... lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines or folk medicines contain lead You only can ... as high as 90%. Ghasard, an Indian folk medicine, has also been found to contain lead. It is a brown powder used as a tonic. Ba-baw-san is a Chinese herbal remedy that contains lead. It is used to ...
Tsai, Pei-Shan; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Wang, Mei-Yeh
The purpose of this study was to investigate the demographics, training, and practice patterns of folk medicine practitioners, their opinions toward statutory regulation of folk medicine, and the formal education and credentialing for folk medicine providers in the metropolitan Taipei area. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Included in the survey were 200 folk medicine practitioners in Taipei city and 200 folk medicine practitioners in Taipei county. The survey questionnaire consisted of 3 domains including demographics and training; practice patterns; and opinions toward statutory regulation of folk medicine and formal education and credentialing for Tuina, Ba Guan, Gua Sha, and reflexology providers. The response rates ranged from 86.3% to 99.5%. A typical folk medicine provider in the Taipei metropolitan area was a middle-aged man with a high school degree who worked about 50 hours a week. The majority of the providers in the Taipei metropolitan area received their training through apprenticeship. Years of training and experience varied widely among these practitioners. About 80% had received more than one year of training prior to starting their practice. Adult men and women were their major clientele. The major treatment modalities they offered were Tuina, Gua Sha, Ba Guan, reflexology, and meridian massage. The majority of the respondents agreed that practitioners should receive formal education and training and agreed that certifying the qualifications of folk medicine practitioners is necessary. Findings from the present survey provide an understanding of the training and practice patterns of Taiwanese folk medicine practitioners, highlight folk medicine practitioners' needs for formal education and training, and stress the importance of statutory regulation of folk medicine in Taiwan.
Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin
Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.
Kabidul Azam, Md. Nur; Rahman, Md. Mizanur; Biswas, Samanta
Cancer is a group of diseases which is categorized to differentiate into diverse cell types and move around in the body to sites of organogenesis that is key to the process of tumor genesis. All types of cancer fall into the group of malignant neoplastic diseases. In Bangladesh, cancer is now one of the foremost killer diseases and its personal, social, and economic bearing are huge. Plant-derived natural compounds (vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide, paclitaxel, camptothecin, topotecan, and irinotecan) are useful for the treatment of cancer. Since there is no extensive ethnobotanical research study in Bangladesh regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants against neoplasms, therefore, a randomized ethnopharmacological surveys were carried out in 3 districts of Bangladesh to learn more about the usage of anticancer medicinal plants and their chemical constituents having antineoplastic activity. Comprehensive interviews were conducted to the folk medicine practitioners and medicinal plants as pointed out by them were photographed, collected, deposited, and identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The various plant parts have been used by the healers which included whole plant, leaves, fruits, barks, roots, and seeds. This study evaluated considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side effects in the management and prevention of malignancy in cancer. PMID:27382642
DeBellonia, Renato Rocco; Marcus, Steven; Shih, Richard; Kashani, John; Rella, Joseph G; Ruck, Bruce
Curanderismo, folk medicine, is an important and common aspect of Hispanic culture. Its use is not well understood by US medical physicians and is often overlooked when Hispanic patients present to US hospitals. We present a case of isopropyl alcohol toxicity in a 4-year-old child due to the use of a curanderismo treatment of "espanto" (evil spirits).
Patil, M.V.; Patil, D.A.
The study concerns the first -hand information on 50 ethnomedicinal plants traditional used by aborigines and rural folks of Nasik district, Maharashtra, for the treatment of various human ailments and disorders. The paper gives botanical identity, local name, family and mode of administration. PMID:22557009
Sulochana, Anaswara Krishnan; Raveendran, Dileepkumar; Krishnamma, Anoop Pushkaran; Oommen, Oommen V.
Background: The traditional medicinal systems of Indian folklore abundantly use medicinal plants or its derivatives for the treatment of snakebites. However, this traditional knowledge is on the verge of extinction, and there is an immediate necessity to conserve this oral traditional knowledge primarily by proper documentation and scientific authentication. The present ethno botanical study carried out among the folk medicine practitioners in the rural settle mental areas of Kallar forest region of southern Kerala, aims to document the folk herbal knowledge particularly for snake envenomation. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted during the period of June 2012-July 2013 in the rural and forest settlement areas of Kallar in the Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala. Direct observation and oral communications with local folk medicine practitioners in this region were adopted to collect valid information regarding the herbal formulations used to treat snake bite patients. Results: The study enumerates a list of 24 plant species belonging to seventeen families with anti-venomous potential. The scientific, vernacular and family names of these plants, along with the part used and their application modes are also enumerated in this communication. Conclusions: Plants are believed to be potent snake bite antidotes from centuries back, and knowledge about the use of plants is strictly conserved among tribes through generations without recorded data. It is the need of the hour to document these old drug formulations and is the cardinal responsibility of the scientific community to validate it and come up with new potent drug molecule for the benefit of snake bite victims. PMID:26401384
Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo
Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.
