Tsai, Pei-Shan; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Wang, Mei-Yeh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics, training, and practice patterns of folk medicine practitioners, their opinions toward statutory regulation of folk medicine, and the formal education and credentialing for folk medicine providers in the metropolitan Taipei area. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Included in the survey were 200 folk medicine practitioners in Taipei city and 200 folk medicine practitioners in Taipei county. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 domains including demographics and training; practice patterns; and opinions toward statutory regulation of folk medicine and formal education and credentialing for Tuina, Ba Guan, Gua Sha, and reflexology providers. The response rates ranged from 86.3% to 99.5%. A typical folk medicine provider in the Taipei metropolitan area was a middle-aged man with a high school degree who worked about 50 hours a week. The majority of the providers in the Taipei metropolitan area received their training through apprenticeship. Years of training and experience varied widely among these practitioners. About 80% had received more than one year of training prior to starting their practice. Adult men and women were their major clientele. The major treatment modalities they offered were Tuina, Gua Sha, Ba Guan, reflexology, and meridian massage. The majority of the respondents agreed that practitioners should receive formal education and training and agreed that certifying the qualifications of folk medicine practitioners is necessary. Findings from the present survey provide an understanding of the training and practice patterns of Taiwanese folk medicine practitioners, highlight folk medicine practitioners' needs for formal education and training, and stress the importance of statutory regulation of folk medicine in Taiwan.
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin
Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.
... lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines or folk medicines contain lead You only can ... as high as 90%. Ghasard, an Indian folk medicine, has also been found to contain lead. It is a brown powder used as a tonic. Ba-baw-san is a Chinese herbal remedy that contains lead. It is used to ...
Kabidul Azam, Md. Nur; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Biswas, Samanta
Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer. Since there is no extensive ethnobotanical research study in Bangladesh regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants against neoplasms, therefore, a randomized ethnopharmacological surveys were carried out in 3 districts of Bangladesh to learn more about the usage of anticancer medicinal plants and their chemical constituents having antineoplastic activity. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to the folk medicine practitioners and medicinal plants as pointed out by them were photographed, collected, deposited, and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The various plant parts have been used by the healers which included whole plant, leaves, fruits, barks, roots, and seeds. This study evaluated considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side effects in the management and prevention of malignancy in cancer. PMID:27382642
Sulochana, Anaswara Krishnan; Raveendran, Dileepkumar; Krishnamma, Anoop Pushkaran; Oommen, Oommen V.
Background: The traditional medicinal systems of Indian folklore abundantly use medicinal plants or its derivatives for the treatment of snakebites. However, this traditional knowledge is on the verge of extinction, and there is an immediate necessity to conserve this oral traditional knowledge primarily by proper documentation and scientific authentication. The present ethno botanical study carried out among the folk medicine practitioners in the rural settle mental areas of Kallar forest region of southern Kerala, aims to document the folk herbal knowledge particularly for snake envenomation. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted during the period of June 2012-July 2013 in the rural and forest settlement areas of Kallar in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Direct observation and oral communications with local folk medicine practitioners in this region were adopted to collect valid information regarding the herbal formulations used to treat snake bite patients. Results: The study enumerates a list of 24 plant species belonging to seventeen families with anti-venomous potential. The scientific, vernacular and family names of these plants, along with the part used and their application modes are also enumerated in this communication. Conclusions: Plants are believed to be potent snake bite antidotes from centuries back, and knowledge about the use of plants is strictly conserved among tribes through generations without recorded data. It is the need of the hour to document these old drug formulations and is the cardinal responsibility of the scientific community to validate it and come up with new potent drug molecule for the benefit of snake bite victims. PMID:26401384
Park, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Sun-Mi; Moon, Sujeong; Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Min-Kyeoung; Lee, Sanghun
We developed an adverse events (AEs) reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The first version of the form was developed and tested in the clinical setting for spontaneous reporting of AEs. Additional revisions to the reporting form were made based on collected data and expert input. We developed an AEs reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The items of this form were based on patient information, folk medicine properties, and AEs. For causality assessment, folk medicine properties such as classification, common and vernacular names, scientific name, part used, harvesting time, storage conditions, purchasing route, product licensing, prescription, persons with similar exposure, any remnant of raw natural products collected from the patient, and cautions or contraindications were added. This is the first reporting form for AEs that incorporates important characteristics of Korean folk medicine. This form would have an important role in reporting adverse events for Korean folk medicine. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Sun‐Mi; Moon, Sujeong; Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Min‐Kyeoung
Abstract Purpose We developed an adverse events (AEs) reporting form for Korean folk medicine. Methods The first version of the form was developed and tested in the clinical setting for spontaneous reporting of AEs. Additional revisions to the reporting form were made based on collected data and expert input. Results We developed an AEs reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The items of this form were based on patient information, folk medicine properties, and AEs. For causality assessment, folk medicine properties such as classification, common and vernacular names, scientific name, part used, harvesting time, storage conditions, purchasing route, product licensing, prescription, persons with similar exposure, any remnant of raw natural products collected from the patient, and cautions or contraindications were added. Conclusions This is the first reporting form for AEs that incorporates important characteristics of Korean folk medicine. This form would have an important role in reporting adverse events for Korean folk medicine. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27501410
DeBellonia, Renato Rocco; Marcus, Steven; Shih, Richard; Kashani, John; Rella, Joseph G; Ruck, Bruce
Curanderismo, folk medicine, is an important and common aspect of Hispanic culture. Its use is not well understood by US medical physicians and is often overlooked when Hispanic patients present to US hospitals. We present a case of isopropyl alcohol toxicity in a 4-year-old child due to the use of a curanderismo treatment of "espanto" (evil spirits).
87 Species belonging to 59 genera and 33 plant families were identified and presented in the area of study. The largest 3 families are: Lamiaceae (9 aquatic species), Asteraceae (7 species), and Salicaceae (7 species). The largest genera are Mentha (6 species), Polygonum (5 species), and Salix (5 species). 63 folk medicinal aquatic species (73.3%) have therapeutic similarities with neighbouring countries, while the 24 remaining species (26.7%) haven't such therapeutic similarity. Emerged species (living with close contact with water body) were the most recorded, while amphibious, submerged or floating species were the least. The folk medicinal importance value of aquatic species recorded was identified according to Friedman parameters. 21 species (24%) have ROP values higher than 50, and therefore; have the highest popularity in folk medicinal potentiality. 26 species (29.9%) have therapeutic effects informed by less than three informants, and therefore, excluded from further consideration. 40 species (46.1%) have ROP values less than 50, and therefore; considered nonpopular medicinal plants.
Gras, Airy; Garnatje, Teresa; Bonet, M Àngels; Carrió, Esperança; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan
Ethnobotanical academic research, particularly in European industrialised countries, has been, and is, mostly focused on folk uses of food and medicinal plants. Nevertheless, other uses, as may well be supposed, account for a significant portion of these folk uses. In the Catalan linguistic domain, a considerable amount of ethnobotanical work has been produced, but to date almost nothing has been published on these other plant uses. We basically used the method of semistructured interviews to collect data on names, knowledge and use of plants in the above-mentioned fields from 759 informants in three Catalonian (Alt Empordà, Montseny and Ripollès) and two Balearic (Formentera and Mallorca) areas. We identified the plants quoted by the informants and prepared herbarium vouchers. We analysed and compared the results obtained. Information has been collected on 401 genera, 552 species, 81 subspecies and four varieties, belonging to 122 families, totalling 4137 use reports for popular non-food and non-medicinal uses (classified in 14 modalities), and designated with 1303 folk Catalan names. The informant consensus factor is 0.87, accounting for a consistent and robust dataset. Contrarily to what could be thought a priori, and irrespective of the fact that some uses are declining or changing, non-medicinal and non-food folk plant uses strongly persist in the territories considered, are highly considered by their practitioners, and may even imply some economic revenues.
Skrbo, Armin; Masic, Izet
Introduction: Folk medicine represents part of the folk culture, when we first think about the rural culture with characteristic of the rural population in the pre-industrial period. The difference between official and folk medicine is manifested in the education, knowledge and social status of those practicing folk medicine as well as their patients. The most common ways of treating were the treatment by use of herbs, magic and treatments based on religious beliefs. So, it is of no surprise that folk medicine was the main form of treatment for the inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the past. In addition to many herbalists, quacks and religious officials who treated the patients with records, there were also spells, i.e. women who, by pronouncing various magic formulas, treated the patients. Each village had at least one person who practiced this type of treatment. Discussion: Numerous, original documents and records have been stored in the archives of the monastery throughout B&H, including very valuable literature in the field of medicine and pharmacy, which testifies of the very important role of Franciscans in the treatment of the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most extensive health service of the Franciscans since their arrival in Bosnia in 1291 was the decadent era of Turkish rule, mostly from the 17th century until the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1978. In the sources of national thought, and on the basis of professional medical books, the Franciscans created recipes for the treatment of certain diseases, which they then collected in so-called „Ljekaruse” (Collections of folk recipes), and over time there was a lot of them. Most of the ljekarusa are hand-printed booklets, for some it is known the time and place of creation, and less often the author of the text. Ljekarusa is a very important source of information about our medical past. Some of them were processed and recorded, while a significant part
Sackett, Kay; Carter, Melondie; Stanton, Marietta
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), folk medicine, and other nontraditional therapy use by the elderly population. For all case managers who coordinate health care for the elderly as they transition from one setting to another and participate in health promotion and prevention activities. A computerized database search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest, and PsycINFO was completed before writing the integrative review. Six hundred ninety-seven abstracts were identified. Forty-five articles were further screened. Twenty-five articles met the criteria for inclusion. The integrative review is composed of 25 articles. Support for folk medicine and CAM use by older adults is located at Levels 5 and 6 of Melynk and Fine-Overholt's Hierarchy of Evidence. Folk medicine and CAM are used by the elderly for self-care purposes. A combination of both nontraditional and traditional medical interventions is used by the elderly. Although the choice to use folk medicine and CAM seems to transcend culture, the specific therapies chosen often emerge from the individual's cultural or ethnic heritage. Traditional health care providers may be unaware of elders' use of CAM or folk medicine alternatives. Case managers as coordinators of care across the health continuum are in a unique position to encourage, support, and enhance the use of folk medicine and CAM that complements traditional medical interventions for the elderly.
Ulicsni, Viktor; Svanberg, Ingvar; Molnár, Zsolt
There is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation. We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising small-scale, traditional agriculture. We studied "all" invertebrate species (species groups) potentially occurring in the vicinity of the settlements. We used photos, held semi-structured interviews, and conducted picture sorting. We documented 208 invertebrate folk taxa. Many species were known which have, to our knowledge, no economic significance. 36 % of the species were known to at least half of the informants. Knowledge reliability was high, although informants were sometimes prone to exaggeration. 93 % of folk taxa had their own individual names, and 90 % of the taxa were embedded in the folk taxonomy. Twenty four species were of direct use to humans (4 medicinal, 5 consumed, 11 as bait, 2 as playthings). Completely new was the discovery that the honey stomachs of black-coloured carpenter bees (Xylocopa violacea, X. valga) were consumed. 30 taxa were associated with a proverb or used for weather forecasting, or predicting harvests. Conscious ideas about conserving invertebrates only occurred with a few taxa, but informants would generally refrain from harming firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus), field crickets (Gryllus campestris) and most butterflies. We did not find any mythical creatures among invertebrate folk taxa. Almost every invertebrate species was regarded as basically harmful. Where possible, they were destroyed or at least regarded as worth eradicating. However, we could find no evidence to suggest any invertebrate species had suffered population loss as a result of conscious destruction. Sometimes knowledge pertaining to the taxa could have more
Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad khabaz
The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases. PMID:28097039
Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz
The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases.
Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali; Ali, Ahmad; de Boer, Hugo J
Mapping ethnomedicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines can provide a comprehensive overview of individual herbs employed in health care. Reliance on medicinal plants in remote parts of northern Pakistan is high, especially among women, but no research has investigated specifically which plants are used. This study investigated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in selected sites in upper Swat, Buner and Chitral Districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Interviews were conducted with gender-specific focus groups using questionnaires and standardized data sheets, followed by forest walks in each of the visited areas. General medicinal herb use, preparations, storage, marketing and collection habits for each gender group were ascertained from the questionnaires. In total 168 women and 390 men were interviewed and provided information on 127 different shared medicinal species. Species use consensus among the informants ranged from 2.3% to 83.3%, with Cynodon dactylon, Avena sativa, Celtis australis, Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, Skimmia laureola, Spiraea nervosa, Ziziphus jujuba, Rumex hastatus, Plantago lanceolata, Lathyrus aphaca and Ficus palmata having the highest reported consensus. The survey also revealed that a number of medicinal species were exploited by the community for both marketing and personal use, and many of these species were reported as being rare, vulnerable or even endangered. The results revealed that women in all the three districts were important custodians of medicinal plant knowledge, but elder women in general and the women from Buner district in particular had a superior understanding of folk medicine. The forest walks revealed that women׳s traditional medicinal knowledge was based on a more limited diversity of plant species. People in tribal communities have an expressed interest in learning efficient techniques for medicinal plant collection, preparation, storage and
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Hatem, David; Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran
The integration of complementary medicine is gradually becoming an accepted part of standard care for patients with cancer. In our integrative oncology program, we have encountered difficulties in recruiting Arab patients. In order to understand the special needs of this population, we conducted interviews among Arab practitioners of complementary and traditional medicine (CTM). The characteristics of practitioners and their views regarding the therapeutic process were examined. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were administered to 27 Arab practitioners of CTM whose clientele was comprised primarily of Arab cancer patients. Conventional content analysis of the transcribed interviews and field notes was performed in order to identify key themes. Three groups of CTM practice were identified: Folk-herbal medicine (n = 9), complementary medicine (CM; n = 14), and religious healing (n = 4). Seven factors were identified in the practitioner accounts: the duration and scheduling of treatment sessions, the language of communication, the presence of family members, the appearance of the practitioner, the definition of treatment goals, the discussion of behavioral and lifestyle changes, and finally, the use of tangible elements in treatment. The study of Arab CTM practitioner recommendations may help facilitate a culture-sensitive encounter with Arab patients with cancer. This approach may also have implications for other ethno-culturally unique populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang
In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity.
Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo
Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.
Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid
Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.
Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.
Povšnar, Marija; Koželj, Gordana; Kreft, Samo; Lumpert, Mateja
Aconitum species are poisonous plants that have been used in Western medicine for centuries. In the nineteenth century, these plants were part of official and folk medicine in the Slovenian territory. According to current ethnobotanical studies, folk use of Aconitum species is rarely reported in Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the folk medicinal use of Aconitum species in Solčavsko, Slovenia; to collect recipes for the preparation of Aconitum spp., indications for use, and dosing; and to investigate whether the folk use of aconite was connected to poisoning incidents. In Solčavsko, a remote alpine area in northern Slovenia, we performed semi-structured interviews with 19 informants in Solčavsko, 3 informants in Luče, and two retired physicians who worked in that area. Three samples of homemade ethanolic extracts were obtained from informants, and the concentration of aconitine was measured. In addition, four extracts were prepared according to reported recipes. All 22 informants knew of Aconitum spp. and their therapeutic use, and 5 of them provided a detailed description of the preparation and use of "voukuc", an ethanolic extract made from aconite roots. Seven informants were unable to describe the preparation in detail, since they knew of the extract only from the narration of others or they remembered it from childhood. Most likely, the roots of Aconitum tauricum and Aconitum napellus were used for the preparation of the extract, and the solvent was homemade spirits. Four informants kept the extract at home; two extracts were prepared recently (1998 and 2015). Three extracts were analyzed, and 2 contained aconitine. Informants reported many indications for the use of the extract; it was used internally and, in some cases, externally as well. The extract was also used in animals. The extract was measured in drops, but the number of drops differed among the informants. The informants reported nine poisonings with Aconitum spp., but none of
In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654
Hai-Long, Zhai; Shimin, Chen; Yalan, Lu
Although self-limiting, the common cold (gǎn mào) is highly prevalent. There are no effective antivirals to cure the common cold and few effective measures to prevent it, However, for thousands years, Chinese people have treated the common cold with natural herbs, According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory ( zhōng yī lǐ lùn), the common cold is considered as an exterior syndrome, which can be further divided into the wind-cold type ( fēng hán xíng), the wind-heat type ( fēng rè xíng), and the summer heat dampness type ( shǔ rè xíng). Since the most common type of common cold caught in winter and spring is the wind-cold type, the article introduced some Chinese folk prescriptions for the wind-cold type common cold with normal and weak physique, respectively. For thousands of years, Chinese folk prescriptions for the common cold, as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué), have been proven to be effective, convenient, cheap, and most importantly, safe. The Chinese folk prescriptions ( zhōng guó mín jiān chǔ fāng) for the wind-cold type common cold are quite suitable for general practitioners or patients with the wind-cold type common cold, to treat the disease. Of course, their pharmacological features and mechanisms of action need to be further studied.
Jesuthasan, Anternite Shanthi; Uluwaduge, Deepthi Inoka
Tamil culture has recognized the potential use of plant herbs for prevention and treatment of different diseases. These folk remedies have been practiced by Sri Lankan Tamils even after modernization. This review focuses on frequently used medicinal plants among Sri Lankan Tamil communities, such as Cuminum cyminum, Azadirechta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Sesamum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Plectranthus amboinicus, Allium sativum and Curcuma longa, for their documented medicinal properties, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and diuretic effects.
Mykytyn, Courtney Everts
Having enjoyed tremendous growth for the past 5 years, the anti-aging medicine movement is redefining aging so that it becomes a target for biomedical intervention. Targeting aging for intervention dislodges popular understandings of aging: for anti-aging practitioners it no longer matters if aging is natural since it can be itself the target of therapy. So-called "age-associated" diseases like cancer are, in this framework, conceived of as symptoms of aging. Anti-aging medicine is a broad term that may comprise groups selling remedies over the Internet, companies touting the "anti-aging"ness of their products, practitioners who work outside of scientific medicine, and practitioners of anti-aging medicine in clinics who believe that their work is strictly scientific. This article, drawing from more than 3 years of ethnographic interviews, participant observation in clinics and conferences, and a review of the literature, considers the last group. It examines the involvement stories of anti-aging medicine practitioners in two Western United States metropolitan cities. These stories reflect the practices of anti-aging medicine practitioners and the accompanying rationale for involvement. Often originally patients themselves, practitioners frame their involvement with the anti-aging movement in three ways. First, they describe aging as it is currently experienced as a time of decline, suffering, and weakness. This anguish is not inevitable, they argue, and their work toward treating aging biomedically is situated as clearly moral. Secondly, intense frustration with the current biomedical environment has motivated practitioners to look for other ways in which to practice: anti-aging medicine is their chosen alternative. Finally, with dramatic expectations of future biotechnologies and disdain for current medical treatments of old age, anti-aging practitioners embrace a scientific revolutionary identity. These stories of migrations from patient to practitioner reveal
Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Mehrzad, Kiani; Fakhredin, Taghaddosinejad
: To survey the extent of abuse and violence directed toward legal medicine practitioners during the course of their professional duties and to categorize the characteristics of such aggression. : Retrospective survey of the views of a large sample of Tehran's legal medicine practitioners by using a piloted anonymous questionnaire. : In all, 105 (86.1%) of the responders had experienced verbal abuse during the previous 12 months, 79 (64.7%) had experienced some sort of verbal abuse at least once a month, 39 (32%) had experienced verbal abuse every week, and 13 (10.7%) had experienced verbal abuse every day. Of the 122 legal medicine physicians, 39 (32%) were exposed to specific threats, 8 (6.6%) were exposed to physical action without injury, and 7 (5.7%) had experience serious incidents including threats with a weapon or attacks leading to physical injury over the previous year. Even assuming that all the nonresponders did not experience any violence, the aggression by patients affected 75% of legal medicine practitioners in the Tehran province. : Violence toward Tehran's legal medicine practitioners is very common and may be increasing. Some of the participating factors of aggression are potentially avoidable and practices should make strenuous attempts to identify such factors and remedy them. Staff training in interpersonal skills and recognizing anxious patients are essential. Doctors should avoid delays for patients by rearranging the booking policies, visit times, and duration. Victims of aggression must be followed up.
Abdallah, Emad Mohamed
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine. The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods. The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect. The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents.
Abdallah, Emad Mohamed
Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine. Materials and Methods: The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods. Results: The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect. Conclusion: The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents. PMID:27104041
Patil, M.V.; Patil, D.A.
The study concerns the first -hand information on 50 ethnomedicinal plants traditional used by aborigines and rural folks of Nasik district, Maharashtra, for the treatment of various human ailments and disorders. The paper gives botanical identity, local name, family and mode of administration. PMID:22557009
The relationship between orthodox or mainstream medicine and heterodox or alternative practices has often been expressed in terms of dichotomies, such as science versus anti-science or rationality versus irrationality. By studying the history of a company producing herbal medicines and homoepathic remedies in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s, this paper attempts to create a more differentiated picture. 'Dr. Madaus & Co.' was founded in 1919 by the three sons of a free church minister and his wife, who practised as a non-licensed healer herself. The company not only sold medicines, it also produced journals and books promoting heterodox healing methods and contributing to ongoing health political debates, for example over compulsory vaccination programmes, human experimentation, quackery, and a general 'crisis of medicine'. Gerhard Madaus, a medical doctor and one of the three founders, published in 1938 a three-volume Textbook of Biological Healing Methods, turning folk medicine into science. The essay follows the rise of the Madaus family firm and interprets the story of 'Dr. Madaus & Co.' as an example of social rationalization, emphasizing the role of commercial operations in twentieth-century alternative medicine in Germany.
This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Ben-Arye, Eran
Complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) plays an important role in culture-centered care for cancer patients in the Middle East. In this article, we have studied the attitudes of Arab CTM therapists concerning integration of complementary medicine within the conventional supportive cancer care of Arab patients in northern Israel. Semistructured interviews were held with 27 Arab therapists who use medicinal herbs, the Quran, and various CTM modalities, with the aim of characterizing their treatment practices and learning about their perspectives regarding conventional cancer care. We first summarized the different characteristics of the various CTM therapists, including training, typical practice, and so on. Thematic analysis revealed that folk healers and complementary medicine therapists describe their role as supportive and secondary to that of physicians. Their goal was not to cure patients with cancer but rather to enhance their quality of life by reducing the severity of both the disease symptoms and the side effects of cancer treatment. Religious healers, by contrast, purport to cure the disease. While folk healers opt for parallel alternative care and complementary therapists support integrative care, religious healers claimed that they offer an alternative to conventional medicine in terms of both etiology and practice. The majority of Arab CTM therapists support integration of their treatments with the conventional system, but in practice, they are not sure how to bring about this change or create a parallel model in which 2 different systems are active, but not integrated. Our findings emphasized the need to promote doctor-CTM practitioner communication based on structured referral and bidirectional consultation. Moreover, we recommend intensifying research on the efficacy and safety of CTM in the Middle East and the potential role in promoting culture-based supportive care.
The use of medicinal plants mixed with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) has been poorly studied in the ethnopharmacological literature so far. The Paraguayan Mestizo people have the longest tradition of using the yerba mate beverage, apart from the indigenous Guarani people. This study analyses the role of yerba mate and medicinal plants in the treatment of illnesses within Paraguayan folk medicine. The research was conducted among 100 Paraguayan migrants living in Misiones, Argentina, in 2014 and 2015. Yerba mate is not considered to be a medicinal plant by its own virtues but is culturally a very important type of medicinal plant intake. Ninety-seven species are employed in hot and cold versions of the yerba mate beverage. The most important species are as follows: Allophylus edulis (highest number of citations), Aristolochia triangularis (highest relative importance value), and Achyrocline flaccida and Achyrocline tomentosa (highest score by Index of Agreement on Species). The plants are used in the treatment of 18 medicinal categories, which include illnesses traditionally treated with plants: digestive system, humoral medicine, and relatively new health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and high levels of cholesterol. Newly incorporated medicinal plants, such as Moringa oleifera, are ingested predominantly or exclusively with the mate beverage. PMID:29725356
Gómez-Estrada, Harold; Díaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Franco-Ospina, Luís; Mercado-Camargo, Jairo; Guzmán-Ledezma, Jaime; Medina, José Domingo; Gaitán-Ibarra, Ricardo
Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the
Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new
Jeffus, Susanne; Wehrli, Gay
This article provides a concise overview of blood banking and transfusion medicine (BBTM) for the therapeutic apheresis medicine practitioner. It addresses the complete pathway from blood donor qualification to blood collection, to processing and storing blood components, to patient testing, to ordering blood components for therapeutic apheresis (TA) procedures, to preparing the component for transfusion, and finally to transfusion. The nurses, technologists, and physicians orchestrate these activities in concert to best serve patients undergoing TA procedures. Enhancing knowledge of these processes may improve the quality of patient care and the utilization of blood products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rappaport, H; Dent, P L
In an effort to identify the characteristics of folk psychotherapy that could account for its tenacity in East Africa, a total of 31 Tanzanian shamans were studied. It was found that patients with emotional problems make use of both the folk and Western therapists and that a clear conceptual distinction is made between the services offered. The range of techniques used, style of service delivered, and the fundamental (or underlying) model of causation were all analysed. It was concluded that folk therapy is an effective approach to psychosocial disorders which, in the future, should be considered a dynamic supplement to Western practices. Additionally, based on the appeal of the medicine man, new directions for Western psychotherapy were suggested.
Burman, Mary E.
Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…
Dahlhaus, Anne; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Guethlin, Corina
The aim of this study was to investigate how general practitioners react when their cancer patients show interest in complementary medicine, and how their reaction is related to their knowledge in the field. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 German general practitioners. Interviewees came from 5 different federal states and varied in terms of urban/rural setting, single/joint practice, additional certifications, gender and length of professional experience. Interviews were electronically recorded, transcribed and then analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. General practitioners feel largely responsible for providing information on complementary medicine to their cancer patients. However, uncertainty and a lack of knowledge concerning CAM lead mainly to reactive responses to patients' needs, and the general practitioners base their recommendations on personal experiences and attitudes. They wish to support their cancer patients and thus, in order to keep their patients' hopes up and maintain a trusting relationship, sometimes support complementary medicine, regardless of their own convictions. Although general practitioners see themselves as an important source of information on complementary medicine for their cancer patients, they also speak of their uncertainties and lack of knowledge. General practitioners would profit from training in complementary medicine enabling them to discuss this topic with their cancer patients in a proactive, open and honest manner. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy
The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.
Background In Spain, head lice are considered a therapeutic resource for the treatment of jaundice. All folk remedies based on the ingestion of these insects meet in the present document, previously dispersed among a large number of references. Methods An overview of the Spanish literature has been carried out. The most important databases have been consulted. All related works have been examined. Results Although the method of preparation is diverse and the dose varies, the primary recommendation is a transference ritual consisting of taking nine live lice for nine days on an empty stomach without the patient’s knowledge. This traditional knowledge survives in Spanish society, and constitutes an example of the interrelation between Spanish and Latin American folk medicines. Conclusions The survival of this therapy in the worldview of certain rural communities suggests the need to take into account the beliefs, ideas and behaviour patterns of popular culture in relation to health and disease. PMID:23876126
O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P
Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.
the Naval Health Research Center (protocol NHRC.2000.0007). Data Sources In addition to our longitudinal survey instrument , other data sources...megavitamin therapy, homeopathic remedies, hypnosis , massage therapy, relaxation, and spiritual healing. For the purposes of these analyses...acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic care, energy healing, folk medicine, hypnosis , and massage therapy were grouped together as practitioner-assisted
This article describes an exhibit entitled "Critter Folk" for the Betty Foy Sanders department of art at Georgia Southern University. The theme of the exhibit is folk art "critters"--crocodiles, chickens, cows, snakes, elephants, cats--from the Smith Callaway Banks Southern Folk Art Collection. The organizers invited two…
Cottingham, Phillip; Adams, Jon; Vempati, Ram; Dunn, Jill; Sibbritt, David
Despite the popularity of naturopathic and herbal medicine in New Zealand there remains limited data on New Zealand-based naturopathic and herbal medicine practice. In response, this paper reports findings from the first national survey examining the characteristics, perceptions and experiences of New Zealand-based naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners across multiple domains relating to their role and practice. An online survey (covering 6 domains: demographics; practice characteristics; research; integrative practice; regulation and funding; contribution to national health objectives) was administered to naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners. From a total of 338 naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners, 107 responded providing a response rate of 32%. Data were statistically analysed using STATA. A majority of the naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners surveyed were female (91%), and aged between 45 and 54 years. Most practiced part-time (64%), with practitioner caseloads averaging 8 new clients and over 20 follow-up clients per month. Our analysis shows that researched information impacts upon and is useful for naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners to validate their practices. However, the sources of researched information utilised by New Zealand naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners remain variable, with many sources beyond publications in peer-reviewed journals being utilised. Most naturopathic and herbal medicine practitioners (82%) supported registration, with statutory registration being favoured (75%). Integration with conventional care was considered desirable by the majority of naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners surveyed (83%). Naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners feel that they contribute to several key national health objectives, including: improved nutrition (93%); increased physical activity (85%); reducing incidence and impact of CVD (79%); reducing incidence and impact of cancer (68
Choudhari, Milind K; Punekar, Sachin A; Ranade, Ramchandra V; Paknikar, Kishore M
Stingless bee (Trigona sp.) propolis is widely used in the folk medicine of Western Maharashtra, India to treat a variety of ailments. To determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Indian stingless bee propolis. Chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was determined by GC-MS analysis. A range of bacteria including multidrug resistant (MDR) cultures as well as a yeast strain was tested for antimicrobial activity using EEP. MIC, MBC, MFC, Kill curves and post agent effect (PAE) of the EEP were assessed using standard microbiological methods. GC-MS analysis revealed that propolis contained 24 compounds (9 known and 15 newly reported). Many of these were known bioactive compounds, including antimicrobials. The MICs of EEP were in the range of 1.21-9.75μg/mL while the MBCs/MFC were between 2.43 and 19.5μg/mL. The time required to achieve 90% (1 log(10)) reduction in culture growth ranged between 1.06 and 3.53h at their respective MIC values. PAE for all the cultures was >24h. Indian stingless bee propolis has a complex nature with 24 chemical compounds. It has a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The latter finding, in conjunction with other bioactive properties, could provide a scientific basis to its popular use in the Indian folk medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan
Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.
Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh
Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.
Muršić, Ivanka; Kuric, Igor; Raguž, Marija; Kovačević, Tatjana; Muršić, Dora
Scabies and pediculosis are common parasitic infestations of the skin and hair, manifesting with intense pruritus and effectively treated with modern medications. Because of the attached social stigma linking it with poverty and poor hygiene, patients will often attempt alternative folk-based remedies before confiding in their physicians. We conducted a comprehensive bibliographical study of historic folk literature and interviewed 70 individuals experienced in everyday application of folk medicine in order to categorize available remedies and provide a modern, scientific comment on their effectiveness and dangers. Compositions containing sulfur, copper sulfate, petroleum, coal, tar, and highly alkaline soaps and washing solutions undoubtedly have scabicidal and pediculicidal properties, but they are used either in high concentrations with greater possibility of intoxication and irritation or lower concentrations with questionable therapeutic benefit. These remedies, extracted from historical-cultural frameworks, are poorly adapted to modern standards and can lead to side-effects and complications. Physicians today have to be aware of the reasons their patients seek alternative remedies and know the substances and procedures they may use in self-healing, so as to be able to provide the help that may be needed if those complications occur.
Karabulut, Ebru Olcay; Dogan, Pinar Karacan
This research was carried out with the help of metaphor to determine the perception of folk dances trainers regarding the concept of folk dances. The study was carried out with a total of 141 folk dances trainers (85 men and 56 women), who depend on the Folk Dances Federation of Turkey. In the study, a semi-structured interview form was used to…
Lamorde, Mohammed; Tabuti, John R S; Obua, Celestino; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Lanyero, Hindam; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Bbosa, Godfrey S; Lubega, Aloysius; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Ryan, Mairin; Waako, Paul J; Merry, Concepta
In Uganda, there are over one million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS recognition, control and treatment in Sembabule, Kamuli, Kabale and Gulu districts in Uganda. In this study, 25 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The TMPs could recognize important signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections. The majority of practitioners treated patients who were already receiving allopathic medicines including antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) prescribed by allopathic practitioners. There were 103 species of medicinal plants identified in this survey. Priority plants identified include Aloe spp., Erythrina abyssinica, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Psorospermum febrifugum, Mangifera indica and Warburgia salutaris. There was low consensus among TMPs on the plants used. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used except in Gulu where mono-preparations were common. Plant parts frequently used were leaves (33%), stem bark (23%) and root bark (18%). About 80% of preparations were administered orally in variable doses over varied time periods. The TMP had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Numerous medicinal plants for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients were identified in the four districts surveyed and the role of these plants in the management of opportunistic infections warrants further investigation as these plants may have a role in Uganda's public health approach to HIV/AIDS control. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All
Shih, Chun-Chuan; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Ta-Liang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Liao, Chien-Chang
Background. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with users of folk therapy in Taiwan. Methods. Using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 16,750 adults aged 20 years and older. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, medical utilization, and health behaviors were compared between people using and not using folk therapy. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of factors associated with folk therapy were analyzed. Results. The one-month prevalence of folk therapy use was 6.8%, which was significantly associated with ages of 30–59 years (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.49–2.63), women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.40–1.90), nonindigenous population (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.14–3.17), having two or more unhealthy lifestyle habits (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.26–1.81), high density of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physicians (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.20–1.62), and being ill without receiving medical care in past six months (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.76–2.53). Medical care utilization of TCM and Western medicine were also associated factors for folk therapy. Conclusions. The use of folk therapy is correlated with sociodemographics, lifestyle and health behaviors. PMID:26170878
Yang, Lu; Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David William
Emerging evidence has shown that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a positive effect on arthritis. This research provides the first critical, systematic examination of TCM practitioners' perceptions of TCM use for people with arthritis. An online survey was distributed to all TCM professionals including acupuncturists and Chinese herbal medicine practitioners registered with the Practitioner Research and Collaborate Initiative (PRACI) practitioner database. The survey questions focus on practitioner characteristics, practice characteristics and clinical management approaches regarding arthritis care. The survey attracted a response rate of 53% (n=52). The average age of the respondents was 49.9 years, more than half were female, and the majority held a bachelor degree or higher qualification. More than two thirds of TCM practitioners in our study worked with other health professionals, while they had a high level of referral relationships with a wide range of conventional, allied health and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. Most of the TCM practitioners reported that their patients with arthritis used other treatments alongside TCM and a large number of the TCM practitioners who participated believed that TCM was effective for treating arthritis. The TCM profession represents a substantial component of the healthcare field in Australia, and treating patients with arthritis appears to be an important area of TCM practice, among others. Further detailed research is needed to help ensure effective, safe patient care for those with arthritis who may be utilising TCM alongside a broader range of conventional medicine, allied health, and other CAM treatments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Godin, Gaston; Beaulieu, Dominique; Touchette, Jean-Sebastien; Lambert, Leo-Daniel; Dodin, Sylvie
The authors' goal was to identify factors explaining intention to encourage a patient to follow complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment among general practitioners (GPs), fourth-year medical students, and residents in family medicine. They surveyed 500 GPs and 904 medical students via a self-administered mailed questionnaire that…
Stevens, Phillips, Jr., Ed.
This serial issue contains a special section with five articles all on the subject of "Folk Arts in Education": (1) "Folk Arts-in-Education Programs in New York State" (Kathleen Mundell); (2) "The Cultural Heritage Project: Presenting Traditional Arts in a Suburban Setting" (Kathleen Mundell); (3) "Folk Arts in…
Chung, Vincent CH; Law, Michelle PM; Wong, Samuel YS; Mercer, Stewart W; Griffiths, Sian M
Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT) for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in the future. PMID:19228379
Fisher, Carole; Adams, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David
To explore the prevalence with which Australian Western herbalists treat menstrual problems and their related treatment, experiences, perceptions, and interreferral practices with other health practitioners. Members of the Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative practice-based research network identifying as Western Herbalists (WHs) completed a specifically developed, online questionnaire. Western Herbalists regularly treat menstrual problems, perceiving high, though differential, levels of effectiveness. For menstrual problems, WHs predominantly prescribe individualised formulas including core herbs, such as Vitex agnus-castus, and problem-specific herbs. Estimated clients' weekly cost (median = $25.00) and treatment duration (median = 4-6 months) covering this Western herbal medicine treatment appears relatively low. Urban-based women are more likely than those rurally based to have used conventional treatment for their menstrual problems before consulting WHs (p = .001). Only 19% of WHs indicated direct contact by conventional medical practitioners regarding treatment of clients' menstrual problems despite 42% indicating clients' conventional practitioners recommended consultation with WH. Western herbal medicine may be a substantially prevalent, cost-effective treatment option amongst women with menstrual problems. A detailed examination of the behaviour of women with menstrual problems who seek and use Western herbal medicine warrants attention to ensure this healthcare option is safe, effective, and appropriately co-ordinated within women's wider healthcare use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Abbas, M A
Male sexual dysfunction is a serious problem which has an impact on the quality of life. In Jordanian folk medicine, 56 plant species were reported to be used by males to improve sexual potency and as aphrodisiacs. The aim of this study was to search for scientific evidence justifying their folk use. Of the 15 studied plants, only five were found to enhance spermatogenesis. The other 10 were reported to decrease spermatogenesis at least by one study. The majority of the studied plants possessed a protective effect on testis in different in vivo models as well as antioxidant activities. The effect of these plants on steroidogenesis and the hypothalamic-gonadal axis was also reviewed. The effect of only five plants was studied on sexual behaviour enhancement and three of them were active. Three of the four studied plants enhanced erection. The mechanism of action of active constituents isolated from the studied plants was also investigated. In conclusion, many plants used in Jordanian folk medicine decreased or had no effect on spermatogenesis in animal models. These plants have antioxidant and/or adaptogenic effects, and this may result in a beneficial action on male reproductive system. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Holikatti, Prabhakar C; Kar, Nilamadhab
It is common knowledge that patients seek treatment for psychiatric illnesses from various sources including the alternative medicine. Views and attitudes of clinicians often influence the provision of appropriate mental health care for these patients. In this context, it was intended to study the views of the practitioners of alternative medicine toward psychiatric disorders, patients and interventions. The study was conducted as a questionnaire-based survey among a sample of practitioners of alternative medicine specifically Ayurveda and Homeopathy, who were practicing in Solapur and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka states in India. A semi-structured Attitudinal Inventory for Psychiatry questionnaire was used. Demographic and professional data were collected. Out of 62 practitioners approached, 50 responded (80.6%). There were no significant differences in the views of practitioners toward psychiatry and psychiatrists based on respondents' gender, place of residence, location of practice, type of alternative medicine, exposure to psychiatric patients, or if they knew someone with psychiatric illness. Attitudes were generally positive, but variable. Among negative observations were that approximately 60% of respondents felt that a patient can be disadvantaged by being given a psychiatric label and 58% believed that emotions are difficult to handle. A considerable proportion (40%) of the respondents felt doctors other than psychiatrists were unable to identify psychiatric disorders. This study's findings suggest that practitioners of alternative medicine have mixed views about mental illness, patients and treatment. Some of their negative views and perceived inability to identify psychiatric disorders may be addressed through further training, information sharing and collaborative work.
Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and
Stevens, Phillips, Jr., Ed.
"Marketing Folk Art" is a special section (pages 43-89) of this serial issue addressing the folklorists' role in developing marketing strategies to improve the lot of folk artists and protect their traditional forms of expression from commercial exploitation. The following six articles, introduced by Rosemary Joyce, focus on these…
Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations). Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources. PMID:18162135
Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations). Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.
King, Rauni Prittinen
Biofield therapies (BTs) are increasingly employed in contemporary healthcare. In this white paper, we review specific challenges faced by biofield practitioners resulting from a lack of (1) a common scientific definition of BT; (2) common educational standards for BT training (including core competencies for clinical care); (3) collaborative team care education in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and in integrative health and medicine (IHM); (4) a focused agenda in BT research; and (5) standardized devices and scientifically validated mechanisms in biofield research. We present a description of BT and discuss its current status and challenges as an integrative healthcare discipline. To address the challenges cited and to enhance collaboration across disciplines, we propose (1) standardized biofield education that leads to professional licensure and (2) interprofessional education (IPE) competencies in BT training required for licensed healthcare practitioners and encouraged for other practitioners using these therapies. Lastly, we discuss opportunities for growth and a potential strategic agenda to achieve these goals. The Academy of Integrative Health and Medicine (AIHM) provides a unique forum to facilitate development of this emerging discipline, to facilitate IPE, and to further increase the availability of BT to patients. PMID:26665047
Lei, Hou-Xing; Li, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Song-Ming; Fan, Li-Hua; Li, Shui-Fu; Cheng, Wen-Liang; Hua, Jin-Wei; Yu, Hua-Li; Dai, De-Xiong; Xie, Yuan-Wei
To make a thorough investigation of the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in our country, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and the endemic medicinal plant species, Field surveyed was conducted with 25 She people mainly lived area (county, district or city) throughout the country, the folk prescription and treatment cases provided by She's medical personnel, the drug usage and dosage, the commonly used traditional She's medicine and drug samples were collected. And the distribution, growing environment of these plants were investigated, their characteristics, photographs, GPS data and track were record , and the fresh wax leaf or plants specimens were collected. In total 1 600 varieties of folk medicine of She's nationality, 450 disease names and 1 016 prescriptions were collected. 520 kinds of these medicinal plants were commonly used, growing mainly distributed in the southeastern China, about 200 meters above sea level to 1 500 meters. There are 5 First-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), 15 second-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), and 11 She characteristic medicinal plants in our study, they belong to 144 families, 312 genera 494 species, 2 subspecies, 17 varieties, 3 forms and 1 cultivated varieties of She's nationality. Folk medicine usage is different from the traditional Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine. This survey finds out the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in China, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and commonly used drugs, and found the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the She's nationality endemic medicinal plants, which provides a basis for further development and use the traditional She's medicine resources.
