil water is much less variable than that of precipitation, suggesting isotopic mixing between waters of different precipitation events. (2) In early spring, soil water at all depths is isotopically similar to winter precipitation, but with time the surface soil water becomes progressively enriched in deuterium and 18O due to infiltration of summer rain and enrichment through soil water evaporation. (3) The influence of summer precipitation decreases with increasing depth, and soil at 50 cm can only receive water from large storms. (4) Replacement of old soil water with new infiltrating water is dependent upon frequency and intensity of growing season precipitation, and it is generally more efficient in a wet year than in a dry year. (5) The tree we studied uses water mainly from near

  4. Processes affecting the response of sulfate concentrations to clearcutting in a northern hardwood forest, Catskill Mountains, New York, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsch, D.L.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of disturbance on the biogeochemical processes that affect the sulfur (S) cycle in forested ecosystems are important, but have been studied in only a few locations. In this investigation, the mechanisms that caused large decreases in stream SO42- concentrations after clearcutting a small forested catchment in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York in 1997 were identified through an examination of pH and SO42- concentrations in soil solutions, bulk deposition of SO42- in throughfall collectors, adsorbed SO 42- concentrations in buried soil bags, and spatial variations in SO42- concentrations in shallow groundwater. The load of SO42- -S in stream water during the first 2 years after clearcutting was about 2 kg ha-1.year-1 less than the background value of 8-10 kg ha-1 year-1. The 10 and 19% decrease in net throughfall flux of SO42- -S during the 2nd and 3rd year after the clearcut, respectively, reflects reduced dry deposition of S after removal of the canopy, but this decrease accounts for 0 and 43%, respectively, of the decrease in SO42- load in streamflow for these 2 years. The pH of B-horizon soil water decreased from 4.5 to 4.0 within 8 months after the clearcut, and SO42- concentrations decreased from 45 ??mol L-1 to less than 20 ??mol L-1 during this time. A strong correlation between SO 42- concentrations and pH values (r2=0.71, p<0.01) in B-horizon soil water during the post-harvest period (1997-1999) reflects increased SO42- adsorption in response to soil acidification. Sulfate concentrations in groundwater from 21 spatially distributed wells were inversely related to a topographic index that served as a surrogate for soil wetness; thus, providing additional evidence that SO 42- adsorption was the dominant cause of the decreased SO42- concentrations in the stream after clearcutting. These results are consistent with those from a 1985 whole-tree harvest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire in which increased SO 42

  5. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Mild La Nina Conditions Developing, November 12, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Unusually warm ocean temperatures off Asia and cool waters in the eastern and equatorial Pacific are signaling La Nina's mild return, according to the latest sea-surface heights observed by the joint NASA-French space agency's TOPEX/Poseidon satellite.

    Lower than normal sea-surface heights in the eastern North Pacific and abnormally high sea-surface heights in the western and mid-latitude Pacific are expected to drive storms coming out of the Pacific this winter, the mission data indicate. Those conditions will most likely steer storms north into the Pacific Northwest and keep the southwestern United States dryer than normal.

    The latest measurements, processed after a 10-day data cycle November 4-13 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, are available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino . Sea-surface height is shown relative to normal (green) and reveals cooler water(blue and purple) measuring between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches) lower than average in the eastern North Pacific, from the Gulf of Alaska to central Alaska, and along the equator.

    Unusual conditions persist in the western and mid-latitude Pacific Ocean as well, with higher than average sea-surface heights(red and white) of between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches). These areas of increased sea-surface height and unusually warm water were present last year, but the increase in height has surpassed last year's measurements.

    The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements over the last seven and a half years have provided scientists with a comprehensive record of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring changing sea-surface heights to within 4centimeters (1.5 inches) precision.

    The U.S./French mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  6. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, G.; Romero, O.; Merkel, U.; Donner, B.; Iversen, M.; Nowald, N.; Ratmeyer, V.; Ruhland, G.; Klann, M.; Wefer, G.

    2015-11-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analyzed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales possibly linked to the Atlantic Multidedadal Oscillation (AMO). High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production mostly by diatoms largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during boreal winter (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter but also in summer/fall enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on rather short timescales via the ballasting effect, thus leading to these episodic sedimentation events. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) weakened the relationships between fluxes and larger scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year in our study area, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by being incorporated into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost one year during the warm El Niño and

  7. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Gerhard; Romero, Oscar; Merkel, Ute; Donner, Barbara; Iversen, Morten; Nowald, Nico; Ratmeyer, Volker; Ruhland, Götz; Klann, Marco; Wefer, Gerold

    2016-05-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analysed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales. High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production (mostly by diatoms) largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter and occasionally in summer/autumn enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on short timescales via the ballasting effect. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) might have weakened the relationships between fluxes and large-scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by incorporating dust into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all bulk fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost 1 year during the warm El Niño and high fluxes in the following cold La Niña phase. For decadal timescales, Bakun (1990) suggested an intensification of coastal upwelling

  8. Free and combined amino compounds in atmospheric fine particles (PM 2.5) and fog waters from Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Anastasio, Cort

    Atmospheric fine particles (PM 2.5) collected during August 1997-July 1998 and wintertime fog waters collected during 1997-1999 at Davis, California were analyzed for free and combined amino compounds. In both PM 2.5 and fog waters, the average concentrations of combined amino compounds (CAC, e.g., proteins and peptides) were generally 4-5 times higher than those of free amino compounds (FAC, i.e., amino acids and alkyl amines). Concentrations of total amino compounds (TAC=FAC+CAC) ranged from 1260 to 3650 pmol m -3 air in PM 2.5, and from 1620 to 5880 pmol m -3 air in fog waters. Average values (±1 σ) were 2500±879 and 3400±1430 pmol m -3 air, respectively. Concentrations of amino compounds in PM 2.5 varied seasonally, with a peak during late winter and early spring. Ornithine was a major FAC component in both PM 2.5 and fog waters (typically accounting for ˜20% of FAC), but these sample types otherwise had fairly different FAC distributions. FAC in PM 2.5 were enriched in protein-type amino species such as glycine/threonine, serine and alanine, while fog water FAC had significantly higher levels of non-protein species such as methylamine, γ-aminobutyric acid and ethanolamine. The compositions of CAC in PM 2.5 and fogs were fairly similar and were mainly protein-type. Mass concentrations of TAC in PM 2.5 and fog waters were, on average, 302 and 399 ng m -3 air, respectively. Amino compounds were an important component of the organic carbon pool for both fog and particles, with TAC accounting for an average of 13% of the dissolved organic carbon in fog waters and ˜10% of the water-soluble organic carbon in PM 2.5. At these levels amino compounds likely play important roles in the chemistry of fog drops and fine particles, for example by influencing their buffering capacity and basicity.

  9. Fire, humans, and climate: modeling distribution dynamics of boreal forest waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Börger, Luca; Nudds, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of landscape change and environmental variability on ecological processes is important for evaluating resource management policies, such as the emulation of natural forest disturbances. We analyzed time series of detection/nondetection data using hierarchical models in a Bayesian multi-model inference framework to decompose the dynamics of species distributions into responses to environmental variability, spatial variation in habitat conditions, and population dynamics and interspecific interactions, while correcting for observation errors and variation in sampling regimes. We modeled distribution dynamics of 14 waterbird species (broadly defined, including wetland and riparian species) using data from two different breeding bird surveys collected in the Boreal Shield ecozone within Ontario, Canada. Temporal variation in species occupancy (2000-2006) was primarily driven by climatic variability. Only two species showed evidence of consistent temporal trends in distribution: Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) decreased, and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) increased. The models had good predictive ability on independent data over time (1997-1999). Spatial variation in species occupancy was strongly related to the distribution of specific land cover types and habitat disturbance: Fire and forest harvesting influenced occupancy more than did roads, settlements, or mines. Bioclimatic and habitat heterogeneity indices and geographic coordinates exerted negligible influence on most species distributions. Estimated habitat suitability indices had good predictive ability on spatially independent data (Hudson Bay Lowlands ecozone). Additionally, we detected effects of interspecific interactions. Species responses to fire and forest harvesting were similar for 13 of 14 species; thus, forest-harvesting practices in Ontario generally appeared to emulate the effects of fire for waterbirds over timescales of 10-20 years. Extrapolating to all

  10. The spatial-temporal variations of water quality in controlling points of the main rivers flowing into the Miyun Reservoir from 1991 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongqing; Liang, Ji; Di, Yanming; Gong, Huili; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) were used to analyze the interannual, seasonal, and spatial variations of water quality from 1991 to 2011 in controlling points (Xinzhuang Bridge, Daguan Bridge) of the main rivers (Chaohe River, Baihe River) flowing into the Miyun Reservoir. The results demonstrated that total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) exceeded China National Standard II for surface water separately 5.08 times and 1 time. CA showed that the water quality could be divided into three interannual (IA) groups: IAI (1991-1995, 1998), IAII (1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2002-2006), and IAIII (2001, 2007-2011) and two seasonal clusters: dry season 1 (December), dry season 2 (January-February), and non-dry season (March-November). At interannual scale, the higher concentration of SO4 (2-) from industrial activities, atmospheric sedimentation, and fertilizer use in IAIII accelerated dissolution of carbonate, which increased Ca(2+), Mg(2+), total hardness (T-Hard), and total alkalinity (T-Alk). The decreasing trend of CODMn contributed to the establishment of sewage treatment plants and water and soil conservation in the Miyun upstream. The changing trend of NO3 (-)-N indicated increasing non-point pollution load of IAII and effective non-point pollution controlling of IAIII. Only one parameter T in the seasonal scale verified improved non-point pollution controlling. The major pollution in two controlling points was NO3 (-)-N, T-Hard, TN, and other ion pollution (SO4 (2-), F(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), T-Hard, T-Alk). Higher concentration of NO3 (-)-N in Xinzhuang and CODMn in Daguan indicated different controlling measures, especially controlling agriculture intensification in Chaohe River to decrease N pollution and decreasing water and soil loss and cage culture in Baihe River to weaken organic pollution. Controlling SO4 (2-) from industrial activity, atmospheric sedimentation and fertilizer use in

  11. [Infection in patients with neutropenia that undergo an autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant due to breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Palau, J; Picón, I; Angel Climent, M; Martí, R; Aznar, E; Carmen Sanjuán, M; Máiquez, J

    2001-11-01

    The extent and duration of neutropenia and the characteristics of the underlying disease are determinant factors for the prognosis of febrile syndromes. Despite the fact that traditionally the peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) were considered to cause high risk neutropenia, in all probability the neutropenia observed in the PBSCT in some solid tumours could be considered moderate risk. Febrile episodes in patients with these characteristics were evaluated. We prospectively analysed 132 autologus PBSCT in patients with breast cancer (1994-1999). Conditioning regime: STAMP V. Antibacterial prophylaxis: ofloxacin (400 mg/12 hrs PO). Classification of the febrile syndrome: bacteremia, microbiologically documented infection withut bacteremia, clinical infection and a fever of unknown origin. 122 patients had a fever (92%), mean age: 45 years (range: 27-61). There were 32 (26%) bacteremias, 13 (11%) microbiologically documented infections without bacteremia and 54 (44%) clinical infections. The mean number of days with a neutrophil count of <1x109/1 was 14 (range: 11-20). In the 74 patients (61%) that had a granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), the mean number of days to reach a 0,5x109/I neutrophil count (7,6) and the average number of days in hospital (26) were significantly less. There was a main infectious point in 80 patients (65%): the most frequent being oropharynx in 33 cases (46%) and digestive in 29 cases (41%). 48 gram negative (GN) 29 gram positive (GP) bacteria were isolated (71% of the GN's were resistant to ofloxacin). Between 1997-1999 the GN/GP ratio was 2,3. There were no deaths related to the infection. Given the excellent evolution of our patients we can consider their neutropenia to be moderate or low risk, and they are a long way from the death rates caused by infections published by other types of hemopoietic transplants. The predominance of GN over the last few years and their limited sensitivity to quinolones means that

  12. Tripling of Methamphetamine/Amphetamine Use among Homeless and Marginally Housed Persons, 1996–2003

    PubMed Central

    Colfax, Grant; Moss, Andrew R.; Bangsberg, David R.; Hahn, Judith A.

