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Sample records for folate carrier polymorphism

  1. Association of reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC-1) polymorphisms with ischemic stroke and silent brain infarction.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yunkyung; Kim, Jung O; Lee, Jeong Han; Park, Hye Mi; Jeon, Young Joo; Oh, Seung Hun; Bae, Jinkun; Park, Young Seok; Kim, Ok Joon; Kim, Nam Keun

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death in the world and in South Korea. Ischemic stroke and silent brain infarction (SBI) are complex, multifactorial diseases influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Moderately elevated plasma homocysteine levels are a major risk factor for vascular diseases, including stroke and SBI. Folate and vitamin B12 are important regulators of homocysteine metabolism. Reduced folate carrier (RFC), a bidirectional anion exchanger, mediates folate delivery to a variety of cells. We selected three known RFC-1 polymorphisms (-43C>T, 80A>G, 696T>C) and investigated their relationship to cerebral infarction in the Korean population. We used the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to analyze associations between the three RFC-1 polymorphisms, disease status, and folate and homocysteine levels in 584 ischemic stroke patients, 353 SBI patients, and 505 control subjects. The frequencies of the RFC-1 -43TT, 80GG, and 696CC genotypes differed significantly between the stroke and control groups. The RFC-1 80A>G substitution was also associated with small artery occlusion and SBI. In a gene-environment analysis, the RFC-1 -43C>T, 80A>G, and 696T>C polymorphisms in the ischemic stroke group had combined effects with all environmental factors. In summary, we found that the RFC-1 -43C>T, 80A>G, and 696T>C polymorphisms may be risk factors for ischemic stroke.

  2. Reduced folate carrier-1 G80a gene polymorphism is associated with neuroblastoma's development.

    PubMed

    de Miranda, Dyego O; Barros, Jemima E X S; Vieira, Maria Madalena S; Lima, Elker L S; Moraes, Vera L L; da Silva, Helker A; Garcia, Helder L B O; Lima, Cássia A; Gomes, Adriana V; Santos, Neide; Muniz, Maria T C

    2014-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant embryonal tumor of neural crest cells that give rise to the sympathetic nervous system, responsible for 10-70% of all cases of childhood cancer. Because of its early appearance, it has been suggested that risk factors active in the prenatal can be associated with the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the genetic polymorphisms MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTR A2756G, TYMS 2R/3R and SLC19A1 G80A, involved in folate metabolism, increase the risk of neuroblastoma in Brazilian children. This study comprised 31 Brazilian children (0-14 years old) diagnosed with neuroblastoma compared with 92 controls. Investigation of polymorphisms MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G and SLC19A1 A80G was performed using PCR-RFLP, the TYMS 2R/3R using PCR and MTHFR A1298C using AS-PCR. The SLC19A1 A80A genotype was significantly associated with the development of neuroblastoma, compared with the control group (Williams G-Test = 0.0286; OR = 5.1667; 95% CI = 1.4481-18.4338; p = 0.0175). When analyzed together, the 80AG+AA genotypes showed a trend toward association (OR = 3.3033; 95% CI = 1.0586-10.3080; p = 0.0563). Our results suggest that individuals carriers of genotype AA for the SLC19A1 gene present risk for the development of neuroblastoma and possibly have difficulty in absorption of folic acid by the cells, and this may adversely affect the metabolism of folate causing genomic instability and promoting the development of cancer. This is the first retrospective/prospective study to examine the relationship between polymorphisms of folate pathway genes and risk of neuroblastoma.

  3. A functional polymorphism in the reduced folate carrier gene and DNA hypomethylation in mothers of children with autism

    PubMed Central

    James, S. Jill; Melnyk, Stepan; Jernigan, Stefanie; Lehman, Sara; Seidel, Lisa; Gaylor, David .W.; Cleves, Mario A.

    2010-01-01

    The biologic basis of autism is complex and is thought to involve multiple and variable gene-environment interactions. While the logical focus has been on the affected child, the impact of maternal genetics on intrauterine microenvironment during pivotal developmental windows could be substantial. Folate-dependent one carbon metabolism is a highly polymorphic pathway that regulates the distribution of one-carbon derivatives between DNA synthesis (proliferation) and DNA methylation (cell-specific gene expression and differentiation). These pathways are essential to support the programmed shifts between proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis and organogenesis. Maternal genetic variants that compromise intrauterine availability of folate derivatives could alter fetal cell trajectories and disrupt normal neurodevelopment. In this investigation, the frequency of common functional polymorphisms in the folate pathway was investigated in a large population-based sample of autism case-parent triads. In case-control analysis, a significant increase in the reduced folate carrier (RFC1) G allele frequency was found among case mothers, but not among fathers or affected children. Subsequent log linear analysis of the RFC1 A80G genotype within family trios revealed that the maternal G allele was associated with a significant increase in risk of autism whereas the inherited genotype of the child was not. Further, maternal DNA from the autism mothers was found to be significantly hypomethylated relative to reference control DNA. Metabolic profiling indicated that plasma homocysteine, adenosine, and S-adenosylhomocyteine were significantly elevated among autism mothers consistent with reduced methylation capacity and DNA hypomethylation. Together, these results suggest that the maternal genetics/epigenetics may influence fetal predisposition to autism. PMID:20468076

  4. The reduced folate carrier (RFC-1) 80A>G polymorphism and maternal risk of having a child with Down syndrome: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-07-05

    A common polymorphism (c.80A>G) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1, commonly known as RFC-1) has been associated with maternal risk of the birth of a child with Down Syndrome (DS), but results are controversial. We searched major online databases to identify available case-control studies, and performed a meta-analysis to summarize the data concerning this association. Nine independent case-control studies were identified for a total of 930 DS mothers (MDS) and 1240 control mothers. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using both fixed and random effects models. An increase in the risk of having a birth with DS was observed for carriers of the homozygous GG genotype (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.57; p = 0.02, fixed effects model), even after removal from the meta-analysis of published data with deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in controls (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.55; p = 0.03, fixed effects model). Moreover, the pooled OR under the fixed effects model showed an increase in the maternal risk for the G allele (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.30; p = 0.03). Present results suggest that the maternal RFC-1 80A>G polymorphism might be associated with an increased risk of having a birth with DS, particularly among carriers of the GG genotype.

  5. Reduced folate carrier-1 80G > A gene polymorphism is not associated with methotrexate treatment response in South Indian Tamils with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Niveditha; Mariaselvam, Christina Mary; Mithun, C B; Negi, Vir Singh

    2016-04-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the most commonly used disease-modifying drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although there are no reliable molecular markers to predict the treatment response and adverse effects to MTX therapy, the polymorphisms in genes coding for MTX metabolizing enzymes and transporters may play a crucial role. The reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC-1) is a bidirectional anion exchanger which transports MTX and folinic acid. It is reported to influence MTX treatment response and adverse effects in some ethnic populations but not in others. It is also associated with susceptibility to various diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study was aimed at investigating the role of RFC-1 80G > A gene polymorphism in association with disease susceptibility, MTX treatment response and the MTX-induced adverse events in the South Indian Tamil patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The RFC-1 80G > A gene polymorphism was investigated in 327 patients with RA and in 322 healthy controls by PCR-RFLP method. It was found that the heterozygous RFC-1 80 GA genotype was associated with protection against RA [p = 0.02, odds ratio (OR) 0.69, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.95]. However, it was not found to be associated with MTX treatment response. The RFC-1 G allele frequency was higher in patients with adverse effects, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08, OR 1.44, 95 % CI 0.97-2.13). RFC-1 80G > A gene polymorphism confers protection for RA. However, it is not associated with MTX treatment response and MTX-induced adverse effects in South Indian Tamil patients with RA.

  6. A NOS3 polymorphism determines endothelial response to folate in children with type 1 diabetes or obesity.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, Esko J; Peña, Alexia S; MacKenzie, Karen; Bose-Sundernathan, Tulika; Gent, Roger; Couper, Jennifer J

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of polymorphisms in NOS3 and folate pathway enzymes on vascular function and folate status and endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity. A total of 244 subjects (age 13.8 ± 2.8 years, 125 males) were studied for NOS3 and/or folate pathway polymorphisms using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism, including at baseline: 139 with type 1 diabetes; 58 with obesity; and 47 controls. The effect of NOS3 genotype on endothelial response to folate (5 mg) was assessed in 85 subjects with diabetes and 28 obese subjects who received active treatment during intervention trials. Vascular function (flow-mediated dilatation [FMD] and glyceryl trinitrate-mediated dilatation), clinical, and biochemical measurements were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks in folate intervention studies. Folate pathway enzyme and NOS3 polymorphisms did not significantly affect baseline vascular function. The polymorphism in intron 4 of endothelial nitric oxide synthase altered endothelial response to folate significantly: in subjects with diabetes FMD improved by 6.4 ± 5% (insertion carriers) vs 2.3 ± 6.6% (deletion carriers), P = .01; in obese subjects FMD improved by 1.8 ± 5.4% (insertion carriers) and deteriorated by -3.2 ± 7.2% (deletion carriers), P = .05. More subjects carrying the insertion normalized FMD after folate supplementation (insertion 64% vs deletion 28%, χ(2) = 10.14, P = .001). A NOS3 polymorphism predicts endothelial response to folate in children with diabetes or obesity, with implications for vascular risk and folate intervention studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of genetic polymorphisms in the folate pathway on methotrexate therapy in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Lisa K; Roberts, Rebecca L

    2011-10-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the first-line treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and is frequently used in the management of other forms of inflammatory arthritis. It is currently challenging to predict which patients will achieve adequate disease control and which patients will develop adverse effects while taking MTX. As an analog of dihydrofolic acid, MTX enters cells through the reduced folate carrier-1 protein, and is polyglutamated. MTX polyglutamates inhibit key enzymes in the folate pathway to produce an anti-inflammatory effect. It has been suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the folate pathway may influence intracellular folate and MTX polyglutamates pools, and thus MTX response. However, studies to identify genetic predictors have yielded inconclusive results. Nonreplication across studies has been attributed to insufficient statistical power as well as pharmacological and clinical confounders. Prospective studies, standardizing the definitions of response and toxicity, and application of genome-wide approaches may advance the search for genetic predictors of MTX response.

  8. The reduced folate carrier (RFC) is cytotoxic to cells under conditions of severe folate deprivation. RFC as a double edged sword in folate homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ifergan, Ilan; Jansen, Gerrit; Assaraf, Yehuda G

    2008-07-25

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC), a bidirectional anion transporter, is the major uptake route of reduced folates essential for a spectrum of biochemical reactions and thus cellular proliferation. However, here we show that ectopic overexpression of the RFC, but not of folate receptor alpha, a high affinity unidirectional folate uptake route serving here as a negative control, resulted in an approximately 15-fold decline in cellular viability in medium lacking folates but not in folate-containing medium. Moreover to explore possible mechanisms of adaptation to folate deficiency in various cell lines that express the endogenous RFC, we first determined the gene expression status of the following genes: (a) RFC, (b) ATP-driven folate exporters (i.e. MRP1, MRP5, and breast cancer resistance protein), and (c) folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase and gamma-glutamate hydrolase (GGH), enzymes catalyzing folate polyglutamylation and hydrolysis, respectively. Upon 3-7 days of folate deprivation, semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed a specific approximately 2.5-fold decrease in RFC mRNA levels in both breast cancer and T-cell leukemia cell lines that was accompanied by a consistent fall in methotrexate influx, serving here as an RFC transport activity assay. Likewise a 2.4-fold decrease in GGH mRNA levels and approximately 19% decreased GGH activity was documented for folate-deprived breast cancer cells. These results along with those of a novel mathematical biomodeling devised here suggest that upon severe short term (i.e. up to 7 days) folate deprivation RFC transport activity becomes detrimental as RFC, but not ATP-driven folate exporters, efficiently extrudes folate monoglutamates out of cells. Hence down-regulation of RFC and GGH may serve as a novel adaptive response to severe folate deficiency.

  9. Influence of the folate pathway and transporter polymorphisms on methotrexate treatment outcome in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Goričar, Katja; Kovač, Viljem; Jazbec, Janez; Zakotnik, Branko; Lamovec, Janez; Dolžan, Vita

    2014-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone malignancy that occurs mostly in adolescents. Treatment protocols usually include multiagent preoperative and postoperative chemotherapy based on methotrexate, cisplatin, doxorubicin and ifosfamide. Despite a favourable prognosis, there are considerable interindividual differences in treatment outcome. Genetic variability of enzymes involved in the metabolism and transport of methotrexate could contribute towards observed differences in response to chemotherapy. Our aim was to evaluate how polymorphisms in the folate pathway and transporter genes influence treatment outcome in osteosarcoma patients. In total, 44 osteosarcoma patients treated with methotrexate were genotyped for eleven polymorphisms in four folate pathway and five folate transporter genes. Cox regression was used in survival analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of polymorphisms on treatment efficacy and toxicity and nonparametric tests were used to determine the influence on serum methotrexate levels. Polymorphic SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 alleles were associated with significantly higher serum methotrexate area under the curve (P=0.001 and 0.011, respectively). Carriers of at least one polymorphic SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs11045879 allele tended to have longer event-free survival compared with patients with two wild-type alleles [P=0.040, hazard ratio (HR)=0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.07-0.94; and P=0.034, HR=0.20, 95% CI=0.05-0.89, respectively]. Compared with the most common haplotype, carriers of both polymorphic alleles had significantly longer event-free survival (P=0.009, HR=0.27, 95% CI=0.10-0.72). We have shown that SLCO1B1 polymorphisms influence methotrexate disposition and survival in methotrexate-treated osteosarcoma patients and therefore might serve as pharmacogenetic markers of treatment outcome.

  10. Folate intake, serum folate, serum total homocysteine levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Mami

    2004-08-01

    Various factors influence folate status and requirements. To investigate the folate status in young Japanese women (n=340, 20-22 y), I determined the serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy), and examined the influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism on folate status in a subgroup of 252 of the women. I calculated folate consumption based on records of food intake weighed over 3 d using the standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (5th revised edition) and the US Food Composition Table based on the USDA nutrient database excluding fortification. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) levels were determined by chemiluminescent-competitive protein binding assay and HPLC, respectively. The mean intake of folate was 323+/-133 and 196+/-71 microg/d, and 86.5% and 42.1% of the participants consumed more than the RDA of 200 microg of folate, according to the Japanese and US tables, respectively. The main sources of dietary folate were vegetables, green tea and bread. Serum folate levels were significantly correlated with folate intake (r=0.249, p<0.001). Serum tHcy levels were above 15 micromol/L in four participants. I found significant negative correlations between serum tHcy and folate intake (r=-0.175, p<0.05), and between serum tHcy and serum folate (r=-0.297, p<0.0001). The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes of the MTHFR gene were 32.9, 51.6 and 15.5%, respectively. Among individuals with the TT genotype, serum folate and tHcy levels were lower and higher, respectively, than in those with the other genotypes, regardless of folate intake above RDA. These data suggest that the current RDA of folate estimated based on foreign data might not be sufficient for Japanese and that this value might require reassessment.

  11. Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism modify the association of dietary and circulating folate and vitamin B-6 with cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Luciana Y; D'Almeida, Vania; Villa, Luisa L; Franco, Eduardo L; Cardoso, Marly A

    2013-12-01

    High folate intake has been suggested as an important factor in cancer prevention; however, previous studies on the relation among folate intake, serum folate, and plasma homocysteine (hcy) are controversial. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study in Brazil investigating associations between dietary and circulating vitamins B-6 and B-12 and folate, hcy, genotypes of folate-metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T, A1298C), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), and reduced folate carrier (RFC1 G80A) and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1 (CIN1), 2 (CIN2), and 3 (CIN3). The study was composed by 453 controls, 140 CIN1, 126 CIN2, and 231 CIN3. We investigated the joint effects of genetic variants of folate-related genes using genetic risk scores (GRSs) by summing the number of risk alleles for CIN1 and CIN2+ (CIN2 and CIN3 cases). The OR (95% CI) for CIN1 and CIN2+ per each risk allele were 1.29 (1.01, 1.65) and 1.22 (1.01, 1.46), respectively. An association between folate intake and CIN2+ was observed only after stratification according to GRS: crude OR (95% CI) for lower folate intake and GRS ≥ 4 was 1.67 (0.92, 3.04) (P-trend < 0.001) compared with higher folate intake (above the median) and GRS ≤ 3. The CIN2+ risk of lower serum vitamin B-6 and GRS ≥ 4 was 2.14 (0.92, 5.02) (P-trend = 0.05) and lower serum folate (below the median) and GRS ≥ 4 was 0.49 (0.20, 1.17) (P-trend = 0.05) after adjustment for confounding variables and human papillomavirus infection. Our data suggest that polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism modify the association of dietary and circulating folate and vitamin B-6 with cervical neoplasia.

  12. A Humanized Mouse Model for the Reduced Folate Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; Graham, Christine; Cherian, Christina; Matherly, Larry H.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier (RFC) or SLC19A1 is recognized to be an essential transport system for folates in mammalian cells and tissues. In addition to its generalized role as a folate transporter, RFC provides specialized tissue functions including absorption across intestinal/colonic epithelia, transport across the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubules, transplacental transport of folates, and folate transport across the blood-brain barrier. The human RFC (hRFC) gene is regulated by 5 major upstream non-coding regions (designated A1/A2, A, B, C, and D), each transcribed from a unique promoter. Altogether, at least 14 distinct hRFC transcripts can be envisaged in which different 5’ untranslated regions (UTRs) are fused to a common splice acceptor region (positions -1 to -49) within the first coding exon with a common 1776 bp coding sequence. The 5’ non-coding regions are characterized by alternate transcription start sites, multiple splice forms, and selective tissue distributions. Alternate 5’UTRs impact mRNA stabilities and translation efficiencies, and result in synthesis of modified hRFC proteins translated from upstream AUGs. In this report, we describe production and characterization of transgenic mice (TghRFC1) containing a functional hRFC gene and of humanized mice in which the mRFC gene is inactivated and an active hRFC gene has been introduced. The mice appear to be healthy and to breed well. Analysis of tissue specificity of expression in both the TghRFC1 and humanized hRFC mice by real-time RT-PCR demonstrates that the hRFC gene is expressed with a specificity closely resembling that seen in human tissues. For the humanized hRFC mice, levels of B and A1/A2 5’UTRs predominated in all mice/tissues, thus resembling results in normal human tissues. Lower levels of A and C 5’UTRs were also detected. The availability of humanized mouse models for hRFC will permit investigators to address critical unanswered

  13. [MTHFR polymorphisms, dietary folate intake and risks to breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Gao, Chang-Ming; Kazuo, Tajima; Tang, Jin-Hai; Cao, Hai-Xia; Ding, Jian-Hua; Wu, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Jie; Liu, Yan-Ting; Li, Su-Ping; Su, Ping; Keitaro, Matsuo; Toshiro, Takezaki

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dietary folate intake and genetic polymorphisms of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with reference to breast cancer risk. A case-control study was conducted with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu province of China. MTHFR C677T and A1298C genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods. Dietary folate intake was assessed by using an 83-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated with an unconditional logistic model. The frequencies of MTHFR C677T C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes were 32.37% (202/624), 48.88% (305/624) and 18.75% (117/624) in cases and 37.66% (235/624), 48.24% (301/624) and 14. 10% (88/624) in controls, respectively. The difference in distribution was significant (chi2 = 6.616, P = 0.037), the T/T genotype being associated with an elevated OR for breast cancer (1.62, 95% CI: 1.14 -2.30). The frequencies of MTHFR A1298C A/A, A/C and C/C were 71.47% (446/624), 27.08% (169/624) and 1.44% (9/624) in cases and 68.11%(425/624), 30.13% (188/624) and 1.76% (11/624)in controls,with no significant differences found (chi2 = 1.716, P= 0.424). Folate intake of cases [(263.00 +/- 137.38) microg/d] was significantly lower than that of controls [(285.12 +/- 149.61) microg/d] (t = -2. 830, P =0.005). Compared with the lowest tertile (< or = 199.08 microg/d) of folate intake, the adjusted OR for breast cancer in the top tertile (> or = 315.11 microg/d) was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.53 -0.92). Among individuals with the MTHFR A1298C A/A genotype,adjusted OR for breast cancer were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.62 - 1.27) and 1.69 (95% CI: 1.20 - 2.36) for the second to the third tertile of folate intake compared with the highest folate intake group (X2trend = 11.372, P = 0.001). The findings of the present study suggest that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms,and dietary intake of folate may modify susceptibility to breast cancer.

  14. Complex interaction between serum folate levels and genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway genes: biomarkers of prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Watson, Alexis; Seers, Vestra; Bennett, Franklyn I; Egleston, Brian; Ragin, Camille

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about the role of folate and polymorphisms associated with folate metabolism on prostate cancer risk in populations of African origin. We examined the relationship between serum folate and prostate cancer and whether any association was modified by genetic polymorphisms for folate metabolism. The study was case-control in design and consisted of 218 men 40-80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed prostate cancer and 236 cancer-free men attending the same urology clinics in Jamaica, March 2005-July 2007. Serum folate was measured by an immunoassay method and genomic DNA evaluated for MTHR (C677T and A1298C), MTRR A66G, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms. Mean serum folate concentration was higher among cases (12.3 ± 4.1 nmol/L) than controls (9.7 ± 4.2 nmol/L). Serum folate concentration showed a positive association with prostate cancer (OR, 4.41; CI, 2.52-7.72 per 10 nmol/L) regardless of grade. No interactions were observed between genotype and folate concentration, but a weak gene effect was observed for MTHFR A1298C and low-grade prostate cancer. Larger studies to investigate the role of gene-gene/gene-diet interactions in Black men are needed.

  15. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of reduced folate carrier and effect of dietary folate supplementation on the expression of reduced folate carrier in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jing, M; Tactacan, G B; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Kroeker, A; House, J D

    2009-09-01

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC) has been postulated to be a major entity for folate transport activity in humans and other mammals. However, there are limited reports of the importance of RFC in an avian system. In the current study, therefore, the molecular cloning and tissue distribution of RFC, as well as the effect of dietary folate supplementation on the expression of this transporter, were investigated in the chicken. Shaver White laying hens (n=8 per diet) received 3 wheat-based diets containing the following: 1) no supplemental folate, 2) folic acid (10.00 mg/kg), or 3) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (11.30 mg/kg) for 21 d. The mRNA expression levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the cloned partial RFC cDNA containing the full coding region from duodenum was 99% homologous to the reference gene available in GenBank. A broad expression profile of RFC transcripts was observed, with RFC mRNA detected in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, lung, intestine, ovary, and testis, as well as other tissues. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that no significant differences (P>0.05) due to diet were found in the mRNA levels of RFC in the duodenum and cecum. However, compared with the basal diet, jejunal mRNA levels of RFC were decreased (P<0.05) in hens fed with the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate diet, but the reduction did not reach significance (P=0.077) in the hens fed the folic acid diet. Overall, the current study demonstrated that the RFC cDNA containing the full coding region was successfully cloned from the duodenum of laying hens. The wide tissue distribution of RFC transcripts is suggestive of an important role of RFC in the process of folate transport in the chicken. Moreover, dietary folate supplementation could downregulate the jejunal mRNA expression of RFC. Such findings will lay the foundation of future work involving the RFC in avian systems, including laying hens.

  16. Polymorphisms in folate pathway and pemetrexed treatment outcome in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Goricar, Katja; Kovac, Viljem; Dolzan, Vita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin has been shown to improve the outcome in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), however, there is a great heterogeneity in treatment response among patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in folate pathway and transporter genes on pemetrexed treatment outcome in Slovenian patients with MPM. Methods MPM patients treated with pemetrexed in the course of a prospective randomized clinical trial were genotyped for nineteen polymorphisms in five genes of folate pathway and six transporter genes. Logistic regression was used to assess the influence of polymorphisms on treatment efficacy and toxicity, while Cox regression was used to determine their influence on progression-free and overall survival. Results Patients with at least one polymorphic MTHFD1 rs2236225 allele had a significantly lower response rate (p = 0.005; odds ratio [OR] = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03−0.54) and shorter progression-free survival (p = 0.032; hazard ratio [HR] = 3.10; 95% CI = 1.10−8.74) than non-carriers. Polymorphisms in transporter genes did not influence survival; however, several were associated with toxicity. Liver toxicity was significantly lower in carriers of polymorphic ABCC2 rs2273697 (p = 0.028; OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.06−0.85), SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (p = 0.028; OR = 0.23; 95% CI = 0.06−0.85) and rs11045879 (p = 0.014; OR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.05−0.71) alleles compared to non-carriers, as well as in patients with SLCO1B1 GCAC haplotype (p = 0.048; OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.03−0.98). Gastrointestinal toxicity was much more common in patients with polymorphic ABCC2 rs717620 allele (p = 0.004; OR = 10.67; 95% CI = 2.15−52.85) and ABCC2 CAG haplotype (p = 0.006; OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 1.64−19.66). Conclusions MTHFD1 polymorphism affected treatment response and survival, while polymorphisms in ABCC2 and SLCO1B1 transporter genes influenced the risk for toxicity. These

  17. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    those with MTHFR , MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms. The specific aims of this postdoctoral training proposal are 1) further methodological training in the...analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions by studying folate intake and folate metabolic gene polymorphisms ( MTHFR , MTR, MTRR) using data

  18. Dihydrofolate reductase 19-bp deletion polymorphism modifies the association of folate status with memory in a cross-sectional multi-ethnic study of adults123

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Dana; Buch, Assaf; Moorthy, Denish; Scott, Tammy M; Parnell, Laurence D; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovás, José M; Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Tucker, Katherine L; Troen, Aron M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Folate status has been positively associated with cognitive function in many studies; however, some studies have observed associations of poor cognitive outcomes with high folate. In search of an explanation, we hypothesized that the association of folate with cognition would be modified by the interaction of high-folate status with a common 19-bp deletion polymorphism in the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene. To our knowledge, the cognitive effects of this gene have not been studied previously. Objective: We examined the association between cognitive outcomes with the 19-bp deletion DHFR polymorphism, folate status, and their interaction with high or normal plasma folate. Design: This was a pooled cross-sectional study of the following 2 Boston-based cohorts of community living adults: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study and the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders study. Individuals were genotyped for the DHFR 19-bp deletion genotype, and plasma folate status was determined. Cognitive outcomes included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and factor scores for the domains of memory, executive function, and attention from a set of cognitive tests. Results: The prevalence of the homozygous deletion (del/del) genotype was 23%. In a multivariable analysis, high folate status (>17.8 ng/mL) was associated with better memory scores than was normal-folate status (fourth–fifth quintiles compared with first–third quintiles: β ± SE = −0.22 ± 0.06, P < 0.01). Carriers of the DHFR del/del genotype had worse memory scores (β ± SE = −0.24 ± 0.10, P < 0.05) and worse executive scores (β = −0.19, P < 0.05) than did those with the del/ins and ins/ins genotypes. Finally, we observed an interaction such that carriers of the del/del genotype with high folate had significantly worse memory scores than those of both noncarriers with high-folate and del/del carriers with normal-folate (β-interaction = 0

  19. Genetic Polymorphisms Associated to Folate Transport as Predictors of Increased Risk for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Zaruma-Torres, Fausto; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Lima, Aurea; Reyes-Espinoza, Aarón; Loera-Castañeda, Verónica; Sosa-Macías, Martha; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Arias-Peláez, María C.; Reyes-López, Miguel A.; Quiñones, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a frequent neoplasia occurring in children. The most commonly used drug for the treatment of ALL is methotrexate (MTX), an anti-folate agent. Previous studies suggest that folate transporters play a role in ALL prognosis and that genetic polymorphism of genes encoding folate transporters may increase the risk of ALL. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to determine the associations among six genetic polymorphisms in four genes related with the folate transporter pathway to determine a relationship with the occurrence of ALL in Mexican children. A case-control study was performed in 73 ALL children and 133 healthy children from Northern and Northwestern Mexico. COL18A1 (rs2274808), SLC19A1 (rs2838956), ABCB1 (rs1045642 and rs1128503), and ABCC5 (rs9838667 and rs3792585). Polymorphisms were assayed through qPCR. Our results showed an increased ALL risk in children carrying CT genotype (OR = 2.55, CI 95% 1.11–5.83, p = 0.0001) and TT genotype (OR = 21.05, CI 95% 5.62–78.87, p < 0.0001) of COL18A1 rs2274808; in SLC19A1 rs2838956 AG carriers (OR = 44.69, CI 95% 10.42–191.63, p = 0.0001); in ABCB1 rs1045642 TT carriers (OR = 13.76, CI 95% 5.94–31.88, p = 0.0001); in ABCC5 rs9838667 AC carriers (OR = 2.61, CI 95% 1.05–6.48, p < 0.05); and in ABCC5 rs3792585 CC carriers (OR = 9.99, CI 95% 3.19–31.28, p = 0.004). Moreover, several combinations of genetic polymorphisms were found to be significantly associated with a risk for ALL. Finally, two combinations of ABCC5 polymorphisms resulted in protection from this neoplasia. In conclusion, certain genetic polymorphisms related to the folate transport pathway, particularly COL18A1 rs2274808, SLC19A1 rs2838956, ABCB1 rs1045642, and ABCC5 rs3792585, were associated with an increased risk for ALL in Mexican children. PMID:27547186

  20. Polymorphisms in folate and homocysteine metabolizing genes and chromosome damage in mothers of Down syndrome children.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Colognato, Renato; Bonelli, Alessia; Astrea, Guja; Bargagna, Stefania; Siciliano, Gabriele; Migliore, Lucia

    2007-09-01

    We recently observed an association between combinations of polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C > T or 1298A > C) and reduced folate carrier (RFC-1 80G > A) genes and the risk of a Down syndrome (DS) pregnancy in young Italian women. Others have observed an association between a methionine synthase (MTR 2756A > G) gene polymorphism and the risk of a DS offspring in Italy. Moreover, in a separate study, we observed an increased frequency of both binucleated micronucleated cells (BNMN) and chromosome malsegregation events in peripheral lymphocytes of mothers of DS individuals aged less than 35 years at conception (MDS) in respect to controls. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chromosome damage, measured by means of the micronucleus assay, in peripheral lymphocytes of a group of women (n = 34) who had a DS child in young age (<35 years) and in a control group (n = 35), and to correlate them with MTHFR 677C > T and 1298A > C, RFC-1 80G > A and MTR 2756A > G polymorphisms. We observed an increased frequency of BNMN in the MDS group compared to the control group (17.13 +/- 8.31 per thousand vs. 10.28 +/- 4.53 per thousand; P < 0.001), and, in the general population, a correlation between years of age and BNMN frequency (P = 0.05). A significant correlation between the frequency of BNMN and the MTHFR 677C > T polymorphism (P = 0.038) was also found. Present results indicate that MDS are more prone to chromosome damage than control mothers; moreover the contribution of folate and homocysteine metabolizing gene polymorphisms seems to have an effect on the baseline frequency of BNMN lymphocytes. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Regulation of Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC) by Vitamin D Receptor at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Alam, Camille; Hoque, Md Tozammel; Finnell, Richard H; Goldman, I David; Bendayan, Reina

    2017-09-08

    Folates are essential for brain development and function. Folate transport in mammalian tissues is mediated by three major folate transport systems, i.e., reduced folate carrier (RFC), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and folate receptor alpha (FRα), known to be regulated by ligand-activated nuclear receptors such as vitamin D receptor (VDR). Folate uptake at the choroid plexus, which requires the actions of both FRα and PCFT, is critical to cerebral folate delivery. Inactivating FRα or PCFT mutations cause severe cerebral folate deficiency resulting in early childhood neurodegeneration. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of RFC in folate uptake at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its potential regulation by VDR. We detected robust expression of RFC in different in vitro BBB model systems, particularly in immortalized cultures of human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) and isolated mouse brain capillaries. [(3)H]-methotrexate uptake by hCMEC/D3 cells at pH 7.4 was inhibited by PT523 and pemetrexed, antifolates with high affinity for RFC. We also showed that activation of VDR through calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) exposure up-regulates RFC mRNA and protein expression as well as function in hCMEC/D3 cells and isolated mouse brain capillaries. We further demonstrated that RFC expression could be down-regulated by VDR-targeting siRNA, further confirming the role of VDR in the direct regulation of this folate transporter. Together, these data suggest that augmenting RFC functional expression could constitute a novel strategy for enhancing brain folate delivery for the treatment of neurometabolic disorders caused by loss of FRα or PCFT function.

  2. Folate and Thiamine Transporters mediated by Facilitative Carriers (SLC19A1-3 and SLC46A1) and Folate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2013-01-01

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC,SLC19A1), thiamine transporter-1 (ThTr1,SLC19A2) and thiamine transporter-2 (ThTr2,SLC19A3) evolved from the same family of solute carriers. SLC19A1 transports folates but not thiamine. SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 transport thiamine but not folates. SLC19A1 and SLC19A2 deliver their substrates to systemic tissues; SLC19A3 mediates intestinal thiamine absorption. The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT,SLC46A1) is the mechanism by which folates are absorbed across the apical-brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine. Two folate receptors (FOLR1 and FOLR2) mediate folate transport across epithelia by an endocytic process. Folate transporters are routes of delivery of drugs for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. There are autosomal recessive disorders associated with mutations in genes encoded for SLC46A1 (hereditary folate malabsorption), FOLR1 (cerebral folate deficiency), SLC19A2 (thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia), and SLC19A3 (biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease). PMID:23506878

  3. Homocysteine Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) Jointly Elevate the Risk of Folate Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2015-08-10

    Folate deficiency is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to explore the joint effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms on folate deficiency in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 480 subjects aged 28-75 were enrolled in this study from September 2005-December 2005 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Known genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP methods and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Our results showed that MTHFR 677TT and MTR 2756AG + GG were independently associated with a higher risk of folate deficiency (TT vs. CC + CT, p < 0.001 and AG + GG vs. AA p = 0.030, respectively). However, the MTHFR A1298C mutation may confer protection by elevating the serum folate level (p = 0.025). Furthermore, patients carrying two or more risk genotypes showed higher odds of folate deficiency than null risk genotype carriers, especially those carrying four risk genotypes. These findings were verified by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (p = 0.0107) and a cumulative effects model (p = 0.001). The results of this study have shown that interactions among homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms lead to dramatic elevations in the folate deficiency risk.

  4. Homocysteine Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) Jointly Elevate the Risk of Folate Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Xing; Dai, Shao-Xing; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Liu, Jia-Qian; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Folate deficiency is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. We aimed to explore the joint effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms on folate deficiency in a Chinese hypertensive population. A total of 480 subjects aged 28–75 were enrolled in this study from September 2005–December 2005 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Known genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP methods and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Our results showed that MTHFR 677TT and MTR 2756AG + GG were independently associated with a higher risk of folate deficiency (TT vs. CC + CT, p < 0.001 and AG + GG vs. AA p = 0.030, respectively). However, the MTHFR A1298C mutation may confer protection by elevating the serum folate level (p = 0.025). Furthermore, patients carrying two or more risk genotypes showed higher odds of folate deficiency than null risk genotype carriers, especially those carrying four risk genotypes. These findings were verified by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (p = 0.0107) and a cumulative effects model (p = 0.001). The results of this study have shown that interactions among homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms lead to dramatic elevations in the folate deficiency risk. PMID:26266420

  5. Polymorphisms in the CBS gene and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 levels: association with polymorphisms in the MTHFR and MTRR genes in Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Aléssio, Ana C M; Siqueira, Lúcia H; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Höehr, Nelci F; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M

    2008-10-15

    Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) genes, involved in the intracellular metabolism of homocysteine (Hcy), can result in hyperhomocysteinemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate prevalence estimates of CBS T833C, G919A and the insertion of 68-bp (844ins68) polymorphisms and their correlation with Hcy, folate and B(12) in 220 children previously genotyped for MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G. The prevalence of heterozygote children for 844ins68 was 19.5%. The T833C CBS mutation was identified in association with 844ins68 in all the carriers of the insertion. Genotyping for CBS G919A mutation showed that all the children presented the GG genotype. Analysis of Hcy, B(12) and folate, according to the combination of the different genotypes of the C677T and A1298C MTHFR, A66G MTRR, and 844ins68 CBS showed that the 677TT/1298AA/68WW genotype is associated with an increase in Hcy, when compared to the 677CC/1298AC/68WW (P = 0.033) and the 677CT/1298AA/68WW genotypes (P = 0.034). Since B(12) and folate were not different between these groups, a genetic interaction between diverse polymorphisms probably influences Hcy. Our results emphasize the role of genetic interactions in Hcy levels. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Gene polymorphisms involved in folate and methionine metabolism and increased risk of sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, José Luiz Miranda; Ayrizono, Maria de Lurdes; Coy, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues; Lima, Carmen Silvia Passos

    2011-10-01

    This pilot study has compared the polymorphic genotype frequencies of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR A1298C and C677T), methionine synthase (MTR A2756G), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), and thymidylate synthase (TS 2R/3R) in 113 patients with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma (SCA) and 188 healthy blood donors, used as matched controls. The aim was to assess the role of these genotypes in the increased risk of SCA among the southeastern Brazilian population. Carriers of genotype MTRR 66GG, or the combined variants MTHFR 1298AC + CC plus 677CT + TT, or MTHFR 677CT + TT plus MTR 2756AG + GG, or MTHFR 1298AC + CC plus 677CT + TT plus MTR 2756AG + GG, or yet, MTHFR 1298AC + CC plus 677CT + TT plus MTRR 66AG + GG, respectively, showed an increased risk of the order of 1.99-, 3.26-, 2.22-, 10.92-, and 14.88-fold of developing SCA when compared with carriers of the other studied polymorphic genotypes, whether in isolation or in combination. In addition, individuals with the MTHFR 677CT + TT or the MTR 2756AG + GG genotypes had a 2.12- and a 1.42-fold increased risks of SCA onset before 50 years of age. African-Brazilians with the MTRR 66GG genotype had a 1.98-fold increased risk of SCA while individuals with the MTR 2756AG + GG and the MTHFR 677CT + TT genotypes showed a 2.11- and a 1.62-fold increased risk of undifferentiated and advanced tumors at diagnosis, respectively. Carriers of genotype MTHFR 1298AC + CC or MTHFR 1298AC + CC plus MTRR 66AG + GG had a 1.42- and a 3.07-fold increased risk of rectal tumor, respectively. Additionally, carriers of MTHFR 677CT + TT or MTHFR 677CT + TT plus TS 2R/3R + 3R/3R had a 1.55- and a 5.39-fold increased risk for colon tumor, respectively, in comparison with carriers of the wild genotypes. These data suggest that all polymorphisms coding for folate and methionine-dependent enzymes, particularly when present in combination with

  7. Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA, A Potential Carrier for Lymph-Metastasized Tumor Targeting.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bing; Xie, Cao; Zhu, Jianhua; He, Wei; Lu, Weiyue

    2010-05-01

    A novel conjugate, Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA, was designed and prepared as a carrier for lymphatic metastasized tumor imaging diagnosis and targeting therapy. Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA was synthesized and characterized by analysis High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Size Exclusive Chromatography and (1)H-NMR. (99m)Tc-labeled conjugation was prepared, and in vivo quantitative biodistribution and SPECT imaging were studied after subcutaneously injected into the rats and rabbits, respectively. Cell uptake study was carried in a KB cell line using fluorescent methods. In vivo and ex vivo fluorescent imaging study was carried in tumor-bearing nude mouse to evaluate its targeting ability. Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA was synthesized with high purity. Both in vivo biodistribution study and SPECT imaging study show the rapid direction and high distribution of the conjugation to the lymph nodes. The uptake of fluorescence-labeled Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA in human oral epidermis carcinoma cells was observed. In vivo and ex vivo fluorescent imaging study indicated it could accumulate in tumor region after vein tail injection in nude mouse. All these findings suggested Folate-PEG-CKK(2)-DTPA as a novel and dependable carrier for tumor diagnosis and therapy, especially for lymph-metastasized tumors.

  8. Polymorphism of SLC25A32, the folate transporter gene, is associated with plasma folate levels and bone fractures in Japanese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Urano, Tomohiko; Shiraki, Masataka; Saito, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Noriko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    Elevation of homocysteine is associated with an increased risk for bone fractures. We previously reported that the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism is associated with homocysteine levels and fracture. The association between the fracture and folate levels or their related gene polymorphisms is not completely clear. We speculated that the SLC25A32 gene, the mitochondrial inner membrane folate transporter, also could be implicated in the regulation of folate metabolism and fracture. A total of 851 Japanese postmenopausal women participated in the association study between the single nucleotide polymorphism genotype and plasma homocysteine or folate. We also tested the association between the candidate single nucleotide polymorphism and 663 postmenopausal women. The AA genotype of rs2241777 single nucleotide polymorphism at the 3'UTR region in the SLC25A32 gene was associated with lower plasma folate concentration compared with the other genotypes in 851 postmenopausal women. A total of 674 postmenopausal ambulatory Japanese women were followed up for 5.5 ± 0.1 years (mean ± SE). The AA genotype groups also showed an apparently higher rate and earlier onset of incident fractures than the other genotypes. A total of 407 participants had >70% young-adult mean bone mineral density at the start of the observation. These results show that the SLC25A32 gene polymorphism could be a risk factor for lower folate concentration and future fracture. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Heterozygous carriers of classical homocystinuria tend to have higher fasting serum homocysteine concentrations than non-carriers in the presence of folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yung-Hsiu; Cheng, Li-Mei; Huang, Yu-Hsiu; Lo, Ming-Yu; Wu, Tina Jui-Ting; Lin, Hsiang-Yu; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have reported that serum total homocysteine (tHcy) levels in cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) carriers are usually normal and only elevated after a methionine load. However, the amount of methionine required for a loading test is non-physiological and is never reached with regular feeding. Therefore, CBS carriers do not seem to be at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the risk of cardiovascular diseases of CBS carriers with folate deficiency has not been studied. We recently found an extraordinarily high carrier rate (1/7.78) of a novel CBS mutation (p.D47E, c.T141A) in an Austronesian Taiwanese Tao tribe who live in a geographic area with folate deficiency. We evaluated if the CBS carriers tend to have higher fasting serum tHcy concentrations than non-carriers in presence of folate deficiency. The serum tHcy and folate levels before and after folate replacement were measured in 48 adult Tao carriers, 40 age-matched Tao non-carriers and 40 age-matched Han Taiwanese controls. The serum tHcy level of the Tao CBS carriers (17.9 ± 3.8 μmol/l) was significantly higher than in Tao non-carriers (15.7 ± 3.5 μmol/l; p < 0.008) and Taiwanese controls (11.8 ± 2.9 μmol/l; p < 0.001). Furthermore, a high prevalence of folate deficiency in the Tao compared with the Taiwanese controls (4.9 ± 1.8 ng/ml vs. 10.6 ± 5.5 ng/ml; p < 0.001) was also noted. Of note, the difference in tHcy levels between the carriers and non-carriers was eliminated by folate supplementation. (carriers:13.65 ± 2.13 μmol/l; non-carriers:12.39 ± 3.25 μmol/l, p = 0.321). CBS carriers tend to have a higher tHcy level in the presence of folate deficiency than non-carriers. Although many reports have indicated that CBS carriers are not associated with cardiovascular disease, the risk for CBS carriers with folate deficiency has not been well studied. Owing to a significantly elevated level of fasting tHcy without methionine loading, it is important to evaluate the

  10. Folate Levels and Polymorphisms in the Genes MTHFR, MTR, and TS in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taflin, Helena; Wettergren, Yvonne; Odin, Elisabeth; Carlsson, Göran; Derwinger, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to explore and describe the effect of polymorphisms in folate-associated genes regarding the levels of different folate forms and their distribution in tumors and mucosa in patients with colorectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tumor and mucosa tissues from 53 patients with colorectal cancer were analyzed. The concentrations of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-methylTHF, and 5,10-methyleneTHF were measured by liquid chromatography—mass spectrometry. Genotyping of polymorphisms in the folate-associated genes methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, C677T), methionine synthase (MTR, A2756G), and thymidylate synthase (TS, 5′-TSER 28 bp tandem repeat and 3′-TSUTR 6 bp deletion/insertion), were done by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Folate levels and distributions were determined in the total patient cohort and after subgrouping by genotypes. RESULTS The total folate level, as well as the THF and 5,10-methyleneTHF levels, were significantly higher in the tumor compared with mucosa tissue (P = 0.030, 0.031, and 0.015, respectively). The individual variation in folate levels in both tumor and mucosa were larger than the variation found when the patients were subgrouped by the gene polymorphisms. No significant differences in the mean concentration of any folate in the mucosa or tumor tissue were found in relation to the analyzed polymorphisms. The percentage level of 5,10-methyleneTHF in tumors was highest in patients with the MTHFR 677 CC genotype, and lowest in patients with the TT genotype (P = 0.033). A significantly lower percentage level of the 5,10-methyleneTHF level was found in tumors of patients with the 5′-TSER 3R/3R genotype (P = 0.0031). CONCLUSION A significant difference was found between the percentage level of 5,10-methyleneTHF in tumor tissues in relation to the MTHFR C677T and 5′-TSER 28 bp repeat polymorphisms. However, no differences were found in the actual tissue folate levels, or in their distribution, in

  11. Dietary intake of folate and alcohol, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, and colorectal cancer risk in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Yong; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Hun-Jae; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing sharply in Korea, and evidence has suggested the role of dietary methyl supply and related polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the association between folate and alcohol intake, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and CRC risk in Koreans. A total of 787 cases and 656 controls were recruited from 2 university hospitals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and corresponding 95% CIs. MTHFR 677T homozygotes were at a lower risk of CRC (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.78 for TT compared with CC/CT). High folate intake was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.84 for high compared with low intake), and high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of CRC (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.46 for high compared with low intake). When data were stratified by the amount of dietary methyl (combined intake of folate and alcohol), those with low-methyl diets had higher risk of CRC (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.56) than did those with high-methyl diets among CC/CT carriers, whereas the amount of dietary methyl did not affect the CRC risk among carriers with the TT homozygous variant. This association was stronger in patients with colon cancer than in patients with rectal cancer. We found that the effect of dietary methyl supply on colorectal carcinogenesis may differ according to MTHFR C677T genotype and the subsite of origin in a Korean population.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine: maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Biselli, J M; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Zampieri, B L; Haddad, R; Eberlin, M N; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C

    2008-01-22

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of polymorphisms C677T and A1298C in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, A2756G in methionine synthase reductase (MTR) gene and A80G in reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) gene, and plasma homocysteine (Hcy), on the maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS). Seventy-two DS mothers and 194 mothers who had no children with DS were evaluated. The investigation of the MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G and RFC1 A80G polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction and enzyme digestion and the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Hcy quantification was carried out by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The median number of polymorphic alleles for the four loci tested was greater in DS mothers compared to the control group, and the presence of three or more polymorphic alleles increased the risk for having a child with DS 1.74 times. Elevated maternal risk for DS was also observed when plasma Hcy concentration was higher than 4.99 micromol/L. In conclusion, the presence of three or more polymorphic alleles for MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, and RFC1 A80G, and plasma Hcy concentrations higher than 4.99 micromol/L are maternal risk factors for DS.

  13. Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms in folate uptake and metabolizing genes with blood folate, homocysteine and DNA uracil concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Folate is an essential nutrient which supports nucleotide synthesis and biological methylation reactions. Diminished folate status results in chromosome breakage and is associated with several diseases including colorectal cancer. Folate status is also inversely related to plasma homocys...

  14. The Major Facilitative Folate Transporters Solute Carrier 19A1 and Solute Carrier 46A1: Biology and Role in Antifolate Chemotherapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mike R.; Hou, Zhanjun

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes the biology of the major facilitative membrane transporters, the reduced folate carrier (RFC) (Solute Carrier 19A1) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) (Solute Carrier 46A1). Folates are essential vitamins, and folate deficiency contributes to a variety of health disorders. RFC is ubiquitously expressed and is the major folate transporter in mammalian cells and tissues. PCFT mediates the intestinal absorption of dietary folates and appears to be important for transport of folates into the central nervous system. Clinically relevant antifolates for cancer, such as methotrexate and pralatrexate, are transported by RFC, and loss of RFC transport is an important mechanism of methotrexate resistance in cancer cell lines and in patients. PCFT is expressed in human tumors, and is active at pH conditions associated with the tumor microenvironment. Pemetrexed is an excellent substrate for both RFC and PCFT. Novel tumor-targeted antifolates related to pemetrexed with selective membrane transport by PCFT over RFC are being developed. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding the structural and functional properties and the regulation of RFC and PCFT. The molecular bases for methotrexate resistance associated with loss of RFC transport and for hereditary folate malabsorption, attributable to mutant PCFT, were determined. Future studies should continue to translate molecular insights from basic studies of RFC and PCFT biology into new therapeutic strategies for cancer and other diseases. PMID:24396145

  15. The major facilitative folate transporters solute carrier 19A1 and solute carrier 46A1: biology and role in antifolate chemotherapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Matherly, Larry H; Wilson, Mike R; Hou, Zhanjun

    2014-04-01

    This review summarizes the biology of the major facilitative membrane transporters, the reduced folate carrier (RFC) (Solute Carrier 19A1) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) (Solute Carrier 46A1). Folates are essential vitamins, and folate deficiency contributes to a variety of health disorders. RFC is ubiquitously expressed and is the major folate transporter in mammalian cells and tissues. PCFT mediates the intestinal absorption of dietary folates and appears to be important for transport of folates into the central nervous system. Clinically relevant antifolates for cancer, such as methotrexate and pralatrexate, are transported by RFC, and loss of RFC transport is an important mechanism of methotrexate resistance in cancer cell lines and in patients. PCFT is expressed in human tumors, and is active at pH conditions associated with the tumor microenvironment. Pemetrexed is an excellent substrate for both RFC and PCFT. Novel tumor-targeted antifolates related to pemetrexed with selective membrane transport by PCFT over RFC are being developed. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding the structural and functional properties and the regulation of RFC and PCFT. The molecular bases for methotrexate resistance associated with loss of RFC transport and for hereditary folate malabsorption, attributable to mutant PCFT, were determined. Future studies should continue to translate molecular insights from basic studies of RFC and PCFT biology into new therapeutic strategies for cancer and other diseases.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms modulate the folate metabolism of Brazilian individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Biselli, J M; Zampieri, B L; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Haddad, R; Fonseca, M F R; Eberlin, M N; Vannucchi, H; Carvalho, V M; Pavarino, E C

    2012-10-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) carry three copies of the Cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) gene. The increase in the dosage of this gene results in an altered profile of metabolites involved in the folate pathway, including reduced homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Furthermore, previous studies in individuals with DS have shown that genetic variants in genes involved in the folate pathway influence the concentrations of this metabolism's products. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism affect the plasma concentrations of Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) along with the concentration of serum folate in individuals with DS. Twelve genetic polymorphisms were investigated in 90 individuals with DS (median age 1.29 years, range 0.07-30.35 years; 49 male and 41 female). Genotyping for the polymorphisms was performed either by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques or by direct sequencing. Plasma concentrations of Hcy and MMA were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry as previously described, and serum folate was quantified using a competitive immunoassay. Our results indicate that the MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G, TC2 C776G and BHMT G742A polymorphisms along with MMA concentration are predictors of Hcy concentration. They also show that age and Hcy concentration are predictors of MMA concentration. These findings could help to understand how genetic variation impacts folate metabolism and what metabolic consequences these variants have in individuals with trisomy 21.

  17. Folate and Breast Cancer: Role of Intake, Blood Levels, and Metabolic Gene Polymorphisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    intake is associated with a decreased breast cancer risk particularly among those with MTHFR , MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms. The specific aims are 1...misincorporation in breast cancer risk. To date, the major results are the MTHFR 677TT genotype and low folate intake is associated with an increased risk of

  18. Folate-related nutrients, genetic polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk: the fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Makiko; Yin, Guang; Yoshimitsu, Shin-ichiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2013-01-01

    One-carbon metabolism plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Meta-analyses have suggested protective associations of folate and vitamin B6 intakes with colorectal cancer primarily based on studies in Caucasians, and genetic polymorphisms pertaining to the folate metabolism have been a matter of interest. Less investigated are the roles of methionine synthase (MTR) and thymidylate synthetase (TS) polymorphisms in colorectal carcinogenesis. In a study of 816 cases and 815 community controls in Japan, we investigated associations of dietary intakes of folate, methionine, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 with colorectal cancer risk. The associations with MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, and TSER repeat polymorphism were examined in 685 cases and 778 controls. Methionine and vitamin B12 intakes were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but the associations were totally confounded by dietary calcium and n-3 fatty acids. The other nutrients showed no association with the risk even without adjustment for calcium and n-3 fatty acids. The TSER 2R allele was dose-dependently associated with an increased risk. The MTR and MTRR polymorphisms were unrelated to colorectal cancer risk. There was no measurable gene-gene or gene-nutrient interaction, but increased risk associated with the TSER 2R allele seemed to be confined to individuals with high folate status. This study does not support protective associations for folate and vitamin B6. The TSER 2R allele may confer an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The role of the TSER polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis may differ by ethnicity.

  19. Dioxin mediates downregulation of the reduced folate carrier transport activity via the arylhydrocarbon receptor signalling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Halwachs, Sandra; Lakoma, Cathleen; Gebhardt, Rolf; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2010-07-15

    Dioxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are common environmental contaminants known to regulate several genes via activation of the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) associated with the development of numerous adverse biological effects. However, comparatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which dioxins display their toxic effects in vertebrates. The 5' untranslated region of the hepatocellular Reduced folate carrier (Rfc1; Slc19a1) exhibits AhR binding sites termed dioxin responsive elements (DRE) that have as yet only been found in the promoter region of prototypical TCDD target genes. Rfc1 mediated transport of reduced folates and antifolate drugs such as methotrexate (MTX) plays an essential role in physiological folate homeostasis and MTX cancer chemotherapy. In order to determine whether this carrier represents a target gene of dioxins we have investigated the influence of TCDD on functional Rfc1 activity in rat liver. Pre-treatment of rats with TCDD significantly diminished hepatocellular Rfc1 uptake activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In further mechanistic studies we demonstrated that this reduction was due to TCDD-dependent activation of the AhR signalling pathway. We additionally showed that binding of the activated receptor to DRE motifs in the Rfc1 promoter resulted in downregulation of Rfc1 gene expression and reduced carrier protein levels. As downregulation of pivotal Rfc1 activity results in functional folate deficiency associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular diseases or carcinogenesis, our results indicate that deregulation of this essential transport pathway represents a novel regulatory mechanism how dioxins display their toxic effects through the Ah receptor.

  20. Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Abe, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Mai; Ohta, Kin-ya; Otagiri, Masaki; Hayashi, Yayoi; Yuasa, Hiroaki

    2007-08-01

    The functional characteristics of human proton coupled folate transporter (hPCFT)/heme carrier protein (HCP) 1 were investigated. hPCFT/HCP1 expressed transiently in human embryonic kidney 293 cells mediated the transport of folate at an acidic extracellular pH of 5.5 in a manner independent of Na(+) and insensitive to membrane potential, but its transport activity was absent at near-neutral pH. Folate transport mediated by hPCFT/hHCP1 at pH 5.5 was saturable with a K(m) of 1.67 microM and extensively inhibited by reduced folates, such as folinate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and methotrexate (MTX). Sulfobro-mophthalein and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid were also found to be potent inhibitors of hPCFT/hHCP1, but hemin was found to exhibit only minimal inhibitory effect. When expressed stably as a protein fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP-hPCFT/HCP1) in MDCKII cells, GFP-hPCFT/HCP1 was mainly localized at the apical membrane, and the cellular accumulation of MTX was higher from the apical side than from the basal side. These functional features of hPCFT/HCP1 are consistent with those of the well characterized carrier-mediated folate transport system in the small intestine, suggesting that hPCFT/HCP1 is responsible for the intestinal absorption of folate and also MTX. We also found that sulfasalazine is a potent inhibitor of hPCFT/HCP1, which would interfere with the intestinal absorption of MTX when coadministered in therapy for rheumatoid arthritis as well as folate.

  1. Preservation of folate transport activity with a low-pH optimum in rat IEC-6 intestinal epithelial cell lines that lack reduced folate carrier function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Rajgopal, Arun; Goldman, I David; Zhao, Rongbao

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal folate transport has been well characterized, and rat small intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells have been used as a model system for the study of this process on the cellular level. The major intestinal folate transport activity has a low-pH optimum, and the current paradigm is that this process is mediated by the reduced folate carrier (RFC), despite the fact that this carrier has a neutral pH optimum in leukemia cells. The current study addressed the question of whether constitutive low-pH folate transport activity in IEC-6 cells is mediated by RFC. Two independent IEC-6 sublines, IEC-6/A4 and IEC-6/PT1, were generated by chemical mutagenesis followed by selective pressure with antifolates. In IEC-6/A4 cells, a premature stop resulted in truncation of RFC at Gln(420). A green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion with the truncated protein was not stable. In IEC-6/PT1 cells, Ser(135) was deleted, and this alteration resulted in the failure of localization of the GFP fusion protein in the plasma membrane. In both cell lines, methotrexate (MTX) influx at neutral pH was markedly decreased compared with wild-type IEC-6 cells, but MTX influx at pH 5.5 was not depressed. Transient transfection of the GFP-mutated RFC constructs into RFC-null HeLa cells confirmed their lack of transport function. These results indicate that in IEC-6 cells, folate transport at neutral pH is mediated predominantly by RFC; however, the folate transport activity at pH 5.5 is RFC independent. Hence, constitutive folate transport activity with a low-pH optimum in this intestinal cell model is mediated by a process entirely distinct from that of RFC.

  2. Polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not associated with somatic nondisjunction in turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Adriana Valéria Sales; dos Santos, Luana Oliveira; de Barros, Juliana Vieira; Duarte, Andrea Rezende; Araújo, Jacqueline; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; Santos, Neide

    2015-07-01

    Folate metabolism dysfunction can lead to DNA hypomethylation and abnormal chromosomal segregation. Previous investigations of this association have produced controversial results. Here we performed a case-control study in patients with Turner syndrome (TS) to determine the effects of genetic polymorphisms of folate pathway genes as potential risk factors for somatic chromosomal nondisjunction. TS is a useful model for this investigation because patients with TS show a high frequency of chromosome mosaicism. Here we investigated the possible association of polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene with TS risk, which has been previously investigated with controversial results. We also examined the effects of MTR, RFC1, and TYMS gene polymorphisms in TS for the first time. The risk was evaluated according to allelic and genotype (independent and combined) frequencies among 70 patients with TS and 144 age-matched healthy control subjects. Polymorphism genotyping was performed by PCR, PCR-RFLP, and PCR-ASA. The polymorphisms MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C, MTR 2756A>G, RFC1 80G>A, and TYMS 2R/3R-alone or in combinations-were not associated with the risk of chromosomal aneuploidy in TS. In conclusion, our present findings did not support a link between impaired folate metabolism and abnormal chromosome segregation leading to somatic nondisjunction in TS patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Associations of polymorphisms of folate cycle enzymes and risk of breast cancer in a Brazilian population are age dependent.

    PubMed

    Carvalho Barbosa, Rita de Cássia; Menezes, Débora Costa; Freire, Thiago Fernando Vasconcelos; Sales, Diogo Campos; Alencar, Victor Hugo Medeiros; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2012-04-01

    Polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism have been shown to be implicated in breast cancer risk but with contradictory results. In this case-control study, we investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C, TYMS 5'-UTR, MTR A2756G and cSHMT C1420T and also the folate carrier (RFC1 G80A) and breast cancer risk in a northeastern Brazilian population. The study included 183 women diagnosed with breast cancer and 183 controls volunteers without any history of cancer. Also a significant number of healthy individuals were included for allelic frequency in the population studied. Risk of breast cancer was estimated by conditional logistic regression. An association with risk was found for women carrying the MTR A2756G polymorphic allele (AG, P = 0.0036; AG/GG, P = 0.0040), and a protective effect in carriers of the RFC1 G80A polymorphic allele (GA, P = 0.0015; AA, P = 0.0042). Stratifying the data by age (cutoff point of 50 years old), different distributions were observed for breast cancer risk. For women ≤50 years, the risk observed in the presence of the polymorphic allele MTR 2756 (AG/GG) in the general analysis was, restricted to this age group (P = 0.0118). Conversely, for women over 50, the risk of breast cancer development was statistically associated with the MTHFR 677CT genotype, but especially significant was risk associated with the presence of the polymorphic allele of cSHMT C1420T (P = 0.0120) and the protective effect associated with the RFC1 G80A polymorphism allele (P = 0.0021), was restrict to this age group. These data indicate that the cutoff age used (50 years old) was appropriate, since it was able to discriminate risk in each age group in the population studied and also to point to the importance of age in the analyses of cancer-associated polymorphisms.

  4. Folate and One-Carbon Metabolism Gene Polymorphisms and Their Associations With Oral Facial Clefts

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Abee L.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Taylor, Jack A.; Meyer, Klaus; Fredriksen, Åse; Ueland, Per Magne; Drevon, Christian A.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Lie, Rolv Terje

    2008-01-01

    Folate metabolism plays a critical role in embryonic development. Prenatal folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and probably oral facial clefts. Previous studies of related metabolic genes have associated polymorphisms in cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with cleft risk. We explored associations between genes related to one-carbon metabolism and clefts in a Norwegian population-based study that included 362 families with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and 191 families with cleft palate only (CPO). We previously showed a 39% reduction in risk of CL/P with folic acid supplementation in this population. In the present study we genotyped 12 polymorphisms in nine genes related to one-carbon metabolism and looked for associations of clefting risk with fetal polymorphisms, maternal polymorphisms, as well as parent-of-origin effects, using combined likelihood-ratio tests (LRT). We also stratified by maternal periconceptional intake of folic acid (>400 μg) to explore gene-exposure interactions. We found a reduced risk of CL/P with mothers who carried the CBS C699T variant (rs234706); relative risk was 0.94 with one copy of the T allele (95% CI 0.63-1.4) and 0.50 (95% CI 0.26-0.96) with two copies (P = 0.008). We found no evidence of interaction of this variant with folate status. We saw no evidence of risk from the MTHFR C677T variant (rs1801133) either overall or after stratifying by maternal folate intake. No associations were found between any of the polymorphisms and CPO. Genetic variations in the nine metabolic genes examined here do not confer a substantial degree of risk for clefts. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.† PMID:18203168

  5. Thymidylate synthase polymorphisms, folate and B-vitamin intake, and risk of colorectal adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Hubner, R A; Liu, J-F; Sellick, G S; Logan, R F A; Houlston, R S; Muir, K R

    2007-01-01

    The effects of polymorphisms in genes coding for key folate metabolism enzymes such as thymidylate synthetase (TS) on colorectal neoplasia risk are likely to be influenced by gene–gene and gene–nutrient interactions. We investigated the combined effects of three polymorphisms in the TS gene region, TSER, TS 3R G>C, and TS 1494del6, dietary intakes of folate and other B vitamins, and genotype for other folate metabolism variants, in a colorectal adenoma (CRA) case–control study. Individuals homozygous for TS 1494del6 del/del were at significantly reduced CRA risk compared to those with either ins/del or ins/ins genotypes (odds ratio 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.31–0.85, P=0.009). We also observed evidence of interactions between TS 1494del6 genotype and intake of folate, and vitamins B6 and B12, and MTHFR C677T genotype, with the reduction in risk in del/del homozygotes being largely confined to individuals with high nutrient intakes and MTHFR 677CC genotype (Pinteraction=0.01, 0.006, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively). TSER genotype, when considered either alone or in combination with TS 3R G>C genotype, did not significantly influence CRA risk. These findings support a role for TS in colorectal carcinogenesis, and provide further evidence that functional polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes act as low-risk alleles for colorectal neoplasia and participate in complex gene–gene and gene–nutrient interactions. PMID:17971770

  6. Folate Deficiency and Gene Polymorphisms of MTHFR, MTR and MTRR Elevate the Hyperhomocysteinemia Risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Cheng, Fei; Zhang, A-Jie; Dai, Shao-Xing; Li, Gong-Hua; Lv, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Fang; Liu, Dahai; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2017-03-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We aimed to investigate the joint effect of homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms, as well as the folate deficiency on the risk of HHcy in a Chinese hypertensive population. This study enrolled 480 hypertensive patients aged 28 - 75 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions from 9/2005 - 12/2005. Known genotypes of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G were detected by PCRRFLP methods. Serum Hcy was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G can independently elevate the risk of HHcy (TT vs. CC + CT, p < 0.001 and AG + GG vs. AA, p = 0.026, respectively), whereas MTHFR A1298C decreased HHcy risk (AC + CC vs. AA, p < 0.001) and showed a protective effect against HHcy risk. Importantly, the joint effect of these risk genotypes showed significantly higher odds of HHcy than non-risk genotypes, especially the patients with four risk genotypes. It is noteworthy that this deleterious effect was aggravated by folate deficiency. These findings were verified by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction model (p = 0.001) and a cumulative effects model (p < 0.001). We have first demonstrated that the joint effect of homocysteine metabolism gene polymorphisms and folate deficiency lead to dramatic elevations in the HHcy risk.

  7. Modulatory effect of plasma folate and polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism on catecholamine methyltransferase (COMT) H108L associated oxidative DNA damage and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Pavani, Addepalli; Rupasree, Yedluri; Sripurna, Deepti; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadha Rao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2011-08-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the modulatory role of plasma folate and eight putatively functional polymorphisms of one-carbon metabolism on catecholamine methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated oxidative DNA damage and breast cancer risk. Plasma folate and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were estimated by commercially available kits, while polymorphisms were screened by PCR-RFLP and PCR-AFLP methods. COMT H108L polymorphism showed independent association with breast cancer (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.31-2.30). No significant interaction was observed between folate status and COMT genotype. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis gave evidence for the significant epistatic (gene-gene) interactions (p<0.0001) of COMT H108L with reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) G80A, thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5'-UTR 3R2R, TYMS 3'-UTR ins6/de16. Increased plasma 8-oxodG were observed in cases compared to controls (mean +/- SE: 5.59 +/- 0.60 vs. 3.50 +/- 0.40 ng/ml, p<0.004). Plasma folate deficiency alone was not a significant predictor of 8-oxodG elevation. The genotype combinations namely, RFC1 G80A/methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, RFC1 G80A/SHMT C1420T/TYMS 3R2R and serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) C1420T/TYMS 3R2R/methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G/COMT H108L were strong predictors of 8-oxodG elevation in the order of risk. To conclude, the current study provides substantial evidence for a cross talk between one-carbon metabolism and COMT catalysis that might influence oxidative DNA damage and breast cancer risk.