Alves, Erika P; de F Lima, Rennaly; de Almeida, Carolina M; Freires, Irlan A; Rosalen, Pedro L; Ruiz, Ana Ltg; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Godoy, Gustavo P; Pereira, Jozinete V; de Brito Costa, Edja Mm
Bauhinia forficata and Cnidoscolus quercifolius plants are commonly used in folk medicine. However, few studies have investigated their therapeutic potential. Herein, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of B. forficata and C. quercifolius extracts against microorganisms of clinical relevance and their antiproliferative potential against tumor cells. The following tests were performed: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm adhesion, and effects on cell morphology. Antiproliferative tests were carried out with human keratinocytes and six tumor lines. Bauhinia forficata showed antimicrobial activity only against C. albicans with MIC of 15.62 ug/mL and MFC higher than 2000 ug/mL. It also inhibited biofilm adhesion and caused alterations in cell morphology. Cnidoscolus quercifolius showed no significant activity (MIC > 2.0 mg/mL) against the strains. Bauhinia forficata and C. quercifolius extracts showed cytostatic activity against the tumor cells. Bauhinia forficata has promising anti-Cand/da activity and should be further investigated for its therapeutic potential. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infectious processes has an important function nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.
Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh
While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.
Mist, Scott; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Aickin, Mikel
To investigate whether a training process that focused on a questionnaire-based diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and developing diagnostic consensus, would improve the agreement of TCM diagnoses among 10 TCM practitioners evaluating patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD). Evaluation of a diagnostic training program at the Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, and the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine, Portland, Oregon. Screened participants for a study of TCM for TMJD. PRACTITIONERS: Ten (10) licensed acupuncturists with a minimum of 5 years licensure and education in Chinese herbs. A training session using a questionnaire-based diagnostic form was conducted, followed by waves of diagnostic sessions. Between sessions, practitioners discussed the results of the previous round of participants with a focus on reducing variability in primary diagnosis and severity rating of each diagnosis: 3 waves of 5 patients were assessed by 4 practitioner pairs for a total of 120 diagnoses. At 18 months, practitioners completed a recalibration exercise with a similar format with a total of 32 diagnoses. These diagnoses were then examined with respect to the rate of agreement among the 10 practitioners using inter-rater correlations and kappas. The inter-rater correlation with respect to the TCM diagnoses among the 10 practitioners increased from 0.112 to 0.618 with training. Statistically significant improvements were found between the baseline and 18 month exercises (p < 0.01). Inter-rater reliability of TCM diagnosis may be improved through a training process and a questionnaire-based diagnosis process. The improvements varied by diagnosis, with the greatest congruence among primary and more severe diagnoses. Future TCM studies should consider including calibration training to improve the validity of results.
Butler, Dennis J; Holloway, Richard L; Fons, Dominique
This article describes the development of a Behavioral Medicine track in a family medicine residency designed to train physicians to proactively and consistently apply advanced skills in psychosocial medicine, psychiatric care, and behavioral medicine. The Behavioral Medicine track emerged from a behavioral science visioning retreat, an opportunity to restructure residency training, a comparative family medicine-psychiatry model, and qualified residents with high interest in behavioral science. Training was restructured to increase rotational opportunities in core behavioral science areas and track residents were provided an intensive longitudinal counseling seminar and received advanced training in psychopharmacology, case supervision, and mindfulness. The availability of a Behavioral Medicine track increased medical student interest in the residency program and four residents have completed the track. All track residents have presented medical Grand Rounds on behavioral science topics and have lead multiple workshops or research sessions at national meetings. Graduate responses indicate effective integration of behavioral medicine skills and abilities in practice, consistent use of brief counseling skills, and good confidence in treating common psychiatric disorders. As developed and structured, the Behavioral Medicine track has achieved the goal of producing "assertive practitioners of behavioral science in family medicine" residents with advanced behavioral science skills and abilities who globally integrate behavioral science into primary care.
Goldstein, Carly M; Minges, Karl E; Schoffman, Danielle E; Cases, Mallory G
Behavioral medicine training is due for an overhaul given the rapid evolution of the field, including a tight funding climate, changing job prospects, and new research and industry collaborations. The purpose of the present study was to collect responses from trainee and practicing members of a multidisciplinary professional society about their perceptions of behavioral medicine training and their suggestions for changes to training for future behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners. A total of 162 faculty and 110 students (total n = 272) completed a web-based survey on strengths of their current training programs and ideas for changes. Using a mixed-methods approach, the survey findings are used to highlight seven key areas for improved preparation of the next generation of behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners, which are grant writing, interdisciplinary teamwork, advanced statistics and methods, evolving research program, publishable products from coursework, evolution and use of theory, and non-traditional career paths.
This paper makes a case for the existence and study of the wisdom of practice by looking at educational practitioners' concepts as its locus and source. (These concepts may also be described as the accumulated "folk wisdom" of the teaching community). These communal concepts, part of an accumulated lore regarding teaching and education…
Folklore and folk arts encompass the body of traditional knowledge learned and artifacts produced outside of formal institutions as a result of participation in folk groups. A great portion of daily life and culture is folk. Folklore and folk arts acquire distinctly local characteristics through the influences of geography, history, or talented…
Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press.
Swisher, Christopher C.
This description of the folk music "industry" as it exists in America and the British Isles focuses on the output of many small record labels which have evolved out of the folk revival. Addresses and descriptions of 16 major producers of folk music are included. Eleven references are cited. (EJS)
Instructional Technology Report, 1975
This issue is dedicated to folk media. Using Indonesia for his case study, Dr. Nat Colletta analyzes traditional culture as a medium for development. Juan Diaz Bordenave expresses doubts about adapting folk media to development objectives; Susan Hostetler and Arthur Gillette report on uses of the theater to promote development objectives; and…
Martinez, Leslie N.
A telephone survey was conducted with a large sample of Mexican Americans from border (n = 1,001) and nonborder (n = 1,030) regions in Texas. Patterns of traditional folk and mainstream complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use were analyzed with two binary logistic regressions, using gender, self-rated health, confidence in medical…
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Masood, Imran; Low, Bee Yean; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-ud-din
Objectives: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer’s exact test was applied to see the association between variables. Results: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a ‘copy of the brand name medicines’ and ‘interchangeable with brand name medicines’ (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35
Ness, R C; Wintrob, R M
All societies have developed ways of dealing with physical and mental illness, defined as folk healing systems. The authors review the systems of folk healing that have evolved in different cultural groups in the United States. They describe the faith healing practices of fundamentalist Christian groups, the belief in rootwork among white and black people in the southeastern United States, curanderismo among Mexican-Americans, and espiritismo among Americans from Puerto Rico. Most believers in folk healing also go to physicians for medical care. The authors argue that physicians should familiarize themselves with patients' folk healing beliefs in order to serve them more effectively.
Jalili, Mohammad; Sadeghipour Roodsari, Gholamreza; Bassir Nia, Anahita
Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress.
JALILI, Mohammad; SADEGHIPOUR ROODSARI, Gholamreza; BASSIR NIA, Anahita
Abstract Background Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Results Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Conclusion Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress. PMID:26060665
Kretchy, Irene A; Okere, Harry A; Osafo, Joseph; Afrane, Barima; Sarkodie, Joseph; Debrah, Philip
Integrative medicine refers to ongoing efforts to combine the best of conventional and evidence-based complementary therapies. While this effort for collaboration is increasing, traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TM-CAM) remains poorly integrated into the current healthcare system of Ghana. At present, it is not clear if practitioners of mainstream medicine favor integrative medicine. The present study, therefore, sought to explore the perceptions of conventional healthcare professionals on integrative medicine. A qualitative design composed of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 23 conventional healthcare professionals comprising pharmacists, physicians, nurses and dieticians from two quasi-government hospitals in Accra, Ghana. Participants' knowledge of TM-CAM was low, and although they perceived alternative medicine as important to current conventional healthcare in Ghana, they expressed anxieties about the potential negative effects of the use of TM-CAM. This paradox was found to account for the low levels of use among these professionals, as well as the low level of recommendation to their patients. The practitioners surveyed recommended that alternative medicine could be integrated into mainstream allopathic healthcare in Ghana through improving knowledge, training as well as addressing concerns of safety and efficacy. These findings are discussed under the themes: the knowledge gap, the paradox of TM-CAM, experience of use and prescription, and guided integration. We did not observe any differences in views among the participants. The conventional healthcare professionals were ready to accept the idea of integrative medicine based on knowledge of widespread use and the potential role of TM-CAM products and practices in improving healthcare delivery in the country. However, to achieve an institutional integration, practitioners' understanding of TM-CAM must be improved, with specific attention to issues of safety, regulation and
Hu, Jian-Shan; Li, Pu; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xin-Chun; Lin, Li
To investigated Shui nationality folk medicine's awareness to orthopedics & traumatology, the history of orthopedics & traumatology treatment, Shui nationality folk doctors' practicing medicine, heritage, diagnosis and treatment methods and tools, etc, through investigated drug resources category and distribution characteristics of Shui nationality medicine to orthopedics & traumatology treatment, explored and finished Shui nationality medicine orthopedics & traumatology treatment theoretical system. After more than 5 years' exploration and finishing, preliminarily formed the theoretical system framework and medicine application characteristics of Shui nationality medicine treating orthopedics & traumatology. Shui nationality medicine treatment orthopedics & traumatology has distinctive national style, and worthy to further exploration and research.
Ip, Po Keung
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…
Lee, Geraldine; Gilroy, Jo-Anne; Ritchie, Alistair; Grover, Vimal; Gull, Keetje; Gruber, Pascale
With a chronic shortage of doctors in intensive care, alternative roles are being explored. One of these is the role of the Advanced Critical Care Practitioner. The Advanced Critical Care Practitioner Curriculum was developed by the Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine and is used to provide a structured programme of training. The Advanced Critical Care Practitioner programme consists of an academic and clinical component. This article outlines a practical approach of how the programme was developed and is currently being delivered at a single institution. This new advanced practice role offers opportunities to fill gaps in the medical workforce, improve continuity of patient care, provide mentoring and training for less experienced staff as well as offering a rewarding clinical role.
Bellows, Jennifer Whitfield; Douglass, Katherine; Atilla, Ridvan; Smith, Jeffrey; Kapur, G Bobby
The specialty of Emergency Medicine has enjoyed recognition for nearly 20 years in Turkey. However, the majority of underserved and rural Turkish emergency departments are staffed by general practitioners who lack formal training in the specialty and have few opportunities to increase emergency medicine-specific knowledge and skills. To address this "practitioner gap," the authors developed a four-phase comprehensive emergency medicine education and training program for general practitioners practicing in government hospitals in Turkey. From April 2006 until June 2009, 42 courses were taught by 62 trainers across seven regions in Turkey. A total of 2,262 physicians were trained. The mean course pre-test score for all regions was 42.3 (95% CI 39.8 to 44.7). The mean course post-test score was 70.1 (95% CI 67.2 to 72.9). The difference between the mean scores was 27.8 (95% CI 25.3 to 30.4, P <0.0001), reflecting an improvement of 65.7%. A partnership between an academic emergency medicine department and an emergency medicine society to implement country-wide training of physicians practicing in public emergency departments can serve as a successful model for capacity-building global emergency medicine endeavors.
Wadley, Susan S., Ed.
The collection of articles in this volume focuses on different kinds of folk literature from Bengal, Tamilnad, Bihar, Hindi-speaking North India, and Nepal. An introductory article by S.S. Wadley discusses types of folk literature in Karimpur. The remaining articles are organized according to cultural themes: "The Lustful Stepmother in the…
Amidst the substantial change currently gripping primary health care are two developments central to contemporary debate regarding the very nature, territory and identity of general practice - the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the rise of evidence-based medicine (EBM). This paper reports findings from a study based upon 25 in-depth interviews with general practitioners (GPs) personally practising complementary therapies alongside more conventional medicine to treat their NHS patients. The paper outlines the GPs' perceptions of EBM, its relationship to their personal development of CAM, and their notions of good clinical practice more generally. Analysis of the GPs' accounts demonstrates how CAM can be seen as a useful resource with which some GPs defend their clinical autonomy from what they perceive to be the threat of EBM. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Reproductive toxicology and clastogenic evaluation in mice of a phytotherapeutic formulation obtained from Cinchona calisaya Weddel (Rubiaceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine as female fertility stimulant.
do Amaral, Vera Lucia Langaro; Frajbat, Marcel; Petreanu, Marcel; Zermiani, Tailyn; de Freitas, Rilton Alves; Maistro, Edson Luis; Niero, Rivaldo; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni
In Brazil, a phytotherapeutic preparation produced from a standardized tincture of Cinchona calisaya Weddel such that each mL of product contains 400µg of quinine, known in Portuguese as Água Inglesa(®) (English water), is indicated by the manufacturer as a tonic, appetite stimulant, and digestive. However, this preparation has long been used in folk medicine as a female fertility stimulant. Despite its widespread use in folk medicine to stimulate female fertility, no study has been undertaken to assess the potential teratogenic and genotoxic effects of this phytotherapeutic preparation. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible toxic reproductive effects in mice caused by exposure to Água Inglesa(®), either before mating or during the pre- and post-embryo implantation periods. The genotoxic potential was evaluated using the micronucleus assay. Virgin female mice, with at least one estrous cycle evidenced by vaginal cytology, were divided into five groups of 15 individuals each (Group I - control, Group II - treated with ethanol solution at 16%, Groups III, IV and V treated with phytotherapeutic preparation at 1.5mL/kg/day, 3.0mL/kg/day and 4.5mL/kg/day, respectively). After the first 28 days of treatment, females were caged individually with adult fertile males. Pregnant females continued to receive treatment for seven days (preimplantation period). Body weight was recorded weekly during treatment. Signs of toxicity (weight loss, food intake, piloerection, apathy, prostration, diarrhea, seizures, behavioral changes, and locomotion) were also observed. The females were sacrificed on the 15th day of pregnancy, uterine horns were evaluated for implantation, and the placental index was recorded. In the micronucleus test, 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) per animal, obtained from bone marrow, were scored. Results The results showed that exposure of the females during the pre- and post-implantation periods did not significantly alter the
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…
Longitudinal analysis of associations between women's consultations with complementary and alternative medicine practitioners/use of self-prescribed complementary and alternative medicine and menopause-related symptoms, 2007-2010.
Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David W
This study aims to determine associations between consultations with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners/use of self-prescribed CAM and menopause-related symptoms. Data were obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equations were used to conduct longitudinal data analyses, which were restricted to women born in 1946-1951 who were surveyed in 2007 (survey 5; n = 10,638) and 2010 (survey 6; n = 10,011). Women with menopause-related symptoms were more likely to use self-prescribed CAM but were not more likely to consult a CAM practitioner. Overall, CAM use was lower among women who had undergone hysterectomy or women who had undergone oophorectomy, compared with naturally postmenopausal women, and decreased with increasing age of postmenopausal women. Weak associations between CAM use and hot flashes were observed. Women experiencing hot flashes were more likely to consult a massage therapist (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.20) and/or use self-prescribed herbal medicines (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23) than women not experiencing hot flashes. Consultations with CAM practitioners and use of self-prescribed CAM among naturally or surgically postmenopausal women are associated with menopause-related symptoms. Our study findings should prompt healthcare providers, in particular family medicine practitioners, to be cognizant of clinical evidence for CAM typically used for the management of common menopause-related symptoms in their aim to provide safe, effective, and coordinated care for women.
Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Aghamohammadali-Sarraf, Fatemeh; Badiei, Simin; Faraji, Zakie; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad
Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice. Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and used in this study. The herbs were administered by gavage for 4 weeks to D-galactose-aged animals at the selected doses (mg/kg/day) as follows: Zingiber officinale (250), Glycyrrhiza glabra (150), Rosmarinus officinalis (300), Peganum harmala (50), Aloe vera (150), Satureja hortensis (200), Teucrium scordium (200), Hypericum perforatum (135) and Silybum marianum (150). One group of animals was assigned as sham and not given D-galactose. Results: At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukine-1β (IL-β), interlukine-6 (IL-6), NF-kappaB (NF-κb), total antioxidant power (TAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation (LPO) marker and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Conclusion: These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes. PMID:24494070
Wagstaff, C R D; Gilmore, S; Thelwell, R C
Despite the emergence of and widespread uptake of a growing range of medical and scientific professions in elite sport, such environs present a volatile professional domain characterized by change and unprecedentedly high turnover of personnel. This study explored sport medicine and science practitioners' experiences of organizational change using a longitudinal design over a 2-year period. Specifically, data were collected in three temporally defined phases via 49 semi-structured interviews with 20 sport medics and scientists employed by three organizations competing in the top tiers of English football and cricket. The findings indicated that change occurred over four distinct stages; anticipation and uncertainty, upheaval and realization, integration and experimentation, normalization and learning. Moreover, these data highlight salient emotional, behavioral, and attitudinal experiences of medics and scientists, the existence of poor employment practices, and direct and indirect implications for on-field performance following organizational change. The findings are discussed in line with advances to extant change theory and applied implications for prospective sport medics and scientists, sport organizations, and professional bodies responsible for the training and development of neophyte practitioners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yang, Huiling; Ding, Chenxu; Duan, Yuanwen; Liu, Jianquan
Concentrations of seven phytochemical constituents (swertiamarin, mangiferin, swertisin, oleanolic acid, 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone and 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone) of "ZangYinChen" (Swertia mussotii, a herb used in Tibetan folk medicine) were determined and compared in plants collected from naturally distributed high-altitude populations and counterparts that had been artificially cultivated at low altitudes. Levels of mangiferin, the most abundant active compound in this herb, were significantly lower in cultivated samples and showed a negative correlation with altitude. The other constituents were neither positively nor negatively correlated with cultivation at low altitude. Concentrations of all of the constituents varied substantially with growth stage and were highest at the bud stage in the cultivars, but there were no distinct differences between flowering and fruiting stages in this respect.
The current popularity of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) generates many challenges to medical ethics. The one discussed here is the advice offered by CAM practitioners. Using selected examples, the author tries to demonstrate that some of the advice issued through the popular media or provided by acupuncturists, chiropractors, herbalists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and doctors is misleading or dangerous. This, the author argues, can impinge on the main principle of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, and autonomy. We should work toward correcting this deplorable situation.
De La Cancela, Victor; Martinez, Iris Zavala
Identifies limitations of culturalist perspective often advocated by Latino mental health workers outlines folk healing practices they favor. Notes that culturalist perspective suffers from ahistorical/asocial/static conceptualization, and lacks analysis of class/sex/structural dimensions of so-called cultural expressions. Calls for recognition of…
Ahmed, Md Nasir; Kabidul Azam, Md Nur
Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia.
Creese, Angela; Wu, Chao-Jung; Blackledge, Adrian
This paper considers the processes of using folk stories for the teaching of community languages in a UK complementary school. We look at the appropriation of folk stories by teachers to teach young people Mandarin while also considering their possibilities as heritage texts. We consider how the teacher and students use the folk story as…
van Dam, F S
As a result of the illness and treatment of the Dutch comedian Sylvia Millecam, who died of the consequences of an untreated mammary carcinoma following a quest for help from a series of practitioners of alternative medicine, the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate has proposed measures designed to prevent a repetition of such a shortcoming in the delivered care. The measures include the compulsory registration of practitioners of alternative medicine, the restriction of diagnostic procedures to regular physicians, the obligation to co-operate with the best possible treatment for the patient in question, mutual exchange of information between practitioners of regular and alternative medicine, and a compulsory protocol regarding the therapeutic agreement with the patient if the regular route is not followed. How feasible these measures are remains a question. A positive aspect of the report is the attention given to the shortcomings in the care provided by the alternative circuit and the deterrent effect of the present case.
The importance of learning new movement skills is shown in relation to learning folk dances. Folk dancing not only improves physical skills, but also results in an understanding and appreciation of the richness of other cultures. (JN)
Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather
The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.
Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations. PMID
Gras, Airy; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan; Garnatje, Teresa
Most ethnobotanical research bases its analyses on individual taxa catalogues and their uses, rather than on mixtures. However, mixtures constitute an important chapter of our different lines of research and they represent a large volume of information. The relevance of these data in folk medicine could be explained as a response to the cure of multicausal etiology diseases or by a possible polyvalent effect of the mixture as opposed to the effect of each taxon alone. The main goals are: i) to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of these mixtures; ii) to carry out a comparison among the mixtures in two Catalan territories and their floristic composition; iii) to assess the worth of families association; and, iv) to evaluate whether the plants claimed to be used in mixtures have contraindications or possible negative interactions according to phytopharmaceutical literature. The ultimate goal is to test a protocol that can be implemented in similar studies. We have used data on medicinal plant mixtures obtained from two extensive ethnobotanical field studies carried out in two Catalan districts, Alt Empordà and Ripollès. The quantitative analyses by means of descriptive statistics were carried out with Excel. New contributions like the implementation of the Shannon index to quantify the diversity of families in plant combinations, the creation of a new index to calculate the taxon importance in mixtures, or the use of a social network analysis to study the connection between botanical families have been employed in this work. In total, a set of 484 mixtures from Alt Empordà and Ripollès (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) have been analysed: 462 for human use and 22 for veterinary. Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis are among the most commonly used species in mixtures. The aerial part of the plant is the most used, and the anticatarrhal usage is the most frequent in both territories. A wide diversity of families has been observed in mixtures and
Barkaoui, M; Katiri, A; Boubaker, H; Msanda, F
In Morocco, diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with more than 1.5 million cases in 2014. Medicinal plants are widely used by the Moroccan population to treat the illness. The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit provinces. The survey was carried out by means of semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 380 interviews were conducted with traditional health practitioners and knowledgeable villagers. The data were analyzed through use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and relative frequency of citation (RFC). In total, 48 plant species belonging to 25 families were reported. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae were reported as the most represented families. Six plants are reported for the first time as used in traditional treatment of diabetes and one plant species was previously unknown for its medicinal use to treat diabetes in Morocco. The most frequently cited plant species are Allium sativum L., Salvia officinalis L., Marrubium vulgare L. and Lavandula dentata L. Leaves were the most cited plant part used, decoction is the preferred mode of preparation. This study showed the importance of folk medicine in the healthcare system for the local people living in the study area. The current study represents a useful documentation, which can contribute to preserving knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in this region and to explore the phytochemical and pharmacological potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi
For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491
Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were
Adler, Shelley R.; Wrubel, Judith; Hughes, Ellen; Beinfield, Harriet
Older patients are more likely than ever to be under the care of both physicians and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, yet there is little research on older patients’ experience of these different relationships. This article addresses older breast cancer patients’ seeking of concurrent care and examines patients’ understandings of interactions with physicians and CAM practitioners. This is a qualitative study of a random, population-based sample of 44 older women with breast cancer who are simultaneously under the care of at least 1 physician and 1 CAM practitioner. PMID:19147647
The physical, social, and music attributes inherent to folk dancing make it an ideal component of music education curricula. The communal experience of folk dancing is unprecedented for many adults and children. These experiences are unique because folk dancing can foster individual and group learning through music, and noncompetitive play. There…
The uptake of new medicines is slower in the UK than in many other countries. Previous research found that cost and price have little influence on general practitioner (GP) behaviour, but recent UK government policy may have heightened cost-consciousness. Focussing on new medicines, this review aimed to explore the determinants of uptake, the causes of geographical variations, and the influence of price, cost and financial incentives on prescribing behaviour. Two separate searches were conducted on nine electronic databases. Strategy 1, an update of a previous review, used key terms for primary care physicians, uptake, medicines and 'new'. Strategy 2 focussed on terms relating to incentives and prescribing. Records were screened for eligibility and data from relevant papers were extracted using Bonair and Persson's typology for determinants of the diffusion of innovation, which classified influences into three groups: actors, structural/environmental characteristics and product characteristics. The searches identified 550 records and 28 studies were included in the updated review. Prescribing of new medicines needs to be understood in the context of individual patient-centred care, which is characterized by stability and continuity. Hospital doctors, pharmaceutical representatives and prescribing advisers are all influential, but GP attitudes towards these actors vary and there are notable differences between high and low prescribers of new pharmaceuticals. Support systems can help provide appropriate guidance and increase the uptake of new medicines by identifying patients who may benefit from pharmaceutical therapy. There is evidence of a shift in GP attitudes towards central policy initiatives, with doctors slowly accepting the need for external scrutiny and national standards. Although cost does appear to inform prescribing decisions, it is typically of lower importance than both safety and efficacy concerns and does not represent a significant barrier to
To profile the profession of Western herbal medicine (WHM) in the UK. A self-completion postal questionnaire sent to a sample of practitioners of WHM in England. A typical practitioner of WHM in the UK is female, aged 41-50, white, and practises part-time from a shared clinic or from home. Motivations to embark on a career in WHM are grounded in an interest in natural healing and the desire to help others. The practice of WHM in the UK responds extensively to women's health needs. Tensions in the practice of WHM are identified between a framework of healthcare that is described as 'traditional' and the influences of evidence-based developments in healthcare. Women, both as practitioners and as patients, and women's health needs play a central role in the contemporary practice of WHM in the UK. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDowell, Andrew; Pai, Madhukar
Mumbai is a hot spot for drug-resistant TB, and private practitioners trained in AYUSH systems (Ayurveda, yoga, Unani, Siddha and homeopathy) are major healthcare providers. It is important to understand how AYUSH practitioners manage patients with TB or presumptive TB. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 175 Mumbai slum-based practitioners holding degrees in Ayurveda, homeopathy and Unani. Most providers gave multiple interviews. We observed 10 providers in clinical interactions, documenting: clinical examinations, symptoms, history taking, prescriptions and diagnostic tests. No practitioners exclusively used his or her system of training. The practice of biomedicine is frequent, with practitioners often using biomedical disease categories and diagnostics. The use of homeopathy was rare (only 4% of consultations with homeopaths resulted in homeopathic remedies) and Ayurveda rarer (3% of consultations). For TB, all mentioned chest x-ray while 31 (17.7%) mentioned sputum smear as a TB test. One hundred and sixty-four practitioners (93.7%) reported referring TB patients to a public hospital or chest physician. Eleven practitioners (6.3%) reported treating patients with TB. Nine (5.1%) reported treating patients with drug-susceptible TB with at least one second-line drug. Important sources of health care in Mumbai's slums, AYUSH physicians frequently use biomedical therapies and most refer patients with TB to chest physicians or the public sector. They are integral to TB care and control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Meyer-Rochow, V Benno
Traditional healing methods involving hundreds of insect and other invertebrate species are reviewed. Some of the uses are based on the tenet of "similia similibus" (let likes be cured by likes), but not all non-conventional health promoting practices should be dismissed as superstition or wishful thinking, for they have stood the test of time. Two questions are addressed: how can totally different organ systems in a human possibly benefit from extracts, potions, powders, secretions, ashes, etc. of a single species and how can different target organs, e.g. bronchi, lungs, the urinary bladder, kidneys, etc. apparently respond to a range of taxonomically not even closely related species? Even though therapeutically used invertebrates are generally small, they nevertheless possess organs for specific functions, e.g. digestion, gas exchange, reproduction. They have a nervous system, endocrine glands, a heart and muscle tissue and they contain a multitude of different molecules like metabolites, enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, secretions, etc. that have come under increased scientific scrutiny for pharmacological properties. Bearing that in mind it seems likely that a single species prepared and used in different ways could have a multitude of uses. But how, for example, can there be remedies for breathing and other problems, involving earthworms, molluscs, termites, beetles, cockroaches, bugs, and dragonflies? Since invertebrates themselves can suffer from infections and cancers, common defence reactions are likely to have evolved in all invertebrates, which is why it would be far more surprising to find that each species had evolved its own unique disease fighting system. To obtain a more comprehensive picture, however, we still need information on folk medicinal uses of insects and other invertebrates from a wider range of regions and ethnic groups, but this task is hampered by western-based medicines becoming increasingly dominant and traditional healers being
Waigandt, Alex; Chang, Jane
A study compared the pharmacology training of nurse practitioner programs with medical and dental programs. Seventy-three schools in 14 states (40 nurse practitioner programs, 19 schools of medicine, and 14 schools of dentistry) were surveyed by mailed questionnaire about the number of hours devoted to the study of pharmacology. The major findings…
Villegas, L F; Fernández, I D; Maldonado, H; Torres, R; Zavaleta, A; Vaisberg, A J; Hammond, G B
Folk medicine practitioners in Perú employ plant preparations as wound-healing agents on superficial and internal wounds (gastric ulcers). The results of a scientific evaluation of the wound-healing activity of nine plants found in the Amazon jungle near Iquitos and in the Andes mountains is presented. The species studied were: Peperomia galioides, Mentzelia cordifolia, Mutisia acuminata, Himatanthus sucuuba, Spondias mombin, Eleutherine bulbosa, Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. These plants have also been examined for their toxicological properties, their effect on blood pressure, smooth muscle and capillary permeability. Significant wound-healing activity was detected in Peperomia galioides, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. Extracts from Peperomia galioides and Anredera diffusa had no effect on cell proliferation and did not exhibit mutagenic activity.
Hamrosi, Kim K; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa
Written medicine information can play an important role in educating consumers about their medicines. In Australia, standardised, comprehensive written information known as Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is available for all prescription medicines. CMI is reportedly under-utilised by general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists in consultations, despite consumer desire for medicine information. This study aimed to determine consumers', GPs' and community pharmacists' preferences for CMI provision and identify barriers and facilitators to its use. Structured questionnaires were developed and administered to a national sample of Australian consumers (phone survey), community pharmacists and GPs (postal surveys) surrounding utilisation of CMI. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted. Half of consumers surveyed wanted to receive CMI for their prescription medicine, with spoken information preferable to written medicine information for many consumers and healthcare professionals. GPs and pharmacists remained a preferred source of medicine information for consumers, although package inserts were appealing to many among all three cohorts. Overall pharmacists were the preferred provider of CMI primarily due to their medicine expertise, accessibility and perceived availability. GPs preferred CMI dissemination through both the GP and pharmacist. Some consumers preferred GPs as the provider of medicines information because of their knowledge of the patients' medicines and/or medical history, regularity of seeing the patient and good relationship with the patient. Common barriers to CMI provision cited included: time constraints, CMI length and perceptions that patients are not interested in receiving CMI. Facilitators to enhance provision included: strategies to increase consumer awareness, longer consultation times and counseling appointments, and improvements to pharmacy software technology and workflow. Medicine information is important to
Brattico, Elvira; Tupala, Tiina; Glerean, Enrico; Tervaniemi, Mari
A chord deviating from the conventions of Western tonal music elicits an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in inferofrontal brain regions. Here, we tested whether the ERAN is modulated by expertise in more than one music culture, as typical of folk musicians. Finnish folk musicians and nonmusicians participated in electroencephalography recordings. The cadences consisted of seven chords. In incongruous cadences, the third, fifth, or seventh chord was a Neapolitan. The ERAN to the Neapolitans was enhanced in folk musicians compared to nonmusicians. Folk musicians showed an enhanced P3a for the ending Neapolitan. The Neapolitan at the fifth position was perceived differently and elicited a late enhanced ERAN in folk musicians. Hence, expertise in more than one music culture seems to modify chord processing by enhancing the ERAN to ambivalent chords and the P3a to incongruous chords, and by altering their perceptual attributes. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Markel, Arie; Gavish, Israel; Kfir, Hila; Rimbrot, Sofia
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of sudden death in hospitalized medical patients. Despite the existence of guidelines for prevention and treatment of this disorder, their implementation in everyday life is not always accomplished. We performed a survey among directors of Internal Medicine departments in our country in order to evaluate their attitude and approach to this issue. A questionnaire with pertinent questions regarding prevention and treatment of VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) was sent to each one of the directors of Internal Medicine Departments around the country. Sixty-nine out of 97 (71%) of the Internal Medicine departments directors responded the questionnaire. We found that several of the current guidelines were followed in a reasonable way. On the other hand, heterogeneity of responses was also present and the performance of current guidelines was imperfectly followed, and showed to be deficient in several aspects. An effort should be done in order to reemphasize and put in effect current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of VTE among hospitalists and Internal Medicine practitioners.
Lu, Zhaoxue; Moody, Jennifer; Marx, Benjamin L; Hammerstrom, Tracy
Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly integrated into cancer care. We sought detail on the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) with acupuncture and oriental medicine (AOM) by surveying practitioners at integrative oncology (IO) sites across the United States. Online survey of licensed acupuncturists. IO sites in the United States. Fifteen licensed acupuncturists who completed the survey between February 2014 and June 2014. Demographics, IO setting characteristics, AOM treatment characteristics, and practitioner-reported outcomes. Respondents reported an average of 31.3 ± 17.2 patients per week, and one-third (10.1 mean; 7.2 standard deviation [SD]) were treated for CIPN. Medical doctors (86.7%) were the most common providers with whom respondents worked. Traditional Chinese medicine style acupuncture was utilized by a majority of respondents (86.7%), and the most commonly used points were local, typically in the hands and feet, such as Ba Feng, Ba Xie, LV3, and LI4. In addition to acupuncture, nutritional advice was the most frequent auxiliary modality provided by respondents (85.7%). On average, respondents provided 12.75 ± 4.17 treatments for CIPN patients, and a majority (53%) reported treating patients once per week. Timing of the treatments relative to chemotherapy infusion was evenly distributed between "1-2 days after infusion" (60%), "at time of infusion" (53.3%), and "1-2 days before infusion" (46.7%). Sixty percent of respondents rated outcomes as "moderately successful with moderate improvement seen." This survey provides detail regarding IO sites using acupuncture for CIPN as well as real-world treatment patterns, including common point combinations, visit characteristics, and practitioner-reported outcomes. This information contributes to the emerging evidence on the use of acupuncture to address unmet needs of CIPN patients, and supports the development of best practice guidelines for the treatment
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia
Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with
This book provides K-8 teachers with an introductory resource on folk tales. The book acknowledges that teachers are often very interested in folk tales but lack the time to research them. Each chapter contains some background information on a story type or a character. The book's six chapters are as follows: (1) "The Folk Tale Tradition"; (2)…
decreas- ing force size can lead to stress and a negative sense of well-being.9 Both civilian and military medicine are shifting from an illness model...Assessment of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use was based on self-report of using health treatments other than conventional medicine in the...last 12 months. These questions were grouped as either practitioner-assisted (acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic care, energy healing, folk medicine
Hamrosi, Kim K; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa
Providing written medicine information to consumers enables them to make informed decisions about their medicines, playing an important role in educating and improving health literacy. In Australia, standardized written medicine information called Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is available for medicines as package inserts, computer prints, or leaflets. Consumers want and read CMI, but may not always ask for it. General practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists are an important source of written medicine information, yet may not always provide CMI in their practice. To examine and compare the awareness, use and provision of CMI by consumers, pharmacists and general practitioners (GPs). Based on previous studies, structured questionnaires were developed and administered to a national sample of consumers (phone survey); community pharmacists and GPs (postal surveys) about utilization of CMI. Descriptive, comparative and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The respondents comprised of 349 pharmacists, 181 GPs and 1000 consumers. Two-thirds of consumers, nearly all (99%) pharmacists and 90% of GPs were aware of CMI. About 88% of consumers reported receiving CMI as a package insert, however most pharmacists (99%) and GPs (56%) reported providing computer-generated CMI. GPs' and pharmacists' main reason for providing CMI was on patient request. Reasons for not providing were predominantly because consumers were already taking the medicine, concerns regarding difficulty understanding the information, or potential non-adherence. Of the 691 consumers reportedly reading CMI, 35% indicated concerns after reading. Factors associated with reading included gender, type of CMI received and frequency of provision. Consumers want and read information about their medicines, especially when received from their GP or pharmacist. Healthcare professionals report usually discussing CMI when providing it to patients, although continued improvements in dissemination rates are
Background Written medicine information can play an important role in educating consumers about their medicines. In Australia, standardised, comprehensive written information known as Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is available for all prescription medicines. CMI is reportedly under-utilised by general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists in consultations, despite consumer desire for medicine information. This study aimed to determine consumers’, GPs’ and community pharmacists’ preferences for CMI provision and identify barriers and facilitators to its use. Method Structured questionnaires were developed and administered to a national sample of Australian consumers (phone survey), community pharmacists and GPs (postal surveys) surrounding utilisation of CMI. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted. Results Half of consumers surveyed wanted to receive CMI for their prescription medicine, with spoken information preferable to written medicine information for many consumers and healthcare professionals. GPs and pharmacists remained a preferred source of medicine information for consumers, although package inserts were appealing to many among all three cohorts. Overall pharmacists were the preferred provider of CMI primarily due to their medicine expertise, accessibility and perceived availability. GPs preferred CMI dissemination through both the GP and pharmacist. Some consumers preferred GPs as the provider of medicines information because of their knowledge of the patients’ medicines and/or medical history, regularity of seeing the patient and good relationship with the patient. Common barriers to CMI provision cited included: time constraints, CMI length and perceptions that patients are not interested in receiving CMI. Facilitators to enhance provision included: strategies to increase consumer awareness, longer consultation times and counseling appointments, and improvements to pharmacy software technology and workflow. Conclusion
Samuel, C A; Faithfull, S
This study reviewed the confidence and perceived skills of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in providing care and symptom management for clients post cancer. An e-survey was mailed to approximately 21, 000 CAM practitioners, targeted at those working with clients who were experiencing consequences of cancer and its treatments. Questions were asked about the main symptoms and concerns of clients, the confidence and current skill levels of practitioners and additional training requirements. Six hundred and twelve practitioners responded to the survey, 507 of whom were working with individuals experiencing the consequences of cancer and its treatments. Forty-five per cent (n = 134) had undertaken training in cancer prior to working with cancer patients, 61% (n = 182) had undertaken courses or study days relative to cancer care in the past two years. The most often treated symptoms or concerns of patients were those of a psychosocial nature, pain management and lymphoedema. CAM practitioners with limited knowledge and training are providing support to cancer survivors, particularly in services where the National Health Service has limited provision. CAM practitioners may fulfil a future role in providing long-term support for cancer survivors; however, in order to properly safeguard patients they are in need of further training and development. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Coccaro, Emil F.; And Others
Assessed the attitudes of students, faculties, and practitioners associated with two schools of medicine toward gerontologic/geriatric medical education including specific items relating to course content during the preclinical and clinical years. Results revealed a consensus regarding course content in areas such as psychiatry, nutrition, and…
Myers, Peter L
The sociological concepts of the "moral panic" and the deviant "folk devil" apply to the drug panics in the United States over methamphetamine, heroin, and crack cocaine. Mothers or pregnant women who smoke crack cocaine, and their babies, are assigned exaggerated "demonic" attributes that result in stigma and societal rejection. Otherwise, ethnographic studies of drug users demonstrate realities that are other than what might be considered were one to merely look at their use and the consequences. These considerations are examined with respect to the image of folk devils, methadone program attendees, smokers of "blunts," opium den habitués, and others grouped together as negative influences as a result of their drug habits.
Thompson, Susan Conklin
Folk art tells the story of many generations and reflects cultures everywhere. It is a wonderful tool for introducing students to world cultures and traditions. This book brings the world of folk art into the classroom with extension activities that integrate art, social studies, science, language arts, and music. Organized into three sections,…
Alavi, S Shohreh; Makarem, Jalil; Mehrdad, Ramin
General practitioners (GPs) who work in occupational medicine (OM) should be trained continuously. However, it seems that ethical issues have been neglected. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine educational priorities for GPs working in OM. A total of 410 GPs who participated in OM seminars were asked to answer a number of questions related to items that they usually come across in their work. The respondents were given scores on 15 items, which pertained to their frequency of experience in OM, their felt needs regarding education in the field, and their knowledge and skills. Ethical issues were the most frequently utilised item and the area in which the felt need for education was the greatest. The knowledge of and skills in ethical issues and matters were the poorest. Ethical principles and confidentiality had the highest calculated educational priority scores. It is necessary to consider ethical issues as an educational priority for GPs working in the field of OM.
This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)
Teixeira, Daniel Câmara; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano; Arantes, Mariana Reis; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Sousa, Daniele Oliveira Bezerra; Pereira, Mirella Leite; Oliveira, Hermogenes David; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria
Among the Bauhinia species, B. cheilantha stands out for its seed protein content. However, there is no record of its nutritional value, being used in a nonsustainable way in the folk medicine and for large-scale extraction of timber. The aim of this study was to investigate the food potential of B. cheilantha seeds with emphasis on its protein quality to provide support for flora conservation and use as raw material or as prototype for the development of bioproducts with high added socioeconomic value. B. cheilantha seeds show high protein content (35.9%), reasonable essential amino acids profile, low levels of antinutritional compounds, and nutritional parameters comparable to those of legumes widely used such as soybean and cowpea. The heat treatment of the seeds as well as the protein extraction process (to obtain the protein concentrate) increased the acceptance of diets by about 100% when compared to that of raw Bc diet. These wild legume seeds can be promising alternative source of food to overcome the malnutrition problem faced by low income people adding socioeconomic value to the species.
Teixeira, Daniel Câmara; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano; Arantes, Mariana Reis; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Sousa, Daniele Oliveira Bezerra; Pereira, Mirella Leite; Oliveira, Hermogenes David; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria
Among the Bauhinia species, B. cheilantha stands out for its seed protein content. However, there is no record of its nutritional value, being used in a nonsustainable way in the folk medicine and for large-scale extraction of timber. The aim of this study was to investigate the food potential of B. cheilantha seeds with emphasis on its protein quality to provide support for flora conservation and use as raw material or as prototype for the development of bioproducts with high added socioeconomic value. B. cheilantha seeds show high protein content (35.9%), reasonable essential amino acids profile, low levels of antinutritional compounds, and nutritional parameters comparable to those of legumes widely used such as soybean and cowpea. The heat treatment of the seeds as well as the protein extraction process (to obtain the protein concentrate) increased the acceptance of diets by about 100% when compared to that of raw Bc diet. These wild legume seeds can be promising alternative source of food to overcome the malnutrition problem faced by low income people adding socioeconomic value to the species. PMID:23691507
Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi
In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.
Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879
General practitioners using complementary and alternative medicine differ from general practitioners using conventional medicine in their view of the risks of electromagnetic fields: a postal survey from Germany.
Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in consulting patients worried about health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). We compared GPs using conventional medicine (COM) with GPs using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) concerning their perception of EMF risks. Moreover, we assessed whether the kind of alternative medicine has an influence on the results. A total of 2795 GPs drawn randomly from lists of German GPs were sent an either long or short self-administered postal questionnaire on EMF-related topics. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association of an education in alternative medicine with various aspects of perceiving EMF risks. Concern about EMF, misconceptions about EMF, and distrust toward scientific organizations are more prevalent in CAM-GPs. CAM-GPs more often falsely believed that mobile phone use can lead to head warming of more than 1°C (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.3), more often distrusted the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.4-3.6), were more often concerned about mobile phone base stations (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.6-3.6), more often attributed own health complaints to EMF (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.8-5.6), and more often reported at least 1 EMF consultation (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.6-3.9). GPs using homeopathy perceived EMF as more risky than GPs using acupuncture or naturopathic treatment. Concern about common EMF sources is highly prevalent among German GPs. CAM-GPs perceive stronger associations between EMF and health problems than COM-GPs. There is a need for evidence-based information about EMF risks for GPs and particularly for CAM-GPs. This is the precondition that GPs can inform patients about EMF and health in line with current scientific knowledge. © The Author(s) 2014.
This booklet provides a brief introduction to Hungarian arts and crafts. A discussion of the historical development and characteristics of Hungarian folk art supplies the background for a section in which regional styles of Hungarian folk art are described (Transdanubia, the Highlands of northern Hungary, Transylvania, and the Great Hungarian…
Young, Terrell A., Ed.
As an instructional tool, folk literature can foster literacy, promote cultural awareness, and create connections with the content areas. Yet few resources provide background about folk literature and how to use it your classroom. "Happily Ever After" fills this gap with a reader-friendly collection of articles that define folk literature and its…
Hamm, Eric; Muramoto, Myra L; Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Govindarajan, Lubna
To provide a snapshot of provider-based complementary and alternative medicine (pbCAM) use among adult smokers and assess the opportunity for these providers to deliver tobacco cessation interventions. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Surveys. Nationally representative sample. A total of 54,437 (31,044 from 2002; 23,393 from 2007) adults 18 years and older. The analysis focuses on 10 types of pbCAM, including acupuncture, Ayurveda, biofeedback, chelation therapy, chiropractic care, energy therapy, folk medicine, hypnosis, massage, and naturopathy. The proportions of current smokers using any pbCAM as well as specific types of pbCAM in 2002 and 2007 are compared using SAS SURVEYLOGISTIC. Between 2002 and 2007, the percentage of recent users of any pbCAM therapy increased from 12.5% to 15.4% (p = .001). The largest increases occurred in massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture. Despite a decrease in the national average of current smokers (22.0% to 19.4%; p = .001), proportions of smokers within specific pbCAM disciplines remained consistent. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, particularly those in chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage, represent new cohorts in the health care community to promote tobacco cessation. There is an opportunity to provide brief tobacco intervention training to CAM practitioners and engage them in public health efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco use in the United States.
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran
The use of complementary traditional medicine (CTM) is prevalent among patients with cancer. An understanding of cultural and religious values is needed to design an effective patient-centered supportive treatment program. To examine gender-related demographic and professional characteristics; treatment goals and approaches; and attitudes toward integration among Arab practitioners of CTM. Male and female Arab CTM practitioners treating patients with cancer were located by snowballing through practitioner and clientele networks. Participants underwent semi-structured, in-depth interviews which were analyzed thematically, with a focus on gender-related issues. A total of 27 Arab CTM practitioners participated in the study (17 males, 10 females). Female practitioners were found to be treating women exclusively, with male practitioners treating both genders. Female practitioners tend to be younger, unmarried, urban-based and non-Muslim. Male practitioners set out to "cure" the cancer, while female practitioners focus on symptoms and quality of life. Male practitioners employ a more schematic and structured therapeutic approach; female practitioners a more eclectic and practical one. Male practitioners employ a collectivist approach, involving family members, while female practitioners interact exclusively with the patient. Finally, male CTM practitioners see integration as a means for recognition, increasing their power base. In contrast, female practitioners perceive integration as a foothold in fields from which they have previously been shut out. A number of gender-related issues can have a significant impact on CTM therapy among Arab patients. Further research is needed in order to understand the implications of these differences.
Parasiz, Gökalp; Kervancioglu, M. Hanifi
Present study is a descriptive and applied study from different sides. It was aimed to make the applications prepared for the usability of Erzurum's folk songs available in music and instrument education. First literature review was conducted and totally 240 folk songs were determined to belong to Erzurum province. Among the songs determined,…
Buckley, Thomas; Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Stuart, Meg; Dunn, Sandra V
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sources, both print and electronic formats, which Australian nurse practitioners (NPs) currently use to obtain information regarding quality use of medicines (QUM). An additional aim was to document NPs' preferences for continuing education in relation to QUM. A national electronic survey of Australian NPs was conducted in 2007 and again in 2010. Eighty percent of respondents accessed information on QUM from professional literature, which may include scholarly journal articles, reports, and independent publications. There was a decrease in the percentage of respondents who obtained information from drug industry representatives. NPs prefer to receive medicines information in an electronic form, rather than a paper-based version, and over the time period more NPs are utilizing electronic sources rather than paper. These findings provide important insights into medical information products for the developers who may be able to use these results to ensure that their products meet the needs of NP clinicians. Additionally, the finding that NPs prefer to receive their continuing information related to medicines in electronic format, but also highly value conference proceedings, may help to inform future planning of NP education needs in relation to QUM. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Zarate-Martinez, Alicia
To document the use of animal species in traditional medicine from the municipality of Mapimi, Durango, México. Direct interviews were performed in several short visits with inhabitants from the municipality of Mapimi, Durango. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools. The informant consensus factor that estimates the level of agreement between interviewees over which animals to use for each category and the fidelity level which indicates the percentage of informants claiming the use of a certain animal species for the same medicinal purpose. A total of 18 animal species, belonging to 17 families and four taxonomic categories, were reported by interviewees as used for medicinal purposes. Thirteen medicinal species were identified not previously reported. The results of the informant consensus factor showed that the dermatological, diabetes and reproductive categories had the greatest agreement. The most important species according to their fidelity level are: Mephitis macroura and Crotalus atrox. This study demonstrates that many animal species play an important role in healing practices among inhabitants from Mapimi, Durango. Further experiments with medicinal fauna from Mapimi are needed to be carried out to obtain experimental information about their traditional uses, especially with C. atrox. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alison Newby, C; Riley, Donna M; Leal-Almeraz, Tomás O
To understand and characterize exposure to and use of elemental mercury among practitioners of Afro-Cuban religions in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. Participant observation and open-ended interviews with 22 religious supply store employees and practitioners of Santeria, Espiritismo or Palo Mayombe probed respondents' knowledge and use of mercury, as well as their beliefs about its benefits and risks. Including a cultural and religious insider as part of the research team was crucial in working with this relatively closed community. Seventeen of the 21 practitioners reported using mercury or mercury compounds in various forms of practice and in services that they provide to clients. The contained nature of these uses suggests that accidental spills, as opposed to the practices themselves, emerge as the greatest exposure concern for this population. Mercury was never recommended to clients for individual use. This restriction appears to be rooted in the way the religion is practiced and in the way santeros receive compensation, not in a perception of mercury as hazardous. Most practitioners were aware that mercury can be hazardous, but were not familiar with the most significant exposure pathway, inhalation of mercury vapor. A climate of fear surrounds the use of mercury in this community, so that health concerns pale in comparison to fear of reprisal from authorities. Among those who sell or formerly sold mercury, several shared the erroneous belief that it was illegal to sell mercury in New Jersey. Despite widespread reported use, there were no reports of practices believed to result in the highest exposures. To reduce exposure in the community, interventions presenting general information on mercury hazards and instructions for cleaning up spills are recommended. To address insider-outsider dynamics and the climate of fear, educational materials should be accessible to the community and avoid any mention of religious practice.
Dapson, R W; Bain, C L
Brazilin is a nearly colorless dye precursor obtained from the heartwood of several species of trees including brazilwood from Brazil, sappanwood from Asia and the Pacific islands, and to a minor extent from two other species in Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean islands. Its use as a dyeing agent and medicinal in Asia was recorded in the 2(nd) century BC, but was little known in Europe until the 12(th) century AD. Asian supplies were replaced in the 16(th) century AD after the Portuguese discovered vast quantities of trees in what is now Brazil. Overexploitation decimated the brazilwood population to the extent that it never fully recovered. Extensive environmental efforts currently are underway to re-create a viable, sustainable population. Brazilin is structurally similar to the better known hematoxylin, thus is readily oxidized to a colored dye, brazilein, which behaves like hematein. Attachment of the dye to fabric is by hydrogen bonding or in conjunction with certain metallic mordants by coordinative bonding. For histology, most staining procedures involve aluminum (brazalum) for staining nuclei. In addition to textile dyeing and histological staining, brazilin and brazilein have been and still are used extensively in Asian folk medicine to treat a wide variety of disorders. Recent pharmacological studies for the most part have established a scientific basis for these uses and in many cases have elucidated the biochemical pathways involved. The principal use of brazilwood today is for the manufacture of bows for violins and other stringed musical instruments. The dye and other physical properties of the wood combine to produce bows of unsurpassed tonal quality.
Congdon, Kristin G.
This article investigates the use of folk speech in the art criticism of people who are not art professionals. Maintains that if folk speech is recognized and evaluated in the art classroom, art educators may help expand both the visual and verbal perceptions and expressions of students. (JDH)
Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva
Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (<0.05) with a probability of 82%. It was observed that there is a significant correlation between population genetics and folk music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.
Spychalla, Megan T; Heathman, Joanne H; Pearson, Katherine A; Herber, Andrew J; Newman, James S
Hospital medicine is a growing field with an increasing demand for additional healthcare providers, especially in the face of an aging population. Reductions in resident duty hours, coupled with a continued deficit of medical school graduates to appropriately meet the demand, require an additional workforce to counter the shortage. A major dilemma of incorporating nonphysician providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants (NPPAs) into a hospital medicine practice is their varying academic backgrounds and inpatient care experiences. Medical institutions seeking to add NPPAs to their hospital medicine practice need a structured orientation program and ongoing NPPA educational support. This article outlines an NPPA orientation and training program within the Division of Hospital Internal Medicine (HIM) at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. In addition to a practical orientation program that other institutions can model and implement, the division of HIM also developed supplemental learning modalities to maintain ongoing NPPA competencies and fill learning gaps, including a formal NPPA hospital medicine continuing medical education (CME) course, an NPPA simulation-based boot camp, and the first hospital-based NPPA grand rounds offering CME credit. Since the NPPA orientation and training program was implemented, NPPAs within the division of HIM have gained a reputation for possessing a strong clinical skill set coupled with a depth of knowledge in hospital medicine. The NPPA-physician model serves as an alternative care practice, and we believe that with the institution of modalities, including a structured orientation program, didactic support, hands-on learning, and professional growth opportunities, NPPAs are capable of fulfilling the gap created by provider shortages and resident duty hour restrictions. Additionally, the use of NPPAs in hospital medicine allows for patient care continuity that is otherwise missing with resident practice models.
Dhillon, Amrith Kaur; Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Stafford, Andrew; Hoti, Kreshnik
Home Medicines Review (HMR) is an Australian initiative introduced in 2001 to improve quality use of medicines. Medication management services such as HMRs have the potential to reduce medication related problems. In 2011, changes to the HMR program were introduced to allow for referrals directly to accredited pharmacists in addition to the community pharmacy referral model. These changes were introduced to improve efficiency of the process. This study explored the perceptions of Western Australian general practitioners (GPs) on benefits and barriers of the HMR service and process, including their insights into the direct referral model. Purposive sampling of GPs who had experience ensured that participants had a working knowledge of the HMR service. Semi structured interviews with 24 GPs from 14 metropolitan Western Australian medical centres between March and May 2013. Transcribing and thematic analysis of data were performed. Most GPs had positive attitudes towards the HMR service. Main perceived benefits of the service were poly-pharmacy reduction and education for both the GP and patient. Strategies identified to improve the service were introduction of a standard HMR report template for pharmacists and better use of technology. Whilst reliability and GPs' familiarity were the main perceived benefits of the direct referral model, a number of GPs agreed that patient unfamiliarity with the HMR pharmacist was a barrier. Despite recognition of the value of the HMR service participating GPs were of the opinion that there are aspects of the HMR service that could be improved. As one of the success factors of HMRs is relying on GPs to utilise this service, this study provides valuable insight into issues that need to be addressed to improve HMR uptake.
Esakkimuthu, S; Mutheeswaran, S; Arvinth, S; Paulraj, M Gabriel; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S
The burden of cardiometabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, visceral obesity and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and the use of traditional medicine for the management of such diseases are high in India; hence there is a need to document and analyze such therapies. This study documented and analyzed the medicinal plants prescribed for cardiometabolic diseases by the non-institutionally trained siddha practitioners of Tiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The field survey was conducted between December 2014 to November 2015. Successive free listing assisted with field-walks was used to interview the informants. After assessing the sampling sufficiency using rarefaction curve analysis, indices such as Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Index of Agreement on Remedies (IAR) were calculated for the data. The indicators of informant's medicinal plant knowledge such as Shannon's index, equitability index, etc., were regressed with the demographic profile of the informants. For this study 70 non-institutionally trained Siddha medical practitioners were approached; the data from 36 practitioners who were treating cardiometabolic diseases were documented. This study recorded the use of 188 species which were used to prepare 368 formulations to treat illnesses categorized under cardiometabolic diseases. In this, 53.04% claims were singletons. Regression analysis showed that single species dominance was reduced and the diversity of medicinal plants was increased with the increase in the age and experience. Increase in the years of formal education increased the equitability in the uses. The plants such as Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (cardiovascular diseases), Allium sativum L. (dyslipidemia), Cuminum cyminum L. (hypertension), Macrotyloma uniflorum Verdc. (obesity) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (type 2 diabetes) were the highly cited medicinal plants. This survey has identified the plants most commonly used by Siddha practitioners of
Congdon, Kristin G.
Proposes a definition for folk art based on analyzing and sorting the descriptors and identifiers used in the disciplines of art history, folklore, anthropology, and antique and folk art collection. The proposed definition is not meant to specify an undeniable category of art, but rather to suggest specific aspects which should be identified in…
Chotchoungchatchai, Somtanuek; Saralamp, Promchit; Jenjittikul, Thaya; Pornsiripongse, Saowapa; Prathanturarug, Sompop
Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) is available in many modern hospitals in Thailand. However, there have been difficulties in integrating TTM, particularly the practices of the use of herbal medicines, into modern healthcare services. Kabchoeng Hospital is one hospital that has been able to overcome these difficulties. Thus, this study aimed to document the successful utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital. The documentation focused on both the knowledge of medicinal plants and the success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine in the context of a modern hospital in Thailand. Kabchoeng Hospital was intentionally selected for this case study. Participatory observation was used for the data collection. There were six groups of key informants: three applied Thai Traditional Medicine practitioners (ATTMPs), a pharmacist, two physicians, two folk healers, the head of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and 190 patients. The plant specimens were collected and identified based on the botanical literature and a comparison with authentic specimens; these identifications were assisted by microscopic and thin layer chromatography (TLC) techniques. Eighty-nine medicinal plants were used for the herbal preparations. The ATTMPs used these plants to prepare 29 standard herbal preparations and occasional extemporaneous preparations. Moreover, in this hospital, seven herbal preparations were purchased from herbal medicine manufacturers. In total, 36 preparations were used for 10 groups of symptoms, such as the treatment of respiratory system disorders, musculo-skeletal system disorders, and digestive system disorders. Four success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital were determined. These factors included a proper understanding of the uses of herbal medicines, the successful integration of the modern and TTM healthcare teams, the support of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and the
It is helpful to differentiate plague from other infectious diseases from the point of view of ordinary people and medical practitioners, by observing and studying how they observed the activities of rats, described symptoms of patients, and named plague. Although they had well known about such knowledge, they did not distinguish this disease from others and various names were existed.
Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S
Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koehl, Benjamin; Muenstedt, Karsten; Micke, Oliver; Muecke, Ralph; Buentzel, Jens; Stoll, Christoph; Prott, Franz Josef; Dennert, Gabriele; Senf, Bianca; Huebner, Jutta
In total, 40-70% of cancer patients use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). Many of them ask for advice from non-medical practitioners (NMPs). Our aim was to investigate the attitude of NMPs regarding their treatments for cancer patients. A survey was performed on members of NMP associations, using an online questionnaire on diagnosis and treatment, goals for using CAM, communication with the oncologist, and sources of information. Of the 1,500 members of the NMP associations, 299 took part. The treatments were found to be heterogeneous. Homeopathy is used by 45% of the NMPs; 10% believe it to be a treatment directly against cancer. Herbal therapy, vitamins, orthomolecular medicine, ordinal therapy, mistletoe preparations, acupuncture, and cancer diets are used by more than 10% of the NMPs. None of the treatments is discussed with the respective physician on a regular basis. Many therapies provided by NMPs are biologically based and therefore may interfere with conventional cancer therapy. Thus, patients are at risk of interactions, especially as most NMPs do not adjust their therapies to those of the oncologist. Moreover, risks may arise from these CAM methods as NMPs partly believe them to be useful anticancer treatments. This may lead to the delay or even omission of effective therapies. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A.; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A.
The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710
Ludden-Schlatter, Alicia; Wells, Jack; Kruse, Robin L
Procedural training is integral to family medicine residencies. Although accreditation bodies require that family medicine residency programs train residents in procedures relevant to their practices, there are no standards defining the scope of family medicine. We compared the perceived importance of 31 procedures by faculty, residents, and recent graduates of one institution. An online survey was sent to current residents and faculty of a large academic family medicine residency, as well as community practitioners who had graduated from that residency within the past 5 years. The survey asked participants to rate how important 31 procedures are for family medicine practices. The overall response rate was 37%. Most respondents provided outpatient care, and few provided or intended to provide obstetric care. Dermatologic and musculoskeletal procedures were rated as having high importance by all groups, whereas obstetric and inpatient procedures received lower ratings. Residents ascribed higher importance than faculty or recent graduates for nearly all procedures. Most residents, faculty, and community practitioners provided outpatient care and rated dermatologic and musculoskeletal procedures as important. Inpatient and obstetric care are less common career paths, and related procedures were rated as less important. Resident physicians ascribed greater importance than community practitioners for many procedures, which may be due misperceptions of their future practice needs or imposed requirements for graduation.
Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian
Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals. In order
Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely
Griffin, Robert J.
Folk music is musical expression of deep culture, and is therefore a useful tool in teaching culture in the language class. The use of Spanish music to teach Hispanic culture is described. Useful books and music are suggested. (CHK)
Millennium Cohort survey instrument to assess CAM use. Although these questions were not intended to encompass the full spectrum of CAM possibilities...response: acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic care, energy healing, folk remedies, herbal therapy, high dose/ megavitamin therapy, homeopathy, hypnosis ...National Center for CAM (24). Acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic care, energy healing, folk medicine, hypnosis , and massage were grouped together as
Paulston, Rolland G.
The book presents 13 articles which examine objectives, practices, sociocultural influences, and limitations of folk high schools in Northern Europe and North America from 1800 to the 1970s. Folk high schools are residential education institutions for young adults which are based upon heightening individual consciousness and commitment to a…
Folk devils have to date been significantly overlooked in previous studies of moral panics. While several studies have called attention to this problematic (Thornton and McRobbie 1995, De Young 2004, Lumsden 2009), no specific theoretical framework has been proposed for reading this dimension of a moral panic. This paper argues that a moral panic…
Rosa, Juliana da; Weber, Gabriela Gomes; Cardoso, Rafaela; Górski, Felipe; Da-Silva, Paulo Roberto
Better knowledge of medicinal plant species and their conservation is an urgent need worldwide. Decision making for conservation strategies can be based on the knowledge of the variability and population genetic structure of the species and on the events that may influence these genetic parameters. Achyrocline flaccida (Weinm.) DC. is a native plant from the grassy fields of South America with high value in folk medicine. In spite of its importance, no genetic and conservation studies are available for the species. In this work, microsatellite and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to estimate the genetic variability and structure of seven populations of A. flaccida from southern Brazil. The microsatellite markers were inefficient in A. flaccida owing to a high number of null alleles. After the evaluation of 42 ISSR primers on one population, 10 were selected for further analysis of seven A. flaccida populations. The results of ISSR showed that the high number of exclusive absence of loci might contribute to the inter-population differentiation. Genetic variability of the species was high (Nei's diversity of 0.23 and Shannon diversity of 0.37). AMOVA indicated higher genetic variability within (64.7%) than among (33.96%) populations, and the variability was unevenly distributed (FST 0.33). Gene flow among populations ranged from 1.68 to 5.2 migrants per generation, with an average of 1.39. The results of PCoA and Bayesian analyses corroborated and indicated that the populations are structured. The observed genetic variability and population structure of A. flaccida are discussed in the context of the vegetation formation history in southern Brazil, as well as the possible anthropogenic effects. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the results in the conservation of the species.
Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health workforce shortages
CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health workforce shortages, particularly for the prevention and
Zhang, Grant G; Lee, Wenlin; Bausell, Barker; Lao, Lixing; Handwerger, Barry; Berman, Brian
To ascertain if previous findings of low levels of agreement of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) pattern diagnoses made by TCM practitioners in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were a function of practitioner differences or would be replicated with a different sample of clinicians, and to examine the relationship between TCM diagnosis and herbal treatment plans. A prospective survey. General clinical research center, University of Maryland Hospital System, Baltimore, MD. Forty (40) patients with RA. PRACTITIONERS: Licensed acupuncturists with at least 5 years' experience and education in Chinese herbs. Three (3) TCM practitioners examined the same 40 RA patients separately, following the traditional Four Diagnostic Methods. Patients filled out questionnaires and physical examinations, including observations of the tongue and palpation of radial pulse, were conducted by the 3 practitioners. Each practitioner then provided both a TCM diagnosis and an herbal prescription. These diagnoses/prescriptions were examined with respect to the rate of agreement among the 3 practitioners. The average agreement with respect to the TCM diagnoses among the 3 TCM practitioners was 31.7 % (range, 27.5-35%). The degree to which the herbal prescriptions agreed with textbook recommended practice for each TCM diagnosis was 91.7% (range, 85-100%). The most commonly used TCM assessments in arriving at these diagnoses were inquiry about factors affecting pain and pulse diagnosis. No statistically significant differences were found between this study and our previous study regarding the level of agreement on TCM diagnosis. The average agreement of the diagnoses provided by 3 TCM practitioners was at the same low level as previously reported. No association was found between the diagnostic methods used and the consistency of diagnosis. Both studies, however, found a high degree of consistency between the TCM pattern diagnoses provided and the herbal treatment plans made as a result
African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.
This module contains two African folk tales about death, two descriptions of African funerals, a lesson plan with 11 questions exploring the finality of and customs surrounding death, and a bibliography of five books which deal with African religious beliefs. The folk tales present concepts of death and immortality of the soul. The descriptions of…
Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo
The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.
Dang, Catherine; Phuong, Thomas; Beddag, Mahmoud; Vega, Anabel; Denis, Céline
To present a data model for clinical legal medicine and the software based on that data model for both practitioners and researchers. The main functionalities of the presented software are computer-assisted production of medical certificates and data capture, storage and retrieval. The data model and the software were jointly developed by the department of forensic medicine of the Jean Verdier Hospital (Bondy, France) and an bioinformatics laboratory (LIMICS, Paris universities 6-13) between November 2015 and May 2016. The data model was built based on four sources: i) a template used in our department for producing standardised medical certificates; ii) a random sample of medical certificates produced by the forensic department; iii) anterior consensus between four healthcare professionals (two forensic practitioners, a psychologist and a forensic psychiatrist) and iv) anatomical dictionaries. The trial version of the open source software was first designed for examination of physical assault survivors. An UML-like data model dedicated to clinical legal practice was built. The data model describes the terminology for examinations of sexual assault survivors, physical assault survivors, individuals kept in police custody and undocumented migrants for age estimation. A trial version of a software relying on the data model was developed and tested by three physicians. The software allows files archiving, standardised data collection, extraction and assistance for certificate generation. It can be used for research purpose, by data exchange and analysis. Despite some current limitations of use, it is a tool which can be shared and used by other departments of forensic medicine and other specialties, improving data management and exploitation. Full integration with external sources, analytics software and use of a semantic interoperability framework are planned for the next months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights
For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing
Martin, Gary; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Kool, Anneleen
Background The trade of plant roots as traditional medicine is an important source of income for many people around the world. Destructive harvesting practices threaten the existence of some plant species. Harvesters of medicinal roots identify the collected species according to their own folk taxonomies, but once the dried or powdered roots enter the chain of commercialization, accurate identification becomes more challenging. Methodology A survey of morphological diversity among four root products traded in the medina of Marrakech was conducted. Fifty-one root samples were selected for molecular identification using DNA barcoding using three markers, trnH-psbA, rpoC1, and ITS. Sequences were searched using BLAST against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives submitted to NCBI GenBank. Principal Findings Combining psbA-trnH, rpoC1, and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to species level. Few of the species level barcoding identifications matched the scientific names given in the literature, including the most authoritative and widely cited pharmacopeia. Conclusions/Significance The four root complexes selected from the medicinal plant products traded in Marrakech all comprise more than one species, but not those previously asserted. The findings have major implications for the monitoring of trade in endangered plant species as morphology-based species identifications alone may not be accurate. As a result, trade in certain species may be overestimated, whereas the commercialization of other species may not be recorded at all. PMID:24416210
Alves, Rômulo RN; Lima, Helenice N; Tavares, Marília C; Souto, Wedson MS; Barboza, Raynner RD; Vasconcellos, Alexandre
Background The use of animal products in healing is an ancient and widespread cross-cultural practice. In northeastern Brazil, especially in the semi-arid region, animals and plants are widely used in traditional medicine and play significant roles in healing practices. Zootherapies form an integral part of these cultures, and information about animals is passed from generation to generation through oral folklore. Nevertheless, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce in northeastern Brazil, especially when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. This paper examines the use and commercialization of animals for medicinal purposes in Brazil's semi-arid caatinga region. Methods Data was obtained through field surveys conducted in the public markets in the city of Santa Cruz do Capibaribe, Pernambuco State, Brazil. We interviewed 16 merchants (9 men and 7 women) who provided information regarding folk remedies based on animal products. Results A total of 37 animal species (29 families), distributed among 7 taxonomic categories were found to be used to treat 51 different ailments. The most frequently cited treatments focused on the respiratory system, and were mainly related to problems with asthma. Zootherapeutic products are prescribed as single drugs or are mixed with other ingredients. Mixtures may include several to many more valuable medicinal animals added to other larger doses of more common medicinal animals and plants. The uses of certain medicinal animals are associated with popular local beliefs known as 'simpatias'. We identified 2 medicinal species (Struthio camelus and Nasutitermes macrocephalus) not previously documented for Brazil. The use of animals as remedies in the area surveyed is associated with socio economic and cultural factors. Some of the medicinal animal species encountered in this study are included in lists of endangered species. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that a large variety of animals are used in traditional
Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry
Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Izatullah, Izatullah
In the study area, knowledge related to the traditional uses of medicinal plants is totally in the custody of elder community members and local herbalists. The younger generation is unaware of the traditional knowledge, however with only few exceptions. Therefore, this study was planned with objective to document the medicinal importance of plants, conserve this precious indigenous knowledge, and share it among other communities through published literature. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from the community members and local herbalists. The reported plants were collected post interviews and later on pressed on herbarium vouchers for reference. Afterwards, the data was analyzed through Use value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). In total, 79 medicinal plant species were used for the treatment of different ailments in the study region. Out of the total plant species, 28 species were not reported from any other mountainous communities across the country. In this study, the ethno-medicinal value of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell and Viola indica W.Becker was reported for the first time, which have moderate confidential level in terms of their medicinal uses in the study area. Important medicinal plants of the region with high UV are Berberis lycium Royle (0.94), V. indica (0.90), Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd (0.88), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (0.87), Peganum harmala L (0.86), Solanum virginianum L. (0.85), and Cassia fistula L. (0.79). Medicinal plants with higher RFC values are Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (0.86), Cannabis sativa L. (0.82), Mentha piperita L. (0.82), Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (0.76), Allium sativum L. (0.73), Coriandrum sativum L. (0.73), and F. vulgare (0.72). Traditional knowledge on folk medicines is directly linked to the local culture, faith and perception. This knowledge is gaining high threat of extinction because of its limitation to a small portion of the society in the region
Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Anderson, Cynthia
Folk herbal medicine knowledge and its utilization by aboriginal cultures are not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity, but also useful for community healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine was investigated. Information about fifty medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea, including the names of plants, parts used, mode and methods of preparation was obtained from 100 traditional healers and herbalists. This research is the first scientific work in the Middle East to collect data about plants used by traditional healers for treatments of diarrhea and their evidence based effects against this disease. The fidelity levels were 97% for Salvia fruticosa, Teucrium polium and Musa paradisiaca, 95% for Camellia sinensis and Aegle marmelos, 79% for Oryza sativa and Solanum tuberosum, 77% for Quercus boissieri, 66% for Psidium guajava, 56% for Anthemis palestina, 54% for Solanum nigrum and 52% for Juglans regia while the highest use and choice values were for S. fruticosa, T. polium and M. paradisiaca as well as the factor of informant's consensus for medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea was 0.505.The leaves were the most commonly used parts, followed by fruits, roots and rhizomes, while decoctions and infusions are the preferred methods of preparation. The Palestinian traditional medicine is rich with herbal remedies for treatment of diarrhea in comparison with other countries, but most of these herbal remedies lack standard in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations to establish their antidiarrheal effects. Therefore, the information obtained can serve as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies to determine their efficacy and safety which might contribute to a better integration of Palestinian traditional medicine into the national health
The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp. A set of simple evaluation metrics for the resulting outputs is defined inspired on Propp's formalism. The potential of the resulting system for providing a creative story generation system is discussed, and possible lines of future work are discussed.
Yeşilada, E; Gürbüz, I; Shibata, H
The anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of the extracts and fractions obtained from seven Turkish plants, which are used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ailments including peptic ulcers, were studied against one standard strain and eight clinical isolates of H. pylori by using the agar dilution method. Flowers of Cistus laurifolius and Spartium junceum, cones of Cedrus libani, herbs and flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis, fruits of Momordica charantia, herbaceous parts of Sambucus ebulus, and flowering herbs of Hypericum perforatum were evaluated in this study. Results showed that all except one extract from six of these plants showed activity against the microorganism with MICs between 1.95 and 250 microg/ml, with S. junceum being the only inactive species. Amongst the active plants the inhibitory properties of C. laurifolius were found prominent.
Howerter, Amy; Eaves, Emery R; Hall, John R; Buller, David B; Gordon, Judith S
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists, are a growing presence in the US health care landscape and already provide health and wellness care to significant numbers of patients who use tobacco. For decades, conventional biomedical practitioners have received training to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) and referrals to cessation services as part of routine clinical care, whereas CAM practitioners have been largely overlooked for BI training. Web-based training has clear potential to meet large-scale training dissemination needs. However, despite the exploding use of Web-based training for health professionals, Web-based evaluation of clinical skills competency remains underdeveloped. Objective In pursuit of a long-term goal of helping CAM practitioners integrate evidence-based practices from US Public Health Service Tobacco Dependence Treatment Guideline into routine clinical care, this pilot protocol aims to develop and test a Web-based tobacco cessation training program tailored for CAM practitioners. Methods In preparation for a larger trial to examine the effect of training on CAM practitioner clinical practice behaviors around tobacco cessation, this developmental study will (1) adapt an existing in-person tobacco cessation BI training program that is specifically tailored for CAM therapists for delivery via the Internet; (2) develop a novel, Web-based tool to assess CAM practitioner competence in tobacco cessation BI skills, and conduct a pilot validation study comparing the competency assessment tool to live video role plays with a standardized patient; (3) pilot test the Web-based training with 120 CAM practitioners (40 acupuncturists, 40 chiropractors, 40 massage therapists) for usability, accessibility, acceptability, and effects on practitioner knowledge, self-efficacy, and competency with tobacco cessation; and (4) conduct
Brose, David A.
Folk and settlement schools have served predominantly Anglo-American constituents and have focused upon Anglo-American and western European traditions. The John C. Campbell Folk School (JCCFS) was founded in southwestern North Carolina in 1925. The school's founder, Olive Dame Campbell, was considered progressive in her time in desiring to serve…
Ratcliffe, Norman; Azambuja, Patricia; Mello, Cicero Brasileiro
Except for honey as food, and silk for clothing and pollination of plants, people give little thought to the benefits of insects in their lives. This overview briefly describes significant recent advances in developing insect natural products as potential new medicinal drugs. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding new field since insects are hugely variable and have utilised an enormous range of natural products to survive environmental perturbations for 100s of millions of years. There is thus a treasure chest of untapped resources waiting to be discovered. Insects products, such as silk and honey, have already been utilised for thousands of years, and extracts of insects have been produced for use in Folk Medicine around the world, but only with the development of modern molecular and biochemical techniques has it become feasible to manipulate and bioengineer insect natural products into modern medicines. Utilising knowledge gleaned from Insect Folk Medicines, this review describes modern research into bioengineering honey and venom from bees, silk, cantharidin, antimicrobial peptides, and maggot secretions and anticoagulants from blood-sucking insects into medicines. Problems and solutions encountered in these endeavours are described and indicate that the future is bright for new insect derived pharmaceuticals treatments and medicines. PMID:24883072
Natanzon, Iris; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Götz, Katja; Joos, Stefanie
Due to a--depending on the region--already existent or predicted lack of general practitioners, the German health care is confronted with a serious problem. Besides the political general conditions and problems regarding the vocational training, social changes can influence the attractiveness of general practitioners' profession, thereby possibly also effecting a lack of young general practitioners. The aim of this study was to explore, which image exists of general practitioners' profession from their viewpoint and which social developments influence their image. A qualitative study was undertaken by interviewing 16 general practitioners in their practices or in the Department of General Practice and Health Service Research, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Germany. From the general practitioners' point of view, the image they have is positive in people from rural districts and the elder generation, but negative in younger people and urbanites. The image is influenced by the following social changes: declining social competencies, obligation and responsibility, an increasing distance to illness and sick persons as well as an increasing flexibility. Since particularly younger people have a negative opinion of general practitioners and young physicians belong to that target group, the subject general medicine might be less attractive to trainees. That is why the general practitioner is not perceived as a professional future perspective. Social changes influencing the choice of career should increasingly be considered as a starting point for the development of approaches directed against the lack of trainees in general medicine.
Moonsammy, Rita Zorn
This New Jersey Folk Artists in Education program brings community educators together with professional educators to enrich students' appreciation of their own and others' traditional cultures at the same time as they develop basic skills. The life stories of nine folk artists and their communities, as well as the stories of how they work together…
Danquah, Daniel A; Buabeng, Kwame O; Asante, Kwaku P; Mahama, Emmanuel; Bart-Plange, Constance; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
Ghana has scaled-up malaria control strategies over the past decade. Much as malaria morbidity and mortality seem to have declined with these efforts, there appears to be increased consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study explored the perception and experiences of community members and medicines outlet practitioners on malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) to guide malaria therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches for data. In-depth interviews with structured questionnaires were conducted among 197 practitioners randomly selected from community pharmacies and over-the-counter medicine sellers shops within two metropolis (Kumasi and Obuasi) in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Two focus group discussions were also held in the two communities among female adult caregivers. Medicine outlet practitioners and community members often used raised body temperature of individuals as an index for malaria case detection. The raised body temperature was presumptively determined by touching the forehead with hands. Seventy percent of the practitioners' perceived malaria RDTs are used in hospitals and clinics but not in retail medicines outlets. Many of the practitioners and community members agreed to the need for using RDT for malaria case detection at medicine outlets. However, about 30% of the practitioners (n = 59) and some community members (n = 6) held the view that RDT negative results does not mean no malaria illness and would use ACT. Though malaria RDT use in medicines outlets was largely uncommon, both community members and medicine outlet practitioners welcomed its use. Public education is however needed to improve malaria case detection using RDTs at the community level, to inform appropriate use of ACT.
Szecsenyi, Joachim; Schneider, Antonius
In Germany, the change from the "traditional", experience-based general practitioner (GP) to the evidence-based practising co-ordinator may be accelerated by the introduction of disease management programmes. Here, we will discuss some tools that can help to meet this challenge. Also, a set of requirements will be defined that the health care system will have to provide in support of GPs. Maintaining the relationship between doctor and patient and also allowing for individual care on the basis of evidence-based medicine will remain a challenge.