In Italy, malaria was an endemic disease that was eradicated by the mid-20th century. This paper evaluates the prophylactic and therapeutic remedies used by folk medicine to cure malaria in Calabria (southern Italy). The data has been collected by analysing works of physicians, ethnographers, folklorists and specialists of the study of Calabrian history between the end of the 19th century and the 20th century. The data collected have allowed us to describe the most common cures used by the Calabrian people to treat malaria and the most evident symptoms of this disease, such as intermittent fever, hepato-spleenomegaly, asthenia and dropsy. This approach uncovered a heterogeneous corpus of empirical, magical and religious remedies, which the authors have investigated as evidences of past "expert medicine" and to verify their real effectiveness in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20849654
Ulicsni, Viktor; Svanberg, Ingvar; Molnár, Zsolt
There is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation. We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising small-scale, traditional agriculture. We studied "all" invertebrate species (species groups) potentially occurring in the vicinity of the settlements. We used photos, held semi-structured interviews, and conducted picture sorting. We documented 208 invertebrate folk taxa. Many species were known which have, to our knowledge, no economic significance. 36 % of the species were known to at least half of the informants. Knowledge reliability was high, although informants were sometimes prone to exaggeration. 93 % of folk taxa had their own individual names, and 90 % of the taxa were embedded in the folk taxonomy. Twenty four species were of direct use to humans (4 medicinal, 5 consumed, 11 as bait, 2 as playthings). Completely new was the discovery that the honey stomachs of black-coloured carpenter bees (Xylocopa violacea, X. valga) were consumed. 30 taxa were associated with a proverb or used for weather forecasting, or predicting harvests. Conscious ideas about conserving invertebrates only occurred with a few taxa, but informants would generally refrain from harming firebugs (Pyrrhocoris apterus), field crickets (Gryllus campestris) and most butterflies. We did not find any mythical creatures among invertebrate folk taxa. Almost every invertebrate species was regarded as basically harmful. Where possible, they were destroyed or at least regarded as worth eradicating. However, we could find no evidence to suggest any invertebrate species had suffered population loss as a result of conscious destruction. Sometimes knowledge pertaining to the taxa could have more
Gómez-Estrada, Harold; Díaz-Castillo, Fredyc; Franco-Ospina, Luís; Mercado-Camargo, Jairo; Guzmán-Ledezma, Jaime; Medina, José Domingo; Gaitán-Ibarra, Ricardo
Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. This study presents new research efforts and perspectives on the
Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new
Skrbo, Armin; Masic, Izet
Introduction: Folk medicine represents part of the folk culture, when we first think about the rural culture with characteristic of the rural population in the pre-industrial period. The difference between official and folk medicine is manifested in the education, knowledge and social status of those practicing folk medicine as well as their patients. The most common ways of treating were the treatment by use of herbs, magic and treatments based on religious beliefs. So, it is of no surprise that folk medicine was the main form of treatment for the inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) in the past. In addition to many herbalists, quacks and religious officials who treated the patients with records, there were also spells, i.e. women who, by pronouncing various magic formulas, treated the patients. Each village had at least one person who practiced this type of treatment. Discussion: Numerous, original documents and records have been stored in the archives of the monastery throughout B&H, including very valuable literature in the field of medicine and pharmacy, which testifies of the very important role of Franciscans in the treatment of the population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most extensive health service of the Franciscans since their arrival in Bosnia in 1291 was the decadent era of Turkish rule, mostly from the 17th century until the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1978. In the sources of national thought, and on the basis of professional medical books, the Franciscans created recipes for the treatment of certain diseases, which they then collected in so-called „Ljekaruse” (Collections of folk recipes), and over time there was a lot of them. Most of the ljekarusa are hand-printed booklets, for some it is known the time and place of creation, and less often the author of the text. Ljekarusa is a very important source of information about our medical past. Some of them were processed and recorded, while a significant part
Park, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Sun-Mi; Moon, Sujeong; Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Min-Kyeoung; Lee, Sanghun
We developed an adverse events (AEs) reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The first version of the form was developed and tested in the clinical setting for spontaneous reporting of AEs. Additional revisions to the reporting form were made based on collected data and expert input. We developed an AEs reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The items of this form were based on patient information, folk medicine properties, and AEs. For causality assessment, folk medicine properties such as classification, common and vernacular names, scientific name, part used, harvesting time, storage conditions, purchasing route, product licensing, prescription, persons with similar exposure, any remnant of raw natural products collected from the patient, and cautions or contraindications were added. This is the first reporting form for AEs that incorporates important characteristics of Korean folk medicine. This form would have an important role in reporting adverse events for Korean folk medicine. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Sun‐Mi; Moon, Sujeong; Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Min‐Kyeoung
Abstract Purpose We developed an adverse events (AEs) reporting form for Korean folk medicine. Methods The first version of the form was developed and tested in the clinical setting for spontaneous reporting of AEs. Additional revisions to the reporting form were made based on collected data and expert input. Results We developed an AEs reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The items of this form were based on patient information, folk medicine properties, and AEs. For causality assessment, folk medicine properties such as classification, common and vernacular names, scientific name, part used, harvesting time, storage conditions, purchasing route, product licensing, prescription, persons with similar exposure, any remnant of raw natural products collected from the patient, and cautions or contraindications were added. Conclusions This is the first reporting form for AEs that incorporates important characteristics of Korean folk medicine. This form would have an important role in reporting adverse events for Korean folk medicine. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27501410
Israr, Fozia; Hassan, Fouzia; Naqvi, Baqir Shyum; Azhar, Iqbal; Jabeen, Sabahat; Hasan, S M Farid
Ethanolic extracts of eight medicinal plants commonly used in folk medicine were tested for their antibacterial activity against four Gram positive strains (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and, Streptococcus pneumoniae) and six Gram negative strains (Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis. Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B and Shigella dysenteriae) that were obtained from different pathological laboratories located in Karachi, Pakistan. Disc diffusion method was used to analyze antibacterial activity. Out of eight, five medicinal plants showed antibacterial activity against two or more than two microbial species. The most effective antimicrobial plant found to be Punica granatum followed by Curcuma zedoaria Rosc, Grewia asiatica L and Carissa carandas L, Curcuma caesia Roxb respectively. From these results, it is evident that medicinal plants could be used as a potential source of new antibacterial agents.