    2007-01-01

    Methamphetamine/amphetamine (MA)-related morbidity and mortality has been increasing in the United States. MA use is associated with high-risk sexual behavior and syringe-sharing practices. Homeless and marginalized housed persons (H/M) have high rates of substance use and mental health disorders. Little is known about trends of MA use among the H/M. The objective of this study was to quantify increases in MA use among H/M in San Francisco and to determine which demographic and behavioral subgroups have experienced the greatest increases in MA use. We conducted serial cross-sectional population-based studies in three waves: 1996–1997, 1999–2000, and 2003 and studied 2,348 H/M recruited at shelters and lunch lines. The main outcome was self-reported current (30-day) MA use. We found a tripling of current MA use among H/M persons from 1996 to 2003, with a sevenfold increase in smoked MA use. MA use doubled to tripled in most demographic and behavioral subgroups, whereas it quadrupled in those under age 35, and there was a fivefold increase among HIV-infected persons. The increase in MA use among H/M places a vulnerable population at additional increased risk for HIV infection and MA-use related morbidity and mortality. Among HIV-infected H/M, the increase in MA use has important public health implications for the development and secondary transmission of drug-resistant HIV caused by synergistic neurocognitive decline, poor adherence to HIV medications, and increased sexual risk behavior. Clinicians caring for H/M persons should inquire about MA use, refer interested MA users to MA dependence treatment programs and provide targeted HIV sexual risk reduction counseling. For HIV-infected H/M MA users, clinicians should closely monitor adherence to HIV or other chronic medications, to avoid unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Further research is needed to elucidate the most effective prevention and treatment for MA use and dependence among the H/M. PMID:18163214

  13. Markov chain Monte Carlo estimation of species distributions: A case study of the swift fox in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Sovada, M.A.; Slivinski, C.C.; Johnson, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate maps of species distributions are essential tools for wildlife research and conservation. Unfortunately, biologists often are forced to rely on maps derived from observed occurrences recorded opportunistically during observation periods of variable length. Spurious inferences are likely to result because such maps are profoundly affected by the duration and intensity of observation and by methods used to delineate distributions, especially when detection is uncertain. We conducted a systematic survey of swift fox (Vulpes velox) distribution in western Kansas, USA, and used Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) image restoration to rectify these problems. During 1997-1999, we searched 355 townships (ca. 93 km2) 1-3 times each for an average cost of $7,315 per year and achieved a detection rate (probability of detecting swift foxes, if present, during a single search) of ?? = 0.69 (95% Bayesian confidence interval [BCI] = [0.60, 0.77]). Our analysis produced an estimate of the underlying distribution, rather than a map of observed occurrences, that reflected the uncertainty associated with estimates of model parameters. To evaluate our results, we analyzed simulated data with similar properties. Results of our simulations suggest negligible bias and good precision when probabilities of detection on ???1 survey occasions (cumulative probabilities of detection) exceed 0.65. Although the use of MCMC image restoration has been limited by theoretical and computational complexities, alternatives do not possess the same advantages. Image models accommodate uncertain detection, do not require spatially independent data or a census of map units, and can be used to estimate species distributions directly from observations without relying on habitat covariates or parameters that must be estimated subjectively. These features facilitate economical surveys of large regions, the detection of temporal trends in distribution, and assessments of landscape-level relations between

  14. The impact of prenatal diagnosis on neural tube defect (NTD) pregnancy versus birth incidence in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Van Allen, Margot I; Boyle, Erin; Thiessen, Paul; McFadden, Deborah; Cochrane, Douglas; Chambers, G Keith; Langlois, Sylvie; Stathers, Patricia; Irwin, Beverly; Cairns, Elizabeth; MacLeod, Patrick; Delisle, Marie-France; Uh, Soo-Hong

    2006-01-01

    The birth incidence of neural tube defect (NTD) cases in British Columbia (B.C.), and elsewhere in North America, is reported to be declining. This decline is being attributed to folic acid (FA) supplementation and food fortification, but 2nd trimester prenatal screening of pregnancies for NTDs and other congenital anomalies has increased during this timeframe, as well. This descriptive, population-based study evaluates the impact of prenatal screening of NTD-affected pregnancies on (1) pregnancy outcome and (2) reporting of NTD births to the provincial Health Status Registry (B.C.H.S.R.); and it assesses (3) the use of periconceptional FA supplementation. NTD cases were ascertained from medical records of health centres providing care to families with NTD-affected pregnancies and newborns; and from NTD cases reported to the B.C.H.S.R. In 1997-1999, the B.C.H.S.R. published a NTD incidence of 0.77/1000. In this study, 151 NTD-affected pregnancies were identified, with an incidence of 1.16/1000. Partial Reporting of induced abortions in a NTD incidence 45.5% low than the actual incidence. Medical records were available for review on 144/151 pregnancies. Prenatal screening identified 86.1% (124/144) of NTD-affected pregnancies, with 72.6% (90/124) resulting in pregnancy termination, and 27.4% (34/124) continuing to term. Use of FA supplementation in the periconceptional period was recorded in 36.4% of pregnancies (39/107). Thus in B.C. the decline in the NTD incidence is due predominantly to pregnancy terminations following prenatal diagnosis, which reduces the NTD incidence by 60%, from 1.16/1000 to 0.47/1000. Continued efforts for primary and the option of secondary prevention of NTDs are recommended in order to improve newborn health in B.C. and elsewhere. These interventions need to be monitored, however, for optimal health care planning.

  15. A proficiency testing scheme for aromatic hydrocarbons in air by the manual thermal desorption-GC method: a comparison of laboratory performance with the uncertainty requirements of the European Union Ambient Air Directive.

    PubMed

    Stacey, P R; Wright, M D

    2001-08-01

    The Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (WASP) is a proficiency testing scheme for the analysis of occupational hygiene and environmental air samples and is operated in the UK by the Health and Safety Laboratory. Since 1997, WASP has offered samples of benzene, toluene and m-xylene, at environmental levels on Tenax, and has about 35 laboratories participating, mostly from industry, local government and consultancy organisations in the UK. The results reported cover the first 10 rounds of the environmental analytes (1997-1999) and demonstrate the important role of proficiency testing in assessing the quality of laboratory performance. Estimates are obtained for within-laboratory precision and the total variability at each analyte level. The estimates of within-laboratory precision suggest that laboratories have more difficulty analysing toluene and m-xylene than benzene. Linear relationships for the reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSDT) with loading level are evident for the analytes at occupational levels. At environmental levels, the relationship between loading level and reproducibility is much less well defined. The standard deviation for the proficiency testing assessment for all three analytes at the environmental level is 14%, as derived from the benzene data. Expanded uncertainty estimates (k = 1.96), for the analysis of samples since the scheme started, are obtained from the average total variance, and are 27% for benzene, 39% for toluene and 36% for m-xylene. Although the linear trend of performance against round number was not significant at the 95% level of confidence (p = 0.23 for benzene, p = 0.3 for toluene and p = 0.32 for m-xylene), there was a general improvement in RSDT from 26-34% to about 8-13% 10 rounds later. Currently, for a laboratory to meet one of the data quality objectives in the Ambient Air Directive (indicative measurement of benzene, expanded uncertainty +/- 30% or less), it would have to achieve a level of

  16. Hospitalizations for asthma in an urban population: 1995-1999.

    PubMed

    Lang, David M; Polansky, Marcia; Sherman, Michael S

    2009-08-01

    Asthma hospitalizations occur commonly. Many are preventable if asthma is well controlled. Medications and demographic factors affect asthma hospitalization rates. Recent studies suggest that inhaled long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) may heighten risk of serious asthma exacerbation, particularly in African Americans. To further our understanding of the greater asthma morbidity associated with African American race and to investigate possible risk associated with LABAs. In an ecologic analysis, asthma hospitalization rates in individuals aged 5 to 64 years were determined for Philadelphia zip codes in period 1 (1995-1997) and period 2 (1997-1999) and were studied for associations with asthma drug prescription rates, demographic factors, and numbers and types of asthma care providers. Higher hospitalization rates were found in African Americans vs Caucasians (45.7 vs 7.6 per 10,000) and in 5- to 17-year-olds vs 18- to 34- and 35- to 64-year-olds (30.4 vs 11.9 and 13.7 per 10,000). Hospitalizations were correlated directly with prescriptions for inhaled short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) in periods 1 (r(s) = 0.61) and 2 (r(s) = 0.60) and inversely with LABA prescriptions in periods 1 (r(s) = -0.56) and 2 (r(s) = -0.66). Higher SABA prescription rates were also correlated with greater proportions of African Americans per zip code in periods 1 (r(s) = 0.58) and 2 (r(s) = 0.53). At all poverty levels, African Americans had higher hospitalization rates than Caucasians. Asthma hospitalization was significantly associated with poverty area residence (relative risk [RR], 2.29) and with African American race (RR, 4.31) and age (RR, 1.15) as individual-level variables (P < .001, Poisson regression). These data do not support the contention that LABA exposure is a major cause of asthma morbidity. Risk of asthma hospitalization is strongly associated with being African American.

  17. Changes in empyema among U.S. children in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Andrew D; Griffin, Marie R; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F; Grijalva, Carlos G

    2016-12-07

    Parapneumonic empyema, a serious complication of pneumonia, started increasing among U.S. children before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000, and continued afterwards. This increase was due in part to pneumococcal serotypes not included in PCV7 that were included in the new 13-valent (PCV13) vaccine introduced in 2010. We assessed changes in the incidence of empyema hospitalizations among U.S. children after PCV13 introduction. We calculated annualized empyema hospitalization rates among U.S. children <18years using Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Census data (1997-2013) for four periods based on PCV7 and PCV13 introductions. Relative rates (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by age group and sex, comparing PCV7 [early-PCV7 (2001-2005) and late-PCV7 (2006-2009)] and PCV13 (2011-2013) periods with the pre-PCV7 period (1997-1999). Secondary analyses examined changes in pneumococcal, streptococcal, staphylococcal and unspecified empyema. Among children <18years of age, annualized empyema hospitalization rates peaked at 3.6 per 100,000 in the late-PCV7 period compared with 2.1 per 100,000 in the pre-PCV7 period [RR: 1.70 (95% CI: 1.11-2.60)]. However, annualized rates in the post-PCV13 period declined to 2.0 per 100,000, similar to rates in the pre-PCV7 period. Empyema rates among children <2years were lower in the post-PCV13 period compared to the pre-PCV7 period [RR: 0.77 (95% CI: 0.61-0.96)], but rates in the two periods among children 2-4 and 5-17years were similar. Most empyema were of unspecified etiology. Pneumococcal and unspecified empyema declined after PCV13 introduction. Although empyema hospitalization rates among U.S. children peaked after PCV7 introduction, rates decreased substantially following the introduction of PCV13. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Involvement and structure: a qualitative study of organizational change and sickness absence among women in the public sector in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Maria; Westerlund, Hugo; Backhans, Mona; Melinder, Karin