Alves, Rômulo RN; Santana, Gindomar G
Background Throughout Brazil a large number of people seek out reptiles for their meat, leather, ornamental value and supposed medicinal importance. However, there is a dearth of information on the use of reptiles in folk medicine. In North Brazil, the freshwater turtle, Podocnemis expansa, is one of the most frequently used species in traditional medicines. Many products derived from P. expansa are utilized in rural areas and also commercialized in outdoor markets as a cure or treatment for different diseases. Here we document the use and commercialization of P. expansa for medicinal purposes in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. Methods Data were gathered through interview-questionnaires, with some questions left open-ended. Information was collected in two localities in Pará State, North of Brazil. In the City of Belém, data was collected through interviews with 23 herbs or root sellers (13 men and 10 women). Attempts were made to interview all animal merchants in the markets visited. In fishing community of the Pesqueiro Beach, interviews were done with 41 inhabitants (23 men and 18 women) and during the first contacts with the local population, we attempted to identify local people with a specialized knowledge of medicinal animal usage. Results P. expansa was traded for use in traditional medicines and cosmetics. Fat and egg shells were used to treat 16 different diseases. Turtle fat was the main product sold. The demand for these products is unknown. However, the use of this species in folk medicine might have a considerable impact on wild population, and this must be taken into account for the conservation and management of this species. Conclusion Our results indicated that the use and commercialization of P. expansa products for medicinal purposes is common in North of Brazil. More studies regarding the use and commerce of Brazilian turtles are urgently needed in order to evaluate the real impact of such activities on natural populations. We hope that
Alves, Rômulo R N; Santana, Gindomar G
Throughout Brazil a large number of people seek out reptiles for their meat, leather, ornamental value and supposed medicinal importance. However, there is a dearth of information on the use of reptiles in folk medicine. In North Brazil, the freshwater turtle, Podocnemis expansa, is one of the most frequently used species in traditional medicines. Many products derived from P. expansa are utilized in rural areas and also commercialized in outdoor markets as a cure or treatment for different diseases. Here we document the use and commercialization of P. expansa for medicinal purposes in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. Data were gathered through interview-questionnaires, with some questions left open-ended. Information was collected in two localities in Pará State, North of Brazil. In the City of Belém, data was collected through interviews with 23 herbs or root sellers (13 men and 10 women). Attempts were made to interview all animal merchants in the markets visited. In fishing community of the Pesqueiro Beach, interviews were done with 41 inhabitants (23 men and 18 women) and during the first contacts with the local population, we attempted to identify local people with a specialized knowledge of medicinal animal usage. P. expansa was traded for use in traditional medicines and cosmetics. Fat and egg shells were used to treat 16 different diseases. Turtle fat was the main product sold. The demand for these products is unknown. However, the use of this species in folk medicine might have a considerable impact on wild population, and this must be taken into account for the conservation and management of this species. Our results indicated that the use and commercialization of P. expansa products for medicinal purposes is common in North of Brazil. More studies regarding the use and commerce of Brazilian turtles are urgently needed in order to evaluate the real impact of such activities on natural populations. We hope that our findings about the trade and use
Kulich, Jindra; Bron-Wojciechowska, Agnieszka
Polish folk high schools are modeled after schools developed in the mid-1850s in Denmark to provide general, non-credit education for young adults in rural areas. The main objectives of the folk high schools are to provide a climate for individual student development and to serve as centers where young adults can learn about their cultural…
Zamudio, Fernando; Hilgert, Norma I
Not long ago Eugene Hunn suggested using a combination of cognitive, linguistic, ecological and evolutionary theories in order to account for the dynamic character of ethnoecology in the study of folk classification systems. In this way he intended to question certain homogeneity in folk classifications models and deepen in the analysis and interpretation of variability in folk classifications. This paper studies how a rural culturally mixed population of the Atlantic Forest of Misiones (Argentina) classified honey-producing stingless bees according to the linguistic, cognitive and ecological dimensions of folk classification. We also analyze the socio-ecological meaning of binomialization in naming and the meaning of general local variability in the appointment of stingless bees. We used three different approaches: the classical approach developed by Brent Berlin which relies heavily on linguistic criteria, the approach developed by Eleonor Rosch which relies on psychological (cognitive) principles of categorization and finally we have captured the ecological dimension of folk classification in local narratives. For the second approximation, we developed ways of measuring the degree of prototypicality based on a total of 107 comparisons of the type "X is similar to Y" identified in personal narratives. Various logical and grouping strategies coexist and were identified as: graded of lateral linkage, hierarchical and functional. Similarity judgments among folk taxa resulted in an implicit logic of classification graded according to taxa's prototypicality. While there is a high agreement on naming stingless bees with monomial names, a considerable number of underrepresented binomial names and lack of names were observed. Two possible explanations about reported local naming variability are presented. We support the multidimensionality of folk classification systems. This confirms the specificity of local classification systems but also reflects the use of grouping
Morris, Rebecca L; Blakeman, Tom; Ashcroft, Darren M
Objectives To examine the role of individual and collective cognitive work in managing medicines for acute kidney injury (AKI), this being an example of a clinical scenario that crosses the boundaries of care organisations and specialties. Design Qualitative design, informed by a realist perspective and using semistructured interviews as the data source. The data were analysed using template analysis. Setting Primary, secondary and intermediate care in England. Participants 12 General practitioners, 10 community pharmacists, 7 hospital doctors and 7 hospital pharmacists, all with experience of involvement in preventing or treating AKI. Results We identified three main themes concerning participants' experiences of managing medicines in AKI. In the first theme, challenges arising from the clinical context, AKI is identified as a technically complex condition to identify and treat, often requiring judgements to be made about renal functioning against the context of the patient's general well-being. In the second theme, challenges arising from the organisational context, the crossing of professional and organisational boundaries is seen to introduce problems for the coordination of clinical activities, for example by disrupting information flows. In the third theme, meeting the challenges, participants identify ways in which they overcome the challenges they face in order to ensure effective medicines management, for example by adapting their work practices and tools. Conclusions These themes indicate the critical role of cognitive work on the part of healthcare practitioners, as individuals and as teams, in ensuring effective medicines management during AKI. Our findings suggest that the capabilities underlying this work, for example decision-making, communication and team coordination, should be the focus of training and work design interventions to improve medicines management for AKI or for other conditions. PMID:28100559
Folk etymology is defined as a change in word or phrase form resulting from an incorrect popular idea of its origin or meaning. Irregular phonetic-semantic shifts are produced by inter-language borrowing or by intra-language passage from one period to another. These shifts are more common in periods when there are no, or few, normative factors…
de Vries, Sieta T; van der Sar, Maartje J M; Cupelli, Amelia; Baldelli, Ilaria; Coleman, Anna Marie; Montero, Dolores; Šipić, Ivana; Andrić, Adriana; Wennberg, Annika; Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane; Denig, Petra; Mol, Peter G M
National competent authorities (NCAs) for medicines coordinate communication relating to the safety of medicines in Europe. The effectiveness of current communication practices has been questioned, particularly with regard to reaching general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to assess current European NCA safety communication practices and to investigate European GPs' awareness of and preferences for safety communications on medicines. Web-based surveys were distributed among European NCAs and healthcare professionals (HCPs). The survey among regulators was emailed to a representative of each of the 27 European countries participating in the Strengthening Collaboration for Operating Pharmacovigilance in Europe (SCOPE) Joint Action. HCPs from nine European countries (Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the UK) were asked about their preferences through a link to the survey on websites, in newsletters, and/or in a direct email. From this survey, data from GPs were used and descriptive analyses were conducted. Current NCA practices were reported for 26 countries. In 23 countries (88%), NCAs published direct healthcare professional communications (DHPCs, i.e. urgent communication letters for serious safety issues) on their website in addition to distribution to individual HCPs. Educational materials were available on the NCA's website in 10 countries (40%), and 21 NCAs (81%) indicated they had their own bulletin/newsletter, which is often presented on the NCA's website (15 countries; 60%). More than 90% of the 1766 GPs who completed the survey were aware of DHPCs. The most preferred senders of safety information were NCAs and professional bodies, while the preferred channels for keeping up to date with safety information were medicines reference books and clinical guidelines. GPs found the repetition of safety issues useful (range of 80% in the UK to 97% in Italy). Preference for an electronic copy rather than a
Alves, Rômulo RN
Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Brazilian Traditional Medicine. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine both in rural and urban areas of the country. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature. Methods In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined. 34 sources were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in assessment of medicinal animal species. Scientific names provided in publications were updated. Results The review revealed that at least 250 animal species (178 vertebrates and 72 invertebrates) are used for medicinal purposes in Northeast of Brazil. The inventoried species comprise 10 taxonomic categories and belong to 141 Families. The groups with the greatest number of species were fishes (n = 58), mammals (n = 47) and reptiles (n = 37). The zootherapeutical products are used for the treatment of different illnesses. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine Conclusion The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Although widely diffused throughout Brazil, zootherapeutic practices remain virtually unstudied. There is an urgent need to examine the ecological, cultural, social, and public health implications associated with fauna usage, including a full inventory of the animal species used for
van Gameren, Edwin
Objectives I analyze the effect of coverage by health insurance on the use of alternative medicine such as folk healers and homeopaths, in particular if it complements or substitutes conventional services. Methods Panel data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) is used to estimate bivariate probit models in order to explain the use of alternative medicine while allowing the determinant of interest, access to health insurance, to be an endogenous factor. Results The findings indicate that households with insurance coverage less often use alternative medicine, and that the effect is much stronger among poor than among rich households. Conclusions Poor households substitute away from traditional medicine towards conventional medicine. PMID:20546965
Muhaisen, Hasan M H; Ab-Mous, Miftah Mailoud; Ddeeb, Fadel A; Rtemi, Aboclaid Ali; Taba, Omer M; Parveen, Mehtab
To test the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of water and methanol extracts of 23 plant species that are commonly used in Libyan folk medicine. The antimicrobial activity was determined using the well-diffusion method. Four test microorganisms were used namely, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for the high biologically active crude plant extracts. Among 23 medicinal plants used in the study, only 5 methanolic extracts [Rosmarinus offcinalis L., Carduus marianium L., Lantana camara L., Rhus tripartite (ueria) Grande, and Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffm (link)] showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella species, while 22 methanolic and aqueous extracts showed moderate to weak antimicrobial activity on all tested organisms. However 19 of the extracts showed no activity at all against Gram-ve and Gram +ve microorganisms. MIC was found to be 1.25 mg/mL (Thymus capitatus), 3 mg/mL (Rhus tripartite), 4 mg/mL (Carduus marianium), 5 mg/mL (Rosamarinus officinalis) and 5 mg/mL (Lantana camara), respectively. The present results revealed that, crude methanolic extracts of the investigated Libyan folk medicinal plants exhibited mild to high in vitro antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.
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This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E
Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Ying, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Jian; Markowitz, Morri; Yan, Chong-Huai
A case of lead poisoning resulting from the ingestion of a folk remedy for treating epilepsy is reported. The initial blood lead concentration of this 6-y-old boy was 63.6μg/dl upon admission. He presented with abdominal pain, constipation, and irritability. The patient's liver function tests were significantly increased. Through chelation therapy, the blood lead concentration dropped markedly and clinical symptoms greatly improved. His blood and urine samples were collected for the kinetic analysis of lead elimination. Folk prescriptions for epilepsy should be considered as potential sources of lead intoxication. Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration for unknown causes of abdominal pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
This paper, after shortly introducing "Folk Linguistics" by defining its domain of competence [cf. Preston, Dennis R., ed. 1999. "Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology." Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Niedzielski, Nancy A., and Dennis R. Preston. 2003. "Folk Linguistics." Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter], attempts to draw an…
Sarwar, Uzma N.; Sitar, Sandra; Ledgerwood, Julie E.
Recent case reports of viral hemorrhagic fever in Europe and the United States have raised concerns about the possibility for increased importation of filoviruses to non-endemic areas. This emerging threat is concerning because of the increase in global air travel and the rise of tourism in central and eastern Africa and the greater dispersion of military troops to areas of infectious disease outbreaks. Marburg viruses (MARV) and Ebola viruses (EBOV) have been associated with outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever involving high mortality (25 – 90% case fatality rates). First recognized in 1967 and 1976 respectively, subtypes of MARV and EBOV are the only known viruses of the Filoviridae family, and are among the world’s most virulent pathogens. This article focuses on information relevant for health care practitioners in travel medicine to include, the epidemiology and clinical features of filovirus infection and efforts toward development of a filovirus vaccine. PMID:21208830
Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.
Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal utility. PMID:22557503
Germany's Hausväterliteratur, the "literature of the fathers of the houses," was once a popular genre but today is seldom studied. Roughly, this literature, as its name suggests, comprises books on the proper keeping of noble households and mansions. Interestingly, besides the content which one might expect in such books, the organization of personnel, the arrangement of festivities, discussions of the various branches of technical skills, economic advice and the whole field of agriculture, fishing and hunting, these books also contain remarkably large amounts of information directly connected with magic and an associated popular medicine (Volksmedizin). This medicine involved treatment administered mostly by laywomen instead of regular physicians and was based not just upon traditional medical knowledge per se but also upon magical practices. Also found in such texts are alchemical ideas and recipes. This means that despite the fact that such books were written and published in the 17th and early 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment, conceptions found in them are still deeply rooted in older intellectual currents, in Medieval and Renaissance thinking. The present study examines examples of alchemical, magical and popular medical ideas in three such works and seeks to explain how pre-enlightenment ideas and thought could maintain such an influential place in the intellectual world of a later time dominated by other philosophies.
Soyolt; Galsannorbu; Yongping; Wunenbayar; Liu, Guohou; Khasbagan
Folk names of plants are the root of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. In pace with social change and economic development, Mongolian knowledge concerning plant diversity is gradually vanishing. Collection and analysis of Mongolian folk names of plants is extremely important. During 2008 to 2012, the authors have been to the Arhorchin National Nature Reserve area 5 times. Fieldwork was done in 13 villages, with 56 local Mongol herdsmen being interviewed. This report documents plant folk names, analyzes the relationship between folk names and scientific names, looks at the structure and special characteristics of folk names, plant use information, and comparative analysis were also improved. Ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires were used. Ethnobotanical interview and voucher specimen collection were carried out in two ways as local plant specimens were collected beforehand and then used in interviews, and local Mongol herdsmen were invited to the field and interviewed while collecting voucher specimens. Mongolian oral language was used as the working language and findings were originally recorded in Mongolian written language. Scientific names of plants are defined through collection and identification of voucher specimens by the methods of plant taxonomy. A total of 146 folk names of local plants are recorded. Plant folk names corresponded with 111 species, 1 subspecies, 7 varieties, 1 form, which belong to 42 families and 88 genera. The correspondence between plant folk names and scientific names may be classified as one to one correspondence, two or three to one correspondence, and one to multitude correspondence. The structure of folk names were classified as primary names, secondary names and borrowed names. There were 12 folk names that contain animal names and they have correspondence with 15 species. There are nine folk names that contain usage information and they have correspondence with 10 species in
Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.
The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented. PMID:22556537
Smith. KC, Ed.
This information and activity booklet discusses the Florida Folk Festival, a celebration that offers students and teachers an opportunity to hear music, taste foods, see folk art demonstrations, observe dance, and listen to stories that celebrate Florida's cultural and ethnic legacies. The booklet offers resources for learning about Florida…
Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos
The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenfield, Robert H.; Kardaun, Jan W. P. F.
The " crisis" in rural health care i. e. the decreasing number of practitioners is partially caused by the increasing use of technology in health care. Health care practitioners in rural Canada are progressively finding their practice more difficult because of their isolation from the population centers housing many of the services and supplies needed in the modern practice of medicine. The centralization of these supplies and services results from the increasing use of technology in medicine. It is uneconomical to place expensive equipment highly trained technicians and consultants and well-stocked and current information sources in rural locations where they are underutilized. Thus over the years the increasing use of technology makes rural practice more difficult and less attractive in comparison to an urban practice that can easily and cheaply employ the benefits of technology and expert consultation. The Saskatchewan situation is examined using data collected by the authors and compared to other rural areas reported in the literature. The ways that computer communications can help alleviate this situation are explained and illustrated through a review of North American telematics activities. Telematic services for physicians are developing in North America. This is in synergy with the increasing ownership of computers by physicians. We contrast the Canadian scene with the American. Telematics is a technological approach that can be employed to reduce the isolation of rural health care practitioners. It can provide
Xie, Wenyan; Melzig, Matthias F
Herbal medicine is now globally accepted as a valid alternative system of pharmaceutical therapies. Various studies around the world have been initiated to develop scientific evidence-based herbal therapies. Recently, the therapeutic potential of medicinal plant derived miRNAs has attracted great attraction. MicroRNAs have been indicated as new bioactive ingredients in medicinal plants. However, the stability of miRNAs during the herbal preparation process and their bioavailability in humans remain unclear. Viscum album L. (European mistletoe) has been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Our previous study has indicated the therapeutic potential of mistletoe miRNAs by using bioinformatics tools. To evaluate the stability of these miRNAs, various mistletoe extracts that mimic the clinical medicinal use as well as traditional folk medicinal use were prepared. The mistletoe miRNAs including miR166a-3p, miR159a, miR831-5p, val-miR218 and val-miR11 were quantified by stem-loop qRT-PCR. As a result, miRNAs were detectable in the majority of the extracts, indicating that consumption of medicinal plant preparations might introduce miRNAs into mammals. The factors that might cause miRNA degradation include ultrasonic treatment, extreme heat, especially RNase treatment, while to be associated with plant molecules (e.g., proteins, exosomes) might be an efficient way to protect miRNAs against degradation. Our study confirmed the stability of plant derived miRNAs during herb preparations, suggesting the possibility of functionally intact medicinal plant miRNAs in mammals.
Soós, Sándor Árpád; Eőry, Ajándék; Eőry, Ajándok; Harsányi, László; Kalabay, László
The patients initiate the use of complementary and alternative medicine and this often remains hidden from their primary care physician. To explore general practitioners' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine, and study the need and appropriate forms of education, as well as ask their opinion on integration of alternative medicine into mainstream medicine. A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was used on two conferences for general practitioners organized by the Family Medicine Department of Semmelweis University. Complementary and alternative medicine was defined by the definition of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and certified modalities were all listed. 194 general practitioners answered the questionnaire (39.8% response rate). 14% of the responders had licence in at least one of the complementary and alternative therapies, 45% used complementary and alternative therapy in their family in case of illness. It was the opinion of the majority (91.8%) that it was necessary to be familiar with every method used by their patients, however, 82.5% claimed not to have enough knowledge in complementary medicine. Graduate and postgraduate education in the field was thought to be necessary by 86% of the responders; increased odds for commitment in personal education was found among female general practitioners, less than 20 years professional experience and personal experience of alternative medicine. These data suggest that general practitioners would like to know more about complementary and alternative medicine modalities used by their patients. They consider education of medical professionals necessary and a special group is willing to undergo further education in the field.
Rocha, Samuel D.
This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…
Walz, Alexander; Tschudi, Peter; Badertscher, Nina; Hatz, Christoph
Up to 65 % of travellers seek pre-travel advice at their general practitioner. Professionals should inform about the most common and most dangerous health threats, requiring up-to-date knowledge about epidemiology of respective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of pre-travel advice given by general practitioners in order to provide them with better expert support from travel medicine specialists. One third of them perform pre-travel advice weekly, and some two thirds do so at least monthly. The most frequently discussed topics are malaria, immunisation, insect bite prevention and travellers' diarrhoea. Less than half of the advice sessions included talking about the risk of accidents. Apart from the need for yellow fever vaccination, referral to travel medicine experts was highest for immunocompromised and pregnant travellers, and for trips to "high risk" countries. A considerable number of practitioners do not comply with the Swiss recommendations, continuously updated in the Bulletin of the Federal Office of Public Health, possibly because only 21 % consult them at regular intervals.
Smith, Carl, Comp.
Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on using folk literature is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…
Elyagutu, Dilek Cantekin; Hazar, Muhsin
In this research, Movement Notation (Laban) and Traditional Method in Folk dance Teaching were compared in terms of learning success. Movement notation group (n = 14) and Traditional group (n = 14) consisting of students from the S.U. State Conservatory Turkish Folk Dance Department were formed. During the 14-week-long study, the symbols of the…
As Chinese traditional folk culture, folk games have unique educational value which can boost the development of young children's fine motor. Based on previous investigation of fine motor skill of children in Nanchong, Sichuan Province, the researcher chose a middle class in public city kindergarten A with lower survey score as the study object.…
Ben-Arye, Eran; Israely, Pesi; Baruch, Erez; Dagash, Jamal
In this paper, we describe the case study of a 27 year-old Arab female patient receiving palliative care for advanced breast cancer who was referred to complementary medicine (CM) consultation provided within a conventional oncology department. We explore the impact of the integrative CM practitioners' team of three family physicians and one Chinese medicine practitioner on the patient's well-being and specifically on the alleviation of her debilitating hot flashes and insomnia. This quality of life improvement is also affirmed by comparing the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and Measure Yourself Concerns and Well-being (MYCAW) questionnaires administered at the initial and follow-up assessment sessions. In conclusion, we suggest that family physicians trained in evidence-based complementary medicine are optimal integrators of holistic patient-centered supportive care. The inclusion of trained CM practitioners in a multi-disciplinary integrative team may enhance the bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective, and provide additional practical therapies that improve the quality of life of patients confronting cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chua, Gin Nie; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed
The objective of this study was to evaluate the general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines in a northern state of Malaysia. A postal cross-sectional survey involving registered GPs in Penang, Malaysia was undertaken. A 23-item questionnaire was developed, validated and administered on the GPs. Eighty-seven GPs responded to the survey (response rate 26.8%). The majority of the respondents (85.1%) claimed that they actively prescribed generic medicines in their practice. On the other hand, only 4.6% of the respondents correctly identified the Malaysia's National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau's bioequivalence standard for generic products. There were misconceptions among the respondents about the concepts of "bioequivalence", "efficacy", "safety", and "manufacturing standards" of generic medicines. GPs in this survey believed that a standard guideline on brand substitution process, collaboration with pharmacists, patient education and information on safety and efficacy of generic medicines were necessary to ensure quality use of generics. Furthermore, advertisements and product bonuses offered by pharmaceutical companies, patient's socio-economic factors as well as credibility of manufacturers were factors reported to influence their choice of medicine. Although it appeared that GPs have largely accepted the use of generic medicines, they still have concerns regarding the reliability and quality of such products. GPs need to be educated and reassured about generic products approval system in Malaysia concerning bioequivalence, quality, and safety. The current findings have important implications in establishing generic medicines policy in Malaysia. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nemutandani, Simon M; Hendricks, Stephen J; Mulaudzi, Mavis F
The indigenous health system was perceived to be a threat to the allopathic health system. It was associated with 'witchcraft', and actively discouraged, and repressed through prohibition laws. The introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 of 2007 brought hope that those centuries of disrespect for traditional health systems would change. The study examined the perceptions and experiences of allopathic health practitioners on collaboration with traditional health practitioners in post-apartheid South Africa. Qualitative descriptive research methodology was used to collect data from allopathic health practitioners employed by Limpopo's Department of Health. In-depth focus group discussions and meetings were conducted between January and August 2014. Perceptions and experiences of working with traditional health practitioners were explored. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Pretoria and approval from the Department's Research Committee. Dominant views were that the two health systems were not compatible with respect to the science involved and the source of knowledge. Overall, quality of health care will be compromised if traditional health practitioners are allowed to work in public health facilities. Allopathic health practitioners do not appear ready to work with traditional health practitioners, citing challenges of quality of health care, differences regarding concept of sciences and source of knowledge; and lack of policy on collaboration. Lack of exposure to traditional medicine seems to impede opportunities to accept and work with traditional healers. Exposure and training at undergraduate level regarding the traditional health system is recommended. Policy guidelines on collaborations are urgently required.
Hendricks, Stephen J.; Mulaudzi, Mavis F.
Background The indigenous health system was perceived to be a threat to the allopathic health system. It was associated with ‘witchcraft’, and actively discouraged, and repressed through prohibition laws. The introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 of 2007 brought hope that those centuries of disrespect for traditional health systems would change. The study examined the perceptions and experiences of allopathic health practitioners on collaboration with traditional health practitioners in post-apartheid South Africa. Methods Qualitative descriptive research methodology was used to collect data from allopathic health practitioners employed by Limpopo’s Department of Health. In-depth focus group discussions and meetings were conducted between January and August 2014. Perceptions and experiences of working with traditional health practitioners were explored. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Pretoria and approval from the Department’s Research Committee. Results Dominant views were that the two health systems were not compatible with respect to the science involved and the source of knowledge. Overall, quality of health care will be compromised if traditional health practitioners are allowed to work in public health facilities. Conclusion Allopathic health practitioners do not appear ready to work with traditional health practitioners, citing challenges of quality of health care, differences regarding concept of sciences and source of knowledge; and lack of policy on collaboration. Lack of exposure to traditional medicine seems to impede opportunities to accept and work with traditional healers. Exposure and training at undergraduate level regarding the traditional health system is recommended. Policy guidelines on collaborations are urgently required. PMID:27380856
Costantino, Guiseppe; And Others
Describes development of a new modality for Puerto Rican adolescents which presents Puerto Rican folk heros and heroines in modeling therapy targeted towards enhancing adolescents' pride in their ethnic heritage. Evaluation of therapy using 21 adolescents indicated subjects increased in self-disclosure and self-confidence, gained pride, learned…
Congdon, Kristin G.
Discussed are (1) the goals and practices of the Folk Artist in Education (FAIE) program, (2) the FAIE in relationship to the Artist in Education program criticisms, (3) improving FAIE programs, and (4) reasons for its support. (RM)
Gottlieb, Richard M
folk medicine we need to create new models that are at consistent with our own more advanced findings and those of our neighboring disciplines.
Grienke, Ulrike; Zöll, Margit; Peintner, Ursula; Rollinger, Judith M
In particular five polypore species, i.e. Laetiporus sulphureus, Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Piptoporus betulinus, and Laricifomes officinalis, have been widely used in central European folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases, e.g. dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, bladder disorders, pyretic diseases, treatment of coughs, cancer, and rheumatism. Prehistoric artefacts going back to over 5000 years underline the long tradition of using polypores for various applications ranging from food or tinder material to medicinal-spiritual uses as witnessed by two polypore species found among items of Ötzi, the Iceman. The present paper reviews the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activity of the five mentioned polypores. All available information on the selected polypore taxa used in traditional folk medicine was collected through evaluation of literature in libraries and searches in online databases using SciFinder and Web of Knowledge. Mycochemical studies report the presence of many primary (e.g. polysaccharides) and secondary metabolites (e.g. triterpenes). Crude extracts and isolated compounds show a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. The investigated polypores possess a longstanding ethnomycological tradition in Europe. Here, we compile biological results which highlight their therapeutic value. Moreover, this work provides a solid base for further investigations on a molecular level, both compound- and target-wise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Proposes the use of pop, rock, and folk music as material far removed from the traditional and attuned to the learners' interests. Typical examples are analyzed with respect to phonology, grammar and semantics. A final category, "overall idea songs," linguistically unclassifiable, is found to be attractive and highly motivating. (IFS/WGA)
It shows the local medicinal uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral, promoting the value of folk knowledge, and its applicability in future studies. To demonstrate the importance of the knowledge of medicinal plants in the Amazonian coastal community of Marudá, located in Pará State, Brazil. Fieldwork was conducted between 1996 and 1998, using the methods of participant observation, semi-structured interviews and informal discussions to elicit information from community residents and plant specialists, in addition to collecting plant material. Community residents possess knowledge of 229 medicinal plants distributed in 81 botanical families and know how to manipulate them in a variety of ways, with special care taken to ensure that they are used in the safest and most efficient manner. Therapeutic indications for these plants include illness and disease recognized in the repertoire of Western medicine as well as ailments perceived from a local cultural perspective. Results from this study attest to informants' knowledge of medicinal flora and their ability and openness to integrate new species from diverse origins into their gamut of medicinal knowledge, including industrial therapeutic preparations and animal products. Local uses of biodiversity in Brazil's Amazonian littoral are also evinced, promoting the value of folk medicinal knowledge. Similarly, it mentions the potential of implementing local knowledge in Brazil's Unitary Health System.
Koudouvo, Koffi; Karou, Simplice D; Ilboudo, Denise P; Kokou, Kouami; Essien, Kodjo; Aklikokou, Kodjo; de Souza, Comlan; Simpore, Jacques; Gbéassor, Mensavi
To investigate the antimalarial effect of a few plants in Togo folk medicine. After ethnobotanical survey, Opilia celtidifolia, Pavetta corymbosa (P. corymbosa) and Tamarindus indica (T. indica) were selected for screening. In vitro antimalarial tests were performed on crude extracts against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using the semi microtest. Different IC(50) values of the extracts ranged from 2.042 to 100.000 μg/mL. According to the results, the methanol extract of aerial part of P. corymbosa followed by aqueous extract of fruit of T. indica were the most active (IC(50) of 2.042 and 4.786 μg/mL, respectively). Qualitative test revealed the presence of alkaloids in the leaves of P. corymbosa that may be responsible for the activity of the plant. Our study provides scientific evidence for usage of plant in the folk medicine, and further studies are needed for identification and purification of the active principles. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kovalchuk, L I; Prokopchuk, Y V; Naydyonova, O V
The article presents the experience of postgraduate training of general practitioners--family medicine. Identified current trends, forms and methods of pedagogical innovations that enhance the quality of learning and mastering the practical skills of primary professionals providing care.
Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Farhana Israt; Chowdhury, Anita Rani; Monjur-Ekhuda, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Shamiul Hasan; Aporna, Sadia Afrin; Jahan, Rownak; Samarrai, Walied; Islam, Farhana; Khatun, Zubaida; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
The Bedes form one of the largest tribal or indigenous communities in Bangladesh and are popularly known as the boat people or water gypsies because of their preference for living in boats. They travel almost throughout the whole year by boats on the numerous waterways of Bangladesh and earn their livelihood by selling sundry items, performing jugglery acts, catching snakes, and treating village people by the various riversides with their traditional medicinal formulations. Life is hard for the community, and both men and women toil day long. As a result of their strenuous lifestyle, they suffer from various types of pain, and have developed an assortment of formulations for treatment of pain in different parts of the body. Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in all parts of the world including Bangladesh. Although a number of drugs are available to treat pain, including non-steroidal, steroidal, and narcotic drugs, such drugs usually have side-effects like causing bleeding in the stomach over prolonged use (as in the case of rheumatic pain), or can be addictive. Moreover, pain arising from causes like rheumatism has no proper treatment in allopathic medicine. It was the objective of the present study to document the formulations used by the Bede traditional practitioners for pain treatment, for they claim to have used these formulations over centuries with success. Surveys were conducted among a large Bede community, who reside in boats on the Bangshi River by Porabari village of Savar area in Dhaka district of Bangladesh. Interviews of 30 traditional practitioners were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. It was observed that the Bede practitioners used 53 formulations for treatment of various types of pain, the main ingredient of all formulations being medicinal plants. Out of the 53 formulations, 25 were for treatment of rheumatic pain, either exclusively, or along with other types of
Mahmudur Rahman, A. H. M.; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
Background In Bangladesh, folk medicinal practitioners are called “Kaviraj” and are consulted for treatment of various ailments by a large part of the rural and urban population. There are some previous studies conducted in the Tangail district of Bangladesh about medicinal plants, but there is no relevant information about this aspect in some parts of this district. Aim To conduct an ethno-pharmacological survey among the “Kaviraj” of two upazilas (regions) in Tangail district, namely Tangail Sadar Upazila and Nagarpur Upazila, to identify the trouble-free formulations of medicinal plants for various diseases used by the folk medicine practitioners on or after other forms of medical practices. Methods A guided field-walk survey was carried out employing a local guide and asking local people about practicing “Kaviraj”; four of the “Kaviraj” convened and after receiving permission from the “Kaviraj”, interviews were conducted through focused group discussion. Results It was observed that the “Kaviraj” of the two upazilas used a total of 25 plants distributed into 20 families for healing of various diseases. In most of the cases, leaves were the key part of most of the plants used for treatment. Plants were mainly used for treating gastrointestinal tract disorders, fever, constipation, and diarrhea, and indigestion, loss of appetite, pain and skin disorders. “Kaviraj” also treat complicated diseases such as tuberculosis, hypertension, sexual disorders, infections, urinary problems, hepatic disorders, pneumonia, stomach stones, diabetes, swellings, debility, kidney problems, tumor, vitamin C deficiency and poisoning by using medicinal plants Conclusion For a country such as Bangladesh, and particularly the district studied, medicinal plants are essential assets and have a major role in people’s health care structure. Also, appropriate research should be conducted for using these medicinal plants in possible new drug designs as well as
Mahmudur Rahman, A H M; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud
In Bangladesh, folk medicinal practitioners are called "Kaviraj" and are consulted for treatment of various ailments by a large part of the rural and urban population. There are some previous studies conducted in the Tangail district of Bangladesh about medicinal plants, but there is no relevant information about this aspect in some parts of this district. To conduct an ethno-pharmacological survey among the "Kaviraj" of two upazilas (regions) in Tangail district, namely Tangail Sadar Upazila and Nagarpur Upazila, to identify the trouble-free formulations of medicinal plants for various diseases used by the folk medicine practitioners on or after other forms of medical practices. A guided field-walk survey was carried out employing a local guide and asking local people about practicing "Kaviraj"; four of the "Kaviraj" convened and after receiving permission from the "Kaviraj", interviews were conducted through focused group discussion. It was observed that the "Kaviraj" of the two upazilas used a total of 25 plants distributed into 20 families for healing of various diseases. In most of the cases, leaves were the key part of most of the plants used for treatment. Plants were mainly used for treating gastrointestinal tract disorders, fever, constipation, and diarrhea, and indigestion, loss of appetite, pain and skin disorders. "Kaviraj" also treat complicated diseases such as tuberculosis, hypertension, sexual disorders, infections, urinary problems, hepatic disorders, pneumonia, stomach stones, diabetes, swellings, debility, kidney problems, tumor, vitamin C deficiency and poisoning by using medicinal plants. For a country such as Bangladesh, and particularly the district studied, medicinal plants are essential assets and have a major role in people's health care structure. Also, appropriate research should be conducted for using these medicinal plants in possible new drug designs as well as many other pharmaceutical benefits.
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane
There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers.
"Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of
Brown, S; Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G
There are a significant number of patients in society who have some form of psychiatric disorder. It is important that dental practitioners have an awareness of the more common psychiatric disorders and their potential implications as they are likely to encounter them in clinical practice.
Footracer, Katherine G.; Monaghan, Melissa; Wisniewski, Nicole P.; Mandel, Ellen
Introduction Research into opinions about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has focused on conventional medical practitioners with little exploration of CAM practitioners’ views. Purpose To survey attitudes and practices of massage therapists toward conventional medicine. Research Design An anonymous online survey consisting of Likert-type scales, fill-in answers, and multiple-choice questions was used. Participants Members of the Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals (ABMP), the largest massage therapy association in the US with over 77,000 members. Main Outcome Measures Participants were asked about their years of practice and training, choice of health care practitioners, sources for information about CAM and Western/allopathic medicine, client referral patterns, optimal treatment approaches for various medical conditions, and overall impressions of CAM and Western/ allopathic medicine. Results Analysis of n = 3,148 responses indicated that while 66.9% of respondents had a neutral or worse impression of Western/allopathic medicine, 64.3% use a conventional medicine practitioner as their primary health care provider, 61.9% have referred clients to a conventional medicine practitioner in the past six months, and 90.5% seek out information on Western/allopathic medicine. The mode response of the best treatment approach to various medical problems was a mix of Western/allopathic medicine and CAM. Conclusions This study suggests that despite the ambivalence of many massage therapists towards conventional medicine, many use it, encourage clients to do so, and see involvement of both as crucial to health. PMID:22553480
Wang, Jiaji; Miao, Zhenjiang; Guo, Hao; Zhou, Ziming; Wu, Hao
Labanotation uses symbols to describe human motion and is an effective means of protecting folk dance. We use motion capture data to automatically generate Labanotation. First, we convert the motion capture data of the biovision hierarchy file into three-dimensional coordinate data. Second, we divide human motion into element movements. Finally, we analyze each movement and find the corresponding notation. Our work has been supervised by an expert in Labanotation to ensure the correctness of the results. At present, the work deals with a subset of symbols in Labanotation that correspond to several basic movements. Labanotation contains many symbols and several new symbols may be introduced for improvement in the future. We will refine our work to handle more symbols. The automatic generation of Labanotation can greatly improve the work efficiency of documenting movements. Thus, our work will significantly contribute to the protection of folk dance and other action arts.
Hansen, Karen Kirhofer
Reviews a variety of folk remedies such as coining (Southeast Asia), cupping (primarily Russia), and moxibustion (Asia), which may be confused with child abuse. It especially considers the Hispanic folk illness "caida de mollera" (fallen fontanelle) but rejects the idea in the literature that folk treatment can cause the injuries seen in…
Wilton, Antje; Stegu, Martin
As applied linguistics is mainly concerned with solving the language-related problems of laypeople, the examination of folk views constitutes an important research field and its relevance is illustrated in this issue of the AILA review. In this introductory article, we address some of the more general aspects that need to be considered in the…
de Bruijn, Matthijs C; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Baarveld, Frank
Background In The Netherlands, sports medicine physicians are involved in the care of about 8% of all sports injuries that occur each year. Some patients consult a sports physician directly, without being referred by a general practitioner. This study aims to determine how many patients consult a sports physician directly, and to explore differences in the profiles of these patients compared with those who are referred. Methods This was an exploratory cross-sectional study in which all new patients presenting with an injury to a regional sports medical center during September 2010 were identified. The characteristics of patients who self-referred and those who were referred by other medical professionals were compared. Results A total of 234 patients were included (mean age 33.7 years, 59.1% male). Most of the injuries occurred during soccer and running, particularly injuries of the knee and ankle. In this cohort, 39.3% of patients consulted a sports physician directly. These patients were significantly more often involved in individual sports, consulted a sports physician relatively rapidly after the onset of injury, and had received significantly less care before this new event from medical professionals compared with patients who were referred. Conclusion In this study, 39.3% of patients with sports injuries consulted a sports physician directly without being referred by another medical professional. The profile of this group of patients differed from that of patients who were referred. The specific roles of general practitioners and sports physicians in medical sports care in The Netherlands needs to be defined further. PMID:24379706
Xu, Bing-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Qing
Background: G. divaricata (L.) DC belongs to genus the Gynura Cass which is a kind of perennial herb that has good health protection efficacy and is especially used widely in medicine and functional food. It is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and is usually used to cure bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, kink cough, rheumatism, diabetes, and so on. It has a long history for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the folk medicine. This review is aimed at gathering all information relating to G. divaricata and obtaining new insights for further studies on G. divaricata Materials and Methods: PubMed, Springer Link, Web of Science, Science Direct and Research Gate were used for the literature search. The key search terms included G. divaricata isolation and identification, flavonoids and their combinations without language restriction. The period for the search is from year 1979 to 2016. Results: The main chemical components were listed, and the folk application, the extraction and separation methods of main chemical components, pharmacological effects of G. divaricata were discussed, which further demonstrated the plant’s value as health food and medicine. Conclusion: The present review is of great significance to the development of new medicinal resources and health food of G. divaricata PMID:28480422
Xu, Bing-Qing; Zhang, Yu-Qing
G. divaricata (L.) DC belongs to genus the Gynura Cass which is a kind of perennial herb that has good health protection efficacy and is especially used widely in medicine and functional food. It is one of the most famous traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and is usually used to cure bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, kink cough, rheumatism, diabetes, and so on. It has a long history for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in the folk medicine. This review is aimed at gathering all information relating to G. divaricata and obtaining new insights for further studies on G. divaricata . PubMed, Springer Link, Web of Science, Science Direct and Research Gate were used for the literature search. The key search terms included G. divaricata isolation and identification, flavonoids and their combinations without language restriction. The period for the search is from year 1979 to 2016. The main chemical components were listed, and the folk application, the extraction and separation methods of main chemical components, pharmacological effects of G. divaricata were discussed, which further demonstrated the plant's value as health food and medicine. The present review is of great significance to the development of new medicinal resources and health food of G. divaricata .
Compiles excerpts from two 1964 lectures that examine the use of folk and fairy tales for the teaching of prehistory, geography, and grammar. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom. (HTH)
Folk calendars are a good source for studying the knowledge and rituals of peoples from distant epochs. The turbulent history of the cultures in the Balkan Peninsula leads to a mixture of calendar traditions - different calendar types and naming systems of the calendar units (months and weekdays). Despite the differences, they share a common astronomical basis and the seasonal structure is of fundamental importance (i.e., dividing the year into two economic seasons - warm and cold). The Old Bulgarian 12-year calendar is also mentioned briefly.
A nation's folk literature offers a window into its people and their beliefs across time and geographic locations. Whether the stories are tall tales, creation stories, or fairy tales, they reveal insights into the make-up of the populace--what they believe, what motivates them, what their attitudes are, how they behave, and how time and place…
Gomez, Aurelia; Sullivan, Laura Temple
New Mexican tinwork is a folk art tradition that developed out of Mexican and European silver work. Due to a lack of silver in New Mexico, tin became the material of choice. Rooted in European Hispanic traditions, this contemporary craft is yet another example of the resourceful ingenuity and adaptation that characterizes many New Mexican folk…
Rubens, D; Gyurkovics, D; Hornacek, K
Despite powerful opposition, natural medicine (NM) has achieved a toe-hold in the state-run biomedical system in the Slovak Republic. The physician-leader of the NM movement hopes to leverage his ministerial post as NM 'supreme expert' and his interlocking NM clinical and research facilities to achieve a complex, unified health care system under control of medical doctors. This health care model simultaneously reinforces biomedical hegemony and decenters classical medicine by substituting a bioenergetical paradigm. NM includes, among other diagnostic and healing modalities, acupuncture, herbal therapies, bee therapy, reflexology, iridology. However, its paradigmatic form is bioterapia, the focus of this paper. Bioterapia is a form of psychic healing or therapeutic touch. According to its practitioners, it is based on bioenergetic and information-processing principles. Conceptually, bioterapia unifies psyche, soma and energy dimensions of the human body and situates the human organism in an extended transpersonal social, physical and cosmological environment. Bioterapia is a scientized and medicalized reconstruction of a folk healing tradition whose appropriation simultaneously secularized and re-sacralized this tradition by re-locating its practice from lay healers to medical doctors, from the religious domain to the venerated scientific domain, from deviant science to normal science. The reconfiguration into bioterapia as part of the creation of an academic secular parapsychology in the former Soviet Bloc in the late 1960s, illustrates the use of the privileged discourse of science for a cultural production that seems to have both supported and subverted the regime.
The limited archival material and the scarcity of evidence from the oldest living representatives of various communities effectively restrict research on archaic astronomical knowledge within Italy to the Alpine area and the most northerly part of the Appenines. These are territories where, fortunately, the folk culture is historically recognized as being very conservative. The sky provided a series of "astral instruments" used for planning religious festivals, fairs, and work in the fields through an empirical-symbolic approach and ancient sidereal calendars with which the valley dwellers were able to arrange daily life.
Norman, Armando Henrique; Russell, Andrew J; Macnaughton, Jane
This article explores some effects of the British payment for performance model on general practitioners' principles and practice, which may contribute to issues related to financial incentive modalities and quality of primary healthcare services in low and middle-income countries. Aiming to investigate what general practitioners have to say about the effect of the British payment for performance on their professional ethos we carried out semi-structured interviews with 13 general practitioner educators and leaders working in academic medicine across the UK. The results show a shift towards a more biomedical practice model and fragmented care with nurse practitioners and other health care staff focused more on specific disease conditions. There has also been an increased medicalisation of the patient experience both through labelling and the tendency to prescribe medications rather than non-pharmacological interventions. Thus, the British payment for performance has gradually strengthened a scientific-bureaucratic model of medical practice which has had profound effects on the way family medicine is practiced in the UK.
Suzuki, Rika; Goebert, Deborah; Ahmed, Iqbal; Lu, Brett
To study if Asian ethnic groups in Hawaii today maintain folk-based beliefs about dementia, have inadequate biomedical understanding of dementia, and differ among each other regarding perceptions of dementia. The study adapts and expands a 2004 survey of ethnic groups on perceptions of Alzheimer disease demonstrating that ethnic minority groups hold more folk perceptions and less biomedical perceptions of dementia than Caucasians. This study surveys particular ethnic minority family members of elders admitted to four long-term care and inpatient facilities in Hawaii. Seventy-one family members completed surveys, including 23 Chinese, 18 Filipino, and 30 Japanese participants. Elders may or may not have had the diagnosis of dementia, though an estimated half of elders in all four facilities already held the diagnosis of dementia. Findings indicated that Japanese and Chinese respondents in this study held perceptions about dementia that were more consistent with current biomedical understanding compared with their Filipino counterparts (mean differences/percent correct for Japanese: 57%, Chinese: 56% versus Filipino: 38%; F = 6.39, df = 2,55, p = 0.003). Filipino respondents were less likely than Japanese and Chinese respondents to report that persons with dementia can develop physical and mental problems-97% of Japanese participants and 82% of Chinese participants responded correctly compared with 63% of Filipino participants (Fisher's Exact test p = 0.009). With regard to folk beliefs about dementia, variation occurred with no consistent trend among the groups. Low levels of biomedical understanding of dementia were reflected by all three subgroups of Asians living in Hawaii with less prominence of folk beliefs compared with prior studies of ethnic minority perceptions. Education did not predict variability in dementia perceptions among the groups. Lower levels of acculturation, suggested by primary home language other than English, may correlate with a perception
Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Setu, Nurul Islam; Mostafa, Asif; Mia, M M K
There is very limited information regarding plants used by traditional healers in Bandarban Hill Tracts (BHT), Bangladesh for treating general as well as complex ailments. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in BHT. Aim of the study This study aimed to collect, analyze and evaluate the rich ethnopharmacologic knowledge on medicinal plants in Thanchi, BHT and attempted to identify the important species used in traditional medicine. Further analysis was done by comparison of the traditional medicinal use of the plants with the available scientific literature data. The field survey was carried out in a period of several years in Thanchi upazilla of Bandarban districts, Bangladesh. A total of 53 Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) were interviewed through open-ended and semi structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. This ethnomedicinal knowledge was compared against the available scientific literature for reports of related uses and studies of phytochemical compounds responsible for respective ailments. A total of 84 species of plants, mostly herbs, belonging to 42 families were identified for the treatment of 70 types of ailments. These ailments were categorized into 16 categories. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts and juice is the mode of preparation of major portions of the plant species. The most common mode of administration was oral ingestion and topical application. Informant consensus factor (Fic) values of the present study reflected the high agreement in the use of plants in the treatment of digestive system and respiratory system disorders among the informants. Diseases of the digestive system had highest use-reports and 3 species of plants, namely Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. (dysentery), Justicia gendarussa L. (asthma) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (coughing) had the highest fidelity level (FL) of 100
Oreb, Goran; Ruzić, Lana; Matković, Branka; Misigoj-Duraković, Marjeta; Vlasić, Jadranka; Ciliga, Dubravka
The study investigated differences in morphological, motor and functional abilities between folk and ballet dancers. The sample comprised 51 female subjects: Croatian National Ballet (N=30) and Croatian National Folk Ensemble "LADO" (N=21). The data regarding menstrual cycle, menarche, number of births and smoking habit were collected and the morphological, motor and functional abilities measured. Significant correlations between the amount of fat tissue and number of births were found in both groups. Folk dancers were as tall as ballet dancers but weighted more and had a larger body frame (p<0.001). Ballet dancers were more flexible but there were no differences in absolute maximal oxygen uptake (2.65 vs. 2.35 L/min, p=0.101). Still, as the ballet dancers weighted less, their relative maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher (37.62 vs. 50.22 mL/kg/min, p<0.001). Also, a high number of 45% of smokers among professional ballet and professional folk dancers was found.