  8. Possible selection of host folate pathway gene polymorphisms in patients with malaria from a malaria endemic region in North East India

    PubMed Central

    Mirgal, Darshana; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Mahanta, Jagadish; Dutta, Prafulla; Shetty, Shrimati

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies in experimental mice have shown that mild deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme confers protection against malaria, thus providing an important basis for the hypothesis that MTHFR polymorphism, i.e. C677T, might have been subjected to selection pressure against malaria. The present study was undertaken in a malaria endemic region in North East India to assess whether a similar selection advantage exists for other genes in folate metabolism pathway. Methods A total of 401 subjects including 131 symptomatic malaria, 97 asymptomatic malaria and 173 normal healthy controls were analysed for nine polymorphisms (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] in eight genes and insertion/deletion in one gene): MTHFR C677T, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) C1561T, cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC-1) G80A, serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) C1420T, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, MTHFR G1793A (D 919G), glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) 1289 by PCR-RFLP technique. Differences in frequencies of genotype distribution of each polymorphic marker between these groups were evaluated. Results MTRR A2756G, SHMT C1420T, GCPII C1561T, MTRR A2756G and GNMT C1289T and RFC1 G80A polymorphisms showed significantly different prevalence between different groups analyzed. No significant differences were seen in the distribution of other polymorphisms. Conclusions The study gives a clue for the possible selection of specific polymorphisms in the genes involved in the folate metabolism pathway by malaria parasite. PMID:27198213

  9. Folate pathway gene polymorphisms, maternal folic acid use, and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Milne, Elizabeth; Greenop, Kathryn R; Scott, Rodney J; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Attia, John; Jamieson, Sarra E; Miller, Margaret; Bower, Carol; Bailey, Helen D; Dawson, Somer; McCowage, Geoffrey B; de Klerk, Nicholas H; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation before or during pregnancy protects against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated associations between ALL risk and folate pathway gene polymorphisms, and their modification by maternal folic acid supplements, in a population-based case-control study (2003-2007). All Australian pediatric oncology centers provided cases; controls were recruited by national random digit dialing. Data from 392 cases and 535 controls were included. Seven folate pathway gene polymorphisms (MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTRR 66A>G, MTR 2756 A>G, MTR 5049 C>A, CBS 844 Ins68, and CBS 2199 T>C) were genotyped in children and their parents. Information on prepregnancy maternal folic acid supplement use was collected. ORs were estimated with unconditional logistic regression adjusted for frequency-matched variables and potential confounders. Case-parent trios were also analyzed. There was some evidence of a reduced risk of ALL among children who had, or whose father had, the MTRR 66GG genotype: ORs 0.60 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.91] and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.40-1.03), respectively. The ORs for paternal MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.02-1.93) and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.06-3.07). ORs varied little by maternal folic acid supplementation. Some folate pathway gene polymorphisms in the child or a parent may influence ALL risk. While biologically plausible, underlying mechanisms for these associations need further elucidation. Folate pathway polymorphisms may be related to risk of childhood ALL, but larger studies are needed for conclusive results. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and thymidylate synthase, dietary folate intake, and the risk of leukemia in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Zhang, Min; Xie, Xing; Jin, Jie; Holman, C D'Arcy J

    2016-03-01

    The 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) are critical enzymes in folate metabolism. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk, which may due to the lack of information on folate intake. We investigated the risks of adult leukemia with genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolic enzymes (MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and TS) and evaluated if the associations varied by dietary folate intake from a multicenter case-control study conducted in Chinese. This study comprised 442 incident adult leukemia cases and 442 outpatient controls, individually matched to cases by gender, birth quinquennium, and study site. Genotypes were determined by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Dietary folate intake was assessed by face-to-face interviews using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. The MTHFR 677TT genotype conferred a significant higher risk of leukemia in males than in females and exhibited an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but a decreased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The MTHFR 1298AC genotype appeared to decrease the risks of leukemia in both genders, in AML and ALL. Stratified analysis by dietary folate intake showed the increased risks of leukemia with the MTHFR 677TT and TS 2R3R/2R2R genotypes were only significant in individuals with low folate intake. A significant interaction between TS polymorphism and dietary folate intake was observed (P = 0.03). This study suggests that dietary folate intake and gender may modify the associations between MTHFR/TS polymorphisms and adult leukemia risk.

  11. Maternal gene polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and the risk of having a Down syndrome offspring: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Gong, Tian; Lin, Xiaofang; Qi, Ling; Guo, Yiyang; Cao, Zhongqiang; Shen, Min; Du, Yukai

    2013-11-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality. Many studies have assessed the association between maternal gene polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and the risk of having a DS offspring, but data are conflicting. Our study aimed to arrive at a more accurate estimation. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis of 26, 17, 9, 15, 9 and 6 case-control studies on the relationship between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G, reduced folate carrier 1 A80G and cystathionine β-synthase 844ins68 polymorphisms and the risk of having a DS offspring. The allele contrast and model-free approach were used. Results showed marginal significant associations for MTHFR C677T, overall [odds ratio (OR) = 1.28 (1.22, 1.46) and generalised odds ratio (ORG) = 1.35 (1.16, 1.57)] and in Caucasian [OR = 1.15 (1.03, 1.29) and ORG = 1.20 (1.04, 1.38)], Asian [OR = 1.68 (1.08, 2.63) and ORG = 1.74 (1.08, 2.80)] and Brazilian [OR = 1.22 (1.04, 1.43) and ORG = 1.28 (1.06, 1.55)] populations; for MTRR A66G, overall [OR = 1.22 (1.02, 1.46) and ORG = 1.31 (1.06, 1.62)]; and for RFC1 A80G, overall [OR = 1.16 (1.02, 1.31) and ORG = 1.18 (1.01, 1.37)]. MTHFR A1298C, MTR 12756G and CBS 844ins68 polymorphisms produced non-significant results. Since potential confounders could not be ruled out completely in this meta-analysis, further studies are needed to confirm these results.

  12. Association of MTHFR, SLC19A1 Genetic Polymorphism, Serum Folate, Vitamin B12 and Hcy Status with Cognitive Functions in Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cai, Can; Xiao, Rong; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Zhen, Jie; Huang, Xiaochen; Xu, Yao; Chen, Shuying; Yuan, Linhong

    2016-10-24

    Studies have indicated a relationship between either gene polymorphism or in vivo B vitamins' nutritional status with cognition in the elderly. However, the combined effects of MTHFR and SLC19A1gene polymorphism with serum folate and vitamin B12 levels on cognition in Chinese adult population remain unclear. Demographic information of 426 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 90 were collected by a well designed self-administered questionnaire. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment test was utilized to evaluate the cognition status of the participants. MTHFR and SLC19A1 genotyping was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR- LDR) method. Serum folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) levels were detected by commercial assay kits. Pearson's correlation was used for data analyses and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Serum Hcylevels demonstrated a negative correlation with serum folate (r = -0.301) and vitamin B12 (r = -0.292) levels. The negative correlation found between serum Hcy levels and attention ability was observed in all 426 studied subjects (r = -0.122). Subjects with MTHFR 677 T/T and 1298 A/A genotypes demonstrated a higher serum Hcy levels (p < 0.05). Carriers of MTHFR (1298 A/C + C/C and 1793 G/A) and SLC19A1 80 G/G genotypes showed lower abstraction and delayed memory ability, respectively (p < 0.05). Subjects with MTHFR 1793 G/A genotype along with low serum folate concentration demonstrated the lowest name and orientation abilities. The effects of MTHFR 1793 G/A genotype on cognitive performance were dependent on the status of serum vitamin B12. Cognition of adults was associated with MTHFR, SLC19A1 gene polymorphism and serum Hcy levels. This study clearly establishes a combined effect of MTHFR gene polymorphism and serum B vitamins levels on cognition in Chinese adults.

  13. The kidney in vitamin B12 and folate homeostasis: characterization of receptors for tubular uptake of vitamins and carrier proteins.

    PubMed

    Birn, Henrik

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 10 years, animal studies have uncovered the molecular mechanisms for the renal tubular recovery of filtered vitamin and vitamin carrier proteins. Relatively few endocytic receptors are responsible for the proximal tubule uptake of a number of different vitamins, preventing urinary losses. In addition to vitamin conservation, tubular uptake by endocytosis is important to vitamin metabolism and homeostasis. The present review focuses on the receptors involved in renal tubular recovery of folate, vitamin B12, and their carrier proteins. The multiligand receptor megalin is important for the uptake and tubular accumulation of vitamin B12. During vitamin load, the kidney accumulates large amounts of free vitamin B12, suggesting a possible storage function. In addition, vitamin B12 is metabolized in the kidney, suggesting a role in vitamin homeostasis. The folate receptor is important for the conservation of folate, mediating endocytosis of the vitamin. Interaction between the structurally closely related, soluble folate-binding protein and megalin suggests that megalin plays an additional role in the uptake of folate bound to filtered folate-binding protein. A third endocytic receptor, the intrinsic factor-B12 receptor cubilin-amnionless complex, is essential to the renal tubular uptake of albumin, a carrier of folate. In conclusion, uptake is mediated by interaction with specific endocytic receptors also involved in the renal uptake of other vitamins and vitamin carriers. Little is known about the mechanisms regulating intracellular transport and release of vitamins, and whereas tubular uptake is a constitutive process, this may be regulated, e.g., by vitamin status.

  14. Genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway enzymes, DRD4 and GSTM1 are related to temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a multifactorial syndrome related to a critical period of human life. TMD has been associated with psychological dysfunctions, oxidative state and sexual dimorphism with coincidental occurrence along the pubertal development. In this work we study the association between TMD and genetic polymorphisms of folate metabolism, neurotransmission, oxidative and hormonal metabolism. Folate metabolism, which depends on genes variations and diet, is directly involved in genetic and epigenetic variations that can influence the changes of last growing period of development in human and the appearance of the TMD. Methods A case-control study was designed to evaluate the impact of genetic polymorphisms above described on TMD. A total of 229 individuals (69% women) were included at the study; 86 were patients with TMD and 143 were healthy control subjects. Subjects underwent to a clinical examination following the guidelines by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Genotyping of 20 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), divided in two groups, was performed by multiplex minisequencing preceded by multiplex PCR. Other seven genetic polymorphisms different from SNPs (deletions, insertions, tandem repeat, null genotype) were achieved by a multiplex-PCR. A chi-square test was performed to determine the differences in genotype and allelic frequencies between TMD patients and healthy subjects. To estimate TMD risk, in those polymorphisms that shown significant differences, odds ratio (OR) with a 95% of confidence interval were calculated. Results Six of the polymorphisms showed statistical associations with TMD. Four of them are related to enzymes of folates metabolism: Allele G of Serine Hydoxymethyltransferase 1 (SHMT1) rs1979277 (OR = 3.99; 95%CI 1.72, 9.25; p = 0.002), allele G of SHMT1 rs638416 (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 1.51, 5.21; p = 0.013), allele T of Methylentetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase (MTHFD) rs

  15. Maternal periconceptional vitamin use, genetic variation of infant reduced folate carrier (A80G), and risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gary M; Lammer, Edward J; Zhu, Huiping; Baker, Mei Wang; Neri, Eric; Finnell, Richard H

    2002-02-15

    Women who consume folic acid in early pregnancy reduced their risks for delivering offspring with neural tube defects (NTDs). The underlying process by which folic acid facilitated this risk reduction is unknown. Investigating genetic variation that influences cellular absorption, transport, and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused our studies on a candidate gene that is involved in folate transport, the reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1). Using data from a California population-based case control interview study (1989-1991 birth cohorts), we investigated whether spina bifida risk was influenced by an interaction between a polymorphism of infant RFC1 at nucleotide 80 (A80G) and maternal periconceptional use of vitamins containing folic acid. Allelic variants of RFC1 were determined by genotyping 133 live-born spina bifida case infants and 188 control infants. The percentages of case infants with the A80/A80, G80/G80, and G80/A80 genotypes were 27.2%, 28.0%, and 44.7%, respectively. The percentages of control infants were similar: 26.1%, 29.3%, and 44.7%. Odds ratios of 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.5-2.0) for the G80/G80 genotype and 1.1 (0.6-2.0) for the G80/A80 genotype were observed relative to the A80/A80 genotype. Among mothers who did not use vitamins, spina bifida risk was 2.4 (0.8-6.9) for infants with genotype G80/G80 compared to those with A80/A80 genotype. Among mothers who did use vitamins, the risk was 0.5 (0.1-3.1) for infants with the G80/G80 genotype. Although this study did not find an increased spina bifida risk for infants who were heterozygous or homozygous for RFC1 A80G, it did reveal modest evidence for a gene-nutrient interaction between infant homozygosity for the RFC1 G80/G80 genotype and maternal periconceptional intake of vitamins containing folic acid on the risk of spina bifida.

  16. Association between selected folate pathway polymorphisms and nonsyndromic limb reduction defects: a case-parental analysis.

    PubMed

    Cleves, Mario A; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Zhao, Weizhi; Krakowiak, Patrycja A; MacLeod, Stewart L

    2011-03-01

    Inadequate folate status resulting from either genetic variation or nutritional deficiencies has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations including orofacial clefting, limb, cardiac and neural tube defects. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between limb reduction defects (LRDs) and folate-related genetic polymorphisms other than MTHFR 677C→T. We conducted a case-parental analysis of 148 families who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study to examine the association between nonsyndromic transverse and longitudinal LRDs with five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding enzymes in folate and methionine pathways. Log-linear Poisson regression, adapted for analysis of case-parental data assuming an additive genetic model, was used to estimate genetic relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the association between LRDs and each SNP. Among women who did not take multivitamin supplements, the MTHFR 677T variant acts via the offspring's genome to increase the risk of LRDs. No association between LRDs and any fetal SNP was found among women who used multivitamin supplements. These results suggest the possibility that initiating folic acid supplementation prior to pregnancy may reduce the risk of having a LRD-affected pregnancy, especially in women whose offspring inherit one or two copies of the MTHFR 677T variant. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Association between Selected Folate Pathway Polymorphisms and Nonsyndromic Limb Reduction Defects: A Case-Parental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cleves, Mario A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Zhao, Weizhi; Krakowiak, Patrycja A.; MacLeod, Stewart L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Inadequate folate status due to either genetic variation or nutritional deficiencies has been associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations including orofacial clefting, limb, cardiac and neural tube defects. Few epidemiologic studies have examined the association between limb reduction defects (LRDs) and folate-related genetic polymorphisms other than MTHFR 677C→T. We conducted a case–parental analysis of 148 families who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) to examine the association between nonsyndromic transverse and longitudinal LRDs with five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for enzymes in folate and methionine pathways. Log-linear Poisson regression, adapted for analysis of case–parental data, assuming an additive genetic model was used to estimate genetic relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the association between LRDs and each SNP. Among women who did not take multivitamin supplements, the MTHFR 677T variant acts via the offspring’s genome to increase the risk of LRDs. No association between LRDs and any fetal SNP was found among women who used multivitamin supplements. These results suggest the possibility that initiating folic acid supplementation prior to pregnancy may reduce the risk of having a LRD-affected pregnancy, especially in women whose offspring inherit one or two copies of the MTHFR 677T variant. PMID:21281325

  18. Folate status, regulatory T cells and MTHFR C677T polymorphism study in allergic children.

    PubMed

    Socha-Banasiak, Anna; Kamer, Barbara; Gach, Agnieszka; Wysocka, Urszula; Jakubowski, Lucjusz; Głowacka, Ewa; Czkwianianc, Elżbieta

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate early-life folate serum concentrations in children with food, inhalant or mixed type allergy. The influence of folate levels on the FoxP3 expression in Treg (regulatory T) cells in the studied children, taking into account the MTHFR (5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) genotypes was also analyzed. The study was performed in 83 allergic children (study group) and 49 healthy children (control group), aged 2-72 months. Medical history of each child was obtained and laboratory tests (serum folic acid concentrations and MTHFR C677T polymorphism) were carried out. The percentage of Treg cells was evaluated in almost a half of the examined subjects (48.5%). Significantly higher serum folate levels in the group of children with food allergy than in those with inhalant allergy was confirmed (P=0.037). In the study group the TT homozygotes were characterized by significantly lower folate concentrations than CC homozygotes (P=0.045). A negative correlation was demonstrated between the FoxP3 expression in CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) peripheral blood lymphocytes and serum folic acid concentrations. The correlation was more pronounced in the group of allergic children and it was statistically significant (r=-0.339, P<0.05). The results of the study indicate a possibility of some effects of folate status on Treg cells, thus suggesting their potential role in the development and course of allergy in children. Copyright © 2016 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing genes MTR, MTRR, and CBS and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Alexandra S; Boyarskikh, Uljana A; Voronina, Elena N; Selezneva, Inna A; Sinkina, Tatiana V; Lazarev, Alexandr F; Petrova, Valentina D; Filipenko, Maxim L

    2012-04-01

    Alterations in the nucleotide sequences of folate-metabolizing genes can increase the risk of malignant transformation. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the folate-metabolizing genes - A2756G MTR, A66G MTRR, and 844ins68 CBS - which have putative functional significance in breast cancer risk. The allele and genotype frequencies of the SNPs were determined in a case group (840 women with sporadic breast cancer) and a control group (770 women). No statistically significant association of studied SNPs with breast cancer was revealed. A meta-analysis, which included data obtained from the literature and the present research, did not reveal any statistically significant associations of these SNPs with breast cancer. The results obtained provide evidence that these SNPs are not involved in the development of breast cancer.

  20. Carrier-mediated transport of folate in a mutant of Pediococcus cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Mandelbaum-Shavit, F; Grossowicz, N

    1973-05-01

    A mutant strain of Pediococcus cerevisiae (P. cerevisiae/PteGlu) was isolated which grows on low-folate (PteGlu) concentrations (200 pg/ml). The growth response of the parent and mutant strains to folinate (5-CHO-H(4)PteGlu) was the same. The transport of (14)C-PteGlu by P. cerevisiae/PteGlu was temperature-dependent (Q(10) between 27 C and 37 C was about 2), energy-dependent, and pH-dependent and was inhibited by iodoacetate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, potassium fluoride, and sodium azide. The uptake obeyed saturation kinetics with an apparent K(m) of 6.6 x 10(-6) M and V(max) of 4.0 x 10(-10) mol per min per mg (dry weight). At the steady state the intracellular concentration of PteGlu was 120-fold higher from that of the medium. Reduced folates like 5-CHO-H(4)PteGlu and methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-CH(3)-H(4)PteGlu) as well as 2,4-diaminoanalogues (amethopterin and aminopterin) were shown to compete for the PteGlue-carrier.

  1. Folate, alcohol, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphism and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Keitaro; Rossi, Marta; Negri, Eva; Oze, Isao; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Tanaka, Hideo; Tajima, Kazuo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Folate consumption is inversely associated with the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) and potentially interacts with alcohol drinking in the risk of OPC. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene polymorphism is known to interact with alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate potential interaction between folate, alcohol drinking, and ALDH2 polymorphism in the risk of OPC in a Japanese population. The study group comprised 409 head and neck cancer cases and 1227 age-matched and sex-matched noncancer controls; of these, 251 cases and 759 controls were evaluated for ALDH rs671 polymorphism. Associations were assessed by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in multiple logistic regression models. We observed an inverse association between folate consumption and OPC risk. The odds ratio for high folate intake was 0.53 (95% confidence interval: 0.36-0.77) relative to low intake (P trend=0.003). This association was consistent across strata of sex, age, smoking, and ALDH2 genotypes. Interaction between folate consumption, drinking, and ALDH2 genotype was remarkable (three-way interaction, P<0.001). We observed significant interaction among folate, drinking, and ALDH2 genotype in the Japanese population.

  2. Reduced folate carrier (RFC-1) gene expression in normal and psoriatic skin.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, E; Bergman, R; Sprecher, H; Maor, G; Reiter, I; Krivoy, N; Drori, S; Assaraf, Y G; Friedman-Birnbaum, R

    1998-12-01

    Methotrexate is widely used in the treatment of severe psoriasis. However, little is currently known about the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic activity in the skin. Methotrexate has been shown to be carried into cells through the reduced folate carrier (RFC-1). The recent cloning and characterization of the human gene encoding this transmembranal carrier enabled us to investigate RFC-1 gene expression in human skin. Biopsies were obtained from the skin of healthy and psoriatic volunteers. RNA extracted from these biopsies was analyzed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique. While RFC-1 gene expression was barely detectable in the uninvolved skin of psoriatic patients and in the skin of healthy volunteers, high levels of RFC-1 transcripts were found in biopsies obtained from psoriatic plaques. To further investigate this pattern of gene expression, we studied skin biopsies by in situ hybridization with a labeled antisense riboprobe specific for the RFC-1 gene. The RFC-1 gene was found to be weakly expressed in the epidermis, in biopsies obtained from the skin of healthy subjects as well as in those from the uninvolved skin of psoriatic patients. In contrast, in biopsies obtained from psoriatic plaques, high levels of RFC-1 gene transcripts were found mostly in the spinous layer of the epidermis. These results suggest the existence of a specific methotrexate carrier in the human epidermis, and may bear relevance to the cutaneous manifestations of methotrexate toxicity.

  3. MTHFR Polymorphisms, Folate Intake, and Carcinogen DNA Adducts in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Wain, John C.; Mark, Eugene J.; Christiani, David C.

    2011-01-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes and folate in one-carbon metabolism are essential for DNA methylation and synthesis. However, their role in carcinogen DNA damage in target lung tissue, a dosimeter for cancer risk, is not known. Our study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and nutritional one-carbon metabolism factors and DNA adducts in target lung. Data on 135 lung cancer cases from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131). Information on dietary intake for one-carbon related micronutrients, folate and other B vitamin, was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. DNA adducts in lung were measured by 32P-postlabeling. After adjusting for potential confounders, DNA adduct levels in lung significantly increased by 69.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5% to 171.5%] for the MTHFR 1298AC+CC genotype. The high risk group, combining the A1298C (AC+CC) plus C677T (CT+TT) genotypes, had significantly enhanced levels of lung adducts by 210.7% (95% CI, 21.4% to 695.2%) in contrast to the A1298C (AA) plus C677T (CC) genotypes. Elevation of DNA adduct was pronounced - 111.3% (95% CI, −3.0 to 360.5%) among 1298AC+CC patients who consumed the lowest level of folate intake as compared with 1298AA individuals with highest tertile of intake. These results indicate that DNA adducts levels are influenced by MTHFR polymorphisms and low folate consumption, suggesting an important role of genetic and nutritional factors in protecting DNA damage from lung carcinogen in at-risk populations. PMID:22052259

  4. MTHFR polymorphisms, folate intake and carcinogen DNA adducts in the lung.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Asomaning, Kofi; Su, Li; Wain, John C; Mark, Eugene J; Christiani, David C

    2012-09-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes and folate in one-carbon metabolism are essential for DNA methylation and synthesis. However, their role in carcinogen DNA damage in target lung tissue, a dosimeter for cancer risk, is not known. Our study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and nutritional one-carbon metabolism factors and DNA adducts in target lung. Data on 135 lung cancer cases from the Massachusetts General Hospital were studied. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131). Information on dietary intake for one-carbon related micronutrients, folate and other B vitamin was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. DNA adducts in lung were measured by (32) P-postlabeling. After adjusting for potential confounders, DNA adduct levels in lung significantly increased by 69.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5% to 171.5%] for the MTHFR 1298AC+CC genotype. The high risk group, combining the A1298C (AC+CC) plus C677T (CT+TT) genotypes, had significantly enhanced levels of lung adducts by 210.7% (95% CI, 21.4% to 695.2%) in contrast to the A1298C (AA) plus C677T (CC) genotypes. Elevation of DNA adduct was pronounced-111.3% (95% CI, -3.0 to 360.5%) among 1298AC+CC patients, who consumed the lowest level of folate intake as compared to 1298AA individuals with highest tertile of intake. These results indicate that DNA adducts levels are influenced by MTHFR polymorphisms and low folate consumption, suggesting an important role of genetic and nutritional factors in protecting DNA damage from lung carcinogen in at-risk populations. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  5. Hearing impairment risk and interaction of folate metabolism related gene polymorphisms in an aging study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent investigations demonstrated many genetic contributions to the development of human age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), however, reports of factors associated with a reduction in the ARHI risk are rare. Folate metabolism is essential for cellular functioning. Despite the extensive investigations regarding the roles of folate metabolism related gene polymorphisms in the pathophysiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, cardio-cerebrovascular disease, and atherosclerosis, little is known about the association with ARHI. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms on the risk of hearing impairment in middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Methods Data were collected from community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 40-84 years who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging biennially between 1997 and 2008. We analyzed cumulative data (5,167 samples in accumulated total) using generalized estimating equations. Results The MTHFR 677T allele was significantly associated with a reduced risk of hearing impairment only when the subjects were wild-type homozygotes for MTR A2756G. The per-T allele odds ratio of MTHFR for the risk of developing hearing impairment was 0.7609 (95% CI: 0.6178-0.9372) in the MTR AA genotype. In addition, a subgroup analysis demonstrated that the favorable effect of the MTHFR 677T allele on the risk of developing hearing impairment was independent of folate and homocysteine level, whereas plasma total homocysteine level was independently associated with an increased risk of developing hearing impairment. The interactive effect of gene polymorphisms associated with folate metabolism may modify the risk of developing hearing impairment after middle age. These results contribute to the elucidation of the causes of ARHI. Conclusions The present study has found that the MTHFR 677T allele has a favorable effect on a

  6. Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism interacts with alcohol and folate intake to influence the risk of colorectal adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Taiki; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    Genomic DNA hypomethylation has been associated with colorectal carcinogenesis. Methionine synthase A2756G (MTR A2756G) is a common nonsynonymous polymorphism in the gene that encodes methionine synthase, a key enzyme in the pathway leading to DNA methylation. Several studies, but not all, have reported relatively lower plasma homocysteine among individuals with the AG or GG genotype. Meanwhile, higher plasma homocysteine was associated with genomic DNA hypomethylation in healthy volunteers. We therefore hypothesized that minor allele carriers possess a decreased risk of colorectal adenoma, and examined this hypothesis in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma in Japan involving 723 cases and 670 controls. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for colorectal adenoma after adjustment for potential confounders. Despite the lack of an overall association, we observed a significant interaction between MTR A2756G and alcohol intake (P for interaction = 0.007). Compared with never drinkers with the AA genotype, never drinkers with the AG or GG genotype exhibited a significantly decreased risk (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.34-0.90) whereas heavy drinkers with the same genotypes showed a substantially increased risk (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.04-3.46). In addition, a marginally significant interaction was observed with folate intake (P for interaction = 0.07). The G allele may confer protection against colorectal adenoma in the presence of a considerably good folate status. Our findings add to increasing evidence that DNA methylation plays an important role even at an early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  7. Combined folate gene MTHFD and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Y P; Zhang, D; Zhou, W; Meng, F M; Bao, M S; Xiang, P; Liu, C Q

    2014-03-17

    We examined whether polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) and transcobalamin (TC) genes, which are involved in folate metabolism, affect maternal risk for Down syndrome. We investigated 76 Down syndrome mothers and 115 control mothers from Bengbu, China. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to examine the polymorphisms of MTHFD G1958A and TC C776G. The frequencies of the polymorphic alleles were 24.3 and 19.1% for MTHFD 1958A, 53.9 and 54.2% for TC 776G, in the case and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups in relation to either the allele or the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms. However, when gene-gene interactions between these two polymorphisms together with previous studied C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were analyzed, the combined MTHFR 677CT/TT and MTHFD 1958AA/GA genotype was found to be significantly associated with the risk of having a Down syndrome child [odds ratio (OR) = 3.11; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.07-9.02]. In addition, the combined TC 776CG and MTHFR 677TT genotype increased the risk of having a child with Down syndrome 3.64-fold (OR = 3.64; 95%CI = 1.28-10.31). In conclusion, neither MTHFD G1958A nor TC C776G polymorphisms are an independent risk factor for Down syndrome. However, the combined MTHFD/MTHFR, TC/MTHFR genotypes play a role in the risk of bearing a Down syndrome child in the Chinese population.

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms resulting in suboptimal oocyte maturation: a discussion of folate status, neural tube defects, schizophrenia, and vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloet, Piet Hein; Verbeek, André LM; den Heijer, Martin; Roeleveld, Nel

    2008-01-01

    Several conditions apparent at birth, e.g., neural tube defects (NTDs) and cardiac anomalies, are associated with polymorphisms in folate-related genes, such as the 677C → T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Similar associations have been established for several constitutional chronic diseases in adulthood, such as schizophrenia, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, and even neoplasias in different organ systems. This spectrum of developmental anomalies and constitutional diseases may be linked to high-risk conceptions related to preovulatory overripeness ovopathy (PrOO). Some developmental anomalies, such as NTDs, are to a large extent prevented by supplementation of folic acid before conception, but supplementation does not seem to prevent cardiovascular disease or cognitive decline. These diverging results can be elucidated by introduction of the PrOO concept, as MTHFR polymorphisms and inherent low folate levels induce both non-optimal maturation of the oocyte and unsuccessful DNA methylation and demethylation, i.e. epigenetic mutations. The PrOO concept is testable and predicts in a random population the following: (1) female carriers of specific genetic MTHFR variants exhibit more ovulatory disturbances and inherent subfecundity traits, (2) descendents from a carrier mother, when compared with those from a wild-type mother, are more frequently conceived in PrOO high-risk conditions and, thus, (3) disadvantaged in life expectancy. If so, some MTHFR polymorphisms represent a novel, genetically determined, PrOO high-risk conception category comparable to those which are environmentally and behaviorly influenced. These high-risk conditions may cause developmental anomalies and defective epigenetic reprogramming in progeny. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors is a plausible mechanism of multifactorial inheritance. PMID:18616826

  9. Genetic Polymorphisms Involved in Folate Metabolism and Maternal Risk for Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balduino Victorino, Daniella; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Inconclusive results of the association between genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and maternal risk for Down syndrome (DS) have been reported. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted. We searched electronic databases through May, 2014, for eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the association, which was estimated by fixed or random effects models. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q-test and I2 statistic. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were also conducted. Publication bias was estimated using Begg's and Egger's tests. A total of 17 case-controls studies were included. There was evidence for an association between the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and maternal risk for DS. In the subgroup analysis, increased maternal risk for DS was found in Caucasians. Additionally, the polymorphic heterozygote MTHFD1 1958GA genotype was associated significantly with maternal risk for DS, when we limit the analysis by studies conformed to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Finally, considering MTR c.2756A>G (rs1805087), TC2 c.776C>G (rs1801198), and CBS c.844ins68, no significant associations have been found, neither in the overall analyses nor in the stratified analyses by ethnicity. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that the MTRR c.66A>G (rs1801394) polymorphism and MTHFD1 c.1958G>A (rs2236225) were associated with increased maternal risk for DS. PMID:25544792

  10. A carrier-mediated transport for folate in basolateral membrane vesicles of rat small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Said, H M; Redha, R

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of exit of folate from the enterocyte, i.e. transport across the basolateral membrane, is not known. In this study we examined, using basolateral membrane vesicles, the transport of folic acid across the basolateral membrane of rat intestine. Uptake of folic acid by these vesicles represents transport of the substrate into the intravesicular compartment and not binding to the membrane surface. The rate of folic acid transport was linear for the first 1 min of incubation but decreased thereafter, reaching equilibrium after 5 min of incubation. The transport of folic acid was: (1) saturable as a function of concentration with an apparent Km of 0.6 +/- 0.17 microM and Vmax. of 1.01 +/- 0.11 pmol/30 s per mg of protein; (2) inhibited in a competitive manner by the structural analogues 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methotrexate (Ki = 2 and 1.4 microM, respectively); (4) electroneutral; (5) Na+-independent; (6) sensitive to the effect of the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). These data indicate the existence of a carrier-mediated transport system for folic acid in rat intestinal basolateral membrane and demonstrate that the transport process is electroneutral, Na+-independent and sensitive to the effect of anion exchange inhibition. PMID:3689340

  11. Association of MTHFR, SLC19A1 Genetic Polymorphism, Serum Folate, Vitamin B12 and Hcy Status with Cognitive Functions in Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Can; Xiao, Rong; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Zhen, Jie; Huang, Xiaochen; Xu, Yao; Chen, Shuying; Yuan, Linhong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Studies have indicated a relationship between either gene polymorphism or in vivo B vitamins’ nutritional status with cognition in the elderly. However, the combined effects of MTHFR and SLC19A1gene polymorphism with serum folate and vitamin B12 levels on cognition in Chinese adult population remain unclear. Methods: Demographic information of 426 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 90 were collected by a well designed self-administered questionnaire. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment test was utilized to evaluate the cognition status of the participants. MTHFR and SLC19A1 genotyping was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction (PCR- LDR) method. Serum folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) levels were detected by commercial assay kits. Pearson’s correlation was used for data analyses and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Serum Hcylevels demonstrated a negative correlation with serum folate (r = −0.301) and vitamin B12 (r = −0.292) levels. The negative correlation found between serum Hcy levels and attention ability was observed in all 426 studied subjects (r = −0.122). Subjects with MTHFR 677 T/T and 1298 A/A genotypes demonstrated a higher serum Hcy levels (p < 0.05). Carriers of MTHFR (1298 A/C + C/C and 1793 G/A) and SLC19A1 80 G/G genotypes showed lower abstraction and delayed memory ability, respectively (p < 0.05). Subjects with MTHFR 1793 G/A genotype along with low serum folate concentration demonstrated the lowest name and orientation abilities. The effects of MTHFR 1793 G/A genotype on cognitive performance were dependent on the status of serum vitamin B12. Conclusion: Cognition of adults was associated with MTHFR, SLC19A1 gene polymorphism and serum Hcy levels. This study clearly establishes a combined effect of MTHFR gene polymorphism and serum B vitamins levels on cognition in Chinese adults. PMID:27783031

  12. Association between 11 genetic polymorphisms in folate-metabolising genes and head and neck cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Galbiatti, Ana Lívia Silva; da Silva, Lidia Maria Rebolho Batista; Ruiz-Cintra, Mariangela Torreglosa; Raposo, Luis Sérgio; Maníglia, José Victor; Pavarino, Erika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

    2012-07-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in folate metabolism may affect the risk of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) due to its involvement in DNA methylation and synthesis. We conducted a case-control study (265 HNSCC cases and 466 non-cancer controls) to investigate associations of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, RFC1 A80G, MTHFD1 G1958A, CBS 844ins68, TC2 C776G and A67G, SHMT C1420T and BHMT G742A polymorphisms with HNSCC risk. Interactions between polymorphisms and survival time, tobacco and alcohol habits, age, gender and tumour staging (TNM classification) were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that age ≥ 49 years (P<0.001), male gender (P=0.03), tobacco habit (P<0.001), MTHFR 1298AC/CC (P=0.028), MTR 2756AG/GG (P=0.010) and RFC1 80AG/GG (P=0.015) genotypes were associated with an increased risk of HNSCC. There were interactions between lower survival and CBS 844ins68 (P=0.005); age ≥ 49 years and MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.004) and RFC1 80AG/GG (P=0.006) genotypes; male gender and MTHFR 1298 AC/CC (P=0.030), MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.006) and RFC1 80 AG/GG (P=0.009); tobacco non-habit and MTHFD1 1958GA/AA (P=0.040); tobacco and MTHFR 1298 AC/CC (P=0.054) and MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.010); alcohol non-consume and RFC1 80 AG/GG (P=0.008) with HNSCC increased risk. MTHFR C677CT/TT genotypes were less frequently in advanced tumours (P=0.04). In conclusion, our data provide evidence that folate metabolism genetic polymorphisms associated with variables as advanced age, male gender, tobacco and alcohol increase HNSCC development; CBS 844ins68 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are associated with less survival time and advanced stage tumours, respectively.

  13. AB173. Heterozygous carriers of classical homocystinuria tend to have higher fasting serum homocysteine concentrations than non-carriers in a folate deficiency area where has inordinately high homocystinuria prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-Ting; Lu, Yung-Hsiu; Chen, Ya-Chi; Pai, Ju-Shan; Hsu, Ting-Rong; Niu, Dau-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The newborn screening of homocystinuria in Taiwan has started since 1984. Out of 5 million newborns screened, only 3 newborns (Han Taiwanese) suffering from homocystinuria were detected in this newborn screening program. The prevalence is less than 1 in 1 million. However we recently found 8 patients presenting with homocystinuria in an Austronesian Taiwanese Tao tribe. All the Tao patients are homozygous for a novel mutation (p.D47E, c.141T > A). Among the 428 adult islanders screened for the D47E mutation, approximately 1 in 7.78 is a carrier of the mutation, and an estimated 1 in 240 islanders suffered from homocystinuria. This is the highest known prevalence of homocystinuria worldwide. The expression study revealed that this p.D47E mutation interferes not only with the function but also with the stability of the CBS protein in vivo. We evaluated if the CBS carriers tend to have higher fasting serum tHcy concentrations than non-carriers in presence of folate deficiency. Methods The serum tHcy and folate levels before and after folate replacement was measured in 48 adult Tao carriers, 40 age-matched Tao non-carriers and 40 age-matched Han Taiwanese controls. Results We found that serum tHcy level of the Tao CBS carriers (17.9±3.8 µmol/L) was significantly higher than in Tao non-carriers (15.7±3.5 µmol/L; P<0.008) in the presence of folate deficiency. Of note, the difference in tHcy levels between the carriers and non-carriers was eliminated by folate supplementation (carriers: 13.65±2.13 µmol/L; non-carriers: 12.39±3.25 µmol/L, P=0.321). This finding implies that CBS carriers tend to have the risk of cardiovascular disease in presence of folate deficiency. Conclusions CBS carriers tend to have a higher tHcy level in the presence of folate deficiency than non-carriers. Although many reports have indicated that CBS carriers are not associated with cardiovascular disease, the risk for CBS carriers with folate deficiency has not been well studied

  14. Folate-related polymorphisms in gastrointestinal stromal tumours: susceptibility and correlation with tumour characteristics and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Sabrina; Ravegnini, Gloria; Nannini, Margherita; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Musti, Muriel; Pantaleo, Maria A; Fumagalli, Elena; Venturoli, Nicola; Palassini, Elena; Consolini, Nicola; Casali, Paolo G; Biasco, Guido; Hrelia, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The folate metabolism pathway has a crucial role in tumorigenesis as it supports numerous critical intracellular reactions, including DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Despite its importance, little is known about the influence of the folate pathway on gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST), a rare tumour with an incidence ranging between 6 and 19.6 cases per million worldwide. The importance of folate metabolism led us to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in the genes coding folate-metabolising enzymes on GIST susceptibility, tumour characteristics and clinical outcome. We investigated a panel of 13 polymorphisms in 8 genes in 60 cases and 153 controls. The TS 6-bp deletion allele (formerly rs34489327, delTInsTTAAAG) was associated with reduced risk of GIST (OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05–0.67, P=0.0032). Selected polymorphisms in patients stratified by age, gender, and other main molecular and clinical characteristics showed that few genotypes may show a likely correlation. We also observed a significant association between the RFC AA/AG genotype and time to progression (HR=0.107, 95% CI 0.014–0.82; P=0.032). Furthermore, we observed a tendency towards an association between the SHMT1 variant allele (TT, rs1979277) and early death (HR=4.53, 95% CI 0.77–26.58, P=0.087). Aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, these results suggest that polymorphisms may modify the risk of GIST and clinical outcome, pointing to the necessity for further investigations with information on folate plasma levels and a larger study population. PMID:25227144

  15. Xenobiotic and folate pathway gene polymorphisms and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in Javanese children.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jason Yong-Sheng; Ugrasena, Dewa G; Lum, Danny Wai-Kiong; Lu, Yi; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh

    2011-09-01

    Xenobiotic and folate metabolic pathways are important for the maintenance of genetic stability and may influence susceptibility to the development of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). In this study, we investigated 10 polymorphisms in 6 genes (GSTM1-present/null, GSTT1-present/null, GSTP1 1578A > G, NQO1 609C > T, MTHFR 677C > T, MTHFR 1298A > C, MTHFD1 1958G > A, 3'-TYMS 1494 6bp-deletion/insertion, 5'-TYMS 28bp-tandem repeats, and SLC19A1 80G > A) in a cohort of 185 Javanese children with ALL and 177 healthy controls. In ALL patients, none of the polymorphisms demonstrated a statistically significant association with ALL after correcting for multiple comparisons. Gender-stratified analysis showed that in girls, GSTT1-null genotype was associated with increased ALL risk (OR = 2.20; p = 0.027), while GSTP1 1578AG genotype was associated with reduced risk (OR = 0.43; p = 0.031). Strong linkage disequilibrium between the MTHFR 677C > T and 1298A > C polymorphisms was observed (D' = 1.0; r(2) = 0.072). The haplotypes 677C-1298C and 677T-1298A were associated with a reduced risk of ALL (OR = 0.68 and 0.64, respectively; gender-adjusted global p = 0.028). Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was employed to identify potential high-order gene-gene interactions and cluster subjects into susceptibility groups. SLC19A1 80G > A emerged as the predominant polymorphism associated with risk of ALL. Individuals simultaneously carrying MTHFR 1298AA, 3'-TYMS 6bp deletion(s) and SLC19A1 80A-allele(s) were at higher disease risk (OR = 2.21; p < 0.001). On the contrary, simultaneous possession of MTHFR 1298CC, 3'-TYMS 6bp homozygosity and SLC19A1 80A-allele(s) conferred lower risk (OR = 0.25; p = 0.004). Carriage of NQO1 609C-allele amongst SLC19A1 80GG genotype was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.47; p = 0.003). In conclusion, our study has demonstrated the importance of gender and gene-gene interaction within the xenobiotic and folate pathways in

  16. Role of folate-homocysteine pathway gene polymorphisms and nutritional cofactors in Down syndrome: A triad study.

    PubMed

    Sukla, K K; Jaiswal, S K; Rai, A K; Mishra, O P; Gupta, V; Kumar, A; Raman, R

    2015-08-01

    Do gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in folate-homocysteine (Hcy) pathway have a predisposing role for Down syndrome (DS)? The study provides evidence that in addition to advanced age, maternal genotype, micronutrient deficiency and elevated Hcy levels, individually and in combination, are risk factors for Down syndrome. Polymorphisms in certain folate-Hcy-pathway genes (especially the T allele of MTHFR C677T), elevated Hcy and poor folate levels in mothers during pregnancy have been shown to be risk factors for Down syndrome in certain Asian populations (including the eastern region of India), while the same SNPs are not a risk factor in European populations. This conflicting situation alludes to differential gene-environment (nutrition) interactions in different populations which needs to be explored. Between 2008 and 2012, 151 Down syndrome triads and 200 age-matched controls (Control mothers n = 186) were included in the study. Seven polymorphisms in six genes of folate-Hcy metabolic pathway, along with Hcy, cysteine (Cys), vitamin B12 (vit-B12) and folate levels, were analysed and compared among the case and control groups. Genotyping was performed by the PCR-RFLP technique. Levels of homocysteine and cysteine were measured by HPLC while vitamin B12 and folate were estimated by chemiluminescence. We demonstrate that polymorphisms in the folate-Hcy pathway genes in mothers collectively constitute a genotypic risk for DS which is effectively modified by interactions among genes and by the environment affecting folate, Hcy and vitamin B12 levels. The study also supports the idea that these maternal risk factors provide an adaptive advantage during pregnancy supporting live birth of the DS child. Our inability to obtain genotype and nutritional assessments of unaffected siblings of the DS children was an important limitation of the study. Also, its confinement to a specific geographic region (the eastern part) of India, and relatively small sample size

  17. The Dihydrofolate Reductase 19 bp Polymorphism Is Not Associated with Biomarkers of Folate Status in Healthy Young Adults, Irrespective of Folic Acid Intake.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Mari; Molloy, Anne M; Mills, James L; Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Gibney, Eileen R; Shane, Barry; Brody, Lawrence C; Parle-McDermott, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is essential for the conversion of folic acid to active folate needed for one-carbon metabolism. Common genetic variation within DHFR is restricted to the noncoding regions, and previous studies have focused on a 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism (rs70991108) within intron 1. Reports of an association between this polymorphism and blood folate biomarker concentrations are conflicting. In this study, we evaluated whether the DHFR 19 bp deletion/insertion polymorphism affects circulating folate biomarkers in, to our knowledge, the largest cohort to address this question to date. Healthy young Irish individuals (n = 2507) between 19 and 36 y of age were recruited between February 2003 and February 2004. Folic acid intake from supplements and fortified foods was assessed with the use of a customized food intake questionnaire. Concentrations of serum folate and vitamin B-12, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) were measured. Data were analyzed with the use of linear regression models. Folic acid intake was positively associated with serum (P < 0.0001) and RBC (P = 0.0005) folate concentration and was inversely associated with plasma tHcy (P = 0.001) as expected. The DHFR 19 bp polymorphism was not significantly associated with either serum (P = 0.82) or RBC (P = 0.21) folate, or plasma tHcy (P = 0.20), even in those within the highest quintile of folic acid intake (>326 μg folic acid/d; P = 0.96). A nonsignificant trend toward lower RBC folate by genotype (P = 0.09) was observed in the lowest folic acid intake quintile (0-51 μg/d). In this cohort of healthy young individuals, the DHFR 19 bp deletion allele did not significantly affect circulating folate status, irrespective of folic acid intake. Our data rule out a strong functional effect from this polymorphism on blood folate concentrations. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Transcobalamin 776C→G polymorphism is associated with peripheral neuropathy in elderly individuals with high folate intake.

    PubMed

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Bergethon, Peter R; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Scott, Tammy M; Jacques, Paul F; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-12-01

    The 776C→G polymorphism of the vitamin B-12 transport protein transcobalamin gene (TCN2) (rs1801198; Pro259Arg) is associated with a lower holotranscobalamin concentration in plasma. This effect may reduce the availability of vitamin B-12 to tissues even when vitamin B-12 intake is adequate. Clinical outcomes associated with vitamin B-12 insufficiency could potentially be worsened by high folate intake. We determined the association of the TCN2 776C→G polymorphism and folate intake with peripheral neuropathy in elders with normal plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12. Participants in this cross-sectional study (n = 171) were from a cohort of community-based, home-bound elderly individuals aged ≥60 y who underwent an evaluation by physicians including an assessment for peripheral neuropathy. Participants were administered food-frequency and general health status questionnaires, anthropometric measurements were taken, and a fasting blood sample from each subject was collected. Odds of neuropathy were 3-fold higher for GG genotypes than for CC genotypes (OR: 3.33; 95% CI: 1.15, 9.64). When folate intake was >2 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance (800 μg), GG genotypes had 6.9-fold higher odds of neuropathy than CC genotypes (OR: 6.9; 95% CI: 1.31, 36.36). There was no difference between the genotypes in the odds of peripheral neuropathy when folate intake was ≤800 μg (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.18, 12.33). The TCN2 776C→G polymorphism is associated with increased odds of peripheral neuropathy in the elderly, even with a normal vitamin B-12 status, especially if their folate intake is >2 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Gene polymorphisms in folate metabolizing enzymes in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: effects on methotrexate-related toxicity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Ongaro, Alessia; De Mattei, Monica; Della Porta, Matteo Giovanni; Rigolin, GianMatteo; Ambrosio, Cristina; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Pellati, Agnese; Masieri, Federica Francesca; Caruso, Angelo; Catozzi, Linda; Gemmati, Donato

    2009-01-01

    Background The antifolate agent methotrexate is an important component of maintenance therapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although methotrexate-related toxicity is often a reason for interruption of chemotherapy. Prediction of toxicity is difficult because of inter-individual variability susceptibility to antileukemic agents. Methotrexate interferes with folate metabolism leading to depletion of reduced folates. Design and Methods The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms for folate metabolizing enzymes with respect to toxicity and survival in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with methotrexate maintenance therapy. To this purpose, we evaluated possible associations between genotype and hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity and effects on survival at 2 years of follow-up in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results Polymorphisms in the genes encoding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T) and in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR 19 bp deletion) significantly increased the risk of hepatotoxicity in single (odds ratio 5.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13–21.95 and odds ratio 4.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–20.77, respectively) and in combined analysis (odds ratio 6.82, 95% confidence interval 1.38–33.59). MTHFR 677C>T also increased the risk of leukopenia and gastrointestinal toxicity, whilst thymidylate synthase 28 bp repeat polymorphism increased the risk of anemia (odds ratio 8.48, 95% confidence interval 2.00–36.09). Finally, patients with MTHFR 677TT had a decreased overall survival rate (hazard ratio 2.37, 95% confidence interval 1.46–8.45). Conclusions Genotyping of folate polymorphisms might be useful in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia to optimize methotrexate therapy, reducing the associated toxicity with possible effects on survival. PMID:19648163

  20. Core-shell drug carrier from folate conjugated chitosan obtained from prawn shell for targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Sazedul; Haque, Papia; Rashid, Taslim U; Khan, M Nuruzzaman; Mallik, Abul K; Khan, M Nazrul I; Khan, Mala; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur

    2017-04-01

    A multifunctional drug carrier with dual targeting (magnetic and folate-receptor) and pH sensitive core-shell hybrid nanomaterial has been developed to carry an anticancer drug doxorubicin.Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were used as core of the carrier and cross-linked folate conjugated chitosan (FA-CS) was acted as shell in which doxorubicin was physically entrapped. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis confirmed the average particle size of IONPs and FA-CS coated IONPs 8.2 and 15.4 nm respectively. Magnetic measurement indicated that both the IONPs and FA-CS coated IONPs were superparamagnetic at room temperature with a magnetization value 57.72 and 37.44 emu/g respectively. At pH 5.8 (malignant tissue) showed a burst release of 30.05% of the doxorubicin in the first 4 h followed by a sustained release of 88.26% of drug over 72 h. From these results it is expected that doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles can be a promising drug carrier for the treatment of solid tumors with the ability to reduce toxic side effects of drugs by selective targeting and sustained release.

  1. Polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, intakes of folate and related B vitamins and colorectal cancer: a case-control study in a population with relatively low folate intake.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Linda; Little, Julian; Brockton, Nigel T; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Masson, Lindsey F; Haites, Neva E; Cassidy, Jim

    2008-02-01

    Folate is key in one-carbon metabolism, disruption of which can interfere with DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Efficient one-carbon metabolism requires other B vitamins and the optimal activity of enzymes including 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). We report a population-based case-control study of folate intake, related dietary factors and MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T, A1298C) and colorectal cancer in a population with relatively high colorectal cancer incidence and relatively low folate intake. A total of 264 cases with histologically confirmed incident colorectal cancer and 408 controls participated. There was no clear trend in risk with reported intakes of total, or dietary, folate, riboflavin, vitamin B12 or vitamin B6, nor were there interactions between folate intake and the other B vitamins or alcohol. For C677T, risk decreased with increasing variant alleles (multivariate OR for CT v. CC = 0.77 (95 % CI 0.52, 1.16); OR for TT v. CC = 0.62 (95 % CI 0.31, 1.24)), which, although not statistically significant, was consistent with previous studies. For A1298C, compared with AA subjects, CC subjects had modest, non-significant, reduced risk (multivariate OR = 0.81 (95 % CI 0.45, 1.49)). There were significant interactions between total folate and C677T (P = 0.029) and A1298C (P = 0.025), and total vitamin B6 and both polymorphisms (C677T, P = 0.016; A1298C, P = 0.033), although the patterns observed differed from previous studies. Seen against the setting of low folate intake, the results suggest that the role of folate metabolism in colorectal cancer aetiology may be more complex than previously thought. Investigation of particular folate vitamers (for example, tetrahydrofolate, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate) may help clarify carcinogenesis pathways.

  2. Polymorphisms in maternal folate pathway genes interact with arsenic in drinking water to influence risk of myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Valeri, Linda; Rodrigues, Ema G.; Hasan, Md Omar Sharif Ibne; Hamid, Rezina; Paul, Ligi; Selhub, Jacob; Silva, Fareesa; Mostofa, MdGolam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Arsenic induces neural tube defects in many animal models. Additionally, studies have shown that mice with specific genetic defects in folate metabolism and transport are more susceptible to arsenic-induced neural tube defects. We sought to determine whether 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism modified the effect of exposure to drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic and posterior neural tube defect (myelomeningocele) risk. Methods Fifty-four mothers of children with myelomeningocele and 55 controls were enrolled through clinical sites in rural Bangladesh in a case-control study of the association between environmental arsenic exposure and risk of myelomeningocele. We assessed participants for level of myelomeningocele, administered questionnaires, conducted biological and environmental sample collection, and performed genotyping. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to measure inorganic arsenic concentration in drinking water. Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified through review of the literature. Results Drinking water inorganic arsenic concentration was associated with increased risk of myelomeningocele for participants with 4 of the 14 studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism: the AA/AG genotype of rs2236225 (MTHFD1), the GG genotype of rs1051266 (SLC19A1), the TT genotype of rs7560488 (DNMT3A), and the GG genotype of rs3740393 (AS3MT) with adjusted OR of 1.13, 1.31, 1.20, and 1.25 for rs2236225, rs1051266, rs7560488, and rs3740393, respectively. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that environmental arsenic exposure increases the risk of myelomeningocele via interaction with folate metabolic pathways. PMID:26250961

  3. Polymorphisms in maternal folate pathway genes interact with arsenic in drinking water to influence risk of myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Valeri, Linda; Rodrigues, Ema G; Ibne Hasan, Md Omar Sharif; Hamid, Rezina; Paul, Ligi; Selhub, Jacob; Silva, Fareesa; Mostofa, Md Golam; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Christiani, David C

    2015-09-01

    Arsenic induces neural tube defects in many animal models. Additionally, studies have shown that mice with specific genetic defects in folate metabolism and transport are more susceptible to arsenic-induced neural tube defects. We sought to determine whether 14 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism modified the effect of exposure to drinking water contaminated with inorganic arsenic and posterior neural tube defect (myelomeningocele) risk. Fifty-four mothers of children with myelomeningocele and 55 controls were enrolled through clinical sites in rural Bangladesh in a case-control study of the association between environmental arsenic exposure and risk of myelomeningocele. We assessed participants for level of myelomeningocele, administered questionnaires, conducted biological and environmental sample collection, and performed genotyping. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure inorganic arsenic concentration in drinking water. Candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified through review of the literature. Drinking water inorganic arsenic concentration was associated with increased risk of myelomeningocele for participants with 4 of the 14 studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism: the AA/AG genotype of rs2236225 (MTHFD1), the GG genotype of rs1051266 (SLC19A1), the TT genotype of rs7560488 (DNMT3A), and the GG genotype of rs3740393 (AS3MT) with adjusted odds ratio of 1.13, 1.31, 1.20, and 1.25 for rs2236225, rs1051266, rs7560488, and rs3740393, respectively. Our results support the hypothesis that environmental arsenic exposure increases the risk of myelomeningocele by means of interaction with folate metabolic pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Diet folate, DNA methylation and polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in association with the susceptibility to gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Ding, Li-Hong; Wang, Jian-Wei; Li, Cun-Bao; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) has been reported to be associated with DNA methylation, an epigenetic feature frequently found in gastric cancer. We conducted a case-control study to explore the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk and its relation with the DNA methylation of COX-2, MGMT, and hMLH1 genes. Genotyping of P16, MGMT and HMLH1 was determined by methylation-specific PCR after sodium bisulfate modification of DNA, and genotyping of MTHFR C677T was conducted by TaqMan assays using the ABI Prism 7911HT Sequence Detection System. Folate intake was calculated with the aid of a questionnaire. Compared with the MTHFR 677CC genotype, the TT genotype was significantly associated with 2.08 fold risk of gastric cancer when adjusting for potential risk factors. Individuals who had an intake of folate above 310 μg/day showed protective effects against gastric cancer risk. The effect of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on the risk of gastric cancer was modified by folate intake and methylation status of MGMT (P for interaction <0.05).

  5. Joint associations of folate, homocysteine and MTHFR, MTR and MTRR gene polymorphisms with dyslipidemia in a Chinese hypertensive population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Lv, Wen-Wen; Dai, Shao-Xing; Pan, Ming-Luo; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2015-09-04

    Dyslipidemia is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Serum lipids were affected by several gene polymorphisms, folate, homocysteine and other metabolite levels. We aim to investigate the effects of homocysteine metabolism enzyme polymorphisms (MTHTR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) and their interactions with folate, homocysteine on serum lipid levels in Chinese patients with hypertension. Participants were 480 hypertensive adults that enrolled in September to December 2005 from six different Chinese hospitals (Harbin, Shanghai, Shenyang, Beijing, Xi'an, and Nanjing). Known MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP methods. Serum folate was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay, homocysteine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, serum lipids parameters were determined by an automatic biochemistry analyzer, low-density lipoprotein was calculated by Friedewald's equation. Unitary linear regression model was used to assess the associations of gene polymorphisms, folate and homocysteine on serum lipid profiles. Unconditional logistic regression model was applied to test the interactions of folate, homocysteine and gene polymorphisms on dyslipidemia. No correlations between gene polymorphisms and homocysteine on serum lipid profiles. Compared with normal folate patients, patients with low folate showed higher odds of hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 2.02, 95 % CI: 1.25-3.25, P = 0.004) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 1.88, 95 % CI: 1.07-3.28, P = 0.027). Each of four gene polymorphisms (MTHTR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G) combined with low folate showed higher odds of hypertriglyceridemia (P for trend: 0.049, 0.004, 0.007 and 0.005, respectively). MTHFR C677T and A1298C with low folate showed higher odds of low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P for trend: 0.008 and 0.031). Low folate status and homocysteine

  6. Effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphisms on homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in patients with bipolar disorder and relatives.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Zeynep; Kucukali, Cem Ismail; Ozkok, Elif; Orhan, Nurcan; Aydin, Makbule; Kilic, Gamze; Sazci, Ali; Kara, Ihsan

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the effect of polymorphic variants of c.1298A>C (Glu429Ala) and c.677C>T (Ala222Val) in methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) gene on the total homocysteine (tHcy), folate and B12 levels in patients with bipolar disorder, first-degree relatives of patients, and controls. The c.677C>T and c.1298A>C polymorphisms in MTHFR were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in 197 bipolar patients, 278 relatives and 238 controls. tHcy and folate and vitamin B12 levels were measured by Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay and Electrochemiluminescence, respectively. The tHcy was significantly increased in patients and relatives. In contrast, folate and B12 were significantly lower in patients and relatives. Gender was not considered as a significant determinant in the multivariate analysis. Genotypes of c.1298A>C and c.677C>T were correlated with tHcy, folate and B12. Patients and relatives carrying TT and/or AA and AC genotypes had elevated tHcy and reduced folate and B12 levels. High tHcy but low folate and vitamin B12 levels may be a risk factor for development of bipolar disorder.

  7. Polymorphisms in 1-carbon metabolism, epigenetics and folate-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Stover, Patrick J

    2011-01-01

    Folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism is a network of interconnected metabolic pathways necessary for the synthesis of purine nucleotides, thymidylate and the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Disruptions in this pathway influence both DNA synthesis and stability and chromatin methylation, and result from nutritional deficiencies and common gene variants. The mechanisms underlying folate-associated pathologies and developmental anomalies have yet to be established. This review focuses on the relationships among folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism, chromatin methylation and human disease, and the role of gene-nutrient interactions in modifying epigenetic processes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Sex Differences in mRNA Expression of Reduced Folate Carrier-1, Folypolyformyl Glutamate Synthase, and γ-Glutamyl Hydrolase in a Healthy Japanese Population.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Tanaka, Takanori; Shimizu, Mikiko; Tsuru, Tomomi; Chiyoda, Takeshi; Miyawaki, Kumika; Irie, Shin; Takeuchi, Osamu; Hakamata, Jun; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2016-12-01

    Sex differences in the prevalence of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are well known, but little is known about those differences in relation to therapeutic response. Reduced folate carrier-1 (RFC-1), folypolyformyl glutamate synthase (FPGS), and γ-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) are important transporters and enzymes that convert methotrexate (MTX) in the body. This study investigated the sex differences in mRNA expression of RFC-1, FPGS, and GGH in 190 unrelated healthy Japanese people. The genotypes and mRNA expression were determined using the real-time PCR method. Significant differences between men and women were observed in RFC-1, FPGS, and GGH mRNA expression. The mRNA expression of FPGS and GGH was greater in women than that in men, but the expression of RFC-1 was less in the former than the latter. In stratified analysis by genotype, significant differences in sex-specific mRNA expression were observed in G/G of FPGS, C/C of GGH 452, and C/C of GGH -401. All showed greater mRNA expression in women than in men. In the 5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms RFC-1 80G>A, RFC-1 -43T>C, FPGS 1994G>A, GGH 452C>T, and GGH -401C>T examined, the FPGS 1994 G/G (1.46-fold), GGH 452 C/C (2.16-fold), and GGH -401 C/C (2.68-fold) genotypes showed significantly higher mRNA expression in women than in men. Healthy Japanese adults in this study showed sex-specific differences in mRNA expression that differed among RFC-1, FPGS, and GGH. Therefore, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and mRNA expression including sex differences might contribute to the variation in the efficacy/toxicity of MTX in patients with RA.

  9. A 19-base pair deletion polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase is associated with increased unmetabolized folic acid in plasma and decreased red blood cell folate.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Renee D; Choumenkovitch, Silvina F; Troen, Aron P; Jacques, Paul F; D'Agostino, Ralph; Selhub, Jacob

    2008-12-01

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate (THF). A 19-bp noncoding deletion allele maps to intron 1, beginning 60 bases from the splice donor site, and has been implicated in neural tube defects and cancer, presumably by influencing folate metabolism. The functional impact of this polymorphism has not yet been demonstrated. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the DHFR mutation with respect to folate status and assess influence of folic acid intake on these relations. The relationship between DHFR genotype and plasma concentrations of circulating folic acid, total folate, total homocysteine, and concentrations of RBC folate was determined in 1215 subjects from the Framingham Offspring Study. There was a significant interaction between DHFR genotype and folic acid intake with respect to the prevalence of high circulating unmetabolized folic acid (defined as >85th percentile). Folic acid intake of >or=500 microg/d increased the prevalence of high circulating unmetabolized folic acid in subjects with the deletion (del/del genotype (47.0%) compared with the wild type (WT)/del (21.4%) and wild type (WT)/WT genotypes (24.4%) (P for interaction = 0.03). Interaction between the DHFR polymorphism and folic acid intake was also seen with respect to RBC folate (P for interaction = 0.01). When folic acid intake was <250 microg/d, the del/del genotype was associated with significantly lower RBC folate (732.3 nmol/L) compared with the WT/WT genotype (844.4 nmol/L). Our results suggest the del/del polymorphism in DHFR is a functional polymorphism, because it limits assimilation of folic acid into cellular folate stores at high and low folic acid intakes.

  10. Folate supplementation, MTHFR gene polymorphism and neural tube defects: a community based case control study in North India.

    PubMed

    Deb, Roumi; Arora, Jyoti; Meitei, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba; Gupta, Sangeeta; Verma, Vanita; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Saran, Sunil; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2011-09-01

    The present study analyses the potential role of MTHFR gene polymorphism, folate supplementation and dietary pattern among the mothers of NTD neonates and controls in heterogeneous populations of North India, with the special focus on their ethnic labels. Results indicated significant increased risk for neural tube defects with respect to low folic acid supplementation and vegetarian diet in univariate and multivariate analyses. There was no significant difference in the genotypic or allelic distribution of MTHFR C677T polymorphism, however, high frequency of CT genotype, as observed, among controls suggests heterozygous advantage probably due to supplementary folate. Among the two communities, Muslim NTD mothers had higher TT genotype showing increased risk for neural tube defects (adjusted OR: 12.9; 95% CI: 1.21-136.8) and lower folic acid supplementation (adjusted OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.18-10.22). Whereas, marginal increased risk for NTDs with vegetarian diet was observed among Hindus. Cultural and ethnic variation in the risk factors for neural tube defects is highlighted in the study.

  11. DHFR 19-bp Deletion and SHMT C1420T Polymorphisms and Metabolite Concentrations of the Folate Pathway in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Cristiani Cortez; Raimundo, Aline Maria Zanchetta de Aquino; Oliveira, Luciana Dutra; Zampieri, Bruna Lancia; Marucci, Gustavo Henrique; Biselli, Joice Matos; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Haddad, Renato; Riccio, Maria Francesca; Vannucchi, Hélio; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco

    2013-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) results from the presence and expression of three copies of the genes located on chromosome 21. Studies have shown that, in addition to overexpression of the Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) gene, polymorphisms in genes involved in folate/homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism may also influence the concentrations of metabolites of this pathway. Aim: Investigate the association between Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) 19-base pair (bp) deletion and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) C1420T polymorphisms and serum folate and plasma Hcy and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations in 85 individuals with DS. Methods: Molecular analysis of the DHFR 19-bp deletion and SHMT C1420T polymorphisms was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by difference in the size of fragments and real-time PCR allelic discrimination, respectively. Serum folate was quantified by chemiluminescence and plasma Hcy and MMA by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Individuals with DHFR DD/SHMT TT genotypes presented increased folate concentrations (p=0.004) and the DHFR II/SHMT TT genotypes were associated with increased MMA concentrations (p=0.008). In addition, the MMA concentrations were negatively associated with age (p=0.04). Conclusion: There is an association between DHFR DD/SHMT TT and DHFR II/SHMT TT combined genotypes and folate and MMA concentrations in individuals with DS. PMID:23421317

  12. Plasma folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12 and breast cancer risk in BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutation carriers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shana J; Zuchniak, Anna; Sohn, Kyoung-Jin; Lubinski, Jan; Demsky, Rochelle; Eisen, Andrea; Akbari, Mohammad R; Kim, Young-In; Narod, Steven A; Kotsopoulos, Joanne

    2016-09-01

    B vitamins [vitamins B-6, B-9 (folate), and B-12] play important roles in nucleotide biosynthesis and biological methylation reactions, aberrancies of which have all been implicated in carcinogenesis. In the general population, evidence has suggested that high circulating folate and folic acid (synthetic form of folate) supplement use may increase breast cancer risk, but the role of folate in BRCA-associated breast cancer is not clear. We prospectively evaluated the relation between plasma folate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP; the biologically active form of vitamin B-6), and vitamin B-12 and breast cancer risk in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. Baseline blood samples and biennial follow-up questionnaires were available for 164 BRCA1/2-mutation carriers with no previous history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer. Plasma folate, PLP, and vitamin B-12 concentrations were categorized dichotomously as high compared with low based on the upper 25% and the lower 75% of distribution, respectively. Cox proportional hazards were used to estimate the HR and 95% CI for the association between plasma biomarkers of each B vitamin and incident breast cancer. Over a mean follow-up of 6.3 y, 20 incident primary invasive breast cancers were observed. Women with high plasma folate concentrations (>24.4 ng/mL) were associated with significantly increased breast cancer risk (HR: 3.20; 95% CI: 1.03, 9.92; P = 0.04, P-trend across quintiles = 0.07) compared with that of women with low plasma folate concentrations (≤24.4 ng/mL). Plasma PLP and vitamin B-12 concentrations were not associated with breast cancer risk. Our data suggest that elevated plasma folate concentrations may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. Additional studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up periods are warranted to clarify the relation between folate status and breast cancer risk in high-risk women. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Maternal Folate Status and the BHMT c.716G>A Polymorphism Affect the Betaine Dimethylglycine Pathway during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Colomina, Jose M.; Cavallé-Busquets, Pere; Fernàndez-Roig, Sílvia; Solé-Navais, Pol; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D.; Ballesteros, Mónica; Ueland, Per M.; Meyer, Klaus; Murphy, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the betaine: homocysteine methyltransferase BHMT c.716G>A (G: guanosine; A: adenosine) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the BHMT pathway is unknown during pregnancy. We hypothesised that it impairs betaine to dimethylglycine conversion and that folate status modifies its effect. We studied 612 women from the Reus Tarragona Birth Cohort from ≤12 gestational weeks (GW) throughout pregnancy. The frequency of the variant BHMT c.716A allele was 30.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.3, 33.5). In participants with normal-high plasma folate status (>13.4 nmol/L), least square geometric mean [95% CI] plasma dimethylglycine (pDMG, µmol/L) was lower in the GA (2.35 [2.23, 2.47]) versus GG (2.58 [2.46, 2.70]) genotype at ≤12 GW (p < 0.05) and in the GA (2.08 [1.97, 2.19]) and AA (1.94 [1.75, 2.16]) versus GG (2.29 [2.18, 2.40]) genotypes at 15 GW (p < 0.05). No differences in pDMG between genotypes were observed in participants with possible folate deficiency (≤13.4 nmol/L) (p for interactions at ≤12 GW: 0.023 and 15 GW: 0.038). PDMG was lower in participants with the AA versus GG genotype at 34 GW (2.01 [1.79, 2.25] versus 2.44 [2.16, 2.76] and at labour, 2.51 [2.39, 2.64] versus 3.00 [2.84, 3.18], (p < 0.01)). Possible deficiency compared to normal-high folate status was associated with higher pDMG in multiple linear regression analysis (β coefficients [SEM] ranging from 0.07 [0.04], p < 0.05 to 0.20 [0.04], p < 0.001 in models from early and mid-late pregnancy) and the AA compared to GG genotype was associated with lower pDMG (β coefficients [SEM] ranging from −0.11 [0.06], p = 0.055 to −0.23 [0.06], p < 0.001). Conclusion: During pregnancy, the BHMT pathway is affected by folate status and by the variant BHMT c.716A allele. PMID:27735840

  14. Increased synthesis of folate transporters regulates folate transport in conditions of ethanol exposure and folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Shilpa; More, Deepti; Rahat, Beenish; Khanduja, Krishan Lal; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and dietary folate inadequacy are the main contributors leading to folate deficiency (FD). The present study was planned to study regulation of folate transport in conditions of FD and ethanol exposure in human embryonic kidney cell line. Also, the reversible nature of effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD was determined by folate repletion and ethanol removal. For ethanol treatment, HEK293 cells were grown in medium containing 100 mM ethanol, and after treatment, one group of cells was shifted on medium that was free from ethanol. For FD treatment, cells were grown in folate-deficient medium followed by shifting of one group of cells on folate containing medium. FD as well as ethanol exposure resulted in an increase in folate uptake which was due to an increase in expression of folate transporters, i.e., reduced folate carrier, proton-coupled folate transporter, and folate receptor, both at the mRNA and protein level. The effects mediated by ethanol exposure and FD were reversible on removal of treatment. Promoter region methylation of folate transporters remained unaffected after FD and ethanol exposure. As far as transcription rate of folate transporters is concerned, an increase in rate of synthesis was observed in both ethanol exposure and FD conditions. Additionally, mRNA life of folate transporters was observed to be reduced by FD. An increased expression of folate transporters under ethanol exposure and FD conditions can be attributed to enhanced rate of synthesis of folate transporters.