    2011-05-16

    Organizational changes in modern corporate life have become increasingly common and there are indications that they often fail to achieve their ends. An earlier study of 24,036 employees showed that those who had repeatedly been exposed to large increases in staffing during 1991-1996 had an excess risk of both long-term sickness absence and hospital admission during 1997-1999, while moderate expansion appeared to be protective. The former was most salient among female public sector employees. We used qualitative interviews to explore work environment factors underlying the impact of organizational changes (moderate and large expansions in staffing) on sickness absence from an employee perspective. We interviewed 21 strategically selected women from the earlier study using semi-structured telephone interviews focusing on working conditions during the organizational changes. We identified 22 themes which could explain the association between organizational changes and sickness absence. We then used Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to reduce the number of themes and discover patterns of possible causation. The themes that most readily explained the outcomes were Well Planned Process of Change (a clear structure for involvement of the employees in the changes), Agent of Change (an active role in the implementation of the changes), Unregulated Work (a lack of clear limits and guidelines regarding work tasks from the management and among the employees), and Humiliating Position (feelings of low status or of not being wanted at the workplace), which had been salient throughout the analytic process, in combination with Multiple Contexts (working in several teams in parallel) and Already Ill (having already had a debilitating illness at the beginning of 1991), which may indicate degree of individual exposure and vulnerability. Well Planned Process of Change, Agent of Change and Multiple Contexts are themes that were associated with low sickness absence. Unregulated

  19. [Active epidemiological surveillance and prevention of diseases caused by biomechanical overload of the upper limbs: experience at a territorial service of occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Pezzotti, C; Rocco, A

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays in the western countries, the Work Musculoscheletal Disorders (WMSDs) are the most relevant work-related diseases either for the large number of at-risk workers and for the high prevalence of cases among them. Among WMSDs, the Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is considered a sentinel event in occupational medicine and epidemiological surveillance systems were set up to study its temporal occurrence and spatial spread. Surprisingly enough, in our country the epidemiology of the WMSDs is still unknown; although observations of important clusters of cases are increasing, these pathologies are still largely underreported by medical doctors. In the high industrialised province of Brescia, Northwestern Italy, only 1% of the 25.000 occupational disease, collected by the occupational medicine and prevention service of the National Health Service (SPSAL) since 1989 to 1997, were coded as WMSDs. Even if the notification of these work-related disorders is compulsory by low since 1973, up-to-now very few cases were reported to SPSALs, and consequently active prevention programs were very few too. For that reason, a project of active surveillance of WMSDs diagnosed on the general population was carried out to improve their identification and to evaluate the work-related etiological fraction as well as to address primary prevention projects. During 1997-1999 618 upper limb musculoskeletal disorders were collected from 2 orthopaedic hospital divisions where cases underwent surgical treatment. 369 of them were interviewed by telephone (253 female, 116 man) and 128 cases (34%) were classified as probable professionally exposed to some known hazard. Female were prevalent (71%), involved particularly in textile, garments, plastic, food production and domestic services. Among men, construction, metallurgic and mechanic were the more frequent jobs. 116 WMSDs were reported to the National Insurance Institute (INAIL). The collection of these WMSDs was the basis for specific

  20. Recent activity of Nisyros volcano (Greece) inferred from structural, geochemical and seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliro, Stefano; Chiodini, G.; Galluzzo, D.; Granieri, D.; La Rocca, M.; Saccorotti, Gilberto; Ventura, G.

    2005-04-01

    to input of hot fluids from the deeper magmatic system, as suggested by the variations in geochemical parameters observed after the 1997-1999 unrest episode. The significance of seismological and geochemical indicators as precursors of hydrothermal explosive activity at Nisyros is discussed.

  1. Search for seasonal rhythmicity of pineal melatonin production in rats under constant laboratory conditions: spectral chronobiological analysis, and relation to solar and geomagnetic variables.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Hella; Mecke, Dieter; Probst, Hansgeorg; Küpper, Heinz; Seebald, Eckard; Salewski, Lothar; Stehle, Thilo; Bartsch, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Earlier we reported that in a number of experiments pineal melatonin production in rats under constant laboratory conditions displayed seasonal rhythms but subsequently were not always able to confirm this. Since there was no indication under which conditions such rhythms may be present, we performed four consecutive identical experiments with untreated female Sprague-Dawley rats within the same animal room during 1997-2006. Nocturnal urine samples (19-23, 23-3, 3-7 h) were collected at monthly intervals over 494-658 d with 12 animals each in experiments I and II (1997-1999, 1999-2000), 30 animals in experiment III (2002-2004), and 15 in experiment IV (2005-2006). 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) was measured by ELISA. The excreted aMT6s at each time interval as well as total nocturnal aMT6s-excretion (19-7 h) was submitted to standard statistical analyses as well as to a spectral chronobiological analysis to determine the period lengths of the components involved which was followed by processing with the single cosinor method. Seasonal rhythm components (circannual period length: 360 ± 60 d) were detected in experiment III (2002-2004) for the overall nocturnal excretion as well as for two sub-intervals (23-3 and 3-7 h) and in one night interval of experiment II (23-3 h). Multiple components with mostly short period lengths of around 100 d and some long ones of 500-650 d were found in the other experiments. Systematic MESOR and amplitude variations were observed during the experiments, being highest in experiment II (19-7 h, also 23-3 h and 3-7 h) and lowest in experiments I and IV. These results illustrate that seasonal melatonin rhythms are not a general phenomenon in female laboratory rats indicating an involvement of unknown environmental cues. As an extension of our earlier hypothesis regarding a seasonal Zeitgeber function of the horizontal intensity H of the geomagnetic field showing circannual variations, we assume further modulation by the 11-yrs' sunspot

  2. Dynamics of Chaetoceros socialis blooms in the North Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, B. C.; Larouche, P.; Bélanger, S.; Klein, B.; Amiel, D.; Mei, Z.-P.

    The North Water, a large polynya in northern Baffin Bay, has an extensive period of continuous primary production lasting up to 6 months. The well-known richness of this polynya in higher trophic levels, including numerous marine mammals and birds, must be based on the magnitude and duration of that production. As part of the International North Water Polynya Study, we observed that two groups of phytoplankton were responsible for most of the primary production in 1997-1999: the large centric diatoms, Thalassiosira spp., and the smaller, colonial centric diatom, Chaetoceros socialis Lauder. We studied the phytoplankton community assemblage in the North Water in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999 using epifluorescence microscopy on samples fixed and filtered at sea, with unpreserved cells observed in July 1998. Blooms of C. socialis occurred at southern stations in June and throughout the polynya from July to September. Maximum concentrations reached 30,100 cells ml -1 (496 μg C l -1) in the western area in early July. Blooms of C. socialis directly followed those of Thalassiosira spp., which were more intense but also more transient. C. socialis appeared to maintain its population in the euphotic layer for up to 3 months by surviving at low nutrient levels, sinking to depths where dynamic physical regimes brought nutrient replenishment, and producing resting spores (up to 233 μg C l -1). The resting spores may survive low-nutrient periods and be introduced, some from fecal pellets, to waters of more favorable growth conditions; in July, 86% of fecal pellets and 76% of aggregates observed in shallow, floating sediment traps contained resting spores of C. socialis. Colonies of C. socialis were a potential mid-water food source and major contributor to the benthos: C. socialis contributed up to 91% of total phytoplankton cells (49% phytoplankton carbon) identified in moored sediment traps. Mats of polymer gels (mucous), likely formed from the

  3. The Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 15 Years: The Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Joachim, Nichole; Mitchell, Paul; Burlutsky, George; Kifley, Annette; Wang, Jie Jin

    2015-12-01

    To assess the 15-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an older Australian population. Population-based cohort study. Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) participants (n = 3654) aged 49+ years were examined during 1992-1994. Of these, 2334 (75.8% of survivors) were reexamined after 5 years (1997-1999), 1952 (76.7% of survivors) after 10 years (2002-2004), and 1149 (56.1% of survivors) after 15 years (2007-2010). Color retinal photographs were taken, and comprehensive questionnaires were administered at each visit and DNA was genotyped. Retinal photographic grading was performed by the same graders following the Wisconsin AMD grading protocol. Side-by-side comparisons were used to confirm newly developed AMD lesions. Incidence was estimated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Associations of AMD incidence with age, sex, smoking status, presence of the complement factor H (CFH)-rs1061170 and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2)-rs10490924 polymorphisms, and fish consumption were analyzed using discrete logistic regression models. Generalized estimation equation models were used to assess the risk of incident late AMD associated with baseline AMD lesion characteristics. The 15-year incidence and progression of AMD, and associated factors. The 15-year incidence was 22.7% for early AMD and 6.8% for late AMD. After adjusting for competing risks, early and late AMD incidence were 15.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Age was strongly associated with early and late AMD incidence (both P < 0.0001). After age standardization to the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES) population, early and late AMD incidence in the BMES were 13.1% and 3.3%, respectively. Female sex and the presence of both risk alleles of CFH-rs1061170 or ARMS2-rs10490924 were independently associated with early AMD incidence, whereas current smoking and presence of ≥1 risk allele of CFH-rs1061170 or ARMS2-rs10490924 were associated with late AMD incidence. Fish consumption was

  4. [School principals--too ill for healthy schools?].

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Weltle, D; Lederer, P

    2004-03-01

    School principals on the one hand play an important role in maintaining the performance and health of teachers, but on the other hand often feel over-burdened themselves and suffer from illnesses which not only impair their health-promoting function, but also lead to limitations in their fitness for the occupation. The aim of our study was therefore, using objective parameters and larger numbers of cases, to obtain a differentiated insight into the type and extent of morbidity spectrum and the health-related early retirement of school principals. In a prospective total assessment (the whole of Bavaria in the period 1997-1999), all the reports about the premature unfitness for work of school directors were evaluated. The analysis included for example socio-demographic/occupational factors, diagnoses, assessment of performance and rehabilitation. The answers given in a standardised, anonymous questionnaire provided the database. Evaluation was carried out by means of descriptive statistics. The median age of the 408 school principals included in the evaluation (heads and vice-heads, 30% of whom were women) was 58 (min: 41 years old, max: 64 years old). The most frequent workplaces were primary schools (38%) and secondary schools (25%). 84% (n=342) of the headmasters were assessed to be unfit for work. The main reasons for early retirement were psychic/psychosomatic illnesses (F-ICD 10) which made up 45% of the cases. The relative frequency was higher in women than in men. Depressive disorders and exhaustion syndromes (burnout) dominated among the psychiatric diagnoses (proportion: 57%). The most frequent somatic diseases were cardio-vascular diseases (I-ICD10) in 19% of cases, then muscular/skeletal diseases (M-ICD10) in 10% and malignant tumours (C-ICD 10) in 9% of cases. Cardio-vascular diseases, in particular arterial hypertonia and ischaemic heart disease, were, in addition, found in headmasters significantly more frequently than in teachers without a leadership

  5. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - Mild La Nina Conditions Developing, November 12, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Unusually warm ocean temperatures off Asia and cool waters in the eastern and equatorial Pacific are signaling La Nina's mild return, according to the latest sea-surface heights observed by the joint NASA-French space agency's TOPEX/Poseidon satellite.

    Lower than normal sea-surface heights in the eastern North Pacific and abnormally high sea-surface heights in the western and mid-latitude Pacific are expected to drive storms coming out of the Pacific this winter, the mission data indicate. Those conditions will most likely steer storms north into the Pacific Northwest and keep the southwestern United States dryer than normal.

    The latest measurements, processed after a 10-day data cycle November 4-13 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, are available at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/elnino . Sea-surface height is shown relative to normal (green) and reveals cooler water(blue and purple) measuring between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches) lower than average in the eastern North Pacific, from the Gulf of Alaska to central Alaska, and along the equator.

    Unusual conditions persist in the western and mid-latitude Pacific Ocean as well, with higher than average sea-surface heights(red and white) of between 8 and 24 centimeters (3 to 9 inches). These areas of increased sea-surface height and unusually warm water were present last year, but the increase in height has surpassed last year's measurements.

    The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements over the last seven and a half years have provided scientists with a comprehensive record of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring changing sea-surface heights to within 4centimeters (1.5 inches) precision.

    The U.S./French mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  6. Field Testing of Bimetallic Nanoscale Particle Technology for In-Situ Groundwater Treatment of a Fractured Rock DNAPL Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Walata, L.; Nash, R.; Gheorghiu, F.; Glazier, R.; Venkatakrishnan, R.