Othong, Rittirak; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai
Diospyros rhodocalyx (Tako-Na) is a Thai folk medicine purported to promote longevity, treat impotence, etc. We present patients with hypokalemia, weakness and hypertension after consuming Tako-Na tea. Case 1: A 61-year-old man was brought in nine hours after drinking 400-500 mL of Tako-Na tea. One handful of Tako-Na bark was boiled in water to make tea. He had vomiting and watery diarrhea six hours after drinking it. He took no medications and had no history of hypertension. The only remarkable vital sign was BP 167/90 mmHg. Physical examination revealed generalized muscle weakness. Laboratory findings were potassium 2.7 mmol/L, bicarbonate 24 mmol/L, and transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) 5.6. He was discharged the next day with a BP 140/90 mmHg and potassium 4.2 mmol/L. Case 2: A 78-year-old man, a friend of case 1, also drank Tako-Na tea from the same pot at the same time as case 1. He also had vomiting and diarrhea six hours later. He took no medications despite past history of hypertension (baseline SBP 140-160). Initial BP was 230/70 mmHg. He also had muscle weakness. Laboratory findings were potassium 3.3 mmol/L, bicarbonate 24 mmol/L, TTKG 7.37 and normal thyroid function. He was also discharged the next day with a BP 148/70 mmHg and potassium 4.2 mmol/L. Case 3-7: These were patients reported to a poison center and their potassium concentrations were 1.4, 1.4, 3.3, 1.3 and 1.2 mmol/L, respectively. Three of them were intubated and case 3 died. Tako-Na contains betulin, betulinic acid, taraxerone, lupeol, and lupenone. Their structures are similar to glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite of glycyrrhizic acid found in licorice which is well known to cause pseudoaldosteronism. Glycyrrhetic acid is potent in inhibiting 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and causes pseudoaldosteronism. We hypothesize that the compounds in Tako-Na act in the same way as glycyrrhetic acid in producing pseudoaldosteronism.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of "folk" understandings of quality in higher hospitality education and the consequent implications of these understandings for current quality concerns in the field. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a historical survey of the stated topic…
Kantati, Yendube T; Kodjo, K Magloire; Dogbeavou, Koffi S; Vaudry, David; Leprince, Jérôme; Gbeassor, Messanvi
Neurological diseases are rising all around the world. In a developing country such as Togo, although plant-based medicines are the only means, still very little is known regarding the nature and efficiency of medicinal plants used by indigenous people to manage central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This study, an ethnobotanical survey, aimed to report plant species used in traditional medicine (TM) for the management of various CNS disorders in Togo. 52 traditional actors (TA) including 33 traditional healers (TH) and 19 medicinal plant sellers (MPS) were interviewed, using a questionnaire mentioning informants' general data and uses of medicinal plants. The present study reports 44 medicinal plant species distributed into 26 families, mentioning scientific and common local names, plant organs used, preparation method, root of administration and putative applications. It appears that there is a real knowledge on medicinal plants used for traditional treatment of CNS disorders in Togo and that the local flora abounds of potentially neuroactive plants which could be useful for the discovery of antipsychotic or neuroprotective molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
D'Amico, Richard A; Saltz, Renato; Rohrich, Rod J; Kinney, Brian; Haeck, Phillip; Gold, Alan H; Singer, Robert; Jewell, Mark L; Eaves, Felmont
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery launched a joint Cosmetic Medicine Task Force to address the growing trend of non-plastic surgeons entering the cosmetic medicine field. The task force commissioned two surveys in 2007 to determine consumer attitudes about choosing cosmetic medicine providers and to learn about the cosmetic services that plastic surgeons offer. The first survey obtained responses from 1015 women who had undergone a cosmetic procedure or were considering having one within 2 years. The second survey obtained responses from 260 members of the two societies. Compared with other practitioners, plastic surgeons enjoy higher rates of satisfaction among their patients who undergo noninvasive procedures. Injectables present a particularly promising market for plastic surgeons. Half of consumers surveyed said they were very concerned about complications associated with injectables, and generally, the higher the perceived risk of the procedure, the higher the likelihood that a patient would choose a plastic surgeon to perform it. In addition, injectables were among the noninvasive treatments most frequently being considered by consumers. However, almost half of consumers said that if they had a positive experience with a non-plastic surgeon core provider for a noninvasive procedure, that physician would likely be their first choice for a surgical procedure. These findings suggest that plastic surgeons, and especially those who are building young practices, must expand their offerings of nonsurgical cosmetic services to remain at the core of the cosmetic medicine field.
Step-by-step instructions and diagrams for 11 traditional folk dances of the southern Appalachian mountain region appropriate for beginners are provided. The dances are grouped into five broad categories: (1) openers, which use a leader to pick up participants as the dance progresses; (2) mixers (Oh, Susannah, Texas Schottische, Gary Gordon's…
Karvelis, Noah J.
In this article, I aim to critically analyze theories contained within Dr. Christopher Emdin's newest book "For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood (and the Rest of Ya'll Too!)" in the context of the music classroom. To begin, I summarize Christopher Emdin's theories of both "reality" and "pentecostal" pedagogy and then…
Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in
Lai, Ruanne Y J; Krasnow, Donna; Thomas, Martin
The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of communication between professional and pre-professional dancers and medical practitioners. One survey was developed and randomly conducted among family physicians, sports medicine physicians, chiropractors, physical therapists, and registered massage therapists. A second survey involved volunteer ballet and modern dancers in professional dance training programs, college and university dance programs, and independent dance artists. One hundred and ninety questionnaires were distributed to medical practitioners, and 50 were returned. Of 380 questionnaires given to dancers, 202 were returned. The dancers were 18 to 49 years old, with a majority between the ages of 18 and 20. They averaged more than 10 years of dance training. All of the questionnaires were distributed in a single large Canadian city. The data shows that medical practitioners rarely communicated with each other concerning a common (dance) patient. They also failed to communicate, in most cases, with the dancers' teachers, choreographers, and directors. This was not disconcerting to injured dancers, who tended to believe that such communication was not important to their recovery. Significantly, dancers did not fully understand the nature of their injuries when they sought medical advice, and they did not press the medical practitioners for additional information. Both groups generally believed that dancers would benefit by learning more about human anatomy.
Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M V; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K
Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.
Chinese folk art, known as "the small skills of carving insects," differs from artworks produced by skilled or highly educated Chinese artisans. Folk art is defined as works that are created by ordinary citizens and that often are items designed for personal use. The designation, "the small skills of carving insects," occurred…
Ferreira, Felipe S; Brito, Samuel V; Ribeiro, Samuel C; Saraiva, Antônio A F; Almeida, Waltécio O; Alves, Rômulo R N
Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species. A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises). The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products - and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in alternative medicine is fundamental to the
Easom, Leisa R; Easom, Linda R
A multidisciplinary review of the literature reveals that prayer, in a multicultural context, may be viewed as both a folk home remedy and a practice of spirituality. Understanding cultural differences and similarities of the use of prayer as a variable for health promotion may have implications for tailoring treatment approaches to eliminate disparities in providing care to clients of diverse cultural backgrounds. This paper presents these similarities and differences within the cultural beliefs of the White, African-American, and Hispanic populations.
Chen, Zhen; Xu, Yibing; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lining; Liu, Hongbing; Guan, Huashi
Sargassum seaweeds produce abundant biomass in China and have long been used as herbal medicine and food. Their characteristic fatty acid (FA) profiles and related potential function in promoting cardiovascular health (CVH) have not been systematically investigated. In this study, FA profiles of four medicinal Sargassum were characterized using GC-MS. Principal component analysis was used to discriminate the four medicinal Sargassum, and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis was carried out between the two official species HAI ZAO and between the two folk medicine species HAI QIAN. In all of the algae investigated, the major SFA and MUFA were palmitic and stearic acid, respectively, while the major PUFAs were linoleic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acid. S. fusiforme and S. horneri had higher concentrations of PUFAs. With respect to CVH, all of the studied species, particularly S. fusiforme, exhibited satisfactory levels such as PUFA/SFA ratio and n-6/n-3 ratio. Each species possesses a unique FA profile and is discriminated clearly. Potential key FA markers (between the two Chinese official species, and between the two folk species) are assessed. The study provides characteristic fatty acid profiles of four Chinese medicinal Sargassum and their related potential function in promoting CVH.
Chen, Zhen; Xu, Yibing; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lining; Liu, Hongbing; Guan, Huashi
Sargassum seaweeds produce abundant biomass in China and have long been used as herbal medicine and food. Their characteristic fatty acid (FA) profiles and related potential function in promoting cardiovascular health (CVH) have not been systematically investigated. In this study, FA profiles of four medicinal Sargassum were characterized using GC-MS. Principal component analysis was used to discriminate the four medicinal Sargassum, and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis was carried out between the two official species HAI ZAO and between the two folk medicine species HAI QIAN. In all of the algae investigated, the major SFA and MUFA were palmitic and stearic acid, respectively, while the major PUFAs were linoleic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acid. S. fusiforme and S. horneri had higher concentrations of PUFAs. With respect to CVH, all of the studied species, particularly S. fusiforme, exhibited satisfactory levels such as PUFA/SFA ratio and n-6/n-3 ratio. Each species possesses a unique FA profile and is discriminated clearly. Potential key FA markers (between the two Chinese official species, and between the two folk species) are assessed. The study provides characteristic fatty acid profiles of four Chinese medicinal Sargassum and their related potential function in promoting CVH. PMID:27043581
Culig, Edna Aurora C.
In this quanto-historical study, the author conducted a content analysis of Asian-Pacific (AP) folk songs in 18 American elementary music textbooks published from 1967 to 2008. The researcher addressed the questions: (1) To what degree are AP folk songs included in the printed and recorded repertoire of elementary music textbook series published…
This article briefly discusses a seminar that will focus on the fifth annual Folk Art Festival at the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe, with additional emphasis on Georgia O'Keeffe's life and art in New Mexico, and Hispanic and Native American cultural traditions. Activities include museum visits, field trips, invited speakers,…
Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham
Recent literature suggests that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the pedagogical conventions of formal music education. Whilst several recent studies have tended to define these non-classical-music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk music that was recently introduced…
Jones, Richard Martin
Teaching and learning of forensic medicine and pathology in the undergraduate medical curriculum has been in decline for decades in the UK, and yet graduates are expected to be able to recognise, and protect, those who are most vulnerable in society - i.e. at risk of abuse or neglect - a matter highly relevant to the role of the forensic medical practitioner. When Cardiff University School of Medicine created a new 'learner-centred' undergraduate curriculum, championing case-based discussion in small groups, and earlier clinical contact, residual teaching on 'the pathology of trauma' disappeared. An opportunity to create a new course for the year 3 core curriculum, however, led to re-emergence of forensic medicine and pathology, with a focus on identification, and protection, of the 'vulnerable patient'. This paper describes the development process of the first two iterations of that course, and the influence of 'listening to the student voice'. Forensic medicine and pathology remain relevant in undergraduate medical education; effective, and ethical, safeguarding of the vulnerable is an essential 'core' skill of the modern medical graduate, and forensic medical practitioners can play an integral role in the preparation of medical students for their future clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Beal, J A; Maguire, D; Carr, R
To define how neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) perceive their identity as advanced practice nurses. Non-experimental descriptive and correlational survey. Nationwide random sample drawn from NNPs certified by the National Certification Corporation. Two hundred fifty-eight neonatal nurse practitioners practicing in neonatal intensive-care units across the United States. Neonatal Nurse Practitioners indicated on a visual analogue scale at which point their philosophy of practice fell on a continuum from nursing to medicine and specified on a 5-point bipolar Likert scale how various role socialization factors influenced their identity. The NNPs predominantly were certificate-prepared and aligned themselves with a medical philosophy. Those NNPs who were master's-prepared (p < .01), precepted by another NNP (p < .05), espoused a philosophy of nursing (p < .001), belonged to a professional nursing organization (p < .05), and had an NNP role model (p < .001) were more likely to have a strong nursing identity (95% confidence interval). The issues of role differentiation, socialization, and identity of advanced practice nurses in tertiary care need further exploration. These data support the American Nurses' Association mandate of graduate nursing education for advanced nurse practitioners.
Ramanayake, R P J C
Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status.
To examine overall job satisfaction and its association with extrinsic and intrinsic characteristics of job satisfaction among nurse practitioners at the chosen practice site. The objectives were to identify relevant retention and recruitment strategies, from the nurse practitioners perspective, by examining (1) what role aspects are most satisfying, and (2) approaches for successful, professional development and integration in the role. Supportive professional practice environments are particularly important to nurses' satisfaction with their work and the quality of patient care provided. Hence, research that examines nurse practitioners practice implications and barriers in today's healthcare system is essential. A descriptive-correlational design using survey methodology. A nonprobability sample of convenience was used. The outcome measures were: The Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale and two investigator-developed surveys. Participants expressed dissatisfaction with professional and monetary recognition, assertive influence, administrative support and collegial relationships. Interaction of subscale factors on overall job satisfaction and demographic survey findings has important implications for health administrators and nurse practitioners in similar organisations. Stakeholders in healthcare milieus need to be fully engaged in the redesign of the American healthcare system heeding the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine to provide safer health systems to the public. By doing this, issues related to frustration by nurse practitioners related to job satisfaction will be addressed. The need for cooperation, participation, collaboration and instrumental communication are essential in the delivery of safe, quality patient care. A better understanding of intrinsic professional rewards needs to be learned by nurse practitioners who want to seek professional satisfaction and engage in the survival and growth of the profession. Nurse
This paper examines the issues surrounding the cultural transfer of educational practices and institutions between industrialised countries and developing societies. It pays particular attention to adult education, and - using the case study of the Folk High Schools of Sweden and the Folk Development Colleges of Tanzania between 1975 and 1996 - it tries to develop an argument about the conditions under which such transfers may be successful. It suggests that there needs to be something of a match between the ideologies, discourse and functions of the educational institution within both societies; that the transfer of more than one element of any educational system would assist take-up; that the issue of whether the transfer is a top-down or a bottom-up one is also important; and that such transfers are most successful when the receiving society takes control of the transfer and comes to own it and to adapt it to their own usages. The case study is based on a two year evaluation of the Tanzanian Folk Development Colleges under the aid programme of the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida).
Gray, D. J. Pereira
Primary medical care can be provided either by a bureaucratic hierarchical organization or alternatively by independent contractors. Most members of the caring professions in medicine, nursing, and social work are employed in bureaucracies, whereas general medical practitioners, general dental practitioners, opticians, and pharmacists are independent contractors. The independent contractor status has recently been heavily attacked from within the medical and nursing professions, and also from outside. It has been suggested that contracting for services is an inappropriate and anomalous way of arranging medical care, which should now be stopped. However, this process of contracting for services can be analysed, using perspectives from some of the behavioural sciences, to reveal hidden depths in the independent contractor status which suggest that the provision of primary medical care is best carried out by independent contractors. PMID:616865
Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham
In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088
Wubetu, Muluken; Abula, Tefera; Dejenu, Getye
One of the services that plants provide for human beings is their wider medicinal application. Although it is not fully assessed, the practice and wider use of traditional medicine is frequent in Ethiopia. Studies conducted previously are confined to the perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. A total of 45 informants were selected purposefully from the study area. For collecting the data, semi-structured interviewees, observation and field walks were employed from August 10 to September 30/2014. To summarize the information, descriptive statistical methods were applied. Sixty species of medicinal plants distributed in 42 families were collected and identified applied locally for the treatment of 55 human disorders. The most commonly treated ones were evil eye, malaria, wound, peptic ulcer disease and rabies. According to this study, leaves were the commonly used plant parts (36.5%) and 39% of the preparations were decoctions. Oral route, 43 (44%) was the commonly used route of application whereas most (54.8%) remedies were administered only once. Fourteen percent of preparations caused vomiting in addition most (40.4%) of the formulations was contraindicated for pregnant patients. Only seventeen percent of the formulations possessed drug food interactions. Most preparations were stored within clothes, 31 (29.8%). There exists a high (ICF = 0.8) evenness of plant use among healers for treating respiratory problems. Alliumsativum (FI = 0.75) for evil eye, Phytolacca dodecandra (FI = 0.8) for rabies and Croton macrostachyus (FI = 0.78) for treating malaria were medicinal plants with highest fidelity levels showing consistency of knowledge on species best treating power. This study also documented that drought, overgrazing and firewood collection are major threats. Dega Damot district is loaded in its medicinal plant diversity and indigenous knowledge though plants are highly affected by drought, overgrazing and
Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K.
Setting Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Objectives To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Design Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Results Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Conclusion Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance. PMID:23967158
McLemore, Jerri; Hallengren, Aaron L
The authors present a case of a deceased man with numerous subcutaneous nodules identified as foreign bodies on radiographic films. The foreign bodies were gemstones inserted underneath the skin as a form of holistic medicine. The X-ray findings of this case and a review of the literature for similar subcutaneously implanted foreign bodies used in holistic, alternative, or folk medicine are presented. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
General practitioners predominate in osteopathic as compared with allopathic medicine, perhaps because of the student selection process, features of osteopathic education, training in osteopathic hospitals, required rotating internship, and more high-quality general practitioner role models. Personality differences may account for differences in…
Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana
These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…
Davis, David Charles
This historical and comparative study examines the folk high school movement in Denmark from the standpoint of the New Humanism as expressed in the writings of Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Sidney Jourard, and others. These schools are unique among the many educational forms and institutions western man has developed. Private, nonprofit residential…
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. American Folklife Center.
In an effort to encourage appreciation of the rich folk heritage of the United States, the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress presents this annual list of 30 recordings selected by a panel of distinguished experts from nearly two hundred titles submitted by producers, suggested by folklorists and ethnomusicologists, and proposed…
Focuses on Walt Disney and Shelley Duvall, mass media producers who furnish children with fairy-folklore. Compares and contrasts what Disney and Duvall do and do not convey through their fairy-folk tales. (MS)
Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo
The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of Westernized arrangements of traditional Korean folk music on music familiarity and preference. Two separate labs in one intact class were assigned to one of two treatment groups of either listening to traditional Korean folk songs (n?=?18) or listening to Western arrangements of the same…
Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gathiram, Prem
ABSTRACT Background Family physicians are trained to treat a wide range of diseases, treatment being centred on the patient, family and community irrespective of age, gender, or ethnic or racial background. To deal with inequalities in health care, the South African government introduced the concept of a district health system in 1997. It was only in August 2007, however, that family medicine was legislated as a speciality. This study was undertaken prior to the enactment of this legislation. Method A descriptive quantitative study using a self-administered questionnaire was undertaken. A convenience sampling technique was used (N = 60) to assess the reactions of medical practitioners towards the impending legislation. Results Overall, 60% of the sample was in favour of the legislation. There were no significant differences between those working in the private and public sectors or between generalists and specialists. With regard to those not in favour of the legislation compared to those in favour of the legislation, a significantly increased number answered the following statements in the affirmative: (i) ‘I already carry out the functions of a family physician’ (p = 0.001), (ii) ‘They [specialist family physicians] will not be as qualified as specialists in other categories’ (p = 0.005), (iii) ‘It will have a negative impact on general practice’ (p < 0.001), (iv) ‘It will increase competitiveness’ (p = 0.021), (v) ‘It will not have any effect on patient care’ (p = 0.010) and (vi) ‘There is no need for such a speciality’ (p = 0.001). Conclusion We concluded that the majority were in favour of the legislation being implemented.
Sledzik, P S; Bellantoni, N
Folk beliefs associated with death and disease can impact on the bioarcheological record. Unusual postmortem actions by humans and distinctive paleopathological evidence may be clues to these beliefs. This report presents bioarcheological and paleopathological evidence in support of a 19th century New England folk belief in vampires with a particular reference to a colonial period burial. The New England folk belief in vampires revolves around the ability of a deceased tuberculosis victim to return from the dead as a vampire and cause the "wasting away" of the surviving relatives. To stop the actions of the vampire, the body of the consumptive was exhumed and disrupted in various ways. Twelve historic accounts of this activity indicate that the belief was not uncommon in 19th century New England. This creative interpretation of contagion is consistent with the etiology of tuberculosis. Three pieces of evidence are important in this case. The skeletal of a 50- to 55-year-old male from a mid-19th century Connecticut cemetery exhibiting pulmonary tuberculosis rib lesions are discussed. In addition, certain bones in the skeleton were rearranged after decomposition was complete. A historic vampire account from the same time period and geographical location place the belief within the parameters of the cemetery.
Sources In addition to our longitudinal survey instrument , other data sources include the Standard Inpatient Data Record (SIDR), which is an...therapy, high-dose megavita- min therapy, homeopathic remedies, hypnosis , massage therapy, relaxation, and spiritual healing. For the pur- poses of these...analyses, acupuncture, biofeedback, chiro- practic care, energy healing, folk medicine, hypnosis , and massage therapy were grouped together as practi
Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; López, Víctor; Calvo, María Isabel
Background This article analyzes whether the distribution or area of use of 18 medicinal plants is influenced by ecological and cultural factors which might account for their traditional use and/or phytonymy in Navarra. This discussion may be helpful for comparative studies, touching as it does on other ethnopharmacological issues: a) which cultural and ecological factors affect the selection of medicinal plants; b) substitutions of medicinal plants in popular medicine; c) the relation between local nomenclature and uses. To analyze these questions, this paper presents an example of a species used for digestive disorders (tea and camomile: Jasonia glutinosa, J. tuberosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Bidens aurea, Chamaemelum nobile, Santolina chamaecyparissus...), high blood pressure (Rhamnus alaternus, Olea europaea...) or skin diseases (Hylotelephium maximum, H. telephium, Anagallis arvensis, A. foemina). Methods Fieldwork began on January 2004 and continued until December 2006. During that time we interviewed 505 informants in 218 locations in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews, and we subsequently made maps using Arc-View 8.0 program to determine the area of use of each taxon. Each map was then compared with the bioclimatic and linguistic map of Navarra, using the soil and ethnographic data for the region, and with other ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Europe. Results The results clearly show that ecological and cultural factors influence the selection of medicinal plants in this region. Climate and substrate are the most important ecological factors that influence the distribution and abundance of plants, which are the biological factors that affect medicinal plant selection. Conclusion The study of edaphological and climatological factors, on the one hand, and culture, on the other, can help us to understand why a plant is replaced by another one for the same purposes, either in the
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of teaching and learning the subjects of Social Studies with folk songs in secondary school students. This study is made in 2012-2013 Academic Year Spring Term with seventh grade students studying in secondary school bounded Mugla Provincial Directorate for National Education. 67 students have…
This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients. Diagnostic virtuosity is gained when the practitioner embodies a cultivated medical intentionality. In the process of becoming a practitioner imbued with virtuosity, this study focuses on the East Asian notion of "Image" that maximizes the body's perceptual capacity, and minimizes possible reductions by linguistic re-presentation. "Image" enables the practitioner to somatically conceptualize the core notions of East Asian medicine, such as Yin-Yang, and to use them as an embodied litmus as the practitioner's cultivated body instinctively conjures up medical notions at clinical encounters. In line with anthropological critiques of reductionist frameworks that congeal human existential and perceptual vitality within a "scientific" explanatory model, this article attempts to provide an example of various knowing and caring practices, institutionalized external to the culture of science.
Hao, Da-Cheng; Gu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Peigen
The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales), comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant "omics" platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.
Describes the fundamental difference between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and holistic medicine, highlighting holistic medicine's emphasis on the promotion of healthy lifestyles for practitioners and patients alike. Asserts that offering physicians-to-be more course work in holistic medicine could lay the groundwork for future…
Donnelly, W J; Spykerboer, J E; Thong, Y H
Approximately 45% of asthmatic families and 47% of non-asthmatic families had consulted an alternative-medicine practitioner at some time. The most popular form of alternative medicine was chiropractic (21.1% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by homoeopathy/naturopathy (18.8% and 12.7%, respectively), acupuncture (9.4% and 10.9%, respectively), and herbal medicine (4.7% and 6.4%, respectively), while the remainder (20.3% and 11.8% respectively) was distributed among iridology, osteopathy, hypnosis, faith healing and megavitamin therapy. More families were satisfied with orthodox medicine (87.1% and 93.6%, respectively) than with alternative medicine (84.2% and 75.1%, respectively). Crosstabulation analysis of pooled data both from asthma and from non-asthma groups showed that 76.4% were satisfied both with orthodox and with alternative medicine, and 16.4% were satisfied with orthodox, but not with alternative, medicine. In contrast, only 2.7% were dissatisfied with orthodox medicine and satisfied with alternative medicine (chi2 = 9.33; P less than 0.01). These findings do not support the view that patients who use alternative medicine are those who are disgruntled with orthodox medicine.
Huerta, Mary Esther Soto; Riojas-Cortez, Mari
This study was inspired by the literary elements of "cuentos tipicos" (culturally-relevant stories). The book "Prietita y la llorona" ("Prietita and the Ghost Woman") written by Anzaldua (1995) is a good example of a "cuento" that provides information about medicinal herbs and also includes…
Boyer, Pascal; Petersen, Michael Bang
The domain of "folk-economics" consists in explicit beliefs about the economy held by laypeople, untrained in economics, about such topics as e.g., the causes of the wealth of nations, the benefits or drawbacks of markets and international trade, the effects of regulation, the origins of inequality, the connection between work and wages, the economic consequences of immigration, or the possible causes of unemployment. These beliefs are crucial in forming people's political beliefs, and in shaping their reception of different policies. Yet, they often conflict with elementary principles of economic theory and are often described as the consequences of ignorance, irrationality or specific biases. As we will argue, these past perspectives fail to predict the particular contents of popular folk-economic beliefs and, as a result, there is no systematic study of the cognitive factors involved in their emergence and cultural success. Here we propose that the cultural success of particular beliefs about the economy is predictable if we consider the influence of specialized, largely automatic inference systems that evolved as adaptations to ancestral human small-scale sociality. These systems, for which there is independent evidence, include free-rider detection, fairness-based partner-choice, ownership intuitions, coalitional psychology, and more. Information about modern mass-market conditions activates these specific inference-systems, resulting in particular intuitions, e.g., that impersonal transactions are dangerous or that international trade is a zero-sum game. These intuitions in turn make specific policy proposals more likely than others to become intuitively compelling, and as a consequence exert a crucial influence on political choices.
Norful, Allison A; de Jacq, Krystyna; Carlino, Richard; Poghosyan, Lusine
Various models of care delivery have been investigated to meet the increasing demands in primary care. One proposed model is comanagement of patients by more than 1 primary care clinician. Comanagement has been investigated in acute care with surgical teams and in outpatient settings with primary care physicians and specialists. Because nurse practitioners are increasingly managing patient care as independent clinicians, our study objective was to propose a model of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement. We conducted a literature search using the following key words: comanagement; primary care; nurse practitioner OR advanced practice nurse. From 156 studies, we extracted information about nurse practitioner-physician comanagement antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A systematic review of the findings helped determine effects of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement on patient care. Then, we performed 26 interviews with nurse practitioners and physicians to obtain their perspectives on nurse practitioner-physician comanagement. Results were compiled to create our conceptual nurse practitioner-physician comanagement model. Our model of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement has 3 elements: effective communication; mutual respect and trust; and clinical alignment/shared philosophy of care. Interviews indicated that successful comanagement can alleviate individual workload, prevent burnout, improve patient care quality, and lead to increased patient access to care. Legal and organizational barriers, however, inhibit the ability of nurse practitioners to practice autonomously or with equal care management resources as primary care physicians. Future research should focus on developing instruments to measure and further assess nurse practitioner-physician comanagement in the primary care practice setting. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun
The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527
Duffaud, Sylvain; Liébart, Sandra
There is no consensus on prescription of medicines in many situations in general medicine. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies used by general practitioners to limit prescriptions in order to make their prescriptions more effective. A mixed sample of general practitioners in terms of age and types of practice were interviewed using the focus group method until a sufficient number of data were obtained. Fourteen women and ten men aged between 32 and 64 years were interviewed by means of three group interviews. Various strategies were identified: the practitioner's attitude (rapid identification of the patient's needs, listening and evaluation of symptoms, support by physical examination) and the use of resources (reference tools and news) during the consultation; the importance of the conclusion of the consultation (written advice or visit report, review of the previous prescription) and explanation (reasons for limitation, reassurance, arguments, proposal of a follow-up visit). Limitation of prescriptions also depends on the practitioner's own reasons (initial and continued training, motivation and personal objectives, part of a peer group) but equally on the health care system (institutional, specialist support). The study highlights numerous approach to facilitate limitation of prescriptions: training and informing practitioners and patients, consultation management, promote communication at the heart of the health care system and policy-makers. Training organizations and health authorities could facilitate these strategies for the benefit of patients.
Han, Ruochen; Leung, Bo Wah
In mainland China, the implementation of the junior secondary school's music curriculum is highly dependent on music teachers' attitudes towards music and music education. This study investigated the possible relationship between teachers' attitudes towards teaching Chinese folk music and their music teaching practice in junior secondary schools…
Sarmiento, Iván; Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil
Objectives Examine factors associated with use of traditional medicine during childbirth and in management of childhood diarrhoea. Design Cross-sectional cluster survey, household interviews in a stratified last stage random sample of 90 census enumeration areas; unstructured interviews with traditional doctors. Setting Oil-rich Cross River State in south-eastern Nigeria has 3.5 million residents, most of whom depend on a subsistence agriculture economy. Participants 8089 women aged 15–49 years in 7685 households reported on the health of 11 305 children aged 0–36 months in July–August 2011. Primary and secondary outcome measures Traditional medicine used at childbirth and for management of childhood diarrhoea; covariates included access to Western medicine and education, economic conditions, engagement with the modern state and family relations. Cluster-adjusted analysis relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure and Mantel extension. Results 24.1% (1371/5686) of women reported using traditional medicine at childbirth; these women had less education, accessed antenatal care less, experienced more family violence and were less likely to have birth certificates for their children. 11.3% (615/5425) of young children with diarrhoea were taken to traditional medical practitioners; these children were less likely to receive BCG, to have birth certificates, to live in households with a more educated head, or to use fuel other than charcoal for cooking. Education showed a gradient with decreasing use of traditional medicine for childbirth (χ2 135.2) and for childhood diarrhoea (χ2 77.2). Conclusions Use of traditional medicine is associated with several factors related to cultural transition and to health status, with formal education playing a prominent role. Any assessment of the effectiveness of traditional medicine should anticipate confounding by these factors, which are widely recognised to affect health in their own right. PMID:27094939
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. American Folklife Center.
Recognizing the need to inform the public about newly issued folk recordings and audio tapes, the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress initiates this annual list of selected titles, chosen by a panel of distinguished experts from a compilation of 1983 releases prepared by the Center staff. Although not a comprehensive list, it is…
Bahri, Salmah; Lee, Kah Seng; Adenan, Mohammad Aswady; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Neoh, Chin Fen; Long, Chiau Ming
Abstract In an effort to enhance public awareness, we develop Dikir Farmasi as an innovative approach to deliver health information. Dikir Farmasi combines the elements of dikir barat (a type of traditional folk song rhythm) and traditional sketches which are popular in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. These sketches and dikir barat rhythmic songs, with lyrics touch on issues such as drug abuse and regulation are presented in an entertaining and humorous way. Health promotion messages are disseminated using Dikir Farmasi in the form of compact disks, video compact disks, stage performance, exhibition, social media, printed media (signboard, brochure and flyer). PMID:27695527
Hennen, B K
Fifty years ago family practice in Canada had no academic presence. Stimulated by a number of general practitioners and with the support of the Canadian Medical Association, the College of General Practitioners of Canada (CGPC) was founded in 1954. In 1962, conferences on education for general practice attended by the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges and the CGPC led to pilot postgraduate residencies in family practice supported by Department of National Health and Welfare. The first certification examination was held in 1969 and, by 1974, all Canadian medical schools had a family medicine residency program. Today departments of family medicine contribute substantially to undergraduate education in all 16 schools. In Canada, the medical profession, governments and the medical schools have demonstrated the importance they place on appropriate education for family physicians. PMID:8477381
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements. However, insufficiently elaborated, rich funds of oriental medical and pharmaceutical handwriting testify that Oriental science has nurtured in these areas as well, and that the Arabic component in a specific way was intertwined with other cultures and traditions of B&H. The Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina have museums which contain important exhibits and libraries rich in books, among which many from the field of medicine and pharmacy. Muslim mosques, also, had small libraries with Arabic books used for spreading medical knowledge. The second category was folk doctors and practitioners who were on disposition to the people of any religion. Some of them listened to lectures in medicine during the studies of theology and philosophy. However, most did not have any medical education, but by reading books and teaching experience they made their own recipe collection. Special books, called "Ljekaruše" (Books of recipes) were also born during the study when they came into contact with an even larger number of health books. However, it should not be neglected that a lot of them contained folk medicines that were used in some environments depending on the habits and available herbs. Although it has been proven that many recipes from Ljekaruše are pharmacologically and medically justified, one should not ignore the knowledge and skill behind
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements. However, insufficiently elaborated, rich funds of oriental medical and pharmaceutical handwriting testify that Oriental science has nurtured in these areas as well, and that the Arabic component in a specific way was intertwined with other cultures and traditions of B&H. The Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina have museums which contain important exhibits and libraries rich in books, among which many from the field of medicine and pharmacy. Muslim mosques, also, had small libraries with Arabic books used for spreading medical knowledge. The second category was folk doctors and practitioners who were on disposition to the people of any religion. Some of them listened to lectures in medicine during the studies of theology and philosophy. However, most did not have any medical education, but by reading books and teaching experience they made their own recipe collection. Special books, called “Ljekaruše” (Books of recipes) were also born during the study when they came into contact with an even larger number of health books. However, it should not be neglected that a lot of them contained folk medicines that were used in some environments depending on the habits and available herbs. Although it has been proven that many recipes from Ljekaruše are pharmacologically and medically justified, one should not ignore the knowledge and skill behind
Erickson, Erik Kristian
This study explored the influence attending a Norwegian folk high school had on the long-term well-being of former students. The Norwegian folk high schools represent a unique form of publicly funded education with an emphasis on learning through shared experience and that by law, the schools cannot issue grades, give formal examinations, or…
Ferreira, Felipe S; Brito, amuel V; Ribeiro, Samuel C; Saraiva, Antônio AF; Almeida, Waltécio O; Alves, Rômulo RN
Background Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species. Results A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises). Conclusion The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products – and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in
Streit, Judy A; Marano, Cinzia; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Moore, Thomas A; Brunette, Gary W; Kozarsky, Phyllis E
Infectious disease specialists who evaluate international travelers before or after their trips need skills to prevent, recognize, and treat an increasingly broad range of infectious diseases. Wide variation exists in training and percentage effort among providers of this care. In parallel, there may be variations in approach to pre-travel consultation and the types of travel-related illness encountered. Aggregate information from travel-medicine providers may reveal practice patterns and novel trends in infectious illness acquired through travel. The 1,265 members of the Infectious Disease Society of America's Emerging Infections Network were queried by electronic survey about their training in travel medicine, resources used, pre-travel consultations, and evaluation of ill-returning travelers. The survey also captured information on whether any of 10 particular conditions had been diagnosed among ill-returning travelers, and if these diagnoses were perceived to be changing in frequency. A majority of respondents (69%) provided both pre-travel counseling and post-travel evaluations, with significant variation in the numbers of such consultations. A majority of all respondents (61%) reported inadequate training in travel medicine during their fellowship years. However, a majority of recent graduates (55%) reported adequate preparation. Diagnoses of malaria, traveler's diarrhea, and typhoid fever were reported by the most respondents (84, 71, and 53%, respectively). The percent effort dedicated to pre-travel evaluation and care of the ill-returning traveler vary widely among infectious disease specialists, although a majority participate in these activities. On the basis of respondents' self-assessment, recent fellowship training is reported to equip graduates with better skills in these areas than more remote training. Ongoing monitoring of epidemiologic trends of travel-related illness is warranted. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.
Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi
This article introduces a pedagogical approach to teaching one of the renowned Korean folk songs ("Arirang") based on the comprehensive musicianship approach and the 2014 Music Standards (competencies in performing, creating, and responding to music). The authors provide in-depth information for music educators to help their students…
Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham
Literature reviews suggest that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the conventions of formal music education. Whilst many recent studies have tended to define these non-classical music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk transmission music appears to be much more complex…
The Basque Museum of the History of Medicine was founded in 1982 to preserve the historic memory of medicine in the Basque Country and conserve its scientific heritage. Its permanent exposition comprises approx. 6,000 medical objects of the 19th and 20th centuries arranged, thematically in 24 rooms devoted to different medical specialities: folk medicine, unconventional medicine, pharmacy, weights and measures, asepsis and antisepsis, microscopes, laboratory material, X-rays, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, anesthesia, endoscope, odontology, cardiology, ophthalmology, electrotherapy, pathological anatomy and natural sciences. Temporary exhibitions are also held. The Museum is located on the university campus (UPV/EHU) and is important in the training of students in the Faculty of Medicine and the students coming from other faculties. Teaching and research constitute two of the pillars of the Museum that are complemented with publications and the organization of conferences, lectures and other activities.
Jones, Anne Hudson
In this essay, I look back at some of the earliest attempts by the first generation of literature-and-medicine scholars to answer the question: Why teach literature and medicine? Reviewing the development of the field in its early years, I examine statements by practitioners to see whether their answers have held up over time and to consider how the rationales they articulated have expanded or changed in the following years and why. Greater emphasis on literary criticism, narrative ethics, narrative theory, and reflective writing has influenced current work in the field in ways that could not have been foreseen in the 1970s. The extraordinary growth of interest and work in the field nationally and, especially since 1996, internationally has included practitioners in many additional areas such as disability studies, film studies, therapeutic writing, and trauma studies. Along with the emergence of narrative medicine, this diverse community of scholars and practitioners-affiliated more through their use of narrative methodologies than the teaching of literature-makes the perennial challenge of evaluation and assessment even more complicated.
Delcambre, Angie C., Comp.; And Others
This finding aid is a selected list of supernatural-related narratives recorded in the United States and held in the Archive of Folk Culture of the Library of Congress. Brief descriptions of the recordings are accompanied by identification numbers. Information about listening to or ordering any of the listed recordings is available from the…
Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R
Understanding the results and statistics reported in original research remains a large challenge for many sports medicine practitioners and, in turn, may be among one of the biggest barriers to integrating research into sports medicine practice. The purpose of this article is to provide minimal essentials a sports medicine practitioner needs to know about interpreting statistics and research results to facilitate the incorporation of the latest evidence into practice. Topics covered include the difference between statistical significance and clinical meaningfulness; effect sizes and confidence intervals; reliability statistics, including the minimal detectable difference and minimal important difference; and statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Roblin, Douglas W; Howard, David H; Becker, Edmund R; Kathleen Adams, E; Roberts, Melissa H
Objective To estimate the savings in labor costs per primary care visit that might be realized from increased use of physician assistants (PAs) and nurse practitioners (NPs) in the primary care practices of a managed care organization (MCO). Study Setting/Data Sources Twenty-six capitated primary care practices of a group model MCO. Data on approximately two million visits provided by 206 practitioners were extracted from computerized visit records for 1997–2000. Computerized payroll ledgers were the source of annual labor costs per practice from 1997–2000. Study Design Likelihood of a visit attended by a PA/NP versus MD was modeled using logistic regression, with practice fixed effects, by department (adult medicine, pediatrics) and year. Parameter estimates and practice fixed effects from these regressions were used to predict the proportion of PA/NP visits per practice per year given a standard case mix. Least squares regressions, with practice fixed effects, were used to estimate the association of this standardized predicted proportion of PA/NP visits with average annual practitioner and total labor costs per visit, controlling for other practice characteristics. Results On average, PAs/NPs attended one in three adult medicine visits and one in five pediatric medicine visits. Likelihood of a PA/NP visit was significantly higher than average among patients presenting with minor acute illness (e.g., acute pharyngitis). In adult medicine, likelihood of a PA/NP visit was lower than average among older patients. Practitioner labor costs per visit and total labor costs per visit were lower (p<.01 and p=.08, respectively) among practices with greater use of PAs/NPs, standardized for case mix. Conclusions Primary care practices that used more PAs/NPs in care delivery realized lower practitioner labor costs per visit than practices that used less. Future research should investigate the cost savings and cost-effectiveness potential of delivery designs that change
Stanifer, John W; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Wang, Daphne; Su, Guobin; Mao, Wei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, La; Nayak-Rao, Shobhana; Miranda, J Jaime
Traditional medicines are a principal form of health care for many populations, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, and they have gained attention as an important means of health care coverage globally. In the context of kidney diseases, the challenges and opportunities presented by traditional medicine practices are among the most important considerations for developing effective and sustainable public health strategies. However, little is known about the practices of traditional medicines in relation to kidney diseases, especially concerning benefits and harms. Kidney diseases may be caused, treated, prevented, improved, or worsened by traditional medicines depending on the setting, the person, and the types, modes, and frequencies of traditional medicine use. Given the profound knowledge gaps, nephrology practitioners and researchers may be uniquely positioned to facilitate more optimal public health strategies through recognition and careful investigation of traditional medicine practices. Effective implementation of such strategies also will require local partnerships, including engaging practitioners and users of traditional medicines. As such, practitioners and researchers investigating kidney diseases may be uniquely positioned to bridge the cultural, social, historical, and biologic differences between biomedicine and traditional medicine, and they have opportunities to lead efforts in developing public health strategies that are sensitive to these differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Mingxing; Gao, Yang; Xu, Duoduo; Konishi, Tetsuya; Gao, Qipin
Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a fungus inhabiting the mountainous areas of the northeast territories in Asia. HE has been used in traditional folk medicine and medicinal cuisine in China, Korea and Japan. Evidence has been adduced for a variety of physiological effects, including anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-gastritis, and anti-metabolic disease properties. Hence, HE is an attractive target resource for developing not only medicines, but also functional foods. Basic studies on the physiological functions of HE and on the chemical identification of its active ingredients have progressed in recent decades. In this article, we provide an overview of the biochemical and pharmacological studies on HE, especially of its antitumor and neuroprotective functions, together with a survey of recent developments in the chemical analysis of its polysaccharides, which comprise its major active components.