  15. Diet folate, DNA methylation and genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T in association with the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cheng; Xie, Hui; Wang, Fengliang; Shen, Hongbing; Wang, Jianming

    2011-03-05

    Folic acid may affect the development of human cancers. However, few studies have evaluated the consumption of diet folate in the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). One hundred and twenty five ESCC patients underwent esophagectomy between January 2005 and March 2006 in the Yangzhong People's Hospital were recruited and followed up. The effects of diet folate, aberrant DNA methylation of selected genes and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genetic polymorphisms on the prognosis of ESCC were evaluated by using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Our analysis showed an inverse association between diet folate intake and the risk of death after esophagectomy. The median survival time was 3.06 years for low or moderate folate consumption and over 4.59 years for high folate consumption. After adjusting for potential confounders, the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) [HRs (95% CI)] were 0.72 (0.36-1.46) for moderate and 0.39 (0.20-0.78) for high folate intake, respectively (P for trend = 0.007). This preventive effect was more evident in patients carrying MTHFR 677CC genotype. No significant relation was observed between aberrant DNA methylation of P16, MGMT and hMLH1 gene, as well as MTHFR C677T genetic polymorphisms and the prognosis of ESCC. Our research indicated that diet folate intake may have benefits on the prognosis of ESCC after esophagectomy. From a practical viewpoint, the findings of our study help to establish practical intervention and surveillance strategies for managements of ESCC patients and can finally decrease the disease burden.

  16. Impact of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms and folate intake on the risk of gastric cancer and their association with Helicobacter pylori infection and tumor site.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Yuan, L; Duan, Y Q; Jiang, J Q; Zhang, R; Huang, Z J; Xiao, X R

    2014-01-24

    Folic acid and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may both affect the development of human cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in a Chinese population to investigate the potential role of folate intake and MTHFR gene polymorphisms in gastric cancer, and their interaction with infection by Helicobacter pylori and tumor location. A total of 767 patients with newly diagnosed gastric cancer and 775 controls were selected for this study. Genotyping of MTHFR C677T and A1298C was conducted by TaqMan assays using the ABI Prism 7911HT Sequence Detection System, and information on folate intake was collected by questionnaire. Compared with the CC genotype of MTHFR C677T, the TT genotype was significantly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer when the analysis was adjusted for other potential risk factors. We found a marginal significantly decreased risk of gastric cancer for individuals carrying the T allele [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.65-1.01]. We detected an inverse relationship between folate intake and risk of gastric cancer, and the adjusted ORs (95%CI) for moderate and high folate intake were 0.97 (0.74-1.25) and 0.64 (0.49-0.87), respectively. Moreover, H. pylori infection, folate intake, and location of the tumor showed a significant interaction with the MTHFR C677T polymorphism. Our study suggests a protective role of MTHFR 677TT and high folate intake against gastric cancer, and the effect of the MTHFR C677T genotype may differ by H. pylori infection, folate consumption, and tumor site.

  17. Genetic Association Study of Putative Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Genes in Folate Metabolism and Spina Bifida

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Carla A.; Northrup, Hope; Lin, Jone-Ing; Morrison, Alanna C.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Tyerman, Gayle H.; Au, Kit Sing

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested putative functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes which regulate the folate/homocysteine metabolism pathway for their contribution to spina bifida (SB) susceptibility. STUDY DESIGN The study consisted of 610 unrelated simplex SB patient families. Genotypes of 46 SNPs located in the coding sequence or promoter region of 11 genes were investigated. Associations between transmission of alleles and SB in the offspring were examined using the reconstruction-combined transmission disequilibrium test. RESULTS Significant association of SNP rs5742905 in cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), rs1643649 in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), rs2853533 in thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), and rs3737965 in methylene-tetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) was found (p= 0.015, 0.041, 0.021, and 0.007 respectively). CONCLUSION Transmission disequilibrium of SNP alleles in CBS, DHFR, MTHFR and TYMS confers an increased susceptibility to SB. PMID:19683694

  18. Maternal Gene Polymorphisms Involved in Folate Metabolism as Risk Factors for Down Syndrome Offspring in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brandalize, Ana Paula Carneiro; Bandinelli, Eliane; Santos, Pollyanna Almeida Dos; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of maternal polymorphisms, as well as their risk genotypes combinations of MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, CBS 844ins68, and RFC A80G, involved in folate/homocysteine metabolism, as possible risk factors for Down syndrome (DS) in Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 239~mothers of DS children and 197 control mothers. The investigation of polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP. The distribution of genotypic variants was similar in both groups when they were analyzed separately. An investigation of combined risk genotypes showed that the risk of having a DS child for one, two or three risk genotypes was 6.23, 6.96 and 5.84 (95%CI 1.48–26.26; 1.69–28.66; 1.37–24.86), respectively. The combined MTRR 66G and MTHFR 677T alleles were significantly more common among mothers of children with DS than among control mothers (OR 1.55; IC 95% 1.03–2.35). The results show that individual polymorphisms studied in this work are not associated with DS; however, the effects of the combined risk genotypes among MTR, MTRR, CBS and RFC genes are considered maternal risk factors for DS offspring in our population. PMID:21045269

  19. Enhanced Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Cytotoxicity of a Folic Acid-Desacetylvinblastine Monohydrazide Conjugate in a Pemetrexed-Resistant Cell Line Lacking Folate-Specific Facilitative Carriers but with Increased Folate Receptor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), and folate receptors (FR) are folate-specific transporters. Antifolates currently in the clinic, such as pemetrexed, methotrexate, and pralatrexate, are transported into tumor cells primarily via RFC. Folic acid conjugated to cytotoxics, a new class of antineoplastics, are transported into cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. To better define the role of PCFT in antifolate resistance, a methotrexate-resistant cell line, M160-8, was selected from a HeLa subline in which the RFC gene was deleted and PCFT was highly overexpressed. These cells were cross-resistant to pemetrexed. PCFT function and the PCFT mRNA level in M160-8 cells were barely detectable, and FR-α function and mRNA level were increased as compared with the parent cells. While pemetrexed rapidly associated with FR and was internalized within endosomes in M160-8 cells, consistent with FR-mediated transport, subsequent pemetrexed and (6S)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate export into the cytosol was markedly impaired. In contrast, M160-8 cells were collaterally sensitive to EC0905, a folic acid–desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide conjugate also transported by FR-mediated endocytosis. However, in this case a sulfhydryl bond is cleaved to release the lipophilic cytotoxic moiety into the endosome, which passively diffuses out of the endosome into the cytosol. Hence, resistance to pemetrexed in M160-8 cells was due to entrapment of the drug within the endosome due to the absence of PCFT under conditions in which the FR cycling function was intact. PMID:24249723

  20. Enhanced receptor-mediated endocytosis and cytotoxicity of a folic acid-desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide conjugate in a pemetrexed-resistant cell line lacking folate-specific facilitative carriers but with increased folate receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rongbao; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Goldman, I David

    2014-02-01

    The reduced folate carrier (RFC), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), and folate receptors (FR) are folate-specific transporters. Antifolates currently in the clinic, such as pemetrexed, methotrexate, and pralatrexate, are transported into tumor cells primarily via RFC. Folic acid conjugated to cytotoxics, a new class of antineoplastics, are transported into cells via FR-mediated endocytosis. To better define the role of PCFT in antifolate resistance, a methotrexate-resistant cell line, M160-8, was selected from a HeLa subline in which the RFC gene was deleted and PCFT was highly overexpressed. These cells were cross-resistant to pemetrexed. PCFT function and the PCFT mRNA level in M160-8 cells were barely detectable, and FR-α function and mRNA level were increased as compared with the parent cells. While pemetrexed rapidly associated with FR and was internalized within endosomes in M160-8 cells, consistent with FR-mediated transport, subsequent pemetrexed and (6S)-5-formyltetrahydrofolate export into the cytosol was markedly impaired. In contrast, M160-8 cells were collaterally sensitive to EC0905, a folic acid-desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide conjugate also transported by FR-mediated endocytosis. However, in this case a sulfhydryl bond is cleaved to release the lipophilic cytotoxic moiety into the endosome, which passively diffuses out of the endosome into the cytosol. Hence, resistance to pemetrexed in M160-8 cells was due to entrapment of the drug within the endosome due to the absence of PCFT under conditions in which the FR cycling function was intact.

  1. Association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, blood folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, and elevated serum total homocysteine in healthy individuals in Yunnan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Juan; Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Tao; Xu, Wei-Jiang; Xue, Jing-Lun; Cao, Neng; Wang, Xu

    2017-03-01

    An increased serum total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is typically associated with genetic defects involved in Hcy metabolism or related nutritional deficiencies. In this study, the combined effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency on serum total Hcy (tHcy) levels were evaluated in a healthy Chinese population in Yunnan Province, China. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was genotyped in 330 volunteers (164 men and 166 women) using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Folate, vitamin B12, and tHcy concentrations were determined by corpuscle immune chemiluminescence assays. The tHcy concentration was determined using an enzymatic assay. Significant negative correlations (p<0.001) were observed between the serum levels of tHcy and folate (r=-0.252) and vitamin B12 (r=-0.243). Men had significantly higher serum tHcy concentrations than women (p<0.001). Individuals with the MTHFR TT genotype had significantly higher serum tHcy concentrations than individuals with the CC and CT genotypes (p<0.001). The folate level of red blood cells was significantly increased in individuals with the TT genotype than in individuals with the CC genotype (p<0.05). Moreover, in the low vitamin group, the serum tHcy level was significantly correlated with the levels of folate (r=-0.334, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (r=-0.212, p=0.046). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folate deficiency, and B12 deficiency were significantly associated with elevated serum tHcy levels. Among these three factors, folate deficiency had the greatest contribution to the serum tHcy concentration, followed by (in order of decreasing effect) MTHFR C677T and vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, folic acid and vitamin B12 supplementation could help prevent diseases associated with tHcy accumulation, especially in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  2. The folate hydrolase 1561 C>T polymorphism is associated with depressive symptoms in Puerto Rican adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low plasma folate has been associated with depression. Variants of genes involved in the uptake, retention and metabolism of folate have been linked with plasma folate and homocysteine concentrations. It remains unclear whether such variants are also associated with depressive symptoms, directly or ...

  3. Polymorphisms in folate-related enzyme genes in idiopathic infertile Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Gava, Marcello M; Kayaki, Erika A; Bianco, Bianca; Teles, Juliana S; Christofolini, Denise M; Pompeo, Antonio C L; Glina, Sidney; Barbosa, Caio P

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and methionine synthase (MTR) polymorphisms in idiopathic infertile Brazilian men and fertile men. Case-control study comprising 133 idiopathic infertile Brazilian men with nonobstructive azoospermia ([NOA] n = 55) or severe oligozoospermia ([SO] n = 78) and 173 fertile men as controls. MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and G1793A; MTRR A66G; and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were studied by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results were analyzed statistically and a P value <.05 was considered significant. Single-marker analysis revealed a significant association among MTHFR C677T polymorphism and both NOA group (P = .018) and SO group (P < .001). Considering the MTHFR A1298C, MTHFR G1793A, and MTRR A66G polymorphisms, no difference was found between NOA group and SO group. Regarding the MTR A2756G polymorphism, a significant difference was found between NOA and controls, P = .017. However, statistical analysis revealed no association between SO group and controls. Combined genotypes of 3 MTHFR polymorphisms did not identify a haplotype associated with idiopathic infertility. The combinatory analysis of the 3 polymorphisms MTHFR, MTRR, and MTR did not show difference between cases and controls. The findings suggest the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms could be an important genetic factor predisposing to idiopathic infertility in Brazilian men.

  4. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  5. Potential use of folate-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-appended dendrimer (G3) conjugate with α-cyclodextrin as DNA carriers to tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Arima, H; Arizono, M; Higashi, T; Yoshimatsu, A; Ikeda, H; Motoyama, K; Hattori, K; Takeuchi, T; Hirayama, F; Uekama, K

    2012-05-01

    We previously reported that polyamidoamine STARBURST dendrimer (generation 3, G3) (dendrimer) conjugate with α-cyclodextrin (α-CyD) having an average degree of substitution of 2.4 of α-CyD (α-CDE) provided remarkable aspects as novel carriers for DNA and small-interfering RNA. To develop novel α-CDE derivatives with tumor cell specificity, we prepared folate-appended α-CDEs (Fol-α-CDEs) and folate-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-appended α-CDEs (Fol-PαCs) with the various degrees of substitution of folate (DSF), and evaluated in vitro and in vivo gene transfer activity, cytotoxicity, cellular association and physicochemical properties. In vitro gene transfer activity of Fol-α-CDEs (G3, DSF 2, 5 or 7) was lower than that of α-CDE (G3) in KB cells, folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing cancer cells. Of the three Fol-PαCs (G3, DSF 2, 5 or 7), Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) had the highest gene transfer activity in KB cells. The activity of Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) was significantly higher than that of α-CDE (G3) in KB cells, but not in A549 cells, FR-negative cells. Negligible cytotoxicity of the plasmid DNA (pDNA) complex with Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) was observed in KB cells or A549 cells up to a charge ratio of 100/1 (carrier/pDNA). The cellular association of the pDNA complex with Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) could be mediated by FR on KB cells, resulting in its efficient cellular uptake. Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) had a higher binding affinity with folate-binding protein than α-CDE (G3), although the physicochemical properties of pDNA complex with Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) were almost comparable to that with α-CDE (G3), although the onset charge ratio and the compaction ability of Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) were slightly different. Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5) tended to show a higher gene transfer activity than α-CDE (G3) 12 h after intratumoral administration in mice. These results suggest that Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 5), not Fol-α-CDEs, could be potentially used as a FR-overexpressing cancer cell

  6. Effect of common polymorphisms in folate uptake and metabolism genes on frequency of micronucleated lymphocytes in a South Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Varinderpal; Thomas, Philip; Fenech, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes that control folate uptake and metabolism may have an important effect on chromosomal stability. The present study investigated the effect of common SNPs in some of these critical genes on frequency of lymphocytes with micronuclei, a biomarker of chromosome breakage or loss. 164 individuals (94 males and 70 females) of different age ranging from 18 to 73 years participated in this study. Polymorphisms in GCPII (C1561T), RFC (G80A), MTR (A2756G), MTRR (A66G and C524T), TS (tandem repeats, 6bp deletion in 3'-UTR region) and MTHFR (C677T and A1298C) were detected using PCR-based methods. Frequency of binucleated (BN) lymphocytes containing one or more micronuclei (BN-MN) was determined using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay and adjusted for the effects of age and gender. We did not find any significant association between BN-MN frequency and the common SNPs in GCPII, MTRR, TS and MTHFR genes. BN-MN frequency in individuals who carried at least one copy of the rarer G allele for MTR (A2756G) or were homozygotes for the more common G allele for RFC (G80A) had a 14% or 19% lower BN-MN frequency compared to the alternative genotypes for that SNP respectively. It was evident from genotype combination analyses that BN-MN frequency per 1000 BN cells was highest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AA and RFC (80) GA or AA genotype (13.6 per thousand) and lowest in those with the combined MTR (2756) AG or GG and RFC (80) GG genotypes (9.5 per thousand) (P trend=0.015). The RFC G80A and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and their combinations may be important variables that substantially affect lymphocyte BN-MN frequency in this South Australian cohort.

  7. Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms with breast cancer risk and interaction with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B 12 intakes.

    PubMed

    Jiang-Hua, Qiao; De-Chuang, Jiao; Zhen-Duo, Lu; Shu-de, Cui; Zhenzhen, Liu

    2014-12-01

    We assessed the association between dietary intake of folate and the MTHFR genotype with breast cancer in a Chinese population, with additional analysis of the interactions of gene polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. A case-control study was performed, and 535 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer and 673 controls were enrolled into this study. The MTHFR 667TT genotype (odds ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.97) and T allele (OR 0= 1.48, 95 % CI = 1.15-1.78) were correlated with a moderately significant increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype. Individuals carrying the MTR 2756GG genotype (OR = 1.66, 95 % CI = 1.16-2.56) and G allele (OR = 1.42, 95 % CI = 1.26-1.81) had a higher risk of breast cancer when compared with subjects with the AA genotype. The MTHFR 667 T allele and MTR 2756 G allele were associated with a higher risk of breast cancer in individuals with low folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, but the association disappeared among subjects with moderate and high intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. This case-control study found that the MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms are associated with risk of breast cancer, and folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 intakes influence these associations.

  8. 5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C polymorphisms: genotype frequency and association with homocysteine and folate levels in middle-southern Italian adults.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Graziano, Mirella; Persichilli, Silvia; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Iacoviello, Licia

    2014-01-01

    Two genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T and A1298C) can influence the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels, especially in the presence of an inadequate folate status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of C677T and of A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms and their correlation with Hcy and serum folate concentrations in a population of blood donors living in a region of middle-southern Italy (the Molise Region). One hundred ninety seven blood donors were studied for total plasma Hcy, serum folate and C677T and A1298C MTHFR genotypes. The frequency of C677T genotypes was 20.8% (CC), 49.8% (CT) and 29.4% (TT); for the A1298C genotypes: 48.7% (AA), 43.7% (AC) and 7.6% (CC). Hcy and serum folate concentrations were significantly different among genotypes of the C677T polymorphism (CC versus CT versus TT: <0.0001 both for Hcy and folate), with Hcy values increasing, and serum folate decreasing, from CC to TT subjects. Regarding to A1298C polymorphism, the difference among genotypes (AA versus AC versus CC; p: 0.026 for Hcy and 0.014 for serum folate), showed an opposite trend for both parameters, with Hcy higher in the wild-type and lower in the homozygotes and serum folate higher in CC than in AA subjects. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of MTHFR allele associated with high level of Hcy and low levels of folate in an Italian southern population. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Nutrition throughout life: folate.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Helene; Pentieva, Kristina; Hoey, Leane; Strain, Jj; Ward, Mary

    2012-10-01

    Scientific evidence supports a number of roles for folate in maintaining health from early life to old age. Folate is required for one-carbon metabolism, including the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine; thus elevated plasma homocysteine reflects functional folate deficiency. Optimal folate status has an established role in preventing NTD and there is strong evidence indicating that it also has a role in the primary prevention of stroke. The most important genetic determinant of homocysteine in the general population is the common 677C → T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, MTHFR; homozygous individuals (TT genotype) have reduced enzyme activity and elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Meta-analyses indicate that the TT genotype carries a 14 to 21 % increased risk of CVD, but there is considerable geographic variation in the extent of excess CVD risk. A novel interaction between this folate polymorphism and riboflavin (a co-factor for MTHFR) has recently been identified. Intervention with supplemental riboflavin targeted specifically at individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype was shown to result in significant lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive people and in patients with CVD. This review considers the established and emerging roles for folate throughout the lifecycle, and some public health issues related to optimising folate status.

  10. Folate Pathway Gene Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Alzheimer Disease Risk in Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Rai, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    The association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and susceptibility to Alzheimers disease (AD) was controversial in previous studies. The present meta-analysis was designed to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T polymorphism with AD. Nine studies were identified by search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, Springer Link databases, up to January 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed effects model or random effects model. All statistical analysis was done by Mix version 1.7. MTHFR C677T polymorphism had a significant association with susceptibility to AD in all genetic models (for T vs C: OR 1.29, 95 % CI 1.15-1.44, p < 0.0001; for TT + CT vs CC: OR 1.38, 95 % CI 1.16-1.364, p = 0.0002; for TT vs CC: OR 1.60, 95 % CI 1.25-2.04, p = 0.0001; for CT vs CC: OR 1.28, 95 % CI 1.1-1.53, p < 0.008; for TT vs CT + CC: OR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.12-1.67, p = 0.002). Results from present meta-analysis supported that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of AD in Asian population.

  11. Relationship between the 19 base pair deletion polymorphism in DHFR and unmetabolized folic and in plasma and RBC folate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: A 19 base pair (bp) deletion allele of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme that makes folic acid metabolically active and reduces dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate to stimulate folate turnover, has been implicated in folate related health outcomes. Objective: Examine the effect ...

  12. Polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes in patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Nathália Perpétua; Galbiatti-Dias, Ana Lívia Silva; Castanhole-Nunes, Márcia Maria Urbanin; da Silva, Renato Ferreira; Pavarino, Érika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Ruiz-Cintra, Mariangela Torreglosa

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluated the association of the risk factors and polymorphisms in MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G genes. METHODS Patients with cirrhosis (n = 116), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 71) and controls (n = 356) were included. Polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion and allelic discrimination technique real-time PCR techniques were used for analysis. MINITAB-14.0 and SNPstats were utilized for statistical analysis. RESULTS Showed that age ≥ 46 years (OR = 10.31; 95%CI: 5.66-18.76; P < 0.001) and smoking (OR = 0.47; 95%CI: 0.28-0.78; P = 0.003) were associated with cirrhosis. Age ≥ 46 years (OR = 16.36; 95%CI: 6.68-40.05; P < 0.001) and alcohol habit (OR = 2.01; 95%CI: 1.03-3.89; P = 0.039) were associated with HCC. MTHFR A1298C in codominant model (OR = 3.37; 95%CI: 1.52-7.50; P = 0.014), recessive model (OR = 3.04; 95%CI: 1.43-6.47; P = 0.0051) and additive model (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.16-2.52; P = 0.0072) was associated with HCC, as well as MTR A2756G in the additive model (OR = 1.68; 95%CI: 1.01-2.77; P = 0.047), and MTRR A66G in the codominant model (OR = 3.26; 95%CI: 1.54-6.87; P < 0.001), dominant model (OR = 2.55; 95%CI: 1.24-5.25; P = 0.007) and overdominant model (OR = 3.05; 95%CI: 1.66-5.62; P < 0.001). MTR A2756G in the additive model (OR = 1.54; 95%CI: 1.02-2.33; P = 0.042) and smokers who presented at least one polymorphic allele for MTRR A66G (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 0.77-3.82; P = 0.0051) showed increased risk for cirrhosis. There was no association between clinical parameters and polymorphisms. CONCLUSION Age ≥ 46 years, alcohol habit and MTR A2756G, MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of HCC development; age ≥ 46 years, tobacco habit and the MTR A2756G polymorphism are associated with cirrhosis. PMID:27803768

  13. The search for genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine/folate pathway that contribute to the etiology of human neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Anne M; Brody, Lawrence C; Mills, James L; Scott, John M; Kirke, Peadar N

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we trace the history of current research into the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie folate-preventable neural tube defects (NTDs). The inspired suggestion by Smithells that common vitamins might prevent NTDs ignited a decade of biochemical investigations-first exploring the nutritional and metabolic factors related to NTDs, then onto the hunt for NTD genes. Although NTDs were known to have a strong genetic component, the concept of common genetic variance being linked to disease risk was relatively novel in 1995, when the first folate-related polymorphism associated with NTDs was discovered. The realization that more genes must be involved started a rush to find polymorphic needles in genetic haystacks. Early efforts entailed the intellectually challenging and time-consuming task of identifying and analyzing candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate pathway genes. Luckily, human genome research has developed rapidly, and the search for the genetic factors that contribute to the etiology of human NTDs has evolved to mirror the increased level of knowledge and data available on the human genome. Large-scale candidate gene analysis and genome-wide association studies are now readily available. With the technical hurdles removed, the remaining challenge is to gather a sample large enough to uncover the polymorphisms that contribute to NTD risk. In some respects the real work is beginning. Although moving forward is exciting, it is humbling that the most important result-prevention of NTDs by maternal folic acid supplementation-was achieved years ago, the direct result of Smithells' groundbreaking studies.

  14. Plasma homocysteine levels and genetic polymorphisms in folate metablism are associated with breast cancer risk in chinese women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Folate plays a pivotal role in DNA synthesis, repair, methylation and homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism. Therefore, alterations in the folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism may lead to abnormal methylation proliferation, increases of tumor/neoplasia and vein thrombosis/cardiovascular risk. The serine hydroxymethyhransferase (SHMT), methionine synthase (MS), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) regulate key reactions in the folate and Hcy metabolism. Therefore, we investigated whether the genetic variants of the SHMT, MS, MTRR and CBS gene can affect plasma Hcy levels and are associated with breast cancer risk. Methods Genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP method. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by the fluorescence polarization immunoassay on samples of 96 cases and 85 controls. Results (a) The SHMT 1420 T, MS 2756G, MTRR 66G allele frequency distribution showed significant difference between case and controls (p < 0.01 ~ 0.05). (b) The concentration of plasma Hcy levels of SHMT 1420TT was significantly lower than that of the wild type, while the plasma Hcy levels of MS 2756GG, CBS 699TT/1080TT significantly higher than that of the wild type both in case and controls. The plasma Hcy levels of MTRR 66GG was significantly higher than that of wild type in cases. The plasma Hcy levels of the same genotype in cases were significantly higher than those of controls except SHMT 1420CC, MS 2756AA, MTRR 66GG; (c) Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that SHMT C1420T (OR = 0.527, 95% CI = 0.55 ~ 1.24), MS A2756G (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.29 ~ 0.82), MTRR A66G (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 0.25 ~ 1.66) polymorphism is significantly associated with breast cancer risk. And elevated plasma Hcy levels were significantly linked to increased risk of breast cancer (adjusted OR = 4.45, 95% CI = 1.89-6.24 for the highest tertile as compared with the lowest tertile). Conclusions The current

  15. Polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing enzymes and response to 5-fluorouracil among stage II or III rectal cancer patients (INT-0144; SWOG 9304)

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Makar, Karen W.; Altug-Teber, Özge; Benedetti, Jacqueline K.; Holmes, Rebecca S.; Smalley, Stephen R.; Blanke, Charles D.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recurrence and toxicity occur commonly among rectal cancer patients treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We hypothesized that genetic variation in folate-metabolizing genes could play a role in the inter-individual variability. Our objective was to evaluate the associations between genetic variants in folate-metabolizing genes and clinical outcomes among rectal cancer patients treated with 5-FU. Experimental Design We investigated eight functionally significant polymorphisms in six genes (MTHFR (C667T, A1298C), SLC191A (G80A), SHMT1 (C1420T), DHFR (Del19bp)), TS 1494del, TSER) involved in folate metabolism in n=745 stage II or III rectal cancer patients enrolled in a phase III adjuvant clinical trial of three regimens of 5-FU and radiation therapy (INT-0144; SWOG 9304). Results There were no statistically significant associations between polymorphisms in any of the genes and overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and toxicity in the overall analyses. Nevertheless, there was a trend towards worse DFS among patients with the variant allele of MTHFR C677T compared to wildtype, particularly in treatment arm 2 where patients with the MTHFR C677T TT genotype had worse OS (HR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.06-2.93; p-value=0.03) and DFS (HR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.12-3.03; p-value=0.02) than those with homozygous wildtype. In addition, there was a trend towards reduced hematological toxicity among variants of SLC19A1 G80A in treatment arm 1 (p-trend=0.06) and reduced esophagitis/stomatitis among variants of TSER in treatment arm 3 (p-trend=0.06). Conclusions Genetic variability in folate-metabolizing enzymes was only to a limited degree associated with clinical outcomes among rectal cancer patients treated with 5-FU. PMID:25041994

  16. [Allele polymorphism analysis in coagulation factors F2, F5 and folate metabolism gene MTHFR by using microchip-based multiplex real time PCR].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, K V; Nikitin, M M; Slyadnev, M N

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping methods are widely used for the detection of hereditary thrombophilias caused by genetic defects in the coagulation system. The hereditary thrombophilias are frequently associated with higher incidences of point mutations in hemostasis (F2 20210G>A, F5 1691G>A) and folate metabolism (MTHFR 677C>Т, MTHFR 1298A>C) genes. Moreover, the combination of gene abnormalities in F2 or/and MTHFR with F5 Leiden mutation leads to increased risk of developing thrombosis. Thus, simultaneous detection of the multiple gene mutations in a sample has important clinical relevance. The microchip-based multiplex real time PCR for estimation of allele specific polymorphism in hemostatic and folate metabolism genes presented here has a high efficiency and may be used for laboratory diagnosis. The optimized protocol for estimation of 4 different types of genetic polymorphisms allowed PCR to be performed with minimal quantity of DNA template and PCR reagents including Taq polymerase and a short-term thermocycling.

  17. Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in Asian populations: Association analysis on three gene polymorphisms of the folate pathway.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Marcella; Girardi, Ambra; Cura, Francesca; Nouri, Nayereh; Pinto, Valentina; Carinci, Francesco; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Salehi, Mansoor; Scapoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are one of the most common birth defects in humans. They are the subject of a number of investigations aimed at elucidating the bases of their complex mode of inheritance involving both genetic and environmental factors. Genes belonging to the folate pathway have been among the most studied. The aim of the investigation was to replicate previous studies reporting evidence of association between polymorphisms of folate related genes and the occurrence of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P), using three independent samples of different ancestry: from Tibet, Bangladesh and Iran, respectively. Specifically, the polymorphisms rs1801133 of MTHFR, rs1801198 of TCN2, and rs4920037 of CBS, were tested. A decreased risk of NSCL/P was observed in patients presenting the C677T variant at MTHFR gene (relative risk for heterozygotes=0.53; 95% confidence interval [C.I.]=0.32-0.87). The investigated polymorphisms mapping at TCN2 and CBS genes did not provide any evidence of association. Overall, these results indicate that NSCL/P risk factors differ among populations and confirm the importance of testing putative susceptibility variants in different genetic backgrounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Folate-PEG-appended dendrimer conjugate with α-cyclodextrin as a novel cancer cell-selective siRNA delivery carrier.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hidetoshi; Yoshimatsu, Ayumi; Ikeda, Haruna; Ohyama, Ayumu; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Tsuchiya, Akira; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki; Hattori, Kenjiro; Takeuchi, Tomoko

    2012-09-04

    We previously reported that of the various polyamidoamine (PAMAM) STARBURST dendrimer (generation 3, G3) (dendrimer) conjugates with cyclodextrins (CyDs), the dendrimer (G3) conjugate with α-CyD having an average degree of substitution of 2.4 (α-CDE (G3)) has the greatest potential for a novel carrier for siRNA in vitro and in vivo. To improve the siRNA transfer activity and the lack of target specificity of α-CDE (G3), we prepared folate-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-appended α-CDEs (G3) (Fol-PαCs) with various degrees of substitution of folate (DSF) and evaluated their siRNA transfer activity to folate receptor (FR)-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Of the three Fol-PαCs (G3, DSF 2, 4 and 7), Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 4) had the highest siRNA transfer activity in KB cells (FR-positive). Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 4) was endocytosed into KB cells through FR. No cytotoxicity of the siRNA complex with Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 4) was observed in KB cells (FR-positive) or A549 cells (FR-negative) up to the charge ratio of 100/1 (carrier/siRNA). In addition, the siRNA complex with Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 4) showed neither interferon response nor inflammatory response. Importantly, the siRNA complex with Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 4) tended to show the in vivo RNAi effects after intratumoral injection and intravenous injection in tumor cells-bearing mice. The FITC-labeled siRNA and TRITC-labeled Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 4) were actually accumulated in tumor tissues after intravenous injection in the mice. In conclusion, the present results suggest that Fol-PαC (G3, DSF 4) could potentially be used as a FR-overexpressing cancer cell-selective siRNA delivery carrier in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Antiepileptic drugs reduce the efficacy of methotrexate chemotherapy through accelerated degradation of the reduced folate carrier by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Halwachs, Sandra; Schaefer, Ingo; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent treatment with methotrexate (MTX) and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs including phenobarbital (PB) reduces the efficacy of MTX chemotherapy in cancer patients. We have shown that Reduced folate carrier (Rfc1)-mediated uptake of MTX, an essential determinant of MTX chemotherapy, is significantly reduced by PB via protein kinase C (PKC). However, whether PB treatment affects Rfc1 activity through regulation of carrier protein stability and the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Protein turnover assays using hepatocytoma cells demonstrated that Rfc1 is a long-lived protein that is mainly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway under basal conditions. Pretreatment with PB significantly reduced Rfc1-mediated MTX uptake and shortened the carrier protein half-life. This effect was abolished by the specific PKC inhibitor Gö6976. Inhibition of proteasomes with MG-132 significantly elevated Rfc1 protein levels and induced colocalization of Rfc1 and ubiquitin particularly in submembranous cellular compartments. Finally, we demonstrated that PB treatment resulted in enhanced levels of Rfc1 polyubiquitin conjugates. Our results demonstrate that PB treatment causes downregulation of Rfc1 activity through PKC-dependent accelerated degradation of the Rfc1 protein by the ubiqutin-proteasome pathway. This regulatory mechanism may therefore involve clinically relevant drug resistance in patients concurrently receiving MTX and enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Evaluation of proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1) polymorphisms as risk factors for neural tube defects and oral clefts.

    PubMed

    VanderMeer, Julia E; Carter, Tonia C; Pangilinan, Faith; Mitchell, Adam; Kurnat-Thoma, Emma; Kirke, Peadar N; Troendle, James F; Molloy, Anne M; Munger, Ronald G; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Mansilla, Maria A; Mills, James L; Murray, Jeff C; Brody, Lawrence C

    2016-04-01

    Many folate-related genes have been investigated for possible causal roles in neural tube defects (NTDs) and oral clefts. However, no previous reports have examined the major gene responsible for folate uptake, the proton-coupled folate transporter (SLC46A1). We tested for association between these birth defects and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC46A1 gene. The NTD study population included 549 complete and incomplete case-family triads, and 999 controls from Ireland. The oral clefts study population comprised a sample from Utah (495 complete and incomplete case-family triads and 551 controls) and 221 Filipino multiplex cleft families. There was suggestive evidence of increased NTD case risk with the rs17719944 minor allele (odds ratio (OR): 1.29; 95% confidence intervals (CI): [1.00-1.67]), and decreased maternal risk of an NTD pregnancy with the rs4795436 minor allele (OR: 0.62; [0.39-0.99]). In the Utah sample, the rs739439 minor allele was associated with decreased case risk for cleft lip with cleft palate (genotype relative risk (GRR): 0.56 [0.32-0.98]). Additionally, the rs2239907 minor allele was associated with decreased case risk for cleft lip with cleft palate in several models, and with cleft palate only in a recessive model (OR: 0.41; [0.20-0.85]). These associations did not remain statistically significant after correcting for multiple hypothesis testing. Nominal associations between SLC46A1 polymorphisms and both Irish NTDs and oral clefts in the Utah population suggest some role in the etiology of these birth defects, but further investigation in other populations is needed.

  1. Maternal Supplementary Folate Intake, Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C Polymorphisms and the Risk of Orofacial Cleft in Iranian Children

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; KhorramKhorshid, Hamid Reza; Kamali, Koorosh; Salehi Zeinabadi, Mehdi; Khoshbakht, Tayyebeh; Ameli, Nazila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the association of MTHFR gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and maternal supplementary folate intake with orofacial clefts in the Iranian population. Methods: In this case-control study, peripheral venous blood was taken from 65 patients with orofacial clefts and 215 unaffected controls for DNA extraction and kept in EDTA for further analysis. The genotyping was carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed using Chi square test and logistic regression tests. Results: Genotype frequencies of 677TT were reported to be 13.5 and 36.1% in controls and CL/P patients, respectively, which showed a significant difference compared to CC as reference (OR=4.118; 95% CI=1.997–8.492; p=0.001). Conversely, 1298CC with frequencies of 10.8 and 12.7% in controls and patients, respectively, showed no significant difference compared to AA (OR=2.359; 95% CI=0.792–7.023; p=0.123). Comparing patients whose mothers did not report the folate supplement intake during pregnancy, to controls, it was observed that lack of folate intake was a predisposing factor for having a child with oral clefts (OR=5/718, p=0.000). Conclusion: Children carrying the 677TT variant of the MTHFR gene may have an increased risk of CL/P. In addition, the finding that the risk associated with this allele was obviously higher when the mothers didn’t use folic acid, supports the hypothesis that folic acid may play a role in the etiology of CL/P. PMID:26140186

  2. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Iwasaki, Motoki; Kobayashi, Minatsu; Kasuga, Yoshio; Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Hideki; Kusama, Ritsu; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations among intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) genes and breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. A hospital based, case-control study was conducted in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, in 388 pairs of patients with histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer and age- and area-matched controls selected from medical checkup examinees. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate and other B vitamins were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Genotyping was completed for MTHFR (C677T and A1298T) and MTR (A2756G). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by the conditional logistical regression model. Median dietary folate intake (microg/day) in the control group was 438.2 (interquartile range: 354.9-542.9). Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor polymorphisms of MTHFR or MTR genes were significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Further, no significant interaction was found among nutrients, polymorphisms, and breast cancer risk. Associations of nutrients with breast cancer risk did not differ by hormone receptors status. We conclude that dietary intake of folate and related B vitamins and genotypes of MTHFR or MTR have no overall association with breast cancer risk in Japanese women.

  3. Polymorphisms in Methionine Synthase, Methionine Synthase Reductase and Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase, Folate and Alcohol Intake, and Colon Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Steck, Susan E.; Keku, Temitope; Butler, Lesley M.; Galanko, Joseph; Massa, Beri; Millikan, Robert C.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims We examined associations among folate and alcohol intake, SNPs in genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and colon cancer risk. Methods Colon cancer cases (294 African Americans and 349 whites) were frequency matched to population controls (437 African Americans and 611 whites) by age, race and sex from 33 North Carolina counties from 1996 to 2000. Folate and alcohol intakes were collected by dietary interview. Five SNPs were genotyped using DNA from whole blood: SHMT C1420T; MTRR A66G; MTR A2756G, and the previously-reported MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1298C. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression. Results An inverse association was observed for SHMT TT genotype as compared to CC genotype in whites (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.4, 1.0), but not in African Americans. Inverse associations were observed for high folate intake in individuals carrying 0 or 1 variant allele [OR 0.2 (95%CI 0.06 – 0.8) for African Americans; OR 0.2 (95%CI 0.1– 0.6) for whites] compared to low folate intake. Modest interactions between these SNPs and alcohol or folate intakes were observed. Conclusions Our results are consistent with other findings and provide needed data on these associations among African Americans. PMID:19776626

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of a novel series of 6-substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolate inhibitors of purine biosynthesis with selectivity for high affinity folate receptors over the reduced folate carrier and proton-coupled folate transporter for cellular entry

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yijun; Zhou, Xilin; Desmoulin, Sita Kugel; Wu, Jianmei; Cherian, Christina; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem

    2009-01-01

    A series of seven 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines, with bridge length variations (from 2-8 carbon atoms) were synthesized as selective folate receptor (FR) α and β substrates and as antitumor agents. The syntheses were accomplished from appropriate allylalcohols and 4-iodobenzoate to afford the aldehydes which were converted to the appropriate 2-amino-4-carbethoxy-5-substituted thiophenes 23-29. Cyclization with chlorformamidine afforded the thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidines 30-36 which were hydrolyzed and coupled with diethyl-L-glutamate, followed by saponification to give the target compounds 2-8. Compounds 3-6 were potent growth inhibitors (IC50 4.7 to 334 nM) of human tumor cells (KB and IGROV1) that express FRs. In addition, compounds 3-6 inhibited the growth of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that expressed FRs but not the reduced folate carrier (RFC) or proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). However, the compounds were inactive toward CHO cells that lacked FRs but contained either the RFC or PCFT. By nucleoside and 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide (AICA) protection studies, along with in vitro and in situ enzyme activity assays, the mechanism of antitumor activity was identified as the dual inhibition of glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase and, likely, AICA ribonucleotide formyltransferase. The dual inhibitory activity of the active thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates and the FR specificity represent unique mechanistic features for these compounds distinct from all other known antifolates. The potent inhibitory effects of compounds 3-6 toward cells expressing FRs but not PCFT provide direct evidence that cellular uptake of this series of compounds by FRs does not depend on the presence of PCFT and argues that direct coupling between these transporters is not obligatory. PMID:19371039

  5. Polymorphism C776G in the transcobalamin II gene and homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Association with MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Aléssio, Ana C M; Höehr, Nelci F; Siqueira, Lúcia H; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M

    2007-01-01

    One of the etiologies of hyperhomocysteinemia is decreased vitamin B(12). Genetic variation in the transcobalamin II gene, the transporter of vitamin B(12) to the cells, may produce altered homocysteine levels. We determined transcobalamin II C776G polymorphism, homocysteine, folate and vitamin B(12) levels and analyzed the interactive effect with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C and methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphisms in 207 healthy Brazilian children. The prevalence of GG genotype of transcobalamin II C776G polymorphism in this Brazilian population, a highly miscigeneous population was 12.5% and the statistical analysis showed that this population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, it could be considered representative of the general population. We observed a significant increase in homocysteine in the 776GG vs. 776CC genotype, corroborating the influence of age as a determinant of homocysteine in relation to this polymorphism. When we analyzed vitamin B(12) and its relationship with the C776G polymorphism, we found no significant differences. Only 776CG/66AA or 776GG/66AG genotypes presented a significant increase in homocysteine when compared with other groups. In the multivariate analysis, transcobalamin II C776G (CC/CG vs. GG), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (CC/CT vs. TT), folate, gender and age presented statistical significance in relation to the homocysteine. These can be considered independent risk factors for hyperhomocysteinemia in this children group. Our results, if confirmed in other populations, highlight the necessity for investigation of the transcobalamin II C776G polymorphism in the research for hyperhomocysteinemia risk factors.

  6. Evaluation of C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase gene and its association with levels of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Pankaj K.; Kapoor, Seema; Dubey, Anand P.; Pandey, Sanjeev; Shah, Renuka; Nayak, Hemant K.; Polipalli, Sunil K.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of C677T polymorphisms of the methylenetetra hydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and its association with level of serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 as possible maternal risk factors for Down syndrome. DESIGN: This was a case–control study. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty-two mothers (mean age 27.6 years) with babies having free trisomy 21 of North Indian ethnicity and 52 control nonlactating mothers (mean age 24.9 years) of same ethnicity attending services of genetic lab for bloodletting for other causes were enrolled after informed written consent. Fasting blood was collected and was used for determination of plasma homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate (serum and RBC), and for PCR amplification of the MTHFR gene. RESULTS: The prevalence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism in north Indian mothers of babies with trisomy 21 Down syndrome was 15.38% compared to 5.88 % in controls. The difference between two groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.124). Low serum folate was demonstrated in 34.62% of cases vs. 11.54% in controls, which was significant (P = 0.005). Low RBC folate was found in 30.7% of cases versus 11.53% in controls, which was not significant (P = 0.059), when analyzed independently. But on multiple regression analysis the difference was statistically significant. Low serum vitamin B12 was found in 42.31% of cases versus 34.62% in controls, which was not significant (P = 0.118). The mean serum homocysteine in cases was 10.35 ± 0.68 while controls were 9.02 ± 0.535. CONCLUSION: Serum levels of folate were low in cases. The RBC folate levels were comparable in both groups. However the combined serum folate and RBC folate were low in cases compared to control groups. Homocysteine levels in our study were higher in Down syndrome mothers compared to controls; however high-serum level of Homocysteine had no association with MTHFR polymorphism. No association of serum vitamin B12 with MTHFR polymorphism in occurrence of

  7. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  8. Assessing the association between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism and blood folate concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials and observational studies.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Becky L; Devine, Owen J; Cordero, Amy M; Marchetta, Claire M; Mulinare, Joseph; Mersereau, Patricia; Guo, Jing; Qi, Yan Ping; Berry, Robert J; Rosenthal, Jorge; Crider, Krista S; Hamner, Heather C

    2015-06-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism is a risk factor for neural tube defects. The T allele produces an enzyme with reduced folate-processing capacity, which has been associated with lower blood folate concentrations. We assessed the association between MTHFR C677T genotypes and blood folate concentrations among healthy women aged 12-49 y. We conducted a systematic review of the literature published from January 1992 to March 2014 to identify trials and observational studies that reported serum, plasma, or red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations and MTHFR C677T genotype. We conducted a meta-analysis for estimates of percentage differences in blood folate concentrations between genotypes. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 6 studies that used the microbiologic assay (MA) to measure serum or plasma (S/P) and RBC folate concentrations, the percentage difference between genotypes showed a clear pattern of CC > CT > TT. The percentage difference was greatest for CC > TT [S/P: 13%; 95% credible interval (CrI): 7%, 18%; RBC: 16%; 95% CrI: 12%, 20%] followed by CC > CT (S/P: 7%; 95% CrI: 1%, 12%; RBC: 8%; 95% CrI: 4%, 12%) and CT > TT (S/P: 6%; 95% CrI: 1%, 11%; RBC: 9%; 95% CrI: 5%, 13%). S/P folate concentrations measured by using protein-binding assays (PBAs) also showed this pattern but to a greater extent (e.g., CC > TT: 20%; 95% CrI: 17%, 22%). In contrast, RBC folate concentrations measured by using PBAs did not show the same pattern and are presented in the Supplemental Material only. Meta-analysis results (limited to the MA, the recommended population assessment method) indicated a consistent percentage difference in S/P and RBC folate concentrations across MTHFR C677T genotypes. Lower blood folate concentrations associated with this polymorphism could have implications for a population-level risk of neural tube defects. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, genetic polymorphism of related enzymes, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Brazilian women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Several studies have determined that dietary intake of B vitamins may be associated with breast cancer risk as a result of interactions between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase (MTR) in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. However, the association between B vitamin intake and breast cancer risk in Brazilian women in particular has not yet been investigated. Methods A case-control study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, with 458 age-matched pairs of Brazilian women. Energy-adjusted intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 were derived from a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Genotyping was completed for MTHFR A1298C and C677T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms. A logistical regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Neither dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, or vitamin B12 nor MTHFR polymorphisms were independently associated with breast cancer risk. Analysis stratified by menopausal status showed a significant association between placement in the highest tertile of folate intake and risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.23–3.83; Ptrend = 0.010). The MTR 2756GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than the 2756AA genotype (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92; Ptrend = 0.801), and statistically significant interactions with regard to risk were observed between the MTHFR A1298C polymorphism and folate (P = 0.024) or vitamin B6 (P = 0.043), and between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folate (P = 0.043) or vitamin B12 (P = 0.022). Conclusion MTHFR polymorphisms and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 had no overall association with breast cancer risk. However, increased risk was observed in total women with the MTR 2756GG genotype and in premenopausal women with high folate intake. These findings, as well as significant interactions between MTHFR polymorphisms and B vitamins

  10. The CASP8 rs3834129 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Catucci, Irene; Verderio, Paolo; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Roversi, Gaia; Ripamonti, Carla B; Pasini, Barbara; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Giannini, Giuseppe; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Martayan, Aline; Riboni, Mirko; Volorio, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    The rs3834129 polymorphism, in the promoter of CASP8 gene, has been recently reported as associated with breast cancer risk in the general population, with the minor allele del having a protective effect. Some of the genetic variants found associated with breast cancer risk were reported as risk modifiers in individuals with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Here, we tested the effect of the rs3834129 del allele on breast cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. The rs3834129 was genotyped in a total of 1,207 Italian female BRCA mutation carriers. Of these, 740 carried a BRCA1 mutation and 467 a BRCA2 mutation. Overall, 699 were affected with breast cancer and 508 were unaffected. When considering class 1 (loss-of-function) BRCA mutations, hazard ratios estimated by weighted multivariable Cox regression model, for individuals with at least one copy of the del allele, were 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.99) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers combined, 1.74 (95% CI: 1.24-2.46) for BRCA1 mutation carriers, and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.66-1.80) for BRCA2 mutation carriers. These results suggest that the minor allele del of rs3834129 is associated under a dominant model with increased breast cancer risk in carriers of BRCA1 mutations but not in carriers of BRCA2 mutations.

  11. A Lower Degree of PBMC L1 Methylation in Women with Lower Folate Status May Explain the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism Associated Higher Risk of CIN in the US Post Folic Acid Fortification Era

    PubMed Central

    Badiga, Suguna; Johanning, Gary L.; Macaluso, Maurizio; Azuero, Andres; Chambers, Michelle M.; Siddiqui, Nuzhat R.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in populations unexposed to folic acid (FA) fortification have demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with increased risk of higher grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2+). However, it is unknown whether exposure to higher folate as a result of the FA fortification program has altered the association between MTHFR C677T and risk of CIN, or the mechanisms involved with such alterations. The current study investigated the following in a FA fortified population: 1) The association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and risk of CIN 2+; 2) The modifying effects of plasma folate concentrations on this association; and 3) The modifying effects of plasma folate on the association between the polymorphism and degree of methylation of long interspersed nucleotide elements (L1s), in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA, a documented biomarker of CIN risk. Methods The study included 457 US women diagnosed with either CIN 2+ (cases) or ≤ CIN 1 (non-cases). Unconditional logistic regression models were used to test the associations after adjusting for relevant risk factors for CIN. Results The 677CT/TT MTHFR genotypes were not associated with the risk of CIN 2+. Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate, however, were more likely to be diagnosed with CIN 2+ compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 2.41, P = 0.030). Women with CT/TT genotype with lower folate were less likely to have a higher degree of PBMC L1 methylation compared to women with CT/TT genotype with higher folate (OR = 0.28, P = 0.017). Conclusions This study provides the first evidence that the MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation increases the risk of CIN 2+ in women in the US post-FA fortification era. Thus, even in the post-FA fortification era, not all women have adequate folate status to overcome MTHFR 677CT/TT genotype-associated lower degree of L1 methylation. PMID:25302494

  12. Folate deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... micrograms of folate daily. Women who may become pregnant should take folic acid supplements to ensure that they get enough each day. Specific recommendations depend on a person's age, gender, and other factors (such as pregnancy ...

  13. "Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".

    PubMed

    Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (OR(TvsC) =1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (OR(GvsA) = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(CvsA) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (OR(TvsC) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.94), European (OR(TvsC) = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (OR(TvsC) = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD.

  14. Aberrant methylation in the promoter region of the reduced folate carrier gene is a potential mechanism of resistance to methotrexate in primary central nervous system lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Andrés J M; Dell'Oro, Stefania; Capello, Daniela; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Iuzzolino, Paolo; Rossi, Davide; Pasini, Felice; Ambrosetti, Achille; Orvieto, Enrico; Ferrarese, Fabio; Arrigoni, Gianluigi; Foppoli, Marco; Reni, Michele; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence and prognostic role of CpG island methylation of the reduced folate carrier (RFC) gene promoter region in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) in immunocompetent patients. Genomic DNA from 40 PCNSL was used for methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulphite genomic sequencing of the RFC promoter region. Human immunodeficiency virus-negative systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) were used as controls (n = 50). The impact on outcome of RFC promoter methylation was assessed in 37 PCNSL patients treated with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy. RFC promoter methylation occurred in 12 of 40 (30%) PCNSL and in four of 50 (8%) DLBCL (P = 0.01). Of 37 PCNSL treated with HD-MTX-based chemotherapy, methylation occurred in nine cases (24%, M-PCNSL), while 28 cases (76%, U-PCNSL) were negative. Three M-PCNSL (33%) and 15 U-PCNSL (54%) achieved complete remission (CR) after primary chemotherapy. Logistic regression confirmed the independent association between CR rate and International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group score (P = 0.03), RFC promoter methylation (P = 0.07) and use of cytarabine (P = 0.08). The 3-year failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival for M-PCNSL and U-PCNSL was 0% vs. 31 +/- 9% (P = 0.34) and 0% vs. 31 +/- 9% (P = 0.35) respectively. This is the first study to assess the methylation status of the RFC promoter in human tumour samples. RFC methylation is more common in PCNSL compared with systemic DLBCL, and is associated with a lower CR rate to HD-MTX-based chemotherapy. If confirmed in prospective trials on PCNSL treated with HD-MTX alone, these data may suggest the necessity for alternative strategies in M-PCNSL considering the increased risk of MTX resistance by tumour cells.

  15. Chitotriosidase Activity and Gene Polymorphism in Iranian Patients with Gaucher Disease and Sibling Carriers

    PubMed Central

    MOZAFARI, Hadi; TAGHIKHANI, Mohammad; KHATAMI, Shohreh; ALAEI, Mohammad Reza; VAISI-RAYGANI, Asad; RAHIMI, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Chitotriosidase (CT) activity is a useful biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of Gaucher disease (GD). Its application is limited by some variants in the CT gene. Two main polymorphisms are 24 bp duplication and G102S led to reduce CT activity. The aim of this study was to determine these variants influencing on plasma CT activity. Materials & Methods Blood samples were collected from 33 patients with GD, 15 sibling carriers and 105 healthy individuals serving as controls. CT activity was measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N′,N″triacetylchitotrioside substrate in plasma samples. The CT genotypes of 24 bp duplication and G102S variants were determined using PCR and PCR-RFLP. Results Untreated GD patients had a significantly higher CT activity compared to treated patients (P = 0.021). In addition, chitotriosidase activity in carriers was higher rather than controls. Allele frequencies of 24 bp duplication in GD patients, sibling carriers and controls were 0.21, 0.266 and 0.29 and for G102S were 0.318, 0.366 and 0.219, respectively. Different G102S genotypes had not significant effect on CT activity. Chitotriosidase activity has a positive correlation with age in normal group, carriers, and negative correlation with hemoglobin in GD patients. Using cut-off level of 80.75 nmol/ml/h, sensitivity and specificity of CT activity were 93.9% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion Chitotriosidase activity is a suitable biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of GD. Determination of 24 bp duplication is helpful for more accurate monitoring the GD patient’s therapy. However, it seems that, specifying of the G102S polymorphism is not required for Iranian GD patients. PMID:27843468

  16. Simultaneous Analysis of SEPT9 Promoter Methylation Status, Micronuclei Frequency, and Folate-Related Gene Polymorphisms: The Potential for a Novel Blood-Based Colorectal Cancer Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Ravegnini, Gloria; Zolezzi Moraga, Juan Manuel; Maffei, Francesca; Musti, Muriel; Zenesini, Corrado; Simeon, Vittorio; Sammarini, Giulia; Festi, Davide; Hrelia, Patrizia; Angelini, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) is identifying novel biomarkers to be introduced in screening programs. The present study investigated the promoter methylation status of the SEPT9 gene in peripheral blood samples of subjects’ positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). In order to add new insights, we investigated the association between SEPT9 promoter methylation and micronuclei frequency, and polymorphisms in the folate-related pathway genes. SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency, and genotypes were evaluated on 74 individuals’ FOBT positive. Individuals were subjected to a colonoscopy that provided written informed consent for study participation. SEPT9 promoter methylation status was significantly lower in the CRC group than controls (p = 0.0006). In contrast, the CaCo2 cell-line, analyzed as a tissue specific model of colon adenocarcinoma, showed a significantly higher percentage of SEPT9 promoter methylation compared to the CRC group (p < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis showed an inverse correlation between micronuclei frequency and the decrease in the methylation levels of SEPT9 promoter region among CRC patients (β = −0.926, p = 0.0001). With regard to genotype analysis, we showed the involvement of the DHFR polymorphism (rs70991108) in SEPT9 promoter methylation level in CRC patients only. In particular, the presence of at least one 19 bp del allele significantly correlates with decreased SEPT9 promoter methylation, compared to the 19 bp ins/ins genotype (p = 0.007). While remaining aware of the strengths and limitations of the study, this represents the first evidence of a novel approach for the early detection of CRC, using SEPT9 promoter methylation, micronuclei frequency and genotypes, with the potential to improve CRC risk assessment. PMID:26633373

  17. Natural variation in folate levels among tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Pallawi; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Tamboli, Vajir; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2017-02-15

    Folate content was estimated in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) accessions using microbiological assay (MA) and by LC-MS. The MA revealed that in red-ripe fruits folate levels ranged from 4 to 60μg/100g fresh weight. The LC-MS estimation of red-ripe fruits detected three folate forms, 5-CH3-THF, 5-CHO-THF, 5,10-CH(+)THF and folate levels ranged from 14 to 46μg/100g fresh weight. In mature green and red ripe fruit, 5-CH3-THF was the most abundant folate form. Comparison of LC-MS with MA revealed that MA inaccurately estimates folate levels. The accumulation of folate forms and their distribution varied among accessions. The single nucleotide polymorphism was examined in the key genes of the folate pathway to understand its linkage with folate levels. Despite the significant variation in folate levels among tomato accessions, little polymorphism was found in folate biosynthesis genes. Our results indicate that variation in folate level is governed by a more complex regulation at cellular homeostasis level.

  18. Influence of genetic polymorphisms in the folate pathway on toxicity after high-dose methotrexate treatment in pediatric osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong A

    2016-01-01

    Background Methotrexate (MTX), one of the main drugs used to treat osteosarcoma, is a representative folic acid antagonist. Polymorphisms of various enzymes involved in the metabolism of MTX could contribute to differences in response to MTX in pediatric osteosarcoma patients. Methods Blood and tissue samples were obtained from 37 pediatric osteosarcoma patients who were treated with high-dose MTX therapy. The following 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed: ATIC 347C>G, MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and SLC19A1 80G>A. Serial plasma MTX concentrations after high-dose MTX therapy and MTX-induced toxicities were evaluated. Correlations among polymorphisms, MTX concentrations and treatment-induced toxicities were assessed. Results Plasma MTX levels at 48 hours after high-dose MTX infusion were significantly associated with SLC19A1 80G>A (P=0.031). Higher plasma levels of MTX at 48 and 72 hours were significantly associated with MTX-induced mucositis (P=0.007 and P=0.046) and renal toxicity (P=0.002), respectively. SNP of SLC19A1 gene was associated with development of severe mucositis (P=0.026). Conclusion This study suggests that plasma levels of MTX are associated with GI and renal toxicities after high-dose MTX therapy, and genetic polymorphisms that affect the metabolism of MTX may influence drug concentrations and development of significant side effects in pediatric patients treated with high-dose MTX. PMID:27104192

  19. Lower Circulating Folate Induced by a Fidgetin Intronic Variant Is Associated With Reduced Congenital Heart Disease Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Feng; Shi, Kai-Hu; Tao, Hui; Li, Yang; Zhao, Rui; Lu, Han; Duan, Wenyuan; Qiao, Bin; Zhao, Shi-Min; Wang, Hongyan; Zhao, Jian-Yuan

    2017-05-02

    Folate deficiency is an independent risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD); however, the maternal plasma folate level is paradoxically not a good diagnostic marker. Genome-wide surveys have identified variants of nonfolate metabolic genes associated with the plasma folate level, suggesting that these genetic polymorphisms are potential risk factors for CHD. To examine the effects of folate concentration-related variations on CHD risk in the Han Chinese population, we performed 3 independent case-control studies including a total of 1489 patients with CHD and 1745 control subjects. The expression of the Fidgetin (FIGN) was detected in human cardiovascular and decidua tissue specimens with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The molecular mechanisms were investigated by luciferase reporter assays, surface plasmon resonance, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. FIGN-interacting proteins were confirmed by tandem affinity purification and coimmunoprecipitation. Proteasome activity and metabolite concentrations in the folate pathway were quantified with a commercial proteasome activity assay and immunoassays, respectively. The +94762G>C (rs2119289) variant in intron 4 of the FIGN gene was associated with significant reduction in CHD susceptibility (P=5.1×10(-14) for the allele, P=8.5×10(--13) for the genotype). Analysis of combined samples indicated that CHD risks in individuals carrying heterozygous (GC) or homozygous (CC) genotypes were reduced by 44% (odds ratio [OR]=0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.47-0.67) and 66% (OR=0.34; 95% CI=0.23-0.50), respectively, compared with those with the major GG genotype. Minor C allele carriers who had decreased plasma folate levels exhibited significantly increased FIGN expression because the transcription suppressor CREB1 did not bind the alternative promoter of FIGN isoform X3. Mechanistically, increased FIGN expression led to the accumulation of both reduced folate carrier 1 and

  20. Triplex tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method for the simultaneous detection of MTHFR c.677C>T and c.1298A>C, and MTRR c.66A>G polymorphisms of the folate-homocysteine metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Lajin, Bassam; Alachkar, Amal; Sakur, Amir Alhaj

    2012-02-01

    The folate-homocysteine metabolic pathway was shown to play an important role in several diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. The c.677C>T and c.1298A>C polymorphisms of the Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, and c.66A>G of the Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene are the most commonly investigated polymorphisms in the folate-homocysteine metabolic pathway. The currently used methods for the detection of the three polymorphisms are either slow and laborious or extremely expensive. In this paper, a new highly optimized method for the simultaneous detection of the three single nucleotide polymorphisms is described. The proposed method utilizes 12 primers in a single PCR reaction to detect the three polymorphisms simultaneously based on the principle of tetra-primer ARMS-PCR (also known as PCR-CTPP). The proposed method offers extremely fast, economical, and simple detection. Validation by PCR-RFLP showed 100% concordance in genotype assignment. The proposed method was successfully applied to a sample of the Syrian population (n=126), which was not previously genotyped for any of the three SNPs. The variant allele frequencies were found to be 31, 29, and 43% for the c.677C>T, c.1298A>C, and c.66A>G polymorphisms, respectively. The proposed method is the first to detect three SNPs in a single PCR reaction based on tetra-primer ARMS-PCR or PCR-CTPP. We suggest that the use of Betaine may play an important role in multiplex tetra-primer ARMS-PCR or PCR-CTPP based on its potential capacity to close the gap in melting temperature between different primers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of folate oversupplementation on folate uptake by human intestinal and renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Mohammed, Zainab M; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Said, Hamid M

    2007-07-01

    Folic acid [corrected] plays an essential role in cellular metabolism. Its deficiency can lead to neural tube defects. However, optimization of body folate homeostasis can reduce the incidence of neural tube defects and may decrease the risk of Alzheimer and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Hence, food fortification and intake of supplemental folate are widespread. We examined the effects of long-term folate oversupplementation on the physiologic markers of intestinal and renal folate uptake processes. Human-derived intestinal Caco-2 and renal HK-2 epithelial cells were maintained (5 generations) in a growth medium oversupplemented (100 micromol folic acid/L) or maintained under sufficient conditions (0.25 and 9 micromol folic acid/L). Carrier-mediated uptake of (3)H-folic acid (2 micromol/L) at buffer pH 5.5 (but not buffer pH 7.4) by Caco-2 and HK-2 cells maintained under the folate-oversupplemented condition was significantly (P<0.01) and specifically lower than in cells maintained under the folate-sufficient condition. This reduction in folic acid uptake was associated with a significant decrease in the protein and mRNA levels of the human reduced-folate carrier (hRFC) and a decrease in the activity of the hRFC promoter. It was also associated with a decrease in mRNA levels of the proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 (PCFT/HCP1) and folate receptor (FR). Long-term oversupplementation with folate leads to a specific and significant down-regulation in intestinal and renal folate uptake, which is associated with a decrease in message levels of hRFC, PCFT/HCP1, and FR. This regulation appears to be mediated via a transcriptional mechanism, at least for the hRFC system.

  2. Abnormal folate metabolism in foetuses affected by neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Dunlevy, Louisa P E; Chitty, Lyn S; Burren, Katie A; Doudney, Kit; Stojilkovic-Mikic, Taita; Stanier, Philip; Scott, Rosemary; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid supplementation can prevent many cases of neural tube defects (NTDs), whereas suboptimal maternal folate status is a risk factor, suggesting that folate metabolism is a key determinant of susceptibility to NTDs. Despite extensive genetic analysis of folate cycle enzymes, and quantification of metabolites in maternal blood, neither the protective mechanism nor the relationship between maternal folate status and susceptibility are understood in most cases. In order to investigate potential abnormalities in folate metabolism in the embryo itself, we derived primary fibroblastic cell lines from foetuses affected by NTDs and subjected them to the dU suppression test, a sensitive metabolic test of folate metabolism. Significantly, a subset of NTD cases exhibited low scores in this test, indicative of abnormalities in folate cycling that may be causally linked to the defect. Susceptibility to NTDs may be increased by suppression of the methylation cycle, which is interlinked with the folate cycle. However, reduced efficacy in the dU suppression test was not associated with altered abundance of the methylation cycle intermediates, s-adenosylmethionine and s-adenosylhomocysteine, suggesting that a methylation cycle defect is unlikely to be responsible for the observed abnormality of folate metabolism. Genotyping of samples for known polymorphisms in genes encoding folate-associated enzymes did not reveal any correlation between specific genotypes and the observed abnormalities in folate metabolism. These data suggest that as yet unrecognized genetic variants result in embryonic abnormalities of folate cycling that may be causally related to NTDs.

  3. Determining bioavailability of food folates in a controlled intervention study.

    PubMed

    Hannon-Fletcher, Mary P; Armstrong, Nicola C; Scott, John M; Pentieva, Kristina; Bradbury, Ian; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Dunn, Adele A; Molloy, Anne M; Kerr, Maeve A; McNulty, Helene

    2004-10-01

    The concept of dietary folate equivalents (DFEs) in the United States recognizes the differences in bioavailability between natural food folates and the synthetic vitamin, folic acid. However, many published reports on folate bioavailability are problematic because of several confounding factors. We compared the bioavailability of food folates with that of folic acid under controlled conditions. To broadly represent the extent to which natural folates are conjugated in foods, we used 2 natural sources of folate, spinach (50% polyglutamyl folate) and yeast (100% polyglutamyl folate). Ninety-six men were randomly assigned according to their screening plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration to 1 of 4 treatment groups for an intervention period of 30 d. Each subject received (daily under supervision) either a folate-depleted "carrier" meal or a drink plus 1) placebo tablet, 2) 200 microg folic acid in a tablet, 3) 200 microg natural folate provided as spinach, or 4) 200 microg natural folate provided as yeast. Among the subjects who completed the intervention, responses (increase in serum folate, lowering of tHcy) relative to those in the placebo group (n = 18) were significant in the folic acid group (n = 18) but not in the yeast folate (n = 19) or the spinach folate (n = 18) groups. Both natural sources of folate were significantly less bioavailable than was folic acid. Overall estimations of folate bioavailability relative to that of folic acid were found to be between 30% (spinach) and 59% (yeast). Relative bioavailability estimates were consistent with the estimates from the metabolic study that were used as a basis to derive the US DFE value.