    2003-04-01

    This study has been carried out as part of the Corrective Measure Study (CMS) at a property owned by GlaxoSmithKline in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. The study area is located in the Durham subbasin of the Deep River Triassic Basin and is underlain by interbedded siltstone and sandstone sequences. Groundwater underlying portions of the site has been impacted by historical industrial activities conducted by previous owners; groundwater contaminants consist mainly of chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Golder conducted an initial review of potentially applicable remediation technologies and retained the Bimetallic Nanoscale Particle (BNP) technology for further evaluation. BNP consists of nanoscale particles (~ 60 nm) of zero valent iron (Fe0) with a trace coating of noble metal catalyst (palladium). The rapid destruction of a wide range of recalcitrant contaminants is based on a surface-catalyzed redox process where the contaminant serves as an electron acceptor and BNP as the electron donor and can be accomplished either in situ or ex situ (Wei-xian Zhang, 1997, 1999, 2000). This study presents the field demonstration of the BNP effectiveness to treat in-situ chlorinated VOCs in a complex fractured bedrock aquifer setting. During the field pilot test 11 kilograms of BNP mixed in water-based slurry were injected into the shallow bedrock groundwater suspected to contain dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The results of the test indicated rapid treatment of chlorinated VOCs 7 m to 14 m around the injection well. In addition, the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) and dissolved oxygen (DO) values have decreased and persisted at very low levels of -450 millivolts and less than 0.001 milligrams per liter, respectively, indicating favorable conditions for reductive dechlorination. Interpretation of pre- and post-test data on the in-situ microbiological community in the test area indicate that the changes in ORP and DO have resulted in inhibition

  7. Vitamin D and Risk of Neuroimaging Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Littlejohns, Thomas J; Kos, Katarina; Henley, William E; Lang, Iain A; Annweiler, Cedric; Beauchet, Olivier; Chaves, Paulo H M; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Kuller, Lewis H; Langa, Kenneth M; Lopez, Oscar L; Llewellyn, David J

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the current study was to explore the potential mechanisms underlying these associations by determining whether low vitamin D concentrations are associated with the development of incident cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative neuroimaging abnormalities. The population consisted of 1,658 participants aged ≥65 years from the US-based Cardiovascular Health Study who were free from prevalent cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia at baseline in 1992-93. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from blood samples collected at baseline. The first MRI scan was conducted between 1991-1994 and the second MRI scan was conducted between 1997-1999. Change in white matter grade, ventricular grade and presence of infarcts between MRI scan one and two were used to define neuroimaging abnormalities. During a mean follow-up of 5.0 years, serum 25(OH)D status was not significantly associated with the development of any neuroimaging abnormalities. Using logistic regression models, the multivariate adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for worsening white matter grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient (<25 nmol/L) and deficient (≥25-50 nmol/L) were 0.76 (0.35-1.66) and 1.09 (0.76-1.55) compared to participants with sufficient concentrations (≥50 nmol/L). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for ventricular grade in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 0.49 (0.20-1.19) and 1.12 (0.79-1.59) compared to those sufficient. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for incident infarcts in participants who were severely 25(OH)D deficient and deficient were 1.95 (0.84-4.54) and 0.73 (0.47-1.95) compared to those sufficient. Overall, serum vitamin D concentrations could not be shown to be associated with the development of

  8. [Self-medication with vitamins, minerals and food supplements in Germany : Results of nationwide health surveys].

    PubMed

    Knopf, Hildtraud

    2017-03-01

    Vitamins, minerals and food supplements (FSs) are often used without medical prescription. Valid data on the magnitude of use are rare in Germany. The aim of the present analysis is to describe the prevalence and trends of self-medication and the associations between health-related factors and self-medication with these substances. The data base consisted of the results of nationwide health surveys (GNHIES98: 1997-1999 and DEGS1: 2008-2001) in which adults aged 18-79 years were interviewed on health-related themes and were examined. The use of drugs and FSs was recorded in standardized personal interviews. Data of 7099 (GNHIES98) and 7091 (DEGS1) individuals were available for analysis. The dependent variable was self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FS. Analysis was conducted in SPSS Version 20 with the complex sample method. Statistical significance was tested with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) and verified via p-values. Of all DEGS1 participants, 18.1% (95% CI: 17.0-19.2%) consumed vitamins, minerals and FSs in self-medication. Significantly higher prevalence was found among women, older people (60-79 years), those with a higher social status, people living alone, ex- and non-smokers, and those doing more sports. In comparison to the GNHIES98 study the prevalence in DEGS1 has increased by about 6 percentage points (5.8 percentage points, 95% CI 4.1-7.5%, p < 0.001). This increase remained significant when socio-demographic and health-relevant factors were considered simultaneously (odds ratio (OR): 1.49, 95% CI 1.27-1.75). In Germany self-medication with vitamins, minerals or FSs shows a high user prevalence which has increased significantly over time. In light of potential interactions with prescribed medicines the results show the importance of ascertaining self-medication with vitamins, minerals and FSs in medical practice.

  9. Identification and quantification of microcystins from a Nostoc muscorum bloom occurring in Oukaïmeden River (High-Atlas mountains of Marrakech, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Oudra, B; Dadi-El Andaloussi, M; Vasconcelos, V M

    2009-02-01

    Health risks generated by cyanobacterial toxins in drinking and recreational waters are clearly recognised. During the monitoring programme on the distribution of toxic freshwater cyanobacteria in various water bodies including reservoirs, ponds and rivers of Morocco, many toxigenic cyanobacteria bloom-forming species have been identified. Particular attention was given to the investigation of the toxicology of a benthic Nostoc species-Nostoc muscorum Ag. (cyanobacteria, Nostocales, Nostocaceae)-that was found dominant in Oukaïmeden river located at 2,600 m of altitude in High-Atlas mountains of Marrakech. The massive growth of the mat-forming N. muscorum occurred yearly during the period of March-October, when the water temperature was above 10 degrees C. During 1997-1999, samples were collected from either floating or benthic mats. Hepatotoxicity associated to gastrointestinal (diarrhoea) intoxication symptoms was confirmed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection in mice of N. muscorum thallus extract. The survival time was estimated to be from 2-5 h, and the calculated i.p. LD(50) in mice ranged from 15 to 125 mg kg(-1) body weight. The application of the high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection confirmed the occurrence of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and three others microcystin variants from the methanolic Nostoc extract. The MC-LR represented a proportion of 39% of the total microcystin content however, the total concentration equivalents-eq-of MC-LR was estimated to be 139 microg MC-LR eq per gram dry weight. The existence of a benthic microcystin-producing N. muscorum strain under the particular environmental conditions of Oukaïmeden region may be a potential human health hazard and the ecological harmful effects of these cyanobacterial toxins need to be assessed. This paper constitutes the first report of the occurrence of a toxic benthic Nostoc in Morocco. So, the benthic species should be considered during monitoring of toxic

  10. Pathways in STEM: Factors affecting the retention and attrition of talented men and women from the STEM pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilbronner, Nancy N.

    Many men and women who are talented in science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics (STEM) choose not to pursue undergraduate majors or careers in these fields. To develop talents in STEM, educators must understand the factors that contribute to an individual's retention in STEM domains, as well as the factors that act as barriers to success, such as the role that gender plays in the underrepresentation of women in certain STEM fields (e.g., computer science and engineering) and changes in recent decades in the process of selecting STEM majors and careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the influences that guide decisions related to the selection of majors and occupations during high school, post-secondary education, and early careers. Survey methodology was used to explore the perceptions of 360 Science Talent Search (STS) semifinalists and finalists during the years 1987-1989 and 1997-1999, and quantitative procedures were used to analyze the data. A majority (74.2%) of STS participants majored in a STEM field in college, and most (68.6%) currently work in a STEM field. A greater percentage of men selected computer science, engineering, physics, and mathematics majors, and a greater percentage of women selected biological science and chemistry. Belief in one's ability to achieve in STEM was a predictor of STEM majors in college and STEM concentrations in graduate school, but differences were found between men's and women's self-efficacy in STEM during high school and in college, as women had lower self-efficacy. Sex was a predictor of STEM majors in college, but perceived quality of academic courses was not. STEM majors also reported more satisfaction with their STEM courses in high school and college than non-STEM majors. In a departure from the results of previous research, the reasons that men and women selected occupations were similar, as were the reasons they chose to leave or not to enter STEM. The most frequently cited reason for

  11. Superficial and subsuperficial features in the Karst Region of Cordisburgo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. The region of Cordisburgo, in the State of Minas Gerais, is developed on the metasediments of the Bambui Group, Lagoa do Jacare Formation (Upper Proterozoic). Its karst is considered to be one of the most significant regions in Minas Gerais State, although less prominent than the features of the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. The region of Cordisburgo, however, presents excellent examples of karst geomorphology. It is distinguished for both the magnificent potential of its endokarst and the important archaeological, paleontological, historical and tourist sites it offers. The region is also of chief historical importance: it is where Paleontology, Archaeology and Speleology were developed together for the first time in the Americas. This was done by the Danish naturalist Peter W. Lund (1801-1880). Like other karst scenarios, the exokarst evolved from the primitive endokarst favoring the development of expressive outcrops, dolines, uvalas and poljes. The third largest cave of the State of Minas Gerais is located in Cordisburgo with 4,620 meters. Other 15 caves, some of them which were studied by Lund in the 19th century, complete the intricate endokarst in this region. The importance of the cave Lapa Nova do Maquiné is reinforced by the State Decree n° 44120 (2005), which creates the Peter Lund Natural Monument as a Conservation Unit. It was created in order to protect the historical-scientific site of the Maquiné Cave and its surroundings. There is little research on the Lagoa do Jacare Formation, especially regarding the amount of CaCO3in comparison to the phyllites, quartz veins, etc. It is possible that pure limestone sites associated to non-carbonatic layers can be found there. Studies about the magnitude and the direction of underground water are still insufficient

  12. An observational and modeling study of the regional impacts of climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Radley M.

    Climate variability has large impacts on humans and their agricultural systems. Farmers are at the center of this agricultural network, but it is often agricultural planners---regional planners, extension agents, commodity groups and cooperatives---that translate climate information for users. Global climate models (GCMs) are a leading tool for understanding and predicting climate and climate change. Armed with climate projections and forecasts, agricultural planners adapt their decision-making to optimize outcomes. This thesis explores what GCMs can, and cannot, tell us about climate variability and change at regional scales. The question is important, since high-quality regional climate projections could assist farmers and regional planners in key management decisions, contributing to better agricultural outcomes. To answer these questions, climate variability and its regional impacts are explored in observations and models for the current and future climate. The goals are to identify impacts of observed variability, assess model simulation of variability, and explore how climate variability and its impacts may change under enhanced greenhouse warming. Chapter One explores how well Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric models, forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SST), simulate climatology and large-scale features during the exceptionally strong 1997--1999 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Reasonable performance in this 'proof of concept' test is considered a minimum requirement for further study of variability in models. All model versions produce appropriate local changes with ENSO, indicating that with correct ocean temperatures these versions are capable of simulating the large-scale effects of ENSO around the globe. A high vertical resolution model (VHR) provides the best simulation. Evidence is also presented that SST anomalies outside the tropical Pacific may play a key role in generating remote teleconnections even

  13. Wind-wave coupling in the atmospheric boundary layer over a reservoir: field measurements and verification of the model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Vdovin, Maxim; Kandaurov, Alexander; Sergeev, Daniil