This paper reviews and compares folk theories and empirical evidence about the influence of parenthood on happiness and life satisfaction. The review of attitudes toward parenthood and childlessness reveals that people tend to believe that parenthood is central to a meaningful and fulfilling life, and that the lives of childless people are…
Fairley, Christopher K; Fehler, Glenda; Lewin, Sharon R; Pitts, Marian; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Hocking, Jane S
Rates of HIV in New South Wales (NSW) have been stable, but have increased significantly in other Australian states. The reasons for this are unknown and may be associated with differences in the management of sexually transmissible infections (STI) and HIV in different states in Australia. Our aim was to determine if the use of suppressive treatment for genital herpes, the treatment of HIV or STI screening practices were different between states in Australia. This study was a cross-sectional survey of medical practitioners who are S100 prescribers and members of the Australian Society for HIV Medicine. In general, there were no differences between the clinical practices of practitioners in NSW and other states except that in NSW fewer practitioners tested HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) for syphilis annually (NSW 78% v. others 87%, P = 0.04) or treated MSM with advanced HIV disease (CD4 < 150 x 10(6) cells L(-1)) with acicylovir in the absence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) (NSW 4% v. others 13%, P = 0.03), and more practitioners in NSW tested HIV-negative MSM for HSV type-specific serology (NSW 21% v. others 11%, P = 0.02). It is unlikely that the minor differences in HSV and HIV treatment or STI screening practices among practitioners in NSW and other Australian states explains the differences in HIV notifications between these two areas.
Gras, Airy; Garnatje, Teresa; Ibáñez, Neus; López-Pujol, Jordi; Nualart, Neus; Vallès, Joan
Ethnobotany takes into account past uses to be projected into the present and future. Most current ethnobotanical research is focused, especially in industrialised countries, on obtaining information of plant uses from elderly people. Historical ethnobotany is less cultivated, although papers have demonstrated its interest. Particularly poor, but potentially very relevant, is the attention paid to historical herbaria as a source of data on useful plants. Bearing this in mind, we studied the herbarium of the Catalan pharmacist and naturalist Francesc Bolòs (1773-1844), which contains information on medicinal uses and folk names, with the aim of establishing a catalogue of plants and uses and tracing them through old and contemporary literature. The ca. 6000 plant specimens of this herbarium were investigated to assess those including plant uses and names. These taxa have been thoroughly revised. The data have been tabulated, their biogeographic profile, possible endemic or threatened status, or invasive behaviour have been assessed, and the content regarding medicinal uses, as well as folk names, has been studied. The medicinal terms used have been interpreted as per current days' medicine. The popular names and uses have been compared with those appearing in a certain number of works published from 11th to 20th centuries in the territories covered by the herbarium and with all the data collected in 20th and 21st centuries in an extensive database on Catalan ethnobotany. A total of 385 plant specimens (381 taxa) have been detected bearing medicinal use and folk names information. We collected data on 1107 reports of plant medicinal properties (in Latin), 32 indications of toxicity, nine reports of food use, and 123, 302 and 318 popular plant names in Catalan, Spanish and French, respectively. The most quoted systems are digestive, skin and subcutaneous tissue (plus traumatic troubles) and genitourinary. Relatively high degrees of coincidence of plant names and uses
Newton-Syms, F A; Dawson, P H; Cooke, J; Feely, M; Booth, T G; Jerwood, D; Calvert, R T
1. The effect of providing information about medicines by a short 'sales' interview between individual general practitioners and an 'academic representative' on prescribing was investigated. 2. The promotional campaign was designed to encourage a rational approach to prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in an intervention group of 101 general practitioners selected at random from the Leeds Family Practitioner Committee (FPC). The remaining general practitioners in the Leeds FPC acted as a reference group. 3. The prescribing data for each group for 5 months immediately prior to and 5 months following intervention were compared. 4. Intervention produced a significant increase (P less than 0.005) in the prescribing cost of ibuprofen, the non-steroidal promoted as first choice agent, which was sustained for at least 5 months. 5. Prescribing of the second choice agent, piroxicam, decreased in the reference group but not in the intervention group. 6. There was a decrease in the average prescribing cost of pounds 6.60 per doctor per month in the intervention group compared with the reference group. PMID:1540493
Grasland, A; Mortier, E
Internal medicine is an in-hospital speciality. Along with its expertise in rare diseases, it shares with general medicine the global care of patients but its place in the ambulatory shift has yet to be defined. The objective of our work was to evaluate the benefits of an internal medicine day-hospital devoted to general medicine. Named "Centre Vi'TAL" to underline the link between the city and the hospital, this novel activity was implemented in order to respond quickly to general practitioners having difficulties to synthesize their complex patients or facing diagnostic or therapeutic problems. Using preferentially email for communication, the general practitioners can contact an internist who is committed to respond on the same day and take over the patient within 7 days if day-hospital is appropriate for his condition. The other patients are directed either to the emergency department, consultation or full hospitalization. In 14 months, the center has received 213 (144 women, 69 men) patients, mean age 53.6, addressed by 88 general practitioners for 282 day-hospital sessions. Requests included problem diagnoses (n=105), synthesis reviews for complex patients (n=65), and treatment (n=43). In the ambulatory shift advocated by the authorities, this experience shows that internal medicine should engage in the recognition of day-hospital as a place for diagnosis and synthesis reviews connected with the city while leaving the general practitioners coordinator of their patient care. This activity of synthesis in day-hospital is useful for the patients and efficient for our healthcare system. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Sampson, Deborah A
Nurse practitioner legislation varies among states, particularly in relation to practice without physician oversight, altering the legal environment within which nurse practitioners can use knowledge and skills to meet patient needs. Using New Hampshire as a case study, this historical analysis of nurse practitioners' negotiations over time for independent practice, defined in state practice acts, illuminates the complex social and economic factors affecting nurses' struggle to gain legal rights over their own professional practice without supervision and intervention from another profession. In New Hampshire, not only did organized medicine oppose nurses rights to practice, but pharmacists demanded the right to control all aspects of medication management, including who could prescribe and under what circumstances prescribing could occur. Shifting social and political terrain as well as changes in legislative and state professional board leadership affected the environment and negotiations of a small group of nurses who were ultimately successful in obtaining the right to define their own professional practice.
Rogulj, Zdenka Mrdesa; Baloevic, Elizabet; Dogas, Zoran; Kardum, Goran; Hren, Darko; Marusic, Ana; Marusic, Matko
Although the paradigm of modern medicine is evidence-based practice, there is a lack of research output and interest in research in family medicine. We investigated attitudes towards scientific research among family medicine practitioners in a country in post-communist socioeconomic transition, and related it to their attitudes towards alternative medicine and clinical knowledge relevant for their practice. We surveyed 427 family medicine practitioners in Croatia about their attitudes towards scientific research (5-point rating scale, total score range 20-100) and alternative medicine (5-point rating scale, total score range 14-70). We also tested their knowledge on diagnosis and treatment of hypertension (10 questions) and diabetes (12 questions). The attitude towards scientific research was positive (score 79.0 +/- 7.2 out of maximum 100) and significantly more positive than that towards alternative medicine (score 45.0 +/- 9.9 out of maximum 70; t(425) = 19.06, P < 0.001). The respondents correctly answered about half the questions on hypertension and diabetes; knowledge on new diagnostic and treatment guidelines was better than their textbook knowledge. The attitude scores were not related to knowledge or research activity or the medical practice of the respondents. Family medicine practitioners in a transition country have a more positive attitude towards science than towards alternative medicine, despite the adverse situation in which they practice. To involve family medicine practitioners in research, interventions must be directed towards changes in behavior and practice and not only towards increasing positive attitudes.
Alami, Sophie; Boutron, Isabelle; Desjeux, Dominique; Hirschhorn, Monique; Meric, Gwendoline; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge
Purpose To identify the views of patients and care providers regarding the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to reveal potential obstacles to improving health care strategies. Methods We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews of a stratified sample of 81 patients (59 women) and 29 practitioners (8 women, 11 general practitioners [GPs], 6 rheumatologists, 4 orthopedic surgeons, and 8 [4 GPs] delivering alternative medicine). Results Two main domains of patient views were identified: one about the patient–physician relationship and the other about treatments. Patients feel that their complaints are not taken seriously. They also feel that practitioners act as technicians, paying more attention to the knee than to the individual, and they consider that not enough time is spent on information and counseling. They have negative perceptions of drugs and a feeling of medical uncertainty about OA, which leads to less compliance with treatment and a switch to alternative medicine. Patients believe that knee OA is an inevitable illness associated with age, that not much can be done to modify its evolution, that treatments are of little help, and that practitioners have not much to propose. They express unrealistic fears about the impact of knee OA on daily and social life. Practitioners' views differ from those of patients. Physicians emphasize the difficulty in elaborating treatment strategies and the need for a tool to help in treatment choice. Conclusions This qualitative study suggests several ways to improve the patient–practitioner relationship and the efficacy of treatment strategies, by increasing their acceptability and compliance. Providing adapted and formalized information to patients, adopting more global assessment and therapeutic approaches, and dealing more accurately with patients' paradoxal representation of drug therapy are main factors of improvement that should be addressed. PMID:21573185
Bernardita Silva; Marilynne Mann; Harold Daniel
Festivals and events are becoming increasingly important drivers of tourism activity in Maine. Based on a survey of festival visitors, this study used an IMPLANTM input-output model to estimate the economic impact of the 2008 American Folk Festival in Bangor, ME. The Center for Tourism Research and Outreach estimated that 95,626 local and...
Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331
Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi
Pharmaceutical and nutritional sciences have recently witnessed a bloom in the scientific literature geared towards the use of food plants for their diversified health benefits and potential clinical applications. Health professionals now recognize that a synergism of drug therapy and nutrition might confer optimum outcomes in the fight against diseases. The prophylactic benefits of food plants are being investigated for potential use as novel medicinal remedies due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly growing, there is still a paucity of updated compilation of data and concerns about the rationale of these health-foods still persist in the literature. This paper attempts to congregate the nutritional value, phytochemical composition, traditional uses, in vitro and in vivo studies of 10 common medicinal food plants used against chronic noncommunicable and infectious diseases. Food plants included were based on the criteria that they are consumed as a common food in a typical diet as either fruit or vegetable for their nutritive value but have also other parts which are in common use in folk medicine. The potential challenges of incorporating these medicinal foods in the diet which offers prospective opportunities for future drug development are also discussed. PMID:24822061
Keshet, Yael; Ben-Arye, Eran
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a broad term that encompasses diverse healthcare modalities that emanate from a variety of healing cultures. One of the basic principles of CAM is the promotion of cultural pluralism and openness to diverse cultural aspects of health and illness. Some CAM modalities have been integrated into Israeli healthcare organizations over the past two decades. The objective of this research was to examine whether the integrated CAM modalities match the preferences of Israel's diverse ethnic groups. The research was conducted in northern Israel, an area marked by ethnic and religious diversity. We gathered information about the types of CAM modalities included in the clinics of all four public health funds health maintenance organizations (HMOs)--by means of a telephone survey. This data was assessed in relation to previous data regarding patients' preferences on integrating CAM in community care. The 4 HMOs offer 24 CAM modalities within 58 clinics in northern Israel. The most common CAM modalities are: reflexology, Chinese Medicine and acupuncture, massage, shiatsu, twina, homeopathy and naturopathy. These modalities partly match the Jewish and Arab populations' preferences concerning Chinese medicine and touch/movement modalities. The Arab population, however, which reports greater use of folk-traditional medicine, such as consultation with healers and use of herbal medicine, do not have these treatment options available within healthcare organizations. Western-oriented CAM modalities are integrated within the IsraeLi HMOs, while local folk-traditional medicine is not. The integrated modalities accord with the Jewish populations' preferences more than with those of the Arab population. Some of the factors that influence integration are discussed. Certain homegrown traditional healthcare modalities, such as use of local medicinal herbs, should be considered for addition to current CAM practices. Developing integrative medicine
Kassam, H; Tzortziou Brown, V; O'Halloran, P; Wheeler, P; Fairclough, J; Maffulli, N; Morrissey, D
Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) aims to manage sporting injuries and promote physical activity. This study explores general practitioners' (GPs) awareness, understanding and utilisation of their local SEM services. A questionnaire survey, including patient case scenarios, was administered between February and May 2011. 693 GPs working in Cardiff and Vale, Leicester and Tower Hamlets were invited to participate. 244 GPs responded to the questionnaire (35.2% response rate). Less than half (46%; 112/244) were aware of their nearest SEM service and only 38% (92/244) had a clear understanding on referral indications. The majority (82%; 199/244) felt confident advising less active patients about exercise. There were divergent management opinions about the case scenarios of patients who were SEM referral candidates. Overall, GPs were significantly more likely to refer younger patients and patients with sport-related problems rather than patients who would benefit from increasing their activity levels in order to prevent or manage chronic conditions (p<0.01). GPs with previous SEM training were significantly more likely to refer (p<0.01). The majority (62%; 151/244) had never referred patients to their local SEM clinics but of those who had 75% (70/93) rated the service as good. There is a lack of awareness and understanding among GPs on the role of SEM within the National Health Service which may be resulting in suboptimal utilisation especially for patients who could benefit from increasing their activity levels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W
Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management
Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through
Maubach, Ninya; Hoek, Janet
To explore the range of opinions held by a sample of New Zealand general practitioners (GPs) toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. Depth interviews were conducted with 20 GPs. The interview protocol examined several aspects of the debate over DTCA, including its appropriateness, informativeness, and effect on doctors' relationships with their patients. The interview included five sets of forced choice statements that summarised key strands of the debate; these were used as preliminary stimuli to elicit doctors' views. The results reveal a low incidence of DTCA-related queries and a wide range of views on the appropriateness of DTCA. Respondents favourably viewed DTCA's ability to increase awareness of some health conditions, although they had serious concerns about the adequacy of the risk and contraindication information provided as well as the general absence of specific cost details. While some doctors resented having to deal with questions arising from DTCA, few considered that this advertising undermined the relationship they have with their patients. Overall, while the majority of respondents did not support a ban on DTCA, most of them thought that stricter regulation was necessary. These findings clarify the conclusions drawn from quantitative studies, and suggest doctors' views of DTCA may be more complex than previously reported.
Sarmiento, Iván; Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil
Examine factors associated with use of traditional medicine during childbirth and in management of childhood diarrhoea. Cross-sectional cluster survey, household interviews in a stratified last stage random sample of 90 census enumeration areas; unstructured interviews with traditional doctors. Oil-rich Cross River State in south-eastern Nigeria has 3.5 million residents, most of whom depend on a subsistence agriculture economy. 8089 women aged 15-49 years in 7685 households reported on the health of 11,305 children aged 0-36 months in July-August 2011. Traditional medicine used at childbirth and for management of childhood diarrhoea; covariates included access to Western medicine and education, economic conditions, engagement with the modern state and family relations. Cluster-adjusted analysis relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure and Mantel extension. 24.1% (1371/5686) of women reported using traditional medicine at childbirth; these women had less education, accessed antenatal care less, experienced more family violence and were less likely to have birth certificates for their children. 11.3% (615/5425) of young children with diarrhoea were taken to traditional medical practitioners; these children were less likely to receive BCG, to have birth certificates, to live in households with a more educated head, or to use fuel other than charcoal for cooking. Education showed a gradient with decreasing use of traditional medicine for childbirth (χ(2) 135.2) and for childhood diarrhoea (χ(2) 77.2). Use of traditional medicine is associated with several factors related to cultural transition and to health status, with formal education playing a prominent role. Any assessment of the effectiveness of traditional medicine should anticipate confounding by these factors, which are widely recognised to affect health in their own right. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Harris, Cordelia Graves
Preparation for teaching dance to orthopedically handicapped students is discussed in addition to specific suggestions for teaching popular dance, square dance, folk dance, modern dance, and ballet. Dancing is seen as a way to give orthopedically handicapped students physical education success without competition. Recommended music for each type…
Orators of folk literature and nursery rhymes entertain, inform, and persuade their audiences through the straightforward plots in those genres. Because nursery rhymes recitations usually happen in groups, they help children acquire the mechanics of oral communication and promote communal bonding. Although nursery rhymes have a simpler form than…
Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.
The humanistic practice of medicine requires that the practitioner have sufficient time and appropriate focus. Both elements, however, are under assault by the high-speed, distraction-filled environment within which primary care is delivered today. Despite or perhaps because of modern medicine's technological advances, the potentially healing bond between doctor and patient is being frayed and the quality of care consequently degraded.
Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena
The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation. PMID:23986785
Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Oliveira, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro; Rosa, Ierecê Lucena
The connection between eating and healing is common in traditional folk medical systems, and the multiple possibilities resulting from the combination of biodiversity and culture confer a wealth and complexity in terms of knowledge of the flora and fauna as to their potential as food medicine. The growing awareness of the links between traditional therapeutic-alimentary uses of wildlife and conservation has drawn attention to the gaps in knowledge on the social, economic, and biological contexts in which different forms of traditional wildlife uses take place, particularly with regard to zootherapeutic resources. In this study we interviewed 124 merchants and 203 traditional users of animal-derived remedies in Brazil, aiming at documenting the animal species used as foods and medicines in urban and rural areas of the country. At least 354 wild animal species are used in Brazilian traditional medicine, of which 157 are also used as food. The high degree of overlap between medicinal and alimentary uses of wild animals highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological contexts in which those traditional uses take place for elucidating their potential impact on public health and biodiversity conservation.
Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Methods Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Results Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P < 0.001). In both countries, general practitioners reported that indications (Australia, 90%, Malaysia, 93%) and dosages (Australia, 76%, Malaysia, 82%) were frequently provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% - 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications
Salerno, Giovanni; Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Caneva, Giulia
Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy), as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1%) and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%); most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses). Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red) are previously unpublished. PMID:16270919
Dickinson, Annette R; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb
This hermeneutic phenomenological study explores the relationship between health professionals and families who have a child with a chronic illness. Study participants included 10 family groups who had a child with a chronic illness and 12 practitioners from the disciplines of nursing, medicine, dietetics, physiotherapy and speech therapy. Data were collected by narrative audiotaped interviewing. The results of this study revealed that chronic childhood illness 'throws' families and practitioners together into a web of relationships, which must work for the sake of the child. However, children are usually excluded from the relationship. To understand and manage the child's illness, practitioners and families 'go around' and act 'in-between' relationships. While the quality of the relationship from the family perspective is not essential, relationships are more successful when practitioners recognize the uniqueness of each family web. The nature of the relationship is often simple, yet it coexists with complexity.
Sironi, Vittorio A; Riva, Michele A
Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of folk music and traditional dance have been poorly investigated by historical and scientific literature. Some of these performances could be indeed the manifestation of latent pathological conditions or the expression of liberation rituals. This chapter aimed at analyzing the relationships between traditional dance, folk music, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Since ancient times, dance has been used in the individual or collective as treatment of some diseases, including epilepsy and movement disorders (dyskinesia, chorea, etc.). Dionysia in Ancient Greece, St. Vitus dance in the Middle Age, tarantism and other traditional dances of southern Italy and of non-Western countries might be credited as curative rituals of these neurological and psychiatric conditions. During the nineteenth century, dance was also used for the treatment of psychiatric patients; the relationship between dance and insanity could also be reflected in classical ballets and music of that period. Nowadays, neuropsychiatric manifestations could also be evidenced in modern dances (mass fainting at rock concerts, flash mobs); some ballroom dances are commonly used for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Interdisciplinary research on these subjects (ethnomusicology and cultural anthropology, clinical neurology and dynamic psychology, neuroradiology and neurophysiology, and socioneurology and neuromusicology) should be increased. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler
Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.
Brett, Jennifer; Brimhall, Joseph; Healey, Dale; Pfeifer, Joseph; Prenguber, Marcia
This review examines the educational accreditation standards of four licensed complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines (naturopathic medicine, chiropractic health care, acupuncture and oriental medicine, and massage therapy), and identifies public health and other competencies found in those standards that contribute to cooperation and collaboration among the health care professions. These competencies may form a foundation for interprofessional education. The agencies that accredit the educational programs for each of these disciplines are individually recognized by the United States Department (Secretary) of Education. Patients and the public are served when healthcare practitioners collaborate and cooperate. This is facilitated when those practitioners possess competencies that provide them the knowledge and skills to work with practitioners from other fields and disciplines. Educational accreditation standards provide a framework for the delivery of these competencies. Requiring these competencies through accreditation standards ensures that practitioners are trained to optimally function in integrative clinical care settings. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Škrovánková, Soňa; Mišurcová, Ladislava; Machů, Ludmila
Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Following a folk linguistic approach, this investigation of first-, second- and fourth-year learners' accounts of German found that (1) few had held pre-conceived notions about German prior to language study; (2) most pre-conceived notions concerned German pronunciation; (3) pre-conceived notions about vocabulary were most likely to influence the…
Calvet-Mir, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan
Interest in ethnomedicine has grown in the last decades, with much research focusing on how local medicinal knowledge can contribute to Western medicine. Researchers have emphasized the divide between practices used by local medical practitioners and Western doctors. However, researchers have also suggested that merging concepts and practices from local medicinal knowledge and Western science have the potential to improve public health and support medical independence of local people. In this article we study the relations between local and Western medicinal knowledge within a native Amazonian population, the Tsimane'. We used the following methods: 1) participant observation and semi-structured interviews to gather background information, 2) free-listing and pile-sorting to assess whether Tsimane' integrate local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine at the conceptual level, 3) surveys to assess to what extent Tsimane' combine local medicinal knowledge with Western medicine in actual treatments, and 4) a participatory workshop to assess the willingness of Tsimane' and Western medical specialists to cooperate with each other. We found that when asked about medical treatments, Tsimane' do not include Western treatments in their lists, however on their daily practices, Tsimane' do use Western treatments in combination with ethnomedical treatments. We also found that Tsimane' healers and Western doctors express willingness to cooperate with each other and to promote synergy between local and Western medical systems. Our findings contrast with previous research emphasizing the divide between local medical practitioners and Western doctors and suggests that cooperation between both health systems might be possible.
Calvet-Mir, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan
Background Interest in ethnomedicine has grown in the last decades, with much research focusing on how local medicinal knowledge can contribute to Western medicine. Researchers have emphasized the divide between practices used by local medical practitioners and Western doctors. However, researchers have also suggested that merging concepts and practices from local medicinal knowledge and Western science have the potential to improve public health and support medical independence of local people. In this article we study the relations between local and Western medicinal knowledge within a native Amazonian population, the Tsimane'. Methods We used the following methods: 1) participant observation and semi-structured interviews to gather background information, 2) free-listing and pile-sorting to assess whether Tsimane' integrate local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine at the conceptual level, 3) surveys to assess to what extent Tsimane' combine local medicinal knowledge with Western medicine in actual treatments, and 4) a participatory workshop to assess the willingness of Tsimane' and Western medical specialists to cooperate with each other. Results We found that when asked about medical treatments, Tsimane' do not include Western treatments in their lists, however on their daily practices, Tsimane' do use Western treatments in combination with ethnomedical treatments. We also found that Tsimane' healers and Western doctors express willingness to cooperate with each other and to promote synergy between local and Western medical systems. Conclusion Our findings contrast with previous research emphasizing the divide between local medical practitioners and Western doctors and suggests that cooperation between both health systems might be possible. PMID:18710524
Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the
Miller, Howard M., Ed.
Argues that multicultural education, if it is to be effective and meaningful, needs to be woven throughout the curriculum. Discusses 11 children's books that take into account the age and maturity level of students as they tell forthright stories of the victims, heroes, and just plain folks of the Holocaust, slavery, and the involuntary of…
Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72%) are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation. PMID:20156356
Wardle, Jon L; Sibbritt, David W; Adams, Jon
AimThis study examines GP perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of complementary medicine (CM), and to understand contextual factors that influence these perceptions, attitudes and knowledge. CM use is increasing, and its influence on primary care becoming increasingly significant. Although general practitioners (GPs) often have central primary care gate-keeper roles within health systems, few studies have looked specifically at GPs' perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of CM. A questionnaire was mailed to all 1486 GPs registered as practicing in non-metropolitan areas of New South Wales. The survey included one free-text qualitative question, where respondents were invited to highlight issues associated with CM in their own words. Free-text responses were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis.FindingsIn total, 585 GPs responded to the survey (adjusted response rate 40.1%), with 152 (26.0%) filling in the free-text question. Central themes which emerged were risk as a primary concern; opposition to, resistance to and the inappropriateness of complementary therapies; struggles with complexity and ambivalent tolerance. GPs in Australia have a wide variety of perceptions toward CM. A minority of GPs have absolute views on CM, with most GPs having numerous caveats and qualifications of individual CM. Efficacy is only one aspect of CM critically evaluated by GPs when gauging support for individual therapies - risk, alignment with medical principles and an openness to exploring new avenues of treatment where others have failed, all appear to be equally important considerations when GPs form their views around CM.
González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Taboada, Arianna
Transnational health practices are an emergent and understudied phenomenon, which provide insight into how migrants seek care and tend to their health care needs in receiving communities. We conducted in depth interviews with return migrants (N = 21) and traditional healers (N = 11) to explore transnational health practices among Mixtec migrants from Oaxaca, specifically in relation to their utilization of traditional healers, medicinal plants, and folk remedies. In established migrant destination points, folk remedies and plants are readily available, and furthermore, these resources often travel alongside migrants. Traditional healers are integral to transnational networks, whether they migrate and provide services in the destination point, or are providing services from communities of origin. Findings encourage us to rethink migrants' communities of origin typically thought of as "left behind," and instead reposition them as inherently connected by transnational channels. Implications for transnational health care theory and practice are addressed.
Cho, Grace E.; Sandel, Todd L.; Miller, Peggy J.; Wang, Su-hua
The study investigates European American and Taiwanese grandmothers' folk theories of childrearing and self-esteem, building on an earlier comparison of mothers from the same families. Adopting methods that privilege local meanings, we bring grandmothers' voices into the conversation about childrearing, thereby contributing to a deeper…
Yeşilada, E; Ustün, O; Sezik, E; Takaishi, Y; Ono, Y; Honda, G
In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 55 extracts or fractions obtained from 10 plant species on interleukin-1 (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) biosynthesis were studied. The following plant materials from Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases which are thought to be inflammatory in nature e.g. rheumatism, fever, infections, edemas or related inflammatory diseases were selected as the subject of this study: Cistus laurifolius leaves, Clematis flammna flowering herbs, Crataegus orientalis roots, Daphne oleoides ssp. oleoides whole plant, Ecbalium elaterium roots, Rosa canina roots, Rubus discolor roots, Rubus hirtus roots, Sambucus ebulus flowers and leaves, Sambucus nigra flowers and leaves. All plants showed inhibitory activity against at least one of these models in various percentages depending upon the concentration, thus supporting the folkloric utilization. Daphne oleoides was found to be the most active plant against the test models.
Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.
Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…
Tall Bull, Henry; Weist, Tom
The book takes its title from the first of nine Northern Cheyenne folk tales, illustrated by Indian children in grades 2-8. The stories are: "The Turtle Went to War" about a turtle who makes war on the Indians and takes two scalps; "The Cat", explaining why cats eat first and wash later; "The Frog and the Watersnake",…
Foght, H. W.
This bulletin contains the third section of Harold W. Foght's report on the rural schools of Denmark. This section of the report pertains almost wholly to the folk high schools, which have by common consent been the most important factor in the transformation in the rural life of Denmark and in the phenomenal economic and social development of…
Wallace, K A
Susan Sherwin's No Longer Patient: Feminist Ethics and Health Care is a readable book that is accessible to a wide range of medical practitioners. It presupposes no prior training in ethics or feminism (and for just this reason, it may be somewhat less satisfying, although not necessarily less useful, for philosophers). The book is a feminist bioethics primer that introduces medical practitioners to issues that feminist theory makes prominent and that illuminate tensions in the structure and practice of medicine.
Mbwambo, Z H; Mahunnah, R L A; Kayombo, E J
Traditional health practitioners (THPs) and their role in traditional medicine health care system are worldwide acknowledged. Trend in the use of Traditional medicine (TRM) and Alternative or Complementary medicine (CAM) is increasing due to epidemics like HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other diseases like cancer. Despite the wide use of TRM, genuine concern from the public and scientists/biomedical heath practitioners (BHP) on efficacy, safety and quality of TRM has been raised. While appreciating and promoting the use of TRM, the World Health Organization (WHO), and WHO/Afro, in response to the registered challenges has worked modalities to be adopted by Member States as a way to addressing these concerns. Gradually, through the WHO strategy, TRM policy and legal framework has been adopted in most of the Member States in order to accommodate sustainable collaboration between THPs and the scientist/BHP. Research protocols on how to evaluate traditional medicines for safety and efficacy for priority diseases in Africa have been formulated. Creation of close working relationship between practitioners of both health care systems is strongly recommended so as to revamp trust among each other and help to access information and knowledge from both sides through appropriate modalities. In Tanzania, gaps that exist between THPs and scientists/BHP in health research have been addressed through recognition of THPs among stakeholders in the country's health sector as stipulated in the National Health Policy, the Policy and Act of TRM and CAM. Parallel to that, several research institutions in TRM collaborating with THPs are operating. Various programmed research projects in TRM that has involved THPs and other stakeholders are ongoing, aiming at complementing the two health care systems. This paper discusses global, regional and national perspectives of TRM development and efforts that have so far been directed towards bridging the gap between THPs and scientist/BHP in
... Certified Holding To Try Acupuncture or Oriental Medicine Treatment, Find a Practitioner ... to the Website Dr. Kory Ward-Cook, Ph.D., MT(ASCP), CAE serves as the Chief Executive Officer for the ...
Chen, Yao-Long; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Li; Li, Bo; Wu, Chuan-Hong; Mu, Wei; Wang, Jia-Ying; Yang, Ke-Hu; Li, You-Ping; Chen, Chiehfeng; Wang, Yong-Yan; Wang, Chen; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Shang, Hong-Cai
How to test the treatments of Chinese medicine (CM) and make them more widely accepted by practitioners of Western medicine and the international healthcare community is a major concern for practitioners and researchers of CM. For centuries, various approaches have been used to identify and measure the efficacy and safety of CM. However, the high-quality evidence related to CM that produced in China is still rare. Over the recent years, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been increasingly applied to CM, strengthening its theoretical basis. This paper reviews the past and present state of CM, analyzes the status quo, challenges and opportunities of basic research, clinical trials, systematic reviews, clinical practice guidelines and clinical pathways and evidence-based education developed or conducted in China, pointing out how EBM can help to make CM more widely used and recognized worldwide.
Saeidnia, S.; Gohari, AR.; Mokhber-Dezfuli, N.; Kiuchi, F.
Achillea L. (Compositae or Asteraceae) is a widely distributed medicinal plant throughout the world and has been used since ancient time. Popular indications of the several species of this genus include treatment of wounds, bleedings, headache, inflammation, pains, spasmodic diseases, flatulence and dyspepsia. Phytochemical investigations of Achillea species have revealed that many components from this genus are highly bioactive. There are many reports on the mentioned folk and traditional effects. Although, the medicinal properties of Achillea plants are recognized worldwide, there are only one review article mainly about the structures of the phytochemical constituents of Achillea. The present paper reviews the medicinal properties of various species of Achillea, which have been examined on the basis of the scientific in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations. Various effects of these plants may be due to the presence of a broad range of secondary active metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes) and sterols which have been frequently reported from Achillea species. PMID:22615655
Ring, Melinda; Brodsky, Marc; Low Dog, Tieraona; Sierpina, Victor; Bailey, Michelle; Locke, Amy; Kogan, Mikhail; Rindfleisch, James A; Saper, Robert
The Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine defines integrative medicine as "the practice of medicine that reaffirms the importance of the relationship between practitioner and patient, focuses on the whole person, is informed by evidence, and makes use of all appropriate therapeutic approaches, health care professionals, and disciplines to achieve optimal health and healing." Over the past three decades, the U.S. public increasingly has sought integrative medicine approaches. In an effort to train medical professionals to adequately counsel patients on the safe and appropriate use of these approaches, medical schools and residencies have developed curricula on integrative medicine for their trainees. In addition, integrative medicine clinical fellowships for postresidency physicians have emerged to provide training for practitioners interested in gaining greater expertise in this emerging field. Currently, 13 clinical fellowships in integrative medicine exist in the United States, and they are predominantly connected to academic medical centers or teaching affiliate hospitals. In 2010, the Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine, represented by 56 member academic health care institutions with a shared commitment to advance the principles and practices of integrative medicine, convened a two-year task force to draft integrative medicine fellowship core competencies. These competencies would guide fellowship curriculum development and ensure that graduates possessed a common body of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. In this article, the authors discuss the competencies and the task force's process to develop them, as well as associated teaching and assessment methods, faculty development, potential barriers, and future directions.
Binder, Louis S.; Chappell, James A.
The Scientific Board of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in emergency medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, or scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in emergency medicine that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The items of progress listed below were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Emergency Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under its direction. PMID:1949777
Camacho, Juana; Gomez, Jose Luis
This exhibit guide (in Spanish, with translation in English printed on adjoining columns on each page), describes an exhibition of folk art by Mexican migrant farmworkers presented by thre Folk Arts Program of the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. The exhibit is divided into four major themes that farmworkers presented by the BOCES Geneseo Migrant…
A teaching/learning plan designed to provide the elementary classroom teacher with an overview of the geography, environment, culture, and people of Southeast Asia includes five sections on the following subjects: geography, animals, plants, social roles and occupations, and religion. Through the use of folk tales from each of six Southeast Asian…
Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut Andreas; Turmo, Are
The folk high school (FHS) is a Nordic contribution to global education and is a unique approach to non-university adult education. Because expanded tuition is the true nature of Norwegian FHS, it is important for FHS that its teachers perform discretionary individual extra-role behaviour advantageous to the school organization, a phenomenon…
Kamau, Loice N; Mbaabu, Mathiu P; Mbaria, James M; Karuri, Gathumbi P; Kiama, Stephen G
Non communicable diseases are currently a major health challenge facing humanity. Nyeri County has one of the highest diabetes prevalence in Kenya (12.6%), compared to the country's prevalence of 5.6%. The purpose of the study was to document; diabetes knowledge, medicinal plants and demand for the services of traditional medicine practitioners, in the management and treatment of diabetes. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the six constituencies in Nyeri, using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. Thirty practicing traditional medicine practitioners were purposively selected for the study. Field observation and identification was carried out on all plants that were cited during the interview. Plant samples were collected and voucher specimen deposited in the University of Nairobi Herbarium in the - School of Biological Sciences. The study revealed 30 plant species in 28 genera and 23 families that are used by the traditional medicine practitioners to treat and manage diabetes. Demand for traditional medicine practitioners' services in the treatment of diabetes is low and often occurs when conventional drugs fail. Interaction with the TMPs unveiled significant diversity of potential anti diabetic medicinal plants and in-depth ethnobotanical knowledge that they possessed. Preference for traditional herbal medicine was low despite wide ethnobotanical knowledge in the face of high prevalence of diabetes in the locality. The findings form the basis of pharmacological studies for standardization of the documented ethnomedicine used in the treatment and management of diabetes in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The nighttime television series Queer as Folk (U.S.) was set in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, but was filmed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Beginning with a brief textual analysis of the representation of lesbians on Queer as Folk, this audience reception study outlines how Canadian viewers who claimed a wide range of sexualities interpreted the representations of lesbians on the series in vastly different ways. While some viewers described the lesbian characters, Melanie and Lindsay, as "an embarrassment" and "more like a parody of lesbians," others enjoyed the "accuracy" and "realism" of these characters.
Jonas, W B
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is an area of great public interest and activity, both nationally and worldwide. Many alternative medical practices have existed for hundreds, even thousands of years. Patients and professionals are turning to CAM for a variety of reasons. Most have tried conventional medicine for a particular (usually chronic) medical condition and have found the results inadequate. Some are concerned over the side effects of conventional therapies. Some are seeking out a more "holistic" orientation in health care where they can address body, mind, and spirit. A continuing challenge will be how to address CAM services that are based on time, practitioner-patient interactions, and self-care, using modern standards of evidence, education, licensing, and reimbursement. For most CAM therapies, there is insufficient research to say definitively that it works and CAM research is especially limited in the area of cancer. Given that situation, the questions (but not answers) facing the medical practitioner are clear-cut. Should the practitioner await the definitive results of formal Phase III randomized clinical trials, or should the practitioner rely on limited data, seeking out evidence that makes physiological sense and small trials that seem to offer some benefit to the patient? When and at what point do you discourage, permit, or recommend an available alternative therapy? The answers are not simple. There may be differences of opinion and values among the patient, the practitioner, and the organizations that pay for a therapy. CAM areas should be approached with every patient who enters the office recognizing that there are precautions to consider when patients are using, or plan to use, such therapies. This paper presents a broad survey of what complementary and alternative medicine is from the perspectives of both the public as user and the conventional medical practitioner, as well as provides examples of issues pertinent to
Sarker, Abeed; Mollá, Diego; Paris, Cecile
Evidence-based medicine practice requires medical practitioners to rely on the best available evidence, in addition to their expertise, when making clinical decisions. The medical domain boasts a large amount of published medical research data, indexed in various medical databases such as MEDLINE. As the size of this data grows, practitioners increasingly face the problem of information overload, and past research has established the time-associated obstacles faced by evidence-based medicine practitioners. In this paper, we focus on the problem of automatic text summarisation to help practitioners quickly find query-focused information from relevant documents. We utilise an annotated corpus that is specialised for the task of evidence-based summarisation of text. In contrast to past summarisation approaches, which mostly rely on surface level features to identify salient pieces of texts that form the summaries, our approach focuses on the use of corpus-based statistics, and domain-specific lexical knowledge for the identification of summary contents. We also apply a target-sentence-specific summarisation technique that reduces the problem of underfitting that persists in generic summarisation models. In automatic evaluations run over a large number of annotated summaries, our extractive summarisation technique statistically outperforms various baseline and benchmark summarisation models with a percentile rank of 96.8%. A manual evaluation shows that our extractive summarisation approach is capable of selecting content with high recall and precision, and may thus be used to generate bottom-line answers to practitioners' queries. Our research shows that the incorporation of specialised data and domain-specific knowledge can significantly improve text summarisation performance in the medical domain. Due to the vast amounts of medical text available, and the high growth of this form of data, we suspect that such summarisation techniques will address the time
Alves, Rômulo R. N.; Barbosa, José A. A.; Santos, Silene L. D. X.; Souto, Wedson M. S.; Barboza, Raynner R. D.
Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. Despite its prevalence in traditional medical practices worldwide, research on medicinal animals has often been neglected in comparison to medicinal plant research. This work documents the medicinal animals used by a rural community in the semi-arid region, inserted in Caatinga Biome, where 66 respondents provided information on animal species used as medicine, body parts used to prepare the remedies and illnesses to which the remedies were prescribed. We calculated the informant consensus factor to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species use value to determine the extent of utilization of each species. We recorded the use of 51 animal species as medicines, whose products were recommended for the treatment of 68 illnesses. The informant consensus in the use of many specific remedies is fairly high, giving an additional validity to this folk medicine. Eight species not previously reported as having medicinal use were recorded. The local medicinal fauna is largely based on wild animals, including some endangered species. Given a high proportion of medicinal animals observed in the study area, it is logical to conclude that any conservation strategy should include access to modern health care. PMID:19729490
Eaves, Emery R.; Nichter, Mark; Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Gordon, Judith S.; Muramoto, Myra L.