  4. Microarray analysis of E9.5 reduced folate carrier (RFC1; Slc19a1) knockout embryos reveals altered expression of genes in the cubilin-megalin multiligand endocytic receptor complex

    PubMed Central

    Gelineau-van Waes, Janee; Maddox, Joyce R; Smith, Lynette M; van Waes, Michael; Wilberding, Justin; Eudy, James D; Bauer, Linda K; Finnell, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    Background The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) is an integral membrane protein and facilitative anion exchanger that mediates delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate into mammalian cells. Adequate maternal-fetal transport of folate is necessary for normal embryogenesis. Targeted inactivation of the murine RFC1 gene results in post-implantation embryolethality, but daily folic acid supplementation of pregnant dams prolongs survival of homozygous embryos until mid-gestation. At E10.5 RFC1-/- embryos are developmentally delayed relative to wildtype littermates, have multiple malformations, including neural tube defects, and die due to failure of chorioallantoic fusion. The mesoderm is sparse and disorganized, and there is a marked absence of erythrocytes in yolk sac blood islands. The identification of alterations in gene expression and signaling pathways involved in the observed dysmorphology following inactivation of RFC1-mediated folate transport are the focus of this investigation. Results Affymetrix microarray analysis of the relative gene expression profiles in whole E9.5 RFC1-/- vs. RFC1+/+ embryos identified 200 known genes that were differentially expressed. Major ontology groups included transcription factors (13.04%), and genes involved in transport functions (ion, lipid, carbohydrate) (11.37%). Genes that code for receptors, ligands and interacting proteins in the cubilin-megalin multiligand endocytic receptor complex accounted for 9.36% of the total, followed closely by several genes involved in hematopoiesis (8.03%). The most highly significant gene network identified by Ingenuity™ Pathway analysis included 12 genes in the cubilin-megalin multiligand endocytic receptor complex. Altered expression of these genes was validated by quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that megalin protein expression disappeared from the visceral yolk sac of RFC1-/- embryos, while cubilin protein was widely misexpressed. Conclusion Inactivation of

  5. Rare alleles of the HRAS polymorphism do not modify the risk of breast or ovarian cancer in BRCA1 carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, C.; Tonin, P.; Lynch, H.T.

    1994-09-01

    The presence of one of the rare alleles of a minisatellite polymorphism at the HRAS locus on chromosome 11p15 has been associated with a roughly two-fold increase in the risk of breast cancer. The BRCA1 gene on chromosome 17q12-21 is responsible for the majority of the families with the breast-ovarian cancer syndrome. It is estimated that 87% of BRCA1 carriers will be affected with breast cancer by age 70. The relative risk for premenopausal breast cancer in carriers, compared to non-carriers, is roughly 100. Because of the wide range in ages of onset of cancer among BRCA1 carriers, it is likely that additional factors modify the risk of cancer. The role of other modifying genetic loci has not been studied. Through haplotype analysis we have identified 199 female BRCA1 carriers above the age of 20 years in 25 linked families. 127 of these women have been diagnosed with cancer and 72 are currently healthy. DNA was available on 59 carriers. Each sample was typed for the HRAS polymorphism by PCR, using primers flanking the minisatellite. Rare alleles were identified in 18 carriers. The penetrance of the BRCA1 gene was not higher among those women who carried a rare HRAS allele (mean age of onset 49 years) than among those who carried two common alleles (mean age of onset 43 years) (p= 0.59; log rank test). Similar results were obtained for ovarian cancer. These data do not support the hypothesis that the HRAS locus modified the risk of cancer among carriers of mutations in BRCA1.

  6. Allele frequencies of three factor VIII gene polymorphisms in Iranian populations and their application in hemophilia A carrier detection.

    PubMed

    Azimifar, S Babak; Seyedna, S Yoosef; Zeinali, Sirous

    2006-05-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by a quantitative or qualitative deficiency of blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). ARMS (amplification refractory mutation system) primers were designed to determine allele frequencies of three FVIII gene linked markers, IVS7 nt 27 G/A SNP, BclI/intron 18, and HindIII/intron 19 among 85 normal Iranian women from unrelated families. Then same method was applied to perform carrier detection for hemophilia A families. The allele frequencies of IVS7 nt 27 "G"/"A" allele, BclI "T"/"A" allele, and HindIII "C"/"T" allele among normal women were 0.88/0.12, 0.52/0.48, and 0.48/0.52, respectively. The three polymorphisms were found to be in strong linkage disequilibrium, which decreased the overall heterozygosity to 51%. Twenty-one women from 15 unrelated hemophilia A families were referred to us for hemophilia A carrier detection. Taking advantage of these three biallelic polymorphisms in conjunction with multiallelic St14 VNTR (locus DXS52), IVS13 (CA)n STR, and IVS22 (CA)n STR, carrier status was determined in 16 women (16/21 or 76% of the at-risk women) from 11 families (11/15 or 73% of the families). The used ARMS methods are rapid and can easily be applied in conjunction with other FVIII gene linked polymorphisms for indirect mutation detection of hemophilia A where they are informative.

  7. Red cell or serum folate: what to do in clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Farrell, Christopher-John L; Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Markus

    2013-03-01

    Folate deficiency has been linked to diverse clinical manifestations and despite the importance of accurate assessment of folate status, the best test for routine use is uncertain. Both serum and red cell folate assays are widely available in clinical laboratories; however, red cell folate is the more time-consuming and costly test. This review sought to evaluate whether the red cell assay demonstrated superior performance characteristics to justify these disadvantages. Red cell folate, but not serum folate, measurements demonstrated analytical variation due to sample pre-treatment parameters, oxygen saturation of haemoglobin and haematocrit. Neither marker was clearly superior in characterising deficiency but serum folate more frequently showed the higher correlation with homocysteine, a sensitive marker of deficiency. Similarly, both serum and red cell folate were shown to increase in response to folic acid supplementation. However, serum folate generally gave the greater response and was able to distinguish different supplementation doses. The C677T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase alters the distribution of folate forms in red cells and may thereby cause further analytical variability in routine red cell folate assays. Overall, serum folate is cheaper and faster to perform than red cell folate, is influenced by fewer analytical variables and provides an assessment of folate status that may be superior to red cell folate.

  8. A 19-base pair deletion polymorphism in dihydrofolate reductase is associated with increased unmetabolized folic acid in plasma and decreased red blood cell folate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) catalyzes the reduction of folic acid to tetrahydrofolate (THF). A 19-bp noncoding deletion allele maps to intron 1, beginning 60 bases from the splice donor site, and has been implicated in neural tube defects and cancer, presumably by influencing folate metabolism. T...

  9. Gender and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2, CETP, and SCARB1 Are Significant Predictors of Plasma Homocysteine Normalized by RBC Folate in Healthy Adults123

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Andrew J.; Chen, Kehui; McWade, Laura; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Holstege, Dirk M.; Owens, Janel E.; Liu, Bitao; Müller, Hans-Georg; Medrano, Juan F.; Fadel, James G.; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Baer, David J.; Novotny, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and 2-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine (Hcy)/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma Hcy normalized by RBC folate measurements (nHcy) in 373 healthy Caucasian adults (50% women). Variable selection was conducted by stepwise Akaike information criterion or least angle regression and both methods led to the same final model. Significant predictors (where P values were adjusted for false discovery rate) included type of blood sample [whole blood (WB) vs. plasma-depleted WB; P < 0.001] used for folate analysis, gender (P < 0.001), and SNP in genes SPTLC1 (rs11790991; P = 0.040), CRBP2 (rs2118981; P < 0.001), BHMT (rs3733890; P = 0.019), and CETP (rs5882; P = 0.017). Significant 2-way interaction effects included gender × MTHFR (rs1801131; P = 0.012), gender × CRBP2 (rs2118981; P = 0.011), and gender × SCARB1 (rs83882; P = 0.003). The relation of nHcy concentrations with the significant SNP (SPTLC1, BHMT, CETP, CRBP2, MTHFR, and SCARB1) is of interest, especially because we surveyed the main and interaction effects in healthy adults, but it is an important area for future study. As discussed, understanding Hcy and genetic regulation is important, because Hcy may be related to inflammation, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus. We conclude that gender and SNP significantly affect nHcy. PMID:22833659

  10. Reduced Cerebral White Matter Integrity Assessed by DTI in Cognitively Normal H63D-HFE Polymorphism Carriers.

    PubMed

    Meadowcroft, Mark D; Wang, Jianli; Purnell, Carson J; Eslinger, Paul J; Neely, Elizabeth B; Yang, Qing X; Connor, James R

    2017-08-03

    The H63D-HFE single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with brain iron dysregulation; however, the emergent role of this missense variant in brain structure and function has yet to be determined. Previous work has demonstrated that HFE SNP carriers have reduced white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton relaxation rates. The mechanism by which white matter alterations perturb MRI relaxation is unknown as is how these metrics are related to myelin integrity. Fifteen subjects heterozygous for the HFE-H63D SNP and 25 controls with wild-type HFE had diffusion-weighted, anatomical MRIs taken, and underwent cognitive assessment. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusion (MD), and mode of anisotropy (MO) were calculated from the diffusion dataset to investigate the relationship between the H63D-HFE SNP and myelin integrity. A decrease in FA, an increase in MD, and an increase in MO are demonstrated in multiple H63D-HFE polymorphism carrier white matter tracts. Regions with altered diffusion metrics are notably located in heavily myelinated white matter association fibers, such as the anterior corona radiata and longitudinal fasciculi. The MRI data presented here demonstrate that H63D-HFE polymorphism carriers have diffusivity changes in white matter compared to wild-type subjects. The reduced integrity white matter tracts in H63D-HFE carriers are hypothesized to be related to increased susceptibility of these late-myelinating regions to cellular stress induced by oligodendrocyte iron dyshomeostasis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  11. Autism and Folate Deficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    als. Mouse mo dels of altered intracellular folate transport and metabolism exist (Folr1, Folr 2, Mthfr , and PCFT1). We hypothesized that folate...individuals and others (4). Severa l genetic m ouse models of altered intracellu lar folate transport and metabolism ar e in existen ce (Folr1, Folr2, Mthfr ...out mice to severely limit folate transport into the cell. We a lso utilized th e genetically modified Mthfr knock out mouse as a model of altered

  12. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  13. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  14. Carrier frequencies of mutations/polymorphisms in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) in the Moroccan population.

    PubMed

    Abidi, Omar; Boulouiz, Redouane; Nahili, Halima; Bakhouch, Khadija; Wakrim, Lahcen; Rouba, Hassan; Chafik, Abdelaziz; Hassar, Mohammed; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2008-12-01

    Mutations in the Connexin 26 gene (GJB2/Cx26) are responsible for more than half of all cases of prelingual nonsyndromic recessive deafness in Caucasians. The carrier frequency of the 35delG-GJB2 mutation was found to be as high as 2-4% in the Mediterranean populations. Different GJB2 mutations were reported in the Moroccan patients with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss; however, rare studies were carried out on the carrier frequencies of these mutations in the healthy populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the carrier frequencies of the GJB2 mutations in the Moroccan population. The molecular analysis of the 35delG mutation and other GJB2 sequence variations was performed in 386 healthy unrelated Moroccan individuals with no known hearing loss. Five GJB2 sequence variations at heterozygous state were found: two mutations, 35delG and 109G > A (V37I), and three polymorphisms, 79G > A (V27I), 341G > A (E114G), and 457G > A (V153I). The carrier frequency of the 35delG mutation was the highest with 2.07% [95% confidence interval (0.90-4.04%)], followed by that of the V37I mutation with 1.43% (0.06-5.39). The carrier frequency of V27I, E114G, and V153I changes was estimated to be 0.71% (0.01-4.34). This finding shows that the 35delG carrier frequency found here is similar to the one observed in Mediterranean populations. It provides new information about GJB2 carrier rates facilitating the diagnosis and the genetic counseling in the Moroccan population.

  15. Breast cancer risk associated with gene expression and genotype polymorphisms of the folate-metabolizing MTHFR gene: a case-control study in a high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Andrés; Echeverría, Carolina; Oña-Cisneros, Fabián; Sánchez, María Eugenia; Herrera, Camilo; Cabrera-Andrade, Alejandro; Rosales, Felipe; Ortiz, Malena; Paz-Y-Miño, César

    2015-08-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death among women in 2014. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), and MTR reductase (MTRR) are enzymes that play an important role in folate metabolism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, MTR A2756G, and MTRR A66G, alter plasmatic folate and homocysteine concentrations, causing problems during the repairment, synthesis, and methylation of the genetic material. Therefore, it is essential to know how BC risk is associated with histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics, genotype polymorphisms, and gene expression in a high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population. DNA was extracted from 195 healthy and 114 affected women. Genotypes were determined by restriction enzymes and genomic sequencing. mRNA was extracted from 26 glandular breast tissue samples, both from cancerous tissue and healthy tissue adjacent to the tumor. Relative gene expression was determined with the comparative Livak method (2(-ΔΔCT)). We found significant association between the rs1801133 (A222V) genotypes and an increased risk of BC development: C/T (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8; 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-3.2; P = 0.039), T/T (OR = 2.9; 95 % CI = 1.2-7.2; P = 0.025), and C/T + T/T (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI = 1.1-3.3; P = 0.019). Regarding relative gene expression, we found significant mRNA subexpression between the combined genotypes C/T + T/T (rs1801133) and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (P = 0.034). In brief, the MTHFR gene and its protein could act as potential predictive biomarkers of BC, especially TNBC among the high altitude Ecuadorian mestizo population.

  16. Method of assay of red cell folate activity and the value of the assay as a test for folate deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hoffbrand, A. V.; Newcombe, Beverley F. A.; Mollin, D. L.

    1966-01-01

    A simplified microbiological assay for determining the folate content of red cells is described. As in previously reported methods Lactobacillus casei is used as test organism but two modifications are introduced. First, haemolysis is carried out in water containing 1 g.% of ascorbic acid; secondly, haemolysates are not incubated before the assay. Using this assay, recovery of pteroylglutamic acid added in two different concentrations to five different whole blood samples was 97·0 ± 1·9 S.E. % and 106·1 ± 4·7 S.E. % respectively. The coefficient of variation of the assay was between 11·2 and 15·0%. Haemolysates were best stored deep frozen, showing no significant loss of L. casei activity for three to five months at −20°C. On the other hand, non-haemolysed blood samples were best stored at 4°C. when there was no loss of activity for seven to 10 days. Experiments confirmed that plasma is necessary for the maximum release of red cell L. casei activity, and showed that only small amounts of plasma are necessary; folate- and B12-deficient plasma released slightly lower L. casei activities from red cells than did normal plasma. The red cell folate levels of 40 healthy normal subjects ranged from 160 to 640 mμg. per ml. of packed red cells. One hundred and twenty patients with subnormal serum folate levels due to idiopathic steatorrhoea, nutritional folate deficiency and Crohn's disease, partial gastrectomy, myelosclerosis, and polycythaemia vera were studied. Red cell folate levels were subnormal (range from 7 to 143 mμg. per ml.) in 40 patients with megaloblastic anaemia, the lowest levels occurring in the most anaemic patients. Subnormal red cell folate levels also occurred in 23 (29%) of the 80 non-anaemic patients. There was a good correlation between red cell folate level and severity of folate deficiency assessed by polymorph nuclear lobe counts, and, in the non-anaemic patients bone marrow morphology. It is concluded that, in the absence of B12

  17. Synthesis, biological and antitumor activity of a highly potent 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolate inhibitor with proton-coupled folate transporter and folate receptor selectivity over the reduced folate carrier that inhibits β-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Desmoulin, Sita Kugel; Cherian, Christina; Polin, Lisa; White, Kathryn; Kushner, Juiwanna; Fulterer, Andreas; Chang, Min-Hwang; Mitchell, Shermaine; Stout, Mark; Romero, Michael F.; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem

    2011-01-01

    2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates with a thienoyl side chain (compounds 1–3, respectively) were synthesized for comparison with compound 4, the previous lead compound of this series. Conversion of hydroxyl acetylen-thiophene carboxylic esters to thiophenyl-α-bromomethylketones and condensation with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine afforded the 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine compounds of type 18 and 19. Coupling with L-glutamate diethyl ester, followed by saponification, afforded 1–3. Compound 3 selectively inhibited proliferation of cells expressing folate receptors (FRs) α or β, or the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), including human tumor cells KB and IGROV1 much more potently than 4. Compound 3 was more inhibitory than 4 toward β-glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Both 3 and 4 depleted cellular ATP pools. In SCID mice with IGROV1 tumors, 3 was more efficacious than 4. Collectively, our results show potent antitumor activity for 3 in vitro and in vivo, associated with its selective membrane transport by FRs and PCFT over RFC and inhibition of GARFTase, clearly establishing the 3-atom bridge as superior to the 1, 2 and 4-atom bridge lengths for the activity of this series. PMID:21879757

  18. Nutritional role of folate.

    PubMed

    Ebara, Shuhei

    2017-09-01

    Folate functions as a coenzyme to transfer one-carbon units that are necessary for deoxythymidylate synthesis, purine synthesis, and various methylation reactions. Ingested folate becomes a functional molecule through intestinal absorption, circulation, transport to cells, and various modifications to its structure. Associations between nutritional folate status and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction have been reported. It has also been reported that maternal folate nutritional status is related to the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. It has also been recommended that folate be consumed in the diet to promote the maintenance of good health. To reduce the risk of NTDs, supplementation with folic acid (a synthetic form of folate) during the periconceptional period has also been recommended. This paper describes the basic features and nutritional role of folate. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  19. Nutrigenetics in cancer research--folate metabolism and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2005-11-01

    The B vitamin folate is essential for one-carbon transfer reactions, including those related to the methylation of DNA or other substrates and nucleotide synthesis. Epidemiologic and experimental studies implicate low-folate intakes in elevated risk of colorectal neoplasia and suggest that biologic mechanisms underlying this relation include disturbances in DNA methylation patterns or adverse effects on DNA synthesis and repair. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, a vast amount of data on inherited genetic variability has become available. This genetic information can be used in studies of molecular epidemiology to provide information on multiple aspects of folate metabolism. First, studies linking polymorphisms in folate metabolism to an altered risk of cancer provide evidence for a causal link between this pathway and colorectal carcinogenesis. Second, studies on genetic characteristics can help clarify whether certain individuals may benefit from higher or lower intakes of folate or nutrients relevant to folate metabolism. Third, studies on genetic polymorphisms can generate hypotheses regarding possible biologic mechanisms that connect this pathway to carcinogenesis. Last, genetic variability in folate metabolism may predict survival after a cancer diagnosis, possibly via pharmacogenetic effects. To solve the puzzle of the folate-cancer relation, a transdisciplinary approach is needed that integrates knowledge from epidemiology, clinical studies, experimental nutrition, and mathematical modeling. This review illustrates knowledge that can be gained from molecular epidemiology in the context of nutrigenetics, and the questions that this approach can answer or raise.

  20. Epigenetic alterations in folate transport genes in placental tissue from fetuses with neural tube defects and in leukocytes from subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Sanja A; Böttiger, Anna K; Isaksson, Helena S; Finnell, Richard H; Ren, Aiguo; Nilsson, Torbjörn K

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMR's) in the folate transport genes in placental tissue compared with leukocytes, and from placental tissues obtained from normal infants or with neural tube defects (NTDs). Using pyrosequencing, we developed methylation assays for the CpG islands (CGIs) and the CGI shore regions of the folate receptor α (FOLR1), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) genes. The T-DMRs differed in location for each gene and the difference in methylation ranged between 2 and 54%. A higher T-DMR methylated fraction was associated with a lower mRNA level of the FOLR1 and RFC1 genes. Methylation fractions differed according to RFC1 80G > A genotype in the NTD cases and in leukocytes from subjects with high total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). There were no differences in methylated fraction of folate transporter genes between NTD cases and controls. We suggest that T-DMRs participate in the regulation of expression of the FOLR1 and RFC1 genes, that the RFC1 80G > A polymorphism exerts a gene-nutrition interaction on DNA methylation in the RFC1 gene, and that this interaction appears to be most prominent in NTD-affected births and in subjects with high tHcy concentrations.

  1. Epigenetic alterations in folate transport genes in placental tissue from fetuses with neural tube defects and in leukocytes from subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Sanja A.; Böttiger, Anna K.; Isaksson, Helena S.; Finnell, Richard H.; Ren, Aiguo; Nilsson, Torbjörn K.; Nilsson, Torbjörn K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (T-DMR’s) in the folate transport genes in placental tissue compared with leukocytes, and from placental tissues obtained from normal infants or with neural tube defects (NTDs). Using pyrosequencing, we developed methylation assays for the CpG islands (CGIs) and the CGI shore regions of the folate receptor α (FOLR1), proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) genes. The T-DMRs differed in location for each gene and the difference in methylation ranged between 2 and 54%. A higher T-DMR methylated fraction was associated with a lower mRNA level of the FOLR1 and RFC1 genes. Methylation fractions differed according to RFC1 80G > A genotype in the NTD cases and in leukocytes from subjects with high total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). There were no differences in methylated fraction of folate transporter genes between NTD cases and controls. We suggest that T-DMRs participate in the regulation of expression of the FOLR1 and RFC1 genes, that the RFC1 80G > A polymorphism exerts a gene-nutrition interaction on DNA methylation in the RFC1 gene, and that this interaction appears to be most prominent in NTD-affected births and in subjects with high tHcy concentrations. PMID:23417011

  2. Association of the solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to leprosy in a Brazilian sample.

    PubMed

    Brochado, Maria José Franco; Gatti, Maria Fernanda Chociay; Zago, Marco Antônio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-02-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1/solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene (Nramp1/Slc11a1) is a gene that controls the susceptibility of inbred mice to intracellular pathogens. Polymorphisms in the human Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene have been associated with host susceptibility to leprosy. This study has evaluated nine polymorphisms of the Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene [(GT)n, 274C/T, 469+14G/C, 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029 C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4] in 86 leprosy patients (67 and 19 patients had the multibacillary and the paucibacillary clinical forms of the disease, respectively), and 239 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. The frequency of allele 2 of the (GT)n polymorphism was higher in leprosy patients [p = 0.04, odds ratio (OR) = 1.49], whereas the frequency of allele 3 was higher in the control group (p = 0.03; OR = 0.66). Patients carrying the 274T allele (p = 0.04; OR = 1.49) and TT homozygosis (p = 0.02; OR = 2.46), such as the 469+14C allele (p = 0.03; OR = 1.53) of the 274C/T and 469+14G/C polymorphisms, respectively, were more frequent in the leprosy group. The leprosy and control groups had similar frequency of the 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4 polymorphisms. The 274C/T polymorphism in exon 3 and the 469+14G/C polymorphism in intron 4 were associated with susceptibility to leprosy, while the allele 2 and 3 of the (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region were associated with susceptibility and protection to leprosy, respectively.

  3. Association of the solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to leprosy in a Brazilian sample

    PubMed Central

    Brochado, Maria José Franco; Gatti, Maria Fernanda Chociay; Zago, Marco Antônio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 1/solute carrier family 11 member 1 gene (Nramp1/Slc11a1) is a gene that controls the susceptibility of inbred mice to intracellular pathogens. Polymorphisms in the human Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene have been associated with host susceptibility to leprosy. This study has evaluated nine polymorphisms of the Slc11a1/Nramp1 gene [(GT)n, 274C/T, 469+14G/C, 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029 C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4] in 86 leprosy patients (67 and 19 patients had the multibacillary and the paucibacillary clinical forms of the disease, respectively), and 239 healthy controls matched by age, gender, and ethnicity. The frequency of allele 2 of the (GT)n polymorphism was higher in leprosy patients [p = 0.04, odds ratio (OR) = 1.49], whereas the frequency of allele 3 was higher in the control group (p = 0.03; OR = 0.66). Patients carrying the 274T allele (p = 0.04; OR = 1.49) and TT homozygosis (p = 0.02; OR = 2.46), such as the 469+14C allele (p = 0.03; OR = 1.53) of the 274C/T and 469+14G/C polymorphisms, respectively, were more frequent in the leprosy group. The leprosy and control groups had similar frequency of the 577-18G/A, 823C/T, 1029C/T, 1465-85G/A, 1703G/A, and 1729+55del4 polymorphisms. The 274C/T polymorphism in exon 3 and the 469+14G/C polymorphism in intron 4 were associated with susceptibility to leprosy, while the allele 2 and 3 of the (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region were associated with susceptibility and protection to leprosy, respectively. PMID:26814595

  4. Photoaffinity analogues of methotrexate as folate antagonist binding probes. 2. Transport studies, photoaffinity labeling, and identification of the membrane carrier protein for methotrexate from murine L1210 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Price, E.M.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1987-07-28

    A membrane-derived component of the methotrexate/one-carbon-reduced folate transport system in murine L1210 cells has been identified by using a photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate. The compound, a radioiodinated 4-azidosalicylyl derivative of the lysine analogue of methotrexate, is transported into murine L1210 cells in a temperature-dependent, sulfhydryl reagent inhibitable manner with a K/sub t/ of 506 +/- 79 nM and a V/sub max/ of 17.9 +/- 4.2 pmol min/sup -1/ (mg of total cellular protein)/sup -1/. Uptake of the iodinated compound at 200 nM is inhibited by low amounts of methotrexate. The parent compounds of the iodinated photoprobe inhibit (/sup 3/H)methotrexate uptake, with the uniodinated 4-azidosalicylyl derivative exhibiting a K/sub i/ of 66 +/- 21 nM. UV irradiation, at 4 /sup 0/C, of a cell suspension that had been incubated with the probe results in the covalent modification of a 46K-48K protein. This can be demonstrated when the plasma membranes from the labeled cells are analyzed via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Labeling of this protein occurs half-maximally at a reagent concentration that correlates with the K/sub t/ for transport of the iodinated compound. Protection against labeling of this protein by increasing amounts of methotrexate parallels the concentration dependence of inhibition of photoprobe uptake by methotrexate. Evidence that, in the absence of irradiation and at 37/sup 0/C, the iodinated probe is actually internalized is demonstrated by the labeling of two soluble proteins (M/sub r/ 38K and 21K) derived from the cell homogenate supernatant.

  5. [Reproductive problems in women with PCOS, the impact of PAI-1 carriers of 4G PAI-1 polymorphism and BMI].

    PubMed

    Komsa-Penkova, R; Golemanov, G; Georgieva, G; Popovski, K; Slavov, N; Ivanov, P; Kovacheva, K; Atanasova, M; Blajev, A

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 7-12% of women in reproductive age are affected by PCOS[2] and 40 to 70 percent of them are overweight contributing to the clinical picture of PCOS and increased reproductive and metabolic disorder. In order to investigate the role of PAl-1 as a possible risk factor for the development of PCOS a group of 67 women with polycystic ovarian disease and 70 healthy controls were investigated for levels of PAl-1 and carriage of the promoter polymorphism 675 4G/5G in gene of PAI-1. The correlation with BMI was checked. The results of the DNA analysis showed a high carriage of polymorphism 675 4G/4G in promoter of PAl-1 gene in women with PCOS but not significant (OR = 1.655; p = 0.141), as well in the total group of the patient (OR =1.474; p>0.05). Serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in total group of patients compared to controls. The levels of PAI-1 is correlated with carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism in the gene for PAI-1 (r=0.534; p=0.03) as well as with BMI, like correlation coefficients were higherin the group with PCOS (0.572; p=0.04). Data from the disease history showed a higher percentage of women with reproductive problems: early pregnancy loss 48.5% and infertility 23.2%, significantly higher in the group with PCOS (58.1% compared to 32.4%). The carriers of polymorphism 4G are at greater risk for early pregnancy loss than those with 5G (61.45% as compared to 36.8%), which confirms that carriage of the polymorphism 4G/5G 675 gene PAl-1 has a specific in multifactorial pathogenesis and expression of PCOS.

  6. [Reproductive problems in women with PCOS, the impact of PAL-1 CARRIERS OF 4G PAI -1 polymorphism and BMI].

    PubMed

    Komsa-Penkova, R; Golemanov, G; Georgieva, G; Slavov, N; Popovski, K; Ivanov, P; Kovacheva, K; Atanasova, M; Blajev, A

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 7-12% of women in reproductive age are affected by PCOS[2] and 40 to 70 percent of them are overweight contributing to the clinical picture of PCOS and increased reproductive and metabolic disorder. In order to investigate the role of PAl-1 as a possible risk factor for the development of PCOS a group of 67 women with polycystic ovarian disease and 70 healthy controls were investigated for levels of PAI-1 and carriage of the promoter polymorphism 675 4G/5G in gene of PAl-1. The results of the DNA analysis showed a high carriage of polymorphism 675 4G/4G in promoter of PAI-1 gene in women with PCOS but not as significant (OR = 1.6645, p = 0.141). Serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in total group of patients compared to controls. The levels of PAI-1 is correlated with carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism in the gene for PAI-1 (R = 0.534, p = 0.03) as well as wih BMI, like correlation coefficients were higher in the group with PCOS (0.572, p = 0.04). Data from the disease history showed a higher percentage of women with reproductive problems: 61.5% (early pregnancy loss and infertility) significantly higher in the group with PCOS (70.1% compared to 54.1%). The carriers of polymorphism 4G are at greater risk for early pregnancy loss than those with 5G (61.45% as compared to 36.8%), which confirms that carriage of the polymorphism 4G/5G 675 gene PAI-1 has a specific in multifactorial pathogenesis and expression of PCOS.

  7. A pilot study on the contribution of folate gene variants in the cognitive function of ADHD probands.

    PubMed

    Saha, T; Dutta, S; Rajamma, U; Sinha, S; Mukhopadhyay, K

    2014-11-01

    Genetic abnormalities in components important for the folate cycle confer risk for various disorders since adequate folate turnover is necessary for normal methylation, gene expression and chromosome structure. However, the system has rarely been studied in children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that ADHD related cognitive deficit could be attributed to abnormalities in the folate cycle and explored functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (rs2236225), reduced folate carrier (rs1051266), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (rs1801131 and rs1801133) in families with ADHD probands (N = 185) and ethnically matched controls (N = 216) recruited following the DSM-IV. After obtaining informed written consent for participation, peripheral blood was collected for genomic DNA isolation and PCR-based analysis of target sites. Data obtained was analyzed by UNPHASED. Interaction between sites was analyzed by the multi dimensionality reduction (MDR) program. Genotypic frequencies of the Indian population were strikingly different from other ethnic groups. rs1801133 "T" allele showed biased transmission in female probands (p < 0.05). Significant difference in genotypic frequencies for female probands was also noticed. rs1801131 and rs1801133 showed an association with low intelligence quotient (IQ). MDR analysis exhibited independent effects and contribution of these sites to IQ, thus indicating a role of these genes in ADHD related cognitive deficit.

  8. Folate Metabolism and Human Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Folate metabolism affects ovarian function, implantation, embryogenesis and the entire process of pregnancy. In addition to its well-established effect on the incidence of neural tube defects, associations have been found between reduced folic acid levels and increased homocysteine concentrations on the one hand, and recurrent spontaneous abortions and other complications of pregnancy on the other. In infertility patients undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, a clear correlation was found between plasma folate concentrations and the incidence of dichorionic twin pregnancies. In patients supplemented with 0.4 mg/d folic acid undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte pick-up, carriers of the MTHFR 677T mutation were found to have lower serum estradiol concentrations at ovulation and fewer oocytes could be retrieved from them. It appears that these negative effects can be compensated for in full by increasing the daily dose of folic acid to at least 0.8 mg. In carriers of the MTHFR 677TT genotype who receive appropriate supplementation, AMH concentrations were found to be significantly increased, which could indicate a compensatory mechanism. AMH concentrations in homozygous carriers of the MTHFR 677TT genotype could even be overestimated, as almost 20 % fewer oocytes are retrieved from these patients per AMH unit compared to MTHFR 677CC wild-type individuals. PMID:25278626

  9. Association of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR polymorphisms with Parkinson's disease among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chin-Shih; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Shieh, Jia-Ching; Fu, Yi-Ping; Chin, Ting-Yu; Wang, Hsiao-Wei; Cheng, Chun-Wen

    2011-01-30

    Influence of folate/homocysteine conversion is considered to be important in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, association of the folate metabolic pathway gene polymorphisms with PD susceptibility remains unclear. To test this possibility in PD, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study constituting 211 patients and 218 age- and sex-matched controls of ethnic Chinese in Taiwan. Genotyping assay was performed to screen for polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T), methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR A2756G), and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR A1049G and C1783T) genes and assess the association between these genotype polymorphisms and PD risk using logistic regression analysis. Of these four non-synonymous polymorphisms, the MTRR 1049GG variant was significantly associated with PD susceptibility (OR=3.17, 95%CI=1.08-9.35). Furthermore, we stratified our patients based on the MTHFR 677TT genotype in different strata, a significant association between the joint effect of polymorphisms and PD risk was observed in those patients whose genotypes were MTRR A1049G/MTR A2756G or MTRR C1783T/MTR A2756G (P<0.05). Our findings provide support for the synergistic effects of polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway genes in PD susceptibility; the increased PD risk would be more significant in carriers with the polymorphisms of MTHFR, MTR, and MTRR genes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlled release of folic acid through liquid-crystalline folate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rahul; Katyal, Henna; Mohanty, Sanat

    2014-11-01

    The present study explores folate nanoparticles as nano-carriers for controlled drug delivery. Cross-linked nanoparticles of liquid crystalline folates are composed of ordered stacks. This paper shows that the folate nanoparticles can be made with less than 5% loss in folate ions. In addition, this study shows that folate nanoparticles can disintegrate in a controlled fashion resulting in controlled release of the folate ions. Release can be controlled by the size of nanoparticles, the extent of cross-linking and the choice of cross-linking cation. The effect of different factors like agitation, pH, and temperature on folate release was also studied. Studies were also carried out to show the effect of release medium and role of ions in the release medium on disruption of folate assembly.

  11. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis is likely to improve the clinical outcome for translocation carriers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y-Q; Tan, K; Zhang, S-P; Gong, F; Cheng, D-H; Xiong, B; Lu, C-F; Tang, X-C; Luo, K-L; Lin, G; Lu, G-X

    2013-09-01

    Is preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for translocation carriers more effective when done with a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array using trophectoderm (TE) biopsy and frozen embryo transfer (FET) compared with traditional PGD based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH-PGD) using blastomere biopsy and fresh embryo transfer? The procedure using the SNP array combined with TE biopsy and FET significantly improves the clinical pregnancy rate for translocation carriers. The miscarriage rate also slightly decreases. FISH-PGD has been widely used in translocation carriers but the clinical outcomes have not been ideal. SNP arrays can detect both chromosome segmental imbalances and aneuploidy, and may overcome the limitations of FISH in PGD for translocation carriers. This was a retrospective study of 575 couples with chromosomal translocations, including 169 couples treated by SNP-PGD between October 2011 and August 2012, and 406 couples treated by FISH-PGD between January 2005 and October 2011. The study was set in an IVF center at the Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya, China. In total, 169 couples underwent SNP analysis, including 52 Robertsonian translocation carriers and 117 carriers of reciprocal translocations. Blastocysts (n = 773) were biopsied and FET was carried out on the balanced embryos. Four hundred and six couples underwent FISH-PGD, including 149 Robertsonian translocation carriers and 257 reciprocal translocation carriers. In total, 3968 embryos were biopsied and balanced embryos were transferred fresh. The SNP-PGD results and clinical outcomes were compared with those of FISH-PGD. Reliable SNP-PGD results were obtained for 717 out of 773 (92.8%) biopsied blastocysts. The proportions of normal/balanced embryos, embryos with translocation-related and translocation-unrelated abnormalities, the median number of embryos per patient, the ongoing pregnancy rate per embryo transfer and the miscarriage rate were 58, 23, 19, 2

  12. Evaluation of factor VIII polymorphic short tandem repeat markers in linkage analysis for carrier diagnosis of hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sabina; Dong, Sufang; Li, Zuhua; Huang, Zhuliang; Zheng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) is the most common inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor VIII gene (FVIII). Diagnosis of the carrier is critical for preventing the birth of children affected by this coagulation disorder, which ultimately facilitates its management. Due to the heterogeneous nature of mutations, the large inversions and the complexity of the FVIII gene, direct recognition of the disease-associated mutation in HA is complex. Indirect linkage analysis using highly informative heterozygous polymorphic markers is an alternative method for determining the co-segregation of the mutant gene within a family for carrier detection of HA. The aim of the present study was to perform carrier diagnosis in a family with HA. Rapid multifluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with six extragenic short tandem repeats (STRs), DXS1073, DXS15, DXS8091, DXS1227, DXS991, DXS993 and one intragenic marker, STR22 for linkage analysis in the HA family. All the STR markers employed in the present study were informative for linkages of pathogenic and healthy haplotypes among family members, particularly STR22, DXS1073 and DXS15. The STR marker, STR22, is within the FVIII gene while the DXS1073 and DXS15 markers are very close to the FVIII gene, where the chances of recombination are comparatively low, and provided the most accurate interpretation analysis, indicating that the proband's sister may have been the HA carrier. Rapid multifluorescent PCR using STR markers and linkage analysis was identified to be a simple method for performing HA carrier diagnosis. PMID:27446547

  13. Carrier prediction of cystic fibrosis in 36 families by means of restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Simon, P; Brocas, H; Baran, D; van Geffel, R; Rodesch, F; Vassart, G

    1988-02-01

    Transmission of cystic fibrosis (CF) was studied in 36 families with at least one affected and one unaffected child. DNA was prepared from peripheral leukocytes and submitted to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with two CF probes (pj3.11 and met). Twenty families were shown to be informative so that accurate predictions could be made of the status of the offspring. Sixteen were only partially informative. The allele frequency was similar to that originally reported except for one Msp I site detected with the pj3.11 probe, for which we found a significantly higher heterozygote frequency, making it more informative than expected in our population sample. Pedigree analysis demonstrated no obligate recombinant between CF and the polymorphic markers.

  14. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of10B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors. PMID:20596476

  15. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ciofani, Gianni; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2008-11-25

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of (10)B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly-l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  16. Folate Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanotubes and their Selective Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells: Implications for their Use as Boron Carriers in Clinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciofani, Gianni; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2009-02-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is increasingly being used in the treatment of several aggressive cancers, including cerebral glioblastoma multiforme. The main requirement for this therapy is selective targeting of tumor cells by sufficient quantities of 10B atoms required for their capture/irradiation with low-energy thermal neutrons. The low content of boron targeting species in glioblastoma multiforme accounts for the difficulty in selective targeting of this very malignant cerebral tumor by this radiation modality. In the present study, we have used for the first time boron nitride nanotubes as carriers of boron atoms to overcome this problem and enhance the selective targeting and ablative efficacy of BNCT for these tumors. Following their dispersion in aqueous solution by noncovalent coating with biocompatible poly- l-lysine solutions, boron nitride nanotubes were functionalized with a fluorescent probe (quantum dots) to enable their tracking and with folic acid as selective tumor targeting ligand. Initial in vitro studies have confirmed substantive and selective uptake of these nanovectors by glioblastoma multiforme cells, an observation which confirms their potential clinical application for BNCT therapy for these malignant cerebral tumors.

  17. Development of tropical spastic paraparesis in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers is influenced by interleukin 28B gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Lopez, Mariola; Vispo, Eugenia; Aguilera, Antonio; Ramos, Jose M; Benito, Rafael; Roc, Lourdes; Eiros, Jose M; de Mendoza, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent

    2012-07-01

    Interleukin 28B (IL28B) rs12979860 polymorphisms were examined in 41 individuals with human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The alleles CT/TT were more frequent in 12 individuals with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis than in 29 asymptomatic carriers (80% vs 20%; P = .03), and median HTLV-1 proviral load was greater in CT/TT than CC carriers (P = .01). Thus, IL28B testing and closer follow-up of HTLV-1 asymptomatic CT/TT carriers is warranted.

  18. Reduced levels of folate transporters (PCFT and RFC) in membrane lipid rafts result in colonic folate malabsorption in chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wani, Nissar Ahmad; Kaur, Jyotdeep

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on folate transport across the colonic apical membranes (CAM) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 1 g/kg body weight/day ethanol (20%) solution orally for 3 months and folate transport was studied in the isolated colon apical membrane vesicles. The folate transport was found to be carrier mediated, saturable, with pH optima at 5.0. Chronic ethanol ingestion reduced the folate transport across the CAM by decreasing the affinity of transporters (high Km) for the substrate and by decreasing the number of transporter molecules (low Vmax) on the colon luminal surface. The decreased transport activity at the CAM was associated with down-regulation of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) and the reduced folate carrier (RFC) which resulted in decreased PCFT and RFC protein levels in the colon of rats fed alcohol chronically. Moreover, the PCFT and the RFC were found to be distributed in detergent insoluble fraction of the CAM in rats. Floatation experiments on Optiprep density gradients demonstrated the association of the PCFT and the RFC protein with lipid rafts (LR). Chronic alcoholism decreased the PCFT and the RFC protein levels in the CAM LR in accordance with the decreased synthesis. Hence, we propose that downregulation in the expression of the PCFT and the RFC in colon results in reduced levels of these transporters in colon apical membrane LR as a mechanism of folate malabsorption during chronic alcoholism.

  19. Haplotype analysis of TP53 polymorphisms, Arg72Pro and Ins16, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers of French Canadian descent

    PubMed Central

    Cavallone, Luca; Arcand, Suzanna L; Maugard, Christine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Provencher, Diane; Tonin, Patricia N

    2008-01-01

    Background The TP53 polymorphisms Arg72Pro (Ex4+199 G>C) and Ins16 (IVS3+24 ins16) have been proposed to modify risk of breast cancer associated with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Allele frequencies of these polymorphisms were investigated to determine if they modify risk in BRCA mutation carriers in breast cancer cases drawn from French Canadian cancer families, a population shown to exhibit strong founder effects. Methods The frequencies of the TP53 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of 157 index breast cancer cases comprised of 42 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 57 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 58 BRCA mutation-negative cases, where each case was drawn from independently ascertained families were compared. The effect of TP53 variants on the age of diagnosis was also investigated for these groups. The TP53 polymorphisms were also investigated in 112 women of French Canadian descent with no personal history of cancer. Results The BRCA mutation-positive groups had the highest frequency of homozygous carriers of the 72Pro allele compared with mutation-negative group. The TP53 polymorphisms exhibited linkage disequilibrium (p < 0.001), where the 72Arg and Ins16minus alleles occurred in strong disequilibrium. The highest frequency of carriers of Ins16minus-72Arg haplotype occurred in the BRCA mutation-negative groups. The BRCA1 mutation carriers homozygous for the 72Pro allele had the youngest ages of diagnosis of breast cancer. However none of these observations were statistically significant. In contrast, the BRCA2 mutation carriers homozygous for the 72Pro allele had a significantly older age of diagnosis of breast cancer (p = 0.018). Moreover, in this group, the mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in carriers of the Ins16minus-72Arg haplotype was significantly younger than that of the individuals who did not this carry this haplotype (p = 0.009). Conclusion We observed no significant association of breast cancer risk with TP53 genetic variants based on BRCA1

  20. A pilot study evaluating the contribution of SLC19A1 (RFC-1) 80G>a polymorphism to Alzheimer's disease in Italian Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Tannorella, Pierpaola; Tognoni, Gloria; Bagnoli, Silvia; Bongioanni, Paolo; Nacmias, Benedetta; Siciliano, Gabriele; Sorbi, Sandro; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the primary form of dementia in the elderly. Polymorphisms of genes involved in folate metabolism have been frequently suggested as risk factors for sporadic AD. A common c.80G>A polymorphism (rs1051266) in the gene coding for the reduced folate carrier (SLC19A1 gene, commonly known as RFC-1 gene) was investigated as AD risk factor in Asian populations, yielding conflicting results. We screened a Caucasian population of Italian origin composed of 192 sporadic AD patients and 186 healthy matched controls, for the presence of the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism, and searched for correlation with circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12. No difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies was observed between AD patients and controls. No correlation was observed among the genotypes generated by the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism and circulating levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 either in the whole cohort of subjects or after stratification into clinical subtypes. Present results do not support a role for the RFC-1 c.80G>A polymorphism as independent risk factor for sporadic AD in Italian Caucasians.

  1. Potential role of folate in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mansi Dass; Thomas, Philip; Owens, Julie; Hague, William; Fenech, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Dietary deficiencies of folate and other B vitamin cofactors involved in one-carbon metabolism, together with genetic polymorphisms in key folate-methionine metabolic pathway enzymes, are associated with increases in circulating plasma homocysteine, reduction in DNA methylation patterns, and genome instability events. All of these biomarkers have also been associated with pre-eclampsia. The aim of this review was to explore the literature and identify potential knowledge gaps in relation to the role of folate at the genomic level in either the etiology or the prevention of pre-eclampsia. A systematic search strategy was designed to identify citations in electronic databases for the following terms: folic acid supplementation AND pre-eclampsia, folic acid supplementation AND genome stability, folate AND genome stability AND pre-eclampsia, folic acid supplementation AND DNA methylation, and folate AND DNA methylation AND pre-eclampsia. Forty-three articles were selected according to predefined selection criteria. The studies included in the present review were not homogeneous, which made pooled analysis of the data very difficult. The present review highlights associations between folate deficiency and certain biomarkers observed in various tissues of women at risk of pre-eclampsia. Further investigation is required to understand the role of folate in either the etiology or the prevention of pre-eclampsia. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Association between decreased vitamin levels and MTHFR, MTR and MTRR gene polymorphisms as determinants for elevated total homocysteine concentrations in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, P R; Stabler, S P; Machado, A L K; Braga, R C; Hirata, R D C; Hirata, M H; Sampaio-Neto, L F; Allen, R H; Guerra-Shinohara, E M

    2008-08-01

    To examine the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T and A1298C), methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G gene polymorphisms and total homocysteine (tHcy), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAM/SAH) levels; and to evaluate the potential interactions with folate or cobalamin (Cbl) status. Two hundred seventy-five healthy women at labor who delivered full-term normal babies. Cbl, folate, tHcy, MMA, SAM and SAH were measured in serum specimens. The genotypes for polymorphisms were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Serum folate, MTHFR 677T allele and MTR 2756AA genotypes were the predictors of tHcy levels in pregnant women. Serum Cbl and creatinine were the predictors of SAM/SAH ratio and MMA levels, respectively. The gene polymorphisms were not determinants for MMA levels and SAM/SAH ratios. Low levels of serum folate were associated with elevated tHcy in pregnant women, independently of the gene polymorphisms. In pregnant women carrying MTHFR 677T allele, or MTHFR 1298AA or MTRR 66AA genotypes, lower Cbl levels were associated with higher levels of tHcy. Lower SAM/SAH ratio was found in MTHFR 677CC or MTRR A2756AA genotypes carriers when Cbl levels were lower than 142 pmol/l. Serum folate and MTHFR C677T and MTR A2576G gene polymorphisms were the determinants for tHcy levels. The interaction between low levels of serum Cbl and MTHFR (C677T or A1298C) or MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms was associated with increased tHcy.

  3. Oxidative stress is associated with genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Vijaya Lakshmi, S V; Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Seshagiri Rao, D; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2013-11-01

    In view of growing body of evidence favouring the association of aberrations in one-carbon metabolism and oxidative stress in the aetiology of coronary artery disease (CAD), we investigated the risk associated with polymorphisms regulating the folate uptake and transport such as the glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) C1561T, reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) G80A and cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) C1420T. We further evaluated the impact of seven putatively functional polymorphisms of this pathway on oxidative stress markers. Genotyping was performed on 288 CAD cases and 266 healthy controls along with the dietary folate assessment. GCPII C1561T polymorphism was found to be an independent risk factor (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.47-4.98) for CAD, whereas cSHMT C1420T conferred protection (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37-0.70). Oxidative stress markers like the plasma levels of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine were significantly increased and total glutathione was significantly decreased in CAD cases. Elevated oxidative stress was observed in subjects carrying GCPII 1561T and MTRR 66A-variant alleles and low oxidative stress was observed in the subjects carrying cSHMT 1420T and TYMS 5'-UTR 2R allele. GCPII C1561T, MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G polymorphisms were observed to influence the homocysteine levels (P < 0.05). SHMT and TYMS variants were found to decrease oxidative stress by increasing the folate pool (r = 0.38, P = 0.003) and also by increasing the antioxidant status (r = 0.28, P = 0.03). Influence of dietary folate status was not observed. Overall, this study revealed elevated oxidative stress that was associated with the aberrations in one-carbon metabolism which could possibly influence the CAD risk.

  4. Polymorphisms in MTHFD1 Gene and Susceptibility to Neural Tube Defects: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Han Population with Relatively Low Folate Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Bao, Yihua; Lu, Xiaolin; Wu, Lihua; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Jin; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background The polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) has been reported as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTHFD1 gene are associated with NTDs in a Chinese population and to determine their mechanism of action. Material/Methods MTHFD1 gene was scanned in a total of 270 NTDs cases and 192 healthy controls by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. After quality control procedures, 208 selected SNP sites in MTHFD1 gene were enrolled for follow-up statistical association analyses. Functional analyses were also performed for significant SNPs through bioinformatics analysis. Folic acid levels of brain tissue in available NTDs cases and healthy controls (113 and 123, respectively) were measured. Statistical and bioinformatics analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between SNPs in MTHFD1 and susceptibility to NTDs. Results Statistical analysis showed that 2 independent SNPs, rs1956545 and rs56811449, confer the risk of NTDs (P value=0.0195, OR (odds ratio)=1.41, 95% CI (confidence interval)=1.06–1.88; P value=0.0107, OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.36–0.87). The haplotype GGGG, which consists of 4 SNPs (rs2236225, rs2236224, rs1256146, and rs6573559), is also associated with risk of NTDs (P value=0.0438, OR=0.7180, 95% CI=0.5214–0.9888). The risk allele C of rs1956545 is also associated with decreased folic acid levels in the brain (P value=0.0222, standard beta=−0.2238, 95% CI=−0.4128 – −0.0349) according to analysis in the subset of NTDs cases and healthy controls. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that rs1956545 and rs56811449 are within ENCODE regulatory regions, the open chromatin regions of blastula Trophoblast cell line, and histone-marked region of brain astrocyte cell line. Conclusions The polymorphism of SNP loci rs1956545 and rs56811449 as well as a haplotype in MTHFD1 gene could serve as an

  5. Polymorphisms in MTHFD1 Gene and Susceptibility to Neural Tube Defects: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Han Population with Relatively Low Folate Levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Bao, Yihua; Lu, Xiaolin; Wu, Lihua; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Jin; Yang, Jian

    2015-09-04

    The polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) has been reported as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MTHFD1 gene are associated with NTDs in a Chinese population and to determine their mechanism of action. MTHFD1 gene was scanned in a total of 270 NTDs cases and 192 healthy controls by using next-generation sequencing (NGS) method. After quality control procedures, 208 selected SNP sites in MTHFD1 gene were enrolled for follow-up statistical association analyses. Functional analyses were also performed for significant SNPs through bioinformatics analysis. Folic acid levels of brain tissue in available NTDs cases and healthy controls (113 and 123, respectively) were measured. Statistical and bioinformatics analyses were performed to investigate the relationship between SNPs in MTHFD1 and susceptibility to NTDs. Statistical analysis showed that 2 independent SNPs, rs1956545 and rs56811449, confer the risk of NTDs (P value=0.0195, OR (odds ratio)=1.41, 95% CI (confidence interval)=1.06-1.88; P value=0.0107, OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.36-0.87). The haplotype GGGG, which consists of 4 SNPs (rs2236225, rs2236224, rs1256146, and rs6573559), is also associated with risk of NTDs (P value=0.0438, OR=0.7180, 95% CI=0.5214-0.9888). The risk allele C of rs1956545 is also associated with decreased folic acid levels in the brain (P value=0.0222, standard beta=-0.2238, 95% CI=-0.4128 - -0.0349) according to analysis in the subset of NTDs cases and healthy controls. Bioinformatics analysis indicates that rs1956545 and rs56811449 are within ENCODE regulatory regions, the open chromatin regions of blastula Trophoblast cell line, and histone-marked region of brain astrocyte cell line. The polymorphism of SNP loci rs1956545 and rs56811449 as well as a haplotype in MTHFD1 gene could serve as an indicator for the occurrence of NTDs in Chinese population and some

  6. Common HEXB polymorphisms reduce serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, potentially masking Tay-Sachs disease carrier identification.

    PubMed

    Vallance, Hilary; Morris, Tara J; Coulter-Mackie, Marion; Lim-Steele, Joyce; Kaback, Michael

    2006-02-01

    A DNA-proven Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carrier and his brother were found to have serum percent Hexosaminidase A (%HexA) enzymatic activities in the non-carrier range, while the leukocyte %HexA profiles clearly identified them as TSD heterozygotes. Both their serum HexA and HexB enzymatic activities were below reference range, suggesting inheritance of mutations in both the HEXA (alpha-subunit) and HEXB (beta-subunit) genes. DNA sequencing revealed that both individuals, carried the common HEXA 1277_1278insTATC mutation, and two common HEXB polymorphisms: [619A>G (+) delTG]. To determine if these HEXB polymorphisms reduce HexA and HexB enzymatic activities, 69 DNA samples from subjects previously screened enzymatically in both serum and leukocytes for TSD carrier status were selected for either high, mid-range or low serum Total Hex (defined as the sum of HexA and HexB) activities and were tested for the HEXB mutations. Further, three additional TSD carriers ascertained by the atypical pattern of normal serum %HexA but carrier leukocyte %HexA, were found to have the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype. In addition, the frequency of the [delTG (+) 619A>G] genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in subjects with low serum HexB enzymatic activities. Given the high frequency of the [delTG (+) 619A>G] haplotype in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (approximately 10%), up to 10% of TSD carriers may have normal serum %HexA values with low total Hex. Accordingly, serum %HexA should not be the sole criterion used for carrier status determination. Where total Hex activity is reduced, further testing with leukocyte Hex profiles is indicated.

  7. [TUB9 polymorphism in the CFTR gene of cystic fibrosis patients, carriers, and healthy donors from the Moscow region. SSCP and restriction analyses].

    PubMed

    Amosenko, F A; Trubnikova, I S; Zakhar'ev, V M; Bannikov, V M; Sazonova, M A; Petrova, N V; Kapranov, N I; Kaplinin, V N

    1997-02-01

    Data on the screening of 266 non-delta F508 chromosomes (42 cystic fibrosis patients, 43 carriers, and 48 healthy donors from the Moscow region) for the presence of structural abnormalities within the tenth exon of the CFTR gene conducted by means of the single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique in nonisotope modification are presented. The method used made it possible to detect three SSCP variants, one of which was present in cystic fibrosis patients (23.8%) and carriers (9.3%), but not in healthy donors. Sequencing of the 5 amplified DNA fragments carrying this SSCP variant revealed an A-->G substitution in the 1525-61 position, which indicated the presence of TUB9 polymorphism with allele 1 in the homozygous state in all cases tested. The three SSCP variants described corresponded to the three allelic variants of TUB9 polymorphism as judged by MnlI restriction analysis of the amplified tenth exon sequence. The modified SSCP technique is also suitable for routine screening for the G542X, G55ID, and W1282X point mutations within the CFTR gene. The frequency distribution of polymorphic TUB9 marker alleles across the non-delta F508 chromosomes in the three studied groups were estimated. Homozygotes for the TUB9 allele 1 were shown to have identical GATT-TUB9-M470V haplotypes.

  8. Dietary folate and related micronutrients, folate-metabolising genes, and ovarian cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Dixon, S C; Ibiebele, T I; Protani, M M; Beesley, J; deFazio, A; Crandon, A J; Gard, G B; Rome, R M; Webb, P M; Nagle, C M

    2014-03-01

    Folate is essential for DNA synthesis and methylation and is implicated in tumour progression. Few studies have examined its role in ovarian cancer survival. Our objective was to determine relationships between intake of folate, related one-carbon nutrients, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolising genes and survival following ovarian cancer diagnosis. This analysis included 1270 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed in 2002-2006. Pre-diagnostic and some post-diagnostic lifestyle, dietary, and sociodemographic information was collected via self-administered questionnaires. DNA samples were genotyped for SNPs in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) genes. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox regression. Multivariate analyses did not identify associations between higher pre-diagnostic intake of folate, folic acid, vitamins B2, B6, and B12, methionine, betaine or choline and survival overall. In stratified analyses, higher folic acid and folate intake was associated with significantly worse survival among women with mucinous tumours (HRs per 100 μg 1.30 and 1.43, respectively) and smokers (HRs per 100 μg 1.23 and 1.16 respectively). There was also a suggestion that higher supplemental folic acid use post-diagnosis was associated with worse survival (HR per 100 μg 1.03, 95%CI 1.00-1.05). MTHFR SNP rs2066470 was significantly associated with survival (per allele HR 0.81, 95%CI 0.67-0.98). Our data provide little evidence that folate intake affects ovarian cancer survival. However, combined effects with smoking, and findings within the mucinous subtype and for post-diagnosis folic acid, warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Plasma Total Homocysteine Levels: Impact of Population-wide Folate Fortification

    PubMed Central

    Nagele, Peter; Meissner, Konrad; Francis, Amber; Födinger, Manuela; Saccone, Nancy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Folate metabolism is an important target for drug therapy. Drug-induced inhibition of folate metabolism often causes an elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma tHcy levels are influenced by several non-genetic (e.g., folate intake, age, smoking) as well as genetic factors. Over the last decade, several countries have implemented a nation-wide folate fortification program of all grain products. This investigation sought to determine the impact of folate fortification on the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the variability of plasma tHcy. Methods Two cohorts were compared in this study, one from the U.S. (with folate fortification, n=281), and one from Austria (without folate fortification, n=139). Several environmental factors as well as previously identified gene variants important for tHcy levels (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G) were examined for their ability to predict plasma tHcy in a multiple linear regression model. Results Non-genetic, environmental factors had a comparable influence on plasma tHcy between the two cohorts (R2 ~ 0.19). However, after adjusting for other covariates, the tested gene variants had a substantially smaller impact among patients from the folate fortified cohort (R2= 0.021) compared to the non-folate fortified cohort (R2= 0.095). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was the single most important genetic factor. Male gender, smoking and folate levels were important predictors for non-folate fortified patients; age for folate fortified. Conclusions Population-wide folate fortification had a significant effect on the variability of plasma tHcy and reduced the influence of genetic factors, most importantly the MTHFR 677TT genotype, and may be an important confounder for a personalized drug therapy. PMID:21597397

  10. Triglyceride response to an intensive lifestyle intervention is enhanced in carriers of the GCKR Pro446Leu polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Pollin, Toni I; Jablonski, Kathleen A; McAteer, Jarred B; Saxena, Richa; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kahn, Steven E; Goldberg, Ronald B; Altshuler, David; Florez, Jose C

    2011-07-01

    Glucokinase regulatory protein (GCKR) regulates the trafficking and enzymatic activity of hepatic glucokinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. The intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs780094 (intron 16) and the missense SNP rs1260326 (P446L) in the GCKR gene are strongly associated with increased circulating triglyceride and C-reactive protein levels and, paradoxically, reductions in diabetes incidence, fasting glucose levels, and insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: We sought to replicate these associations and evaluate interactions with lifestyle and metformin interventions in the multiethnic Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). We genotyped the two GCKR SNP in 3346 DPP participants and evaluated association with progression to diabetes and both baseline levels and changes in triglycerides, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), oral disposition index, and inflammatory markers along with their interactions with DPP interventions. GCKR variation did not predict development of type 2 diabetes. At baseline, the 446L allele was associated with higher triglyceride and C-reactive protein levels (both P < 0.0001) and lower fasting glucose (P = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.06). The lifestyle intervention was associated with a decrease in magnitude of the effect of the 446L allele on triglyceride levels (interaction P = 0.04). Metformin was more effective in reducing HOMA-IR in carriers of the P446 allele (interaction P = 0.05). Intensive lifestyle intervention appears to partially mitigate the effect of the 446L allele on higher triglycerides, whereas the P446 allele appears to enhance responsiveness to the HOMA-IR-lowering effect of metformin.

  11. Update on cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph; Green, Ralph; Rosenblatt, David S; Watkins, David

    2003-01-01

    Three topics affecting cobalamin, folate, and homocysteine that have generated interest, activity, and advances in recent years are discussed. These are: (I). the application of an expanded variety of tools to the diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency, and how these affect and are affected by our current understanding of deficiency; (II). the nature of the interaction between homocysteine and vascular disease, and how the relationship is affected by vitamins; and (III). the improved understanding of relevant genetic disorders and common genetic polymorphisms, and how these interact with environmental influences. The diagnostic approach to cobalamin deficiency now allows better diagnosis of difficult and atypical cases and more confident rejection of the diagnosis when deficiency does not exist. However, the process has also become a complex and sometimes vexing undertaking. Part of the difficulty derives from the lack of a diagnostic gold standard among the many available tests, part from the overwhelming numerical preponderance of patients with subclinical deficiency (in which isolated biochemical findings exist without clinical signs or symptoms) among the cobalamin deficiency states, and part from the decreased availability of reliable tests to identify the causes of a patient's cobalamin deficiency and thus a growing deemphasis of that important part of the diagnostic process. In Section I, Dr. Carmel discusses the tests, the diagnostic issues, and possible approaches to the clinical evaluation. It is suggested no single algorithm fits all cases, some of which require more biochemical proof than others, and that differentiating between subclinical and clinical deficiency, despite their overlap, may be a helpful and practical point of departure in the evaluation of patients encountered in clinical practice. The arguments for and against a suggested expansion of the cobalamin reference range are also weighed. The epidemiologic data suggest that homocysteine elevation

  12. Folate-deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms may include: Fatigue Headache Pallor Sore mouth and tongue ... The health care provider will perform a physical exam. Tests that may be done include: Complete blood count (CBC) Red blood cell folate level Rarely, a bone marrow examination may be done.

  13. Genetic impairments in folate enzymes increase dependence on dietary choline for phosphatidylcholine production at the expense of betaine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Ariel B; Shields, Kelsey; Fomin, Vlad G; Lopez, Yusnier S; Mohan, Sanjay; Lovesky, Jessica; Chuang, Jasmine C; Ganti, Anita; Carrier, Bradley; Yan, Jian; Taeswuan, Siraphat; Cohen, Vanessa V; Swersky, Camille C; Stover, Julie A; Vitiello, Gerardo A; Malysheva, Olga V; Mudrak, Erika; Caudill, Marie A

    2016-10-01

    Although single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-mediated pathways predict susceptibility to choline deficiency during severe choline deprivation, it is unknown if effects persist at recommended intakes. Thus, we used stable isotope liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methodology to examine the impact of candidate SNPs on choline metabolism in a long-term, randomized, controlled feeding trial among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant (NP) women consuming 480 or 930 mg/d choline (22% as choline-d9, with d9 indicating a deuterated trimethyl amine group) and meeting folate-intake recommendations. Variants impairing folate metabolism, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133, methionine synthase (MTR) rs1805087 [wild-type (WT)], MTR reductase (MTRR) rs1801394, and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (MTHFD1) rs2236225, influenced choline dynamics, frequently through interactions with reproductive state and choline intake, with fewer genotypic alterations observed among pregnant women. Women with these variants partitioned more dietary choline toward phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis via the cytidine diphosphate (CDP)-choline pathway at the expense of betaine synthesis even when use of betaine as a methyl donor was increased. Choline intakes of 930 mg/d restored partitioning of dietary choline between betaine and CDP-PC among NP (MTHFR rs1801133 and MTR rs1805087 WT) and lactating (MTHFD1 rs2236225) women with risk genotypes. Overall, our findings indicate that loss-of-function variants in folate-metabolizing enzymes strain cellular PC production, possibly via impaired folate-dependent phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT)-PC synthesis, and suggest that women with these risk genotypes may benefit from choline intakes exceeding current recommendations.-Ganz, A. B., Shields, K., Fomin, V. G., Lopez, Y. S., Mohan, S., Lovesky, J., Chuang, J. C

  14. Plasma folate, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and colorectal cancer risk in three large nested case-control studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T, and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three la...

  15. Folate, folic acid and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate are not the same thing.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Francesco; Panzavolta, Giscardo

    2014-05-01

    1. Folate, an essential micronutrient, is a critical cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Mammals cannot synthesize folate and depend on supplementation to maintain normal levels. Low folate status may be caused by low dietary intake, poor absorption of ingested folate and alteration of folate metabolism due to genetic defects or drug interactions. 2. Folate deficiency has been linked with an increased risk of neural tube defects, cardiovascular disease, cancer and cognitive dysfunction. Most countries have established recommended intakes of folate through folic acid supplements or fortified foods. External supplementation of folate may occur as folic acid, folinic acid or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF). 3. Naturally occurring 5-MTHF has important advantages over synthetic folic acid - it is well absorbed even when gastrointestinal pH is altered and its bioavailability is not affected by metabolic defects. Using 5-MTHF instead of folic acid reduces the potential for masking haematological symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, reduces interactions with drugs that inhibit dihydrofolate reductase and overcomes metabolic defects caused by methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism. Use of 5-MTHF also prevents the potential negative effects of unconverted folic acid in the peripheral circulation. 4. We review the evidence for the use of 5-MTHF in preventing folate deficiency.

  16. The transmembrane pH gradient drives uphill folate transport in rabbit jejunum. Direct evidence for folate/hydroxyl exchange in brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Schron, C M; Washington, C; Blitzer, B L

    1985-01-01

    In rabbit jejunal, but not ileal brush border membrane vesicles, an outwardly directed OH- gradient (pH 7.7 inside, pH 5.5 outside) markedly stimulated the initial velocity of folate (0.1 microM) uptake compared with uptake in the absence of a pH gradient. Under pH gradient conditions, folate was transiently accumulated at a concentration four times that found at equilibrium (over-shoot), implying uphill transport of the vitamin. Equilibrium folate uptake was inversely proportional to medium osmolality, suggesting uptake into an osmotically sensitive space. pH gradient-stimulated folate uptake was markedly reduced by inhibitors of anion exchange (4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene; 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid; furosemide), and was saturable (folate Km = 0.19 +/- 0.02 microM; Vmax = 12.8 +/- 0.4 pmol X mg protein-1 X min-1). Imposition of an inside-positive electrical potential did not stimulate folate uptake, suggesting that stimulation by a pH gradient was not due to an induced electrical potential. In contrast, an inwardly directed Na+ or K+ gradient did not stimulate folate uptake. These findings provide evidence for a carrier on the jejunal brush border membrane that mediates folate/OH- exchange (or H+/folate co-transport), and are consonant with the known presence of an outwardly directed OH- gradient in vivo (brush border acid microclimate), an acidic pH optimum for intestinal folate uptake, and the primary role of the jejunum in folate absorption. PMID:4056063

  17. Folate biofortification in food crops.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Simon; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-03-19

    Folates are essential vitamins in the human diet. Folate deficiency is still very common, provoking disorders such as birth defects and anemia. Biofortification via metabolic engineering is a proven powerful means to alleviate folate malnutrition. A variety of metabolic engineering approaches have been successfully implemented in different crops and tissues. Furthermore, ensuring folate stability is crucial for long-term storage of crop products. However, the current strategies, shown to be successful in rice and tomato, will need to be fine-tuned to enable adequate biofortification of other staples such as potato, wheat and cassava. Thus, there is a need to overcome remaining hurdles in folate biofortification. Overall, biofortification, via breeding or metabolic engineering, will be imperative to effectively combat folate deficiency.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary folate malabsorption

    MedlinePlus

    ... link) Genetic Testing Registry: Congenital defect of folate absorption Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (5 links) GeneReview: ... Names for This Condition congenital defect of folate absorption Congenital folate malabsorption Folic acid transport defect Related ...

  19. Vitamin B12 and Folate Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Vitamin B12 and Folate Share this page: Was this ... as: Cobalamin; Folic Acid; RBC Folate Formal name: Vitamin B12; Folate Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Methylmalonic ...