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results of field experiments conducted at the Gorky Reservoir to test a quasi-linear model of the atmospheric boundary layer [1]. In the course of the experiment we simultaneously measured profiles of wind speed and surface wave spectra using instruments placed on the Froude buoy, which measures the following parameters: i) the module and the direction of the wind speed using ultrasonic wind sensor WindSonic Gill instruments, located on the 4 - levels from 0.1 x 5 m long; ii) profile of the surface waves with 3-channel string wave-gauge with a base of 5 cm, iii) the temperature of the water and air with a resistive sensor. From the measured profiles of wind speed, we calculated basic parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer: the friction velocity u*, the wind speed at the standard height of 10 m U10 and the drag coefficient CD. Data on CD(U10), obtained at the Gorky Reservoir, were compared with similar data obtained on Lake George in Australia during the Australian Shallow Water Experiment (AUSWEX) conducted in 1997 - 1999 [2,3]. A good agreement was obtained between measured data at two different on the parameters of inland waters: deep Gorky reservoir and shallow Lake George.To elucidate the reasons for this coincidence of the drag coefficients under strongly different conditions an analysis of surface waves was conducted.Measurements have shown that in both water bodies the surface wave spectra have almost the same asymptotics (spatial spectrum - k-3, the frequency spectrum -5), corresponding to the Phillips saturation spectrum.These spectra are typically observed for the steep surface waves, for which the basic dissipation mechanism is wave breaking. The similarity of the short-wave parts of the spectra can be regarded as a probable cause of coincidence of dependency of drag coefficient of the water surface on wind speed. Quantitative verification of this hypothesis was carried out in the framework of quasi-linear model of the wind

  14. Assessment of molecular markers for anti-malarial drug resistance after the introduction and scale-up of malaria control interventions in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shah, Monica; Omosun, Yusuf; Lal, Ashima; Odero, Christopher; Gatei, Wangeci; Otieno, Kephas; Gimnig, John E; ter Kuile, Feiko; Hawley, William A; Nahlen, Bernard; Kariuki, Simon; Walker, Edward; Slutsker, Laurence; Hamel, Mary; Shi, Ya Ping

    2015-02-14

    Although it is well known that drug pressure selects for drug-resistant parasites, the role of transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on drug resistance remains unclear. In this study, the drug resistance profile of current and previous first-line anti-malarials in Kenya was assessed within the context of drug policy change and scale-up of ITNs. National first-line treatment changed from chloroquine (CQ) to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 1998 and to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2004. ITN use was scaled-up in the Asembo, Gem and Karemo areas of western Kenya in 1997, 1999 and 2006, respectively. Smear-positive samples (N = 253) collected from a 2007 cross-sectional survey among children in Asembo, Gem and Karemo were genotyped for mutations in pfcrt and pfmdr1 (CQ), dhfr and dhps (SP), and at pfmdr-N86 and the gene copy number in pfmdr1 (lumefantrine). Results were compared among the three geographic areas in 2007 and to retrospective molecular data from children in Asembo in 2001. In 2007, 69 and 85% of samples harboured the pfmdr1-86Y mutation and dhfr/dhps quintuple mutant, respectively, with no significant differences by study area. However, the prevalence of the pfcrt-76T mutation differed significantly among areas (p <0.02), between 76 and 94%, with the highest prevalence in Asembo. Several 2007 samples carried mutations at dhfr-164L, dhps-436A, or dhps-613T. From 2001 to 2007, there were significant increases in the pfcrt-76T mutation from 82 to 94% (p <0.03), dhfr/dhps quintuple mutant from 62 to 82% (p <0.03), and an increase in the septuple CQ and SP combined mutant haplotype, K 76 Y 86 I 51 R 59 N 108 G 437 E 540 , from 28 to 39%. The prevalence of the pfmdr1-86Y mutation remained unchanged. All samples were single copy for pfmdr1. Molecular markers associated with lumefantrine resistance were not detected in 2007. More recent samples will be needed to detect any selective effects by AL. The prevalence of CQ and SP

  15. Formation of Nanophase Iron in Lunar Soil Simulant for Use in ISRU Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Hill, Eddy; Day, James D. M.

    2005-01-01

    For the prospective return of humans to the Moon and the extensive amount of premonitory studies necessary, large quantities of lunar soil simulants are required, for a myriad of purposes from construction/engineering purposes all the way to medical testing of its effects from ingestion by humans. And there is only a limited and precious quantity of lunar soil available on Earth (i.e., Apollo soils) - therefore, the immediate need for lunar soil simulants. Since the Apollo era, there have been several simulants; of these JSC-1 (Johnson Space Center) and MLS-1 (Minnesota Lunar Simulant) have been the most widely used. JSC-1 was produced from glassy volcanic tuff in order to approximate lunar soil geotechnical properties; whereas, MLS-1 approximates the chemistry of Apollo 11 high-Ti soil, 10084. Stocks of both simulants are depleted, but JSC-1 has recently gone back into production. The lunar soil simulant workshop, held at Marshall Space Flight Center in January 2005, identified the need to make new simulants for the special properties of lunar soil, such as nanophase iron (np-Fe(sup 0). Hill et al. (2005, this volume) showed the important role of microscale Fe(sup 0) in microwave processing of the lunar soil simulants JSC-1 and MLS-1. Lunar soil is formed by space weathering of lunar rocks (e.g., micrometeorite impact, cosmic particle bombardment). Glass generated during micrometeorite impact cements rock and mineral fragments together to form aggregates called agglutinates, and also produces vapor that is deposited and coats soil grains. Taylor et al. (2001) showed that the relative amount of impact glass in lunar soil increases with decreasing grain size and is the most abundant component in lunar dust (less than 20 micrometer fraction). Notably, the magnetic susceptibility of lunar soil also increases with the decreasing grain size, as a function of the amount of nanophase-sized Fe(sup 0) in impact-melt generated glass. Keller et al. (1997, 1999) also

  16. Recolonization of gravel habitats on Georges Bank (northwest Atlantic)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collie, J.S.; Hermsen, J.M.; Valentine, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Gravel habitats on continental shelves around the world support productive fisheries but are also vulnerable to disturbance from bottom fishing. We conducted a 2-year in situ experiment to measure the rate of colonization of a gravel habitat on northern Georges Bank in an area closed to fishing (Closed Area II) since December 1994. Three large (0.25 m2) sediment trays containing defaunated pebble gravel were deployed at a study site (47 m water depth) in July 1997 and recovered in June 1999. The undersides of the tray lids positioned 56 cm above the trays served as settlement panels over the same time period. We observed rapid colonization of the gravel substrate (56 species) and the settlement panels (35 species), indicating that colonization of gravel in this region is not limited by the supply of colonists. The species composition of the taxa found in the trays was broadly similar to that we collected over a 10-year period (1994-2004) in dredge samples from gravel sediments at the same site. The increase in abundance of animals in the gravel colonization trays was rapid and reached a level in 2 years that took 4.5 years to achieve in the surrounding gravel sediments once fishing had stopped, based on data from dredge sampling at this site. The increase in biomass of animals found in the sediment trays paralleled the trend of biomass increase observed in dredge samples over the same period (1997-1999) but was lower in value. These data suggest that after rapid initial increase in abundance of organisms, succession proceeded by increasing individual body size. A comparison of settlement panel and tray faunas revealed that the mean biomass of structure-forming epifauna (sponges, bryozoans, anemones, hydroids, colonial tube worms) on the panels was 8 times that found on the trays. Structure-forming taxa constituted 29% of the mean biomass of the panel fauna but only 5.5% of the tray fauna. By contrast, the mean biomass of scavengers (crabs, echinoderms, nudibranchs

  17. New acellular pertussis-containing paediatric combined vaccines.

    PubMed

    Pines, E; Barrand, M; Fabre, P; Salomon, H; Blondeau, C; Wood, S C; Hoffenbach, A

    1999-03-26

    encouragement of the WHO, an H. influenzae type B tetanus-conjugated (Act-HIB) vaccine, has been combined in a full liquid formulation with the whole-cell DTP. This vaccine showed a good safety and immunogenicity profile in infants and in toddlers. A combined DTaP-IPV-PRP-T vaccine (where the Act-HIB vaccine is reconstituted by the full-liquid DTaP-IPV) also has been successfully developed both for the primary series and for booster vaccination; although, a reduced immunogenicity against PRP observed after the primary series, this did not affect vaccine priming. Hepatitis B immunization campaigns targeting high-risk groups have failed to control the disease in areas of low endemicity. In 1992, the WHO recommended that hepatitis B vaccination should be integrated into the EPI in all countries by 1997-1999. For that purpose, hepatitis B vaccine is currently evaluated in pediatric combined vaccines. Developing new combination vaccines is a difficult but essential process for maintaining high immunization rates worldwide against infectious diseases, provided that the costs are acceptable. New combined vaccines including pneumococcal and meningococcal component are under wide-scale development.

  18. Inventory of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, John H.; Poole, Forrest G.

    2002-01-01

    This compilation is an inventory of all known outcrops of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata in Sonora, Mexico. We have not attempted an interpretation of the regional stratigraphic or structural setting of the strata. Brief summaries of the stratigraphic setting of the Sonora rocks are given in Poole and Hayes (1971), Rangin (1978), Stewart and others (1984, 1990), and Poole and Madrid (1986; 1988b). More specific information on the setting of strata of specific ages are given by Stewart and others (2002) for the Neoproterozoic and Cambrian; by Poole and others (1995a) for Ordovician shelf strata; by Poole and others (1995b) for Ordovician deep-water openbasin strata; by Poole and others (1997, 1998, 2000a) for Silurian strata; and by Poole and others (2000a) for Mississippian strata. Other reports that discuss regional aspects of Paleozoic stratigraphy include López-Ramos (1982), Peiffer-Rangin, (1979, 1988), Pérez-Ramos (1992), and Stewart and others (1997, 1999a). Structurally, the major Paleozoic feature of Sonora is the Sonora allochthon, consisting of deep-water (eugeoclinal) strata emplaced in the Permian over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits (Poole and others, 1995a,b; Poole and Perry, 1997; 1998). The emplacement structure is generally considered to be a major Permian continental margin thrust fault that emplaced the deep-water rocks northward over shelf (miogeoclinal) deposits. An alternate interpretation has been presented by Stewart and others (2002). He proposed that the emplacement of the Sonora allochthon was along a major Permian transpressional structure that was primarily a strike-slip fault with only a minor thrust component . The Mojave-Sonora megashear has been proposed to disrupt Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic trends in Sonora. This feature is a hypothetical, left-lateral, northwest-striking fault extending across northern Sonora and the southwestern United States (Silver and Anderson, 1974; Anderson and Schmidt, 1983). It is proposed to have

  19. Pixels and patterns: A satellite-based investigation of changes to urban features in the Sanya Region, Hainan Special Economic Zone, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millward, Andrew Allan

    Throughout most of China, and particularly in the coastal areas of its south, ecological resources and traditional culture are viewed by many to be negatively impacted by accelerating urbanization. As a result, achieving an appropriate balance between development and environmental protection has become a significant problem facing policy-makers in these urbanizing areas. The establishment of a Special Economic Zone in the Chinese Province of Hainan has made its coastal areas attractive locations for business and commerce. Development activities that support a burgeoning tourism industry, but which are damaging the environment, are now prominent components of the landscape in the Sanya Region of Hainan. In this study, patterns of urban growth in the Sanya Region of Hainan Province are investigated. Specifically, using several forms of satellite imagery, statistical tools and ancillary data, urban morphology and changes to the extent and spatial arrangement of urban features are researched and documented. A twelve-year chronology of data was collected which consists of four dates of satellite imagery (1987, 1991, 1997, 1999) acquired by three different satellite sensors (SPOT 2 HRV, Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 7 ETM+). A method of assessing inter-temporal variance in unchanged features is developed as a surrogate for traditional evaluations of change detection that require spatially accurate and time-specific data. Results reveal that selective PCA using visible bands with the exclusion of an ocean mask yield the most interpretable components representative of landscape urbanization in the Sanya Region. The geostatistical approach of variography is employed to measure spatial dependence and to test for the presence of directional change in urban morphology across a time series of satellite images. Interpreted time-series geostatistics identify and quantify landscape structure, and changes to structure, and provide a valuable quantitative description of landscape change

  20. West Nile virus in livestock and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.; Ubico, S.R.; Bourne, D.; Komar, N.