Printed educational materials (PEMs) have long demonstrated their usefulness as economical and effective media for health communication. In this article, we evaluate the impact of targeted tobacco cessation PEMS for use along with a brief intervention training designed for three types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners: chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage. We describe how PEMs in CAM practitioners’ offices were perceived and used by practitioners and by patients. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 53 practitioners and 38 of their patients. This analysis specifically focused on developing and distributing project-related posters and pamphlets in CAM practice. Our findings indicate that materials (1) legitimated tobacco-related expertise among CAM practitioners and tobacco-related conversations as part of routine CAM practice, (2) increased practitioners’ willingness to approach the topic of tobacco with patients, (3) created an effective way to communicate tobacco-related information and broaden the reach of brief intervention initiatives, and (4) were given to patients who were not willing to engage in direct discussion of tobacco use with practitioners. PMID:27591225
As the oral cavity marks the beginning of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), it is not surprising that it frequently mirrors disease that occurs lower in the GIT. Increasingly, clinical signs in the oral cavity are recognized as future predictors and prognostic indicators of GIT and, indeed, other systemic disease. This paper discusses recent advances in the overlap area of Oral Medicine and Gastroenterology and the significant role of the dental practitioner in the management of these patients.
Ben Abdelaziz, A; Harrabi, I; Rahmani, S; Ghedira, A; Gaha, K; Ghannem, H
The therapeutic knowledge of physicians is the corner stone to the rational use of medicines; however information about medicines is generally obtained from the pharmaceutical industry via their sales representatives (reps). We aimed to identify general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes to pharmaceutical reps and the information they provide. We surveyed 140 GPs using a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 78% (72 GPs from the public sector and 68 from the private sector). About 10% of the GPs said they received daily visits from pharmaceutical reps; 84% of GPs considered them an efficient source of information and 31% said they might change their therapeutic prescribing following visits from these reps. Because of their positive perception of pharmaceutical reps, GPs are susceptible to the information they provide. Controlling the validity of the therapeutic information imparted by the pharmaceutical industry is thus a fundamental component of the programme for the rational use of medicines.
Sarkar, Indra Neil
Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.
Kao, Jessica Ching-Yi
This paper provides a brief review of the literature on traditional Chinese medicine in both China and the United States and presents observations from a preliminary study of Chinese practitioners in the Chinatown section of Los Angeles, California. The dualistic health care system in Chinese culture is described as comprising both scholarly and…
Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Nilsson, Niclas; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Rønsted, Nina
The genus Euphorbia (spurges, Euphorbiaceae) is the third largest genus of flowering plants, with almost 2000 species. Its exceptional diversity of growth forms and near-cosmopolitan distribution have attracted human interest since ancient times. For instance in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses of Euphorbia in recent years. To provide an indicative overview of medicinal uses of the genus Euphorbia driven by the recent interest in biologically active natural products from Euphorbia in drug discovery. We assess documented medicinal knowledge and value of the genus Euphorbia and the taxonomic distribution of this value. We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term "Euphorbia medicinal". Medicinal uses were identified for >5% of the species in the genus, including descriptions of treatments for a variety of diseases. The most-cited medicinal uses around the world were treatments for digestive system disorders, skin ailments and, especially in the Southern hemisphere, infections. Consensus ratios indicated that the most-valued medicinal uses of Euphorbia species are in the treatment of digestive and respiratory complaints, inflammation and injuries, especially by members of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce. The present study gives a first indicative overview of Euphorbia species used for health and wellbeing around the world. The exceptional diversity of the genus Euphorbia is not only represented by its growth forms but also by its diverse medicinal uses. Our results highlight the importance of research into medicinal uses of Euphorbia species and their importance as a source of natural products. Furthermore the medicinally
This article examines the integration of chiropractors into multi-disciplinary healthcare teams in the specialisation of sport medicine. Sport medicine is practised in a number of contexts in professional and amateur sport. The current analysis focuses on the highest levels of amateur sport, as exemplified by the Olympics. Data are taken from interviews with 35 health professionals, including physicians, physiotherapists, athletic therapists and chiropractors. A defining feature of sport medicine is an emphasis on performance, which is the basis for a client-centred model of practice. These two elements have provided the main grounds for the inclusion of chiropractic in sport medicine. While the common understanding that 'athletes wanted them' has helped to secure a position for chiropractic within the system of sport medicine professions, this position is marked by ongoing tensions with other professions over the scope and content of practice, and the nature of the patient-practitioner relationship. In the context of these tensions, chiropractors' success in achieving acceptance on sport medicine teams is contingent on two factors: (a) reduced scope of practice in which they work primarily as manual therapists; and (b) the exemplary performance of individual practitioners who 'fit' into multi-disciplinary sport medicine teams.
Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions
Mafimisebi, Taiwo E; Oguntade, Adegboyega E
Agrarian rural dwellers in Nigeria produce about 95% of locally grown food commodities. The low accessibility to and affordability of orthodox medicine by rural dwellers and their need to keep healthy to be economically productive, have led to their dependence on traditional medicine. This paper posits an increasing acceptance of traditional medicine country-wide and advanced reasons for this trend. The fact that traditional medicine practitioners' concept of disease is on a wider plane vis-à-vis orthodox medicine practitioners' has culminated in some socio-cultural and magico-religious practices observed in preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health management. Possible scientific reasons were advanced for some of these practices to show the nexus between traditional medicine and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that the psychological aspect of traditional medicine are reflected in its socio-cultural and magico-religious practices and suggests that government should fund research into traditional medicine to identify components of it that can be integrated into the national health system.
Tabak, Rachel G; Padek, Margaret M; Kerner, Jon F; Stange, Kurt C; Proctor, Enola K; Dobbins, Maureen J; Colditz, Graham A; Chambers, David A; Brownson, Ross C
Dissemination and implementation research training has great potential to improve the impact and reach of health-related research; however, research training needs from the end user perspective are unknown. This paper identifies and prioritizes dissemination and implementation research training needs. A diverse sample of researchers, practitioners, and policymakers was invited to participate in Concept Mapping in 2014-2015. Phase 1 (Brainstorming) gathered participants' responses to the prompt: To improve the impact of research evidence in practice and policy settings, a skill in which researchers need more training is… The resulting statement list was edited and included subsequent phases. Phase 2 (Sorting) asked participants to sort each statement into conceptual piles. In Phase 3 (Rating), participants rated the difficulty and importance of incorporating each statement into a training curriculum. A multidisciplinary team synthesized and interpreted the results in 2015-2016. During Brainstorming, 60 researchers and 60 practitioners/policymakers contributed 274 unique statements. Twenty-nine researchers and 16 practitioners completed sorting and rating. Nine concept clusters were identified: Communicating Research Findings, Improve Practice Partnerships, Make Research More Relevant, Strengthen Communication Skills, Develop Research Methods and Measures, Consider and Enhance Fit, Build Capacity for Research, and Understand Multilevel Context. Though researchers and practitioners had high agreement about importance (r =0.93) and difficulty (r =0.80), ratings differed for several clusters (e.g., Build Capacity for Research). Including researcher and practitioner perspectives in competency development for dissemination and implementation research identifies skills and capacities needed to conduct and communicate contextualized, meaningful, and relevant research. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra
Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381
This interdisciplinary, bilingual curriculum resource, contains a 29-minute videotape program, 20 colorplate posters, and a curriculum guide. The resource presents an examination of the folklife and folklore expressions of the Hispanic people of New Mexico. The focus of the curriculum is the relationship of survival-based folk activities to the…
Paterfamilial literature in Germany marked the emergence of a literary category, with its householder writings being precursors of some of a farm management theory. Its pamphlets on veterinary medicine reflected latest knowledge in its time in farming. A number of economy housebooks is presented together with the authors in an attempt to give a somewhat closer account of this literature category in populist veterinary medicine.
The medicines refrigerator is a common piece of equipment found in clinical areas. It is used to ensure specific medicines are safely stored within a narrow temperature range in line with manufacturers' instructions; this is usually between +2˚C and +8˚C, and ideally +5˚C. Drugs stored in the medicines refrigerator include: vaccines; insulin; chemotherapy drugs; topical preparations, such as some types of eye drops; and other treatments such as glucagon, which is used to manage severe hypoglycaemia. This article reviews the function of the medicines refrigerator and the checks required by healthcare practitioners to ensure that medicines remain safely stored and their effectiveness is maintained. It also outlines the medicines refrigeration procedure known as the 'cold chain', which includes the use of cold boxes or vaccine carriers to maintain the required temperature of medicines during transport from the manufacturer to user, or between healthcare departments. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Robbins, Rockey; Hong, Ji; Jennings, Aaron M.
This article employs a qualitative case study approach to describe the views and perspectives of a folk healer (White Bear) regarding spiritual healing. White Bear argues for a mobile, in-the-moment form of diagnosis and a "pause," in which the mind ceases to tyrannize and the healer is no longer absorbed in his or her emotions. He contends that a…
Moorhead, R G
The proposed descriptor bill to change Medicare rebates to general practice patients could have a benefit to general practice preventive medicine. This seems possible through rewarding practitioners who spend more time with their patients and the positive effects of continuing medical education. However, the potential exists for whittling away any rewards for these practitioners by future governments and the audit of general practices could become a method of political control of Australian general practice.
Bennett, Paul W.
Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…
Chen, Yu-Ting; Walsh, Daniel J.
Drawing on Bruner's notion of folk pedagogy, this research explores how Chinese aesthetic education is perceived and valued at two elementary schools in Taiwan. Using qualitative methods, the research explores how arts teachers guide children to experience arts through the arts curricula in school and the local culture. The study reveals that the…
Silnutzer, Randi, Ed.; Watrous, Beth Eildin, Ed.
Each chapter of this document describes a different project and approach for introducing students (elementary to high school) to oral history and folk arts. All chapters use a standard format in which a general overview of the project, describing themes, philosophies, and methods are followed by sample lesson plans, teacher guidelines, and student…
Yoshida, Mia; Hida, Toshie H; Takeshita, Kazuo; Tsuboi, Masamichi; Kanamori, Masato; Akachi, Natsuko; Miura, Noriko N; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito
Fungal β-glucan is a representative pathogen-associated microbial pattern (PAMP) from mushroom, yeast, and fungi, and stimulates innate as well as acquired immune systems. It is a widely used functional food to enhance immunity. Such plant extracts have been known as folk medicines and reported to show various biological activities beneficial to human health, such as anti-tumor, anti-allergic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the cooperative effect of bamboo water-soluble methanol precipitation (BWMP), a macromolecular fraction of the hot-water extract of Sasa veitchii (Japanese folk medicine Kumazasa), and the β-glucan from the medicinal mushroom Sparassis crispa (SCG) was analyzed in vitro using DBA/2 mice. The splenocytes from male DBA/2 mice were cultured with BWMP in the presence of SCG, and the responses were assessed by measuring cytokines. BWMP suppressed IFN-γ and GM-CSF production by SCG, but not TNF-α production. To analyze the specificity of the reaction, similar experiments were conducted with BWMP in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS); however, none of the cytokines were inhibited. Cytokine production of splenocytes by SCG was suggested to be largely dependent on the binding of lymphocytes with dendritic cells. Functions of BWMP were also analyzed by mixed lymphocyte reaction, and IFN-γ production was suppressed. These findings suggested that BWMP modulated the cell-to-cell contact induced by SCG and inhibited cytokine production. It is strongly suggested that the plant extracts modulate the immunostimulating effects of medicinal mushrooms. Cooperative effects of plants and mushrooms would be an important issue for functional foods.
Yan, H X; Zhen, Y
From 1947 to 1977, the education of Mongolian medicine was developed to a certain degree, in different levels and different forms with attribute of modern education. Through opening training school and class, the traditional Mongolian practitioners and its education are standardized and its levels elevated. In addition, by means of medical colleges and health schools, Mongolian medical talents of different types at different levels were cultivated. All of them were at the forefront of the development of Mongolian medicine later. In 1958, the first undergraduate education, a Department of Sino-Mongolian Medicine was set up in Inner Mongolia Medical College, marking the development of beginning of the higher education of Mongolian medicine. Therefore, Mongolian medicine was the forerunner of higher education of Chinese minority medicine.
Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Terbovc, Alenka; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Kersnik, Janko
To determine the impact of nurse practitioners' counselling on reducing cardiovascular risk factors in patients participating in routine preventive check-ups. A new model of 'renewed' family practice was introduced in Slovenia as a pilot project in 2011, in which nurse practitioners are included in a team carrying out preventive activities and managing patients with stable chronic diseases. A retrospective cohort study. This study was conducted in 16 family medicine practices (eight renewed and eight regular family practices). In each family practice, a systematic sample was selected of registered patients participating in a cardiovascular preventive check-up. Data on sex, age, blood pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar, smoking, level of physical activity and cardiovascular risk were collected. Patients attending renewed family practices received counselling on risk factors from nurse practitioners (test group), and patients attending regular family practices received counselling from family physicians (control group). Data were collected again at least one and no more than five years after the baseline consultation. There were 128 patients in the test group and 129 patients in the control group. At the control visit, the patients counselled by nurse practitioners had significantly lower levels of systolic blood pressure and cholesterol and practiced regular physical activity significantly more often than patients counselled by family physicians. Nurse practitioners can be at least as successful as physicians when counselling patients on cardiovascular risk factors during their preventive check-ups. This study showed that nurse practitioners have an important role in managing patients at the primary care level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ribeiro, Victor Pena; Arruda, Caroline; Abd El-Salam, Mohamed; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp
Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds. A search in the literature was undertaken by using the following Web tools: Web of Science, SciFinder, Pub-Med and Science Direct. The terms 'anti-inflammatory' and 'Brazilian medicinal plants' were used as keywords in search engine. Tropicos and Reflora websites were used to verify the origin of the plants, and only the native plants of Brazil were included in this review. The publications reporting the use of well-accepted scientific protocols to corroborate the anti-inflammatory activities of Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory potential were considered. We selected 70 Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. The plants were grouped according to their anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The main mechanisms involved inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The collected data on Brazilian medicinal plants, in the form of crude extract and/or isolated compounds, showed significant anti-inflammatory activities involving different mechanisms of action, indicating Brazilian plants as an important source of anti-inflammatory compounds.
Demirci, Sirin Akbulut
The article presents the results of a study carried out within the scope of a project entitled, "Arranged Bursa Folk Songs for Fourhands Piano Extended Piano Techniques and Teaching in Music Education Departments." It is number KUAP (E)-2014/28 of the Uludag University Scientific Research Projects Unit and was supported by the Bursa…
Dogan, Pinar Karacan
The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between social values perceptions and moral maturity levels of folk dancers, and evaluate this relation in terms of some variables. The relational screening model was used in the study. The "Multi-dimensional Social Values Scale," which was developed by Bolat (2013), and the…
Kaiser, Florian; Sohm, Michael; Illig, Daniela; Vehling-Kaiser, Ursula; Haas, Michael
In 2011, a specialized palliative home care was introduced in the counties of Landshut and Dingolfing. The aim of the current survey was to evaluate the cooperation, acceptance and need of palliative measures for patients particulary from the general practitioner's perspective. From January to March 2015, 198 general practitioners from the counties of Landshut and Dingolfing were contacted with questionnaires. The questionnaires consisted of 16 questions covering five different issues, and drew upon the practical experiences of the authors and earlier surveys from the literature. The questionnaires were sent by post containing a self-addressed and postpaid envelope. Completed questionnaires from 40 out of 198 contacted general practitioners (33 % female and 53 % male). Of these 85 % had cooperated with a SAPV team, 23 % had taken part in training for palliative medicine, 10 % intended to acquire a qualification and 10 % could imagine working in a SAPV team. In addition, 75 % stated that hospitalizations were avoided through the use of SAPV while 73 % felt that time and costs were saved for their own practices. The majority of general practitioners were satisfied with the work provided by the SAPV and the cooperation. Regarding additional palliative care for geriatric patients, 60 % believed that this was sensible. One main critique was that the information about including a patient in the SAPV program was transferred to the general practitioner too late. The current data show that general practitioners recognize the need for palliative medicine skills and predominately welcome the work of a specialized palliative care team in treating their patients. However, close cooperation and communication is necessary for a successful network between generalists and specialists in palliative care.
Despite decades of advances in diagnosing and treating a broad range of illnesses, many changes in our health care system impede true caregiving, leaving patients and practitioners dissatisfied and creating an emotional burden for practitioners that contributes to the staggering rates of physician burnout. Given this dissatisfaction and disconnection, practitioners and patients alike can benefit from structured opportunities to explore the expectations, assumptions, and emotions that shape our understanding of health and illness, and thus our experiences within the health care system. This article demonstrates how group discussions of poetry—something that might seem irrelevant to medical practice or physical wellness—can foster communication, connection, and collective reflection for physicians, interprofessional health care teams, and groups that include practitioners, patients, and families, allowing participants to once again find meaning in medicine. PMID:29035188
Tuft, Mia; Nakken, Karl O; Kverndokk, Kyrre
In Norway and Sweden, epilepsy has for many centuries been considered a strange and mysterious disease. The explanations of its causes have been many and imaginative. One being that epilepsy was caused by the hidden people inhabiting the woods and the mountains. To avoid the disease, these hidden people should not be annoyed. One commonly used treatment principle was to try to place the disease back to the ground, or passing the diseased through a hole or an opening in the nature. Fresh blood from criminals was also considered to have strong antiepileptic properties. In the Scandinavian countries, some of these folk beliefs have been very tenacious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...
Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Au, Chi-Wai; Kerrone, Dustin; Martinez, Miguel; Kipke, Michele D.
Risks associated with HIV are well documented in research literature. Although a great deal has been written about high-risk sex, little research has been conducted to examine how young men who have sex with men (YMSM) perceive and define high-risk sexual behavior. In this study, we compare the "professional" and "folk" models of HIV risk based on…
Agrarian rural dwellers in Nigeria produce about 95% of locally grown food commodities. The low accessibility to and affordability of orthodox medicine by rural dwellers and their need to keep healthy to be economically productive, have led to their dependence on traditional medicine. This paper posits an increasing acceptance of traditional medicine country-wide and advanced reasons for this trend. The fact that traditional medicine practitioners' concept of disease is on a wider plane vis-à-vis orthodox medicine practitioners' has culminated in some socio-cultural and magico-religious practices observed in preparation and use of plant medicines for farmers' health management. Possible scientific reasons were advanced for some of these practices to show the nexus between traditional medicine and orthodox medicine. The paper concludes that the psychological aspect of traditional medicine are reflected in its socio-cultural and magico-religious practices and suggests that government should fund research into traditional medicine to identify components of it that can be integrated into the national health system. PMID:20089149
An earlier paper in this journal reported on the perception and experience of 77 allopathic health practitioners (AHPs) and health managers about working together with South African traditional health practitioners (THPs). The paper stated that the abolishment of the Witchcraft Suppression Act of 1957 and the introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No. 22 of 2007 is a milestone in the development of traditional health knowledge, and for the eventual incorporation thereof into modern health care practices. The authors also comment that a decolonisation of mindset and a change of attitude is required to change one’s perception of traditional healer practices and to develop them parallel to allopathic health practice. This opinion paper is a response to the paper, to negate its claims about the Witchcraft Suppression Act of 1957 and to provide clarity on the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No. 22 of 2007 and related policies and regulations. Although this Act recognises THP, the Act and other regulations actually require THP to conform to practices analogous to those of AHP. It is rather a systematic and scientific ‘mindset’ that is required to develop THP parallel to AHP. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act of 2007 and the Draft Policy on African Traditional Medicine (TM) for South Africa dictate that a substantial THP sectoral transformation is required before there can be a parallel system. Legislation and regulations have excluded THP and African TM from operating (present and future) in the same space as AHP. PMID:28470077
Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L
Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.
Protopapadakis, E.; Grammatikopoulou, A.; Doulamis, A.; Grammalidis, N.
The possibility of accurate recognition of folk dance patterns is investigated in this paper. System inputs are raw skeleton data, provided by a low cost sensor. In particular, data were obtained by monitoring three professional dancers, using a Kinect II sensor. A set of six traditional Greek dances (without their variations) consists the investigated data. A two-step process was adopted. At first, the most descriptive skeleton data were selected using a combination of density based and sparse modelling algorithms. Then, the representative data served as training set for a variety of classifiers.
Harris, Jeffrey S; Glass, Lee S; Mueller, Kathryn L; Genovese, Elizabeth
In this article, we review the evolution and application of evidence based medicine and the results of the literature reviews and syntheses incorporated in the second edition of the guidelines. Our intent is to disseminate this information to practitioners treating injured workers and those managing and financing such care and disability management. Use of proven diagnostic, causality, testing,and treatment methods should markedly improve the quality of occupational medical care and make that care more cost effective.
Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat
Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.
Harvey, Bart J; Moloughney, Brent W; Iglar, Karl T
Public health situations faced by family physicians and other primary care practitioners, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and more recently H1N1, have resulted in an increased interest to identify the public health competencies relevant to family medicine. At present there is no agreed-on set of public health competencies delineating the knowledge and skills that family physicians should possess to effectively face diverse public health challenges. Using a multi-staged, iterative process that included a detailed literature review, the authors developed a set of public health competencies relevant to primary care, identifying competencies relevant across four levels, from "post-MD" to "enhanced." Feedback from family medicine and public health educator-practitioners regarding the set of proposed "essential" competencies indicated the need for a more limited, feasible set of "priority" areas to be highlighted during residency training. This focused set of public health competencies has begun to guide relevant components of the University of Toronto's Family Medicine Residency Program curriculum, including academic half-days; clinical experiences, especially identifying "teachable moments" during patient encounters; resident academic projects; and elective public health agency placements. These competencies will also be used to guide the development of a family medicine-public health primer and faculty development sessions to support family medicine faculty facilitating residents to achieve these competencies. Once more fully implemented, an evaluation will be initiated to determine the degree to which these public health competencies are being achieved by family medicine graduates, especially whether they attained the knowledge, skills, and confidence necessary to effectively face diverse public health situations-from common to emergent. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.
The concept of ‘evidence-based medicine’ dates back to mid-19th century or even earlier. It remains pivotal in planning, funding and in delivering the health care. Clinicians, public health practitioners, health commissioners/purchasers, health planners, politicians and public seek formal ‘evidence’ in approving any form of health care provision. Essentially ‘evidence-based medicine’ aims at the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It is in fact the ‘personalised medicine’ in practice. Since the completion of the human genome project and the rapid accumulation of huge amount of data, scientists and physicians alike are excited on the prospect of ‘personalised health care’ based on individual’s genotype and phenotype. The first decade of the new millennium now witnesses the transition from ‘evidence-based medicine’ to the ‘genomic medicine’. The practice of medicine, including health promotion and prevention of disease, stands now at a wide-open road as the scientific and medical community embraces itself with the rapidly expanding and revolutionising field of genomic medicine. This article reviews the rapid transformation of modern medicine from the ‘evidence-based medicine’ to ‘genomic medicine’. PMID:18923934
Murphy, P A; Kronenberg, F; Wade, C
Complementary and alternative medicine is becoming an established intervention modality within the contemporary health care system. Various forms of complementary and alternative medicine are used by patients and practitioners alike, including chiropractic, massage, botanical medicine, homeopathy, and energy therapies. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine was established within the National Institutes of Health to facilitate evaluation of these alternative therapies, establish an information clearinghouse, and promote research in the field. This article discusses several aspects of complementary and alternative medicine, relates them to women's health, and describes the need for a research agenda to evaluate the impact of the complementary and alternative medicine modalities used for important conditions affecting women.
Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Laserina; Nicholson, Emma; Smith, Rita; O'Brien, Denise; O'Leary, Denise; Fealy, Gerard M; Mcnamara, Martin S; Stokes, Diarmuid; Egan, Claire
To explore the perceptions of key stakeholders of the roles of specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practitioners. There is evidence that the contribution of these roles to patient care is poorly understood. This research took place over 2 months in 2015 and is part of a larger study involving a rapid review to inform policy development on the specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practice in Ireland. As an added value, a qualitative element involving thematic analysis was undertaken with key stakeholders. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted incorporating semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders (n = 15). Purposive sampling with maximum diversity was used to recruit a wide range of perspectives. Participant's perspectives led to seven themes: Impact of these roles; role preparation, experience and organizational support; specialist and advanced practice roles in an interdisciplinary context; different folks but not such different roles; impact of specialist and advanced practice roles on patient outcomes; barriers and facilitators to enacting specialist and advanced practice roles; future development of these roles. There is acknowledgement of the positive impact of specialist and advanced practitioners; however, the evidence is currently not conclusive. Preparation for these roles needs to reflect changes in the calibre of today's professional applicants, and organizational support is paramount to their successful execution. The contribution of their activity to patient outcome needs to be made visible to enhance these roles and to justify the development of new roles across a variety of healthcare areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McCall, Alan; Fanchini, Maurizio; Coutts, Aaron J
In high-performance sport, science and medicine practitioners employ a variety of physical and psychological tests, training and match monitoring, and injury-screening tools for a variety of reasons, mainly to predict performance, identify talented individuals, and flag when an injury will occur. The ability to "predict" outcomes such as performance, talent, or injury is arguably sport science and medicine's modern-day equivalent of the "Quest for the Holy Grail." The purpose of this invited commentary is to highlight the common misinterpretation of studies investigating association to those actually analyzing prediction and to provide practitioners with simple recommendations to quickly distinguish between methods pertaining to association and those of prediction.
Casey, M G; Adams, J; Sibbritt, D
To describe the patterns of prescription and dispensing of herbal medicines employed by Western herbal practitioners in Australia. A national postal survey sent to all full members of the National Herbalist Association of Australia (NHAA). Nationwide clinics of professional herbal practitioners in Australia. Measures of medicinal use were collected including aspects of prescription, formulation, dispensing and preparation forms of medicines used. The practitioners were asked if they dispensed their own medicines, about the form of herbal preparations used, aspects of formulation and dosages. The predominant prescription by most Western herbal practitioners in Australia is individualised herbal formulae rather than the use of single herbs. Traditional preparations of herbals such as teas and powders are used but liquid herbal extracts are most commonly dispensed. These liquid medicines are in the form of highly concentrated fluid extracts in ratios of 1:1 or 1:2, herb material to liquid. Pre-formulated tablets or capsules made by herbal manufacturers are being incorporated into modern practice but most prescriptions are individualised liquid formulae prepared and dispensed, from the clinic dispensary, after patient consultation. In addition to internal prescriptions, topical creams, pessaries, douches, gargles, eyebaths and poultices or washes are still incorporated into treatments. Although there is variation in used dosage ranges, the predominant system is that of pharmacologically active doses of highly concentrated fluid extracts. The professional prescription of Western herbal medicines is different to commercial usage. As opposed to pre-formulated tablets, or use of single herbals, the vast majority of Western herbalists in Australia construct individualised herbal formulations for their patients after consultation. The preferred form of administration of these prescriptions is as highly concentrated liquid herbal extracts in pharmacologically active doses.
Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke
Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension ( n =622, 41%) and diabetes ( n =460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% ( n =13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority ( n =63, 50%) submitting 1-10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants ( n =104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation of the private sector, cross
Cao, Ben Bao Qi
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture has been gradually accepted by the mainstream society since the 1970s and has been rapidly expanding, accompanying the tide of Chinese immigration since the 1980s. Acupuncture legislation has been approved by the governments of 5 provinces in Canada between 1988 and 2014. After the acceptance of self-regulation, 5 corresponding colleges were established, one after another. The code of ethics and professional practice standard were developed by the Colleges. British Columbia (BC) became the first Canadian province to offer acupuncture treatments as a supplementary benefit for its Medical Services Plan premium assistance recipients beginning in 2008. The 5 colleges united to form the Canadian Alliance of Regulatory Bodies of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists (CARBTCMPA) in the same year. The Entry-level Occupational Competencies for the Practice of TCM in Canada were developed by CARB-TCMPA in 2010. The Pan-Canadian registration examinations for acupuncturists, herbalists and TCM practitioners have been administered and scheduled since 2013. The Entry-level Occupational Competencies for Doctors of TCM were developed by College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of British Columbia (CTCMA-BC) in 2014. It sketches the blueprint for future development of the TCM profession in Canada.
Way, Anthony B.; Rowley, Blair A.; White, Melanie A.
We have developed a set of protocols on a microcomputer to assist in the management of a geographically isolated nurse practitioner. If a mid-level practitioner is supervised by a physician, some system is needed to ensure that approved care is being provided. The currently available paper-based protocols do not adequately serve all the needs for training, auditing, and record keeping. Conversely, adequate systems based on large computers are not feasible for small clinics. We have therefore developed a microcomputer-based system of protocols for a small rural nurse-practitioner's clinic. Our programs are designed for direct use by the practitioners while the patient is in the clinic. The user is given immediate feedback about any errors. The supervisor is later provided with a summary of the protocol uses and errors, and a copy of any erroneous records. The system appears to be easy to use by the nurse practitioner. The protocols are quickly learned and auditing is facilitated.
Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Babaeian, Mohammad
Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies.
Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Hansen, Vibeke Holm; Grünenberg, Kristina
Demands for alternative medicine have increased since the 1970s in nations in which western scientific evidence has become the basis for health care. This paradox has been the impetus to examine how trust emerges in clinics of alternative medicine. Alternative practitioners are self-regulated and the clients pay out of their own pockets to attend non-authorised treatments with very limited scientific evidence of their effects. Trust is a key issue in this context. However, only a few studies have dealt with the ways in which alternative practitioners win their clients' trust. Drawing on three qualitative studies and informing the empirical findings with a sociological concept of trust, this article provides new empirical insights on how trust emerges in Danish clinics of acupuncture, reflexology and homeopathy. The analysis demonstrates how trust is situational and emerges through both clients' susceptibility and practitioners' individual skill development and strategies, as well as from objects, place and space. Trust is developed on relational and bodily as well as material grounds. It is argued that the dynamics and elements of trust identified do not only minimalise uncertainties but sometimes convert these uncertainties into productive new ways for clients to address their ailments, life circumstances and perspectives. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
What Is Important During the Selection of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in a Health Care Reimbursement or Insurance System?" Critical Issues of Assessment from the Perspective of TCM Practitioners.
Zhang, Fang; Xie, Jing-Min; Zhang, Yi-Ye; Kong, Lin-Lin; Li, Shu-Chuen
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity over the last several decades internationally, leading to an increasing interest from decision makers and researchers as to how to assess the effectiveness of CAM. The attempts, however, have been unsatisfactory. The most important reason is a lack of attention to the theoretical characteristics of CAM, which are completely different from those of allopathic medicine or biomedicine. This study attempted to survey expert Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in China to elucidate critical issues when assessing the effectiveness of TCM. A questionnaire (with 20 close-ended and 2 open-ended questions) about the influencing factors of measuring the cost and effectiveness of TCM was distributed to TCM practitioners who had been working in the field of research for at least 5 years and had published at least one related scientific article in the last 5 years. Internal consistency test was performed for all questions to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. Principal-component analysis was performed for remaining items after Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index and Bartlett's test of sphericity. A linear combination model was then built to evaluate the contribution of various factors involved for the selection of TCM into the health care reimbursement or insurance system. Of 429 questionnaires issued, 137 were returned from respondents from 31 medical and research institutions, giving a recovery rate of 31.93%. Internal consistency coefficient obtained was 0.745, indicating good reliability of this measurement scale, and the data passed the KMO test and Bartlett's test of sphericity (KMO index = 0.691). In addition, eight common factors were extracted after the rotation of principal-component analysis with a cumulative variance of 70.92%. Our findings suggested that factors to be considered during the selection of TCM in health care reimbursement or insurance system include patient
Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Amen, Yhiya M; Kaifuchi, Satoru
Ganoderma lingzhi is one of the most famous medicinal fungi in the world. It has been used in folk medicine, especially in East Asian countries. It is also a white-rot fungus with strong wood degradation ability, especially against lignin. Different classes of bioactive natural products have been reported in Ganoderma, including triterpenes, polysaccharides, sterols, and peptides. The triterpenes and polysaccharides are the primary bioactive compounds of Ganoderma. We report for the first time the presence of 3 methoxyflavones as minor constituents in G. linghzi. The 3 compounds were identified based on different spectroscopic techniques, including 1- and 2-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-1H correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum coherence, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation) and mass spectrometry (high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). Our report provides an approach to a possible biosynthetic pathway for biosynthetic genes in the mushrooms. Another great possibility is that these compounds may exist or be formed through degradation of the components in the woody substrate, such as lignin, and then subsequently translocate to the fruiting bodies.
Background This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri—one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants’ attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru’s working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Results Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. Conclusions In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations—either with humans
Blaisdell, Amy; Vindal Ødegaard, Cecilie
This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri-one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants' attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru's working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations-either with humans or non-human beings such as Pachamama. Because
Bin-Rong, Ma; Xi-Yuan, Jiang; Su-Ming, Liso; Huai-ning, Zhu; Xiu-ru, Lin
Chinese traditional medicine has evolved over many centuries, and has accumulated a body of observed relationships between symptoms, signs and prognoses, and the efficacy of alternative treatments and prescriptions. With the assistance of a computer-based clinical data base for recording the diagnostic and therapeutic practice of skilled practitioners of Chinese traditional medicine, a systematic program is being conducted to identify and define the clinical decision-making rules that underlie current practice.
Izuka, Nkeonye J; Alexander, Matthew A W; Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Mant, Jonathan; De Simoni, Anna
Secondary prevention medications reduce risk of stroke recurrence, yet many people do not receive recommended treatment, nor take medications optimally. Exploring how patients report making use of practitioners' advice on secondary prevention medicines on an online forum and what feedback was received from other participants. Thematic analysis of the archive of Talkstroke (2004-2011), UK. Posts including any secondary prevention medication terms, General Practitioner (GP) and their replies were identified. Fifity participants talked about practitioners' advice on secondary prevention medications in 43 discussion threads. Patients consulted practitioners for reassurance and dealing with side effects. Practitioners' advice varied from altering to maintaining current treatment. Three main themes emerged from the use of practitioners' advice: patients following advice (reassured, happy when side effects made tolerable, or still retaining anxiety about treatment); patients not following advice (admitting adherence on-off or stopping medications as side effects still not tolerable); asking other participants for feedback on advice received. Practitioners' advice was disregarded mainly when related to dealing with statin side effects, after one or two consultations. Themes for feedback involved sharing experience, directing back to practitioners, or to external evidence. Side effects of secondary prevention medications and statins in particular, cause anxiety and resentment in some patients, and their concerns are not always addressed by practitioners. Practitioners could consider more proactive strategies to manage such side effects. Forum feedback was appropriate and supportive of the practitioners' advice received. Our findings from peer-to-peer online conversations confirm and widen previous research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Anderson, Belinda J; Kligler, Benjamin; Cohen, Hillel W; Marantz, Paul R
Research literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are important initiatives in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which requires cultural change within educational institutions for successful implementation. To determine the self-assessed research and EBM perspectives of Chinese medicine Masters degree students at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY). A survey with 17 close-ended questions and one open-ended question was administered through Survey Monkey to students at PCOM-NY. The survey was sent to 420 Masters students and 176 (41.9%) responded. Students in all four years of the Masters degree indicated a generally high degree of interest in, and support for the value of research. However, increasing years (one to four years) in the program was associated with lower interest in post-graduation research participation and entering the doctoral program, and the fourth year students reported low levels of interest in having greater research content and training in their Masters degree programs. Students who responded to the open-ended question (23% of respondents) expressed enthusiasm for research and concerns about the relevance of research in Chinese medicine. Consistent with findings in similar studies at CAM colleges, interest in research, and EBM of the PCOM-NY Masters students appeared to decline with increasing years in the program. Concerns around paradigm and epistemological issues associated with research and EBM among Chinese medicine students and practitioners warrants further investigation, and may be an important challenge for integrative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…
Rohrer, James E; Garrison, Gregory M; Angstman, Kurt B
To compare outpatient return visits within 2 weeks experienced by pediatric patients diagnosed with otitis media using retail nurse practitioner clinics to similar patients using standard medical office clinics. The impact of retail clinics on return visit rates has not been extensively studied. Electronic medical records of pediatric primary care patients seen in a large group practice in Minnesota in 2009 for otitis media. Patients seen in retail walk-in clinics staffed by nurse practitioners (N = 627) or regular office clinics (N = 2353). A return visit to any site within 2 weeks. The percentage returning was higher in standard care patients than in retail medicine patients (21.0 vs 11.2, P < .001). The odds of a return visit within 2 weeks were higher in standard care patients than in retail medicine patients after adjusting for propensity to use services, age, and gender (odds ratio = 1.54, P < 0.01). In this group practice, the odds of return visits within 2 weeks for pediatric patients treated for otitis media were lower in retail medicine clinics than in standard office clinics.
For more than two decades of activity, the European Medicines Agency has been operating as part of a network with the national medicines agencies in Europe, bringing together - in its various scienti c committees and working groups - European experts on a wide range of topics related to quality assurance, safety and ef cacy of medicines. The work carried out within the European Medicines Agency activities and the conclusions reached at European level affect millions of citizens. The European Medicines Agency considers that it is of great importance to maintain, in a sustainable and consistent manner, the active participation of general practitioners, as well as other medical specialists, in the process of medicines' evaluation and supervision. This article summarizes how the participation of doctors and health professionals in general is promoted in the European Medicines Agency activities.
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane; Carter, Stephen
The Australian Home Medicines Review (HMR) is a free consumer service to assist individuals living at home to maximize the benefits of their medicine regimen and prevent medication-related problems. It consists of a pharmacist reviewing a person's medicines and collaborating with the general practitioner to optimize the individual's medicine management. The uptake of this service has remained below the projected use, although the program has shown to successfully identify medication-related problems and improve drug knowledge and adherence of the patient. This study investigates the perceived benefits and barriers of the patients regarding the HMR service who have used the service and who are eligible for it but have never used it. Consumer perceptions were drawn from 14 semistructured focus groups, with patients and carers belonging to the general HMR target population and consumer segments that have been postulated to be underrepresented with regard to this service. The major benefits reported were acquisition of medicine information, reassurance, feeling valued and cared for, and willingness to advocate medication changes to the general practitioner. Perceived barriers were concerns regarding upsetting the general practitioner, pride and independence, confidence issues with an unknown pharmacist, privacy and safety concerns regarding the home visit, and lack of information about the program. Participants agreed that the potential benefits of the service outweighed its potential barriers. It is expected that direct-to-consumer promotion of HMRs would increase the uptake of this valuable service. It would be necessary to ensure that the process and benefits of the service are communicated clearly and sensitively to eligible patients and their carers to obviate common consumer misconceptions and/or barriers regarding the HMR service. Furthermore, any direct-to-consumer promotion of the service must enable patient/carer self-identification of eligibility. Copyright
Templin, Thomas J.; And Others
Seven articles discuss research by and for practitioners. The topics include demystification of research for practitioners, experiences with helping teacher researchers, an application of a collaborative action research model, one health practitioner's experience, creating a dance research database, basic data analysis for nonresearchers, and why…
Leeder, J Steven; Spielberg, Stephen P
The evolving era of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine is greeted with optimism by many, but this sentiment is not universally shared. The existence of diametrically opposed opinions concerning the potential benefits and obstacles facing the widespread implementation of genomic medicine should stimulate discussion and guide the design of studies to establish the value of interventions targeted at the level of individual patients. One of the more controversial aspects of personalized medicine is whether the anticipated benefits will be realized at an acceptable cost. Recently released analyses suggest that the returns on investment depend on the particular scenario and are different for different stakeholders. On the other hand, cost is only one of the challenges regarding implementation of personalized medicine. Among these are the development of universal standards for managing genomic information in electronic medical records, improvement in the collection and interpretation of clinical phenotype data, and new strategies to educate practitioners and patients/consumers. The reality is that personalized medicine is upon us; open discourse and periodic reality checks will be necessary as we confront it.
Kwasny, Michelle N.; Caine, Kelly E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.