Gras, Airy; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan; Garnatje, Teresa
Most ethnobotanical research bases its analyses on individual taxa catalogues and their uses, rather than on mixtures. However, mixtures constitute an important chapter of our different lines of research and they represent a large volume of information. The relevance of these data in folk medicine could be explained as a response to the cure of multicausal etiology diseases or by a possible polyvalent effect of the mixture as opposed to the effect of each taxon alone. The main goals are: i) to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of these mixtures; ii) to carry out a comparison among the mixtures in two Catalan territories and their floristic composition; iii) to assess the worth of families association; and, iv) to evaluate whether the plants claimed to be used in mixtures have contraindications or possible negative interactions according to phytopharmaceutical literature. The ultimate goal is to test a protocol that can be implemented in similar studies. We have used data on medicinal plant mixtures obtained from two extensive ethnobotanical field studies carried out in two Catalan districts, Alt Empordà and Ripollès. The quantitative analyses by means of descriptive statistics were carried out with Excel. New contributions like the implementation of the Shannon index to quantify the diversity of families in plant combinations, the creation of a new index to calculate the taxon importance in mixtures, or the use of a social network analysis to study the connection between botanical families have been employed in this work. In total, a set of 484 mixtures from Alt Empordà and Ripollès (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) have been analysed: 462 for human use and 22 for veterinary. Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis are among the most commonly used species in mixtures. The aerial part of the plant is the most used, and the anticatarrhal usage is the most frequent in both territories. A wide diversity of families has been observed in mixtures and
Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.
Gras, Airy; Garnatje, Teresa; Bonet, M Àngels; Carrió, Esperança; Mayans, Marina; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan
Ethnobotanical academic research, particularly in European industrialised countries, has been, and is, mostly focused on folk uses of food and medicinal plants. Nevertheless, other uses, as may well be supposed, account for a significant portion of these folk uses. In the Catalan linguistic domain, a considerable amount of ethnobotanical work has been produced, but to date almost nothing has been published on these other plant uses. We basically used the method of semistructured interviews to collect data on names, knowledge and use of plants in the above-mentioned fields from 759 informants in three Catalonian (Alt Empordà, Montseny and Ripollès) and two Balearic (Formentera and Mallorca) areas. We identified the plants quoted by the informants and prepared herbarium vouchers. We analysed and compared the results obtained. Information has been collected on 401 genera, 552 species, 81 subspecies and four varieties, belonging to 122 families, totalling 4137 use reports for popular non-food and non-medicinal uses (classified in 14 modalities), and designated with 1303 folk Catalan names. The informant consensus factor is 0.87, accounting for a consistent and robust dataset. Contrarily to what could be thought a priori, and irrespective of the fact that some uses are declining or changing, non-medicinal and non-food folk plant uses strongly persist in the territories considered, are highly considered by their practitioners, and may even imply some economic revenues.
87 Species belonging to 59 genera and 33 plant families were identified and presented in the area of study. The largest 3 families are: Lamiaceae (9 aquatic species), Asteraceae (7 species), and Salicaceae (7 species). The largest genera are Mentha (6 species), Polygonum (5 species), and Salix (5 species). 63 folk medicinal aquatic species (73.3%) have therapeutic similarities with neighbouring countries, while the 24 remaining species (26.7%) haven't such therapeutic similarity. Emerged species (living with close contact with water body) were the most recorded, while amphibious, submerged or floating species were the least. The folk medicinal importance value of aquatic species recorded was identified according to Friedman parameters. 21 species (24%) have ROP values higher than 50, and therefore; have the highest popularity in folk medicinal potentiality. 26 species (29.9%) have therapeutic effects informed by less than three informants, and therefore, excluded from further consideration. 40 species (46.1%) have ROP values less than 50, and therefore; considered nonpopular medicinal plants.
Abdallah, Emad Mohamed
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine. The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods. The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect. The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents.
Sackett, Kay; Carter, Melondie; Stanton, Marietta
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), folk medicine, and other nontraditional therapy use by the elderly population. For all case managers who coordinate health care for the elderly as they transition from one setting to another and participate in health promotion and prevention activities. A computerized database search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest, and PsycINFO was completed before writing the integrative review. Six hundred ninety-seven abstracts were identified. Forty-five articles were further screened. Twenty-five articles met the criteria for inclusion. The integrative review is composed of 25 articles. Support for folk medicine and CAM use by older adults is located at Levels 5 and 6 of Melynk and Fine-Overholt's Hierarchy of Evidence. Folk medicine and CAM are used by the elderly for self-care purposes. A combination of both nontraditional and traditional medical interventions is used by the elderly. Although the choice to use folk medicine and CAM seems to transcend culture, the specific therapies chosen often emerge from the individual's cultural or ethnic heritage. Traditional health care providers may be unaware of elders' use of CAM or folk medicine alternatives. Case managers as coordinators of care across the health continuum are in a unique position to encourage, support, and enhance the use of folk medicine and CAM that complements traditional medical interventions for the elderly.
Jesuthasan, Anternite Shanthi; Uluwaduge, Deepthi Inoka
Tamil culture has recognized the potential use of plant herbs for prevention and treatment of different diseases. These folk remedies have been practiced by Sri Lankan Tamils even after modernization. This review focuses on frequently used medicinal plants among Sri Lankan Tamil communities, such as Cuminum cyminum, Azadirechta indica, Coriandrum sativum, Sesamum indicum, Zingiber officinale, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera, Plectranthus amboinicus, Allium sativum and Curcuma longa, for their documented medicinal properties, which include antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic and diuretic effects.