    2002-01-01

    WN virus is one of the most ubiquitous arboviruses occurring over a broad geographical range and in a wide diversity of vertebrate host and vector species. The virus appears to be maintained in endemic foci on the African continent and is transported annually to temperate climates to the north in Europe and to the south in South Africa. Reports of clinical disease due to natural WN virus infection in wild or domestic animals were much less common than reports of infection (virus isolation or antibody detection). Until recently, records of morbidity and mortality in wild birds were confined to a small number of cases and infections causing encephalitis, sometimes fatal, in horses were reported infrequently. In the period 1996-2001, there was an increase in outbreaks of illness due to WN virus in animals as well as humans. Within the traditional range of WN virus, encephalitis was reported in horses in Italy in 1998 and in France in 2000. The first report of disease and deaths caused by WN virus infection in domestic birds was reported in Israel in 1997-1999, involving hundreds of young geese. In 1999 WN virus reached North America and caused an outbreak of encephalitis in humans in the New York area at the same time as a number of cases of equine encephalitis and deaths in American crows and a variety of other bird species, both North American natives and exotics. Multi-state surveillance for WN virus has been in place since April 2000 and has resulted in the detection of WN virus in thousands of dead birds from an increasing number of species in North America, and also in several species of mammals. The surveillance system that has developed in North America because of the utility of testing dead birds for the rapid detection of WN virus presence has been a unique integration of public health and wildlife health agencies. It has been suggested that the recent upsurge in clinical WN virus infection in wild and domestic animals as well as in humans may be related to

  1. Impact of peatland restoration on nutrient and carbon leaching from contrasting sites in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasander, Harri; Sallantaus, Tapani; Koskinen, Markku

    2010-05-01

    Impacts of peatland restoration on nutrient and carbon leaching from contrasting sites in southern Finland Tapani Sallantaus1, Markku Koskinen2, Harri Vasander2 1)Finnish Environment Institute, Biodiversity unit, Box 140, FIN-00251 Helsinki, Finland, tapani.sallantaus@ymparisto.fi 2)Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland, markku.koskinen@helsinki.fi, harri.vasander@helsinki.fi Less than 20 % of the original mire area of southern Finland is still in natural state. Even many peatlands in today's nature conservation areas had been partly or totally drained before conservation. Until now, about 15000 ha of peatlands have been restored in conservation areas. Here we present data concerning changes in leaching due to restoration in two contrasting areas in southern Finland. The peatlands in Seitseminen have originally been fairly open, growing stunted pine, and unfertile, either bogs or poor fens. The responses of tree stand to drainage in the 1960s were moderate, and the tree stand before restoration was about 50 m3/ha, on average. The trees were partly harvested before filling in the ditches mainly in the years 1997-1999 . The peatlands of Nuuksio are much more fertile than those in Seitseminen, and had greatly responded to drainage, which took place already in the 1930s and 1950s. The tree stand consisted mainly of spruce and exceeded 300 m3/ha in large part of the area. The ditches were dammed in the autumn 2001 and the tree stand was left standing. Runoff water quality was monitored in three basins in both areas. To obtain the leaching rates, we used simulated runoff data obtained from the Finnish Environment Institute, Hydrological Services Division. The responses in leaching were in the same direction in both cases. However, especially when calculated per restored hectare (Table 1), the responses were much stronger in the more fertile areas of Nuuksio for organic carbon and nitrogen, but not so much

  2. Regional changes in charcoal-burning suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia from 1995 to 2011: a time trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S F; Lee, Won Jin; Hagihara, Akihito; Gunnell, David

    2014-04-01

    Suicides by carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning barbecue charcoal reached epidemic levels in Hong Kong and Taiwan within 5 y of the first reported cases in the early 2000s. The objectives of this analysis were to investigate (i) time trends and regional patterns of charcoal-burning suicide throughout East/Southeast Asia during the time period 1995-2011 and (ii) whether any rises in use of this method were associated with increases in overall suicide rates. Sex- and age-specific trends over time were also examined to identify the demographic groups showing the greatest increases in charcoal-burning suicide rates across different countries. We used data on suicides by gases other than domestic gas for Hong Kong, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore in the years 1995/1996-2011. Similar data for Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand were also extracted but were incomplete. Graphical and joinpoint regression analyses were used to examine time trends in suicide, and negative binomial regression analysis to study sex- and age-specific patterns. In 1995/1996, charcoal-burning suicides accounted for <1% of all suicides in all study countries, except in Japan (5%), but they increased to account for 13%, 24%, 10%, 7%, and 5% of all suicides in Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore, respectively, in 2011. Rises were first seen in Hong Kong after 1998 (95% CI 1997-1999), followed by Singapore in 1999 (95% CI 1998-2001), Taiwan in 2000 (95% CI 1999-2001), Japan in 2002 (95% CI 1999-2003), and the Republic of Korea in 2007 (95% CI 2006-2008). No marked increases were seen in Malaysia, the Philippines, or Thailand. There was some evidence that charcoal-burning suicides were associated with an increase in overall suicide rates in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Japan (for females), but not in Japan (for males), the Republic of Korea, and Singapore. Rates of change in charcoal-burning suicide rate did not differ by sex/age group in

  3. [DNA-containing polygonal structures detected in somatic nuclei of Bursaria ovata during preparation to cryptobiosis].

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, G I; Samoshkin, A A

    2002-01-01

    earlier assumption (Sergejeva et al., 1987; Sergejeva, Bobyleva, 1988) that the Ma chromatin of Bursaria may undergo crystallization during encystment, i.e. in the state of preparation to cryptobiosis. The present data enable us first to suggest that the looping rosette-like chromatin may be transformed into crystal-like structures ("exotic liquid crystal structures") by means of a peculiar loop packing within the limits of an individual resette (Fig. 2-4), these structural transformations taking place without any visible loop destruction. In this paper, we first describe new morphological types of polygonal plates, differing from those earlier reported elsewhere for the Ma of Bursaria (Sergejeva, Bobylova, 1988), and also from the plates earlier described in studies on liquid crystals both in vivo and in vitro (see: Gianonni et al., 1969; Lerman, 1974; Livolant, 1991: Leforestier et al., 1993, 1997, 1999). The technical approaches used in the present work enabled us to obtain, for the first time, a direct evidence of the presence of DNA in the crystallized structures of somatic nuclei of ciliates during their preparation to cryptobiosis, the DNA-containing polygonal structures being highly morphologically diverse. Further studies into the reasons of this diversity are needed.

  4. TOPEX/El Nino Watch - La Nina Conditions Likely to Prevail, October 10, 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    the Southwest, the data show. 'Clearly, these unusual conditions, which have persisted for 2 1/2 years, will not be returning to normal any time soon,' Patzert said. 'This climate imbalance is big and we're definitely going through a decade of wild climatic behavior. But when we look back at the climate record over the past century, we've seen behavior like this before.'

    The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite's measurements have provided scientists with a detailed view of the 1997-1999 El Nino/La Nina climate pattern by measuring the changing sea-surface height with unprecedented precision.

    For more information, please visit the TOPEX/Poseidon project web page at http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/

  5. Crustal structure beneath southern Africa: insight into how tectonic events affect the Mohorovičić discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delph, Jonathan R.; Porter, Ryan C.

    2015-01-01

    The long and complex history of southern Africa makes it a geological nexus for understanding how crust forms, evolves and survives plate tectonic processes over billions of years. The goal of this study is to characterize the crustal thickness, composition, and Moho impedance contrasts across the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwe Cratons and surrounding mobile belts, which range in age from Archean to Palaeozoic. We use data gathered from the 1997-1999 Southern Africa Seismic Experiment, the Africa Array (2006-2007) and the Global Seismographic Network (1993-2009) to generate P-wave receiver function Gaussian-weighted common conversion point stacks across the region in order to provide a continuous 3-D image of crustal variations throughout southern Africa. We observe thickened crust associated with mobile belts and the intrusion of the Bushveld Complex relative to the less-deformed cratons. The southern Kaapvaal and eastern Zimbabwe Cratons have a well-defined Moho with an average depth of ˜34 km and Vp/Vs of ˜1.73, indicative of felsic average crustal composition. We explain the felsic composition observed in the Kaapvaal Craton in the context of significant crustal modification related to the deposition of the Ventersdorp lavas. We find that the Bushveld Province, the site of the world's largest layered mafic intrusion, has a thick (>40 km) crust with a Vp/Vs > 1.8, indicative of a mafic average crustal composition. The magnitude of Moho conversions beneath the Bushveld Province is variable, with the lowest amplitude conversion appearing between the eastern and western limbs of the Bushveld Complex, indicative of mafic underplating beneath the region. In the Limpopo Belt and western Zimbabwe Craton, we observe low amplitude Moho conversions beneath the Okavango Dyke Swarm, and attribute this to the reworking of the crust by mafic underplating and intrusion during the Jurassic rifting of Gondwanaland. The Namaqua-Natal event thickened the crust and created a gradational

  6. Geochemistry and origins of mineralized waters in the Floridan aquifer system, northeastern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    2001-01-01

    Increases in chloride concentration have been observed in water from numerous wells tapping the Floridan aquifer system in northeastern Florida. Although most increases have been in the eastern part of Duval County, Florida, no spatial pattern in elevated chloride concentrations is discernible. Possible sources of the mineralized water include modern seawater intrusion; unflushed Miocene-to-Pleistocene-age seawater or connate water in aquifer sediments; or mineralized water from deeper zones of the aquifer system or from formations beneath the Floridan aquifer system. The purpose of this study was to document the chemical and isotopic characteristics of water samples from various aquifer zones, and from geochemical and hydrogeologic data, to infer the source of the increased mineralization. Water samples were collected from 53 wells in northeastern Florida during 1997-1999. Wells tapped various zones of the aquifer including: the Fernandina permeable zone (FPZ), the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer (UZLF), the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA), and both the UFA and the UZLF. Water samples were analyzed for major ions and trace constituents and for isotopes of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, sulfur, strontium, chlorine, and boron. Samples of rock from the aquifer were analyzed for isotopes of oxygen, carbon, and strontium. In general, water from various aquifer zones cannot be differentiated based on chemistry, except for water from FPZ wells. Major-ion concentrations vary as much within the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Upper Floridan aquifer as between these two zones. Simple models of mixing between fresh ground water and either modern seawater or water from the FPZ as a mineralized end member show that many water samples from the UZLF aquifer and the UFA are enriched in bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, and silica and are depleted in sodium and potassium (as compared to concentrations predicted by simple mixing). Chemical mass

  7. Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, George L., Jr.; Stabeno, Phyllis; Walters, Gary; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Brodeur, Richard D.; Napp, Jeffery M.; Bond, Nicholas A.