In this paper we present preliminary results from a study of individual differences in privacy beliefs, as well as relate folk definitions of privacy to extant privacy theory. Focus groups were conducted with young adults aged 18–28 and older adults aged 65–75. Participants first shared their individual definitions of privacy, followed by a discussion of privacy in six scenarios chosen to represent a range of potentially invasive situations. Taken together, Westin’s and Altman’s theories of privacy accounted for both younger and older adults’ ideas about privacy, however, neither theory successfully accounted for findings across all age and gender groups. Whereas males tended to think of privacy in terms of personal needs and convenience, females focused more on privacy in terms of others, respecting privacy rights, and safety. Older adults tended to be more concerned about privacy of space rather than information privacy. Initial results reinforce the notion that targeting HCI design to the user population, even with respect to privacy, is critically important. PMID:29057397
Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C; Leung, Theresa N H; Lee, Vivian W Y
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing dermatosis associated with itch, sleep disturbance and poor quality of life. Treatment of AD includes the use of emollients, and topical and systemic immunomodulating agents. Many patients also use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This article reviews the pathophysiology of AD, clinical trials and recent patents involving various modalities of CAM in the treatment of AD. A Medline/Pubmed search was conducted using Clinical Queries with the key terms "Chinese Medicine OR Complementary and Alternative medicine" AND "Eczema OR Atopic dermatitis". The search strategy included meta-analyses, Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), clinical trials, reviews and pertinent references. Patents were searched using the key term "atopic dermatitis" from www.google.com/patents, www.uspto.gov, and www.freepatentsonline.com. Only a few RCTs evaluated the efficacy of Chinese medicinal herbs in treating AD. There was some evidence for other modalities of CAM. Integrative Medicine (IM) usually refers to the various forms of CAM that combine conventional western medicine and Chinese medicine. Supporting evidence for the efficacy of IM in the treatment of AD is presently lacking. Integration is difficult. Western medicine practitioners are often ignorant about CAM and IM. Parents are concerned about the potential side effects of Western medicine and will tend to be non-compliant with the conventional Western component of IM. Recent patents on CAM and IM are reviewed. Most CAM patents are herbal compositions, evidence on their efficacy is generally lacking. AD is a complex disease. The psychodynamics of the child and his/her family is the reason for the often suboptimal outcomes. Both Western and CAM practitioners should collaborate to create a mutually encouraging environment for the advances of IM. CAM and IM publications and patents are reviewed. Evidence of their efficacy is generally lacking. Further research is needed
Savikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Menković, Nebojša; Zivković, Jelena; Cujić, Nada; Tereščenko, Milena; Bigović, Dubravka
This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plant uses in the Zlatibor district, South-Western Serbia. A survey was performed using questionnaires with 220 informants (mean age 47, 79% female, 21% male). In addition, the use value and the relative importance of species were determined and the informant consensus factor was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Intended plants usage was compared with previous ethnobotanical literature, with reference to the neighboring areas of Zlatibor district. The informants provided data for 69 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families. Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were the predominant locally used families. The species with the highest use value were Mentha piperita, Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were ones for treating gastrointestinal ailments, respiratory problems and skin diseases. Usually, the administration was primarily oral followed by topical applications. All different plant parts were utilized, however leaves were the most exploited parts of the plants. Folk medicine in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district is intended mainly as a mode of primary health care in healing of minor illnesses. The results indicate a slight reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in this area, when compared with neighboring regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Safavi, Maliheh; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Foroumadi, Alireza
Helicobacter pylori is a small, spiral, Gram-negative bacillus that plays a role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases ranging from asymptomatic gastritis to gastric cancer. Schedule compliance, antibiotic drug resistance, and side-effects of triple or quadruple therapy have led to research for novel candidates from plants. The purpose of this paper is to review the most potent medicinal plants of recently published literature with anti-H. pylori activity. For centuries, herbals have been used by traditional healers around the world to treat various gastrointestinal tract disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis, and peptic ulcer disease. The mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic properties has not been completely and clearly elucidated. Anti-H. pylori properties may be one of the possible mechanisms by which gastroprotective herbs treat gastrointestinal tract disorders. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, EBSCO, and local databases were explored for medicinal plants with anti-H. pylori properties between 1984 and 2013 using key words "medicinal plants" and "Helicobacter pylori" or "anti-Helicobacter pylori". A total of 43 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families including Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Clusiaceae, Chancapiedra, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Geraniaceae, Lamiaceae, Lauraceae, Lythraceae, Menispermaceae, Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Papaveraceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, and Theaceae were studied as herbs with potent anti-H. pylori effects. Traditional folk medicinal use of some of these plants to treat gastric infections is substantiated by the antibacterial activity of their extracts against H. pylori.
Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D.
Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13–18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant’s venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.
Karwowski, Mateusz P; Morman, Suzette A; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D
Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.
de Almeida Andrade, Fabiana; Schlechta Portella, Caio Fabio
The scientific literature presents a modest amount of evidence in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). On the other hand, in practice, relevant results are common. The debates among CAM practitioners about the quality and execution of scientific research are important. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather, synthesize and describe the differentiated methodological models that encompass the complexity of therapeutic interventions. The process of bringing evidence-based medicine into clinical practice in CAM is essential for the growth and strengthening of complementary medicines worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh
Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies. PMID:28817945
McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy
Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496
Dowell, J; Norbury, M; Steven, K; Guthrie, B
Widening access to medicine in the UK is a recalcitrant problem of increasing political importance, with associated strong social justice arguments but without clear evidence of impact on service delivery. Evidence from the United States suggests that widening access may enhance care to underserved communities. Additionally, rural origin has been demonstrated to be the factor most strongly associated with rural practice. However the evidence regarding socio-economic and rural background and subsequent practice locations in the UK has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between general practitioners' (GPs) socio-economic and rural background at application to medical school and demographic characteristics of their current practice. The study design was a cross-sectional email survey of general practitioners practising in Scotland. Socio-economic status of GPs at application to medical school was assessed using the self-coded National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification. UK postcode at application was used to define urban-rural location. Current practice deprivation and remoteness was measured using NHS Scotland defined measures based on registered patients' postcodes. A survey was sent to 2050 Scottish GPs with a valid accessible email address, with 801 (41.5 %) responding. GPs whose parents had semi-routine or routine occupations had 4.3 times the odds of working in a deprived practice compared to those with parents from managerial and professional occupations (95 % CI 1.8-10.2, p = 0.001). GPs from remote and rural Scottish backgrounds were more likely to work in remote Scottish practices, as were GPs originating from other UK countries. This study showed that childhood background is associated with the population GPs subsequently serve, implying that widening access may positively affect service delivery in addition to any social justice rationale. Longitudinal research is needed to explore this association and the
The article presents an outline of the history of Folk High Schools in Sweden. The analysis includes mainly social and political determinants of their functioning in Poland's northern neighbor. The main trends of the evolution of social functions of these institutions has also been presented in the article encompassing 145 years of their…
Lovorn, Michael G.
Social studies content is more meaningful to students when they can empathize with the people they study. Such empathy can be fostered via content material that is presented in a relevant, emotional, intimate, and even entertaining manner. Folk music offers this type of creative and constructive approach. The elementary school classroom is the…
Ripley, Kenneth; Hoad, Bridget
Assistant practitioners, also known as associate practitioners, provide support to the registered healthcare workforce, practising with advanced knowledge and skills. Assistant practitioners require substantial training to obtain the skills and knowledge required for the role. This article identifies the challenges trainee assistant practitioners may encounter, and makes recommendations for how they can be best supported. The core areas where trainee assistant practitioners require support from their colleagues and mentors are workload, role clarity, mentoring, academic challenge and recognition as learners.
Ferreira, Emmanoela N; da S Mourão, José; Rocha, Pollyana D; Nascimento, Douglas M; da S Q Bezerra, Dandara Monalisa Mariz
Background Folk taxonomy is a sub-area of ethnobiology that study the way of how traditional communities classify, identify and name their natural resources. The work present was undertaken in two traditional communities (Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia). The objective of this study was investigate the ethnobiological classification of the local crabs and swimming crabs used by the crustaceous gatherers of the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba State, Brazil. Methods The methodology used here involved a combination of qualitative methods (open interviews, semi-structured interviews, direct observations, guided tours, surveys, and interviews in synchronic and diachronic situations that crossed-checked and repeated identifications) and quantitative methods (Venn diagram). A total of 32 men and women were interviewed in the two communities. Specimens of the local crustaceans were collected and identified by the harvesters themselves, subsequently fixed in formalin, conserved in 70% ethyl alcohol, identified using appropriate specialized literature, and then deposited in the laboratory of the Zoology Department of the University State of Paraiba. Results The crustaceous gatherers we studied were observed to group crustaceans according to their similarities and differences, producing a hierarchical classification system containing four levels of decreasing taxonomic order: unique beginner, life-form, generic, and specific. A sequential and/or semantic system classification system that is used to classify the ontogeny of the female swimming crab was also identified. Of the nine folk generics identified, 44.5% were monotypic. 55.5% were polytypic and were subdivided into 15 folk specifics. An identification key was elaborated with the data obtained about the folk polytypics generics. Conclusion The detailed knowledge concerning the crabs and swimming crabs revealed by the MRE crustaceous gatherers demonstrates that these people detain a vast knowledge concerning
Kune, Randall; Kune, Gabriel
Mainstream medical philosophy and practice differ in many respects from those of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), differences which are explored in this article. Because of a resurgence of CAM therapies, courts and tribunals will scrutinise CAM in more and more contexts in the future. Such court cases may require the resolution of conflicts between opinions of CAM and medical experts. This article considers how courts evaluate such opinions where experts hold conflicting ideologies or philosophical approaches, and addresses the following questions: Do the opinions of CAM practitioners qualify as "expert" opinions in court? How do the courts examine the basis of such opinions? Are they systematically given less weight than the opinions of mainstream medical practitioners? Will recent procedural reforms for hearing expert evidence make it easier for courts to resolve these issues?
Background Plant species have long been used as principal ingredients of traditional medicine in far-west Nepal. The medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values are currently being screened for their therapeutic potential but their data and information are inadequately compared and analyzed with the Ayurveda and the phytochemical findings. Methods The present study evaluated ethnomedicinal plants and their uses following literature review, comparison, field observations, and analysis. Comparison was made against earlier standard literature of medicinal plants and ethnomedicine of the same area, the common uses of the Ayurveda and the latest common phytochemical findings. The field study for primary data collection was carried out from 2006-2008. Results The herbal medicine in far-west Nepal is the basis of treatment of most illness through traditional knowledge. The medicine is made available via ancient, natural health care practices such as tribal lore, home herbal remedy, and the Baidhya, Ayurveda and Amchi systems. The traditional herbal medicine has not only survived but also thrived in the trans-cultural environment with its intermixture of ethnic traditions and beliefs. The present assessment showed that traditional herbal medicine has flourished in rural areas where modern medicine is parsimoniously accessed because of the high cost and long travel time to health center. Of the 48 Nepalese medicinal plants assessed in the present communication, about half of the species showed affinity with the common uses of the Ayurveda, earlier studies and the latest phytochemical findings. The folk uses of Acacia catechu for cold and cough, Aconitum spicatum as an analgesic, Aesculus indica for joint pain, Andrographis paniculata for fever, Anisomeles indica for urinary affections, Azadirachta indica for fever, Euphorbia hirta for asthma, Taxus wallichiana for tumor control, and Tinospora sinensis for diabetes are consistent with the latest pharmacological findings
Nichols, Sue; Cormack, Phil
How does practitioner inquiry impact education? Examining the experiences of practitioners who have participated in inquiry projects, the authors present ways in which this work has enabled educators to be positive change agents. They reveal the difference that practitioner inquiry has made in their professional practice, their understanding of…
Santana, Fernanda Paula R; Pinheiro, Nathalia M; Mernak, Márcia Isabel B; Righetti, Renato F; Martins, Mílton A; Lago, João H G; Lopes, Fernanda D T Q Dos Santos; Tibério, Iolanda F L C; Prado, Carla M
Pulmonary inflammation is a hallmark of many respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute respiratory syndrome distress (ARDS). Most of these diseases are treated with anti-inflammatory therapy in order to prevent or to reduce the pulmonary inflammation. Herbal medicine-derived natural products have been used in folk medicine and scientific studies to evaluate the value of these compounds have grown in recent years. Many substances derived from plants have the biological effects in vitro and in vivo, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. Among the biological activities of natural products derived from plants can be pointed out the anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antiplatelet, antitumor anti-allergic activities, and antioxidant. Although many reports have evaluated the effects of these compounds in experimental models, studies evaluating clinical trials are scarce in the literature. This review aims to emphasize the effects of these different natural products in pulmonary diseases in experimental models and in humans and pointing out some possible mechanisms of action.
Objective. To create and implement a class in ethnopharmacology that would educate student pharmacists on folk medicine, including home remedies and native plants that are used as alternative medicinal sources; active components of medicinal plants including toxicity issues and the mechanism of action of beneficial compounds, such as catechins and other flavonoids; and nutraceuticals and poisonous plants. Methods. In this three-credit hour class, herbal remedies are investigated from the standpoints of medical efficacy, potential toxicities and drug interactions with prescribed medications. Class discussions are conducted on the usefulness of remedies, the attitudes of practitioners toward traditional remedy use and the risks of relying on herbal preparations. Each student prepares a 15-minute presentation on a disease state, which covers modern pharmaceuticals and herbal or folk remedy alternatives used in that disease. Special emphasis is given to drug-herb interactions. Results. The class has gained popularity among students and consistently fills within the first hour of computerized registration. Students agree that being educated in the benefits and potential toxicities of herbal products will better prepare them to counsel their patients who use these remedies. The elective has been offered 10 times since 2007. Anecdotal comments from our alumni indicate that they have found the information to be very useful in their practice environments. Conclusion. Providing our students with a greater understanding of herbal remedies is essential to prepare them for practice. By including both the uses and potential toxicities, the student pharmacist is able to counsel her patients from a standpoint of expertise on these self-administered remedies. PMID:29367772
Higgins, Helen M.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F.; Green, Martin J.
In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged “unacceptable” by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional
Higgins, Helen M; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F; Green, Martin J
In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional
Ooi, G L
In certain countries of east and south-east Asia, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be used by many people. However, the pattern of use favours the advance of the drug-retailing side of this sector rather than medical care, and there is consequently some concern about the professional status of practitioners in the long term.
Bonnichon, Philippe; Kapincheva, Iskra
The subject concerns the unrecognised European Bulgaria whose the alone museum of History of Medicine is worth of seeing. The 1869 building is of an ancient hospital which reminds of the hundred-year-old history of the modern Bulgaria. The miscellance of the objects, the strictness and the clearness of the show afford to follow through five rooms the development of Medicine as practice, art and science from Antiquity till the Second World War. The interest stemming from the general character of the museum is underlined by the constant references to the evolution of the Bulgarian Medicine. Then the local specific characteristics could totally integrate into the evolution of European Medicine. The role of France in the education of the first Bulgarian practitioners is worth reminding. The visitors get out of the museum through a delightful garden rich in Medicinal plants.
Verona's School of Homeopathic Medicine (www.omeopatia.org) organized a day of full immersion in the field of homeopathy, focusing on the validity of this much-debated discipline. There is widespread consensus in the medical community that evidence-based medicine is the best standard for assessing efficacy and safety of healthcare practices, and systematic reviews with strict protocols are essential to establish proof for various therapies. Students, homeopathic practitioners, academic and business representatives, who are interested in or curious about homeopathic practices attended the conference.
Wardle, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Steel, Amie; Sullivan, Elizabeth
Vaccination is one of the most significant and successful public health measures of recent times. Whilst the use of complementary medicine (CM) continues to grow, it has been suggested that CM practitioners hold anti-vaccination views. The objective of this critical review is to examine the evidence base in relation to CM practitioner attitudes to childhood vaccination alongside attitudes to vaccination among parents who visit CM practitioners and/or use CM products. A database search was conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and AMED for research articles published between January 2000 and September 2015 that evaluated either CM practitioner or CM user attitudes and intention towards childhood vaccination. A total of 23 articles were found that detailed the attitudes of CM practitioners to vaccination. A further 16 papers examined the association between the use of CM products and visits to CM practitioners, and immunisation. The interface between CM and vaccination is complex, multi-factorial and often highly individualised. The articles suggest that there is no default position on immunisation by CM practitioners or parents who use CM themselves, or for their children. Although CM use does seem positively associated with lower vaccination uptake, this may be confounded by other factors associated with CM use (such as higher income, higher education or distrust of the medical system), and may not necessarily indicate independent or predictive relationships. Although anti-vaccination sentiment is significant amongst some CM practitioners, this review uncovers a more nuanced picture, and one that may be more agreeable to public health values than formerly assumed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Molina, María; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tardío, Javier; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel
Many ethnobotanical studies show that people in industrial countries still rely on their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants for self-treatment, although the trend might not be as common as some decades ago. Given the social and public health implications of ethnopharmacological practices, this survey aims at recording and analysing the medicinal plants used in the folk medicine of the Northwest of the Basque Country focusing on how medicinal plants knowledge and practices evolve. Fieldwork consisted of 265 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 207 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted between September 2008 and January 2011. Informants were on average 76 years old (minimum 45, maximum 95), being more than half of them (112) men. Data collected were structured in use-reports (UR). Following informants' comments, medicinal use-reports were classified as abandoned-UR, when the informants reported that the use was only practiced in the past, and prevalent-UR, when the informants reported to continue the practice. A total of 2067 UR for 139 species that belong to 58 botanical families were recorded, being the most important families Asteraceae, Liliaceae sensu latu and Urticaceae. Some of the most important species are commonly used in other European areas (e.g., Chamaemelum nobile, Urtica dioica and Chelidonium majus). However, there are also plants commonly used in the area such as Helleborus viridis or Coronopus didymus, that are scarcely used in other areas, and whose record is an original contribution of the local pharmacopeia. It is also the case of remedies such as the use of Plantago leaves against strains in a local remedy called zantiritu. Overall, and for all variables analysed (total UR, medicinal use-categories, drug preparation and administration), the percentage of UR being currently practiced (prevalence ratio) was very low (near 30%) suggesting a strong decay in the use of traditional medicinal plants
Borgen, Solveig T.; Borgen, Nicolai T.
High dropout rates from upper secondary school are related to substantial societal costs, and are hence a major policy concern. The Norwegian folk high schools provide a non-academic education in an intimate and nurturing environment where interpersonal and social skills are emphasised, and where individuals grow in sense of self-esteem and sense…
Zielińska, Sylwia; Jezierska-Domaradzka, Anna; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Junka, Adam; Matkowski, Adam M.
As antique as Dioscorides era are the first records on using Chelidonium as a remedy to several sicknesses. Inspired by the “signatura rerum” principle and an apparent ancient folk tradition, various indications were given, such as anti-jaundice and cholagogue, pain-relieving, and quite often mentioned—ophthalmological problems. Central and Eastern European folk medicine has always been using this herb extensively. In this region, the plant is known under many unique vernacular names, especially in Slavonic languages, associated or not with old Greek relation to “chelidon”—the swallow. Typically for Papaveroidae subfamily, yellow-colored latex is produced in abundance and leaks intensely upon injury. Major pharmacologically relevant components, most of which were first isolated over a century ago, are isoquinoline alkaloids—berberine, chelerythrine, chelidonine, coptisine, sanguinarine. Modern pharmacology took interest in this herb but it has not ended up in gaining an officially approved and evidence-based herbal medicine status. On the contrary, the number of relevant studies and publications tended to drop. Recently, some controversial reports and sometimes insufficiently proven studies appeared, suggesting anticancer properties. Anticancer potential was in line with anecdotical knowledge spread in East European countries, however, in the absence of directly-acting cytostatic compounds, some other mechanisms might be involved. Other properties that could boost the interest in this herb are antimicrobial and antiviral activities. Being a common synanthropic weed or ruderal plant, C. majus spreads in all temperate Eurasia and acclimates well to North America. Little is known about the natural variation of bioactive metabolites, including several aforementioned isoquinoline alkaloids. In this review, we put together older and recent literature data on phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical studies on C. majus aiming at a critical evaluation of
Sinozić, Tamara; Kovacević, Jadranka
A number of healthcare professionals, specialists in different fields and with different levels of education, as well as non-healthcare professionals, are involved in the care of chronic wound patients, thus forming a multidisciplinary team that is not only responsible for the course and outcome of treatment, but also for the patient quality of life. Family doctor is also member of the team the task of which is to prevent, diagnose, monitor and anticipate complications and relapses, as well as complete recovery of chronic wound patients, with the overall care continuing even after the wound has healed, or is involved in palliative care. A family medicine practitioner with specialized education and their team of associates in the primary health care, along with material conditions and equipment improvement, can provide quality care for patients with peripheral cardiovascular diseases and chronic wounds, organized according to the holistic approach. It is essential that all professional associations of family medicine as well as professional associations of other specialties - fields that are involved in wound prevention and treatment - be included in developing the continuous medical education program. The benefits of modern information technology should be used to good advantage. The education should be adapted to the needs of family practitioners in terms of the form, place, time, volume, financial affordability and choice of topic. The interest shown in team education should be transformed into specialized programs in the creation of which it is essential to include both physicians and nurses and their respective professional associations. Special attention should be paid to education and training of young doctors/nurses, those with less work experience, those that have not yet been part of such education, those that lack experience in working with wound patients, those whose teams deal mostly with elderly patients, and also residents in family medicine and
Manning, Blaine T; Bohl, Daniel D; Hannon, Charles P; Redondo, Michael L; Christian, David R; Forsythe, Brian; Nho, Shane J; Bach, Bernard R
Midlevel providers (eg, nurse practitioners and physician assistants) have been integrated into orthopaedic systems of care in response to the increasing demand for musculoskeletal care. Few studies have examined patient perspectives toward midlevel providers in orthopaedic sports medicine. To identify perspectives of orthopaedic sports medicine patients regarding midlevel providers, including optimal scope of practice, reimbursement equity with physicians, and importance of the physician's midlevel provider to patients when initially selecting a physician. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 690 consecutive new patients of 3 orthopaedic sports medicine physicians were prospectively administered an anonymous questionnaire prior to their first visit. Content included patient perspectives regarding midlevel provider importance in physician selection, optimal scope of practice, and reimbursement equity with physicians. Of the 690 consecutive patients who were administered the survey, 605 (87.7%) responded. Of these, 51.9% were men and 48.1% were women, with a mean age of 40.5 ± 15.7 years. More than half (51.2%) perceived no differences in training levels between physician assistants and nurse practitioners. A majority of patients (62.9%) reported that the physician's midlevel provider is an important consideration when choosing a new orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Patients had specific preferences regarding which services should be physician provided. Patients also reported specific preferences regarding those services that could be midlevel provided. There lacked a consensus on reimbursement equity for midlevel practitioners and physicians, despite 71.7% of patients responding that the physician provides a higher-quality consultation. As health care becomes value driven and consumer-centric, understanding patient perspectives on midlevel providers will allow orthopaedic sports medicine physicians to optimize efficiency and patient
McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J.; Moran, Carmen C.
Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418
McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Moran, Carmen C
Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners.
Brand, C; Ibrahim, J; Bain, C; Jones, C; King, B
Several event studies, including the Australian Safety and Quality in Healthcare Study, emphasize gaps in safety for hospitalized patients. It is now recognized that system-based factors contribute significantly to risk of adverse events and this has led to a shift in focus of patient safety from the autonomous responsibility of medical clinicians to a systems-based approach. The aim of this study was to determine medical practitioner awareness of, level of engagement in and barriers to engagement in a systems approach to patient safety and quality. Information from acute and subacute care medical practitioners at a metropolitan public hospital was collected within an anonymous structured electronic survey, a discussion group and key informant interviews. There were 73 survey respondents (response rate 7.6%). Fifty-one (69.9%) were unaware of the Institute of Medicine report 'To Err is human'. Thirty-six (49.3%) were unaware of the Australian Quality in Healthcare Study and 12 (16.4%) had read the article. There was a positive relation identified between awareness and seniority. There was a low level of participation in systems-focused quality and safety activities and limited understanding of the role of systems in medical error causation. There was uncertainty about the changing role of medical practitioners in patient safety and perceived lack of skills to effectively engage with hospital management about safety and quality issues. Several factors are limiting engagement of medical practitioners in a systems approach to patient safety. Increased educational support is needed and may be best focused within clinical effectiveness activities pertinent to practitioner interest and expertise.
Vakeva, Lauri; Kurkela, Vesa
This paper reports a project organized by Sibelius-Academy Department of Folk Music and Tampere University, Department of Music Anthropology in 2008-2010. The goal of the project was to develop and implement a master program for "rytmimusiikki" (lit. "rhythm music" in Seinajoki, Finland--a musically active provincial area…
Cameron, Mary M
Women's health care prospects around the world depend on many factors, including broad social changes involving how gender dimensions within traditional medicine are transformed by global biomedicine. I propose a model that will help us to evaluate international health care transformation in Asia through understanding the specific impact of biomedicine on women practitioners of indigenous medicine. I suggest in the model that the relationship among gender, indigenous medico-science, and biomedicine is shaped by culture-specific and historical gender organization, the gendered knowledge foundations of indigenous medicine, and modernizing biomedical and Western science influences.
Individual practitioners and health care systems/organizations increasingly understand the rationale for collaborative medicine. An absence of collaboration can compromise the quality and safety of patient care. But having a rationale to provide collaborative medicine without also having a rational clinical strategy can be equally compromising to the quality and safety of patient care. Reasonable evidentiary criteria must be used to determine whether specific therapies merit inclusion or exclusion in a collaborative medicine model. Ranking therapies hierarchically on the basis of their risk-benefit ratio simplifies matching of therapies with the needs of the patient. A unifying taxonomy that categorizes all therapies (complementary/alternative and conventional) on the basis of how we think they work (presumed mechanisms of action) facilitates development of a clinical strategy for collaborative medicine. On the basis of these principles, a rational clinical strategy for collaborative medicine is described to help optimize the quality and safety of patient care.
This editorial reviews medicinal cannabis litigation in Canada's superior courts between 1998 and 2015. It reflects upon the outcomes of the decisions and the reasoning within them. It identifies the issues that have driven Canada's jurisprudence in relation to access to medicinal cannabis, particularly insofar as it has engaged patients' rights to liberty and security of the person. It argues that the sequence of medicinal schemes adopted and refined in Canada provides constructive guidance for countries such as Australia which are contemplating introduction of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic option in compassionate circumstances for patients. In particular, it contends that Canada's experience suggests that strategies calculated to introduce such schemes in a gradualist way, enabling informed involvement by medical practitioners and pharmacists, and that provide for safe and inexpensive accessibility to forms of medicinal cannabis that are clearly distinguished from recreational use and unlikely to be diverted criminally maximise the chances of such schemes being accepted by key stakeholders.
In this study, I aim to reveal how Lee Gyoojoons medicine has given birth to a current of learning, the supporting yang current of learning, and describe its historical significance. Before anything, I'd like to throw the question of whether if there were any currents within the traditional Korean medicine. There are no records of medical currents being widely discussed until now in medical history of Korea; however, the current of Lee Jema's sasang medicine is the most noticeable one. Among the contemporaries of Lee Jema, during the late Chosun, there was also another famed medical practitioner called Lee Gyoojoon. Lee Gyoojoon mainly practiced his medicine within Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do area, his apprentices have formed a group and have succeeded his medical practice. Based on the analyses of Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices and the Somun Oriental Medical Society, which is known as a successor group to Lee Gyoojoon's medicine today, they are fully satisfying the five requirements to establish a medical current: first, they held Lee Gyoojoon as the first and foremost, representative practitioner of their current; second, they advocate the supporting yang theory suggested by Lee Gyoojoon, which is originated from his theory of Mind; third, books such as the Major Essentials of Huangdi's Internal Classic Plain Questions, and the Double Grinded Medical Mirror, were being used as the main textbooks to educate their students or to practice medicine. Fourth, Lee Gyoojoon's medical ideas were being transcended quite clearly within his group of apprentices, including Seo Byungoh, Lee Wonse, and the Somun Oriental Medical Society. Fifth, Lee Gyoojoon's apprentices were first produced through the Sukgok School, however, nowadays they are being produced through medical groups formed by Lee Wonse, the Somun Oriental Medical Society, regarding the propagation of medical theories, compilation of textbooks, publication of academic journals, etc. Then, what do the existence of the
Hings, R F; Wagstaff, C R D; Thelwell, R C; Gilmore, S; Anderson, V
The aim of this study was to explore how sport medicine and science practitioners manage their emotions through emotional labor when engaging in professional practice in elite sport. To address the research aim a semistructured interview design was adopted. Specifically, eighteen professional sport medicine and science staff provided interviews. The sample comprised sport and exercise psychologists (n=6), strength and conditioning coaches (n=5), physiotherapists (n=5), one sports doctor and one generic sport scientist. Following a process of thematic analysis, the results were organized into the following overarching themes: (a) factors influencing emotional labor enactment, (b) emotional labor enactment, and (c) professional and personal outcomes. The findings provide a novel contribution to understanding the professional demands faced by practitioners and are discussed in relation to the development of professional competencies and the welfare and performance of sport medics and scientists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sloan, D S
Travel medicine becomes more important with the continual expansion of international travel and the increased popularity of exotic holiday destinations. In the United Kingdom general practitioners provide the bulk of travel health advice and immunisation and there is growing interest in providing these services. While their armamentarium has been expanded with attractive but expensive new vaccines, the need for health service advice has never been more vital, with the risks of HIV infection and drug resistant malaria. Advantages of a general practice based travel medicine service include maintaining continuity of care for the patient, but a disadvantage might be that the general practitioner sees too few patients to acquire enough skill in the subject. Furthermore, there may be a conflict of interest between time devoted to the "vaccination ritual" and giving health advice. Overall there seems to be a case for both audit and support by the health authorities. Images p616-a PMID:8401022
Félix-Silva, Juliana; Giordani, Raquel Brandt; da Silva-Jr, Arnóbio Antonio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas
Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products. PMID:25002902
Shang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Pan, Hu; Miao, Xiaolou; Zhang, Jiyu
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) is a perennial herbaceous orchid plant that grows widely throughout Europe and in temperate and subtropical zones of Asia. In China, its tuber has been used in traditional Chinese medicines, Tibetan medicines, Mongolian medicines and other ethnic medicines, and taken to treat numerous health conditions. The present paper provides a review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology to highlight the future prospects of the plant. More than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated, and the primary components are glucosides, dihydrostilbenes, phenanthrenes, aromatic compounds, and other compounds. G. conopsea and its active constituents possess broad pharmacological properties, such as the tonifying effect, anti-oxidative activity, anti-viral activity, immunoregulatory, antianaphylaxis, antigastric ulcer, sedative, and hypnotic activities, etc. However, overexploitation combined with the habitat destruction has resulted in the rapid decrease of the resources of this plant, and the sustainable use of G. conopsea is necessary to study. Meanwhile, the toxicity of this plant had not been comprehensively studied, and the active constituents and the mechanisms of action of the tuber were still unclear. Further, studies on G. conopsea should lead to the development of scientific quality control and new drugs and therapies for various diseases; thus, its use and development require additional investigation. PMID:28217096
Few scholars of ancient medicine have considered that Hippocratic practice may be based in part upon the experience and tradition, handed-down from generation to generation, starting before the end of the Bronze Age in 1100 BC. This paper examines the evidence for medical practitioners in the Aegean in the second millennium BC, and of medical contacts between the Aegean and contemporary bronze age societies of Egypt and the Near East at this time, and suggests that some of these contacts may have been the start of Near Eastern influence on Greek medicine.
Bismark, Marie M; Mathews, Ben; Morris, Jennifer M; Thomas, Laura A; Studdert, David M
Objective To explore the views and experiences of health sector professionals in Australia regarding a new national law requiring treating practitioners to report impaired health practitioners whose impairments came to their attention in the course of providing treatment. Method We conducted a thematic analysis of in-depth, semistructured interviews with 18 health practitioners and 4 medicolegal advisors from Australia's 6 states, each of whom had experience with applying the new mandatory reporting law in practice. Results Interviewees perceived the introduction of a mandatory reporting law as a response to failures of the profession to adequately protect the public from impaired practitioners. Mandatory reporting of impaired practitioners was reported to have several benefits: it provides treating practitioners with a ‘lever’ to influence behaviour, offers protections to those who make reports and underscores the duty to protect the public from harm. However, many viewed it as a blunt instrument that did not sufficiently take account of the realities of clinical practice. In deciding whether or not to make a report, interviewees reported exercising clinical discretion, and being influenced by three competing considerations: protection of the public, confidentiality of patient information and loyalty to their profession. Conclusions Competing ethical considerations limit the willingness of Australian health practitioners to report impaired practitioner-patients under a mandatory reporting law. Improved understanding and implementation of the law may bolster the public protection offered by mandatory reports, reduce the need to breach practitioner-patient confidentiality and help align the law with the loyalty that practitioners feel to support, rather than punish, their impaired colleagues. PMID:27993902
Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bagheri, Nader; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah
Searching for new natural drugs that are capable of targeting Th1 and Th17 may lead to development of more effective treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Most of the natural drugs can be derived from plants that are used in traditional medicine and folk medicine. The aim of this systematic review is to identify and introduce plants or plant derivatives that are effective on inflammatory diseases by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 responses. To achieve this purpose, the search terms herb, herbal medicine, herbal drug, medicinal plant, phytochemical, traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, natural compound, inflammation, inflammatory diseases, Th1, Th17, T helper 1 or T helper 17 were used separately in Title/Keywords/Abstract in Web of Science and PubMed databases. In articles investigating the effect of the medicinal plants and their derivatives in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells, the effects of eight extracts of the medicinal plants, 21 plant-based compounds and some of their derivatives, and eight drugs derived from the medicinal plants' compounds in inhibiting Th1 and Th17 cells were reviewed. The results showed that medicinal plants and their derivates are able to suppress Th17 and Th1 T cell functions as well as cytokine secretion and differentiation. The results can be used to produce herbal drugs that suppress Th, especially Th17, responses. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Walker, Audrey; Pao, Maryland; Nguyen, Ngoc
There is a critical public health problem in the United States today, the problem of childhood psychiatric disorders in youngsters with physical illnesses. Currently there is a pressing need for well-trained pediatric psychosomatic medicine practitioners as well as advanced training in the field. Yet, this training does not currently exist. This article will present the innovative Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine (MMC/AECOM) program as a model for a training curriculum, clinical training experience, and clinical research training setting in this important and rapidly expanding area of need in pediatric mental health. PMID:22658325
Farenga, Stephen J.; Niess, Daniel; Hutchinson, Michael
Learning about stem cells within the context of treating pet illness or injury is an additional way for teachers to discuss the integration of science, technology, and veterinary medicine. We explain how practitioners in veterinary medicine harvest animal stem cells from adipose (fat) tissue in treating pet illness or injury. Further, we narrate…
The humanistic practice of medicine requires that the practitioner have sufficient time and appropriate focus. Both elements, however, are under assault by the high-speed, distraction-filled environment within which primary care is delivered today. Despite or perhaps because of modern medicine’s technological advances, the potentially healing bond between doctor and patient is being frayed and the quality of care consequently degraded. PMID:28725861
Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Zhou, Liang; Kumar, Kishore; Gao, Jie; Vaid, Henna; Liu, Huiming; Hankey, Alex; Wang, Guojun; Gangadhar, Bangalore N; Nie, Jing-Bao; Nichter, Mark
India and China face the same challenge of having too few trained psychiatric personnel to manage effectively the substantial burden of mental illness within their population. At the same time, both countries have many practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine who are a potential resource for delivery of mental health care. In our paper, part of The Lancet and Lancet Psychiatry's Series about the China-India Mental Health Alliance, we describe and compare types of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in India and China. Further, we provide a systematic overview of evidence assessing the effectiveness of these alternative approaches for mental illness and discuss challenges in research. We suggest how practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and mental health professionals might forge collaborative relationships to provide more accessible, affordable, and acceptable mental health care in India and China. A substantial proportion of individuals with mental illness use traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine, either exclusively or with biomedicine, for reasons ranging from faith and cultural congruence to accessibility, cost, and belief that these approaches are safe. Systematic reviews of the effectiveness of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine find several approaches to be promising for treatment of mental illness, but most clinical trials included in these systematic reviews have methodological limitations. Contemporary methods to establish efficacy and safety-typically through randomised controlled trials-need to be complemented by other means. The community of practice built on collaborative relationships between practitioners of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine and providers of mental health care holds promise in bridging the treatment gap in mental health care in India and China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte
Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053
Nahed, Brian V; Babu, Maya A; Smith, Timothy R; Heary, Robert F
Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons' perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate) by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%), laboratory tests (67%), referring patients to consultants (66%), or prescribing medications (40%). Malpractice premiums were considered a "major or extreme" burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States.
Smith, Timothy R.; Heary, Robert F.
Background Concern over rising healthcare expenditures has led to increased scrutiny of medical practices. As medical liability and malpractice risk rise to crisis levels, the medical-legal environment has contributed to the practice of defensive medicine as practitioners attempt to mitigate liability risk. High-risk specialties, such as neurosurgery, are particularly affected and neurosurgeons have altered their practices to lessen medical-legal risk. We present the first national survey of American neurosurgeons’ perceptions of malpractice liability and defensive medicine practices. Methods A validated, 51-question online-survey was sent to 3344 practicing U.S. neurosurgeon members of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, which represents 76% of neurosurgeons in academic and private practices. Results A total of 1028 surveys were completed (31% response rate) by neurosurgeons representing diverse sub-specialty practices. Respondents engaged in defensive medicine practices by ordering additional imaging studies (72%), laboratory tests (67%), referring patients to consultants (66%), or prescribing medications (40%). Malpractice premiums were considered a “major or extreme” burden by 64% of respondents which resulted in 45% of respondents eliminating high-risk procedures from their practice due to liability concerns. Conclusions Concerns and perceptions about medical liability lead practitioners to practice defensive medicine. As a result, diagnostic testing, consultations and imaging studies are ordered to satisfy a perceived legal risk, resulting in higher healthcare expenditures. To minimize malpractice risk, some neurosurgeons have eliminated high-risk procedures. Left unchecked, concerns over medical liability will further defensive medicine practices, limit patient access to care, and increase the cost of healthcare delivery in the United States. PMID:22761745
Meretsky, Vicky J.; Woods, Teresa A. N.
A joint student and professional practitioner seminar used distance technology to allow remote experts to present to, and remote practitioners to participate in, a university-based learning experience. Participants were professional practitioners from the US Fish and Wildlife Service who were mandated to receive training and on-campus graduate…
Golden, Adam G; Xu, Peixin; Wan, Thomas T H; Issenberg, Saul Barry
With a continual shortage of geriatricians, adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioners have assumed a greater role in the delivery of outpatient care for older adults. Given the long duration of physician training, the high cost of medical school, and the lower salaries compared with subspecialists, the financial advantage of a career as a geriatrician as opposed to a nurse practitioner is uncertain. This study compares the estimated career earnings of a geriatrician and an adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioner. We used a synthetic model of estimated net earnings during a 43-year career span for a 22-year old person embarking on a career as a geriatrician versus a career as an adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioner. We estimated annual net income and net retirement savings using different annual compound rates and calculated the financial impact of forgiving medical student loans, shortening the duration of physician training, and reinstituting the practice pathway for geriatric medicine certification. Career net incomes for the geriatrician did not match the nurse practitioner until almost age 40. At 65 years of age, the difference between the geriatrician and nurse practitioner was 30.6%. A higher annual compound rate was associated with an even smaller percentage difference. Combining all three health policy interventions lowered the break-even age to 28 and more than doubled the difference in career earnings. Small estimated differences in net career earnings exist between geriatricians and adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioners. Health policy interventions had a dramatic positive effect on geriatricians' lifetime net earnings in calculated estimates.
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a North-American folk remedy for treating and preventing infection. Research has identified an anti-adhesive mechanism of cranberry-proanthocyanidins that inhibit docking of bacteria on tissues "in vitro". This efficacy mechanism can be traced in the patient's urine following oral intake of cranberry juice. The efficacy of cranberry juice and extracts as a prophylactic agent against recurrent urinary infections is well documented in women. The anti-adhesion effect of cranberry-proanthocyandins can also be applied for treatment of other common diseases of bacterial pathogenesis, e.g. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and dental caries/periodontal disease.
Hussain, Wahid; Badshah, Lal; Ullah, Manzoor; Ali, Maroof; Ali, Asghar; Hussain, Farrukh
The residents of remote areas mostly depend on folk knowledge of medicinal plants to cure different ailments. The present study was carried out to document and analyze traditional use regarding the medicinal plants among communities residing in Koh-e-Safaid Range northern Pakistani-Afghan border. A purposive sampling method was used for the selection of informants, and information regarding the ethnomedicinal use of plants was collected through semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed through quantitative indices viz. relative frequency citation, use value, and family use value. The conservation status of medicinal plants was enumerated with the help of International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria (2001). Plant samples were deposited at the Herbarium of Botany Department, University of Peshawar for future reference. One hundred eight informants including 72 male and 36 female were interviewed. The informants provided information about 92 plants species used in the treatment of 53 ailments. The informant reported maximum number of species used for the treatment of diabetes (16 species), followed by carminatives (12 species), laxatives (11 species), antiseptics (11 species), for cough (10 species), to treat hepatitis (9 species), for curing diarrhea (7 species), and to cure ulcers (7 species), etc. Decoction (37 species, i.e., 40%) was the common method of recipe preparation. Most familiar medicinal plants were Withania coagulans, Caralluma tuberculata, and Artemisia absinthium with relative frequency (0.96), (0.90), and (0.86), respectively. The relative importance of Withania coagulans was highest (1.63) followed by Artemisia absinthium (1.34), Caralluma tuberculata (1.20), Cassia fistula (1.10), Thymus linearis (1.06), etc. This study allows identification of novel uses of plants. Abies pindrow, Artemisia scoparia, Nannorrhops ritchiana, Salvia reflexa, and Vincetoxicum cardiostephanum have not been reported
Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants
This article focuses the category status of Chinese herbal medicine in the United States where it has been mistakenly classifified as a dietary supplement. According to Yellow Emperor Canon of Internal Medicine (Huang Di Nei Jing), clinical treatment in broad sense is to apply certain poisonous medicines to fight against pathogeneses, by which all medicines have certain toxicity and side effect. From ancient times to modern society, all, or at least most, practitioners have used herbal medicine to treat patients' medical conditions. The educational curriculums in Chinese medicine (CM) comprise the courses of herbal medicine (herbology) and herbal formulae. The objective of these courses is to teach students to use herbal medicine or formulae to treat disease as materia medica. In contrast, dietary supplements are preparations intended to provide nutrients that are missing or are not consumed in suffificient quantity in a person's diet. In contrast, Chinese herbs can be toxic, which have been proven through laboratory research. Both clinical practice and research have demonstrated that Chinese herbal medicine is a special type of natural materia medica, not a dietary supplement.
Queiroz, João Carlos C.; Antoniolli, Ângelo R.; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J.; Brito, Renan G.; Barreto, Rosana S. S.; Costa, Emmanoel V.; da Silva, Thanany B.; Prata, Ana Paula Nascimento; de Lucca, Waldecy; Almeida, Jackson R. G. S.; Lima, Julianeli T.; Quintans, Jullyana S. S.
Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae) is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat pain and inflammation. Thus, we investigated the possible antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory effects of X. laevigata leaf essential oil (EOX) in animal models. Our EOX sample showed the presence of γ-muurolene (17.78%), δ-cadinene (12.23%), bicyclogermacrene (7.77%), and α-copaene (7.17%) as main compounds. EOX presented a strong antioxidant potential according to the DPPH, TBARS, and nitrite production tests. Additionally, pretreatment with EOX, in mice, also significantly produced (P < 0.05 or P < 0.001) antinociceptive effect by reduction of nociceptive behavior (in formalin and writhing tests). The EOX showed c-Fos label in the olfactory bulb, p