  20. Effect of chronic alcohol exposure on folate uptake by liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Arundhati; Senthilkumar, Sundar Rajan; Said, Hamid M

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian cells obtain folate, a water-soluble vitamin, from their surroundings via transport across cell membrane. Intracellular folate is compartmentalized between the cytoplasm and the mitochondria. Transport of folate from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria is via a specific carrier-mediated process involving the mitochondrial folate transporter (MFT). Chronic alcohol use negatively impacts folate homeostasis, but its effect on mitochondrial folate uptake is not clear. We addressed this issue using mitochondrial preparations isolated from the liver of rats chronically fed an alcohol liquid diet and from human liver HepG2 cells chronically exposed to alcohol. The results showed that chronic alcohol feeding of rats leads to a significant inhibition in mitochondrial carrier-mediated folate uptake. This inhibition was associated with a significant reduction in the level of expression of the MFT protein, mRNA, and heterogenous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). Similarly, chronic alcohol exposure (96 h) of HepG2 cells led to significant inhibition in mitochondrial carrier-mediated folate uptake, which was associated with a marked reduction in the level of expression of the human MFT (hMFT). To determine whether the latter effect is, in part, being exerted at the transcriptional level, we cloned the 5'-regulatory region of the human SLC25A32 gene (which encodes the hMFT) and showed that chronic alcohol exposure of HepG2 cells leads to a significant inhibition in its promoter activity. These studies show for the first time that chronic alcohol feeding/exposure leads to a significant inhibition in mitochondrial carrier-mediated folate uptake and that the inhibition is, in part, being exerted at the level of transcription of the SLC25A32 gene.

  1. RASSF1A polymorphism A133S is associated with early onset breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boning; Xie, Xian-Jin; Huang, Chunxian; Shames, David S; Chen, Tina T-L; Lewis, Cheryl M; Bian, Aihua; Zhang, Bifeng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Garber, Judy E; Euhus, David M; Tomlinson, Gail E; Minna, John D

    2008-01-01

    The tumor suppressor gene RASSF1A regulates cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and microtubule stability and is inactivated by promoter methylation in approximately 50% of breast cancers. It has been shown previously that the polymorphism A133S in RASSF1A reduces its ability to regulate cell cycle progression and this polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. We analyzed the frequency of RASSF1A A133S in 190 Caucasian women without breast cancer and 653 patients with breast cancer including 138 BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers, 395 non-BRCA1/2 mutations carriers, and 120 untested for BRCA1/2 mutations. Patients with breast cancer had a higher frequency of A133S than the controls [P = 0.017; odds ratios (OR), 1.71; 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 1.10-2.66]. There is also a higher frequency of A133S in patients with higher familial breast cancer risk (P = 0.029; OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.06-2.92) and patients carrying BRCA1/2 mutations (P = 0.037, OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.18). Importantly, we found that the co-occurrence of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and A133S in RASSF1A was associated with earlier onset of breast cancer compared with those individuals with either a BRCA1/2 mutation or the A133S polymorphism alone (36.0 versus 42.0 years old, P = 0.002). Our data suggest that the presence of the RASSF1A A133S polymorphism is associated with breast cancer pathogenesis in general and modifies breast cancer age of onset in BRCA1/2 mutations carriers. Our results warrant a large-scale study to examine the effect of the A133S polymorphism in the development of breast and other types of cancers.

  2. A cross-sectional study to find out the relationship of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype with plasma levels of folate and total homocysteine by daily folate intake in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Nana; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Wakai, Kenji; Suzuki, Koji

    2014-01-01

    In those with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT genotype, enzyme activity is lowered. Therefore, these individuals might require an increased intake of folate to maintain or control blood levels of plasma folate or total homocysteine (tHcy). We examined associations of dietary folate intake with fasting plasma folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) according to genotype among 554 Japanese (207 men and 347 women aged 39-89 y) recruited in 2009. Intake of folate was estimated with a food frequency questionnaire. The MTHFR polymorphism was genotyped by a polymerase chain reaction with confronting two-pair primers. The log-transformed concentration of folate or tHcy was regressed on energy-adjusted folate intake in a linear regression analysis. Higher folate intake was associated with higher plasma folate among those with the CC (β=0.165, p=0.066) or CT (β=0.248, p<0.001) genotypes, and with lower tHcy levels only among those with the CC (β=-0.141, p=0.013) genotype. Plasma folate was significantly and inversely associated with tHcy, irrespective of MTHFR genotype. When the analysis was restricted to those with tHcy levels higher than the reference range (≥13.5 nmol/mL, n=20), these significant associations were not found. The interaction between folate intake or plasma folate and genotype was not significant in any analysis. In conclusion, dietary folate intake was positively associated with plasma folate among those with the CC or CT genotypes and inversely associated with tHcy among those with the CC genotype, but the associations were not clear among those with higher levels of tHcy.

  3. Use of a novel genetic mouse model to investigate the role of folate in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chapkin, Robert S; Kamen, Barton A; Callaway, Evelyn S; Davidson, Laurie A; George, Nysia I; Wang, Naisyin; Lupton, Joanne R; Finnell, Richard H

    2009-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at high risk for developing folate deficiency and colon cancer. Since it is difficult to study the subtle global and gene-specific epigenetic mechanisms involved in folate-mediated tumor initiation and promotion, we have generated genetically modified mouse models by targeting the reduced folate carrier (RFC1) and folate-binding protein (Folbp1) genes. The transgenic mice were fed semi-purified diets for 8 weeks containing either normal (2 mg) or deficient (0.1 mg folate/kg diet) levels of folate. Compound heterozygous mice (Folbp1(+/-); RFC1(+/-)) fed an adequate folate diet exhibited a reduction in plasma folate concentrations compared to heterozygous (Folbp1(+/-)) and littermate wild-type mice (P<.05). In contrast, no differences were observed in colonic mucosa. Consumption of a low folate diet significantly reduced (three- to fourfold) plasma and tissue folate levels in all animal models, although plasma homocysteine levels were not altered. In order to elucidate the relationship between folate status and inflammation-associated colon cancer, animals were injected with azoxymethane followed by dextran sodium sulphate treatment in the drinking water. Mice were fed a normal folate diet and were terminated 5 weeks after carcinogen injection. The number of high multiplicity aberrant crypt foci per centimeter of colon was significantly elevated (P<.05) in compound Folbp1(+/-); RFC1(+/-) (3.5+/-0.4) mice as compared to Folbp1(+/-) (1.9+/-0.3) and wild-type control mice (1.1+/-0.1). These data demonstrate that the ablation of two receptor/carrier-mediated pathways for folate transport increases the risk for developing inflammation-associated colon cancer.

  4. Use of a Novel Genetic Mouse Model to Investigate the Role of Folate in Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chapkin, Robert S.; Kamen, Barton A.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Davidson, Laurie A.; George, Nysia I.; Wang, Naisyin; Lupton, Joanne R.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at high risk for developing folate deficiency and colon cancer. Since it is difficult to study the subtle global and gene-specific epigenetic mechanisms involved in folate-mediated tumor initiation and promotion, we have generated genetically modified mouse models by targeting the reduced folate carrier (RFC1) and folate binding protein (Folbp1) genes. The transgenic mice were fed semi-purified diets for 8 wk containing either normal (2 mg) or deficient (0.1 mg folate/kg diet) levels of folate. Compound heterozygous mice (Folbp1+/−RFC1+/−) mice fed an adequate folate diet exhibited a reduction in plasma folate concentrations compared to heterozygous (Folbp1+/−) and littermate wild-type mice (p<0.05). In contrast, no differences were observed in colonic mucosa. Consumption of a low folate diet significantly reduced (3–4 fold) plasma and tissue folate levels in all animal models, although plasma homocysteine levels were not altered. In order to elucidate the relationship between folate status and inflammation-associated colon cancer, animals were injected with azoxymethane followed by dextran sodium sulphate treatment in the drinking water. Mice were fed a normal folate diet and were terminated 5 wks after carcinogen injection. The number of high multiplicity aberrant crypt foci per cm of colon was significantly elevated (p<0.05) in compound Folbp1+/− RFC1+/− (3.5±0.4) mice as compared to Folbp1+/− (1.9±0.3) and wild-type control mice (1.1±0.1). These data demonstrate that the ablation of two receptor/carrier-mediated pathways for folate transport increases the risk for developing inflammation-associated colon cancer. PMID:18926688

  5. Genetic polymorphisms and micronucleus formation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Iarmarcovai, G; Bonassi, S; Botta, A; Baan, R A; Orsière, T

    2008-01-01

    The formation of micronuclei (MN) is extensively used in molecular epidemiology as a biomarker of chromosomal damage, genome instability, and eventually of cancer risk. The occurrence of MN represents an integrated response to chromosome-instability phenotypes and altered cellular viabilities caused by genetic defects and/or exogenous exposures to genotoxic agents. The present article reviews human population studies addressing the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and MN formation, and provides insight into how genetic variants could modulate the effect of environmental exposures to genotoxic agents, host factors (gender, age), lifestyle characteristics (smoking, alcohol, folate), and diseases (coronary artery disease, cancer). Seventy-two studies measuring MN frequency either in peripheral blood lymphocytes or exfoliated cells were retrieved after an extensive search of the MedLine/PubMed database. The effect of genetic polymorphisms on MN formation is complex, influenced to a different extent by several polymorphisms of proteins or enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair proteins, and folate-metabolism enzymes. This heterogeneity reflects the presence of multiple external and internal exposures, and the large number of chromosomal alterations eventually resulting in MN formation. Polymorphisms of EPHX, GSTT1, and GSTM1 are of special importance in modulating the frequency of chromosomal damage in individuals exposed to genotoxic agents and in unexposed populations. Variants of ALDH2 genes are consistently associated with MN formation induced by alcohol drinking. Carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations (with or without breast cancer) show enhanced sensitivity to clastogens. Some evidence further suggests that DNA repair (XRCC1 and XRCC3) and folate-metabolism genes (MTHFR) also influence MN formation. As some of the findings are based on relatively small numbers of subjects, larger scale studies are required that include scoring of additional

  6. Lifestyle and genetic determinants of folate and vitamin B12 levels in a general adult population.

    PubMed

    Thuesen, Betina H; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Ovesen, Lars; Jørgensen, Torben; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-04-01

    Danish legislation regarding food fortification has been very restrictive resulting in few fortified food items on the Danish market. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency is thought to be common due to inadequate intakes but little is known about the actual prevalence of low serum folate and vitamin B12 in the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the folate and vitamin B12 status of Danish adults and to investigate associations between vitamin status and distinct lifestyle and genetic factors. The study included a random sample of 6784 individuals aged 30-60 years. Information on lifestyle factors was obtained by questionnaires and blood samples were analysed for serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and several genetic polymorphisms. The overall prevalence of low serum folate ( < 6.8 nmol/l) was 31.4 %. Low serum folate was more common among men than women and the prevalence was lower with increasing age. Low serum folate was associated with smoking, low alcohol intake, high coffee intake, unhealthy diet, and the TT genotype of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR)-C677T polymorphism. The overall prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 ( < 148 pmol/l) was 4.7 %. Low serum vitamin B12 was significantly associated with female sex, high coffee intake, low folate status, and the TT genotype of the MTHFR-C677T polymorphism. In conclusion, low serum folate was present in almost a third of the adult population in the present study and was associated with several lifestyle factors whereas low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 were less common and only found to be associated with a few lifestyle factors.

  7. Carrier-state of two or three polymorphic variants of MTHFR, IL-6 and ICAM1 genes increases the risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Zak, Iwona; Krauze, Jolanta

    2008-12-01

    Progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) depends on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Polymorphic variants of genes encoding proteins involved in endothelium dysfunction or proinflammatory state may genetically differentiate the human population and determine a susceptibility to the disease. To find the relationship between single polymorphisms of MTHFR, IL-6 and ICAM1 genes, double or triple combinations among their polymorphic variants and CAD in a patient population from the Upper Silesia region. The study population consisted of 177 patients with angiographically documented CAD and 202 blood donors with no signs of CAD. All examined individuals were white Polish Caucasians aged 18-55 years. The analysis of genetic polymorphisms was performed using the PCR-RFLP method. We observed a weak association between single gene polymorphism and the disease only in the case of the MTHFR T allele. We also found that the frequency of some double or triple combinations among analysed genes, especially for MTHFR+ICAM1 and MTHFR+ICAM1+IL-6 patterns, differentiated the entire patient group from controls (p=0.047 OR=1.75 and p=0.016 OR=1.75, respectively). These two combinations were also significantly more frequent in patients who were age-matched with controls, especially in the female subgroups (for MTHFR+ICAM1 p=0.007, OR=10.32 and for MTHFR+ ICAM1+IL-6, p=0.005, OR=17.95 in females). The present study showed that simultaneous carrier-state of MTHFR, IL-6 and ICAM1 genes increased the risk of CAD.

  8. Folate Augmentation of Treatment – Evaluation for Depression (FolATED): protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Seren Haf; Bedson, Emma; Hughes, Dyfrig; Lloyd, Keith; Moat, Stuart; Pirmohamed, Munir; Slegg, Gary; Tranter, Richard; Whitaker, Rhiannon; Wilkinson, Clare; Russell, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background Clinical depression is common, debilitating and treatable; one in four people experience it during their lives. The majority of sufferers are treated in primary care and only half respond well to active treatment. Evidence suggests that folate may be a useful adjunct to antidepressant treatment: 1) patients with depression often have a functional folate deficiency; 2) the severity of such deficiency, indicated by elevated homocysteine, correlates with depression severity, 3) low folate is associated with poor antidepressant response, and 4) folate is required for the synthesis of neurotransmitters implicated in the pathogenesis and treatment of depression. Methods/Design The primary objective of this trial is to estimate the effect of folate augmentation in new or continuing treatment of depressive disorder in primary and secondary care. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of folate augmentation of antidepressant treatment, investigate how the response to antidepressant treatment depends on genetic polymorphisms relevant to folate metabolism and antidepressant response, and explore whether baseline folate status can predict response to antidepressant treatment. Seven hundred and thirty patients will be recruited from North East Wales, North West Wales and Swansea. Patients with moderate to severe depression will be referred to the trial by their GP or Psychiatrist. If patients consent they will be assessed for eligibility and baseline measures will be undertaken. Blood samples will be taken to exclude patients with folate and B12 deficiency. Some of the blood taken will be used to measure homocysteine levels and for genetic analysis (with additional consent). Eligible participants will be randomised to receive 5 mg of folic acid or placebo. Patients with B12 deficiency or folate deficiency will be given appropriate treatment and will be monitored in the 'comprehensive cohort study'. Assessments will be at screening, randomisation

  9. Mechanism and regulation of folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: effect of chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Said, Hamid M; Mee, Lisa; Sekar, V Thillai; Ashokkumar, Balasubramaniem; Pandol, Stephen J

    2010-06-01

    Folate plays an essential role in one-carbon metabolism, and a relationship exists between methyl group metabolism and pancreatic exocrine function. Little, however, is known about the mechanism(s) and regulation of folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells and the effect of chronic alcohol use on the process. We addressed these issues using the rat-derived pancreatic acinar cell line AR42J and freshly isolated primary rat pancreatic acinar cells as models. We found [(3)H]folic acid uptake to be 1) temperature and pH dependent with a higher uptake at acidic than at neutral/alkaline pH; 2) saturable as a function of substrate concentration at both buffer pH 7.4 and 6.0; 3) inhibited by folate structural analogs and by anion transport inhibitors at both buffer pH 7.4 and 6.0; 4) trans-stimulated by unlabeled folate; 5) adaptively regulated by the prevailing extracellular folate level, and 6) inhibited by modulators of the cAMP/PKA-mediated pathway. Both the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) were found to be expressed in AR42J and in primary pancreatic acinar cells, as well as in native human pancreas with expression of RFC being higher than PCFT. Chronic alcohol feeding of rats (4 wk; 36% of calories from ethanol) led to a significant decrease in folate uptake by freshly isolated primary pancreatic acinar cells compared with cells from pair-fed controls; this effect was associated with a parallel decrease in the level of expression of RFC and PCFT. These studies reveal that folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells is via a regulated carrier-mediated process which may involve RFC and PCFT. In addition, chronic alcohol feeding leads to a marked inhibition in folate uptake by pancreatic acinar cells, an effect that is associated with reduction in level of expression of RFC and PCFT.

  10. Genetic and environmental determinants of plasma total homocysteine levels: impact of population-wide folate fortification.

    PubMed

    Nagele, Peter; Meissner, Konrad; Francis, Amber; Födinger, Manuela; Saccone, Nancy L

    2011-07-01

    Folate metabolism is an important target for drug therapy. Drug-induced inhibition of folate metabolism often causes an elevation of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma tHcy levels are influenced by several nongenetic (e.g. folate intake, age, smoking) as well as genetic factors. Over the last decade, several countries have implemented a nationwide folate fortification program of all grain products. This investigation sought to determine the impact of folate fortification on the relative contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the variability of plasma tHcy. Two cohorts were compared in this study, one from the United States (with folate fortification, n=281) and one from Austria (without folate fortification, n=139). Several environmental factors as well as previously identified gene variants important for tHcy levels (MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTRR A66G) were examined for their ability to predict plasma tHcy in a multiple linear regression model. Nongenetic, environmental factors had a comparable influence on plasma tHcy between the two cohorts (R: approximately 0.19). However, after adjusting for other covariates, the tested gene variants had a substantially smaller impact among patients from the folate-fortified cohort (R=0.021) compared with the nonfolate-fortified cohort (R=0.095). The MTHFR C677T polymorphism was the single most important genetic factor. Male sex, smoking, and folate levels were important predictors for nonfolate-fortified patients; age was for folate-fortified patients. Population wide folate fortification had a significant effect on the variability of plasma tHcy and reduced the influence of genetic factors, most importantly the MTHFR 677TT genotype, and may be an important confounder for a personalized drug therapy.

  11. Folate, alcohol, and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H

    2013-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of ALD with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism, which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of ALD based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Folate, Alcohol, and Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of alcoholic liver disease based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. PMID:23136133

  13. The Leu33Pro polymorphism in the ITGB3 gene does not modify BRCA1/2-associated breast or ovarian cancer risks: results from a multicenter study among 15,542 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Jakubowska, Anna; Rozkrut, Dominik; Antoniou, Antonis; Hamann, Ute; Lubinski, Jan

    2010-06-01

    Integrins containing the beta(3) subunit are key players in tumor growth and metastasis. A functional Leu33Pro polymorphism (rs5918) in the beta(3) subunit of the integrin gene (ITGB3) has previously been suggested to act as a modifier of ovarian cancer risk in Polish BRCA1 mutation carriers. To investigate the association further, we genotyped 9,998 BRCA1 and 5,544 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 34 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 for the ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism. Data were analysed within a Cox-proportional hazards framework using a retrospective likelihood approach. There was marginal evidence that the ITGB3 polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% CI 1.00-1.23, p-trend 0.05). However, when the original Polish study was excluded from the analysis, the polymorphism was no longer significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96-1.19, p-trend 0.25). There was no evidence of an association with ovarian cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.89-1.32). The polymorphism was not associated with breast cancer risk for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The ITGB3 Leu33Pro polymorphism does not modify breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  14. IL28B Gene Polymorphism SNP rs8099917 Genotype GG Is Associated with HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva

    2014-01-01

    Background The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP. Methods The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients). The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. Results A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR = 2.03; IC95% = 0.96–4.27) and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR = 7.61; IC95% = 1.82–31.72). Conclusion Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results. PMID:25233462

  15. IL28B gene polymorphism SNP rs8099917 genotype GG is associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in HTLV-1 carriers.

    PubMed

    Assone, Tatiane; de Souza, Fernando Vieira; Gaester, Karen Oliveira; Fonseca, Luiz Augusto Marcondes; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Malta, Fernanda; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo; Duarte, Alberto Jose da Silva; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva; Casseb, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    The polymorphisms of IL28B have been described as important in the pathogenesis of infections caused by some viruses. The aim of this research was to evaluate whether IL28B gene polymorphisms (SNP rs8099917 and SNP rs12979860) are associated with HAM/TSP. The study included 229 subjects, classified according to their neurological status in two groups: Group I (136 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers) and Group II (93 HAM/TSP patients). The proviral loads were quantified, and the rs8099917 and rs12979860 SNPs in the region of IL28B-gene were analyzed by StepOnePlus Real-time PCR System. A multivariate model analysis, including gender, age, and HTLV-1 DNA proviral load, showed that IL28B polymorphisms were independently associated with HAM/TSP outcome in rs12979860 genotype CT (OR = 2.03; IC95% = 0.96-4.27) and in rs8099917 genotype GG (OR = 7.61; IC95%  = 1.82-31.72). Subjects with SNP rs8099917 genotype GG and rs12979618 genotype CT may present a distinct immune response against HTLV-1 infection. So, it seems reasonable to suggest that a search for IL28B polymorphisms should be performed for all HTLV-1-infected subjects in order to monitor their risk for disease development; however, since this is the first description of such finding in the literature, we should first replicate this study with more HTLV-1-infected persons to strengthen the evidence already provided by our results.

  16. Self-assembled liquid-crystalline folate nanoparticles for in vitro controlled release of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Misra, Rahul; Mohanty, Sanat

    2015-02-01

    Liquid-crystalline folate nanoparticles are ordered in structure which offers several advantages like high encapsulation of drugs, controlled release rates, biocompatible in nature. Moreover, it facilitates the cellular uptake of nanodrugs without any extra step of folate ligand based targeting. The size of these nanocarriers as well as the release profiles of drugs from these nano-carriers can be controlled precisely. Folate molecules self-assemble in ordered stacks and columns even at low concentration of 0.1wt%. Doxorubicin molecules get intercalated within the folate stacks and are developed into nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are composed of highly ordered folate self-assembly which encapsulate doxorubicin molecules. These drug molecules can be released in a controlled manner by disrupting this assembly in the environment of monovalent cations. The ordered structure of folate nanoparticles offers low drug losses of about 4-5%, which is significant in itself. This study reports the size-control method of forming doxorubicin encapsulated folate nanoparticles as well as the parameters to control the release rates of doxorubicin through liquid-crystalline folate nanoparticles. It has been demonstrated that doxorubicin release rates can be controlled by controlling the size of the nanoparticles, cross-linking cation and cross-linking concentration. The effect of different factors like drug loading, release medium, and pH of the medium on doxorubicin release rates was also studied. Moreover, this study also addresses the comparative in vitro cytotoxic performance of Doxorubicin loaded folate nanoparticles and cellular uptake of nano-carriers on cancer and normal cell line. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Lymphocytes degranulation in liver in hepatitis C virus carriers is associated with IFNL4 polymorphisms and ALT levels.

    PubMed

    Jouvin-Marche, Evelyne; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Thelu, Marie-Ange; Marche, Helene; Fugier, Emilie; Van Campenhout, Nicolas; Hoang, Xuan Su; Marlu, Alice; Sturm, Nathalie; Callanan, Mary; Leroy, Vincent; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Marche, Patrice N

    2014-06-15

    The polymorphisms of IFNL4 are strongly associated with both spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance and response to peg-IFN-α/ribavirin treatment. To further establish the biological effects of the IFNL4 and rs1297860 variations, we studied the activity of liver immune cells. Fresh liver samples were collected from HCV-infected patients before any treatment and from NASH patients as controls. Degranulation activity of each lymphocyte type was assessed by the surface expression of CD107a. IFNL4 polymorphisms and HCV genotypes were determined. In the liver, frequency of CD107a(+) immune cells was significantly higher in HCV patients compared to NASH patients. Higher degranulation activity was observed in lymphocytes of HCV patients with favorable IFNL4 genotypes compared to patients with unfavorable genotypes. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that serum ALT levels were dependent on both Metavir activity score and frequency of CD107a positive NKT cells. The high level of degranulation activity observed before treatment was associated with a high HCV RNA decline at the early stage of peg-IFN-α/ribavirin treatment in patients with favorable genotypes. These data underline that intrahepatic lymphocyte degranulation activity in HCV-infected patients is associated with IFNL4 polymorphisms and contributes to the clearance of HCV in patients with favorable genotypes under antiviral therapy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dietary folate is associated with p16(INK4A) methylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kraunz, Kim S; Hsiung, Debra; McClean, Michael D; Liu, Mei; Osanyingbemi, Joyce; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2006-10-01

    Inactivation of the p16(INK4A) (CDKN2A) gene in the Rb pathway is among the most common somatic alterations observed in tobacco-related solid tumors, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, a low folate diet is an important risk factor for HNSCC. Decreased dietary folate in an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma has been associated with the induction of epigenetic silencing of the p16(INK4A) gene. In an ongoing population-based study of HNSCC, we sought to extend this observation to human disease testing the hypothesis that p16(INK4A) methylation is associated with decreased dietary folate. We also investigated the association of methylation silencing with functional polymorphisms in the folate metabolism enzyme methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). In 169 HNSCCs, the odds ratio for p16(INK4A) methylation among those with low dietary folate intake was 2.3 (95% CI = 1.1-4.8) when compared with those with high folate intake. Furthermore, this increased risk for epigenetic silencing at p16(INK4A) was modified by the MTHFR alleles previously associated with diminished serum folate levels. Hence, in HNSCC low dietary intake of folate is associated with p16(INK4A) methylation, and this relationship is modified by the MTHFR genotype. Our data provides important evidence for a mechanism of action of folate deficiency in cancer. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Association of PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers: results from a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowska, A; Rozkrut, D; Antoniou, A; Hamann, U; Scott, R J; McGuffog, L; Healy, S; Sinilnikova, O M; Rennert, G; Lejbkowicz, F; Flugelman, A; Andrulis, I L; Glendon, G; Ozcelik, H; Thomassen, M; Paligo, M; Aretini, P; Kantala, J; Aroer, B; von Wachenfeldt, A; Liljegren, A; Loman, N; Herbst, K; Kristoffersson, U; Rosenquist, R; Karlsson, P; Stenmark-Askmalm, M; Melin, B; Nathanson, K L; Domchek, S M; Byrski, T; Huzarski, T; Gronwald, J; Menkiszak, J; Cybulski, C; Serrano, P; Osorio, A; Cajal, T R; Tsitlaidou, M; Benítez, J; Gilbert, M; Rookus, M; Aalfs, C M; Kluijt, I; Boessenkool-Pape, J L; Meijers-Heijboer, H E J; Oosterwijk, J C; van Asperen, C J; Blok, M J; Nelen, M R; van den Ouweland, A M W; Seynaeve, C; van der Luijt, R B; Devilee, P; Easton, D F; Peock, S; Frost, D; Platte, R; Ellis, S D; Fineberg, E; Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Eeles, R; Jacobs, C; Adlard, J; Davidson, R; Eccles, D; Cole, T; Cook, J; Godwin, A; Bove, B; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Caux-Moncoutier, V; Belotti, M; Tirapo, C; Mazoyer, S; Barjhoux, L; Boutry-Kryza, N; Pujol, P; Coupier, I; Peyrat, J-P; Vennin, P; Muller, D; Fricker, J-P; Venat-Bouvet, L; Johannsson, O Th; Isaacs, C; Schmutzler, R; Wappenschmidt, B; Meindl, A; Arnold, N; Varon-Mateeva, R; Niederacher, D; Sutter, C; Deissler, H; Preisler-Adams, S; Simard, J; Soucy, P; Durocher, F; Chenevix-Trench, G; Beesley, J; Chen, X; Rebbeck, T; Couch, F; Wang, X; Lindor, N; Fredericksen, Z; Pankratz, V S; Peterlongo, P; Bonanni, B; Fortuzzi, S; Peissel, B; Szabo, C; Mai, P L; Loud, J T; Lubinski, J

    2012-01-01

    Background: The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. Two genes of special interest are prohibitin (PHB) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), both of which are important either directly or indirectly in maintaining genomic integrity. Methods: To evaluate the potential role of genetic variants within PHB and MTHFR in breast and ovarian cancer risk, 4102 BRCA1 and 2093 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 6211 BRCA1 and 2902 BRCA2 carriers from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (CIMBA) were genotyped for the PHB 1630 C>T (rs6917) polymorphism and the MTHFR 677 C>T (rs1801133) polymorphism, respectively. Results: There was no evidence of association between the PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with either disease for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers when breast and ovarian cancer associations were evaluated separately. Analysis that evaluated associations for breast and ovarian cancer simultaneously showed some evidence that BRCA1 mutation carriers who had the rare homozygote genotype (TT) of the PHB 1630 C>T polymorphism were at increased risk of both breast and ovarian cancer (HR 1.50, 95%CI 1.10–2.04 and HR 2.16, 95%CI 1.24–3.76, respectively). However, there was no evidence of association under a multiplicative model for the effect of each minor allele. Conclusion: The PHB 1630TT genotype may modify breast and ovarian cancer risks in BRCA1 mutation carriers. This association need to be evaluated in larger series of BRCA1 mutation carriers. PMID:22669161

  20. Gene-gene interactions in the folate metabolic pathway influence the risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Petra, Bohanec Grabar; Janez, Jazbec; Vita, Dolzan

    2007-04-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric cancer. Genetic polymorphisms in the folate metabolic pathway may contribute to the susceptibility to childhood ALL because they affect the DNA synthesis, methylation and repair. We analysed common genetic polymorphisms of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), thymidylate synthase (TS), methionine synthase (MS) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) in 68 children with ALL and 258 healthy controls to investigate their influence on the risk for ALL. No significant differences in frequencies of separate polymorphisms were observed between both groups. Combined MTHFR 677CT/TT and MS 2756AG/GG genotypes showed a nonsignificant tendency to reduce the risk for ALL 2.24-fold (CI: 0.191 - 1.037, P: 0.061). The risk was significantly reduced in carriers of combined MTHFR 677CT/TT, MS 2756AG/GG and MTRR 66AG/GG genotypes (OR: 0.312; CI: 0.107 - 0.907; P: 0.032). Our results suggest that gene - gene interactions that may decrease the methylation capacity might have a protective effect on the risk for childhood ALL.

  1. Folates: Chemistry, analysis, occurrence, biofortification and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ramesh Kumar; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Keum, Young-Soo

    2016-11-01

    Folates (Vitamin B9) include both naturally occurring folates and synthetic folic acid used in fortified foods and dietary supplements. Folate deficiency causes severe abnormalities in one-carbon metabolism can result chronic diseases and developmental disorders, including neural tube defects. Mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo; therefore, diet and dietary supplements are the only way to attain daily folate requirements. In the last decade, significant advancements have been made to enhance the folate content of rice, tomato, common bean and lettuce by using genetic engineering approaches. Strategies have been developed to improve the stability of folate pool in plants. Folate deglutamylation through food processing and thermal treatment has the potential to enhance the bioavailability of folate. This review highlights the recent developments in biosynthesis, composition, bioavailability, enhanced production by elicitation and metabolic engineering, and methods of analysis of folate in food. Additionally, future perspectives in this context are identified. Detailed knowledge of folate biosynthesis, degradation and salvage are the prime requirements to efficiently engineer the plants for the enhancement of overall folate content. Similarly, consumption of a folate-rich diet with enhanced bioavailability is the best way to maintain optimum folate levels in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phase II-I-II Study of Two Different Doses and Schedules of Pralatrexate, a High-Affinity Substrate for the Reduced Folate Carrier, in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoma Reveals Marked Activity in T-Cell Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Owen A.; Horwitz, Steven; Hamlin, Paul; Portlock, Carol; Moskowitz, Craig H.; Sarasohn, Debra; Neylon, Ellen; Mastrella, Jill; Hamelers, Rachel; MacGregor-Cortelli, Barbara; Patterson, Molly; Seshan, Venkatraman E.; Sirotnak, Frank; Fleisher, Martin; Mould, Diane R.; Saunders, Mike; Zelenetz, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and efficacy of pralatrexate in patients with lymphoma. Patients and Methods Pralatrexate, initially given at a dose of 135 mg/m2 on an every-other-week basis, was associated with stomatitis. A redesigned, weekly phase I/II study established an MTD of 30 mg/m2 weekly for six weeks every 7 weeks. Patients were required to have relapsed/refractory disease, an absolute neutrophil greater than 1,000/μL, and a platelet count greater than 50,000/μL for the first dose of any cycle. Results The every-other-week, phase II experience was associated with an increased risk of stomatitis and hematologic toxicity. On a weekly schedule, the MTD was 30 mg/m2 weekly for 6 weeks every 7 weeks. This schedule modification resulted in a 50% reduction in the major hematologic toxicities and abrogation of the grades 3 to 4 stomatitis. Stomatitis was associated with elevated homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, which were reduced by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. Of 48 assessable patients, the overall response rate was 31% (26% by intention to treat), including 17% who experienced complete remission (CR). When analyzed by lineage, the overall response rates were 10% and 54% in patients with B- and T-cell lymphomas, respectively. All eight patients who experienced CR had T-cell lymphoma, and four of the six patients with a partial remission were positron emission tomography negative. The duration of responses ranged from 3 to 26 months. Conclusion Pralatrexate has significant single-agent activity in patients with relapsed/refractory T-cell lymphoma. PMID:19652067

  3. The MTR A2756G polymorphism is associated with an increase of plasma homocysteine concentration in Brazilian individuals with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Biselli, J M; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Haddad, R; Eberlin, M N; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) present decreased homocysteine (Hcy) concentration, reflecting a functional folate deficiency secondary to overexpression of the cystathionine ss-synthase gene. Since plasma Hcy may be influenced by genetic polymorphisms, we evaluated the influence of C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), of A2756G polymorphism in the methionine synthase gene (MTR), and of A80G polymorphism in the reduced folate carrier 1 gene on Hcy concentrations in Brazilian DS patients. Fifty-six individuals with free trisomy 21 were included in the study. Plasma Hcy concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography_tandem mass spectrometry with linear regression coefficient r(2) = 0.9996, average recovery between 92.3 to 108.3% and quantification limits of 1.0 micromol/L. Hcy concentrations >15 micromol/L were considered to characterize hyperhomocystinemia. Genotyping for the polymorphisms was carried out by polymerase chain reaction followed by enzyme digestion and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. The mean Hcy concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.3 micromol/L. There was no correlation between Hcy concentrations and age, gender or MTHFR C677T, A1298C and reduced folate carrier 1 A80G genotype. However, Hcy concentrations were significantly increased in the MTR 2756AG heterozygous genotype compared to the MTR 2756AA wild-type genotype. The present results suggest that the heterozygous genotype MTR 2756AG is associated with the increase in plasma Hcy concentrations in this group of Brazilian patients with DS.

  4. Status of vitamin B-12 and B-6 but not of folate, homocysteine and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism are associated with impaired cognition and depression in adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The C677T polymorphism of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene differs in frequency in different ethnic groups which have differing prevalence of age-related cognitive impairments. We used a battery of neuropsychological tests to examine association of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism w...

  5. Plasma folate, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and colorectal cancer risk in three large nested case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Eun; Wei, Esther K; Fuchs, Charles S; Hunter, David J; Lee, I-Min; Selhub, Jacob; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Ma, Jing; Giovannucci, Edward

    2012-04-01

    Few prospective studies have examined the associations between blood levels of folate, in conjunction with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between plasma folate, MTHFR C677T, and A1298C, and colorectal cancer in three large prospective studies: the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, and the Physicians' Health Study. A total of 602 incident cases were identified and individually matched to controls who provided blood specimens. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) and then pooled the estimates using a random effects model. We found a lower risk of colorectal cancer among participants with low plasma folate levels: compared with the lowest quartile, RRs (95% CIs) for each successively higher quartile of plasma folate levels were 1.55 (1.14-2.11), 1.37 (1.00-1.88), and 1.47 (1.07-2.01; P for trend = 0.10). For the MTHFR polymorphisms, RRs (95% CIs) were 0.62 (0.44-0.90) for 677TT versus CC/CT and 0.68 (0.31-1.51) for 1298CC versus AC/AA, and these lower-risk genotypes were associated with lower circulating plasma folate levels. When we partitioned the variation in plasma folate levels, variation due to folate intake was not positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. We found that low plasma folate levels were associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. The reasons underlying a lower risk of colorectal cancer with low plasma folate levels require elucidation because plasma folate levels can reflect dietary intake, genetic influences, and other factors.

  6. Folate metabolic pathways in Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Tim J.; Beverley, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania are autotrophic for both folate and unconjugated pteridines. Leishmania salvage these metabolites from their mammalian hosts and insect vectors through multiple transporters. Within the parasite, folates are reduced by a bifunctional DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase)-TS (thymidylate synthase) and by a novel PTR1 (pteridine reductase 1), which reduces both folates and unconjugated pteridines. PTR1 can act as a metabolic bypass of DHFR inhibition, reducing the effectiveness of existing antifolate drugs. Leishmania possess a reduced set of folate-dependent metabolic reactions and can salvage many of the key products of folate metabolism from their hosts. For example, they lack purine synthesis, which normally requires 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, and instead rely on a network of purine salvage enzymes. Leishmania elaborate at least three pathways for the synthesis of the key metabolite 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, required for the synthesis of thymidylate, and for 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, whose presumptive function is for methionyl-tRNAMet formylation required for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Genetic studies have shown that the synthesis of methionine using 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is dispensable, as is the activity of the glycine cleavage complex, probably due to redundancy with serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Although not always essential, the loss of several folate metabolic enzymes results in attenuation or loss of virulence in animal models, and a null DHFR-TS mutant has been used to induce protective immunity. The folate metabolic pathway provides numerous opportunities for targeted chemotherapy, with strong potential for ‘repurposing’ of compounds developed originally for treatment of human cancers or other infectious agents. PMID:22023442

  7. Folate metabolic pathways in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Tim J; Beverley, Stephen M

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosomatid parasitic protozoans of the genus Leishmania are autotrophic for both folate and unconjugated pteridines. Leishmania salvage these metabolites from their mammalian hosts and insect vectors through multiple transporters. Within the parasite, folates are reduced by a bifunctional DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase)-TS (thymidylate synthase) and by a novel PTR1 (pteridine reductase 1), which reduces both folates and unconjugated pteridines. PTR1 can act as a metabolic bypass of DHFR inhibition, reducing the effectiveness of existing antifolate drugs. Leishmania possess a reduced set of folate-dependent metabolic reactions and can salvage many of the key products of folate metabolism from their hosts. For example, they lack purine synthesis, which normally requires 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, and instead rely on a network of purine salvage enzymes. Leishmania elaborate at least three pathways for the synthesis of the key metabolite 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate, required for the synthesis of thymidylate, and for 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, whose presumptive function is for methionyl-tRNAMet formylation required for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Genetic studies have shown that the synthesis of methionine using 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is dispensable, as is the activity of the glycine cleavage complex, probably due to redundancy with serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Although not always essential, the loss of several folate metabolic enzymes results in attenuation or loss of virulence in animal models, and a null DHFR-TS mutant has been used to induce protective immunity. The folate metabolic pathway provides numerous opportunities for targeted chemotherapy, with strong potential for 'repurposing' of compounds developed originally for treatment of human cancers or other infectious agents.

  8. BIM deletion polymorphisms in Hispanic patients with non-small cell lung cancer carriers of EGFR mutations.

    PubMed

    Cardona, Andrés F; Rojas, Leonardo; Wills, Beatriz; Arrieta, Oscar; Carranza, Hernán; Vargas, Carlos; Otero, Jorge; Corrales-Rodriguez, Luis; Martín, Claudio; Reguart, Noemí; Archila, Pilar; Rodríguez, July; Cuello, Mauricio; Ortíz, Carlos; Franco, Sandra; Rolfo, Christian; Rosell, Rafael; on behalf of the CLICaP

    2016-09-19

    Germline alterations in the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2-like 11 (BIM) can have a crucial role in diverse tumors. To determine the clinical utility of detecting BIM deletion polymorphisms (par4226 bp/ par363 bp) in EGFR positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) we examined the outcomes of patients with and without BIM alterations. BIM deletion was present in 14 patients (15.7%). There were no significant differences between patients with and without BIM-del in clinical characteristics or EGFR mutation type; however, those with BIM-del had a worse overall response rate (ORR) to erlotinib (42.9% vs. 73.3% in patients without BIM-del; p=0.024) as well as a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (10.8 BIM-del+ vs. 21.7 months for patients without BIM-del; p=0.029) and overall survival (OS) (15.5 BIM-del+ vs. 34.0 months for patients without BIM-del; p=0.035). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that BIM-del+ was an independent indicator of shorter PFS (HR 3.0; 95%CI 1.2-7.6; p=0.01) and OS (HR 3.4; 95%CI 1.4-8.3; p=0.006). We studied 89 NSCLC Hispanic patients with EGFR mutation who were treated with erlotinib between January 2009 and November 2014. BIM deletion polymorphisms (BIM-del) was analyzed by PCR in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of tumor biopsies. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, response rate, toxicity, and outcomes among patients with and without BIM-del. The incidence of BIM-del found in Hispanic patients is similar to that previously described in Asia. This alteration is associated with a poor clinical response to erlotinib and represents an independent prognostic factor for patients who had NSCLC with an EGFR mutation.

  9. BIM deletion polymorphisms in Hispanic patients with non-small cell lung cancer carriers of EGFR mutations

    PubMed Central

    Carranza, Hernán; Vargas, Carlos; Otero, Jorge; Corrales-Rodriguez, Luis; Martín, Claudio; Reguart, Noemí; Archila, Pilar; Rodríguez, July; Cuello, Mauricio; Ortíz, Carlos; Franco, Sandra; Rolfo, Christian; Rosell, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Background Germline alterations in the proapoptotic protein Bcl-2-like 11 (BIM) can have a crucial role in diverse tumors. To determine the clinical utility of detecting BIM deletion polymorphisms (par4226 bp/ par363 bp) in EGFR positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) we examined the outcomes of patients with and without BIM alterations. Results BIM deletion was present in 14 patients (15.7%). There were no significant differences between patients with and without BIM-del in clinical characteristics or EGFR mutation type; however, those with BIM-del had a worse overall response rate (ORR) to erlotinib (42.9% vs. 73.3% in patients without BIM-del; p=0.024) as well as a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (10.8 BIM-del+ vs. 21.7 months for patients without BIM-del; p=0.029) and overall survival (OS) (15.5 BIM-del+ vs. 34.0 months for patients without BIM-del; p=0.035). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that BIM-del+ was an independent indicator of shorter PFS (HR 3.0; 95%CI 1.2-7.6; p=0.01) and OS (HR 3.4; 95%CI 1.4-8.3; p=0.006). Methods We studied 89 NSCLC Hispanic patients with EGFR mutation who were treated with erlotinib between January 2009 and November 2014. BIM deletion polymorphisms (BIM-del) was analyzed by PCR in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of tumor biopsies. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, response rate, toxicity, and outcomes among patients with and without BIM-del. Conclusions The incidence of BIM-del found in Hispanic patients is similar to that previously described in Asia. This alteration is associated with a poor clinical response to erlotinib and represents an independent prognostic factor for patients who had NSCLC with an EGFR mutation. PMID:27926478

  10. Folate receptor gene variants and neural tube defect occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Finnell, R.; Greer, K.; Lammer, E.

    1994-09-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence shows that periconceptional use of folic acid supplements may prevent 40-50% of neural tube defects (NTDs). The FDA has subsequently recommended folic acid supplementation of all women of childbearing potential, even though the mechanism by which folic acid prevents NTDs is unknown. We investigated genetic variation of a candidate gene, the 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MeTHF) receptor, that may mediate this preventive effect. The receptor concentrates folate within cells and we have localized its mRNA to neuroepithelial cells during neurulation. Our hypothesis is that dysfunctional 5-MeTHF receptors inadequately concentrate folate intracellularly, predisposing infants to NTDs. We have completed SSCP analysis on 3 of the 4 coding exons of the 5-MeTHF receptor gene of 474 infants participating in a large population-based epidemiological case-control study of NTDs in California; genotyping of another 500 infants is ongoing. Genomic DNA was extracted from residual blood spots from newborn screening samples of cases and controls. Genotyping was done blinded to case status. Polymorphisms have been detected for exons 4 and 5; fourteen percent of the infants have exon 5 polymorphisms. Data will be presented on the prevalence of 5-MeTHF receptor polymorphisms among cases and controls. Relationships among the polymorphisms and NTD occurrence may shed light on how folic acid supplementation prevents NTDs.

  11. Maternal polymorphisms 677C-T and 1298A-C of MTHFR, and 66A-G MTRR genes: is there any relationship between polymorphisms of the folate pathway, maternal homocysteine levels, and the risk for having a child with Down syndrome?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Frías, María-Luisa; Pérez, Belén; Desviat, Lourdes R; Castro, Margarita; Leal, Fátima; Rodríguez, Laura; Mansilla, Elena; Martínez-Fernández, María-Luisa; Bermejo, Eva; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Elvira; Prieto, David; Ugarte, Magdalena

    2006-05-01

    This study was aimed at analyzing the effect of mutations in three non-synonymous SNP genes (677C > T and 1298A > C of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, and 66A > G in the MTRR gene) on total plasmatic homocysteine (Hcy), in 91 mothers of Down syndrome (DS) infants and 90 control mothers. The comparison of both groups of mothers is a new way to determine if those mutations and their interactions increase the risk for DS. Material came from the case-control network of the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECEMC). Using a general lineal model in a backwards step, we performed the analyses including the different mutations, maternal age, the fact that each mother had a DS or a control infant, and all possible interactions of these variables, in the models, being maternal Hcy the continuous dependent variable. In another model, maternal folic acid intake during the third trimester of pregnancy was added. The results from both models were essentially the same: Hcy levels variability differs from case mothers to control ones, the presence of the MTHFR1298A > C polymorphism also affects significantly the Hcy variance, as it does the statistical interaction between the mutations MTRR66A > G and MTHFR1298A > C in the mother. In this sense, the interaction between different polymorphisms may totally modify their individual effects, and some of those effects are different in mothers of DS children and in controls' mothers. For instance, only two mutations in MTRR66 (GGAA) in mothers of control infants increase the reference maternal Hcy level in 4.66 units, and the individual effect of the genotype with only two mutations in the MTHFR1298 gene (AACC) increases the reference Hcy level in 12.74 units. However, the presence of the four mutations (GGCC) interacts giving a statistically significant decrease in 6.00 units in the level of Hcy in control mothers. On the contrary, in mothers of DS infants, the sole presence of two mutations

  12. Genetic and nutritional deficiencies in folate metabolism influence tumorigenicity in Apcmin/+ mice.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Andrea K; Deng, Liyuan; Brody, Lawrence C; Finnell, Richard H; Shane, Barry; Rozen, Rima

    2007-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that adequate dietary folate is protective against colon cancer, although mechanisms remain largely elusive. We investigated the effects of genetic disruptions of folate transport and metabolism and of dietary folate deficiency in a mouse model of colon cancer, the Apc(min/+) mouse. Apc(min/+) mice with heterozygous knockout of the gene for reduced folate carrier 1 (Rfc1(+/-)) developed significantly fewer adenomas compared to Rfc1(+/+)Apc(min/+) mice [30.3+/-4.6 vs. 60.4+/-9.4 on a control diet (CD) and 42.6+/-4.4 vs. 55.8+/-7.6 on a folate-deficient diet, respectively]. Rfc1(+/-)Apc(min/+) mice also carried a lower tumor load, an indicator of tumor size as well as of tumor number. In contrast, there were no differences in adenoma formation between Apc(min/+) mice carrying a knockout allele for methionine synthase (Mtr(+/-)), an enzyme that catalyzes folate-dependent homocysteine remethylation, and Mtr(+/+)Apc(min/+) mice. However, in both Mtr groups of mice, dietary folate deficiency significantly increased adenoma number (from 32.3+/-3.8 on a CD to 48.1+/-4.2 on a folate-deficient diet), increased plasma homocysteine, decreased global DNA methylation in preneoplastic intestines and increased apoptosis in tissues. There were no genotype-associated differences in these parameters in the Rfc1 group, suggesting that the protection conferred by Rfc1 deficiency is carried out through a different mechanism. In conclusion, genetic and nutritional disturbances in folate metabolism can have distinct influences on tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice; altered levels of homocysteine, global DNA methylation and apoptosis may contribute mechanistically to dietary influence.

  13. FOLATE CONTENT IN SELECT DRY BEAN GENOTYPES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry edible beans are a good natural source of folate (½-cup serving of cooked beans provide 35% daily value of folate). Recognized healthful benefits of folate in the human diet include reduced birth defects, decreased plasma homocysteine level which is a risk factor in cardiovascular disease, reduc...

  14. Endocytosis of GPI-linked membrane folate receptor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Rijnboutt, S; Jansen, G; Posthuma, G; Hynes, J B; Schornagel, J H; Strous, G J

    1996-01-01

    GPI-linked membrane folate receptors (MFRs) have been implicated in the receptor-mediated uptake of reduced folate cofactors and folate-based chemotherapeutic drugs. We have studied the biosynthetic transport to and internalization of MFR isoform alpha in KB-cells. MFR-alpha was synthesized as a 32-kD protein and converted in a maturely glycosylated 36-38-kD protein 1 h after synthesis. 32-kD MFR-alpha was completely soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. In contrast, only 33% of the 36-38-kD species could be solubilized at these conditions whereas complete solubilization was obtained in Triton X-100 at 37 degrees C or in the presence of saponin at 0 degree C. Similar solubilization characteristics were found when MFR-alpha at the plasma membrane was labeled with a crosslinkable 125I-labeled photoaffinity-analog of folic acid as a ligand. Triton X-100-insoluble membrane domains containing MFR-alpha could be separated from soluble MFR-alpha on sucrose flotation gradients. Only Triton X-100 soluble MFR-alpha was internalized from the plasma membrane. The reduced-folate-carrier, an integral membrane protein capable of translocating (anti-)folates across membranes, was completely excluded from the Triton X-100-resistant membrane domains. Internalized MFR-alpha recycled slowly to the cell surface during which it remained soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found MFR-alpha along the entire endocytic pathway: in clathrin-coated buds and vesicles, and in small and large endosomal vacuoles. In conclusion, our data indicate that a large fraction, if not all, of internalizing MFR-alpha bypasses caveolae.

  15. Endocytosis of GPI-linked membrane folate receptor-alpha

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    GPI-linked membrane folate receptors (MFRs) have been implicated in the receptor-mediated uptake of reduced folate cofactors and folate-based chemotherapeutic drugs. We have studied the biosynthetic transport to and internalization of MFR isoform alpha in KB-cells. MFR-alpha was synthesized as a 32-kD protein and converted in a maturely glycosylated 36-38-kD protein 1 h after synthesis. 32-kD MFR-alpha was completely soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. In contrast, only 33% of the 36- 38-kD species could be solubilized at these conditions whereas complete solubilization was obtained in Triton X-100 at 37 degrees C or in the presence of saponin at 0 degree C. Similar solubilization characteristics were found when MFR-alpha at the plasma membrane was labeled with a crosslinkable 125I-labeled photoaffinity-analog of folic acid as a ligand. Triton X-100-insoluble membrane domains containing MFR-alpha could be separated from soluble MFR-alpha on sucrose flotation gradients. Only Triton X-100 soluble MFR-alpha was internalized from the plasma membrane. The reduced-folate-carrier, an integral membrane protein capable of translocating (anti-)folates across membranes, was completely excluded from the Triton X-100- resistant membrane domains. Internalized MFR-alpha recycled slowly to the cell surface during which it remained soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found MFR-alpha along the entire endocytic pathway: in clathrin-coated buds and vesicles, and in small and large endosomal vacuoles. In conclusion, our data indicate that a large fraction, if not all, of internalizing MFR-alpha bypasses caveolae. PMID:8567728

  16. Folate-genetics and colorectal neoplasia: What we know and need to know next

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The metabolism of folate involves a complex network of polymorphic enzymes that may explain a proportion of the risk associated with colorectal neoplasia. Over 60 observational studies primarily in non-Hispanic White populations have been conducted on selected genetic variants in specific genes, MTH...

  17. Selenium, Folate, and Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Connelly-Frost, Alexandra; Poole, Charles; Satia, Jessie A.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Millikan, Robert C.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Selenium is an essential trace element which has been implicated in cancer risk; however, study results have been inconsistent with regard to colon cancer. Our objectives were to 1) investigate the association between selenium and colon cancer 2) evaluate possible effect measure modifiers and 3) evaluate potential biases associated with the use of post-diagnostic serum selenium measures Methods The North Carolina Colon Cancer Study is a large population-based, case-control study of colon cancer in North Carolina between 1996 and 2000 (n=1,691). Nurses interviewed patients about diet and lifestyle and drew blood specimens which were used to measure serum selenium. Results Individuals who had both high serum selenium (>140 mcg/L) and high reported folate (>354 mcg/day), had a reduced relative risk of colon cancer (OR=0.5, 95% CI=0.4,0.8). The risk of colon cancer for those with high selenium and low folate was approximately equal to the risk among those with low selenium and low folate (OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.7,1.5) as was the risk for those with low selenium and high folate (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.7–1.2). We did not find evidence of bias due to weight loss, stage at diagnosis, or time from diagnosis to selenium measurement. Conclusion High levels of serum selenium and reported folate jointly were associated with a substantially reduced risk of colon cancer. Folate status should be taken into account when evaluating the relation between selenium and colon cancer in future studies. Importantly, weight loss, stage at diagnosis, or time from diagnosis to blood draw did not appear to produce strong bias in our study. PMID:19235033

  18. Supplementation with vitamin D3 during pregnancy protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced neural tube defects through improving placental folate transportation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan-Hua; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Xia, Mi-Zhen; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Hu, Yong-Fang; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    Several reports demonstrated that maternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure at middle gestational stage caused neural tube defects (NTDs). This study investigated the effects of supplementation with vitamin D3 (VitD3) during pregnancy on LPS-induced NTDs. Pregnant mice except controls were ip injected with LPS (25 μg/kg) daily from gestational day (GD)8 to GD12. In LPS+VitD3 group, pregnant mice were orally administered with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) before LPS injection. As expected, a 5-day LPS injection resulted in 62.5% (10/16) of dams and 20.3% of fetuses with NTDs. Additional experiment showed that a 5-day LPS injection downregulated placental proton-coupled folate transporter (pcft) and reduced folate carrier 1 (rfc1), 2 major folate transporters in placentas. Consistent with downregulation of placental folate transporters, folate transport from maternal circulation into embryos was disturbed in LPS-treated mice. Interestingly, VitD3 not only inhibited placental inflammation but also attenuated LPS-induced downregulation of placental folate transporters. Correspondingly, VitD3 markedly improved folate transport from maternal circulation into the embryos. Importantly, supplementation with VitD3 during pregnancy protected mice from LPS-induced NTDs. Taken together, these results suggest that supplementation with VitD3 during pregnancy prevents LPS-induced NTDs through inhibiting placental inflammation and improving folate transport from maternal circulation into the embryos.

  19. Common Polymorphisms in the Solute Carrier SLC30A10 are Associated With Blood Manganese and Neurological Function.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Karin; Kippler, Maria; Alhamdow, Ayman; Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur; Smith, Donald R; Vahter, Marie; Lucchini, Roberto G; Broberg, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential nutrient in humans, but excessive exposure to Mn may cause neurotoxicity. Despite homeostatic regulation, Mn concentrations in blood vary considerably among individuals. We evaluated if common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC30A10, which likely encodes an Mn transporter, influence blood Mn concentrations and neurological function. We measured blood Mn concentrations by ICP-MS or atomic absorption spectroscopy and genotyped 2 SLC30A10 non-coding SNPs (rs2275707 and rs12064812) by TaqMan PCR in cohorts from Bangladesh (N = 406), the Argentinean Andes (N = 198), and Italy (N = 238). We also measured SLC30A10 expression in whole blood by TaqMan PCR in a sub-group (N = 101) from the Andean cohort, and neurological parameters (sway velocity and finger-tapping speed) in the Italian cohort. The rs2275707 variant allele was associated with increased Mn concentrations in the Andes (8%, P = .027) and Italy (10.6%, P = .012), but not as clear in Bangladesh (3.4%, P = .21; linear regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, and plasma ferritin). This allele was also associated with increased sway velocity (15%, P = .033; adjusted for age and sex) and reduced SLC30A10 expression (-24.6%, P = .029). In contrast, the rs12064812 variant homozygous genotype was associated with reduced Mn concentrations, particularly in the Italian cohort (-18.4%, P = .04), and increased finger-tapping speed (8.7%, P = .025). We show that common SNPs in SLC30A10 are associated with blood Mn concentrations in 3 unrelated cohorts and that their influence may be mediated by altered SLC30A10 expression. Moreover, the SNPs appeared to influence neurological functions independent of blood Mn concentrations, suggesting that SLC30A10 could regulate brain Mn levels.

  20. Association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, B12 & MTHFR, MTR Genotype and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Weiwei, Zheng; Liping, Chen; Dequan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association between dietary folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake, MTHFR and MTR genotype, and breast cancer risk. Methods: Genotyping for MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP) method. The intake of folate, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 were calculated by each food item from questionnaire. Results: Subjects with breast cancer tended to have more first-degree relatives (χ2=30.77, P<0.001) and have high intake of folate (t=2.42, P=0.008) and Vitamin B6 (t=2.94, P=0.002). Compared to the reference group, women with MTHFR 677 TT genotype and T allele had a significantly increased risk of breast cancer, with ORs (95%CI) of 1.8(1.08-2.27) and 1.39(1.02-1.92), respectively. For those who had folate intake<450 ug/day, MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR=2.45, 95% CI=1.09-5.82, P=0.02). Similarly, subjects with Vitamin B6 intake<0.84 mg/day and MTHFR 667T allele genotype was correlated with a marginally increased risk of breast cancer. A significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer (P for interaction was 0.025). Conclusion: This case-control study found a significant association between MTHFR C667T polymorphism, folate intake and vitamin B6 and breast cancer risk, and a significant interaction was observed between MTHFR C667T polymorphism and folate intake on the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24639841

  1. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the p53 pathway genes modify cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers of Jewish-Ashkenazi descent.

    PubMed

    Yarden, Ronit I; Friedman, Eitan; Metsuyanim, Sally; Olender, Tzvia; Ben-Asher, Edna; Papa, Moshe Z

    2010-06-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with a significantly increased lifetime risk for developing breast and/or ovarian cancer. However, incomplete penetrance and substantial variability in age of disease onset among carriers of the same mutation suggests the involvement of additional modifier genes and/or environmental factors. Somatic inactivating mutations in the p53 gene and genes of the p53 pathway often accompany BRCA1/2-associated tumors. Therefore, we assessed whether these genes are modifiers of penetrance. We genotyped Jewish-Ashkenazi women for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AKT1 (C>T rs3730358) and the PERP (C>T rs2484067) genes that affect p53-mediated apoptosis, as well as two tag-SNPs in the CHEK2 (C>T rs743184) and the ZBRK1/ZNF350 (G>A rs2278414) genes that encode for proteins involved in growth arrest following DNA damage. The study population included 138 healthy women, 148 breast/ovarian cancer BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, 121 asymptomatic BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, and 210 sporadic noncarrier breast cancer patients. Utilizing lambda(2) and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.23 (95% CI: 1.44-54, P = 0.0184) for the TT genotype of AKT (rs3730358), HR = 2.105 (95% CI: 1.049-7.434, P = 0.039) for CHEK2 CC genotype (rs743184), and HR = 2.4743 (95% CI: 1.205-11.53, P = 0.022) for the AG genotype of ZBRK1/ZNF350 (rs2278414). No significant association between PERP variants and cancer was identified HR = 0.662 (95% CI: 0.289-1.324, P = 0.261). Our results suggest that genes that act upstream of p53, or participate in the DNA damage response, may modify the risk of cancer in women with mutant BRCA1/2 alleles.

  2. Dietary consumption of B vitamins, maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk for spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Guillén, María del Rosario; Torres-Sánchez, Luisa; Chen, Jia; Galván-Portillo, Marcia; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma; Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Hernández-Valero, María A.; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective To asses he association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). Material and Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. Results Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6). Conclusions Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins. PMID:19180309

  3. Serum folic acid and RFC A80G polymorphism in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Nasim; Tripathi, Manjari; Alam, Rizwan; Luthra, Kalpana; Sharma, Sumit; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Kalaivani, Mani; Mukhopadhyay, Asok K

    2014-02-01

    Low level of vitamin B12 and folic acid has been reported to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were assayed in 80 AD and 50 VaD cases and in 120 healthy controls. The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) gene, rs1051266, which encodes the RFC 1, protein was analyzed for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. It was observed that the patients having folic acid <8.45 ng/mL had 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.5) times higher odds of having AD and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.1-4.2) times higher odds of having VaD than patients having folic acid ≥8.45 ng/mL. Serum vitamin B12 level did not show any such statistically significant effect in altering the odds. No direct association was found between variant (G) allele or genotype of rs1051266 with AD and VaD cases. On serum folate level no association was observed with gene polymorphism.

  4. Determinants of folate and vitamin B12 plasma levels in the French E3N-EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    de Batlle, Jordi; Matejcic, Marco; Chajes, Veronique; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Amadou, Amina; Slimani, Nadia; Cox, David G; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-12-21

    Impaired B vitamin status has been identified as a risk factor for major chronic diseases. This study aims at examining the determinants of plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations, considering lifestyle factors and MTHFR polymorphisms. A total of 988 women aged 40-65 years from the French E3N cohort were investigated. Intakes of folate and vitamin B12 were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and plasma concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. Dietary scores were computed to summarize folate and vitamin B12 dietary sources. MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C were determined by Kaspar assay. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients and multivariable linear regression models were used to assess correlations between main determinants and plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels. The partial correlation coefficient between dietary intakes and plasma folate was 0.19 (p value <0.001) and 0.08 (p value = 0.008) for vitamin B12. Dietary scores were the main determinant of B vitamin plasma concentrations with a percent change per unit increase of 12.64% (p value <0.001) for folate and 7.6% (p value <0.001) for vitamin B12. Homozygous (T/T) or heterozygous (C/T) women for MTHFR-C677T had lower plasma folate concentrations [C/T: -6.48% (p value = 0.038) and T/T: -15.89% (p value <0.001)] compared to women carrying the C/C genotype. Other determinants of B vitamin plasma concentration include: smoking status for folate, and age and hormone replacement therapy for vitamin B12. We confirmed previous findings on the role of diet as main determinant of folate and vitamin B12 plasma concentrations. However, the impact of genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors on plasma B vitamin concentrations should not be neglected.

  5. Cigarette smoking, carrier state of A or G allele of 46A>G and 79C>G polymorphisms of beta2-adrenergic receptor gene, and the risk of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Zak, Iwnoa; Sarecka-Hujar, Beata; Krauze, Jolanta

    2008-04-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disorder which results from the interactions between a number of genetic and non-genetic factors. Beta-adrenergic receptors are cell-surface receptors which activate adenylyl cyclase by coupling to G proteins. The 46A>G and 79C>G polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) have been associated with altered response to sympathetic stimulation. To assess the relationship between 46A>G and 79C>G polymorphisms of the ADRB2 gene and CAD as well as the associations between these polymorphic variants and traditional risk factors, e.g. cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and overweight or obesity, in determining the risk of CAD. The study population consisted of 207 individuals (white Polish Caucasians aged 20-55 years): 98 patients with angiographically documented CAD (with more than 50% diameter stenosis of at least one of the major coronary vessels) and 109 blood donors with no signs of CAD. The analysis of genetic polymorphisms was performed by means of PCR-RFLP. The genotype frequencies of both analysed genes in the studied groups were compatible with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. We observed higher frequency of the 46A allele in CAD patients than in controls. We also found a tendency to higher prevalence of 46A allele carriers (subjects with genotypes AA+AG) in the CAD group compared to the control group. We did not find any differences in the distribution of genotypes and alleles of 79C>G polymorphism between patients and controls. Multivariate analysis showed that smoking and overweight were independent risk factors of CAD in patients. We found a synergistic effect between carrier state of the 46A allele or 79G allele and smoking, which influences the CAD risk. The 46A allele carriers who smoke as well as carriers of the 79G allele who smoke were much more frequent in the CAD group than in controls. The incidence of 46A allele carriers with hypercholesterolaemia is also higher in

  6. Low molecular weight chitosan conjugated with folate for siRNA delivery in vitro: optimization studies

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Julio C; Qiu, Xingping; Winnik, Francoise M; Benderdour, Mohamed; Zhang, Xiaoling; Dai, Kerong; Shi, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The low transfection efficiency of chitosan is one of its drawbacks as a gene delivery carrier. Low molecular weight chitosan may help to form small-sized polymer-DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA) complexes. Folate conjugation may improve gene transfection efficiency because of the promoted uptake of folate receptor-bearing cells. In the present study, chitosan was conjugated with folate and investigated for its efficacy as a delivery vector for siRNA in vitro. We demonstrate that the molecular weight of chitosan has a major influence on its biological and physicochemical properties, and very low molecular weight chitosan (below 10 kDa) has difficulty in forming stable complexes with siRNA. In this study, chitosan 25 kDa and 50 kDa completely absorbed siRNA and formed nanoparticles (≤220 nm) at a chitosan to siRNA weight ratio of 50:1. The introduction of a folate ligand onto chitosan decreased nanoparticle toxicity. Compared with chitosan-siRNA, folate-chitosan-siRNA nanoparticles improved gene silencing transfection efficiency. Therefore, folate-chitosan shows potential as a viable candidate vector for safe and efficient siRNA delivery. PMID:23209368

  7. A Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the SLC19A1/RFC1 Gene in Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Mahmuda, Naila Al; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Huang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Munesue, Toshio; Nakatani, Hideo; Hayashi, Kenshi; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2016-05-19

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with complex genetic etiology. Recent studies have indicated that children with ASD may have altered folate or methionine metabolism, suggesting that the folate-methionine cycle may play a key role in the etiology of ASD. SLC19A1, also referred to as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1), is a member of the solute carrier group of transporters and is one of the key enzymes in the folate metabolism pathway. Findings from multiple genomic screens suggest the presence of an autism susceptibility locus on chromosome 21q22.3, which includes SLC19A1. Therefore, we performed a case-control study in a Japanese population. In this study, DNA samples obtained from 147 ASD patients at the Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 150 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers were examined by the sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction method pooled with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. p < 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant outcome. Of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) examined, a significant p-value was obtained for AA genotype of one SNP (rs1023159, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16-0.91, p = 0.0394; Fisher's exact test). Despite some conflicting results, our findings supported a role for the polymorphism rs1023159 of the SLC19A1 gene, alone or in combination, as a risk factor for ASD. However, the findings were not consistent after multiple testing corrections. In conclusion, although our results supported a role of the SLC19A1 gene in the etiology of ASD, it was not a significant risk factor for the ASD samples analyzed in this study.

  8. Computerized Counseling for Folate Knowledge and Use

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Sobota, Mindy; Gonzales, Ralph; Gerbert, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background Periconception folate supplementation significantly reduces the risk of neural-tube defects, but few U.S. women start folate supplementation before pregnancy, and the amount of clinician time available to counsel patients about folate is limited. This study evaluated whether computer-assisted counseling and the provision of free folate tablets increases women’s knowledge and use of folate supplements. Design Randomized controlled trial; follow-up began 6 months after enrollment and was completed on average 7 months after enrollment. Setting/participants A total of 446 women, aged 18-45 years, were recruited from two urgent care clinics in San Francisco from March to July 2005 (data collection was completed in 2006; data were analyzed in 2007). Intervention Participants received a 15-minute computerized educational session and 200 folate tablets. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the knowledge that folate can prevent birth defects; secondary outcomes included the self-reported use of a folate supplement at follow-up. Results At follow-up, women in the intervention group were more likely to know that folate prevents birth defects (46% vs 27%, relative risk [RR]=1.72, 95% CI=1.32, 2.23); to know that folate is most important in early pregnancy (36% vs 17%, RR=2.11, 95% CI=1.50, 2.97); and to report the recent use of a folate supplement (32% vs 21%, RR=1.54, 95% CI=1.12, 2.13). Conclusions A one-time, brief, computerized counseling session about folate with the provision of free folate tablets increased the knowledge and use of folate supplements among women ≥6 months later. PMID:19000845

  9. Characterization of Folate in Peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The folate levels in a group of raw and roasted samples selected from the 2007 and the 2008 Uniform Peanut Performance Trials (UPPT) and from a set of raw samples from the Core of the Core of the Peanut Germplasm collection grown in 2006 and 2008 were determined. The samples were digested in protea...