Sher, Hassan; Aldosari, Ali; Ali, Ahmad; de Boer, Hugo J
Mapping ethnomedicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines can provide a comprehensive overview of individual herbs employed in health care. Reliance on medicinal plants in remote parts of northern Pakistan is high, especially among women, but no research has investigated specifically which plants are used. This study investigated indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in selected sites in upper Swat, Buner and Chitral Districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. Interviews were conducted with gender-specific focus groups using questionnaires and standardized data sheets, followed by forest walks in each of the visited areas. General medicinal herb use, preparations, storage, marketing and collection habits for each gender group were ascertained from the questionnaires. In total 168 women and 390 men were interviewed and provided information on 127 different shared medicinal species. Species use consensus among the informants ranged from 2.3% to 83.3%, with Cynodon dactylon, Avena sativa, Celtis australis, Datura stramonium, Solanum nigrum, Skimmia laureola, Spiraea nervosa, Ziziphus jujuba, Rumex hastatus, Plantago lanceolata, Lathyrus aphaca and Ficus palmata having the highest reported consensus. The survey also revealed that a number of medicinal species were exploited by the community for both marketing and personal use, and many of these species were reported as being rare, vulnerable or even endangered. The results revealed that women in all the three districts were important custodians of medicinal plant knowledge, but elder women in general and the women from Buner district in particular had a superior understanding of folk medicine. The forest walks revealed that women׳s traditional medicinal knowledge was based on a more limited diversity of plant species. People in tribal communities have an expressed interest in learning efficient techniques for medicinal plant collection, preparation, storage and
Jeffus, Susanne; Wehrli, Gay
This article provides a concise overview of blood banking and transfusion medicine (BBTM) for the therapeutic apheresis medicine practitioner. It addresses the complete pathway from blood donor qualification to blood collection, to processing and storing blood components, to patient testing, to ordering blood components for therapeutic apheresis (TA) procedures, to preparing the component for transfusion, and finally to transfusion. The nurses, technologists, and physicians orchestrate these activities in concert to best serve patients undergoing TA procedures. Enhancing knowledge of these processes may improve the quality of patient care and the utilization of blood products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
It is helpful to differentiate plague from other infectious diseases from the point of view of ordinary people and medical practitioners, by observing and studying how they observed the activities of rats, described symptoms of patients, and named plague. Although they had well known about such knowledge, they did not distinguish this disease from others and various names were existed.
Alison Newby, C; Riley, Donna M; Leal-Almeraz, Tomás O
To understand and characterize exposure to and use of elemental mercury among practitioners of Afro-Cuban religions in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. Participant observation and open-ended interviews with 22 religious supply store employees and practitioners of Santeria, Espiritismo or Palo Mayombe probed respondents' knowledge and use of mercury, as well as their beliefs about its benefits and risks. Including a cultural and religious insider as part of the research team was crucial in working with this relatively closed community. Seventeen of the 21 practitioners reported using mercury or mercury compounds in various forms of practice and in services that they provide to clients. The contained nature of these uses suggests that accidental spills, as opposed to the practices themselves, emerge as the greatest exposure concern for this population. Mercury was never recommended to clients for individual use. This restriction appears to be rooted in the way the religion is practiced and in the way santeros receive compensation, not in a perception of mercury as hazardous. Most practitioners were aware that mercury can be hazardous, but were not familiar with the most significant exposure pathway, inhalation of mercury vapor. A climate of fear surrounds the use of mercury in this community, so that health concerns pale in comparison to fear of reprisal from authorities. Among those who sell or formerly sold mercury, several shared the erroneous belief that it was illegal to sell mercury in New Jersey. Despite widespread reported use, there were no reports of practices believed to result in the highest exposures. To reduce exposure in the community, interventions presenting general information on mercury hazards and instructions for cleaning up spills are recommended. To address insider-outsider dynamics and the climate of fear, educational materials should be accessible to the community and avoid any mention of religious practice.
Abdallah, Emad Mohamed
Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant native to tropical Africa and intensively cultivated in Sudan. Its calyces are widely consumed with many uses in Sudanese folk medicine. Materials and Methods: The dried calyces of H. sabdariffa were subjected to soak in 80% v/v methanol to get the methanolic extract, which was tested against five Gram-negative and three Gram-positive referenced bacterial strains using disc diffusion method. Selected bioactive phytochemical compounds were also investigated using qualitative methods. Results: The results of the antibacterial test indicate that the methanol extract of H. sabdariffa calyces contained effective antibacterial agent(s), revealed a considerable zone of inhibition against all tested Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and it was a competitor to gentamicin and greatly higher than penicillin which showed weak or no effect. Conclusion: The results of current investigation support the folk medicine application of this plant against different microbial ailments and suggest it as a promising source for new antibacterial agents. PMID:27104041
Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Huang, Tung-Liang
In this study, extracts from 50 Taiwanese folk medicinal plants were examined and screened for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. Ninety-five percent ethanol was used for herbal extraction. Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merr. (PSM), Plumbago zeylanica L. (PZL), Anisomeles indica (L.) O. Kuntze (AIOK), Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) and Alpinia speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) K. Schum. (ASKS) and Bombax malabaricum DC. (BMDC) all demonstrated strong anti-H. pylori activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the anti-H. pylori activity given by the five ethanol herb extracts ranged from 0.64 to 10.24 mg ml(-1). Twenty-six herbs, including Artemisia argvi Levl. et Vant (AALEV), Phyla nodiflora (Linn.) Greene (PNG) and others, showed moderate anti-H. pylori activity. The additional 19 herbs, including Areca catechu Linn. (ACL), Euphorbia hirta Linn. (EHL) and Gnaphalium adnatum Wall. ex DC. (GAWEDC), possessed lower anti-H. pylori effects. About half of the Taiwanese folk medicinal plants tested, demonstrated to possess higher anti-H. pylori activity.