    2002-12-01

    We propose a new hypothesis, the Oscillating Control Hypothesis (OCH), which predicts that pelagic ecosystem function in the southeastern Bering Sea will alternate between primarily bottom-up control in cold regimes and primarily top-down control in warm regimes. The timing of spring primary production is determined predominately by the timing of ice retreat. Late ice retreat (late March or later) leads to an early, ice-associated bloom in cold water (e.g., 1995, 1997, 1999), whereas no ice, or early ice retreat before mid-March, leads to an open-water bloom in May or June in warm water (e.g., 1996, 1998, 2000). Zooplankton populations are not closely coupled to the spring bloom, but are sensitive to water temperature. In years when the spring bloom occurs in cold water, low temperatures limit the production of zooplankton, the survival of larval/juvenile fish, and their recruitment into the populations of species of large piscivorous fish, such as walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma), Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus) and arrowtooth flounder ( Atheresthes stomias). When continued over decadal scales, this will lead to bottom-up limitation and a decreased biomass of piscivorous fish. Alternatively, in periods when the bloom occurs in warm water, zooplankton populations should grow rapidly, providing plentiful prey for larval and juvenile fish. Abundant zooplankton will support strong recruitment of fish and will lead to abundant predatory fish that control forage fish, including, in the case of pollock, their own juveniles. Piscivorous marine birds and pinnipeds may achieve higher production of young and survival in cold regimes, when there is less competition from large piscivorous fish for cold-water forage fish such as capelin ( Mallotus villosus). Piscivorous seabirds and pinnipeds also may be expected to have high productivity in periods of transition from cold regimes to warm regimes, when young of large predatory species of fish are numerous enough to

  8. Use of Preoperative Testing and Physicians' Response to Professional Society Guidance.

    PubMed

    Sigmund, Alana E; Stevens, Elizabeth R; Blitz, Jeanna D; Ladapo, Joseph A

    2015-08-01

    The value of routine preoperative testing before most surgical procedures is widely considered to be low. To improve the quality of preoperative care and reduce waste, 2 professional societies released guidance on use of routine preoperative testing in 2002, but researchers and policymakers remain concerned about the health and cost burden of low-value care in the preoperative setting. To examine the long-term national effect of the 2002 professional guidance from the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and the American Society of Anesthesiologists on physicians' use of routine preoperative testing. Retrospective analysis of nationally representative data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey to examine adults in the United States who were evaluated during preoperative visits from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 2010. A quasiexperimental, difference-in-difference (DID) approach evaluated whether the publication of professional guidance in 2002 was associated with changes in preoperative testing patterns, adjusting for temporal trends in routine testing, as captured by testing patterns in general medical examinations. Physician orders for outpatient plain radiography, hematocrit, urinalysis, electrocardiogram, and cardiac stress testing. During the 14-year period, the average annual number of preoperative visits in the United States increased from 6.8 million in 1997-1999 to 9.8 million in 2002-2004 and 14.3 million in 2008-2010. After accounting for temporal trends in routine testing, we found no statistically significant overall changes in the use of plain radiography (11.3% in 1997-2002 to 9.9% in 2003-2010; DID, -1.0 per 100 visits; 95% CI, -4.1 to 2.2), hematocrit (9.4% in 1997-2002 to 4.1% in 2003-2010; DID, 1.2 per 100 visits; 95% CI, -2.2 to 4.7), urinalysis (12.2% in 1997-2002 to 8.9% in 2003-2010; DID, 2.7 per 100 visits; 95% CI, -1.7 to 7.1), or cardiac

  9. Deformation near the Casa Diablo geothermal well field and related processes Long Valley caldera, Eastern California, 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, J.F.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Wilkinson, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    local leveling networks spanning the well field and the bounding graben were analyzed for several 2-year periods (1993-1995, 1995-1997, and 1997-1999). Annual rates of change across the normal faults bounding the graben have steadily decreased for each 2-year period between 1993 and 1999, reflecting the slowing decline in geothermal reservoir pressure. Horizontal control data from a two-color electronic distance meter (EDM) defined the lateral extent of subsidence at Casa Diablo. The EDM and leveling data elucidate the localized effect of the shallow source of subsidence and the broader effect of the deeper magmatic inflation source. Data from bench marks common to both the vertical and the horizontal control networks were used to assess the effect of subsidence on the EDM base station (CASA). Modeling of geodetic data collected during periods of little or no magmatic inflation indicated that the CASA two-color EDM station is being drawn toward the well field at a rate of 3-5 mm/yr. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Survival Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Spring/Summer Chinook; Migration Years 1997-2000 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-02-01

    Lower Granite Dam. A ''D'' equal to one indicates that there is no difference in survival rate after hydrosystem passage, while a ''D'' less than one indicates that transported smolts die at a greater rate after release, than smolts that have migrated through the hydrosystem. While the relative survival rates of transported and in-river migrants are important, the SARs must be also be sufficient to allow the salmon to persist and recover (Mundy et al. 1994). Decreased SARs could result from delayed hydrosystem mortality for either transported or in-river migrants, or both. Major objectives of CSS include: (1) development of a long-term index of transport SAR to in-river SAR for Snake River hatchery spring and summer chinook smolts measured at Lower Granite Dam; (2) develop a long-term index of survival rates from release of smolts at Snake River hatcheries to return of adults to the hatcheries; (3) compute and compare the overall SARs for selected upriver and downriver spring and summer chinook hatcheries; (4) begin a time series of SARs for use in hypothesis testing and in the regional long-term monitoring and evaluation program; (5) evaluate growth patterns of transported and in-river migrating smolts, and of upriver and downriver stocks. Primary CSS focus in this report for the 1997-1999 migration years included hatchery chinook tasks for objectives 1, 4 and 5.

  11. Phenology in Germany in the 20th century : methods, analyses and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaber, Jörg

    2002-07-01

    Perioden mit unterschiedlichem Trendverhalten identifiziert werden. - Es gab deutliche Unterschiede in den Trends von frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen. Die frühen Frühjahrsphasen haben sich stetig verfrüht, mit deutlicher Verfrühung zwischen 1931 und 1948, moderater Verfrühung zwischen 1948 und 1984 und starker Verfrühung zwischen 1984 und 1999. Die späten Frühjahrsphasen hingegen, wechselten ihr Trendverhalten in diesen Perioden von einer Verfrühung zu einer deutlichen Verspätung wieder zu einer starken Verfrühung. Dieser Unterschied in der Trendentwicklung zwischen frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen konnte auch für ganz Deutschland in den Perioden 1951 bis 1984 und 1984 bis 1999 beobachtet werden. Der bestimmende Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Frühjahrsphasen und ihr modifizierender Einfluss auf die Herbstphasen konnte bestätigt werden. Es zeigt sich jedoch, dass - die Phänologie bestimmende Funktionen der Temperatur nicht mit einem globalen jährlichen CO2 Signal korreliert waren, welches als Index für die globale Erwärmung verwendet wurde - ein Index für grossräumige regionale Zirkulationsmuster (NAO-Index) nur zu einem kleinen Teil die beobachtete phänologischen Variabilität erklären konnte. Das beobachtete unterschiedliche Trendverhalten zwischen frühen und späten Frühjahrsphasen konnte auf die unterschiedliche Entwicklung von März- und Apriltemperaturen zurückgeführt werden. Während sich die Märztemperaturen im Laufe des 20. Jahrhunderts mit einer zunehmenden Variabilität in den letzten 50 Jahren stetig erhöht haben, haben sich die Apriltemperaturen zwischen dem Ende der 1940er und Mitte der 1980er merklich abgekühlt und dann wieder deutlich erwärmt. Es wurde geschlussfolgert, dass die Verfrühungen in der Frühjahrsphänologie in den letzten Dekaden Teile multi-dekadischer Fluktuationen sind, welche sich nach Spezies und relevanter saisonaler Temperatur unterscheiden. Aufgrund dieser Fluktuationen konnte kein Zusammenhang

  12. Monitoring and Evaluation of Smolt Migration in the Columbia River Basin : Volume VI : Evaluation of the 2000 Predictions of the Run-Timing of Wild Migrant Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, and Hatchery Sockeye Salmon in the Snake River Basin, and Combined Wild Hatchery Salminids Migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams using Program RealTime.

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Caitlin

    1998-07-01

    Program RealTime provided tracking and forecasting of the 2000 in season outmigration via the internet for stocks of wild PIT-tagged spring/summer chinook salmon. These stocks were ESUs from nineteen release sites above Lower Granite dam, including Bear Valley Creek, Big Creek, Camas Creek (new), Cape Horn Creek, Catherine Creek, Elk Creek, Herd Creek, Imnaha River, Johnson Creek (new), Lake Creek, Loon Creek, Lostine River, Marsh Creek, Minam River, East Fork Salmon River (new), South Fork Salmon River, Secesh River, Sulfur Creek and Valley Creek. Forecasts were also provided for two stocks of hatchery-reared PIT-tagged summer-run sockeye salmon, from Redfish Lake and Alturas Lake (new); for a subpopulation of the PIT-tagged wild Snake River fall subyearling chinook salmon; for all wild Snake River PIT-tagged spring/summer yearling chinook salmon (new) and steelhead trout (new)detected at Lower Granite Dam during the 2000 outmigration. The 2000 RealTime project began making forecasts for combined wild- and hatchery-reared runs-at-large of subyearling and yearling chinook, coho, and sockeye salmon, and steelhead trout migrating to Rock Island and McNary Dams on the mid-Columbia River and the mainstem Columbia River. Due to the new (in 1999-2000) Snake River basin hatchery protocol of releasing unmarked hatchery-reared fish, the RealTime forecasting project no longer makes run-timing forecasts for wild Snake River runs-at-large using FPC passage indices, as it has done for the previous three years (1997-1999). The season-wide measure of Program RealTime performance, the mean absolute difference (MAD) between in-season predictions and true (observed) passage percentiles, improved relative to previous years for nearly all stocks. The average season-wide MAD of all (nineteen) spring/summer yearling chinook salmon ESUs dropped from 5.7% in 1999 to 4.5% in 2000. The 2000 MAD for the hatchery-reared Redfish Lake sockeye salmon ESU was the lowest recorded, at 6.0%, down

  13. Thermal expansion behavior of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovis, G.; Harlov, D.; Gottschalk, M.; Hudacek, W.; Wildermuth, S.

    2009-04-01

    the fluor-chlorapatite series is little affected by composition. This contrasts with relationships in alkali feldspars (Hovis and coworkers, 1997, 1999), which show that K-rich feldspars expand less than Na-rich feldspars. It contrasts also with the behavior of additional AlSi3 feldspars (Hovis and others, 2008), in which room-temperature chemical expansion limits the degree to which the structure can expand thermally. It also differs from expansion in kalsilite crystalline solutions (Hovis and coworkers, 2003, 2006), which depends on K:Na ratio. Among the minerals we have studied previously, only nepheline displays expansion behavior similar to that of fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions in that thermal expansion shows little sensitivity to composition. In AlSi3 feldspars and kalsilite one observes a single crystallographically distinct alkali site and a dominating SiO4 tetrahedral framework that limits the vibrational characteristics of the alkali-site occupant(s). Fluor-chlorapatite crystalline solutions have no such structural framework. Moreover, the anion site in the latter changes structural character in the transition from fluorapatite to chlorapatite. This flexibility apparently allows anion vibrational characteristics, coupled with those of Ca polyhedral components, to change continuously and in a compensating manner across the series. The thermal expansion data also imply that volumes of F-Cl mixing in fluor-chlorapatite are constant from room temperature to 1000 °C. References: Cherniak, D.J. (2000) Rare earth element diffusion in apatite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64, 3871-3885. Harlov, D.E. and Förster, H-J. (2002) High grade fluid metasomatism on both a local and regional Scale: the Seward Peninsula, Alaska and the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, Northern Italy Part II: phosphate mineral chemistry. Journal of Petrology 43, 801-824. Holland, T.J.B. and Redfern, S.A.T. (1997) Unit-cell refinement: Changing the dependent variable, and use of regression

  14. Global irrigated area map (GIAM), derived from remote sensing, for the end of the last millennium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Biradar, C.M.; Noojipady, P.; Dheeravath, V.; Li, Y.; Velpuri, M.; Gumma, M.; Gangalakunta, O.R.P.; Turral, H.; Cai, X.; Vithanage, J.; Schull, M.A.; Dutta, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) has been produced for the end of the last millennium using multiple satellite sensor, secondary, Google Earth and groundtruth data. The data included: (a) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3-band and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 10 km monthly time-series for 1997-1999, (b) Syste me pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT VGT) NDVI 1 km monthly time series for 1999, (c) East Anglia University Climate Research Unit (CRU) rainfall 50km monthly time series for 1961-2000, (d) Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30) 1 km digital elevation data of the World, (e) Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (JERS-1 SAR) data for the rain forests during two seasons in 1996 and (f) University of Maryland Global Tree Cover 1 km data for 1992-1993. A single mega-file data-cube (MFDC) of the World with 159 layers, akin to hyperspectral data, was composed by re-sampling different data types into a common 1 km resolution. The MFDC was segmented based on elevation, temperature and precipitation zones. Classification was performed on the segments. Quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) used in hyperspectral data analysis were adopted to group class spectra derived from unsupervised classification and match them with ideal or target spectra. A rigorous class identification and labelling process involved the use of: (a) space-time spiral curve (ST-SC) plots, (b) brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) plots, (c) time series NDVI plots, (d) Google Earth very-high-resolution imagery (VHRI) 'zoom-in views' in over 11 000 locations, (e) groundtruth data broadly sourced from the degree confluence project (3 864 sample locations) and from the GIAM project (1 790 sample locations), (f) high-resolution Landsat-ETM+ Geocover 150m mosaic of the World and (g) secondary data (e.g. national and global land use and land cover data). Mixed classes were resolved based on decision tree