  10. Variants in folate pathway genes as modulators of genetic instability and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Piskac-Collier, Amanda L; Monroy, Claudia; Lopez, Mirtha S; Cortes, Andrea; Etzel, Carol J; Greisinger, Anthony J; Spitz, Margaret R; El-Zein, Randa A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic instability plays a crucial role in cancer development. The genetic stability of the cell as well as DNA methylation status could be modulated by folate levels. Several studies suggested associations between polymorphisms in folate genes and alterations in protein expression and variations in serum levels of the folate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of folate pathway polymorphisms on modulating genetic instability and lung cancer risk. Genotyping of 5 SNPs in folate pathway genes and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus cytome assay analysis (to determine the genetic instability at baseline and following NNK treatment) was conducted on 180 lung cancer cases and 180 age-, gender-, and smoking-matched controls. Our results showed that individually, folate pathway SNPs were not associated with cytogenetic damage or lung cancer risk. However, in a polygenic disease such as lung cancer, gene-gene interactions are expected to play an important role in determining the phenotypic variability of the diseases. We observed that interactions between MTHFR677, MTHFR1298, and SHMT polymorphisms may have a significant impact on genetic instability in lung cancer patients. With regard to cytogenetic alterations, our results showed that lymphocytes from lung cancer patients exposed to the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK] had considerably increased frequency of cytogenetic damage in presence of MTHFR 677, MTHFR 1298, and SHMT allelic variants. These findings support the notion that significant interactions may potentially modulate the lung cancer susceptibility and alter the overall the repair abilities of lung cancer patients when exposed to tobacco carcinogens such as NNK. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. A mathematical model gives insights into nutritional and genetic aspects of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael C; Nijhout, H Frederik; Neuhouser, Marian L; Gregory, Jesse F; Shane, Barry; James, S Jill; Boynton, Alanna; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2006-10-01

    Impaired folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism has been linked to multiple disease outcomes. A better understanding of the nutritional and genetic influences on this complex biochemical pathway is needed to comprehend their impact on human health. To this end, we created a mathematical model of folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism. The model uses published data on folate enzyme kinetics and regulatory mechanisms to simulate the impact of genetic and nutritional variation on critical aspects of the pathway. We found that the model predictions match experimental data, while providing novel insights into pathway kinetics. Our primary observations were as follows: 1) the inverse association between folate and homocysteine is strongest at very low folate concentrations, but there is no association at high folate concentrations; 2) the DNA methylation reaction rate is relatively insensitive to changes in folate pool size; and 3) as folate concentrations become very high, enzyme velocities decrease. With regard to polymorphisms in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), the modeling predicts that decrease MTHFR activity reduces concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, as well as DNA methylation, while modestly increasing S-adenosylhomocysteine and homocysteine concentrations and thymidine or purine synthesis. Decreased folate together with a simulated vitamin B-12 deficiency results in decreases in DNA methylation and purine and thymidine synthesis. Decreased MTHFR activity superimposed on the B-12 deficiency appears to reverse the declines in purine and thymidine synthesis. These mathematical simulations of folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism provide a cost-efficient approach to in silico experimentation that can complement and help guide laboratory studies.

  12. Biology of the major facilitative folate transporters SLC19A1 and SLC46A1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the biology of the major facilitative membrane folate transporters, the reduced folate carrier (RFC), and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). Folates are essential vitamins, and folate deficiency contributes to a variety of heath disorders. RFC is ubiquitously expressed and is the major folate transporter in mammalian cells and tissues. PCFT mediates intestinal absorption of dietary folates. Clinically relevant antifolates such as methotrexate (MTX) are transported by RFC, and the loss of RFC transport is an important mechanism of MTX resistance. PCFT is abundantly expressed in human tumors and is active under pH conditions associated with the tumor microenvironment. Pemetrexed (PMX) is an excellent substrate for PCFT as well as for RFC. Novel tumor-targeted antifolates related to PMX with selective membrane transport by PCFT over RFC are being developed. The molecular picture of RFC and PCFT continues to evolve relating to membrane topology, N-glycosylation, energetics, and identification of structurally and functionally important domains and amino acids. The molecular bases for MTX resistance associated with loss of RFC function, and for the rare autosomal recessive condition, hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM), attributable to mutant PCFT, have been established. From structural homologies to the bacterial transporters GlpT and LacY, homology models were developed for RFC and PCFT, enabling new mechanistic insights and experimentally testable hypotheses. RFC and PCFT exist as homo-oligomers, and evidence suggests that homo-oligomerization of RFC and PCFT monomeric proteins may be important for intracellular trafficking and/or transport function. Better understanding of the structure and function of RFC and PCFT should facilitate the rational development of new therapeutic strategies for cancer as well as for HFM.

  13. Association of two synonymous splicing-associated CpG single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain 10 and solute carrier family 2 member 2 with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Karambataki, Maria; Malousi, Andigoni; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios; Haitoglou, Constantinos; Fragou, Aikaterini; Georgiou, Elisavet; Papadopoulou, Foteini; Krassas, Gerasimos E.; Kouidou, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have attracted little attention until recently. However, such SNPs located in epigenetic, CpG sites modifying exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) can be informative with regards to the recently verified association of intragenic methylation and splicing. The present study describes the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with the exonic, synonymous, epigenetic SNPs, rs3749166 in calpain 10 (CAPN10) glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocator and rs5404 in solute carrier family 2, member 2 (SLC2A2), also termed GLUT2, which, according to prior bioinformatic analysis, strongly modify the splicing potential of glucose transport-associated genes. Previous association studies reveal that only rs5404 exhibits a strong negative T2D association, while data on the CAPN10 polymorphism are contradictory. In the present study DNA from blood samples of 99 Greek non-diabetic control subjects and 71 T2D patients was analyzed. In addition, relevant publicly available cases (40) resulting from examination of 110 Personal Genome Project data files were analyzed. The frequency of the rs3749166 A allele, was similar in the patients and non-diabetic control subjects. However, AG heterozygotes were more frequent among patients (73.24% for Greek patients and 54.55% for corresponding non-diabetic control subjects; P=0.0262; total cases, 52.99 and 75.00%, respectively; P=0.0039). The rs5404 T allele was only observed in CT heterozygotes (Greek non-diabetic control subjects, 39.39% and Greek patients, 22.54%; P=0.0205; total cases, 34.69 and 21.28%, respectively; P=0.0258). Notably, only one genotype, heterozygous AG/CC, was T2D-associated (Greek non-diabetic control subjects, 29.29% and Greek patients, 56.33%; P=0.004; total cases, 32.84 and 56.58%, respectively; P=0.0008). Furthermore, AG/CC was strongly associated with very high (≥8.5%) glycosylated plasma hemoglobin levels among patients (P=0.0002 for all cases). These results reveal

  14. Folates and S-adenosylmethionine for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, George I; Cassiello, Clair F; Iovieno, Nadia

    2012-07-01

    Interest in nonpharmaceutical supplements for treating major depressive disorder (MDD) has increased significantly, both among patients and among clinicians during the past decades. Despite the large array of antidepressants (ADs) available, many patients continue to experience relatively modest response and remission rates, in addition to a burden of side effects that can hinder treatment compliance and acceptability. In this article, we review the literature on folates and S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), 2 natural compounds linked in the 1-carbon cycle metabolic pathway, for which substantial evidence supports their involvement in mood disorders. Background information, efficacy data, proposed mechanisms of action, and side effects are reviewed. Based on existing data, supplementation with SAMe, as well as with various formulations of folates, appears to be efficacious and well tolerated in reducing depressive symptoms. Compared with other forms of folates, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (L-methylfolate or 5-MTHF) may represent a preferable treatment option for MDD given its greater bioavailability in patients with a genetic polymorphism, and the lower risk of specific side effects associated with folic acid. Although further randomized controlled trials in this area appear warranted, SAMe and L-methylfolate may represent a useful addition to the AD armamentarium.

  15. Folate in oats and its milling fractions.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Minnamari; Kariluoto, Susanna; Nyström, Laura; Piironen, Vieno

    2012-12-01

    Total folate content in oat varieties from three harvesting years (2006-2008), and in oats milling fractions, was determined using microbiological assay. Furthermore, folate vitamer distribution in milling fractions were examined with the UPLC method, which was taken in use and validated. The total folate content of the cultivars varied moderately within each year. The average content in the 2008 samples was 685ng/gdm. The UPLC method proved fast and sensitive for determining seven folate monoglutamates in cereal samples. Folate content in fractions, which are normally discarded, such as flour from oat cutting and flaking, were 1.5- to 2.5-fold higher than in native grain. The main folate vitamers found in the oat fractions were 5-CH(3)-H(4)folate, 5-HCO-H(4)folate, and 5,10-CH(+)-H(4)folate. The UPLC results more closely matched the microbiological results compared to those that are usually achieved with HPLC methods. This study illustrates that oats and, especially, by-products of milling are good sources of folate.

  16. Genetic polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism: associations with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colon cancer and the modifying effects of diet

    PubMed Central

    Curtin, Karen; Slattery, Martha L.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Bigler, Jeannette; Levin, Theodore R.; Wolff, Roger K.; Albertsen, Hans; Potter, John D.; Samowitz, Wade S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated associations between CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) colon cancer and genetic polymorphisms relevant to one-carbon metabolism and thus, potentially the provision of methyl groups and risk of colon cancer. Data from a large, population-based case–control study (916 incident colon cancer cases and 1972 matched controls) were used. Candidate polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), thymidylate synthase (TS), transcobalamin II (TCNII), methionine synthase (MTR), reduced folate carrier (RFC), methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) were evaluated. CIMP− or CIMP+ phenotype was based on five CpG island markers: MINT1, MINT2, MINT31, p16 and MLH1. The influence of specific dietary factors (folate, methionine, vitamin B12 and alcohol) on these associations was also analyzed. We hypothesized that polymorphisms involved in the provision of methyl groups would be associated with CIMP+ tumors (two or more of five markers methylated), potentially modified by diet. Few associations specific to CIMP+ tumors were observed overall, which does not support the hypothesis that the provision of methyl groups is important in defining a methylator phenotype. However, our data suggest that genetic polymorphisms in MTHFR 1298A > C, interacting with diet, may be involved in the development of highly CpG-methylated colon cancers. AC and CC genotypes in conjunction with a high-risk dietary pattern (low folate and methionine intake and high alcohol use) were associated with CIMP+ (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3–3.4 versus AA/high risk; P-interaction = 0.03). These results provide only limited support for a role of polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism in the etiology of CIMP colon cancer. PMID:17449906

  17. Folate receptor alpha is more than just a folate transporter.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Vineet; Siddiqui, M Rizwan; Tomita, Tadanori; Mayanil, Chandra Shekhar

    2017-01-01

    Until recently folate receptor alpha (FRα) has only been considered as a folate transporter. However, a novel role of FRα as a transcription factor was reported by our lab. More recently our lab showed a novel pleiotropic role of FRα: (a) direct transcriptional activation of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 genes; and (b) repression of biogenesis of miRNAs that target these genes or their effector molecules. These observations beg a question: "Can a simple molecule such as folate be used to manipulate the production and/or differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs), which may hold promise for future therapies?" Conditions such as spinal cord injury, motor neuron diseases, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis may benefit from increasing stem cell pool and promoting specific pathways of differentiation. On the flip-side, these NSCs may also contribute to some CNS tumors therefore promoting differentiation could prove more beneficial. FRα may hold promises for both since it has the potential to remodel chromatin in a context dependent manner. In this commentary we discuss our previous data and new questions arising in the context of the new role for FRα.

  18. Serum Folate and Vitamine B12 Levels in Acute and Chronic Renal Disease. Effect of Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Sevitt, L. H.; Hoffbrand, A. V.

    1969-01-01

    Serum folate and vitamin B12 levels have been measured in 32 patients with renal failure. The initial mean serum folate level was raised above normal in seven patients with acute renal failure whereas the mean level in eight patients severely ill from chronic renal failure was significantly lower than normal. Serum folate levels fell during peritoneal dialysis and rose between dialyses in all these patients and also in one patient who was dialysed for acute pancreatitis. The mean serum B12 level was raised in patients with both acute and chronic renal failure, but there was no consistent change in serum B12 level during dialysis. Hypersegmented polymorphs were present in the peripheral blood film of most of the patients with acute or chronic renal failure. Their presence bore no relation to the clinical state, blood urea, serum folate, or serum B12 level of the patients. PMID:5776209

  19. The association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer susceptibility: Evidence from 33 studies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoyi; Gao, Yisha; He, Jing; Cai, Jiao; Ta, Na; Jiang, Hui; Zhu, Jinhong; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant folate metabolism is closely related to tumorigenesis. Genetic variations in the Reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) may alter the progress of folate metabolism, and thereby cause the initiation and progress of the cancer. Considerable studies have performed to investigate the association between RFC1 G80A (rs1051266) polymorphism and cancer susceptibility, but the conclusions were conflicting. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to reevaluate the association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism with cancer risk. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. The association of RFC1 G80A polymorphism and cancer risk was evaluated by the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The significant association was found between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and hematological malignance susceptibility (A vs. G: OR=1.11, 95%CI=1.003-1.23, P=0.045; GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.06-1.31, P=0.002; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.18, 95%CI=1.07-1.29, P=0.001). Stratified analysis by ethnicity indicated that the association became more prominent among Caucasians (GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.12-1.45, P<0.001; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.21, 95%CI=1.08-1.36, P=0.001). In term of the cancer type, this polymorphism significantly increased the risk of acute lymphoblast leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.001-1.28, P=0.048; AA+GA vs. GG: OR=1.28, 95%CI=1.13-1.46, P<0.001) and acute myeloid leukemia (GA vs. GG: OR=2.57, 95%CI=1.37-4.85, P=0.003). No significant association between RFC1 G80A polymorphism and overall solid cancer risk was observed, but a protective association with digestive cancer risk was found (GA vs. GG: OR=0.89, 95%CI= 0.81-0.99, P=0.030). The comprehensive meta-analysis encouraged the notion that RFC1 G80A polymorphism may play an important role in hematopoietic system malignance. These findings need further validation in the large multicenter investigations. PMID:26819637

  20. Paradoxical impact of two folate receptors, FRα and RFC, in ovarian cancer: effect on cell proliferation, invasion and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Siu, Michelle K Y; Kong, Daniel S H; Chan, Hoi Yan; Wong, Esther S Y; Ip, Philip P C; Jiang, LiLi; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Le, Xiao-Feng; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2012-01-01

    Despite being an essential vitamin, folate has been implicated to enhance tumor growth, as evidenced by reports on overexpression of folate receptor alpha (FRα) in carcinomas. The role of another folate transporter, reduced folate carrier (RFC), is largely unknown. This study investigated the roles of folate, FRα and RFC in ovarian cancers. We demonstrated FRα mRNA and protein overexpression and reduced RFC expression in association with FRα gene amplification and RFC promoter hypermethylation, respectively. FRα overexpression was associated with tumor progression while RFC expression incurred a favorable clinical outcome. Such reciprocal expression pattern was also observed in ovarian cancer cell lines. Folate was shown to promote cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro, and down-regulate E-cadherin expression. This effect was blocked after either stable knockdown of FRα or ectopic overexpression of RFC. This hitherto unreported phenomenon suggests that, RFC can serve as a balancing partner of FRα and confer a protective effect in patients with high FRα-expressing ovarian carcinomas, as evidenced by their prolonged overall and disease-free survivals. In conclusion, we report on the paradoxical impact of FRα (putative oncogenic) and RFC (putative tumor suppressive) in human malignancies. FRα and RFC may potentially be explored as therapeutic target or prognostic marker respectively. We recommend caution and additional research on folate supplements in cancer patients.

  1. A Milk-Free Diet Downregulates Folate Receptor Autoimmunity in Cerebral Folate Deficiency Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaekers, Vincent T.; Sequeira, Jeffrey M.; Blau, Nenad; Quadros, Edward V.

    2008-01-01

    In cerebral folate deficiency syndrome, the presence of autoantibodies against the folate receptor (FR) explains decreased folate transport to the central nervous system and the clinical response to folinic acid. Autoantibody crossreactivity with milk FR from different species prompted us to test the effect of a milk-free diet. Intervention with a…

  2. A Milk-Free Diet Downregulates Folate Receptor Autoimmunity in Cerebral Folate Deficiency Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaekers, Vincent T.; Sequeira, Jeffrey M.; Blau, Nenad; Quadros, Edward V.

    2008-01-01

    In cerebral folate deficiency syndrome, the presence of autoantibodies against the folate receptor (FR) explains decreased folate transport to the central nervous system and the clinical response to folinic acid. Autoantibody crossreactivity with milk FR from different species prompted us to test the effect of a milk-free diet. Intervention with a…

  3. Homocysteine, folate and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, M W; Hong, S-C; Choi, J S; Han, J-Y; Oh, M-J; Kim, H J; Nava-Ocampo, A; Koren, G

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal and/or cord blood folate/homocysteine concentrations and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study population included a random sample of singleton pregnant women in whom we measured total homocysteine and folic acid in maternal or cord blood at deliveries. A total of 227 pregnant women were enrolled. The concentration of folate in maternal blood tended to be significantly lower in pre-term birth than in full-term delivery group (median (95% CI), 14.4 (3.6-73) vs 25 (7.3-105.5) p < 0.01). The total homocysteine in maternal and cord blood was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia than in the normotensive group (7.9 (1.7-28.2) vs 5.9 (1.8-14.6) μmol/ml, p < 0.05; and 5.8 (2.6-14.4) vs 4.2 (0.7-7.9) ng/ml, p < 0.05, respectively). Lower maternal serum folate concentration is associated with pre-term delivery and higher maternal plasma homocysteine concentration with pre-eclampsia.

  4. Mathematical Modelling of Folate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Panetta, John C.; Paugh, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Folate metabolism is a complex biological process that is influenced by many variables including transporters, co-factors and enzymes. Mathematical models provide a useful tool to evaluate this complex system and to elucidate hypotheses that would be otherwise untenable to test in vitro or in vivo. Forty years of model development and refinement along with enhancements in technology have led to systematic improvement in our biological understanding from these models. However, increased complexity does not always lead to increased understanding, and a balanced approach to modelling the system is often advantageous. This approach should address questions about sensitivity of the model to variation and incorporate genomic data. The folate model is a useful platform for investigating the effects of antifolates on the folate pathway. The utility of the model is demonstrated through interrogation of drug resistance, drug-drug interactions, drug selectivity, and drug doses and schedules. Mathematics can be used to create models with the ability to design and improve rationale therapeutic interventions. PMID:23703958

  5. Has enhanced folate status during pregnancy altered natural selection and possibly Autism prevalence? A closer look at a possible link.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Eugene J

    2008-09-01

    The inverse association between maternal folate status and incidence of infants born with neural tube defects (NTD's) was recognized over twenty years ago and led the US health agencies in the early 1990s to recommend that women of childbearing age consume 400 microg of folic acid each day. The FDA followed by mandating that certain foods be fortified with folic acid and this has resulted in a significant enhancement of maternal folate status to levels that are often difficult to otherwise achieve naturally. At least one study indicates that this has decreased the incidence of NTD's. However, this same time period directly coincides with what many feel is the apparent beginning and continuous increase in the prevalence of Autism and related Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD's) in the US. Are these similar time frames of changes in maternal folate status and possible Autism prevalence a random event or has improved maternal (and fetal) folate status during pregnancy played a role? It is not only plausible but highly likely. A particular polymorphic form to a key enzyme required to activate folate for methylation in neurodevelopment, 5-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), demonstrates reduced activity under low or normal folate levels but normal activity under conditions of higher folate nutritional status. A consequence of the presence of the polymorphic form of this enzyme during normal or reduced folate status are higher plasma homocysteine levels than noncarriers and the combination of these factors have been shown in several studies to result in an increase rate of miscarriage via thrombotic events. However, the incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia in the presence of the polymorphism is reduced under the common condition of enhanced folate status and thereby masks the latent adverse effects of the presence of this enzyme form during pregnancy. Of great importance is that this polymorphism, although common in the normal population, is found in significantly

  6. Folate-receptor-targeted radionuclide imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chun-Yen; Mathias, Carla J; Green, Mark A

    2004-04-29

    The cell-membrane folate receptor is a potential molecular target for tumor-selective drug delivery, including delivery of radiolabeled folate-chelate conjugates for diagnostic imaging. This review surveys the growing literature on tumor imaging with radionuclide agents targeted to the folate receptor. Successful folate-receptor targeting has been reported, both in vitro and in vivo, using a variety of radionuclides that are suitable for clinical diagnostic imaging (67Ga, 111In, 99mTc, 66Ga, and 64Cu). While none of these agents has, to date, been demonstrated to have clinical efficacy as a diagnostic tool, existing data indicates that it is feasible to noninvasively assess (at least qualitatively) tissue folate receptor levels by external radionuclide imaging.

  7. Validation of Folate-Enriched Eggs as a Functional Food for Improving Folate Intake in Consumers.

    PubMed

    Altic, Leslie; McNulty, Helene; Hoey, Leane; McAnena, Liadhan; Pentieva, Kristina

    2016-11-30

    Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen's feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown because the natural folate forms incorporated into the eggs may not necessarily be retained during storage and cooking. This study aimed to determine the stability of natural folates in folate-enriched eggs under typical conditions of storage and cooking. Total folate was determined by microbiological assay following tri-enzyme treatment in folate-enriched eggs and un-enriched (barn and free-range) on the day they were laid, after storage (up to 27 days) and after using four typical cooking methods (boiling, poaching, frying, scrambling) for different durations. On the day of laying, the folate content of enriched eggs was found to be significantly higher than that of un-enriched barn or free-range eggs (mean ± SD; 123.2 ± 12.4 vs. 41.2 ± 2.8 vs. 65.6 ± 18.5 µg/100 g; p < 0.001). Storage at refrigerator and room temperature for periods up to the Best Before date resulted in no significant losses to the folate content of folate-enriched eggs. Furthermore, folate in enriched eggs remained stable when cooked by four typical methods for periods up to the maximum cooking time (e.g., 135 ± 22.5, 133.9 ± 23.0 and 132.5 ± 35.1; p = 0.73, for raw, scrambled for 50 s and scrambled for 2 min, respectively). Thus, natural folates in folate-enriched eggs remain highly stable with little or no losses following storage and cooking. These findings are important because they demonstrate the feasibility of introducing folate-enriched eggs into the diet of consumers as functional foods with enriched folate content. Further studies will confirm their effectiveness in optimizing the biomarker folate status of consumers.

  8. Validation of Folate-Enriched Eggs as a Functional Food for Improving Folate Intake in Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Altic, Leslie; McNulty, Helene; Hoey, Leane; McAnena, Liadhan; Pentieva, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Functional foods enriched with folate may be beneficial as a means of optimizing folate status in consumers. We recently developed novel eggs enriched with folate through folic acid supplementation of the hen’s feed, but their potential to influence consumer folate status is unknown because the natural folate forms incorporated into the eggs may not necessarily be retained during storage and cooking. This study aimed to determine the stability of natural folates in folate-enriched eggs under typical conditions of storage and cooking. Total folate was determined by microbiological assay following tri-enzyme treatment in folate-enriched eggs and un-enriched (barn and free-range) on the day they were laid, after storage (up to 27 days) and after using four typical cooking methods (boiling, poaching, frying, scrambling) for different durations. On the day of laying, the folate content of enriched eggs was found to be significantly higher than that of un-enriched barn or free-range eggs (mean ± SD; 123.2 ± 12.4 vs. 41.2 ± 2.8 vs. 65.6 ± 18.5 µg/100 g; p < 0.001). Storage at refrigerator and room temperature for periods up to the Best Before date resulted in no significant losses to the folate content of folate-enriched eggs. Furthermore, folate in enriched eggs remained stable when cooked by four typical methods for periods up to the maximum cooking time (e.g., 135 ± 22.5, 133.9 ± 23.0 and 132.5 ± 35.1; p = 0.73, for raw, scrambled for 50 s and scrambled for 2 min, respectively). Thus, natural folates in folate-enriched eggs remain highly stable with little or no losses following storage and cooking. These findings are important because they demonstrate the feasibility of introducing folate-enriched eggs into the diet of consumers as functional foods with enriched folate content. Further studies will confirm their effectiveness in optimizing the biomarker folate status of consumers. PMID:27916895

  9. Association between MTHFD1 polymorphisms and neural tube defect susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingjing; Han, Lei; Zhuang, Bo

    2015-01-15

    Neural tube defect (NTD) is a common disease among neonates with multiplex symptom and complex origins, and the exact mechanism of NTD has not been definitely elucidated. Nevertheless, it is hypothesized that NTD risk can be prevented by periconceptional folic acid in folate metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) gene has been proved to play an important role in folate metabolism, which was strongly associated with the high risk for NTD. We focused on three folate metabolism-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the MTHFD1 gene to evaluate the associations between MTHFD1 polymorphisms and NTD susceptibility. We genotyped blood samples from 222 specimens (including 122 NTD-affected infants and 100 healthy controls) in a case-control study. We investigated the association between NTD and three selected tag-SNPs on MTHFD1 gene: 401A>G (rs1950902), 2305C>T (rs17857382) and 1958G>A (rs2236225) by the SNapShot method. These SNPs were identified by Haploview 4.2 software with HapMap databases, and then these associations were evaluated by the Mann-Whitney test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square test. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of the association between MTHFD1 1958G>A and NTD risk was also performed. In our study, an increased risk of NTD was observed for 1958G>A of MTHFD1 (AA vs. GG: OR=2.63, 95% CI=2.61-5.70; AA vs. GG+GA: OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.07-4.14; A vs. G: OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.11-2.36). However, the other two SNPs (401A>G and 2305C>T) displayed no statistically significant association with NTD risk. The overall result of the meta-analysis indicated that the 1958G>A variant might not be a genetic susceptible factor for the Caucasian population. Our analysis implicated that MTHFD1 1958G>A was significantly associated with the susceptibility of NTD in a Chinese population. In addition, the AA homozygote carriers were more likely to suffer NTD, compared with the others with GA or GG genotypes. Validation of the risk

  10. Increased folate uptake prevents dietary development of folate deficiency in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    McMartin, K.E.; Collins, T.D.; Eisenga, B.H.; Bhandari, S.D. )

    1990-02-26

    Folic acid and folate deficiency have been implicated in disorders of the central nervous system. In a study of the mechanism for the effects of chronic ethanol on folate homeostasis, the uptake of {sup 3}H-folic acid by the rat brain has been studied. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed sulfonamide-supplemented folate-sufficient and folate-deficient liquid diets containing either ethanol or isoenergic carbohydrate as a control. After 16 weeks, severe folate depletion occurred in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung intestine, testes), but not in the brain. Tissue retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was increased four-fold in the brain of folate-deficient rats. A smaller increase in uptake was observed in the other tissues, except for the liver, in which the retention of {sup 3}H-folic acid was slightly decreased. Chronic ethanol feeding decreased hepatic folate uptake, but not that by the increase the uptake of folate from the plasma of folate-deficient rats, thereby inhibiting the development of brain folate deficiency.

  11. Consortium analysis of gene and gene-folate interactions in purine and pyrimidine metabolism pathways with ovarian carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Webb, Penelope M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; McGuire, Valerie; Rossing, Mary Anne; Wang, Qinggang; Dicks, Ed; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Song, Honglin; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Plisiecka-Halasa, Joanna; Timorek, Agnieszka; Menon, Usha; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Gayther, Simon A.; Ramus, Susan J.; Narod, Steven A.; Risch, Harvey A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Glasspool, Rosalind; Paul, James; Carty, Karen; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubiński, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Cybulski, Cezary; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; van Altena, Anne M.; Aben, Katja K. H.; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Cramer, Daniel W.; Levine, Douglas A.; Bisogna, Maria; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Claus K.; Lundvall, Lene; Engelholm, Svend-Aage; Heitz, Florian; du Bois, Andreas; Harter, Philipp; Schwaab, Ira; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Leminen, Arto; Thompson, Pamela J.; Lurie, Galina; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Vergote, Ignace; Beesley, Jonathan; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hein, Alexander; Ekici, Arif B.; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Wu, Anna H.; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Stram, Daniel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Bogdanova, Natalia; Antonenkova, Natalia; Odunsi, Kunle; Edwards, Robert P.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Ness, Roberta B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Fridley, Brooke L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Wu, Xifeng; Lu, Karen; Liang, Dong; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Iversen, Edwin S.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Krakstad, Camilla; Bjorge, Line; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Bean, Yukie; Kellar, Melissa; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brinton, Louise A.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Campbell, Ian G.; Eccles, Diana; Whittemore, Alice S.; Sieh, Weiva; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Phelan, Catherine M.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Goode, Ellen L.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Berchuck, Andrew; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Cook, Linda S.; Le, Nhu D.

    2014-01-01

    Scope We re-evaluated previously reported associations between variants in pathways of one-carbon (folate) transfer genes and ovarian carcinoma (OC) risk, and in related pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and assessed interactions with folate intake. Methods and Results Odds ratios (OR) for 446 genetic variants were estimated among 13,410 OC cases and 22,635 controls and among 2,281 cases and 3,444 controls with folate information. Following multiple testing correction, the most significant main effect associations were for DPYD variants rs11587873 (OR=0.92, P=6x10−5) and rs828054 (OR=1.06, P=1x10−4). Thirteen variants in the pyrimidine metabolism genes, DPYD, DPYS, PPAT and TYMS, also interacted significantly with folate in a multi-variant analysis (corrected P=9.9x10−6) but collectively explained only 0.2% of OC risk. Although no other associations were significant after multiple testing correction, variants in SHMT1 in one-carbon transfer, previously reported with OC, suggested lower risk at higher folate (Pinteraction=0.03-0.006). Conclusions Variation in pyrimidine metabolism genes, particularly DPYD, which was previously reported to be associated with OC, may influence risk; however, stratification by folate intake is unlikely to modify disease risk appreciably in these women. SHMT1 SNP-byfolate interactions are plausible but require further validation. Polymorphisms in selected genes in purine metabolism were not associated with OC. PMID:25066213

  12. Experimental maternal and neonatal folate status relationships in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Blocker, D E; Ausman, L M; Meadows, C A; Thenen, S W

    1989-07-01

    The influence of maternal dietary folic acid intake on folate status was studied in Cebus albifrons monkeys by feeding 10 or 250 micrograms/100 kcal dietary folic acid during pregnancy and 4 wk postpartum. Maternal, infant, and nonpregnant hematologic indices; blood and liver folate concentrations; and urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion all varied with dietary folate intake and pregnancy status as did milk folate concentration in lactating dams. Maternal folate status, determined by plasma, red blood cell, and milk folate concentrations, as well as urinary formiminoglutamic acid excretion, all were correlated significantly with liver folate concentrations in neonates (r = 0.740, r = 0.919, r = 0.936, and r = -0.851, respectively). Results in these primates showed that neonatal folate status was related significantly to the dietary folate intake and folate status of the mother during pregnancy and lactation.

  13. Functional roles of the A335 and G338 residues of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) mutated in hereditary folate malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel Sanghoon; Zhao, Rongbao; Fiser, Andras; Goldman, David I

    2012-10-15

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) mediates intestinal folate absorption and folate transport across the choroid plexus, processes defective in hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM). This paper characterizes the functional defect, and the roles of two mutated PCFT residues, associated with HFM (G338R and A335D). The A335D-PCFT and other mutations at this residue result in an unstable protein; when expression of a mutant protein was preserved, function was always retained. The G338R and other charged mutants resulted in an unstable protein; substitutions with small neutral and polar amino acids preserved protein but with impaired function. Pemetrexed and methotrexate (MTX) influx kinetics mediated by the G338C mutant PCFT revealed marked (15- to 20-fold) decreases in K(t) and V(max) compared with wild-type PCFT. In contrast, there was only a small (∼2-fold) decrease in the MTX influx K(i) and an increase (∼3-fold) in the pemetrexed influx K(i) for the G338C-PCFT mutant. Neither a decrease in pH to 4.5, nor an increase to 7.4, restored function of the G338C mutant relative to wild-type PCFT excluding a role for this residue in proton binding or proton coupling. Homology modeling localized the A335 and G338 residues embedded in the 9th transmembrane, consistent with the inaccessibility of the A335C and G338C proteins to MTS reagents. Hence, the loss of intrinsic G338C-PCFT function was due solely to impaired oscillation of the carrier between its conformational states. The data illustrate how alterations in carrier cycling can impact influx K(t) without comparable alterations in substrate binding to the carrier.

  14. A non-synonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yuan C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shani-Shimon–Paluch; Kaufman, Bella; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Byrski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramóny; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, Judith L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van Asperen, Christi J.; García, Encarna B. Gómez; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jager, Agnes; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pathak, Harsh; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Léoné, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Dreyfus, Hélène; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Sokolowska, Johanna; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Maria, Muy-Kheng Tea; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Sarrel, Kara; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion R; Andrews, Lesley; Cohn, David; DeMars, Leslie R.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Garber, Judy E.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L.; Narod, Steven A.; Brummel, Sean; Gillen, Daniel L.; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Lee, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Neuhausen, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers. Results Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06–1.92; p = 0.019] and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.39–3.52, p=0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class 2 mutations than class 1 (mutations (class 2 HR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.28–2.70; class 1 HR=0.86, 95%CI:0.69–1.09; p-for difference=0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers (HR = 2.42; p = 0.03). Conclusion The IRS1 Gly972Arg SNP, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers. Impact These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22729394

  15. Folate status and neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Molloy, A M; Mills, J L; Kirke, P N; Weir, D G; Scott, J M

    1999-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid supplementation prevents approximately 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs). While most women carrying affected fetuses do not have deficient blood folate levels, the risk of having an NTD affected child is inversely correlated with pregnancy red cell folate levels. Current research is focused on the discovery of genetic abnormalities in folate related enzymes which might explain the role of folate in NTD prevention. The first candidate gene to emerge was the C677T variant of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Normal subjects who are homozygous for the mutation (TT) have red cell folate status some 20% lower than expected. It is now established that the prevalence of the TT genotype is significantly higher among spina bifida cases and their parents. Nevertheless, our studies show that the variant does not account for the reduced blood folate levels in many NTD affected mothers. We conclude that low maternal folate status may in itself be the most important risk factor for NTDs and that food fortification may be the only population strategy of benefit in the effort to eliminate NTDs.

  16. Regulation of Folate-Mediated One-Carbon Metabolism by Glycine N-Methyltransferase (GNMT) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Ming-Tsung; Lin, Yan-Jun; Tang, Feng-Yao; Ko, Hsin-An; Chiang, En-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is an important therapeutic target of human diseases. We extensively investigated how gene-nutrient interactions may modulate human cancer risk in 2 major folate metabolic genes, MTHFR and GNMT. The biochemical impacts of MTHFR and GNMT on methyl group supply, global DNA methylation, nucleotide biosynthesis, DNA damage, and partitioning of the folate dependent 1-carbon group were carefully studied. The distinct model systems used included: EB virus-transformed lymphoblasts expressing human MTHFR polymorphic genotypes; liver-derived GNMT-null cell-lines with and without GNMT overexpression; and HepG2 cells with stabilized inhibition of MTHFR using shRNA, GNMT wildtype, heterozygotous (GNMT(het)) and knockout (GNMT(nul)) mice. We discovered that the MTHFR TT genotype significantly reduces folate-dependent remethylation under folate restriction, but it assists purine synthesis when folate is adequate. The advantage of de novo purine synthesis found in the MTHFR TT genotype may account for the protective effect of MTHFR in human hematological malignancies. GNMT affects transmethylation kinetics and S-adenosylmethionine (adoMet) synthesis, and facilitates the conservation of methyl groups by limiting homocysteine remethylation fluxes. Restoring GNMT assists methylfolate-dependent reactions and ameliorates the consequences of folate depletion. GNMT expression in vivo improves folate retention and bioavailability in the liver. Loss of GNMT impairs nucleotide biosynthesis. Over-expression of GNMT enhances nucleotide biosynthesis and improves DNA integrity by reducing uracil misincorporation in DNA both in vitro and in vivo. The systematic series of studies gives new insights into the underlying mechanisms by which MTHFR and GNMT may participate in human tumor prevention.

  17. Folate and homocysteine levels in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Megahed, M A; Taher, I M

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to determine serum folate and plasma homocysteine levels in healthy pregnant women following a live birth and compare them with healthy non-pregnant women. Fifty healthy gravid multiparous women are included in the study and 25 normal non-pregnant female subjects act as controls (group I). The pregnant women are divided into two groups according to interpregnancy interval: group II (six months or less); group III (18-24 months). Venous blood samples are analysed for red blood cell folate and homocysteine, vitamin B12, serum folate and albumin, and serum aminotransferases (ALT and AST). There was a significant decrease in red cell folate and serum folate in group II compared to the control group (P<0.001). Serum vitamin B12 showed no significant difference. Plasma homocysteine and serum albumin showed significant decreases in both groups II and III compared to the control group. (P<0.001) There was significant positive correlation between homocysteine and serum albumin in the three studied groups. (r=0.42, P<0.001; r=0.45, P<0.001; r=0.51, P<0.001, respectively). There was significant negative correlation between red cell folate and homocysteine in the three studied groups. (r=-0.48, P<0.001; r=-0.53, P<0.001; r=-0.49, P<0.001, respectively). Two cases in group II showed signs of intrauterine growth retardation. The results suggest that pregnant females with short interpregnancy intervals are more likely to develop folate deficiency. Educational strategies are required to increase folate awareness among women to promote the benefits of folic acid supplementation. Mandatory folate fortification of foods should be defined and monitored.

  18. Homocysteine Lowering by Folate-Rich Diet or Pharmacological Supplementations in Subjects with Moderate Hyperhomocysteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Zappacosta, Bruno; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Persichilli, Silvia; Pounis, George; Ruggeri, Stefania; Minucci, Angelo; Carnovale, Emilia; Andria, Generoso; Ricci, Roberta; Scala, Iris; Genovese, Orazio; Turrini, Aida; Mistura, Lorenza; Giardina, Bruno; Iacoviello, Licia

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To compare the efficacy of a diet rich in natural folate and of two different folic acid supplementation protocols in subjects with “moderate” hyperhomocysteinemia, also taking into account C677T polymorphism of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Subjects/Methods: We performed a 13 week open, randomized, double blind clinical trial on 149 free living persons with mild hyperhomocyteinemia, with daily 200 μg from a natural folate-rich diet, 200 μg [6S]5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), 200 μg folic acid or placebo. Participants were stratified according to their MTHFR genotype. Results: Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were reduced after folate enriched diet, 5-MTHF or folic acid supplementation respectively by 20.1% (p < 0.002), 19.4% (p < 0.001) and 21.9% (p < 0.001), as compared to baseline levels and significantly as compared to placebo (p < 0.001, p < 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively for enriched diet, 5-MTHF and folic acid). After this enriched diet and the folic acid supplementation, Hcy in both genotype groups decreased approximately to the same level, with higher percentage decreases observed for the TT group because of their higher pre-treatment value. Similar results were not seen by genotype for 5-MTHF. A significant increase in RBC folate concentration was observed after folic acid and natural folate-rich food supplementations, as compared to placebo. Conclusions: Supplementation with natural folate-rich foods, folic acid and 5-MTHF reached a similar reduction in Hcy concentrations. PMID:23698160

  19. Biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and breast cancer risk: report from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Matejcic, M; de Batlle, J; Ricci, C; Biessy, C; Perrier, F; Huybrechts, I; Weiderpass, E; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Cadeau, C; His, M; Cox, D G; Boeing, H; Fortner, R T; Kaaks, R; Lagiou, P; Trichopoulou, A; Benetou, V; Tumino, R; Panico, S; Sieri, S; Palli, D; Ricceri, F; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Skeie, G; Amiano, P; Sánchez, M J; Chirlaque, M D; Barricarte, A; Quirós, J R; Buckland, G; van Gils, C H; Peeters, P H; Key, T J; Riboli, E; Gylling, B; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Gunter, M J; Romieu, I; Chajès, V

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent findings for the association between B vitamins and breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated the relationship between biomarkers of folate and vitamin B12 and the risk of BC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 were determined in 2,491 BC cases individually matched to 2,521 controls among women who provided baseline blood samples. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios by quartiles of either plasma B vitamin. Subgroup analyses by menopausal status, hormone receptor status of breast tumors (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR] and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]), alcohol intake and MTHFR polymorphisms (677C > T and 1298A > C) were also performed. Plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12 were not significantly associated with the overall risk of BC or by hormone receptor status. A marginally positive association was found between vitamin B12 status and BC risk in women consuming above the median level of alcohol (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.26; 95% CI 1.00-1.58; Ptrend  = 0.05). Vitamin B12 status was also positively associated with BC risk in women with plasma folate levels below the median value (ORQ4-Q1  = 1.29; 95% CI 1.02-1.62; Ptrend  = 0.03). Overall, folate and vitamin B12 status was not clearly associated with BC risk in this prospective cohort study. However, potential interactions between vitamin B12 and alcohol or folate on the risk of BC deserve further investigation.

  20. Heightened amygdala responsiveness in s-carriers of 5-HTTLPR genetic polymorphism reflects enhanced cortical rather than subcortical inputs: An MEG study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qian; Holroyd, Tom; Mitchell, Derek; Yu, Henry; Cheng, Xi; Hodgkinson, Colin; Chen, Gang; McCaffrey, Daniel; Goldman, David; Blair, R James

    2017-09-01

    Short allele carriers (S-carriers) of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) show an elevated amygdala response to emotional stimuli relative to long allele carriers (LL-homozygous). However, whether this reflects increased responsiveness of the amygdala generally or interactions between the amygdala and the specific input systems remains unknown. It is argued that the amygdala receives input via a quick subcortical and a slower cortical pathway. If the elevated amygdala response in S-carriers reflects generally increased amygdala responding, then group differences in amygdala should be seen across the amygdala response time course. However, if the difference is a secondary consequence of enhanced amygdala-cortical interactions, then group differences might only be present later in the amygdala response. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found an enhanced amygdala response to fearful expressions starting 40-50 ms poststimulus. However, group differences in the amygdala were only seen 190-200 ms poststimulus, preceded by increased superior temporal sulcus (STS) responses in S-carriers from 130 to 140 ms poststimulus. An enhanced amygdala response to angry expressions started 260-270 ms poststimulus with group differences in the amygdala starting at 160-170 ms poststimulus onset, preceded by increased STS responses in S-carriers from 150 to 160 ms poststimulus. These suggest that enhanced amygdala responses in S-carriers might reflect enhanced STS-amygdala connectivity in S-carriers. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4313-4321, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Study of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms of the SLC19A1/RFC1 Gene in Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mahmuda, Naila Al; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Huang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Li; Munesue, Toshio; Nakatani, Hideo; Hayashi, Kenshi; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with complex genetic etiology. Recent studies have indicated that children with ASD may have altered folate or methionine metabolism, suggesting that the folate–methionine cycle may play a key role in the etiology of ASD. SLC19A1, also referred to as reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1), is a member of the solute carrier group of transporters and is one of the key enzymes in the folate metabolism pathway. Findings from multiple genomic screens suggest the presence of an autism susceptibility locus on chromosome 21q22.3, which includes SLC19A1. Therefore, we performed a case-control study in a Japanese population. In this study, DNA samples obtained from 147 ASD patients at the Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan and 150 unrelated healthy Japanese volunteers were examined by the sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction method pooled with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. p < 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant outcome. Of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) examined, a significant p-value was obtained for AA genotype of one SNP (rs1023159, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.16–0.91, p = 0.0394; Fisher’s exact test). Despite some conflicting results, our findings supported a role for the polymorphism rs1023159 of the SLC19A1 gene, alone or in combination, as a risk factor for ASD. However, the findings were not consistent after multiple testing corrections. In conclusion, although our results supported a role of the SLC19A1 gene in the etiology of ASD, it was not a significant risk factor for the ASD samples analyzed in this study. PMID:27213354

  2. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population

    PubMed Central

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population. PMID:25983623

  3. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR) genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Wajda, Anna; Malinowski, Damian; Kazienko, Anna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Drozdzik, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C), MTR (2756A > G) and MTRR (66A > G) polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population.

  4. Thiamine metabolism in folate deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Walzem, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Folate status (FS) and resultant alterations in thiamine status (TS) were evaluated in weanling rats fed either 17% amino acids (RHAA); 14% amino acids (LOGLU); 20% Vitamin Free casein (VFC) + 8% gelatin (HICG); 10% VFC + 4% gelatin + 0.3% methionine (CGM); or 10% VFC + 4 % gelatin (LOCG). Diets were fed with and without 8 mg FA/kg diet. HICG diet contained 54 ug/kg endogenous folate, the CGM and LOCG, 27 ug/kg, RHAA and LOGLU were folate free. FS was assessed by growth rate, hematology, formiminoglutamic acid excretion following a histidine load and tissue folate levels. TS was assessed by determining the fate of oral /sup 3/H-labeled and intravenous /sup 14/C-labeled thiamine over a six hour test period and by measurement of blood transketolase activity (TKA) and TPP effect (TPPE). TKA and TPPE were measured by an enzymatic single-point assay developed during these investigations.

  5. Dendronized nanoconjugates of lysine and folate for treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Keerti; Gupta, Umesh; Jain, Narendra K

    2014-08-01

    Poly-L-lysine (PLL) dendrimers are currently being investigated as antiangiogenic agent for therapy of cancer. In this study, we report folate conjugated poly-l-lysine dendrimers (FPLL) as an efficient carrier for model anticancer drug, doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox); for pH sensitive drug release, selective targeting to cancer cells, anticancer activity and antiangiogenic activity. This nanoconjugate of Dox showed initial rapid in vitro release followed by gradual slow release, and the drug release was found to be pH sensitive with greater release at acidic pH. In the CAM assay and tubule formation assay with HUVEC, Dox-FPLL formulation showed the significant antiangiogenic activity confirming that activity of PLL was not compromised by the presence of Dox and folic acid. The ex vivo investigations with human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 showed enhanced cytotoxicity of Dox-FPLL with significantly enhanced intracellular uptake (p<0.001). The in vivo therapeutic potential of nanoconjugate was determined in MCF-7 breast cancer xenograft model in tumor-bearing mice. Dox-FPLL increased the concentration of Dox in tumor by 121.5-fold after 24 h in comparison with free Dox formulation. The folate conjugated dendrimeric Dox showed superior anti-tumor activity in tumor xenograft model with significantly prolonged survival determined by Kaplan Meier survival analysis (p<0.001).

  6. Compilation of a standardised international folate database for EPIC.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Geneviève; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Vignat, Jérôme; Knaze, Viktoria; Huybrechts, Inge; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for compiling an "international end-user" folate database. This work benefits from the unique dataset offered by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) (N=520,000 subjects in 23 centres). Compilation was done in four steps: (1) identify folate-free foods then find folate values for (2) folate-rich foods common across EPIC countries, (3) the remaining "common" foods, and (4) "country-specific" foods. Compiled folate values were concurrently standardised in terms of unit, mode of expression and chemical analysis, using information in national food composition tables (FCT). 43-70% total folate values were documented as measured by microbiological assay. Foods reported in EPIC were either matched directly to FCT foods, treated as recipes or weighted averages. This work has produced the first standardised folate dataset in Europe, which was used to calculate folate intakes in EPIC; a prerequisite to study the relation between folate intake and diseases.

  7. Hereditary folate malabsorption with extensive intracranial calcification.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ikhlas; Mukhtar, Gousia; Iqbal, Javed; Ali, Syed Wajid

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a common accompaniment of cerebral palsy, mental retardation and neurodegenerative disorders. A 4-year-old boy with chronic megaloblastic anemia, global developmental delay, seizures, intracranial calcification and new onset neuro-regression. A diagnosis of hereditary folate malabsorption was made, and he was put on oral and injectable folinic acid. Marked improvement at 6 month follow up. Hereditary folate malabsorption should be suspected in any child having megaloblastic anemia and neuro degeneration disorder.

  8. Folate appended cyclodextrins for drug, DNA, and siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Ceborska, Magdalena

    2017-09-09

    Drug, DNA, and siRNA delivery systems based on cyclodextrin (CD) core and connected with folate (FA) via various linkers are presented. They include simple mono-derivatized cyclodextrins as well as cyclodextrins with higher degree of substitution, both in their primary and secondary sides. Examples of simple polymers and dendrimers are also discussed. Such carriers possess properties inherent to both of their components. Cyclodextrin provides the ability to encapsulate organic molecules in its inner cavity, thus improving their solubility in water, bioavailability, and stability, while FA assures targeting folate receptor overexpressing cancer cells. Drug delivery systems loaded with drugs such as e.g. methotrexate, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, vinblastine, and docetaxel were found to have superior properties as compared to the free drug. Dendritic folate appended cyclodextrins were also found to be good sustained release systems for DNA and siRNA. The recent progress in the synthesis and drug, DNA, and siRNA delivery application of folate appended cyclodextrins is presented. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Elevated Homocysteine Level and Folate Deficiency Associated with Increased Overall Risk of Carcinogenesis: Meta-Analysis of 83 Case-Control Studies Involving 35,758 Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Guo, Ye; Cui, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Results of the association of folate metabolism and carcinogenesis are conflicting. We performed a meta-analysis to examine the effect of the interaction of serum concentration of homocysteine (Hcy), folate, and vitamin B12 and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphism on risk of cancer overall. Method Two reviewers independently searched for all published studies of Hcy and cancer in PubMed, EMBASE-MEDLINE and Chinese databases. Pooled results were reported as odds ratios (ORs) and mean differences and presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and 2-sided probability values. Results We identified 83 eligible studies of 15,046 cases and 20,712 controls. High level of Hcy but low level of folate was associated with risk of cancer overall, with little effect by type of cancer or ethnicity. Vitamin B12 level was inversely associated with only urinary-system and gastrointestinal carcinomas and for Asian and Middle Eastern patients. As well, MTHFR C677T, A1298C and G1793A polymorphisms were related to elevated serum level of Hcy, and folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. However, only MTHFR C677T homogeneity/wild-type (TT/CC) polymorphism was positively associated with overall risk of cancer. Conclusion Elevated serum Hcy level and folate deficiency are associated with increased overall risk of cancer. PMID:25985325

  10. Pancreatic cancer-associated gene polymorphisms in a nation-wide cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers; a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Potjer, Thomas P; van der Stoep, Nienke; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; Konings, Ingrid C A W; Aalfs, Cora M; van den Akker, Peter C; Ausems, Margreet G; Dommering, Charlotte J; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Maiburg, Merel C; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Wagner, Anja; Vasen, Hans F A; Hes, Frederik J

    2015-06-26

    The p16-Leiden founder mutation in the CDKN2A gene is the most common cause of Familial Atypical Multiple Mole Melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome in the Netherlands. Individuals with this mutation are at increased risk for developing melanoma of the skin, as well as pancreatic cancer. However, there is a notable interfamilial variability in the occurrence of pancreatic cancer among p16-Leiden families. We aimed to test whether previously identified genetic risk factors for pancreatic cancer modify the risk for pancreatic cancer in p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers. Seven pancreatic cancer-associated SNPs were selected from the literature and were genotyped in a cohort of 185 p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers from 88 families, including 50 cases (median age 55 years) with pancreatic cancer and 135 controls (median age 64 years) without pancreatic cancer. Allelic odds ratios per SNP were calculated. No significant association with pancreatic cancer was found for any of the seven SNPs. Since genetic modifiers for developing melanoma have already been identified in CDKN2A mutation carriers, this study does not exclude that genetic modifiers do not play a role in the individual pancreatic cancer risk in this cohort of p16-Leiden germline mutation carriers. The search for these modifiers should therefore continue, because they can potentially facilitate more targeted pancreatic surveillance programs.

  11. Immobilized purified folate-binding protein: binding characteristics and use for quantifying folate in erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.I.; Holm, J.; Nexo, E.

    1987-08-01

    Purified folate-binding protein from cow's milk was immobilized on monodisperse polymer particles (Dynospheres) activated by rho-toluenesulfonyl chloride. Leakage from the spheres was less than 0.1%, and the binding properties were similar to those of the soluble protein with regard to dissociation, pH optimum for binding pteroylglutamic acid, and specificity for binding various folate derivatives. We used the immobilized folate-binding protein as binding protein in an isotope-dilution assay for quantifying folate in erythrocytes. The detection limit was 50 nmol/L and the CV over a six-month period was 2.3% (means = 1.25 mumol/L, n = 15). The reference interval, for folate measured in erythrocytes of 43 blood donors, was 0.4-1.5 mumol/L.

  12. Effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on hyperhomocysteinemia in levodopa-treated Parkinsonian patients.

    PubMed

    Caccamo, D; Gorgone, G; Currò, M; Parisi, G; Di Iorio, W; Menichetti, C; Belcastro, V; Parnetti, L; Rossi, A; Pisani, F; Ientile, R; Calabresi, P

    2007-01-01

    High plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with levodopa. In this study, we investigated the effects of C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms, in association with L-DOPA daily dose and vitamin status, on hyperhomocysteinemia development in PD patients. Plasma homocysteine and folate/vitamin B12 levels were assayed in 49 L-DOPA-treated PD patients, and compared with those of 86 healthy subjects. Genotyping for MTHFR polymorphisms was carried out by DG-DGGE. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients than in controls (16.3 +/- 5.7 vs. 11.7 +/- 2.7 micromol/l, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between patients and controls with regard to folate/vitamin B12 levels, and MTHFR allele distribution. The TT+AA genotype was significantly more frequent in PD patients than in controls (32.5% vs. 17.4%, P < 0.05), but not associated with an increased risk for PD (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.0-5.2). Further, patients carrier of this genotype exhibited a mild hyperhomocysteinemia (22.1 +/- 4.9 micromol/l), while a protective effect was observed in patients having the CC+AA genotype (11.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/l; OR = 0.19, CI = 0.06-0.59). Interestingly, homocysteine levels were also moderately increased in patients with CT heterozygous genotype, in the context of either AA or AC (14.5 +/- 3.6 micromol/l), in comparison to subjects with the CC + AA genotype. Finally, we did not find any significant association of combined C677T and A1298C MTHFR polymorphisms with an increased risk for hyperhomocysteinemia in PD patients. A better understanding of the role of homocysteine and MTHFR genotypes in PD is needed to reveal novel approaches for disease management.

  13. Exogenous folates stimulate growth and budding of Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Porzoor, Afsaneh; Macreadie, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Folate, vitamin B9, is well recognized as being essential for cell growth. The utilization of folate is common to all cells, but the source of it may be quite different. For example, mammalian cells depend on exogenous uptake of folates, while plants and microbes can synthesize them. There has been little consideration of uptake of folate in microbial cells, and studies on the effects of folates in mammalian cells, where conditions are restricted. This study shows that exogenous folates (folic acid or folinic acid), causes Candida glabrata cells suspended in water alone to undergo two cycles of cell division and to form multiple buds. The effect was limited to cells in the stationary phase and more profound in quiescent cells. These data indicate a novel response of yeast to folates that may increase the utility of yeast as a model to study folate transport and signaling. PMID:28357288

  14. Is Increased Susceptibility to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy in Carriers of Common GSTA1 (*A/*B) Polymorphism Linked with the Catalytic Role of GSTA1 in Ochratoxin A Biotransformation? Serbian Case Control Study and In Silico Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Reljic, Zorica; Zlatovic, Mario; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Matic, Marija; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Mimic-Oka, Jasmina; Opsenica, Dejan; Simic, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Although recent data suggest aristolochic acid as a putative cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), evidence also exists in favor of ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure as risk factor for the disease. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the glutathione transferases (GSTs), in OTA biotransformation is based on OTA glutathione adducts (OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG) in blood and urine of BEN patients. We aimed to analyze the association between common GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were determined in 207 BEN patients and 138 non-BEN healthy individuals from endemic regions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular modeling in silico was performed for GSTA1 protein. Among the GST polymorphisms tested, only GSTA1 was significantly associated with a higher risk of BEN. Namely, carriers of the GSTA1*B gene variant, associated with lower transcriptional activation, were at a 1.6-fold higher BEN risk than those carrying the homozygous GSTA1*A/*A genotype (OR = 1.6; p = 0.037). In in silico modeling, we found four structures, two OTB-SG and two OTHQ-SG, bound in a GSTA1 monomer. We found that GSTA1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of BEN, and suggested, according to the in silico simulation, that GSTA1-1 might be involved in catalyzing the formation of OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG conjugates. PMID:25111321

  15. Is increased susceptibility to Balkan endemic nephropathy in carriers of common GSTA1 (*A/*B) polymorphism linked with the catalytic role of GSTA1 in ochratoxin a biotransformation? Serbian case control study and in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Reljic, Zorica; Zlatovic, Mario; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Matic, Marija; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Mimic-Oka, Jasmina; Opsenica, Dejan; Simic, Tatjana

    2014-08-08

    Although recent data suggest aristolochic acid as a putative cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), evidence also exists in favor of ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure as risk factor for the disease. The potential role of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, such as the glutathione transferases (GSTs), in OTA biotransformation is based on OTA glutathione adducts (OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG) in blood and urine of BEN patients. We aimed to analyze the association between common GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms and BEN susceptibility, and thereafter performed an in silico simulation of particular GST enzymes potentially involved in OTA transformations. GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 genotypes were determined in 207 BEN patients and 138 non-BEN healthy individuals from endemic regions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular modeling in silico was performed for GSTA1 protein. Among the GST polymorphisms tested, only GSTA1 was significantly associated with a higher risk of BEN. Namely, carriers of the GSTA1*B gene variant, associated with lower transcriptional activation, were at a 1.6-fold higher BEN risk than those carrying the homozygous GSTA1*A/*A genotype (OR = 1.6; p = 0.037). In in silico modeling, we found four structures, two OTB-SG and two OTHQ-SG, bound in a GSTA1 monomer. We found that GSTA1 polymorphism was associated with increased risk of BEN, and suggested, according to the in silico simulation, that GSTA1-1 might be involved in catalyzing the formation of OTHQ-SG and OTB-SG conjugates.

  16. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) gene and their association with infection by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Larrañaga, O; Garrido, J M; Manzano, C; Iriondo, M; Molina, E; Gil, A; Koets, A P; Rutten, V P M G; Juste, R A; Estonba, A

    2010-04-01

    Johne's disease is a chronic enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) that causes substantial financial losses for the cattle industry. Susceptibility to MAP infection is reported to be determined in part by genetic factors, so marker-assisted selection could help to obtain bovine populations that are increasingly resistant to MAP infection. Solute carrier family 11 member 1 (SLC11A1) was adjudged to be a potential candidate gene because of its role in innate immunity, its involvement in susceptibility to numerous intracellular infections, and its previous association with bovine MAP infection. The objectives of this study were to carry out an exhaustive process of discovery and compilation of polymorphisms in SLC11A1 gene, and to perform a population-based genetic association study to test its implication in susceptibility to MAP infection in cattle. In all, 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were detected, 25 of which are newly described in Bos taurus. Twenty-four SNP and two 3'-untranslated region polymorphisms, previously analyzed, were selected for a subsequent association study in 558 European Holstein-Friesian animals. The SNP c.1067C>G and c.1157-91A>T and a haplotype formed by these 2 SNP yielded significant association with susceptibility to MAP infection. The c.1067C>G is a nonsynonymous SNP that causes an amino acid change in codon 356 from proline to alanine (P356A) that could alter SLC11A1 protein function. This association study supports the involvement of SLC11A1 gene in susceptibility to MAP infection in cattle. Our results suggest that SNP c.1067C>G may be a potential causal variant, although functional studies are needed to assure this point.

  17. Genes involved with folate uptake and distribution and their association with colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Jane C.; Levine, A. Joan; Lee, Won H.; Conti, David V.; Poynter, Jenny N.; Campbell, Peter T.; Duggan, David; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Martinez, Maria Elena; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Newcomb, Polly; Potter, John; Limburg, Paul J.; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Baron, John A.; Haile, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Folate status is an important predictor of colorectal cancer risk. Common genetic variants in genes involved in regulating cellular folate levels might also predict risk, but there are limited data on this issue. We conducted a family-based case-control association study of variants in four genes involved in folate uptake and distribution: FOLR1, FPGS, GGH, and SLC19A1, using 1,750 population-based and 245 clinic-based cases of pathologically-confirmed colorectal cancer and their unaffected relatives participating in the Colon Cancer Family Registries. Standardized questionnaires, administered to all participants, collected information on risk factors and diet. Standard molecular techniques were used to determine microsatellite instability (MSI) status on cases. tagSNPs (n=29) were selected based on coverage as assessed by pairwise r2. We found no evidence that tagSNPs in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer. For the SLC19A1- rs1051266 (G80A, Arg27His) missense polymorphism, the A/A genotype was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer using population-based (OR=1.00; 95% CI=0.81–1.23) or clinic-based (OR=0.75; 95% CI=0.44–1.29) families compared to the G/A and G/G genotypes. We found no evidence that the association between any tagSNP and CRC risk was modified by multivitamin use, folic acid use and dietary folate intake and total folate intake. The odds ratios were similar, irrespective of MSI status, tumor subsite and family history of colorectal cancer. In conclusion, we found no significant evidence that genetic variants in FOLR1, GGH, FPGS and SLC19A1 are associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:20037791

  18. Folate receptors and neural tube closure.

    PubMed

    Saitsu, Hirotomo

    2017-02-28

    Neural tube defects (NTD) are among the most common human congenital malformations, affecting 0.5-8/1000 of live births. Human clinical trials have shown that periconceptional folate supplementation significantly decreases the occurrence of NTD in offspring. However, the mechanism by which folate acts on NTD remains largely unknown. Folate receptor (Folr) is one of the three membrane proteins that mediate cellular uptake of folates. Recent studies suggest that mouse Folr1 (formerly referred to as Fbp1) is essential for neural tube closure. Therefore, we examined spatial and temporal expression patterns of Folr1 in developing mouse embryos, showing a close association between Folr1 and anterior neural tube closure. Transient transgenic analysis was performed using lacZ as a reporter; we identified a 1.1-kb enhancer that directs lacZ expression in the neural tube and optic vesicle in a manner that is similar to endogenous Folr1. The 1.1-kb enhancer sequences were highly conserved between humans and mice, suggesting that human FOLR1 is associated with anterior neural tube closure in humans. Several experimental studies in mice and human epidemiological and genetics studies have suggested that folate receptor abnormalities are involved in a portion of human NTDs, although the solo defect of FOLR1 did not cause NTD.

  19. Diagnosis and management of cerebral folate deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Baradie, Raidah S.; Chudary, Mohammed W.

    2014-01-01

    Folinic acid-responsive seizures (FARS) are a rare treatable cause of neonatal epilepsy. They have characteristic peaks on CSF monoamine metabolite analysis, and have mutations in the ALDH7A1 gene, characteristically found in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. There are case reports of patients presenting with seizures at a later age, and with folate deficiency due to different mechanisms with variable response to folinic acid supplementation. Here, we report 2 siblings who presented with global developmental delay and intractable seizures who responded clinically to folinic acid therapy. Their work-up included metabolic and genetic testing. The DNA sequencing was carried out for the ALDH7A1 gene, and the folate receptor 1 (FOLR1) gene. They had very low 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) in CSF with no systemic folate deficiency and no characteristic peaks on neurotransmitter metabolite chromatogram. A novel mutation in the FOLR1 gene was found. The mutation in this gene is shown to affect CSF folate transport leading to cerebral folate deficiency. The response to treatment with folinic acid was dramatic with improvement in social interaction, mobility, and complete seizure control. We should consider the possibility of this treatable condition in appropriate clinical circumstances early, as diagnosis with favorable outcome depends on the specialized tests. PMID:25274592

  20. Folates in Plants: Research Advances and Progress in Crop Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Gorelova, Vera; Ambach, Lars; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway. Unfortunately, the most important staple crops such as rice, potato and maize are rather poor sources of folates. Insufficient folate consumption is known to cause severe developmental disorders in humans. Two approaches are employed to fight folate deficiency: pharmacological supplementation in the form of folate pills and biofortification of staple crops. As the former approach is considered rather costly for the major part of the world population, biofortification of staple crops is viewed as a decent alternative in the struggle against folate deficiency. Therefore, strategies, challenges and recent progress of folate enhancement in plants will be addressed in this review. Apart from the ever-growing need for the enhancement of nutritional quality of crops, the world population faces climate change catastrophes or environmental stresses, such as elevated temperatures, drought, salinity that severely affect growth and productivity of crops. Due to immense diversity of their biochemical functions, folates take part in virtually every aspect of plant physiology. Any disturbance to the plant folate metabolism leads to severe growth inhibition and, as a consequence, to a lower productivity. Whereas today's knowledge of folate biochemistry can be considered very profound, evidence on the physiological roles of folates in plants only starts to emerge. In the current review we will discuss the

  1. Folates in Plants: Research Advances and Progress in Crop Biofortification.

    PubMed

    Gorelova, Vera; Ambach, Lars; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway. Unfortunately, the most important staple crops such as rice, potato and maize are rather poor sources of folates. Insufficient folate consumption is known to cause severe developmental disorders in humans. Two approaches are employed to fight folate deficiency: pharmacological supplementation in the form of folate pills and biofortification of staple crops. As the former approach is considered rather costly for the major part of the world population, biofortification of staple crops is viewed as a decent alternative in the struggle against folate deficiency. Therefore, strategies, challenges and recent progress of folate enhancement in plants will be addressed in this review. Apart from the ever-growing need for the enhancement of nutritional quality of crops, the world population faces climate change catastrophes or environmental stresses, such as elevated temperatures, drought, salinity that severely affect growth and productivity of crops. Due to immense diversity of their biochemical functions, folates take part in virtually every aspect of plant physiology. Any disturbance to the plant folate metabolism leads to severe growth inhibition and, as a consequence, to a lower productivity. Whereas today's knowledge of folate biochemistry can be considered very profound, evidence on the physiological roles of folates in plants only starts to emerge. In the current review we will discuss the

  2. Folates in plants: research advances and progress in crop biofortification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelova, Vera; Ambach, Lars; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-03-01

    Folates, also known as B9 vitamins, serve as donors and acceptors in one-carbon (C1) transfer reactions. The latter are involved in synthesis of many important biomolecules, such as amino acids, nucleic acids and vitamin B5. Folates also play a central role in the methyl cycle that provides one-carbon groups for methylation reactions. The important functions fulfilled by folates make them essential in all living organisms. Plants, being able to synthesize folates de novo, serve as an excellent dietary source of folates for animals that lack the respective biosynthetic pathway. Unfortunately, the most important staple crops such as rice, potato and maize are rather poor sources of folates. Insufficient folate consumption is known to cause severe developmental disorders in humans. Two approaches are employed to fight folate deficiency: pharmacological supplementation in the form of folate pills and biofortification of staple crops. As the former approach is considered rather costly for the major part of the world population, biofortification of staple crops is viewed as a decent alternative in the struggle against folate deficiency. Therefore strategies, challenges and recent progress of folate enhancement in plants will be addressed in this review. Apart from the ever-growing need for the enhancement of nutritional quality of crops, the world population faces climate change catastrophes or environmental stresses, such as elevated temperatures, drought, salinity that severely affect growth and productivity of crops. Due to immense diversity of their biochemical functions, folates take part in virtually every aspect of plant physiology. Any disturbance to the plant folate metabolism leads to severe growth inhibition and, as a consequence, to a lower productivity. Whereas today’s knowledge of folate biochemistry can be considered very profound, evidence on the physiological roles of folates in plants only starts to emerge. In the current review we will discuss the

  3. Association between dietary intake of folate and MTHFR and MTR genotype with risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    He, J M; Pu, Y D; Wu, Y J; Qin, R; Zhang, Q J; Sun, Y S; Zheng, W W; Chen, L P

    2014-10-31

    We investigated the association between dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype with breast cancer. A matched case-control study was conducted, and 413 patients with newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed breast cancer and 436 controls were recruited. Folate intake, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 levels were calculated, and the MTHFR C677T and A1298C and MTR A2756G polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Breast cancer cases were generally older, older at first live birth, and younger at menarche, had a higher body mass index, were smokers, had higher energy intake, and more first-degree relatives with breast cancer as well as more live births compared to controls. With respect to energy intake, we found that higher energy intake were more likely to increase the risk of breast cancer. The MTHFR 667TT genotype was associated with a moderately increased risk of breast cancer when compared with the CC genotype, and a significant odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval, CI) was found (OR = 1.70, 95%CI = 1.06-2.73). Individuals carrying T allele were associated with higher risk of breast cancer when compared with C allele (OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.06-1.70). We did not find a significant effect of the MTHFR A1298C and MTR A2756G on the risk of breast cancer. We did not find any association between folate intake and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms. In conclusion, we found that the MTHFR C667T polymorphism is associated with the risk of breast cancer, indicating that this genotype plays a role in breast cancer development.