The relationship between orthodox or mainstream medicine and heterodox or alternative practices has often been expressed in terms of dichotomies, such as science versus anti-science or rationality versus irrationality. By studying the history of a company producing herbal medicines and homoepathic remedies in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s, this paper attempts to create a more differentiated picture. 'Dr. Madaus & Co.' was founded in 1919 by the three sons of a free church minister and his wife, who practised as a non-licensed healer herself. The company not only sold medicines, it also produced journals and books promoting heterodox healing methods and contributing to ongoing health political debates, for example over compulsory vaccination programmes, human experimentation, quackery, and a general 'crisis of medicine'. Gerhard Madaus, a medical doctor and one of the three founders, published in 1938 a three-volume Textbook of Biological Healing Methods, turning folk medicine into science. The essay follows the rise of the Madaus family firm and interprets the story of 'Dr. Madaus & Co.' as an example of social rationalization, emphasizing the role of commercial operations in twentieth-century alternative medicine in Germany.
The use of medicinal plants mixed with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) has been poorly studied in the ethnopharmacological literature so far. The Paraguayan Mestizo people have the longest tradition of using the yerba mate beverage, apart from the indigenous Guarani people. This study analyses the role of yerba mate and medicinal plants in the treatment of illnesses within Paraguayan folk medicine. The research was conducted among 100 Paraguayan migrants living in Misiones, Argentina, in 2014 and 2015. Yerba mate is not considered to be a medicinal plant by its own virtues but is culturally a very important type of medicinal plant intake. Ninety-seven species are employed in hot and cold versions of the yerba mate beverage. The most important species are as follows: Allophylus edulis (highest number of citations), Aristolochia triangularis (highest relative importance value), and Achyrocline flaccida and Achyrocline tomentosa (highest score by Index of Agreement on Species). The plants are used in the treatment of 18 medicinal categories, which include illnesses traditionally treated with plants: digestive system, humoral medicine, and relatively new health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and high levels of cholesterol. Newly incorporated medicinal plants, such as Moringa oleifera, are ingested predominantly or exclusively with the mate beverage. PMID:29725356
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia
Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with
Germany's Hausväterliteratur, the "literature of the fathers of the houses," was once a popular genre but today is seldom studied. Roughly, this literature, as its name suggests, comprises books on the proper keeping of noble households and mansions. Interestingly, besides the content which one might expect in such books, the organization of personnel, the arrangement of festivities, discussions of the various branches of technical skills, economic advice and the whole field of agriculture, fishing and hunting, these books also contain remarkably large amounts of information directly connected with magic and an associated popular medicine (Volksmedizin). This medicine involved treatment administered mostly by laywomen instead of regular physicians and was based not just upon traditional medical knowledge per se but also upon magical practices. Also found in such texts are alchemical ideas and recipes. This means that despite the fact that such books were written and published in the 17th and early 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment, conceptions found in them are still deeply rooted in older intellectual currents, in Medieval and Renaissance thinking. The present study examines examples of alchemical, magical and popular medical ideas in three such works and seeks to explain how pre-enlightenment ideas and thought could maintain such an influential place in the intellectual world of a later time dominated by other philosophies.
Burman, Mary E.
Directors of family nurse practitioner education programs (n=141) reported inclusion of some complementary/alternative medicine content (CAM), most commonly interviewing patients about CAM, critical thinking, evidence-based medicine, laws, ethics, and spiritual/cultural beliefs. Definition of CAM was medically, not holistically based. More faculty…
Povšnar, Marija; Koželj, Gordana; Kreft, Samo; Lumpert, Mateja
Aconitum species are poisonous plants that have been used in Western medicine for centuries. In the nineteenth century, these plants were part of official and folk medicine in the Slovenian territory. According to current ethnobotanical studies, folk use of Aconitum species is rarely reported in Europe. The purpose of this study was to research the folk medicinal use of Aconitum species in Solčavsko, Slovenia; to collect recipes for the preparation of Aconitum spp., indications for use, and dosing; and to investigate whether the folk use of aconite was connected to poisoning incidents. In Solčavsko, a remote alpine area in northern Slovenia, we performed semi-structured interviews with 19 informants in Solčavsko, 3 informants in Luče, and two retired physicians who worked in that area. Three samples of homemade ethanolic extracts were obtained from informants, and the concentration of aconitine was measured. In addition, four extracts were prepared according to reported recipes. All 22 informants knew of Aconitum spp. and their therapeutic use, and 5 of them provided a detailed description of the preparation and use of "voukuc", an ethanolic extract made from aconite roots. Seven informants were unable to describe the preparation in detail, since they knew of the extract only from the narration of others or they remembered it from childhood. Most likely, the roots of Aconitum tauricum and Aconitum napellus were used for the preparation of the extract, and the solvent was homemade spirits. Four informants kept the extract at home; two extracts were prepared recently (1998 and 2015). Three extracts were analyzed, and 2 contained aconitine. Informants reported many indications for the use of the extract; it was used internally and, in some cases, externally as well. The extract was also used in animals. The extract was measured in drops, but the number of drops differed among the informants. The informants reported nine poisonings with Aconitum spp., but none of
Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Aghamohammadali-Sarraf, Fatemeh; Badiei, Simin; Faraji, Zakie; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad
Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice. Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and used in this study. The herbs were administered by gavage for 4 weeks to D-galactose-aged animals at the selected doses (mg/kg/day) as follows: Zingiber officinale (250), Glycyrrhiza glabra (150), Rosmarinus officinalis (300), Peganum harmala (50), Aloe vera (150), Satureja hortensis (200), Teucrium scordium (200), Hypericum perforatum (135) and Silybum marianum (150). One group of animals was assigned as sham and not given D-galactose. Results: At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukine-1β (IL-β), interlukine-6 (IL-6), NF-kappaB (NF-κb), total antioxidant power (TAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation (LPO) marker and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Conclusion: These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes. PMID:24494070