  15. Time dependent deformation of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery-Brown, Emily Kvietka Desmarais

    to a decollement structure 8 km under the south flank, and the locations of the microearthquakes suggest that both occur on the same structure. In 2007, Episode 56 of the Pu'u 'O'o-Kupianaha eruption occurred. This episode was exciting both because it was the largest intrusion in the last decade, and because it occurred concurrently with a flank slow-slip event. The intrusion started on Father's day (June 17th), 2007 with increased seismicity and abrupt tilts at the summit and rift zones. Quasi-static models of the total deformation determined from GPS, tilt, and InSAR indicate that the intrusion occurred on two en echelon dike segments in the upper East Rift Zone along with deformation consistent with slow-slip in the same areas of previous events. The ˜ 2 m maximum opening occurred on the eastern segment near Makaopui crater. Unlike previous intrusions in 1997, 1999, and 2000, the dike model was not sufficient to explain deformation on the western flank. Additionally, a coastal tiltmeter installed in anticipation of a slow-slip event recorded tilts consistent with those observed during the 2005 slow-slip event. These observations led to the conclusion that a concurrent slow-slip event occurred. Geodetic models indicate a similar amount of decollement slip occurred as in previous slow-slip events. Sub-daily GPS positions were used to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the dike intrusion. The time-dependent intrusion model shows that the intrusion began on the western en echelon segment before jumping to the eastern segment, which accumulated the majority of the 2 m of opening. Sub-daily GPS positions limit the number of stations available since there are very few continuous stations north of the East Rift Zone, where coverage is critical for separating the intrusion from the slow-slip. However, an ENVISAT interferogram at 08:22 on June 18, 2007 provides additional spatial coverage of deformation up to that point. Combining this image with the GPS and tilt

  16. EDITORIAL: Squeezed states and uncertainty relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregue-Renaud, Rocio; Kim, Young S.; Man'ko, Margarita A.; Moya-Cessa, Hector

    2004-06-01

    This special issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics is composed mainly of extended versions of talks and papers presented at the Eighth International Conference on Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations held in Puebla, Mexico on 9-13 June 2003. The Conference was hosted by Instituto de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This series of meetings began at the University of Maryland, College Park, USA, in March 1991. The second and third workshops were organized by the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, Russia, in 1992 and by the University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA, in 1993, respectively. Afterwards, it was decided that the workshop series should be held every two years. Thus the fourth meeting took place at the University of Shanxi in China and was supported by the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). The next three meetings in 1997, 1999 and 2001 were held in Lake Balatonfüred, Hungary, in Naples, Italy, and in Boston, USA, respectively. All of them were sponsored by IUPAP. The ninth workshop will take place in Besançon, France, in 2005. The conference has now become one of the major international meetings on quantum optics and the foundations of quantum mechanics, where most of the active research groups throughout the world present their new results. Accordingly this conference has been able to align itself to the current trend in quantum optics and quantum mechanics. The Puebla meeting covered most extensively the following areas: quantum measurements, quantum computing and information theory, trapped atoms and degenerate gases, and the generation and characterization of quantum states of light. The meeting also covered squeeze-like transformations in areas other than quantum optics, such as atomic physics, nuclear physics, statistical physics and relativity, as well as optical devices. There were many new participants at this meeting, particularly

  17. Minidisk against ring infiltrometer measurements to assess the saturated hydraulic conductivity in Mediterranean vineyards (Vitis vinifera L.) under Tillage and No-Tillage managements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Vineyard is one of the main crops in the Mediterranean region and it forms, along with wheat and olive, what it is known as the 'Mediterranean triad'. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2010), the European Union has 4.5 million hectares of land occupied by vineyards. Out of all, the Mediterranean region has the largest total area of vineyards. France, Italy and Spain together are responsible for 48% of global wine production. In Spain, the total surface occupied by vineyards is 1.048.104 ha (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, 2009), which is translated in a 13% of world total (Wine Institute, 2014). In terms of environmental factors, vineyards are a source of sediments and water due to the tillage and the soil compaction, the lack of vegetation cover and the soil organic matter depletion (Novara et al., 2011; Lieskovsky' et al., 2014; Rodrigo Comino et al., 2015). The infiltration capacity of soils is a key component of the hydrological cycle that can control the non-sustainable rates of runoff and erosion (Cerdà, 1997,1999). In this way research focused on the soil hydrological properties will bring knowledge on how to control the high erosion rates (Cammeraat et al., 2010). Saturated hydraulic conductivity, ks, is the most determining physical parameter in terms of quantifying the components of the global water balance as it interferes in all those processes which are related with water and solute movement and transport through the soil. ks values are required for an adequate modelling of the infiltration and runoff generation processes. However, it is a variable with high variability when it comes to agricultural soils due to different soil managements and the fact that the soil is not a continuous media (Polo et al., 2003). For instance, Leonard and Andrieux (1998) reported in a study done in untilled vineyards in France high differences in infiltration rates through the use of rainfall simulations, which

  18. [Current malaria situation in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Amangel'diev, K A

    2001-01-01

    from tertian malaria, which is the most dangerous from the epidemiological point of view since the main vectors in Turkmenistan, are highly susceptible to P. vivax infection. The particular dangerous phenomenon is the higher incidence of imported tertian malaria in rural areas where sick people and those who carry the parasite come into close contact with highly susceptible vectors. Thus, the risk that new malaria outbreaks will occur and the disease will become reestablished in the country is very high. It is also influenced by major changes in water use in the country, which have aggravated the mosquito situation. In the area around the Karakum canal and river basins, 17 large reservoirs have been constructed, with very extensive filtration ponds around them, which have become breeding ground's for malaria mosquitoes. There are 1219 water areas without any economic significance in the country, covering a total area of 1054 ha, which require regular treatment with insecticides. With assistance from the WHO European Regional Office, Dr. Guido Sabatinelli in particular, Turkmenistan has developed a plan for preventive malaria control measures for 1999-2001, which has been approved in a decree issued by the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry. The material support received has made it possible to provide large-scale prophylaxis for people who suffered from malaria in 1997-1999, seasonal treatment for people living near the active foci of the disease and interseasonal prophylaxis for people visiting these areas. Seasonal treatment with Dellaguil was made in 4,590 people living in the active foci of malaria infection, and 2,281 fixed-term military personnel belonging to the units stationed in the active foci of malaria infection. In all foci of infection, every person with malaria or carrying the parasite underwent epidemiological investigation and all cases were entered in health clinic records. In 1999, four seminars were held to train 75 specialists from all

  19. Effects of Mineral Phosphorous Fertilization and cd Loading on cd Translocation from Soil to Corn (Zea mays L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils. Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability. Many sites have been identified as hazardous (H) waste (W) sites (S)(HWS) because of the presence of elevated concentrations of these elements. In 2000, the main cadmium actual transfer index ("ATI" by Márton 2004) maximum and minimum values in the case of maize 4-6 foliaged phenophase ranged between +22.0- -89.2%. compared with control soils. The grain "ATI" maximum and minimum values changed between +14.4- -89.2% as opposed to unterated plants. The highest yields reached around 10 t* ha-1. These study shows maize has ability to a different degree to cadmium bioaccumulation from soil to corn and by these way for "FOOD CHAIN". Key words: Phosphorous, Fertilization, Cadmium, Translocation, Corn Introduction Nowadays, sustainable (S) precision (P) agricultural (A) production (P)(SPAP) has become the major issue following global changes in all the world over. It is well known that it has strongly established on soils. The functioning and their ability to supply nutrients, store water, release gases, modify pollutants, decrease physical degradation and produce crops is profundly influenced by their fertiliy. During the last fifty years phenomenal progress has been made in several areas of ecology of different toxic elements in soils (ATSDR 1997, 1999; ANZECC 1992; CWP 1995; COC 2004; DEFRA 2002; EDF 1998; HSC 2005; IARC 1993; ). Concerns regarding heavy metals contamination in the environment affecting all ecosystem componets, including "soil-plant-animal-human" chain (SPAHC), have been identified with increasing efforts on limiting their bioavailability (Magher 1991; NEPC 1998; NDH 1986; NTP 1991). Many sites have

  20. Step-by-step synchronous variations of planetary natural processes in 1997-1998 and their uniform mechanism: phenomenon of "galloping of the core"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    2009-04-01

    "For an explanation of observably step-by-step variations of geodynamic and geophysical processes the mechanism of sharp sporadic relative displacements of the core and the mantle and deformations of the mantle in the certain periods of time (the phenomenon of "galloping of the core") is offered. Apparently, this mechanism results in spasmodic variations of axial rotation of the Earth, causes gallop in value of a phase of Chandler motion of a pole, to sharp changes of the intense condition in zones of catastrophes" ([1], p. 61). According to geodynamic model the step changes first of all should to be observed in motion of a geocenter as it reflects relative displacement of the centers of mass of the core and the mantle [1]. A gallop of natural processes in northern and southern hemispheres is characterized by the certain asymmetry. In result the step changes are tested by trend components of secular changes of parameters. In another words and activity (intensity) and trends of its secular changes test synchronous certain steps. Geocenter. According to observation data of DORIS spasmodic changes of polar rotation of a geocenter in a projection to an equatorial coordinate plane in 1997-1999 are revealed. On data DORIS in values of polar coordinate of a geocenter were observed gallop up to 20-30 cm. Changes of trend components have tested gallop which can be estimated in -2 mm in coordinate x, -5 mm in coordinate y and in -10 mm in coordinate z. Trajectory of a geocenter. A bend of a trajectory of long - periodic trend "trace" of a geocenter (its epicentre) on a surface of the Earth in 1997-1998 has been discovered (Zotov, Barkin, Lyubushin, 2008). It serves as direct confirmation of the assumption about a fundamental role of interaction and the forced relative displacements of the basic shells of the Earth, first of all the core and the mantle, both their stimulating and directing role in all planetary processes (Barkin, 2002). Gravitational field. On the data of

  1. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    groups extended these studies to molten [19] and quasicrystalline metals. The stunning result was that among the distorted structures there was a region where quasicrystals were stable with the lowest energy among all the structures they tried and which had shown up elsewhere [20]. In addition to Jürgen Hafner's actual research work published in over 600 research papers, including numerous review articles, several contributions to books and one monograph, he has done a great deal to establish our field of electronic structure calculation as the basis for understanding materials in Austria and across Europe. The founding and expansion of the Computational Materials Science Centre (CMS) in Vienna owes much to him, as well as the development of the European Psi-k network where he served as acting chairman in 1997-1999. He has been one of the leaders of the 'Surfaces and Catalysis Working Group' of Psi-k, and the instigator of several 'Theory Meets Industry' workshops [21] to stimulate the transfer of our methodology to industrial problems. Jürgen Hafner has always aimed for the highest intellectual standards. His nose for finding the most advanced work going on elsewhere has resulted in many international cooperations, including some in the USA and Japan. His list of international joint research projects runs to many pages. This in turn has been a major contributor to European cooperation, and in making it now the leading area in the world for our field. Hafner's research has always been linked closely to understanding puzzling experimental results, and in this way he has helped to establish a good reputation for computational physics within the mainstream of condensed matter physics of materials. It has taken quite a long time to establish computer simulations as a respectable component of research in condensed matter physics. "It is not real theory" people sneered from one side, and "computer simulations are not like real experiments" from the other. In the late 1990s a