  4. High circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations in women during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in their offspring.

    PubMed

    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A; de Jongste, Johan C; Moll, Henriette A

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that in utero exposure of methyl donors influences programming of the fetal immune system in favor of development of allergic disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, folic acid supplementation, and circulating folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations during pregnancy were associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis in offspring. The study was a population-based birth cohort from fetal life until 48 mo (n = 8742). The use of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy was assessed by questionnaire. Plasma folate and serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and the MTHFR C677T polymorphism were available from blood collected in early pregnancy. Atopic dermatitis, wheezing, and shortness of breath in the offspring were assessed by parental-derived questionnaires at 12, 24, 36, and 48 mo. Maternal folate >16.2 nmol/L and vitamin B-12 >178 pmol/L were positively associated with the development of atopic dermatitis [adjusted OR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05-1.33) and adjusted OR: 1.30 (95% CI: 1.06-1.60) for the highest quartiles of folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations, respectively] but not with wheezing and shortness of breath. Maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism and folic acid supplementation were not associated with wheezing, shortness of breath, and atopic dermatitis. No interactions were found by age, family history of atopy, folic acid supplementation, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, or maternal smoking (P-interaction > 0.10). High folate and vitamin B-12 levels during pregnancy are associated with increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis in the offspring. Potential risks of high folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations on allergic outcomes should be evaluated when discussing mandatory fortification programs.

  5. Quantitative description of the interaction between folate and the folate-binding protein from cow's milk

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    A detailed study has been carried out on the dependence of folate binding on the concentration of FBP (folate-binding protein) at pH 5.0, conditions selected to prevent complications arising from the pre-existing self-association of the acceptor. In contrast with the mandatory requirement that reversible interaction of ligand with a single acceptor site should exhibit a unique, rectangular hyperbolic binding curve, results obtained by ultrafiltration for the FBP–folate system required description in terms of (i) a sigmoidal relationship between concentrations of bound and free folate and (ii) an inverse dependence of affinity on FBP concentration. These findings have been attributed to the difficulties in determining the free ligand concentration in the FBP–folate mixtures for which reaction is essentially stoichiometric. This explanation also accounts for the similar published behaviour of the FBP–folate system at neutral pH, which had been attributed erroneously to acceptor self-association, a phenomenon incompatible with the experimental findings because of its prediction of a greater affinity for folate with increasing FBP concentration. PMID:15142039

  6. Cobalamin and folate evaluation: measurement of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine vs vitamin B(12) and folate.

    PubMed

    Klee, G G

    2000-08-01

    Vitamin B(12) and folate are two vitamins that have interdependent roles in nucleic acid synthesis. Deficiencies of either vitamin can cause megaloblastic anemia; however, inappropriate treatment of B(12) deficiency with folate can cause irreversible nerve degeneration. Inadequate folate nutrition during early pregnancy can cause neural tube defects in the developing fetus. In addition, folate and vitamin B(12) deficiency and the compensatory increase in homocysteine are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory support for the diagnosis and management of these multiple clinical entities is controversial and somewhat problematic. Automated ligand binding measurements of vitamin B(12) and folate are easiest to perform and widely used. Unfortunately, these tests are not the most sensitive indicators of disease. Measurement of red cell folate is less dependent on dietary fluctuations, but these measurements may not be reliable. Homocysteine and methylmalonic acid are better metabolic indicators of deficiencies at the tissue level. There are no "gold standards" for the diagnosis of these disorders, and controversy exists regarding the best diagnostic approach. Healthcare strategies that consider the impact of laboratory tests on the overall costs and quality of care should consider the advantages of including methylmalonic acid and homocysteine in the early evaluation of patients with suspected deficiencies of vitamin B(12) and folate.

  7. Folate Metabolism and the Risk of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, David

    2008-01-01

    Folate is an important vitamin that contributes to cell division and growth and is therefore of particular importance during infancy and pregnancy. Folate deficiency has been associated with slowed growth, anaemia, weight loss, digestive disorders and some behavioural issues. Adequate folate intake around the time of conception and early pregnancy…

  8. Folate Metabolism and the Risk of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, David

    2008-01-01

    Folate is an important vitamin that contributes to cell division and growth and is therefore of particular importance during infancy and pregnancy. Folate deficiency has been associated with slowed growth, anaemia, weight loss, digestive disorders and some behavioural issues. Adequate folate intake around the time of conception and early pregnancy…

  9. Vitamin D, folate, and potential early lifecycle environmental origin of significant adult phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lucock, Mark; Yates, Zoë; Martin, Charlotte; Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Boyd, Lyndell; Tang, Sa; Naumovski, Nenad; Furst, John; Roach, Paul; Jablonski, Nina; Chaplin, George; Veysey, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Vitamin D and folate are highly UV sensitive, and critical for maintaining health throughout the lifecycle. This study examines whether solar irradiance during the first trimester of pregnancy influences vitamin D receptor (VDR) and nuclear folate gene variant occurrence, and whether affected genes influence late-life biochemical/clinical phenotypes. Methodology: 228 subjects were examined for periconceptional exposure to solar irradiance, variation in vitamin D/folate genes (polymerase chain reaction (PCR)), dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)) and important adult biochemical/clinical phenotypes. Results: Periconceptional solar irradiance was associated with VDR-BsmI (P = 0.0008wk7), TaqI (P = 0.0014wk7) and EcoRV (P = 0.0030wk6) variant occurrence between post-conceptional weeks 6–8, a period when ossification begins. Similar effects were detected for other VDR gene polymorphisms. Periconceptional solar irradiance was also associated with 19 bp del-DHFR (P = 0.0025wk6), and to a lesser extent C1420T-SHMT (P = 0.0249wk6), a folate-critical time during embryogenesis. These same genes were associated with several late-life phenotypes: VDR-BsmI, TaqI and ApaI determined the relationship between dietary vitamin D and both insulin (P < 0.0001/BB, 0.0007/tt and 0.0173/AA, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (P = 0.0290/Bb, 0.0299/Tt and 0.0412/AA, respectively), making them important early and late in the lifecycle. While these and other phenotype associations were found for the VDR variants, folate polymorphism associations in later-life were limited to C1420T-SHMT (P = 0.0037 and 0.0297 for fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, respectively). We additionally report nutrient–gene relationships with body mass index, thiol/folate metabolome, cognition, depression and hypertension. Furthermore, photoperiod at conception influenced occurrence of VDR-Tru9I and 2R3R-TS genotypes (P = 0.0120 and 0.0360, respectively

  10. Affinity labeling of the folate-methotrexate transporter from Leishmania donovani

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.T.; Ullman, B. )

    1989-08-22

    An affinity labeling technique has been developed to identify the folate-methotrexate transporter of Leishmania donovani promastigotes using activated derivatives of the ligands. These activated derivatives were synthesized by incubating folate and methotrexate with a 10-fold excess of 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) for 10 min at ambient temperature in dimethyl sulfoxide. When intact wild-type (DI700) Leishmania donovani or preparations of their membranes were incubated with a 0.4 {mu}M concentration of either activated ({sup 3}H)folate or activated ({sup 3}H)methotrexate, the radiolabeled ligands were covalently incorporated into a polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 46,000, as demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. No affinity labeling of a 46,000-dalton protein was observed when equimolar concentrations of activated radiolabeled ligands were incubated with intact cells or membranes prepared from a methotrexate-resistant mutant clone of Leishmania donovani, MTXA5, that is genetically defective in folate-methotrexate transport capability. Time course studies indicated that maximal labeling of the 46,000-dalton protein occurred within 5-10 min of incubation of intact cells with activated ligand. These studies provide biochemical evidence that the folate-methotrexate transporter of Leishmania donovani can be identified in crude extracts by an affinity labeling technique and serve as a prerequisite to further analysis of the transport protein by providing a vehicle for subsequent purification of this membrane carrier. Moreover, these investigations suggest that the affinity labeling technique using EDC-activated ligands may be exploitable to analyze other cell surface binding proteins in Leishmania donovani, as well as in other organisms.

  11. Folic acid mediates activation of the pro-oncogene STAT3 via the Folate Receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mariann F; Greibe, Eva; Skovbjerg, Signe; Rohde, Sarah; Kristensen, Anders C M; Jensen, Trine R; Stentoft, Charlotte; Kjær, Karina H; Kronborg, Camilla S; Martensen, Pia M

    2015-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-described pro-oncogene found constitutively activated in several cancer types. Folates are B vitamins that, when taken up by cells through the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC), are essential for normal cell growth and replication. Many cancer cells overexpress a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored Folate Receptor α (FRα). The function of FRα in cancer cells is still poorly described, and it has been suggested that transport of folate is not its primary function in these cells. We show here that folic acid and folinic acid can activate STAT3 through FRα in a Janus Kinase (JAK)-dependent manner, and we demonstrate that gp130 functions as a transducing receptor for this signalling. Moreover, folic acid can promote dose dependent cell proliferation in FRα-positive HeLa cells, but not in FRα-negative HEK293 cells. After folic acid treatment of HeLa cells, up-regulation of the STAT3 responsive genes Cyclin A2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were verified by qRT-PCR. The identification of this FRα-STAT3 signal transduction pathway activated by folic and folinic acid contributes to the understanding of the involvement of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects as well as in tumour growth. Previously, the role of folates in these diseases has been attributed to their roles as one-carbon unit donors following endocytosis into the cell. Our finding that folic acid can activate STAT3 via FRα adds complexity to the established roles of B9 vitamins in cancer and neural tube defects.

  12. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and SE(β) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

  13. Neuronal injury: folate to the rescue?

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, Golo; Endres, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence indicates that derangement of single-carbon metabolism has detrimental effects for proper CNS functioning. Conversely, a role for folate supplementation in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders remains to be established. In this issue of the JCI, in an elegant series of experiments in rodents, Iskandar and colleagues demonstrate a crucial role of folate in the regeneration of afferent spinal neurons after injury. Probing sequential steps in folate metabolism, from cellular entry to DNA methylation, the authors show that axonal regeneration relies upon the integrity of DNA methylation pathways. These findings provide the first demonstration of an epigenetic mechanism contributing to neurorepair and suggest that manipulation of the methylation milieu may offer promising new therapeutic avenues to promote regeneration. PMID:20424316

  14. Neuronal injury: folate to the rescue?

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Golo; Endres, Matthias

    2010-05-01

    Strong epidemiological evidence indicates that derangement of single-carbon metabolism has detrimental effects for proper CNS functioning. Conversely, a role for folate supplementation in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders remains to be established. In this issue of the JCI, in an elegant series of experiments in rodents, Iskandar and colleagues demonstrate a crucial role of folate in the regeneration of afferent spinal neurons after injury. Probing sequential steps in folate metabolism, from cellular entry to DNA methylation, the authors show that axonal regeneration relies upon the integrity of DNA methylation pathways. These findings provide the first demonstration of an epigenetic mechanism contributing to neurorepair and suggest that manipulation of the methylation milieu may offer promising new therapeutic avenues to promote regeneration.

  15. 6-Substituted Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine Thienoyl Regioisomers as Targeted Antifolates for Folate Receptor α and the Proton-Coupled Folate Transporter in Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wallace, Adrianne; Raghavan, Sudhir; Deis, Siobhan M.; Wilson, Mike R.; Yang, Si; Polin, Lisa; White, Kathryn; Kushner, Juiwanna; Orr, Steven; George, Christina; O’Connor, Carrie; Hou, Zhanjun; Mitchell-Ryan, Shermaine; Dann, Charles E.; Matherly, Larry H.; Gangjee, Aleem

    2016-01-01

    2-Amino-4-oxo-6-substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine antifolate thiophene regioisomers of AGF94 (4) with a thienoyl side chain and three-carbon bridge lengths [AGF150 (5) and AGF154 (7)] were synthesized as potential antitumor agents. These analogues inhibited proliferation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) sublines expressing folate receptors (FRs) α or β (IC50s < 1 nM) or the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) (IC50 < 7 nM). Compounds 5 and 7 inhibited KB, IGROV1, and SKOV3 human tumor cells at subnanomolar concentrations, reflecting both FRα and PCFT uptake. AGF152 (6) and AGF163 (8), 2,4-diamino-5-substituted-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thiophene regioisomers, also inhibited growth of FR-expressing CHO and KB cells. All four analogues inhibited glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFTase). Crystal structures of human GARFTase complexed with 5 and 7 were reported. In severe combined immunodeficient mice bearing SKOV3 tumors, 7 was efficacious. The selectivity of these compounds for PCFT and for FRα and β over the ubiquitously expressed reduced folate carrier is a paradigm for selective tumor targeting. PMID:26317331

  16. EFFECT OF VARYING MATERNAL FOLATE STATUS AND DIETARY FOLATE INTAKE ON RESPONSE TO DIVERSE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periconceptional and early pregnancy folate supplements are associated with reduced recurrence and occurrence of birth defects in humans. This study was undertaken to assess the influence of maternal folate status and dietary folate intake on outcome of exposures to diverse terat...

  17. EFFECT OF VARYING MATERNAL FOLATE STATUS AND DIETARY FOLATE INTAKE ON RESPONSE TO DIVERSE DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICANTS IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periconceptional and early pregnancy folate supplements are associated with reduced recurrence and occurrence of birth defects in humans. This study was undertaken to assess the influence of maternal folate status and dietary folate intake on outcome of exposures to diverse terat...

  18. Folate-conjugated β-cyclodextrin from click chemistry strategy and for tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaihong; Cai, Zhaosheng; Sun, Yu; Yu, Fei; Chen, Yaoqiang; Sun, Baiwang

    2012-09-01

    To enhance site-specific intracellular delivery against the folate receptor, a drug carrier was designed and synthesized by bioconjugation of folic acid (FA) to β-cyclodextrins (β-CD) through a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) spacer from "click chemistry" strategy. The resulted conjugates were confirmed by (1)H NMR and IR spectroscopy. Host-guest interactions between hydrophobic drug and β-CD are capable of entrapping a hydrophobic drug, like 5-Fluorouracil, to form drug-β-CD-PEG-FA nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution. The morphology and size of β-CD-PEG-FA NPs were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The targeting ability of the β-CD-PEG-FA NPs was investigated against two kinds of cell lines (HeLa and A549), which have different amounts of folate receptors on their surface. Confocal image analysis revealed that β-CD-PEG-FA conjugate-assembled nanoparticles exhibited a greater extent of cellular uptake against HeLa cells than A549 cells. This suggests folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis can affect the cellular uptake efficiency of drug-loaded β-CD-PEG-FA NPs. The β-CD-PEG-FA conjugates that are presented may be promising active tumor-targeting carrier candidates via folate mediation.

  19. The association of folate and depression: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bender, Ansley; Hagan, Kelsey E; Kingston, Neal

    2017-07-22

    Previous research suggested that folate levels play an important role in the etiology and course of depression. However, the literature has been inconsistent with regard to differences in folate level between individuals with and without depression. The present meta-analysis synthesized the results of previous studies to examine whether individuals with depression had lower levels of folate than individuals without depression. Meta-analytic procedures were conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Studies evaluating folate levels in individuals with and without depression via red blood cell folate, serum folate, or dietary intake of folate methods were identified via PsycINFO and PubMed. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted using Hedge's g, and moderation analysis was used for both folate measurement method and population type. Study heterogeneity was assessed with I(2) and publication bias was qualitatively assessed via funnel plot and quantitatively assessed with the trim-and-fill method and Begg's adjusted rank test. We found a significant, small effect size, such that individuals with depression had lower folate levels than those without depression, Hedge's g = -0.24 (95% CI = -0.31, -0.16), p < 0.001. Study heterogeneity was high (I(2) = 84.88%), and neither folate measurement method nor population accounted for study heterogeneity. Individuals with depression have lower serum levels of folate and dietary folate intake than individuals without depression. Given that previous literature suggested folate supplementation improved the efficacy of traditional antidepressant medications, future research on folate supplementation in depression is warranted and clinicians may wish to consider folate supplementation for patients with depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving folate (vitamin B9) stability in biofortified rice through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Daele, Jeroen; Strobbe, Simon; Kiekens, Filip; Storozhenko, Sergei; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Lambert, Willy; Stove, Christophe; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Biofortification of staple crops could help to alleviate micronutrient deficiencies in humans. We show that folates in stored rice grains are unstable, which reduces the potential benefits of folate biofortification. We obtain folate concentrations that are up to 150 fold higher than those of wild-type rice by complexing folate to folate-binding proteins to improve folate stability, thereby enabling long-term storage of biofortified high-folate rice grains.

  1. Folates in Asian noodles: III. Fortification, impact of processing, and enhancement of folate intakes.

    PubMed

    Bui, Lan T T; Small, Darryl M

    2007-06-01

    Asian noodles, a widely consumed staple food, were evaluated as potential vehicles for fortification with folic acid. Samples of white salted, yellow alkaline, and instant noodles, prepared under controlled laboratory conditions, were fortified and folates were measured at each stage of processing using a microbiological assay. Although the 3 styles showed differing patterns of retention, overall losses were slightly more than 40% and were similar for all styles. White salted and yellow alkaline noodles showed no significant decrease in total folate content during production. In contrast, significant losses occurred for instant noodles during steaming and deep-frying of the noodle strands. In all cases, substantial losses occurred during subsequent cooking of the dried noodles. Fortification at a rate of 50% of the reference value per serving resulted in retention of folate at levels corresponding to 30% following cooking, whereas unfortified noodles contributed less than 4% per serving. It is concluded that fortifying Asian noodles provides an effective means for enhancing folate intake.

  2. Impact of folate therapy on combined immunodeficiency secondary to hereditary folate malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Kenji; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Sano, Hirozumi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Maruoka, Hayato; Yasuda, Kazue; Chida, Natsuko; Yamada, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Kunihiko

    2014-07-01

    Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Severe folate deficiency in HFM can result in immunodeficiency. We describe a female infant with HFM who acquired severe Pneumocystis pneumonia. The objective of the present study was to elucidate her immunological phenotype and to examine the time course of immune recovery following parenteral folate therapy. The patient demonstrated a combined immunodeficiency with an impaired T cell proliferation response, pan-hypogammaglobulinemia, and an imbalanced pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. She had normal white blood cell count, normal lymphocyte subsets, and normal complement levels. Two novel mutations were identified within the SLC46A1 gene to produce a compound heterozygote. We confirmed full recovery of her immunological and neurophysiological status with parenteral folate replacement. The time course of recovery of her immunological profile varied widely, however. HFM should be recognized as a unique form of immunodeficiency.

  3. Influence of maternal folate status on human fetal growth parameters.

    PubMed

    van Uitert, Evelyne M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide periconceptional folic acid supplement use is recommended to prevent neural tube defects. This also stimulated research on maternal folate status in association with fetal growth, an important predictor of perinatal and future development and health. We provide an overview of literature on associations between maternal folate status during pregnancy determined by folate biomarker concentrations in blood, folic acid supplement use and dietary folate intake, and fetal growth parameters. Literature was searched in PubMed up to November 2011. Some studies suggest inverse associations between serum folate, folic acid supplement use and dietary folate intake and risk of a low birth weight or small for gestational age infant. The strongest evidence, however, revealed positive associations between birth weight and red blood cell folate, folic acid supplement use and dietary folate intake. Red blood cell folate appeared to be most consistently associated with other fetal growth parameters. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the impact of maternal folate status on fetal growth, and subsequently perinatal health and disease risks in later life. Future research is recommended to examine effects of windows, duration and dose of folic acid supplement use and use of folate-rich dietary patterns in different populations on fetal growth parameters. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sunflower Polymers for Folate-Mediated Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christine E; Wei, Hua; Tan, Nicholas; Boydston, Andrew J; Pun, Suzie H

    2016-01-11

    Polymeric delivery vehicles can improve the safety and efficacy of chemotherapy drugs by facilitating preferential tumor delivery. Polymer-drug conjugates are especially attractive carriers because additional formulation steps are not required during manufacturing, and drug release profiles can be altered based on linker choice. For clinical translation, these vehicles should also be reproducibly and controllably synthesized. Recently, we reported the development of a class of materials called "sunflower polymers," synthesized by controlled radical polymerization of hydrophilic "petals" from a cyclic multimacroinitiator "core". This synthesis strategy afforded control over the size of the polymer nanostructures based on their petal polymerization time. In this work, we demonstrate that particle size can be further tuned by varying the degree of polymerization of the cyclic core in addition to that of the petals. Additionally, we investigate the application of these materials for tumor-targeted drug delivery. We demonstrate that folate-targeted, doxorubicin-conjugated sunflower polymers undergo receptor-mediated uptake into cancer cells and pH-triggered drug release leading to cytotoxicity. These materials are attractive as drug carriers due to their discrete and small size, shielded drug cargo that can be triggered for release, and relative ease of synthesis.

  5. Subcellular distribution of folate and folate binding protein in renal proximal tubules

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, C.; Hjelle, J.T.; Selhub, J.

    1986-03-01

    High affinity folate binding protein (FBP) found in brush border membranes derived from renal cortices is thought to be involved in the renal conservation of folate. To examine the mechanisms of folate recovery, the subcellular distribution of FBP and /sup 3/H-folate in rabbit renal proximal tubules (PT) was examined using analytical cell fractionation techniques. Tubules contain 3.41 +/- 0.32 picomoles FBP/mg protein (X +/- S.D.; n = 5). Postnuclear supernates (PNS) of PT were layered atop Percoll-sucrose gradients, centrifuged, fractions collected and assayed for various marker enzymes and FBP. Pooled fractions from such gradients were subsequently treated with digitonin and centrifuged in a stoichiometric manner with the activity of the microvillar enzyme, alanylaminopeptidase (AAP); excess FBP distributed with more buoyant particles. Infusion of /sup 3/H-folate into rabbit kidneys followed by tubule isolation and fractionation revealed a time dependent shift in distribution of radiolabel from the AAP-rich gradient fractions to a region containing more buoyant particles; radiolevel was not associated with lysosomal markers. EM-radioautography revealed grains over intracellular vesicles. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that folate is recovered by a process involving receptor-mediated endocytosis or transcytosis.

  6. Structures of human folate receptors reveal biological trafficking states and diversity in folate and antifolate recognition.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Ardian S; Singh, Mirage; Reeder, Kristen M; Carter, Joshua J; Kovach, Alexander R; Meng, Wuyi; Ratnam, Manohar; Zhang, Faming; Dann, Charles E

    2013-09-17

    Antifolates, folate analogs that inhibit vitamin B9 (folic acid)-using cellular enzymes, have been used over several decades for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Cellular uptake of the antifolates in clinical use occurs primarily via widely expressed facilitative membrane transporters. More recently, human folate receptors (FRs), high affinity receptors that transport folate via endocytosis, have been proposed as targets for the specific delivery of new classes of antifolates or folate conjugates to tumors or sites of inflammation. The development of specific, FR-targeted antifolates would be accelerated if additional biophysical data, particularly structural models of the receptors, were available. Here we describe six distinct crystallographic models that provide insight into biological trafficking of FRs and distinct binding modes of folate and antifolates to these receptors. From comparison of the structures, we delineate discrete structural conformations representative of key stages in the endocytic trafficking of FRs and propose models for pH-dependent conformational changes. Additionally, we describe the molecular details of human FR in complex with three clinically prevalent antifolates, pemetrexed (also Alimta), aminopterin, and methotrexate. On the whole, our data form the basis for rapid design and implementation of unique, FR-targeted, folate-based drugs for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  7. Structures of human folate receptors reveal biological trafficking states and diversity in folate and antifolate recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Ardian S.; Singh, Mirage; Reeder, Kristen M.; Carter, Joshua J.; Kovach, Alexander R.; Meng, Wuyi; Ratnam, Manohar; Zhang, Faming; Dann, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Antifolates, folate analogs that inhibit vitamin B9 (folic acid)-using cellular enzymes, have been used over several decades for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Cellular uptake of the antifolates in clinical use occurs primarily via widely expressed facilitative membrane transporters. More recently, human folate receptors (FRs), high affinity receptors that transport folate via endocytosis, have been proposed as targets for the specific delivery of new classes of antifolates or folate conjugates to tumors or sites of inflammation. The development of specific, FR-targeted antifolates would be accelerated if additional biophysical data, particularly structural models of the receptors, were available. Here we describe six distinct crystallographic models that provide insight into biological trafficking of FRs and distinct binding modes of folate and antifolates to these receptors. From comparison of the structures, we delineate discrete structural conformations representative of key stages in the endocytic trafficking of FRs and propose models for pH-dependent conformational changes. Additionally, we describe the molecular details of human FR in complex with three clinically prevalent antifolates, pemetrexed (also Alimta), aminopterin, and methotrexate. On the whole, our data form the basis for rapid design and implementation of unique, FR-targeted, folate-based drugs for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. PMID:23934049

  8. Association of a miR-34b binding site single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene with susceptibility to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Lin, W-Q; Cao, H-F; Li, C-Y; Li, F

    2015-10-09

    This study aims to explore the possible associations between a genetic variation in the miR-34b binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (rs55763075) with male infertility in a Chinese population. Genotype distributions of the rs55763075 single nucleotide polymorphism were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing in a Chinese cohort that included 464 infertile men with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia and 458 controls with normal fertility. Overall, no significant differences in the distributions of the genotypes of the MTHFR rs55763075 polymorphism were detected between the infertility and control groups. A statistically significant increased risk of male infertility was found for carriers of the rs55763075 AA genotype when compared with homozygous carriers of the rs55763075 GG genotype in the azoospermia subgroup (OR = 1.721; 95% CI = 1.055-2.807; P = 0.031). Furthermore, we found that rs55763075 was associated with folate and homocysteine levels in patients with idiopathic azoospermia. Our results indicated that the MTHFR 3'-UTR rs55763075 polymorphism might modify the susceptibility to male infertility with idiopathic azoospermia.

  9. Iron and Folate-Deficiency Anaemias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercberg, Serge

    1990-01-01

    Nutritional anemia is believed to be the most widespread nutritional disorder in the world. While it generally affects developing countries, developed countries are also affected to an extent sufficient to justify the implementation of preventive measures at a national level. This report focuses on iron and folate deficiencies, which are by far…

  10. Folate, vitamin B12 and human health

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared func...

  11. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  12. Exploring the folate pathway in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Hyde, John E

    2005-06-01

    As in centuries past, the main weapon against human malaria infections continues to be intervention with drugs, despite the widespread and increasing frequency of parasite populations that are resistant to one or more of the available compounds. This is a particular problem with the lethal species of parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, which claims some two million lives per year as well as causing enormous social and economic problems. Amongst the antimalarial drugs currently in clinical use, the antifolates have the best defined molecular targets, namely the enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), which function in the folate metabolic pathway. The products of this pathway, reduced folate cofactors, are essential for DNA synthesis and the metabolism of certain amino acids. Moreover, their formation and interconversions involve a number of other enzymes that have not as yet been exploited as drug targets. Antifolates are of major importance as they currently represent the only inexpensive regime for combating chloroquine-resistant malaria, and are now first-line drugs in a number of African countries. Aspects of our understanding of this pathway and antifolate drug resistance are reviewed here, with a particular emphasis on approaches to analysing the details of, and balance between, folate biosynthesis by the parasite and salvage of pre-formed folate from exogenous sources.

  13. Folate and neurological function: epidemiology perspective

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter reviews and summarizes published literature on the relationship between folate status and Alzheimer’s disease, age-related cognitive impairment, and depression. Much of this research was motivated by the hypothesis that high circulating levels of the sulfur-containing amino acid ho...

  14. Iron and Folate-Deficiency Anaemias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hercberg, Serge

    1990-01-01

    Nutritional anemia is believed to be the most widespread nutritional disorder in the world. While it generally affects developing countries, developed countries are also affected to an extent sufficient to justify the implementation of preventive measures at a national level. This report focuses on iron and folate deficiencies, which are by far…

  15. UK Policy on Folate Fortification of Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency has decided not to recommend fortification of foods with folate, the family of vitamins associated with the prevention of neural tube defects in babies. This is a change in attitude from previous recommendations made by a series of committees and reports in the UK. Notably, it differs from US policy on the matter. The…

  16. Genetic modifiers of folate, vitamin B-12, and homocysteine status in a cross-sectional study of the Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Zinck, John Wr; de Groh, Margaret; MacFarlane, Amanda J

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation can cause variable responses to environmental stimuli. A number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with B vitamin status or chronic diseases related to vitamin B-12 and folate metabolism. Our objective was to identify associations between common SNPs in genes related to folate and vitamin B-12 metabolism or associated with B vitamin-related chronic diseases and biomarkers of nutrient status in a population exposed to folic acid fortification. A panel of 116 SNPs was sequenced by using the Sequenom iPLEX Gold platform in a sample of 3114 adults aged 20-79 y from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, cycle 1. Associations between these SNPs and red blood cell (RBC) folate, serum vitamin B-12, and plasma total homocysteine were determined. Twenty-one SNPs and 6 haplotype blocks were associated with RBC folate, serum vitamin B-12, and/or plasma homocysteine concentrations. Vitamin status was associated mainly with SNPs in genes directly involved in vitamin absorption/uptake (CUBN, CD320), transport (TCN1, TCN2), or metabolism (BHMT2, CBS, MTHFR, MUT, SHMT1). Other SNPs included those in the DNMT2, DPEP1, FUT2, NOX4, and PON1 genes. We identified novel associations between SNPs in CD320 and DNMT2, which had been previously associated with neural tube defects, and vitamin B-12 status, as well as between SNPs in SHMT1, which had been previously associated with colorectal cancer and cardiovascular disease risk, and RBC folate status. These novel associations provide a plausible metabolic rationale for the association of these SNPs with B vitamin-related diseases. We also observed a novel association between an SNP in CUBN with RBC folate and confirmed the association of a number of SNPs with B vitamin status in this large cross-sectional study. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. High Intake of Folate from Food Sources Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Esophageal Cancer in an Australian Population12

    PubMed Central

    Ibiebele, Torukiri I.; Hughes, Maria Celia; Pandeya, Nirmala; Zhao, Zhen; Montgomery, Grant; Hayward, Nick; Green, Adèle C.; Whiteman, David C.; Webb, Penelope M.

    2011-01-01

    Folate plays a key role in DNA synthesis and methylation. Limited evidence suggests high intake may reduce risks of esophageal cancer overall; however, associations with esophageal cancer subtypes and Barrett’s esophagus (BE), a precancerous lesion, remain unexplored. We evaluated the relation between intake of folate, B vitamins, and methyl-group donors (methionine, choline, betaine) from foods and supplements, polymorphisms in key folate-metabolizing genes, and risk of BE, esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in 2 population-based case-control studies in Australia. BE patients without (n = 266) or with (n = 101) dysplasia were compared with population controls (n = 577); similarly, EAC (n = 636) or ESCC (n = 245) patients were compared with population controls (n = 1507) using multivariable adjusted logistic regression. Increasing intake of folate from foods was associated with reduced EAC risk (P-trend = 0.01) and mitigated the increased risks of ESCC associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. In contrast, high intake of folic acid from supplements was associated with a significantly elevated risk of BE with dysplasia. High intakes of riboflavin and methionine from food were associated with increased EAC risk, whereas increasing betaine intake was associated with reduced risks of BE without (P-trend = 0.004) or with dysplasia (P-trend = 0.02). Supplemental thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B-12 were associated with increased EAC risk. There were no consistent associations between genetic polymorphisms studied and BE or EAC risk. High intake of folate-containing foods may reduce risk of EAC, but our data raise the possibility that folic acid supplementation may increase risks of BE with dysplasia and EAC. PMID:21178085

  18. Folate, vitamin B12 and Homocysteine status in the post-folic acid fortification era in different subgroups of the Brazilian population attended to at a public health care center.

    PubMed

    Barnabé, Aline; Aléssio, Ana Cláudia Morandi; Bittar, Luis Fernando; de Moraes Mazetto, Bruna; Bicudo, Angélica M; de Paula, Erich V; Höehr, Nelci Fenalti; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M

    2015-02-19

    Folate and vitamin B12 are essential nutrients, whose deficiencies are considerable public health problems worldwide, affecting all age groups. Low levels of these vitamins have been associated with high concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) and can lead to health complications. Several genetic polymorphisms affect the metabolism of these vitamins. The aims of this study were to assess folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine status in distinct Brazilian individuals after the initiation of folic acid fortification by Brazilian authorities and to investigate the effects of RFC1 A80G, GCPII C1561T and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms on folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy levels in these populations. A total of 719 individuals including the elderly, children, as well as pregnant and lactating women were recruited from our health care center. Folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy levels were measured by conventional methods. Genotype analyses of RFC1 A80G, GCPII C1561T and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms were performed by PCR-RFLP. The overall prevalence of folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies were 0.3% and 4.9%, respectively. Folate deficiency was observed only in the elderly (0.4%) and pregnant women (0.3%), whereas vitamin B12 deficiency was observed mainly in pregnant women (7.9%) and the elderly (4.2%). Plasma Hcy concentrations were significantly higher in the elderly (33.6%). Pregnant women carrying the MTHFR 677TT genotype showed lower serum folate levels (p = 0.042) and higher Hcy levels (p = 0.003). RFC1 A80G and GCPII C1561T polymorphisms did not affect folate and Hcy levels in the study group. After a multivariate analysis, Hcy levels were predicted by variables such as folate, vitamin B12, gender, age and RFC1 A80G polymorphism, according to the groups studied. Our results suggest that folate deficiency is practically nonexistent in the post-folic acid fortification era in the subgroups evaluated. However, screening for vitamin B12 deficiency may be particularly relevant in our

  19. Association of the C47T Polymorphism in SOD2 with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease in Carriers of the APOEε4 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Gamarra, David; Elcoroaristizabal, Xabier; Fernández-Martínez, Manuel; de Pancorbo, Marian M.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important part in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), the prodromal phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence shows that polymorphisms in the SOD2 gene affect the elimination of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in mitochondria. The aim of this study was to determine whether the functional rs4880 SNP in the SOD2 gene is a risk factor associated with aMCI and sporadic AD. 216 subjects with aMCI, 355 with AD, and 245 controls have been studied. The SNP rs4880 of the SOD2 gene was genotyped by RT-PCR and the APOE genotype was determined by PCR and RFLPs. Different multinomial logistic regression models were used to determine the risk levels for aMCI and AD. Although the T allele of the SOD2 rs4880 SNP gene (rs4880-T) is not an independent risk for aMCI or AD, this allele increases the risk to aMCI patients carrying at least one APOEε4 allele. Moreover, rs4880-T allele and APOEε4 allele combination has been found to produce an increased risk for AD compared to aMCI reference patients. These results suggest that APOEε4 and rs4880-T genotype may be a risk for aMCI and a predictor of progression from aMCI to AD. PMID:26696693

  20. The role of macronutrient intake in reducing the risk of obesity and overweight among carriers of different polymorphisms of FTO gene. A review

    PubMed

    Przeliorz-Pyszczek, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bożena

    Obesity is a growing problem worldwide. The risk of the excessive body weight occurrence is a multifactorial issue. Environmental factors, lifestyle habits, diet, physical activity level, as well as genetic predisposition can increase obesity risk. One of the genes studied – the FTO gene - plays a crucial role in obesity occurrence. Individuals who carry risk alleles of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have a greater risk of being overweight. Recent studies revealed that specific macronutrient diet composition can influence differently on the FTO expression. The aim of this article is to review the recent literature on the topic of the FTO gene, its influence on overweight and obesity prevalence and the role of diet in modifying its impact on the risk of the excessive body weight occurrence. There are not many studies focusing on the dietary intervention influence on the FTO gene expression. As far as it has been researched it seems that the proper dietary habits can modify the FTO gene risk allele influence on obesity susceptibility.

  1. Double aneuploidy (48,XXY,+21) of maternal origin in a child born to a 13-year-old mother: evaluation of the maternal folate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Biselli, J M; Machado, F B; Zampieri, B L; Alves da Silva, A F; Goloni-Bertollo, E M; Haddad, R; Eberlin, M N; Vannucchi, H; Carvalho, V M; Medina-Acosta, E; Pavarino-Bertelli, E C

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of non-mosaic double trisomy is exceptional in newborns. In this paper, a 48,XXY,+21 child, the parental origin of the extra chromosomes and the evaluation of the maternal folate metabolism are presented. The infant was born to a 13-year-old mother and presented with the typical clinical features of Down syndrome (DS). The origin of the additional chromosomes was maternal and most likely resulted from errors during the first meiotic division. Molecular analysis of 12 genetic polymorphisms involved in the folate metabolism revealed that the mother is heterozygous for the MTHFR C677T and TC2 A67G polymorphisms, and homozygous for the mutant MTRR A66G polymorphism. The maternal homocysteine concentration was 4.7 miromol/L, a value close to the one considered as a risk factor for DS in our previous study. Plasma methylmalonic acid and serum folate concentrations were 0.17 micromol/L and 18.4 ng/mL, respectively. It is possible that the presence of allelic variants for the folate metabolism and Hey concentration might have favored errors in chromosomal disjunction during gametogenesis in this young mother. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with non-mosaic Down-Klinefelter born to a teenage mother, resulting from a rare fertilization event combining an abnormal 25,XX,+21 oocyte and a 23,Y spermatozoon.

  2. Folate, colorectal cancer and the involvement of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth A

    2012-11-01

    Diet is a major factor in the aetiology of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological evidence suggests that folate confers a modest protection against CRC risk. However, the relationship is complex, and evidence from human intervention trials and animal studies suggests that a high-dose of folic acid supplementation may enhance the risk of colorectal carcinogenesis in certain circumstances. The molecular mechanisms underlying the apparent dual modulatory effect of folate on colorectal carcinogenesis are not fully understood. Folate is central to C1 metabolism and is needed for both DNA synthesis and DNA methylation, providing plausible biological mechanisms through which folate could modulate cancer risk. Aberrant DNA methylation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis and is typically associated with the transcriptional silencing of tumour suppressor genes. Folate is required for the production of S-adenosyl methionine, which serves as a methyl donor for DNA methylation events; thereby folate availability is proposed to modulate DNA methylation status. The evidence for an effect of folate on DNA methylation in the human colon is limited, but a modulation of DNA methylation in response to folate has been demonstrated. More research is required to clarify the optimum intake of folate for CRC prevention and to elucidate the effect of folate availability on DNA methylation and the associated impact on CRC biology.

  3. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphisms and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility: A meta-analysis of case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Shujuan, Yang; Jianxing, Zhang; Xin-yue, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Genetic factors and environmental factors play a role in pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Previous studies regarding the association of folate intake and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism with ESCC was conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association of MTHFR C677T and folate intake with esophageal cancer risk. Methodology: MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Database were searched in our study. The quality of studies were evaluated by predefined scale, and The association of polymorphisms of MTHFR C677T and folate intake and ESCC risk was estimated by Odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Nineteen studies (4239 cases and 5575 controls) were included for meta-analysis. A significant association was seen between individuals with MTHFR 677 CT [OR(95%)=1.47(1.32-1.63)] and TT [OR(95%)=1.69(1.49-1.91)] genotypes and ESCC risk (p<0.05). Low intake of folate had significantly higher risk of esophageal cancer among individuals with CT/TT genotype [OR(95%)=1.65(1.1-2.49)], while high intake of folate did not find significant high risk of esophageal cancer among individuals with CT/TT genotype [OR(95%)=1.64 (0.82-3.26)]. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis indicated the folate intake and MTHFR 677CT/TT are associated with the risk of ESCC, and folate showed a significant interaction with polymorphism of MTHFR C677T. PMID:24353609

  4. Development and preclinical evaluation of new (124)I-folate conjugates for PET imaging of folate receptor-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    AlJammaz, I; Al-Otaibi, B; Al-Rumayan, F; Al-Yanbawi, S; Amer, S; Okarvi, S M

    2014-07-01

    In an attempt to develop new folate radiotracers with favorable biochemical properties for detecting folate receptor-positive cancers, we have synthesized [(124)I]-SIB- and [(124)I]-SIP-folate conjugates using a straightforward and two-step simple reactions. Radiochemical yields for [(124)I]-SIB- and [(124)I]-SIP-folate conjugates were greater than 90 and 60% respectively, with total synthesis time of 30-40min. Radiochemical purities were always greater than 98% without HPLC purification. These synthetic approaches hold considerable promise as rapid and simple method for (124)I-folate conjugate preparation with high radiochemical yield in short synthesis time. In vitro tests on KB cell line showed that the significant amounts of the radioconjugates were associated with cell fractions. In vivo characterization in normal Balb/c mice revealed rapid blood clearance of these radioconjugates and favorable biodistribution profile for [(124)I]-SIP-folate conjugate over [(124)I]-SIB-folate conjugate. Biodistribution studies of [(124)I]-SIP-folate conjugate in nude mice bearing human KB cell line xenografts, demonstrated significant tumor uptake. The uptake in the tumors was blocked by excess injection of folic acid, suggesting a receptor-mediated process. These results demonstrate that [(124)I]-SIP-folate conjugate may be useful as a molecular probe for detecting and staging of folate receptor-positive cancers, such as ovarian cancer and their metastasis as well as monitoring tumor response to treatment.

  5. Folate-related gene variants in Irish families affected by neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Fisk Green, Ridgely; Byrne, Julianne; Crider, Krista S; Gallagher, Margaret; Koontz, Deborah; Berry, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19 bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative ("risk genotypes") and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p = 0.017). We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential epigenetic

  6. Riboflavin status modifies the effects of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) polymorphisms on homocysteine.

    PubMed

    García-Minguillán, Carlos J; Fernandez-Ballart, Joan D; Ceruelo, Santiago; Ríos, Lídia; Bueno, Olalla; Berrocal-Zaragoza, Maria Isabel; Molloy, Anne M; Ueland, Per M; Meyer, Klaus; Murphy, Michelle M

    2014-11-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), riboflavin-dependent enzymes, participate in homocysteine metabolism. Reported effects of riboflavin status on the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and homocysteine vary, and the effects of the MTRR 66A>G or MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on homocysteine are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the effects of the MTHFR 677C>T, MTRR 66A>G and MTRR 524C>T polymorphisms on fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) depend on riboflavin status (erythrocyte glutathionine reductase activation coefficient, optimum: <1.2; marginally deficient: 1.2-1.4; deficient: ≥1.4) in 771 adults aged 18-75 years. MTHFR 677T allele carriers with middle or low tertile plasma folate (<14.7 nmol/L) had 8.2 % higher tHcy compared to the 677CC genotype (p < 0.01). This effect was eliminated when riboflavin status was optimal (p for interaction: 0.048). In the lowest cobalamin quartile (≤273 pmol/L), riboflavin status modifies the relationship between the MTRR 66 A>G polymorphism and tHcy (p for interaction: 0.034). tHcy was 6.6 % higher in MTRR 66G allele carriers compared to the 66AA genotype with marginally deficient or optimal riboflavin status, but there was no difference when riboflavin status was deficient (p for interaction: 0.059). tHcy was 13.7 % higher in MTRR 524T allele carriers compared to the 524CC genotype when cobalamin status was low (p < 0.01), but no difference was observed when we stratified by riboflavin status. The effect of the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism on tHcy depends on riboflavin status, that of the MTRR 66A>G polymorphism on cobalamin and riboflavin status and that of the MTRR 524C>T polymorphism on cobalamin status.

  7. Chronic ethanol perturbs testicular folate metabolism and dietary folate deficiency reduces sex hormone levels in the Yucatan micropig.

    PubMed

    Wallock-Montelius, Lynn M; Villanueva, Jesus A; Chapin, Robert E; Conley, A J; Nguyen, Hung P; Ames, Bruce N; Halsted, Charles H

    2007-03-01

    Although alcoholism causes changes in hepatic folate metabolism that are aggravated by folate deficiency, male reproductive effects have never been studied. We evaluated changes in folate metabolism in the male reproductive system following chronic ethanol consumption and folate deficiency. Twenty-four juvenile micropigs received folate-sufficient (FS) or folate-depleted (FD) diets or the same diets containing 40% of energy as ethanol (FSE or FDE) for 14 wk, and the differences between the groups were determined by ANOVA. Chronic ethanol consumption (FSE and FDE compared with FS and FD groups) reduced testis and epididymis weights, testis sperm concentrations, and total sperm counts and circulating FSH levels. Folate deficiency (FD and FDE compared with FS and FSE groups) reduced circulating testosterone, estradiol and LH levels, and also testicular 17,20-lyase and aromatase activities. There was histological evidence of testicular lesions and incomplete progression of spermatogenesis in all treated groups relative to the FS control, with the FDE group being the most affected. Chronic ethanol consumption increased testis folate concentrations and decreased testis methionine synthase activity, whereas folate deficiency reduced total testis folate levels and increased methionine synthase activity. In all pigs combined, testicular methionine synthase activity was negatively associated with circulating estradiol, LH and FSH, and 17,20-lyase activity after controlling for ethanol, folate deficiency, and their interaction. Thus, while chronic ethanol consumption primarily impairs spermatogenesis, folate deficiency reduces sex hormones, and the two treatments have opposite effects on testicular folate metabolism. Furthermore, methionine synthase may influence the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis.

  8. Folate bioavailability: UK Food Standards Agency workshop report.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Peter; McNulty, Helene; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; McDowell, Ian F W; Melse-Boonstra, Alida; Finglas, Paul M; Gregory, Jess F

    2003-08-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency convened a group of expert scientists to review current research investigating folate bioavailability. The workshop aimed to overview current research and establish priorities for future research. Discrepancies were observed in the evidence base for folate bioavailability, especially with regard to the relative bioavailability of natural folates compared with folic acid. A substantial body of evidence shows folic acid to have superior bioavailability relative to food folates; however, the exact relative bioavailability still needs to be determined, and in particular with regard to mixed diets. The bioavailability of folate in a mixed diet is probably not a weighted average of that in the various foods consumed; thus the workshop considered that assessment of folate bioavailability of whole diets should be a high priority for future research.

  9. Fetal and maternal MTHFR C677T genotype, maternal folate intake and the risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, Cécile; Perret, Claire; Bahuau, Michel; Zhu, Huiping; Nelva, Agnès; Herman, Christine; Francannet, Christine; Robert-Gnansia, Elisabeth; Finnell, Richard H; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2007-02-01

    The association between maternal folate intake and risk of nonsyndromic oral clefts has been studied among many populations with conflicting results. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism, and several polymorphisms, including C677T, are common in European populations. Data from a French study (1998-2001) let us investigate the roles of maternal dietary folate intake and the MTHFR polymorphism and their interaction on the risk of cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate only (CP). We used both case-control (164 CL/P, 76 CP, 236 controls; 148, 59, 168 of whom, respectively, had an available genotype) and case-parent (143 CL/P and 56 CP families) study designs and distinguished the role of the child's genotype and maternally mediated effects on risks. This study observed a beneficial effect of mothers' dietary folate intake on their offspring's risk (odds ratio (OR)(< or = 230 microg/day) = ref; for CL/P, OR([230-314 microg/day]) = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = 0.3-0.9, OR(>314 microg/day) = 0.64, 0.4-1.1; for CP, OR([230-314 microg/day]) = 1.15, 0.6-2.2, OR(>314 microg/day) = 0.70, 0.3-1.4). We observed a reduced risk associated with the TT genotype of the child in the case-control analysis (OR(CC) = ref; for CL/P, OR(TT) = 0.54, 0.3-1.1; for CP, OR(TT) = 0.33, 0.1-1.0); this genotype, either fetal or maternal, was not statistically significant in the case-parent analysis. A frequency of TT genotype higher in our control group than previously reported in France can partly explain the risk reduction observed in case-control comparison. Interactions were not statistically significant. Stratified case-parent analysis showed, however, slight heterogeneity in the role of TT genotype according to folate intake. The modest sample size limits this study, which nonetheless provides new estimate of the possible impact of dietary folate intake and MTHFR polymorphism on oral clefts.

  10. No association between MTHFR A1298C and MTRR A66G polymorphisms, and MS in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Szvetko, A L; Fowdar, J; Nelson, J; Colson, N; Tajouri, L; Csurhes, P A; Pender, M P; Griffiths, L R

    2007-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) resulting in debilitating neuropathology. Pathogenesis is primarily defined by CNS inflammation and demyelination of nerve axons. Methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) is an enzyme that catalyzes the remethylation of homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine via cobalamin and folate dependant reactions. Cobalamin acts as an intermediate methyl carrier between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Hcy. MTRR plays a critical role in maintaining cobalamin in an active form and is consequently an important determinant of total plasma Hcy (pHcy) concentrations. Elevated intracellular pHcy levels have been suggested to play a role in CNS dysfunction, neurodegenerative, and cerebrovascular diseases. Our investigation entailed the genotyping of a cohort of 140 cases and matched controls for MTRR and MTHFR, by restriction length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. Two polymorphisms: MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C were investigated in an Australian age and gender matched case-control study. No significant allelic frequency difference was observed between cases and controls at the alpha = 0.05 level (MTRR chi2 = 0.005, P = 0.95, MTHFR chi2 = 1.15, P = 0.28). Our preliminary findings suggest no association between the MTRR A66G and MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms and MS.

  11. Polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MTR), methionine synthase reductase (MTRR), and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) in multiple myeloma risk.

    PubMed

    Lima, Carmen S P; Ortega, Manoela M; Ozelo, Margareth C; Araujo, Renato C; De Souza, Cármino A; Lorand-Metze, Irene; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M; Costa, Fernando F

    2008-03-01

    We tested whether the polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, the methionine synthase gene, MTR A2756G, the methionine synthase reductase gene, MTRR A66G, and the thymidylate synthase gene, TYMS 2R-->3R, involved in folate and methionine metabolism, altered the risk for multiple myeloma (MM). Genomic DNA from 123MM patients and 188 controls was analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion for the polymorphism analyses. The frequency of the MTR 2756 AG plus GG genotype was higher in patients than in controls (39.8% versus 23.4%, P=0.001). Individual carriers of the variant allele G had a 2.31 (95% CI: 1.38-3.87)-fold increased risk for MM compared with others. In contrast, similar frequencies of the MTHFR, the MTRR and the TYMS genotypes were seen in patients and controls. These results suggest, for the first time, a role for the MTR A2756G polymorphism in MM risk in our country, but should be confirmed by large-scale epidemiological studies with patients and controls age matched.

  12. Methionine synthase A2756G polymorphism and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: evidence based on 27 studies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Weixing; Zhou, Dong-Lei; Jiang, Xun; Lu, Lie-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Methionine synthase (MTR), which plays a central role in maintaining adequate intracellular folate, methionine and normal homocysteine concentrations, was thought to be involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal adenoma (CRA) by affecting DNA methylation. However, studies on the association between MTR A2756G polymorphism and CRC/CRA remain conflicting. We conducted a meta-analysis of 27 studies, including 13465 cases and 20430 controls for CRC, and 4844 cases and 11743 controls for CRA. Potential sources of heterogeneity and publication bias were also systematically explored. Overall, the summary odds ratio of G variant for CRC was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.96-1.09) and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.99-1.12) for CRA. No significant results were observed in heterozygous and homozygous when compared with wild genotype for these polymorphisms. In the stratified analyses according to ethnicity, source of controls, sample size, sex, and tumor site, no evidence of any gene-disease association was obtained. Results from the meta-analysis of four studies on MTR stratified according to smoking and alcohol drinking status showed an increased CRC risk in heavy smokers (OR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.32-3.20) and heavy drinkers (OR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.28-3.09) for G allele carriers. This meta-analysis suggests that the MTR A2756G polymorphism is not associated with CRC/CRA susceptibility and that gene-environment interaction may exist.

  13. Iron and folate in fortified cereals.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, P; Tufaro, P R; Rader, J I

    2001-06-01

    Fortification of cereal-grain products was introduced in 1941 when iron and three vitamins were added to flour and bread. Ready-to-eat cereals were fortified at about the same time. These fortifications have contributed to increased dietary iron intake and reductions in iron deficiency anemia in the US. In 1996, FDA finalized rules for fortification of specific enriched cereal-grain products with folic acid. This measure was instituted to increase the folate intakes of women of child-bearing age and thereby reduce the risk of having a pregnancy affected with a neural tube birth defect. However, with recent increases in fortification, public health officials in the US are concemed that excess intake of specific nutrients such as iron and folic acid may result in toxic manifestations. Our objective was to measure iron and total folate content in breakfast cereals and compare assay to label values for % Daily Value. We also determined by weight the amount of a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal adults would eat and compared this to the labeled serving size, for which the reference amount for this cereal per eating occasion was 1 cup or 30 g. Twenty-nine breakfast cereals were analyzed for iron content using the bathophenanthroline reaction. Twenty-eight cereals were analyzed for total folate, utilizing a microbiological assay with tri-enzyme digestion. Serving size quantities were estimated in seventy-two adults who regularly ate breakfast cereal and were asked to fill a 16 or 22 cm round bowl with the amount of cereal that they would consume for breakfast. When the labeled value was compared to the assayed value for iron content 21 of the 29 breakfast cereals were 120% or more of the label value and 8 cereals were 150% or more of the label value. Overall, analyzed values for iron ranged from 80% to 190% of label values. Analyzed values for folate ranged from 98% to 320% of label values. For 14 of 28 cereals, analyzed values exceeded label declarations by more than 150

  14. Folate-modified lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles for targeted paclitaxel delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linhua; Zhu, Dunwan; Dong, Xia; Sun, Hongfan; Song, Cunxian; Wang, Chun; Kong, Deling

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel lipid–polymer hybrid drug carrier comprised of folate (FA) modified lipid-shell and polymer-core nanoparticles (FLPNPs) for sustained, controlled, and targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX). The core-shell NPs consist of 1) a poly(ε-caprolactone) hydrophobic core based on self-assembly of poly(ε-caprolactone)–poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) amphiphilic copolymers, 2) a lipid monolayer formed with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG2000), 3) a targeting ligand (FA) on the surface, and were prepared using a thin-film hydration and ultrasonic dispersion method. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis confirmed the coating of the lipid monolayer on the hydrophobic polymer core. Physicochemical characterizations of PTX-loaded FLPNPs, such as particle size and size distribution, zeta potential, morphology, drug loading content, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release, were also evaluated. Fluorescent microscopy proved the internalization efficiency and targeting ability of the folate conjugated on the lipid monolayer for the EMT6 cancer cells which overexpress folate receptor. In vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of PTX-loaded FLPNPs was lower than that of Taxol®, but higher than that of PTX-loaded LPNPs (without folate conjugation). In EMT6 breast tumor model, intratumoral administration of PTX-loaded FLPNPs showed similar antitumor efficacy but low toxicity compared to Taxol®. More importantly, PTX-loaded FLPNPs showed greater tumor growth inhibition (65.78%) than the nontargeted PTX-loaded LPNPs (48.38%) (P<0.05). These findings indicated that the PTX loaded-FLPNPs with mixed lipid monolayer shell and biodegradable polymer core would be a promising nanosized drug formulation for tumor-targeted therapy. PMID:25844039

  15. Screening of polymorphisms for MTHFR and DHFR genes in spina bifida children and their mothers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husna, M. Z.; Endom, I.; Ibrahim, S.; Selvi, N. Amaramalar; Fakhrurazi, H.; Htwe, R. Ohnmar; Kanehaswari, Y.; Halim, A. R. Abdul; Wong, S. W.; Subashini, K.; Syahira, O. Nur; Aishah, S.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of folic acid supplementation in reducing the risk of neural tube defect is still not well understood. Current evidences show the involvement of folic acid metabolic gene's polymorphism as contributing factors that regulate this pathway. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine the presence of C677T polymorphism for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR-19 bp deletion) genes between mother-children pairs of case and control. With the approval of UKMMC ethic committee, genomic DNA was extracted from one hundred and forty consented bloods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) and sequencing were employed to verify each nucleotide change. Our result shows that mutant MTHFR and DHFR alleles are present in all Malaysian sub-ethnic groups, case and control. Even though mutant MTHFR are found to be slightly higher in the case groups, 75% of the affected child is a non carrier for this allele and 62.5% of the mothers with an affected child are genotypically normal. For DHFR, almost all (87.5-100%) investigated samples are a carrier or having a double DHFR deletion be it a case or control pairs. However, strong maternal inheritance shown by the deleted allele might be due to a cascade effect of lacks of folate consumption or maternal uniparental disomy. In conclusion, the use of MTHFR and DHFR as markers in determining the risk of having spina bifida baby is uninformative and plays a small indirect role as the genetic causes of spina bifida. Therefore, spina bifida remains etiologically unknown polygenic and quantitative developmental trait whereby the searches for positive genetic marker need to be continued.

  16. Cryptophane-Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Cryptophane-Folate Biosensor for 129Xe NMR Najat S. Khan, Brittany A. Riggle, Garry K. Seward, Yubin Bai, and Ivan J. Dmochowski* Department of...cryptophane biosensor was synthesized in 20 nonlinear steps, which included functionalization with folate recognition moiety, solubilizing peptide, and...Cy3 fluorophore. Hyperpolarized 129Xe NMR studies confirmed xenon binding to the folate-conjugated cryptophane. Cellular internalization of biosensor

  17. Relationship between genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and breast cancer chemotherapy response.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wang, X W; Zhu, L P; Wang, H L; Wang, B; Wu, T; Zhao, Q; JinSiHan, D L X T; Wang, X Y

    2016-09-23

    Activity of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), an enzyme involved in folate metabolism, is influenced by mutations in the corresponding gene, contributing to a decrease in 5,10-MTHF. Due to such polymorphisms, individuals differ in MTHFR enzyme activity and plasma folate levels. We investigated the relationship between two common MTHFR polymorphisms (C677T and A1298C) and breast cancer (BC) chemotherapy response. From February 2013 to January 2016, 148 advanced BC patients at the Center Hospital of Cangzhou were enrolled and treated with six different chemotherapy regimens. Subjects were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-one (27.7%), 70 (47.3%), and 37 (25.0%) patients carried the C/C, C/T, and T/T C677T genotypes, respectively; 101 (68.2%), 42 (28.4%), and 5 (3.4%) had the A/A, A/C, and C/C genotypes of A1298C, respectively. Total chemotherapy efficacy was 66.9% (99/148), with 7 (4.7%), 92 (62.2%), 36 (24.3%), and 13 (8.8%) cases showing complete response, partial response, no change, and progressive disease, respectively. Chemotherapy regimens did not differ in effectiveness (P > 0.05). Efficacy rates associated with C677T C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes were 58.5, 58.6, and 91.9%, respectively, with T/T carriers exhibiting significantly better responses than the C/C (P < 0.05) and C/T groups (P < 0.05). Effectiveness among A1298C A/A, A/C, and C/C carriers was 70.6, 64.3, and 0.0%, respectively, but no difference was established between these genotypes in this regard (P > 0.05). The MTHFR C677T genotype may be associated with BC chemotherapy response, and could be of great value in guiding individualized treatment for this disease.

  18. [Folate, vitamin B12 and human health].

    PubMed

    Brito, Alex; Hertrampf, Eva; Olivares, Manuel; Gaitán, Diego; Sánchez, Hugo; Allen, Lindsay H; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-11-01

    During the past decade the role of folate and vitamin B12 in human nutrition have been under constant re-examination. Basic knowledge on the metabolism and interactions between these essential nutrients has expanded and multiple complexities have been unraveled. These micronutrients have shared functions and intertwined metabolic pathways that define the size of the "methyl donor" pool utilized in multiple metabolic pathways; these include DNA methylation and synthesis of nucleic acids. In Chile, folate deficiency is virtually nonexistent, while vitamin B12 deficiency affects approximately 8.5-51% depending on the cut-off value used to define deficiency. Folate is found naturally mainly in vegetables or added as folic acid to staple foods. Vitamin B12 in its natural form is present only in foods of animal origin, which is why deficit is more common among strict vegetarians and populations with a low intake of animal foods. Poor folate status in vulnerable women of childbearing age increases the risk of neural tube birth defects, so the critical time for the contribution of folic acid is several months before conception since neural tube closure occurs during the first weeks of life. The absorption of vitamin B12 from food is lower in older adults, who are considered to have higher risk of gastric mucosa atrophy, altered production of intrinsic factor and acid secretion. Deficiency of these vitamins is associated with hematological disorders. Vitamin B12 deficiency can also induce clinical and sub-clinical neurological and of other disorders. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent advances in the basic and applied knowledge of these vitamins relative to human health.

  19. Clinical studies of intestinal folate conjugases.

    PubMed

    Halsted, C H; Beer, W H; Chandler, C J; Ross, K; Wolfe, B M; Bailey, L; Cerda, J J

    1986-03-01

    Clinical differences between the two human intestinal mucosal folate conjugases were assessed by measurement of their activities in normal individuals and in patients with chronic diarrhea of differing causes. Intracellular folate conjugase (ICFC) was 15-fold more active than brush border folate conjugase (BBFC) in jejunal mucosa from seven obese patients undergoing elective gastric bypass surgery. The activity of ICFC was similar among normal volunteers and patients with diarrhea of unknown origin (DUO), gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the short bowel syndrome (IBD-SBS). By contrast, BBFC, sucrase, and lactase were decreased significantly in GSE, and BBFC was increased in IBD-SBS. The activity of BBFC correlated with lactase and with sucrase in the normal subjects and in patients with DUO, whereas no correlations were found with the activity of ICFC in any group. Our clinical studies confirm that ICFC and BBFC are different enzymes. ICFC is not affected by intestinal disease, whereas the activity of jejunal BBFC, like that of other brush border enzymes, is decreased by mucosal injury and is also capable of adapting to distal small intestinal disease or surgical resection.

  20. The human proton-coupled folate transporter

    PubMed Central

    Desmoulin, Sita Kugel; Hou, Zhanjun; Gangjee, Aleem; Matherly, Larry H.

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the biology of the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). PCFT was identified in 2006 as the primary transporter for intestinal absorption of dietary folates, as mutations in PCFT are causal in hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) syndrome. Since 2006, there have been major advances in understanding the mechanistic roles of critical amino acids and/or domains in the PCFT protein, many of which were identified as mutated in HFM patients, and in characterizing transcriptional control of the human PCFT gene. With the recognition that PCFT is abundantly expressed in human tumors and is active at pHs characterizing the tumor microenvironment, attention turned to exploiting PCFT for delivering novel cytotoxic antifolates for solid tumors. The finding that pemetrexed is an excellent PCFT substrate explains its demonstrated clinical efficacy for mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer, and prompted development of more PCFT-selective tumor-targeted 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolates that derive their cytotoxic effects by targeting de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis. PMID:22954694

  1. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanli; Gao, Rufei; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Liao, Xinggui; Geng, Yanqing; Ding, Yubin; Wang, Yingxiong; He, Junlin

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34) immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), placental growth factor (PLGF), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone. PMID:26247969

  2. Folate Deficiency Could Restrain Decidual Angiogenesis in Pregnant Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanli; Gao, Rufei; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Liao, Xinggui; Geng, Yanqing; Ding, Yubin; Wang, Yingxiong; He, Junlin

    2015-08-04

    The mechanism of birth defects induced by folate deficiency was focused on mainly in fetal development. Little is known about the effect of folate deficiency on the maternal uterus, especially on decidual angiogenesis after implantation which establishes vessel networks to support embryo development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of folate deficiency on decidual angiogenesis. Serum folate levels were measured by electrochemiluminescence. The status of decidual angiogenesis was examined by cluster designation 34 (CD34) immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), placental growth factor (PLGF), and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were also tested. Serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) were detected by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The folate-deficient mice had a lower folate level and a higher Hcy level. Folate deficiency restrained decidual angiogenesis with significant abnormalities in vascular density and the enlargement and elongation of the vascular sinus. It also showed a reduction in the expressions of VEGFA, VEGFR2, and PLGF. In addition, the serum levels of P4, E2, LH, and PRL were reduced in folate-deficient mice, and the expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) were abnormal. These results indicated that folate deficiency could impaire decidual angiogenesis and it may be related to the vasculotoxic properties of Hcy and the imbalance of the reproductive hormone.

  3. Homogeneous assay for whole blood folate using photon upconversion.

    PubMed

    Arppe, Riikka; Mattsson, Leena; Korpi, Krista; Blom, Sami; Wang, Qi; Riuttamäki, Terhi; Soukka, Tero

    2015-02-03

    Red blood cell folate is measured for folate deficiency diagnosis, because it reflects the long-term folate level in tissues, whereas serum folate only represents the dietary intake. Direct homogeneous assay from whole blood would be ideal but conventional fluorescence techniques in blood suffer from high background and strong absorption of light at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths. In this study, a new photon upconversion-based homogeneous assay for whole blood folate is introduced based on resonance energy transfer from upconverting nanophosphor donor coated with folate binding protein to a near-infrared fluorescent acceptor dye conjugated to folate analogue. The sensitized acceptor emission is measured at 740 nm upon 980 nm excitation. Thus, optically transparent wavelengths are utilized for both donor excitation and sensitized acceptor emission to minimize the sample absorption, and anti-Stokes detection completely eliminates the Stokes-shifted autofluorescence. The IC50 value of the assay was 6.0 nM and the limit of detection (LOD) was 1 nM. The measurable concentration range was 2 orders of magnitude between 1.0-100 nM, corresponding to 40-4000 nM folate in the whole blood sample. Recoveries of added folic acid were 112%-114%. A good correlation was found when compared to a competitive heterogeneous assay based on the DELFIA-technology. The introduced assay provides a simple and fast method for whole blood folate measurement.

  4. Hepatic folate metabolism in the chronic alcoholic monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, T.; Romero, J.J.; Watson, J.E.; Gong, E.J.; Halsted, C.H.

    1981-05-01

    To assess the role of altered hepatic folate metabolism in the pathogenesis of the folate deficiency of chronic alcoholism, the hepatic metabolism of a tracer dose of /sup 3/H-PteGlu was compared in monkeys given 50% of energy as ethanol for 2 years and in control monkeys. Long-term ethanol feeding resulted in mild hepatic injury, with a significant decrease in hepatic folate levels. Chromatographic studies of liver biopsies obtained after the tracer dose indicated that the processes of reduction, methylation, and formylation of reduced folate and the synthesis of polyglutamyl folates were not affected by long-term ethanol feeding. Hepatic tritium levels were significantly decreased in the ethanol-fed group. These studies suggest that the decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decrease in hepatic folate levels observed after long-term ethanol ingestion is due to a decreased ability to retain folates in the liver, whereas reduction and further metabolism of folates is not affected.

  5. Lentils (Lens culinaris L.), a rich source of folates.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, Debjyoti; Thavarajah, Dil; Knutson, Phil; Thavarajah, Pushparajah; McGee, Rebecca J; Coyne, Clarice J; Kumar, Shiv

    2013-08-14

    The potential for genetic biofortification of U.S.-grown lentils ( Lens culinaris L.) with bioavailable folate has not been widely studied. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the folate concentration of 10 commercial lentil cultivars grown in Minot and McLean counties, North Dakota, USA, in 2010 and 2011, (2) to determine the genotype (G) × environmental (E) interactions for folate concentration in lentil cultivars, and (3) to compare the folate concentration of other pulses [field peas ( Pisum sativum L.) and chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.)] grown in the United States. Folate concentration in lentil cultivars ranged from 216 to 290 μg/100 g with a mean of 255 μg/100 g. In addition, lentil showed higher folate concentration compared to chickpea (42-125 μg/100 g), yellow field pea (41-55 μg/100 g), and green field pea (50-202 μg/100 g). A 100 g serving of lentils could provide a significant amount of the recommended daily allowance of dietary folates (54-73%) for adults. A significant year × location interaction on lentil folate concentration was observed; this indicates that possible location sourcing may be required for future lentil folate research.