Background In Spain, head lice are considered a therapeutic resource for the treatment of jaundice. All folk remedies based on the ingestion of these insects meet in the present document, previously dispersed among a large number of references. Methods An overview of the Spanish literature has been carried out. The most important databases have been consulted. All related works have been examined. Results Although the method of preparation is diverse and the dose varies, the primary recommendation is a transference ritual consisting of taking nine live lice for nine days on an empty stomach without the patient’s knowledge. This traditional knowledge survives in Spanish society, and constitutes an example of the interrelation between Spanish and Latin American folk medicines. Conclusions The survival of this therapy in the worldview of certain rural communities suggests the need to take into account the beliefs, ideas and behaviour patterns of popular culture in relation to health and disease. PMID:23876126
Meyer-Rochow, V Benno
Traditional healing methods involving hundreds of insect and other invertebrate species are reviewed. Some of the uses are based on the tenet of "similia similibus" (let likes be cured by likes), but not all non-conventional health promoting practices should be dismissed as superstition or wishful thinking, for they have stood the test of time. Two questions are addressed: how can totally different organ systems in a human possibly benefit from extracts, potions, powders, secretions, ashes, etc. of a single species and how can different target organs, e.g. bronchi, lungs, the urinary bladder, kidneys, etc. apparently respond to a range of taxonomically not even closely related species? Even though therapeutically used invertebrates are generally small, they nevertheless possess organs for specific functions, e.g. digestion, gas exchange, reproduction. They have a nervous system, endocrine glands, a heart and muscle tissue and they contain a multitude of different molecules like metabolites, enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, secretions, etc. that have come under increased scientific scrutiny for pharmacological properties. Bearing that in mind it seems likely that a single species prepared and used in different ways could have a multitude of uses. But how, for example, can there be remedies for breathing and other problems, involving earthworms, molluscs, termites, beetles, cockroaches, bugs, and dragonflies? Since invertebrates themselves can suffer from infections and cancers, common defence reactions are likely to have evolved in all invertebrates, which is why it would be far more surprising to find that each species had evolved its own unique disease fighting system. To obtain a more comprehensive picture, however, we still need information on folk medicinal uses of insects and other invertebrates from a wider range of regions and ethnic groups, but this task is hampered by western-based medicines becoming increasingly dominant and traditional healers being
De La Cancela, Victor; Martinez, Iris Zavala
Identifies limitations of culturalist perspective often advocated by Latino mental health workers outlines folk healing practices they favor. Notes that culturalist perspective suffers from ahistorical/asocial/static conceptualization, and lacks analysis of class/sex/structural dimensions of so-called cultural expressions. Calls for recognition of…
This article describes an exhibit entitled "Critter Folk" for the Betty Foy Sanders department of art at Georgia Southern University. The theme of the exhibit is folk art "critters"--crocodiles, chickens, cows, snakes, elephants, cats--from the Smith Callaway Banks Southern Folk Art Collection. The organizers invited two…
Choudhari, Milind K; Punekar, Sachin A; Ranade, Ramchandra V; Paknikar, Kishore M
Stingless bee (Trigona sp.) propolis is widely used in the folk medicine of Western Maharashtra, India to treat a variety of ailments. To determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Indian stingless bee propolis. Chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was determined by GC-MS analysis. A range of bacteria including multidrug resistant (MDR) cultures as well as a yeast strain was tested for antimicrobial activity using EEP. MIC, MBC, MFC, Kill curves and post agent effect (PAE) of the EEP were assessed using standard microbiological methods. GC-MS analysis revealed that propolis contained 24 compounds (9 known and 15 newly reported). Many of these were known bioactive compounds, including antimicrobials. The MICs of EEP were in the range of 1.21-9.75μg/mL while the MBCs/MFC were between 2.43 and 19.5μg/mL. The time required to achieve 90% (1 log(10)) reduction in culture growth ranged between 1.06 and 3.53h at their respective MIC values. PAE for all the cultures was >24h. Indian stingless bee propolis has a complex nature with 24 chemical compounds. It has a potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The latter finding, in conjunction with other bioactive properties, could provide a scientific basis to its popular use in the Indian folk medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Hatem, David; Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran
The integration of complementary medicine is gradually becoming an accepted part of standard care for patients with cancer. In our integrative oncology program, we have encountered difficulties in recruiting Arab patients. In order to understand the special needs of this population, we conducted interviews among Arab practitioners of complementary and traditional medicine (CTM). The characteristics of practitioners and their views regarding the therapeutic process were examined. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were administered to 27 Arab practitioners of CTM whose clientele was comprised primarily of Arab cancer patients. Conventional content analysis of the transcribed interviews and field notes was performed in order to identify key themes. Three groups of CTM practice were identified: Folk-herbal medicine (n = 9), complementary medicine (CM; n = 14), and religious healing (n = 4). Seven factors were identified in the practitioner accounts: the duration and scheduling of treatment sessions, the language of communication, the presence of family members, the appearance of the practitioner, the definition of treatment goals, the discussion of behavioral and lifestyle changes, and finally, the use of tangible elements in treatment. The study of Arab CTM practitioner recommendations may help facilitate a culture-sensitive encounter with Arab patients with cancer. This approach may also have implications for other ethno-culturally unique populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Huiling; Ding, Chenxu; Duan, Yuanwen; Liu, Jianquan
Concentrations of seven phytochemical constituents (swertiamarin, mangiferin, swertisin, oleanolic acid, 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, 1,8-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone and 1,8-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyxanthone) of "ZangYinChen" (Swertia mussotii, a herb used in Tibetan folk medicine) were determined and compared in plants collected from naturally distributed high-altitude populations and counterparts that had been artificially cultivated at low altitudes. Levels of mangiferin, the most abundant active compound in this herb, were significantly lower in cultivated samples and showed a negative correlation with altitude. The other constituents were neither positively nor negatively correlated with cultivation at low altitude. Concentrations of all of the constituents varied substantially with growth stage and were highest at the bud stage in the cultivars, but there were no distinct differences between flowering and fruiting stages in this respect.