  6. A common mutation in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene affects genomic DNA methylation through an interaction with folate status

    PubMed Central

    Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon; Girelli, Domenico; Mason, Joel B.; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Bagley, Pamela J.; Olivieri, Oliviero; Jacques, Paul F.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.; Corrocher, Roberto; Selhub, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    DNA methylation, an essential epigenetic feature of DNA that modulates gene expression and genomic integrity, is catalyzed by methyltransferases that use the universal methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), the methyl donor for synthesis of methionine from homocysteine and precursor of S-adenosyl-l-methionine. In the present study we sought to determine the effect of folate status on genomic DNA methylation with an emphasis on the interaction with the common C677T mutation in the MTHFR gene. A liquid chromatography/MS method for the analysis of nucleotide bases was used to assess genomic DNA methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 105 subjects homozygous for this mutation (T/T) and 187 homozygous for the wild-type (C/C) MTHFR genotype. The results show that genomic DNA methylation directly correlates with folate status and inversely with plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels (P < 0.01). T/T genotypes had a diminished level of DNA methylation compared with those with the C/C wild-type (32.23 vs.62.24 ng 5-methylcytosine/μg DNA, P < 0.0001). When analyzed according to folate status, however, only the T/T subjects with low levels of folate accounted for the diminished DNA methylation (P < 0.0001). Moreover, in T/T subjects DNA methylation status correlated with the methylated proportion of red blood cell folate and was inversely related to the formylated proportion of red blood cell folates (P < 0.03) that is known to be solely represented in those individuals. These results indicate that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism influences DNA methylation status through an interaction with folate status. PMID:11929966

  7. Carrier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... available for a limited number of diseases, including cystic fibrosis , fragile X syndrome , sickle cell disease , and Tay– ... are already pregnant are offered carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies , and spinal muscular atrophy . You can have ...

  8. [Folic acid reduces risks of having fetus affected with neural tube defects: dietary food folate and plasma folate concentration].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Atsuo; Kimura, Kyousuke; Isobe, Yasuaki; Kamihira, Osamu; Matsuura, Osamu; Gotoh, Momokazu; Okai, Ikuyo

    2003-07-01

    Risk of having fetus affected with neural tube defects can be reduced by maternal periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The purpose of the present study is to investigate how folate is taken from diets and to measure plasma folate concentrations. A total of 222 women comprising 5 groups, i.e., healthy women, mothers of myelodysplastic patients, pregnant women, myelodysplastic patients, nurse students, participated in our study. Food frequency questionnaires kept 3 days were analyzed based on the 5th standard table of food composition in Japan. Plasma folate concentrations were measured by means of chemiluminescent immunoassay method. Changes in plasma folate concentrations and possible adverse effects following the folic acid supplementation for 16 weeks were also investigated. The dietary intake of folate, plasma folate concentration and energy intake averaged 293 micrograms/day, 8.1 ng/ml and 1,857 Kcal, respectively, among the subjects. Pregnant women took the largest amount of folate from diets and demonstrated the highest plasma folate concentration among the groups. The dietary folate in myelodysplastic patients and nurse students was significantly lower compared to that of healthy women. The Recommended Dietary Allowance of folate was not fulfilled in 22% of non-pregnant adult women and 72% of pregnant women. The dietary folate was mainly taken from the 3rd food group but the 4th group of food was consumed most. Mean folate intake was significantly correlated with circulating concentrations of serum folate (p = 0.012 r = 0.186). The consecutive administration of 400 micrograms supplements for 16 weeks increased a baseline plasma value of 8.7 ng/ml to 32.6 but fell down rapidly to 17.3 24 hours later without any adverse effects. The dietary folate and serum folate concentrations averaged 293 micrograms/day and 8.1 ng/ml, respectively. The former is the first report based on the 5th standard table of food composition in Japan. Majority of pregnant women

  9. Artificial neural network-based exploration of gene-nutrient interactions in folate and xenobiotic metabolic pathways that modulate susceptibility to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Ramaiah, M Janaki; Pavithrakumari, Manickam; Jayapriya, Jaganathan; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadharao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-04-15

    In the current study, an artificial neural network (ANN)-based breast cancer prediction model was developed from the data of folate and xenobiotic pathway genetic polymorphisms along with the nutritional and demographic variables to investigate how micronutrients modulate susceptibility to breast cancer. The developed ANN model explained 94.2% variability in breast cancer prediction. Fixed effect models of folate (400 μg/day) and B12 (6 μg/day) showed 33.3% and 11.3% risk reduction, respectively. Multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis showed the following interactions in responders to folate: RFC1 G80A × MTHFR C677T (primary), COMT H108L × CYP1A1 m2 (secondary), MTR A2756G (tertiary). The interactions among responders to B12 were RFC1G80A × cSHMT C1420T and CYP1A1 m2 × CYP1A1 m4. ANN simulations revealed that increased folate might restore ER and PR expression and reduce the promoter CpG island methylation of extra cellular superoxide dismutase and BRCA1. Dietary intake of folate appears to confer protection against breast cancer through its modulating effects on ER and PR expression and methylation of EC-SOD and BRCA1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pediococcus cerevisiae mutant with altered transport of folates.

    PubMed

    Mandelbaum-Shavit, F; Grossowicz, N

    1975-08-01

    A Pediococcus cerevisiae mutant that actively accumulated folate (PteGlu), in contrast to the wild-type, was also found to exhibit changes in the pattern of uptake of 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H4PteGlu) and amethopterin. Most of the 5-CH3-H4PteGlue accumulated through a glucose- and temperature-dependent process, and a concentrative uptake was also found in gluocse-starved cells and in cells incubated at OC. About 75% of the accumulated 5-CH3-H4PteGlu exchanged with amethopterin. In contrast to the wild type, the mutant accumulated both diastereoisomers of 5-CH3-H4PteGlue by glucose-dependent and glucose-independent processes. Amethopterin and PteGlue competitively inhibited the uptake in both processes, with an apparent lower affinity of the carrier for PteGlu than for the analogue. p-Chloromercuribenzoate strongly inhibited the uptake (75%). The p-chloromercuribenzoate-nonsusceptible and temperature-independent uptake was also competed by amethopterin. Metabolic poisons like sodium azide, potassium fluoride, iodoacetate, and 2,4-dimitrophenol inhibited the glucose-dependent process. Uptake, in the absence of glucose, was enhanced by sodium azide and potassium fluoride.

  11. Human folate metabolism using 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, A. J.; Arjomand, A.; Duecker, S. R.; Johnson, H.; Schneider, P. D.; Zulim, R. A.; Bucholz, B. A.; Vogel, J. S.

    1999-03-25

    Folate is a water soluble vitamin required for optimal health, growth and development. It occurs naturally in various states of oxidation of the pteridine ring and with varying lengths to its glutamate chain. Folates function as one-carbon donors through methyl transferase catalyzed reactions. Low-folate diets, especially by those with suboptimal methyltransferase activity, are associated with increased risk of neural tube birth defects in children, hyperhomocysteinemic heart disease, and cancer in adults. Rapidly dividing (neoplastic) cells have a high folate need for DNA synthesis. Chemical analogs of folate (antifolates) that interfere with folate metabolism are used as therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. Although much is known about folate chemistry, metabolism of this vitamin in vivo in humans is not well understood. Since folate levels in blood and tissues are very low and methods to measure them are inadequate, the few previous studies that have examined folate metabolism used large doses of radiolabeled folic acid in patients with Hodgkin's disease and cancer (Butterworth et al. 1969, Krumdieck et al. 1978). A subsequent protocol using deuterated folic acid was also insufficiently sensitive to trace a physiologic folate dose (Stites et al. 1997). Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool that overcomes the limitations of traditional mass spectrometry and of decay counting of long lived radioisotopes (Vogel et al. 1995). AMS can detect attomolar concentrations of 14 C in milligram-sized samples enabling in vivo radiotracer studies in healthy humans. We used AMS to study the metabolism of a physiologic 80 nmol oral dose of 14 C-folic acid (1/6 US RDA) by measuring the 14 C-folate levels in serial plasma, urine and feces samples taken over a 150-day period after dosing a healthy adult volunteer.

  12. Physiological responses to folate overproduction in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Using a functional genomics approach we addressed the impact of folate overproduction on metabolite formation and gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. We focused specifically on the mechanism that reduces growth rates in folate-overproducing cells. Results Metabolite formation and gene expression were determined in a folate-overproducing- and wild-type strain. Differential metabolomics analysis of intracellular metabolite pools indicated that the pool sizes of 18 metabolites differed significantly between these strains. The gene expression profile was determined for both strains in pH-regulated chemostat culture and batch culture. Apart from the expected overexpression of the 6 genes of the folate gene cluster, no other genes were found to be differentially expressed both in continuous and batch cultures. The discrepancy between the low transcriptome and metabolome response and the 25% growth rate reduction of the folate overproducing strain was further investigated. Folate production per se could be ruled out as a contributing factor, since in the absence of folate production the growth rate of the overproducer was also reduced by 25%. The higher metabolic costs for DNA and RNA biosynthesis in the folate overproducing strain were also ruled out. However, it was demonstrated that folate-specific mRNAs and proteins constitute 8% and 4% of the total mRNA and protein pool, respectively. Conclusion Folate overproduction leads to very little change in metabolite levels or overall transcript profile, while at the same time the growth rate is reduced drastically. This shows that Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 is unable to respond to this growth rate reduction, most likely because the growth-related transcripts and proteins are diluted by the enormous amount of gratuitous folate-related transcripts and proteins. PMID:21167023

  13. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in North Indian Mothers Having Babies with Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Utkarsh; Arora, Sadhna; Kabra, Madhulika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gulati, Sheffali; Pandey, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated possible links between polymorphisms in maternal folate metabolism genes and Down syndrome. Some of these studies show a significantly increased prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) gene (MTHFR) among mothers who have had babies with Down syndrome. This study…

  14. Prevalence of MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in North Indian Mothers Having Babies with Trisomy 21 Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Utkarsh; Arora, Sadhna; Kabra, Madhulika; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gulati, Sheffali; Pandey, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have evaluated possible links between polymorphisms in maternal folate metabolism genes and Down syndrome. Some of these studies show a significantly increased prevalence of the C677T polymorphism of the 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) gene (MTHFR) among mothers who have had babies with Down syndrome. This study…

  15. Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism genes and interactions with nutritional factors on colorectal cancer risk: Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Makar, Karen W.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Miller, Joshua W.; Song, Xiaoling; Brown, Elissa C.; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Zheng, Yingye; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Galbraith, Rachel L.; Duggan, David J.; Habermann, Nina; Bailey, Lynn B.; Maneval, David R.; Caudill, Marie A.; Toriola, Adetunji T.; Green, Ralph; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigations of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) genes and gene-nutrient interactions in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are limited to candidate polymorphisms and dietary folate. We comprehensively investigated associations between genetic variants in FOCM and CRC risk, and whether FOCM nutrient status modified these associations. Methods We genotyped 288 candidate and tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 FOCM genes among 821 incident CRC case-control matched pairs in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study cohort. FOCM biomarkers (red blood cell [RBC] folate, plasma folate, pyridoxal-5’-phosphate [PLP], vitamin B12, and homocysteine) and self-reported alcohol consumption were measured at baseline. Conditional logistic regression was implemented; effect modification was examined based on known enzyme-nutrient relationships. Results We observed statistically significant associations between CRC risk and functionally defined candidate SNPs of MTHFD1 (K134R), MTRR (P450R), and PRDM2 (S450N), and a literature candidate SNP of TYMS (g.676789A>T) (nominal P<0.05). In addition we noted suggestive associations for tagSNPs in CBS, DHFR, DNMT3B, MAT1A, MTHFD1, and MTRR (nominal P<0.05; non-significant adjusted P). Significant interactions between nutrient biomarkers and candidate polymorphisms were observed for (i) plasma/RBC folate and FOLH1, PON1, TCN2, DNMT1, and DNMT3B; (ii) plasma PLP and TYMS TS3; (iii) plasma B12 and BHMT2; (iv) homocysteine and MTHFR and AARS. Conclusions Genetic variants in FOCM genes are associated with CRC risk among postmenopausal women. FOCM nutrients continue to emerge as effect modifiers of genetic influences on CRC risk. PMID:26108676

  16. Validity of food frequency questionnaire estimated intakes of folate and other B vitamins in a region without folic acid fortification.

    PubMed

    Johansson, I; Van Guelpen, B; Hultdin, J; Johansson, M; Hallmans, G; Stattin, P

    2010-08-01

    B vitamins have been implicated in major chronic diseases but results have been inconsistent. This study evaluated the accuracy of dietary intakes of folate, vitamin B12, riboflavin and vitamin B6 as measured by the Northern Sweden Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) against repeated 24-h recalls (24HR) and plasma levels, taking into consideration the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism. B vitamin intakes assessed by a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to measure the intake over the previous year were compared with those from 10 24HR, as well as to plasma levels of folate and vitamin B12, in randomly selected men (n=96) and women (n=99) aged 30-60 years. FFQ-based B-vitamin intakes were also compared with plasma levels of B-vitamins and with MTHFR 677C4T genotype in 878 men, aged 40-61 years. Intakes of vitamins B12 and riboflavin were similar, whereas folate and B6 intakes were 16-27% higher, as estimated by FFQ versus 24HR. Spearman correlation coefficients between the two methods ranged from 0.31 to 0.63 (all PFolate intake was not correlated with plasma levels in subjects with the MTHFR 677 T/T genotype. The validity of the Northern Sweden FFQ for assessing B vitamin intake is similar to that of many other FFQs used in large-scale studies. The FFQ is suitable for ranking individuals by intake of folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and to a lesser extent vitamin B12.

  17. Folate Deficiency Was Associated with Increased Alanine Aminotransferase and Glutamyl Transpeptidase Concentrations in a Chinese Hypertensive Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xing; Li, Wei; Cao, Jia-Qian; Yan, Haiyue; Sun, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Tang, Ling; Wang, Manman; Huang, Jing-Fei; Liu, Dahai

    2016-01-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were three key enzymes in the hepatic metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effect of homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism gene polymorphisms and serum Hcy and folate level on the hepatic functions in a Chinese hypertensive population. A representative sample with 480 subjects aged 28-75 was enrolled in 2005.9-2005.12 from six hospitals in different Chinese regions. Serum ALT, AST and GGT were measured by using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Serum Hcy was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and serum folate was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Known genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP methods. The results showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was related a decreased serum AST level (r=-0.11, p=0.026), whereas the MTHFR A1298C mutation elevated serum AST level (r=0.11, p=0.032). Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that folate deficiency was associated with higher serum ALT (β (SE): 0.13 (0.06), p=0.031) and GGT level (β (SE): 0.18 (0.07), p=0.011). However, serum Hcy level may not affect the hepatic functions. Our data suggested that hepatic functions were affected by MTHFR gene polymorphisms and serum folate level. Further studies are needed to confirm these correlations in a larger population.

  18. Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Suthandiram, Sujatha; Gan, Gin Gin; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Bee, Ping Chong; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chang, Kian Meng; Ong, Tee Chuan; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-05-01

    An imbalance in folate metabolism can adversely affect DNA synthesis and methylation systems which can lead to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with NHL, remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs and NHL risk in a population which is made up of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic subgroups. A total of 372 NHL patients and 722 controls were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Our results of the pooled subjects failed to demonstrate significant association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs with NHL and its subtypes. The results were in agreement with the previous meta-analyses. In the Indian ethnic subgroup however, single locus analysis of MTHFR A1298C appears to confer risk to NHL (Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-3.00, P=0.006). The risk is almost doubled in homozygous carrier of MTHFR 1298CC (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.56-10.43, P=0.004). Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of CC in the Indian NHL patients compared with controls (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.18-2.93, P=0.007). There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with the risk of NHL in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians however, the MTHFR A1298C confers risk to NHL. This study suggests ethnicity modifies the relationship between polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing gene and NHL.

  19. Bioavailability of food folates and evaluation of food matrix effects with a rat bioassay.

    PubMed

    Clifford, A J; Heid, M K; Peerson, J M; Bills, N D

    1991-04-01

    Folate bioavailability of beef liver, lima beans, peas, spinach, mushrooms, collards, orange juice and wheat germ was estimated with a protocol of folate depletion-repletion using growth and liver, serum and erythrocyte folate of weanling male rats. Diets with 125, 250 and 375 micrograms folic acid/kg were standards. Individual foods were incorporated into a folate-free amino acid-based diet alone (250 micrograms folate/kg diet from food) or mixed with folic acid (125 micrograms folate from food + 125 micrograms folic acid) to evaluate folate bioavailability and effects of food matrix. Beef liver and orange juice folates were as available as folic acid, whereas those of wheat germ were less bioavailable. Folates of peas and spinach were also less available than folic acid using liver and serum folate concentrations and total liver folate as response criteria, but they were not lower when based on growth and erythrocyte folate concentrations. Lima bean, mushroom and collard folates were as available as folic acid using four of five response criteria. Folate bioavailability of all foods generally exceeded 70%. All response criteria gave approximately equivalent results, indicating that growth and tissue folate levels are appropriate criteria. No food matrix effects were observed for any food except lima beans. Foods rich in polyglutamyl folates were less bioavailable than those of foods rich in short-chain folates.

  20. Folate contents in human milk and casein-based and soya-based formulas, and folate status in Korean infants.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Hee; Yon, Miyong; Han, Heon-Seok; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Tamura, Tsunenobu; Hyun, Taisun H

    2009-06-01

    We assessed folate nutritional status from birth to 12 months in fifty-one infants who were fed human milk (HM; n 20), casein-based formula (CBF; n 12) or soya-based formula (SBF; n 19). Folate contents in ninety-five HM samples obtained from twenty mothers for the first 6-month period and twelve CBF and nineteen SBF samples were measured by bioassay after trienzyme extraction. Folate intake was estimated by weighing infants before and after feeding in the HM group and by collecting formula intake records in the formula-fed groups. After solid foods were introduced, all foods consumed were included to estimate folate intake. Serum folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were determined at 5 and 12 months of age, and infant growth was monitored for the first 12 months. Mean HM folate contents ranged from 201 to 365 nmol/l with an overall mean of 291 nmol/l, and the contents peaked at 2 months postpartum. HM folate contents were higher than those reported in North America. Folate contents in CBF and SBF were markedly higher than those in HM and those claimed on the product labels. The overall folate intakes in formula-fed infants were significantly higher than those in HM-fed infants, and this was associated with significantly higher folate and lower tHcy in formula-fed infants than HM-fed infants at 5 months. At 12 months, serum folate was significantly higher in the SBF group than the other groups, whereas serum tHcy and overall growth were similar among all groups.

  1. Lentils (Lens culinaris L.), a rich source of folates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pulses contain folates in the form of reduced tetrahydrofolate which is the biologically active form absorbed in the jejunum. Genetic biofortification potential of US-grown lentils (Lens culinaris L.) with the bioavailable form of folate has not been widely studied. The objectives of this study wer...

  2. FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED GENOTOXICITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Folate deficiency increases background levels of DNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary folate deficiency on arsenic induction of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood cells. Male C5...

  3. Genetic defects in folate and cobalamin pathways affecting the brain.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Susanne H; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima

    2013-01-01

    Folate and cobalamin are necessary for early brain development and function. Deficiency of folate or cobalamin during pregnancy can cause severe malformation in the central nervous system such as neural tube defects. After birth, folate and cobalamin deficiency can cause anemia, failure to thrive, recurrent infections, psychiatric and neurological symptoms. The folate and the homocysteine metabolic pathways interact at a central step where 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates its methyl group to homocysteine to produce methionine and tetrahydrofolate. Methyl cobalamin and folate interact at this critical step. Both nutrients have a crucial role in DNA synthesis and in delivering S-adenosylmethionine, the universal methyl donor. Severe and mild inherited disorders in folate and cobalamin pathways have been described. The two groups of disorders share some similarities, but differ in the molecular mechanism, metabolic dysregulation, and disease management. This review summarizes selected disorders, including rare and common mutations that affect folate and cobalamin absorption, transport, or dependent enzymes. When the mutations are discovered early enough, many of the described disorders are easily treatable by B vitamin supplementation, which often prevents or reverses the manifestation of the disease. Therefore, the screening for mutations is recommended and should be carried out as early as possible: after occurrence of the first symptoms or when a certain constellations of the folate and cobalamin related markers are measured, such as elevated homocysteine and/or methylmalonic acid.

  4. FOLATE DEFICIENCY ENHANCES ARSENIC-INDUCED GENOTOXICITY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Folate deficiency increases background levels of DNA damage and can enhance the mutagenicity of chemical agents. Duplicate experiments were performed to investigate the effect of dietary folate deficiency on arsenic induction of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood cells. Male C5...

  5. Characterisation of exogenous folate transport in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Wang, Qi; Sims, Paul F G; Hyde, John E

    2007-07-01

    Folate salvage by Plasmodium falciparum is an important source of key cofactors, but little is known about the underlying mechanism. Using synchronised parasite cultures, we observed that uptake of this dianionic species against the negative-inward electrochemical gradient is highly dependent upon cell-cycle stage, temperature and pH, but not on mono- or divalent metal ions. Energy dependence was tested with different sugars; glucose was necessary for folate import, although fructose was also able to function in this role, unlike sugars that cannot be processed through the glycolytic pathway. Import into both infected erythrocytes and free parasites was strongly inhibited by the anion-channel blockers probenecid and furosemide, which are likely to be acting predominantly on specific folate transporters in both cases. Import was not affected by high concentrations of the antifolate drugs pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine, but was inhibited by the close folate analogue methotrexate. The pH optimum for folate uptake into infected erythrocytes was 6.5-7.0. Dinitrophenol and nigericin, which strongly facilitate the equilibration of H(+) ions across biological membranes and thus abolish or substantially reduce the proton gradient, inhibited folate uptake profoundly. The ATPase inhibitor concanamycin A also greatly reduced folate uptake, further demonstrating a link to ATP-powered proton transport. These data strongly suggest that the principal folate uptake pathway in P. falciparum is specific, highly regulated, dependent upon the proton gradient across the parasite plasma membrane, and is likely to be mediated by one or more proton symporters.

  6. Clinical utility of folate-containing oral contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Lassi, Zohra S; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2012-01-01

    Folate is a generic term for a water-soluble B-complex vitamin which plays an important role in protein synthesis and metabolism and other processes related to cell multiplication and tissue growth. Pregnant and lactating women are at increased risk of folic acid deficiency because generally their dietary folate is insufficient to meet their physiological requirements and the metabolic demands of the growing fetus. The evidence pertaining to the reduction of the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) due to folate is so compelling that supplementation with 400 μg of folic acid to all women trying to conceive until 12 weeks of pregnancy has been recommended by every relevant authority. A recent Cochrane review has also found protective effects of folate supplementation in occurrence and reoccurrence of NTDs. Despite food fortification and targeted public health campaigns promoting folic acid supplementation, 4,300,000 new cases occur each year worldwide resulting in an estimated 41,000 deaths and 2.3 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYS). This article will review the burden and risk factors of NTDS, and the role of folate in preventing NTDs. It will also describe different modes of supplementing folate and the newer evidence of the effectiveness of adding folate in oral contraceptives for raising serum and red blood cell folate levels. PMID:22570577

  7. Neural tube defects: pathogenesis and folate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pulikkunnel, Scaria T; Thomas, S V

    2005-02-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations with worldwide distribution and complex aetio-pathogenesis. Animal studies indicate that there may be four sites of initiation of neural tube closure (NTC). Selective involvement of these sites may lead to defects varying from anencephaly to spina bifida. The NTC involves formation of medial and dorsolateral hinge points, convergent extension and a zipper release process. Proliferation and migration of neuroectodermal cells and its morphological changes brought about by microfilaments and other cytoskeletal proteins mediate NTC. Genetic, nutritional and teratogenic mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NTDs. Folate is an important component in one carbon metabolism that provides active moieties for synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Several gene defects affecting enzymes and proteins involved in transport and metabolism of folate have been associated with NTDs. It may be possible in future, to identify individuals at higher risk of NTDs by genetic studies. Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that dietary supplementation or food fortification with folic acid would reduce the incidence of NTDs. The protective effect of folic acid may be by overcoming these metabolic blocks through unidentified mechanisms. Genetic and biochemical studies on foetal cells may supplement currently available prenatal tests to diagnose NTDs. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), particularly valproate and carbamazepine have been shown to increase the risk of NTDs by possibly increasing the oxidative stress and deranging the folate metabolism. Accordingly, it is recommended that all women taking AEDs may use 1-5 mg folic acid daily in the pre conception period and through pregnancy.

  8. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase gene polymorphism in children with allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Dogru, M; Aydin, H; Aktas, A; Cırık, A A

    2015-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms by impairing folate metabolism may influence the development of allergic diseases. The results of studies evaluating the relationship between MTHFR polymorphisms and atopic disease are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the polymorphisms of C677T and A1298C for MTHFR gene and allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Ninety patients followed up with diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in our clinic and 30 children with no allergic diseases were included in the study. All participants were genotyped for the MTHFR (C677T) and (A1298C) polymorphisms. Vitamin b12, folate and homocysteine levels were measured. The mean age of patients was 9.2±2.9 years; 66.7% of the patients were male. There was no significant difference between patient and control groups regarding gender, age and atopy history of the family (p>0.05). The frequency of homozygotes for MTHFR C677T polymorphism in the patient and control groups was 3.3% and 10%, respectively. The frequency of homozygotes for MTHFR A1298C polymorphism among groups was 26.7% and 16.7%, respectively. The association between allergic rhinitis and polymorphisms of C677T and A1298C for MTHFR gene was not statistically significant in patients compared with controls (p>0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between the patients and the control group in terms of serum vitamin b12, folate and homocysteine levels (p>0.05). We found no evidence for an association between allergic rhinitis and polymorphisms of C677T and A1298C for MTHFR gene in children. Further studies investigating the relationship between MTHFR polymorphism and AR are required. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Folate content and retention in selected raw and processed foods.

    PubMed

    Bassett, M N; Sammán, N C

    2010-09-01

    Adequate intake of folate reduced the risk of abnormalities in early embryonic brain development such as the risk of malformations of the embryonic brain/spinal cord, collectively referred to as neural tube defects (NTDs). Folate is extremely sensitive to destruction by heat, oxidation and UV light. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of different extraction procedures and enzymatic treatment to determine folate concentrations in variety of foods using a microbiological assay (MA) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as the test organism. This study also aimed to evaluate the retention of folate in foods after using different cooking processes. Nine of the most commonly consumed foods in Argentina and that contain folate were analyzed: broccoli, spinach, potato, lentil, soy (raw and boiled); hen whole egg and yolks (raw, boiled and fried); beef liver (raw and cooked); strawberry (raw) and white bread. For this study, rat plasma (RP) and human plasma (HP) conjugases together with acetate and phosphate buffers were tested. In extraction step for all analyses, RP conjugase was selected since it was easily available in our laboratory and small quantities were required. The acetate buffer was chosen since better growth and more reproducible results were obtained in the different conditions assayed. The results allowed the foods to be grouped into (a) rich sources of folate: hen eggs, yolks, spinach, soybean (raw) and strawberry (100 and 350 microg/100 g fresh weight (FW); (b) good sources of folate: broccoli (raw), soybean (boiled), lentils (raw) and potato (56 to 83 microg/100 g FW) and c) moderate sources of folate: broccoli, lentils (boiled), white breads, onions and beef liver (15 to 30 microg/100g FW). The folate retention was in the range 14-99% according to both type of food and method of processing. Contents and losses of folate vary widely according to type of food and cooking method.

  10. Folate intake, serum folate levels and esophageal cancer risk: an overall and dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Guo, Chenyang; Hu, Hongtao; Zheng, Lin; Ma, Junli; Jiang, Li; Zhao, Erjiang; Li, Hailiang

    2017-02-07

    Previously reported findings on the association between folate intake or serum folate levels and esophageal cancer risk have been inconsistent. This study aims to summarize the evidence regarding these relationships using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We performed electronic searches of the Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane Library electronic databases to identify studies examining the effect of folate on the risk of esophageal cancer. Ultimately, 19 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using a random effects model. A linear regression analysis of the natural logarithm of the OR was carried out to assess the possible dose-response relationship between folate intake and esophageal cancer risk. The pooled ORs for esophageal cancer in the highest vs. lowest levels of dietary folate intake and serum folate were 0.63 (95% CI: 0.56-0.71) and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.55-0.92), respectively. The dose-response meta-analysis indicated that a 100 μg/day increment in dietary folate intake reduced the estimate risk of esophageal cancer by 12%. These findings suggest that dietary and serum folate exert a protective effect against esophageal carcinogenesis.

  11. Effect modification by population dietary folate on the association between MTHFR genotype, homocysteine, and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of genetic studies and randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V; Newcombe, Paul; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Sofat, Reecha; Ricketts, Sally L; Cooper, Jackie; Breteler, Monique MB; Bautista, Leonelo E; Sharma, Pankaj; Whittaker, John C; Smeeth, Liam; Fowkes, F Gerald R; Algra, Ale; Shmeleva, Veronika; Szolnoki, Zoltan; Roest, Mark; Linnebank, Michael; Zacho, Jeppe; Nalls, Michael A; Singleton, Andrew B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hardy, John; Worrall, Bradford B; Rich, Stephen S; Matarin, Mar; Norman, Paul E; Flicker, Leon; Almeida, Osvaldo P; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bobak, Martin; Sterne, Jonathan AC; Smith, George Davey; Talmud, Philippa J; van Duijn, Cornelia; Humphries, Steve E; Price, Jackie F; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Hankey, Graeme J; Meschia, James F; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Hingorani, Aroon D; Casas, Juan P

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism has been associated with raised homocysteine concentration and increased risk of stroke. A previous overview showed that the effects were greatest in regions with low dietary folate consumption, but differentiation between the effect of folate and small-study bias was difficult. A meta-analysis of randomised trials of homocysteine-lowering interventions showed no reduction in coronary heart disease events or stroke, but the trials were generally set in populations with high folate consumption. We aimed to reduce the effect of small-study bias and investigate whether folate status modifies the association between MTHFR 677C→T and stroke in a genetic analysis and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Methods We established a collaboration of genetic studies consisting of 237 datasets including 59 995 individuals with data for homocysteine and 20 885 stroke events. We compared the genetic findings with a meta-analysis of 13 randomised trials of homocysteine-lowering treatments and stroke risk (45 549 individuals, 2314 stroke events, 269 transient ischaemic attacks). Findings The effect of the MTHFR 677C→T variant on homocysteine concentration was larger in low folate regions (Asia; difference between individuals with TT versus CC genotype, 3·12 μmol/L, 95% CI 2·23 to 4·01) than in areas with folate fortification (America, Australia, and New Zealand, high; 0·13 μmol/L, −0·85 to 1·11). The odds ratio (OR) for stroke was also higher in Asia (1·68, 95% CI 1·44 to 1·97) than in America, Australia, and New Zealand, high (1·03, 0·84 to 1·25). Most randomised trials took place in regions with high or increasing population folate concentrations. The summary relative risk (RR) of stroke in trials of homocysteine-lowering interventions (0·94, 95% CI 0·85 to 1·04) was similar to that predicted for the same extent of homocysteine reduction in large genetic studies in populations with similar

  12. Assessing the Association between Natural Food Folate Intake and Blood Folate Concentrations: A Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Trials and Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Marchetta, Claire M.; Devine, Owen J.; Crider, Krista S.; Tsang, Becky L.; Cordero, Amy M.; Qi, Yan Ping; Guo, Jing; Berry, Robert J.; Rosenthal, Jorge; Mulinare, Joseph; Mersereau, Patricia; Hamner, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    Folate is found naturally in foods or as synthetic folic acid in dietary supplements and fortified foods. Adequate periconceptional folic acid intake can prevent neural tube defects. Folate intake impacts blood folate concentration; however, the dose-response between natural food folate and blood folate concentrations has not been well described. We estimated this association among healthy females. A systematic literature review identified studies (1 1992–3 2014) with both natural food folate intake alone and blood folate concentration among females aged 12–49 years. Bayesian methods were used to estimate regression model parameters describing the association between natural food folate intake and subsequent blood folate concentration. Seven controlled trials and 29 observational studies met the inclusion criteria. For the six studies using microbiologic assay (MA) included in the meta-analysis, we estimate that a 6% (95% Credible Interval (CrI): 4%, 9%) increase in red blood cell (RBC) folate concentration and a 7% (95% CrI: 1%, 12%) increase in serum/plasma folate concentration can occur for every 10% increase in natural food folate intake. Using modeled results, we estimate that a natural food folate intake of ≥450 μg dietary folate equivalents (DFE)/day could achieve the lower bound of an RBC folate concentration (~1050 nmol/L) associated with the lowest risk of a neural tube defect. Natural food folate intake affects blood folate concentration and adequate intakes could help women achieve a RBC folate concentration associated with a risk of 6 neural tube defects/10,000 live births. PMID:25867949

  13. Developmental and feedforward control of the expression of folate biosynthesis genes in tomato fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Little is known about how plants regulate their folate content, including whether the expression of folate biosynthesis genes is orchestrated during development or modulated by folate levels. Nor is much known about how folate levels impact the expression of other genes. These points were addressed ...

  14. No association between polymorphisms in cubilin, a gene of the homocysteine metabolism and the risk of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Carinci, F; Morselli, P G; Palmieri, A; Girardi, A; Riberti, C; Scapoli, L

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have correlated lower maternal periconceptional levels of plasma folate and cobalamin with increased risk of delivering offspring presenting congenital malformations such as cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) or neural tube defects. A number of genetic studies aimed at correlating these biochemical levels or the occurrence of malformations with specific genetic defects or polymorphisms have been successfully performed. The cubilin gene (CUBN) codes for a carrier that plays a crucial role in cobalamin cell internalization. CUBN polymorphisms were previously found to be associated with spina bifida occurrence. In this work, a family-based association study was performed to test CUBN involvement in CL/P. A sample of 391 CL/P triads was investigated with three single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping on the cubilin gene. Association tests indicated no significant association between CL/P and marker alleles or marker haplotypes. No evidence of maternal effect and imprinting were obtained. These data suggest that CUBN is not involved in CL/P onset in the investigated Italian population.

  15. Correspondence of folate dietary intake and biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Regan L; Fulgoni, Victor L; Taylor, Christine L; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Thuppal, Sowmyanarayanan V; McCabe, George P; Yetley, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    Background: Public health concerns with regard to both low and high folate status exist in the United States. Recent publications have questioned the utility of self-reported dietary intake data in research and monitoring.Objectives: The purpose of this analysis was to examine the relation between self-reported folate intakes and folate status biomarkers and to evaluate their usefulness for several types of applications.Design: We examined usual dietary intakes of folate by using the National Cancer Institute method to adjust two 24-h dietary recalls (including dietary supplements) for within-person variation and then compared these intakes with serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate among 4878 men and nonpregnant, nonlactating women aged ≥19 y in NHANES 2011-2012, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, with respect to consistency across prevalence estimates and rank order comparisons.Results: There was a very low prevalence (<1%) of folate deficiency when serum (<7 nmol/L) and RBC (<305 nmol/L) folate were considered, whereas a higher proportion of the population reported inadequate total dietary folate intakes (6%). Similar patterns of change occurred between intakes and biomarkers of folate status when distributions were examined (i.e., dose response), particularly when diet was expressed in μg. Intakes greater than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level greatly increased the odds of having high serum folate (OR: 17.6; 95% CI: 5.5, 56.0).Conclusions: When assessing folate status in the United States, where fortification and supplement use are common, similar patterns in the distributions of diet and biomarkers suggest that these 2 types of status indicators reflect the same underlying folate status; however, the higher prevalence estimates for inadequate intakes compared with biomarkers suggest, among other factors, a systematic underestimation bias in intake data. Caution is needed in the use of dietary folate data to estimate the prevalence of

  16. Folate targeted polymeric 'green' nanotherapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Sreeja; Binulal, N. S.; Mony, Ullas; Manzoor, Koyakutty; Nair, Shantikumar; Menon, Deepthy

    2010-07-01

    The concept of 'green' chemotherapy by employing targeted nanoparticle mediated delivery to enhance the efficacy of phytomedicines is reported. Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles encapsulating a well known nutraceutical namely, grape seed extract (GSE)—'NanoGSE'—was prepared by a nanoprecipitation technique. The drug-loaded nanoparticles of size ~ 100 nm exhibited high colloidal stability at physiological pH. Molecular receptor targeting of this nanophytomedicine against folate receptor over-expressing cancers was demonstrated in vitro by conjugation with a potential cancer targeting ligand, folic acid (FA). Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry data showed highly specific cellular uptake of FA conjugated NanoGSE on folate receptor positive cancer cells. Studies were also conducted to investigate the efficiency of targeted (FA conjugated) versus non-targeted (non-FA conjugated) nanoformulations in causing cancer cell death. The IC50 values were lowered by a factor of ~ 3 for FA-NanoGSE compared to the free drug, indicating substantially enhanced bioavailability to the tumor cells, sparing the normal ones. Receptor targeting of FA-NanoGSE resulted in a significant increase in apoptotic index, which was also quantified by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. This in vitro study provides a basis for the use of nanoparticle mediated delivery of anticancer nutraceuticals to enhance bioavailability and effectively target cancer by a 'green' approach.

  17. Effects of industrial processing on folate content in green vegetables.

    PubMed

    Delchier, Nicolas; Ringling, Christiane; Le Grandois, Julie; Aoudé-Werner, Dalal; Galland, Rachel; Georgé, Stéphane; Rychlik, Michael; Renard, Catherine M G C

    2013-08-15

    Folates are described to be sensitive to different physical parameters such as heat, light, pH and leaching. Most studies on folates degradation during processing or cooking treatments were carried out on model solutions or vegetables only with thermal treatments. Our aim was to identify which steps were involved in folates loss in industrial processing chains, and which mechanisms were underlying these losses. For this, the folates contents were monitored along an industrial canning chain of green beans and along an industrial freezing chain of spinach. Folates contents decreased significantly by 25% during the washing step for spinach in the freezing process, and by 30% in the green beans canning process after sterilisation, with 20% of the initial amount being transferred into the covering liquid. The main mechanism involved in folate loss during both canning green beans and freezing spinach was leaching. Limiting the contact between vegetables and water or using steaming seems to be an adequate measure to limit folates losses during processing.

  18. Acute effects of ethanol on renal folate clearance in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.; McMartin, K.E.

    1986-03-05

    Studies of the renal clearance of folic acid in primates demonstrate net reabsorption of folate by a saturable system. The acute administration of ethanol to rats causes a significant increase in urinary folate excretion. The mechanism for this effect is unknown and thus the effect of acute administration of ethanol on the renal absorption and urinary clearance of folate was studied in rats. Folic acid was administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats via continuous intravenous infusion in doses ranging from 3-75 micromoles/kg and renal clearance relative to inulin was determined. The effects of various dose levels of ethanol on these parameters were then determined. At a dose of 15 micromoles/kg, the renal clearance of folate relative to that of inulin was about 0.65 mg/min. At a plasma ethanol level about 100 mg/dl, the renal clearance of folate was not markedly altered. These results suggests that there is net reabsorption of folate in the rat kidney and that moderate doses of ethanol have little effect on renal effect on renal folate reabsorption.

  19. [Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 in venezuelan elderly].

    PubMed

    Meertens, Lesbia; Díaz, Nayka; Solano, Liseti; Baron, Maria Adela; Rodríguez, Adelmo

    2007-03-01

    The anatomical and physiological changes of aging make elderly people a vulnerable group to malnutrition and specific deficiencies of nutrients such as vitamin B12 and folate. This study was aimed to establish relationships among serum vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine concentrations and dietary intake and adequacy. Fifty five male and female elderly (60 and more years), free-living, were assessed. Measurements were: serum vitamin B12 and folate by radioimmunoanalysis (RIA), homocysteine by polarized fluorescence immunoassay, nutrient intake by three 24 hours recalls and food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was determined by Body Mass Index (BMI). Serum vitamin B12 and folate were at normal range (423,3+/-227,6 pmol/l and 6,4 +/- 4,5 mg/ml), but 17,5% of elderly had B12 deficiency and 12% had folate deficiency. Serum homocysteine was higher than reference values (15,8+/-4,4 mmol/l), but 47,5% showed concentrations above 15 mmol/L, male population showed higher mean value (p: 0,01). Nutrient intake was inadequate by deficiency. BMI indicated 11,8% of undernutrition, 29,4% of overweight and 20,6% of obesity A negative and inverse correlation between homocysteine and serum folate was found. Results suggest a biochemical deficiency of B12 and folate that is expressed as elevated homocysteine levels. These finding represent a high cardiovascular risk factor for this elderly group.

  20. Effects of alcohol on folate metabolism: implications for carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mason, Joel B; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2005-04-01

    Epidemiologic observations implicate excess ethanol ingestion as well as low dietary folate intake as risk factors for several cancers. Moreover, the epidemiologic observations support the concept of a synergistic effect between these two factors. Such a relation is biologically plausible because ethanol impedes the bioavailability of dietary folate and is known to inhibit select folate-dependent biochemical reactions. For example, alcohol ingestion in animals is known to inhibit folate-mediated methionine synthesis and thereby may interrupt critical methylation processes that are mediated by the activated form of methionine that provides substrate for biologic methylation, S-adenosylmethionine. Consistent with this observed inhibition of methionine synthesis is the observation that chronic alcohol ingestion in laboratory animals is known to produce hypomethylation of DNA in the colonic mucosa, a constant feature of early colorectal neoplasia. Inhibition of methionine synthase also creates a "methylfolate trap," analogous to what occurs in vitamin B12 deficiency. In addition, some evidence indicates that alcohol may redirect the utilization of folate toward serine synthesis and thereby may interfere with a critical function of methylenetetrahydrofolate, thymidine synthesis. Although a mechanistic link between alcohol and impaired folate metabolism in the genesis of cancer is still not definitively established, such a link should be pursued in future studies because of the intimate metabolic relation between alcohol and folate metabolism.

  1. Rice folate enhancement through metabolic engineering has an impact on rice seed metabolism, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Daele, Jeroen; Storozhenko, Sergei; Stove, Christophe; Lambert, Willy; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Folates are key-players in one-carbon metabolism in all organisms. However, only micro-organisms and plants are able to synthesize folates de novo and humans rely entirely on their diet as a sole folate source. As a consequence, folate deficiency is a global problem. Although different strategies are currently implemented to fight folate deficiency, up until now, all of them have their own drawbacks. As an alternative and complementary means to those classical strategies, folate biofortification of rice by metabolic engineering was successfully achieved a couple of years ago. To gain more insight into folate biosynthesis regulation and the effect of folate enhancement on general rice seed metabolism, a transcriptomic study was conducted in developing transgenic rice seeds, overexpressing 2 genes of the folate biosynthetic pathway. Upon folate enhancement, the expression of 235 genes was significantly altered. Here, we show that rice folate biofortification has an important effect on folate dependent, seed developmental and plant stress response/defense processes, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes.

  2. Natural variation of folate content and composition in spinach (Spinacia oleracea) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yan-yan; Yu, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Kai; Patring, Johan; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2011-12-14

    Breeding to increase folate levels in edible parts of plants, termed folate biofortification, is an economical approach to fight against folate deficiency in humans, especially in the developing world. Germplasm with elevated folates are a useful genetic source for both breeding and direct use. Spinach is one of the well-know vegetables that contains a relatively high amount of folate. Currently, little is known about how much folate, and their composition varies in different spinach accessions. The aim of this study was to investigate natural variation in the folate content and composition of spinach genotypes grown under controlled environmental conditions. The folate content and composition in 67 spinach accessions were collected from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) germplasm collections according to their origin, grown under control conditions to screen for natural diversity. Folates were extracted by a monoenzyme treatment and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography (LC) method. The total folate content ranged from 54.1 to 173.2 μg/100 g of fresh weight, with 3.2-fold variation, and was accession-dependent. Four spinach accessions (PI 499372, NSL 6095, PI 261787, and TOT7337-B) have been identified as enriched folate content over 150 μg/100 g of fresh weight. The folate forms found were H(4)-folate, 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, and 5-HCO-H(4)-folate, and 10-CHO-folic acid also varied among different accessions and was responsible for variation in the total folate content. The major folate vitamer was represented by 5-CH(3)-H(4)-folate, which on average accounted for up to 52% of the total folate pool. The large variation in the total folate content and composition in diverse spinach accessions demonstrates the great genetic potential of diverse genotypes to be exploited by plant breeders.

  3. Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Folate-NOTA-Al(18)F for PET Imaging of Folate-Receptor-Positive Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingshou; Meng, Xiangjun; McQuade, Paul; Rubins, Daniel; Lin, Shu-An; Zeng, Zhizhen; Haley, Hyking; Miller, Patricia; González Trotter, Dinko; Low, Philip S

    2016-05-02

    Folate-receptor-targeted PET radiotracers can potentially serve as versatile imaging agents for the diagnosis, staging, and prediction of response to therapy of patients with folate-receptor (FR)-expressing cancers. Because current FR-targeted PET reagents can be compromised by complex labeling procedures, low specific activities, poor radiochemical yields, or unwanted accumulation in FR negative tissues, we have undertaken to design an improved folate-PET agent that might be more amenable for clinical development. For this purpose, we have synthesized a folate-NOTA-Al(18)F radiotracer and examined its properties both in vitro and in vivo. Radiochemical synthesis of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was achieved by incubating (18)F(-) with AlCl3 for 2 min followed by heating in the presence of folate-NOTA for 15 min at 100 °C. Binding of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F to FR was quantitated in homogenates of KB and Cal51 tumor xenografts in the presence and absence of excess folic acid as a competitor. In vivo imaging was performed on nu/nu mice bearing either FR+ve (KB cell) or FR-ve (A549 cell) tumor xenografts, and specific accumulation of the radiotracer in tumor and other tissues was assessed by high-resolution micro-PET and ex vivo biodistribution in the presence and absence of excess folic acid. Image quality of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was compared with that of (99m)Tc-EC20, a clinically established folate-targeted SPECT imaging agent. Total radiochemical synthesis and purification of folate-NOTA-Al(18)F was completed within 37 min, yielding a specific activity of 68.82 ± 18.5 GBq/μmol, radiochemical yield of 18.6 ± 4.5%, and radiochemical purity of 98.3 ± 2.9%. Analysis of FR binding revealed a Kd of ∼1.0 nM, and micro-PET imaging together with ex vivo biodistribution analyses demonstrated high FR-mediated uptake in an FR+ tumor and the kidneys. Folate-NOTA-Al(18)F constitutes an easily prepared FR-targeted PET imaging agent with improved radiopharmaceutical properties and high

  4. Dietary folate and APC mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    de Vogel, Stefan; van Engeland, Manon; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Roemen, Guido M J M; Lentjes, Marjolein H F M; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2006-12-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with colorectal cancer risk and may be involved in colorectal carcinogenesis through increased chromosome instability, gene mutations, and aberrant DNA methylation. Within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, we investigated the associations between dietary folate intake and colorectal cancer risk with (APC(+)) and without (APC(-)) truncating APC mutations, accounting for hMLH1 expression and K-ras mutations. In total, 528 cases and 4200 subcohort members were available for data analyses of the study cohort (n = 120,852) from a follow-up period between 2.3 and 7.3 y after baseline. Adjusted gender-specific incidence rate ratios (RR) over tertiles of folate intake were calculated in case-cohort analyses for colon and rectal cancer. Although relatively high folate intake was not associated with overall colorectal cancer risk, it reduced the risk of APC(-)colon tumors in men (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.32-1.05, P(trend) = 0.06 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of folate intake). In contrast, it was positively associated with APC(+) colon tumors in men (highest vs. lowest tertile: RR 2.77, 95% CI 1.29-5.95, P(trend) = 0.008) and was even stronger when the lack of hMLH1 expression and K-ras mutations were excluded (RR 3.99, 95% CI 1.43-11.14, P(trend) = 0.007). Such positive associations were not observed among women; nor was folate intake associated with rectal cancer when APC mutation status was taken into account. Relatively high folate consumption reduced the risk of APC(-) colon tumors, but folate intake was positively associated with APC(+) colon tumors among men. These opposite results may indicate that folate enhances colorectal carcinogenesis through a distinct APC mutated pathway.

  5. Folate during reproduction: the Canadian experience with folic acid fortification

    PubMed Central

    Lindzon, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    Folate has received international attention regarding its role in the risk-reduction of birth defects, specifically neural tube defects (NTDs). In 1998, health officials in Canada, like the United States, mandated the addition of folic acid to white flour and select grain products to increase the folate intake of reproductive-aged women. Subsequent to this initiative there has been an increase in blood folate concentrations in Canada and a 50% reduction in NTDs. Many countries, including Korea, have not mandated folic acid fortification of their food supply. Reasons vary but often include concern over the masking of vitamin B12 deficiency, a belief that folate intakes among womenare adequate, low priority relative to other domestic issues, and the philosophy that individuals have the right not to consume supplemental folic acid if they so choose. Prior to folic acid fortification of the food supply in Canada, the folate intakes of women were low, and their blood folate concentrations while not sufficiently low to produce overt signs of folate deficiency (eg. anemia) were inconsistent with a level known to reduce the risk of an NTD-affected pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of folate during the periconceptional period, pregnancy, and during lactation. The rationale for, and history of recommending folic acid-containing supplements during the periconceptional period and pregnancy is described as is folic acid fortification of the food supply. The impact of folic acid fortification in Canada is discussed, and unresolved issues associated with this policy described. While the incidence of NTDs in Canada pre-folic acid fortification were seemingly higherthan that of Korea today, blood folate levels of Korean women are strikingly similar. We will briefly explore these parallels in an attempt to understand whether folic acid fortification of the food supply in Korea might be worth consideration PMID:20368933

  6. Synthesis and biological assessment of folate-accepted developer (99m)Tc-DTPA-folate-polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Shao, Kejing; Zhu, Bao; Jiang, Mengjun

    2016-05-15

    A novel cancer-targetable folate-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PFDH) copolymer containing DTPA segment was prepared by conventional chemical synthesis and labeled with (99m)Tc subsequently. The (99m)Tc-labled PFDH could be produced easily with high radiochemical yield of 91% and radiochemical purity of 95%. The LogP octanol-water value for the (99m)Tc-labled PFDH was -2.19 and the radiotracer was stable in phosphate-buffered saline and human serum for 2h (>95% in PBS or ∼90% in human serum). To investigate (99m)Tc-labled PFDH tumor targeting, the in vitro and in vivo stability, cell uptake, in vivo biodistribution, and SPECT imaging were evaluated, respectively. These preliminary results strongly suggest that the novel folate conjugated dendrimer maybe developed to be potential for delivery of therapeutic radionuclides.

  7. Intestinal folate binding protein (FBP) and folate absorption in the suckling rat

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.B.; Selhub, J.

    1986-03-01

    The folate in milk is bound to high affinity FBPs but it is unknown whether this binding affects intestinal transport of milk folate in the suckling rat. The authors examined the FBP activity of segments of the GI tract in fed and fasting states. Under fed conditions, the FBP activity in the mucosa of the stomach and proximal small intestine were similar (0.28 and 0.32 pMole folic acid binding/mg protein, N.S.). Both demonstrated less activity than the mucosa of the distal small intestine (1.31 pMole/mg protein, P < .001). A 6 hr fast produced no change in the FBP activity in the stomach or proximal small intestine but resulted in a 42% decrease in the distal small intestine (p < .01). Intestinal transport of unbound and FB-bound H/sup 3/pteryolmonoglutamate (H/sup 3/PGA) was examined in suckling rats by the intestinal loop model. Unbound H/sup 3/PGA demonstrated greater lumenal disappearance in the proximal segment of the small intestine compared to the distal segment (79% vs. 56%, P < .001) whereas the bound H/sup 3/PGA demonstrated greater lumenal disappearance in the distal segment (36% vs. 21%, p < .005). That porton of FBP activity in the distal small intestine that disappears with fasting may represent FBP absorbed from the lumen of the intestine. The FBP-bound folate in milk appears to be absorbed in the suckling rat by a mechanism that favors the distal small intestine and is different from the mechanism responsible for absorption of the unbound folate.

  8. Quantification of isotope-labeled and unlabeled folates and folate catabolites in urine samples by stable isotope dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Barbara E; Ohrvik, Veronica E; Köhler, Peter; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Rychlik, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Dual-label stable isotope dilution assays for the simultaneous quantification of isotopologic folates in clinical samples offer the perspective for differentiating between unlabeled folates from endogenous body pools and administered [13C5]-labeled folates from a test dose when performing bioavailability trials. In contrast to intact folates, this methodology could hitherto not be applied to the quantification of the folate catabolites, p-aminobenzoyl glutamate and p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate. In this study, [2H4]-p-aminobenzoyl glutamate, [2H4]-p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, and unlabeled p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate were synthesized. The synthesis of the [2H4]-labeled compounds started at unlabeled p-aminobenzoic acid. For the formation of p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, p-aminobenzoyl glutamate was acetylated. The new substances were applied successfully in stable isotope dilution assays for the simultaneous quantification of the [13C5]-labeled and unlabeled folate catabolites, p-aminobenzoyl glutamate and p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, along with the predominant folate vitamers in urine. The assays were based on clean-up by strong anion exchange followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection. Assay sensitivity was sufficient to detect the folate catabolites in physiologic concentrations. The limit of detection was below 0.4 and 0.3 nmol/100 g for p-aminobenzoyl glutamate isotopologues and p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate isotopologues in urine, respectively. The successful synthesis of [2H4]-p-aminobenzoyl glutamate, [2H4]-p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate, and unlabeled p-acetamidobenzoyl glutamate and the implementation of these substances in stable isotope dilution assays allows dual-label designs that provide a more detailed insight into human folate metabolism.

  9. Association of folate metabolism genes MTHFR and MTRR with multiple complex congenital malformation risk in Chinese population of Shanxi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qin; Bai, Baoling; Liu, Xiaozhen; Miao, Chunyue

    2014-01-01

    Birth defects are common, serious malformations with a complex etiology that suggests involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. Low dietary folate and polymorphisms in genes of folate metabolism can influence risk for birth defects. In the present study 250 Chinese birth defects cases who suffered 1-8 types of birth defect disease phenotypes were subjected and two genetic variants in two folate metabolism key enzymes, rs1801394 of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and rs1801133 of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were genotyped by using SNaPshot method. The results indicated that rs1801394 and rs1801133 were associated with multiple birth defects. According to homology of organogenesis, the disease phenotypes were classified into ectoderm-, mesoderm-, and endoderm-developed groups. Genetic analysis results displayed that as protective factors, genetic variants of rs1801133 and rs1801394 were associated with the risk of ectoderm-, and endoderm-developed malformations, but only the variant of rs1801394 was associated with the risk of mesoderm-developed malformations. Our present study first related nutrition metabolism related gene variants to germ layers and provided a novel understanding of an implication of earlier causation of birth defects pathogenesis in humans. PMID:26835343

  10. Association of folate metabolism genes MTHFR and MTRR with multiple complex congenital malformation risk in Chinese population of Shanxi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Bai, Baoling; Liu, Xiaozhen; Miao, Chunyue; Li, Huili

    2014-07-01

    Birth defects are common, serious malformations with a complex etiology that suggests involvement of both genetic and environmental factors. Low dietary folate and polymorphisms in genes of folate metabolism can influence risk for birth defects. In the present study 250 Chinese birth defects cases who suffered 1-8 types of birth defect disease phenotypes were subjected and two genetic variants in two folate metabolism key enzymes, rs1801394 of methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) and rs1801133 of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were genotyped by using SNaPshot method. The results indicated that rs1801394 and rs1801133 were associated with multiple birth defects. According to homology of organogenesis, the disease phenotypes were classified into ectoderm-, mesoderm-, and endoderm-developed groups. Genetic analysis results displayed that as protective factors, genetic variants of rs1801133 and rs1801394 were associated with the risk of ectoderm-, and endoderm-developed malformations, but only the variant of rs1801394 was associated with the risk of mesoderm-developed malformations. Our present study first related nutrition metabolism related gene variants to germ layers and provided a novel understanding of an implication of earlier causation of birth defects pathogenesis in humans.

  11. Vision Changes after Space Flight Are Related to Alterations in Folate-Dependent One-Carbon Metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Gibson, C. Robert; Mader, Thomas H.; Ericson, Karen; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    About 20% of astronauts on International Space Station missions have developed measurable ophthalmic changes after flight. This study was conducted to determine whether the folate-dependent 1-carbon pathway is altered in these individuals. Data were modeled to evaluate differences between individuals with ophthalmic changes (n=5) and those without them (n=15). We also correlated mean preflight serum concentrations of the 1-carbon metabolites with changes in measured refraction after flight. Serum homocysteine (HCy), cystathionine, 2-methylcitric acid, and methylmalonic acid concentrations were 25%-45% higher (P<0.001) in astronauts with ophthalmic changes than in those without them. These differences existed before, during, and after flight. Preflight serum HCy and cystathionine, and in-flight serum folate, were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with postflight change in refraction, and preflight serum concentrations of 2-methylcitric acid tended to be associated (P=0.06) with ophthalmic changes. The biochemical differences observed in those with vision issues strongly suggests impairment of the folate-dependent 1-carbon transfer pathway. Impairment of this pathway, by polymorphisms, diet or other means, may interact with components of the microgravity environment to influence these pathophysiologic changes. This study was funded by the NASA Human Research Program.

  12. TAS2R38 bitter taste genetics, dietary vitamin C, and both natural and synthetic dietary folic acid predict folate status, a key micronutrient in the pathoaetiology of adenomatous polyps.

    PubMed

    Lucock, Mark; Ng, Xiaowei; Boyd, Lyndell; Skinner, Virginia; Wai, Ron; Tang, Sa; Naylor, Charlotte; Yates, Zoë; Choi, Jeong-Hwa; Roach, Paul; Veysey, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Taste perception may influence dietary preferences and nutrient intakes contributing to diet-related disease susceptibility. This study examined bitter taste genetics and whether variation in the TAS2R38 gene at three polymorphic loci (A49P, V262A and I296V) could alter dietary and systemic folate levels and dietary vitamin C intake, and whether a nutrigenetic circuit existed that might link bitter taste, folate/antioxidant status and risk for a colonic adenomatous polyp. TAS2R38 diplotype predicted bitter taste (PROP) phenotype (p value <0.00001) and red cell folate status (p=0.0179) consistent with the diplotype that has the broadest range of bitter perception (AVI/PAV) also possessing the highest average red cell folate value. However, TAS2R38 diplotype did not predict dietary intake of methylfolic acid, pteroylmonoglutamic acid or total folic acid. Neither did it predict dietary intake of vitamin C. Despite this, intake of dietary folate predicts red cell folate with analysis pointing to a key nutrient-nutrient interaction between vitamin C intake and systemic folate status. Analysis of 38 patients with an adenomatous polyp and 164 controls showed that individually, dietary nutrient intake, nutrient status and taste diplotype did not influence polyp risk. However, red cell folate status (in individuals below the population median value) did interact with bitter taste diplotype (AVI/PAV) to predict polyp risk (p=0.0145). Furthermore, synthetic folic acid (below median intake) was statistically associated with adenoma occurrence (p=0.0215); individuals with adenomatous polyps had a 1.77× higher intake than controls. Additionally, stepwise regression taking account of all dietary nutrients showed a tight relationship between methylfolic acid (but not pteroylmonoglutamic acid) intake and red cell folate level in those with a low folate status and occurrence of an adenomatous polyp (p=0.0039). These findings point to a role for folate in the pathoaetiology of

  13. Population-level diversity in the association of genetic polymorphisms of one-carbon metabolism with breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Divya, Chandrasekhar; Janaki Ramaiah, M; Hussain, Tajamul; Alrokayan, Salman A; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Aberrations in one-carbon metabolism were reported to increase breast cancer risk by influencing the DNA synthesis and methylation of DNA and catecholamines. However, the results of these association studies remain inconclusive. We have explored the contribution of eight genetic polymorphisms in modulating the susceptibility to breast cancer by performing a meta-analysis of worldwide studies. In total, 62 case-control studies representing 17 different populations involving 18,117 breast cancer cases and 23,573 healthy controls were included in this meta-analysis. Out of the eight polymorphisms analyzed, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T exhibited positive association with the breast cancer risk in both fixed effects (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.10-1.17) and random effects (OR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.18) models. Solute carrier family 19 (folate transporter), member 1 (SLC19A1) G80A exhibited positive association (OR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.03-1.31) while MTR A2756G exhibited an inverse association (OR 0.78, 95 % CI 0.75-0.82) with the breast in fixed effect model alone. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the association of MTHFR C677T with breast cancer even between studies from the same geographical area, specifically among Chinese, Indians, and Turks. Subgroup analysis revealed MTHFR C677T-mediated breast cancer risk in post-menopausal women and women with low dietary intake of folate. Geographical area wise segregation of data revealed MTHFR-mediated increased breast cancer risk in populations who consume methionine-rich diet. Altitude-level variations were observed in the association of SHMT1 C1420T with breast cancer. India and Brazil of same altitude showed an inverse association with this polymorphism, while USA and China that share similar altitude showed a null association. MTHFR C677T and SLC19A1 G80A are the two polymorphisms of one-carbon metabolic pathway that increase breast cancer in the worldwide population. Dietary patterns and altitudinal

  14. Folate catabolites in spot urine as non-invasive biomarkers of folate status during habitual intake and folic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Niesser, Mareile; Demmelmair, Hans; Weith, Thea; Moretti, Diego; Rauh-Pfeiffer, Astrid; van Lipzig, Marola; Vaes, Wouter; Koletzko, Berthold; Peissner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Folate status, as reflected by red blood cell (RCF) and plasma folates (PF), is related to health and disease risk. Folate degradation products para-aminobenzoylglutamate (pABG) and para-acetamidobenzoylglutamate (apABG) in 24 hour urine have recently been shown to correlate with blood folate. Since blood sampling and collection of 24 hour urine are cumbersome, we investigated whether the determination of urinary folate catabolites in fasted spot urine is a suitable non-invasive biomarker for folate status in subjects before and during folic acid supplementation. Immediate effects of oral folic acid bolus intake on urinary folate catabolites were assessed in a short-term pre-study. In the main study we included 53 healthy men. Of these, 29 were selected for a 12 week folic acid supplementation (400 µg). Blood, 24 hour and spot urine were collected at baseline and after 6 and 12 weeks and PF, RCF, urinary apABG and pABG were determined. Intake of a 400 µg folic acid bolus resulted in immediate increase of urinary catabolites. In the main study pABG and apABG concentrations in spot urine correlated well with their excretion in 24 hour urine. In healthy men consuming habitual diet, pABG showed closer correlation with PF (rs = 0.676) and RCF (rs = 0.649) than apABG (rs = 0.264, ns and 0.543). Supplementation led to significantly increased folate in plasma and red cells as well as elevated urinary folate catabolites, while only pABG correlated significantly with PF (rs = 0.574) after 12 weeks. Quantification of folate catabolites in fasted spot urine seems suitable as a non-invasive alternative to blood or 24 hour urine analysis for evaluation of folate status in populations consuming habitual diet. In non-steady-state conditions (folic acid supplementation) correlations between folate marker (RCF, PF, urinary catabolites) decrease due to differing kinetics.

  15. Targeting folate receptor alpha for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Josephs, Debra H.; Ilieva, Kristina M.; Pellizzari, Giulia; Opzoomer, James; Bloomfield, Jacinta; Fittall, Matthew; Grigoriadis, Anita; Figini, Mariangela; Canevari, Silvana; Spicer, James F.; Tutt, Andrew N.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.

    2016-01-01

    Promising targeted treatments and immunotherapy strategies in oncology and advancements in our understanding of molecular pathways that underpin cancer development have reignited interest in the tumor-associated antigen Folate Receptor alpha (FRα). FRα is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein. Its overexpression in tumors such as ovarian, breast and lung cancers, low and restricted distribution in normal tissues, alongside emerging insights into tumor-promoting functions and association of expression with patient prognosis, together render FRα an attractive therapeutic target. In this review, we summarize the role of FRα in cancer development, we consider FRα as a potential diagnostic and prognostic tool, and we discuss different targeted treatment approaches with a specific focus on monoclonal antibodies. Renewed attention to FRα may point to novel individualized treatment approaches to improve the clinical management of patient groups that do not adequately benefit from current conventional therapies. PMID:27248175

  16. Neural tube defects, folate, and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Denny, Kerina J; Jeanes, Angela; Fathe, Kristin; Finnell, Richard H; Taylor, Stephen M; Woodruff, Trent M

    2013-09-01

    Periconceptional supplementation with folic acid has led to a significant worldwide reduction in the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, despite increasing awareness of the benefits of folic acid supplementation and the implementation of food fortification programs in many countries, NTDs continue to be a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, there exists a significant subgroup of women who appear to be resistant to the protective effects of folic acid supplementation. The following review addresses emerging clinical and experimental evidence for a role of the immune system in the etiopathogenesis of NTDs, with the aim of developing novel preventative strategies to further reduce the incidence of NTD-affected pregnancies. In particular, recent studies demonstrating novel roles and interactions between innate immune factors such as the complement cascade, neurulation, and folate metabolism are explored.

  17. Oral contraceptives: effect of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Shojania, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Women who use oral contraceptives have impaired folate metabolism as shown by slightly but significantly lower levels of folate in the serum and the erythrocytes and an increased urinary excretion of formiminoglutamic acid. The vitamin B12 level in their serum is also significantly lower than that of control groups. However, there is no evidence of tissue depletion of vitamin B12 associated with the use of oral contraceptives. The causes and clinical significance of the impairment of folate and vitamin B12 metabolism in these women is discussed in this review of the literature. Clinicians are advised to ensure that women who shop taking "the pill" because they wish to conceive have adequate folate stores before becoming pregnant. PMID:7037144

  18. Folate-bearing doxorubicin-loaded magnetic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microspheres as a new strategy for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Chen, Libo; Yu, Jerry; Zhi, Xiuling; Tang, Shaoxian; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Changchun

    2009-08-01

    Doxorubicin is a classic anticancer agent. Recently, numerous strategies have been used to enhance efficacy of drug delivery for cancer treatment. For example, by modifying poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microspheres, a nanocarrier, makes it more effective. Conjugation with folic acid increases specific targeted drug delivery towards folate receptor-bearing cancer cells to improve anticancer effectiveness by increasing the tissue's local concentration of drugs. In the current studies, we synthesized folate-bearing, doxorubicin-loaded, magnetic, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microspheres (FDMPM) to treat breast cancer cells (human SKBR-3). We found efficiency of drug encapsulation very high (95%) at pH above 7.4. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that cancer cells highly expressed folate receptors. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry revealed internalization of the carrier by SKBR-3 in treatments with FDMPM, which was not the case with any other combination for drug delivery (MPM, FMPM, and DMPM). Similarly, SKBR-3 cell growth was inhibited more (assessed by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide and trypan blue exclusion assays) when treated with FDMPM than with any other combinations. Current results confirm our predication and demonstrate that FDMPM has potential as a new targeting strategy in cancer therapy.

  19. Preparation and characterization of folate-chitosan-gemcitabine core-shell nanoparticles for potential tumor-targeted drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shi; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Jiahua; Wang, Junying; Zhang, Niping; Zhang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of achieving targeted chemotherapy of pancreatic cancer, we prepared core-shell nanoparticles by coaxial electrospray technology, with folate-chitosan as the polymeric coating material and gemcitabine as the encapsulated drug. The effects of various solution properties and processing parameters on nanoparticles formation were investigated. By optimizing the electrospray parameters, the diameter of the core-shell nanoparticles was in the range of 200-300 nm with drug loading and encapsulation efficiency of 3.91 +/- 0.12% and 85.37 +/- 4.9%. The drug release kinetics revealed a controlled initial burst release followed by a sustained release over a period of 72 h at pH 7.4 and pH 5.0, and at pH 5.0 the drug released more quickly. Moreover, the cellular uptake experiment confirmed that the folate conjugated core-shell nanoparticles had high pancreatic cancer (BXPC3) cells uptake efficiency. And the cell cytotoxicity test displayed that they had remarkable cytotoxicit