Rajan, S.; Sethuraman, M.
The present report deals with 34 plants of ethno botanical significance used s food and medicine by the Kotas of Nilgiri District, Tamil Nadu. Dietary and medicinal applications of plants re briefly summarized and presented. PMID:22556537
Chung, Vincent CH; Law, Michelle PM; Wong, Samuel YS; Mercer, Stewart W; Griffiths, Sian M
Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT) for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in the future. PMID:19228379
Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Mehrzad, Kiani; Fakhredin, Taghaddosinejad
: To survey the extent of abuse and violence directed toward legal medicine practitioners during the course of their professional duties and to categorize the characteristics of such aggression. : Retrospective survey of the views of a large sample of Tehran's legal medicine practitioners by using a piloted anonymous questionnaire. : In all, 105 (86.1%) of the responders had experienced verbal abuse during the previous 12 months, 79 (64.7%) had experienced some sort of verbal abuse at least once a month, 39 (32%) had experienced verbal abuse every week, and 13 (10.7%) had experienced verbal abuse every day. Of the 122 legal medicine physicians, 39 (32%) were exposed to specific threats, 8 (6.6%) were exposed to physical action without injury, and 7 (5.7%) had experience serious incidents including threats with a weapon or attacks leading to physical injury over the previous year. Even assuming that all the nonresponders did not experience any violence, the aggression by patients affected 75% of legal medicine practitioners in the Tehran province. : Violence toward Tehran's legal medicine practitioners is very common and may be increasing. Some of the participating factors of aggression are potentially avoidable and practices should make strenuous attempts to identify such factors and remedy them. Staff training in interpersonal skills and recognizing anxious patients are essential. Doctors should avoid delays for patients by rearranging the booking policies, visit times, and duration. Victims of aggression must be followed up.
Kantati, Yendube T; Kodjo, K Magloire; Dogbeavou, Koffi S; Vaudry, David; Leprince, Jérôme; Gbeassor, Messanvi
Neurological diseases are rising all around the world. In a developing country such as Togo, although plant-based medicines are the only means, still very little is known regarding the nature and efficiency of medicinal plants used by indigenous people to manage central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This study, an ethnobotanical survey, aimed to report plant species used in traditional medicine (TM) for the management of various CNS disorders in Togo. 52 traditional actors (TA) including 33 traditional healers (TH) and 19 medicinal plant sellers (MPS) were interviewed, using a questionnaire mentioning informants' general data and uses of medicinal plants. The present study reports 44 medicinal plant species distributed into 26 families, mentioning scientific and common local names, plant organs used, preparation method, root of administration and putative applications. It appears that there is a real knowledge on medicinal plants used for traditional treatment of CNS disorders in Togo and that the local flora abounds of potentially neuroactive plants which could be useful for the discovery of antipsychotic or neuroprotective molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alves, Erika P; de F Lima, Rennaly; de Almeida, Carolina M; Freires, Irlan A; Rosalen, Pedro L; Ruiz, Ana Ltg; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Godoy, Gustavo P; Pereira, Jozinete V; de Brito Costa, Edja Mm
Bauhinia forficata and Cnidoscolus quercifolius plants are commonly used in folk medicine. However, few studies have investigated their therapeutic potential. Herein, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of B. forficata and C. quercifolius extracts against microorganisms of clinical relevance and their antiproliferative potential against tumor cells. The following tests were performed: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm adhesion, and effects on cell morphology. Antiproliferative tests were carried out with human keratinocytes and six tumor lines. Bauhinia forficata showed antimicrobial activity only against C. albicans with MIC of 15.62 ug/mL and MFC higher than 2000 ug/mL. It also inhibited biofilm adhesion and caused alterations in cell morphology. Cnidoscolus quercifolius showed no significant activity (MIC > 2.0 mg/mL) against the strains. Bauhinia forficata and C. quercifolius extracts showed cytostatic activity against the tumor cells. Bauhinia forficata has promising anti-Cand/da activity and should be further investigated for its therapeutic potential. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infectious processes has an important function nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.
Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Zarate-Martinez, Alicia
To document the use of animal species in traditional medicine from the municipality of Mapimi, Durango, México. Direct interviews were performed in several short visits with inhabitants from the municipality of Mapimi, Durango. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools. The informant consensus factor that estimates the level of agreement between interviewees over which animals to use for each category and the fidelity level which indicates the percentage of informants claiming the use of a certain animal species for the same medicinal purpose. A total of 18 animal species, belonging to 17 families and four taxonomic categories, were reported by interviewees as used for medicinal purposes. Thirteen medicinal species were identified not previously reported. The results of the informant consensus factor showed that the dermatological, diabetes and reproductive categories had the greatest agreement. The most important species according to their fidelity level are: Mephitis macroura and Crotalus atrox. This study demonstrates that many animal species play an important role in healing practices among inhabitants from Mapimi, Durango. Further experiments with medicinal fauna from Mapimi are needed to be carried out to obtain experimental information about their traditional uses, especially with C. atrox. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wagstaff, C R D; Gilmore, S; Thelwell, R C
Despite the emergence of and widespread uptake of a growing range of medical and scientific professions in elite sport, such environs present a volatile professional domain characterized by change and unprecedentedly high turnover of personnel. This study explored sport medicine and science practitioners' experiences of organizational change using a longitudinal design over a 2-year period. Specifically, data were collected in three temporally defined phases via 49 semi-structured interviews with 20 sport medics and scientists employed by three organizations competing in the top tiers of English football and cricket. The findings indicated that change occurred over four distinct stages; anticipation and uncertainty, upheaval and realization, integration and experimentation, normalization and learning. Moreover, these data highlight salient emotional, behavioral, and attitudinal experiences of medics and scientists, the existence of poor employment practices, and direct and indirect implications for on-field performance following organizational change. The findings are discussed in line with advances to extant change theory and applied implications for prospective sport medics and scientists, sport organizations, and professional bodies responsible for the training and development of neophyte practitioners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alavi, S Shohreh; Makarem, Jalil; Mehrdad, Ramin
General practitioners (GPs) who work in occupational medicine (OM) should be trained continuously. However, it seems that ethical issues have been neglected. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine educational priorities for GPs working in OM. A total of 410 GPs who participated in OM seminars were asked to answer a number of questions related to items that they usually come across in their work. The respondents were given scores on 15 items, which pertained to their frequency of experience in OM, their felt needs regarding education in the field, and their knowledge and skills. Ethical issues were the most frequently utilised item and the area in which the felt need for education was the greatest. The knowledge of and skills in ethical issues and matters were the poorest. Ethical principles and confidentiality had the highest calculated educational priority scores. It is necessary to consider ethical issues as an educational priority for GPs working in the field of OM.
JALILI, Mohammad; SADEGHIPOUR ROODSARI, Gholamreza; BASSIR NIA, Anahita
Abstract Background Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Results Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Conclusion Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress. PMID:26060665
Jalili, Mohammad; Sadeghipour Roodsari, Gholamreza; Bassir Nia, Anahita
Emergency physicians are at risk of burnout, which can affect their mental health, as well as patient care. We assessed burnout level among Iranian emergency physicians and investigated demographic, work-related factors and stressors associated with higher burnout. In a cross-sectional study, we surveyed all 188 emergency medicine residents and practitioners in Iran. We measured burnout using 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory assessing emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment, also demographic factors, work related factors and sources of stress in emergency department using anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analysis, univariate analysis to evaluate association with higher score of burnout, and multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict high burnout in 3 subscales was performed. Totally, 165 questionnaires were filled (response rate: 88%; mean age: 33.6 years, 91% male). Mean burnout scores were 22.94 for emotional exhaustion (95% CI=20.78-25.01; moderate), 9.3 for depersonalization (95% CI=8.24-10.36; moderate to high), and 31.47 for personal accomplishment (95% CI=29.87-33.07; moderate to high). Frequent reported sources of stress were shortage of equipment, problem with work physical environment, and relationship with other services. All 19 sources of stress were associated with higher score of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; while twelve out of 19 were significantly associated with lower level of personal accomplishment. In logistic regression model, the significant predictors for high emotional exhaustion were work overload, feeling of insecurity for future career and difficulties to balance professional and private life. Burnout is high among Iranian emergency medicine practitioners and some interventions can be proposed to reduce stress.
Huerta, Mary Esther Soto; Riojas-Cortez, Mari
This study was inspired by the literary elements of "cuentos tipicos" (culturally-relevant stories). The book "Prietita y la llorona" ("Prietita and the Ghost Woman") written by Anzaldua (1995) is a good example of a "cuento" that provides information about medicinal herbs and also includes…
This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; López, Víctor; Calvo, María Isabel
Background This article analyzes whether the distribution or area of use of 18 medicinal plants is influenced by ecological and cultural factors which might account for their traditional use and/or phytonymy in Navarra. This discussion may be helpful for comparative studies, touching as it does on other ethnopharmacological issues: a) which cultural and ecological factors affect the selection of medicinal plants; b) substitutions of medicinal plants in popular medicine; c) the relation between local nomenclature and uses. To analyze these questions, this paper presents an example of a species used for digestive disorders (tea and camomile: Jasonia glutinosa, J. tuberosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Bidens aurea, Chamaemelum nobile, Santolina chamaecyparissus...), high blood pressure (Rhamnus alaternus, Olea europaea...) or skin diseases (Hylotelephium maximum, H. telephium, Anagallis arvensis, A. foemina). Methods Fieldwork began on January 2004 and continued until December 2006. During that time we interviewed 505 informants in 218 locations in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews, and we subsequently made maps using Arc-View 8.0 program to determine the area of use of each taxon. Each map was then compared with the bioclimatic and linguistic map of Navarra, using the soil and ethnographic data for the region, and with other ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Europe. Results The results clearly show that ecological and cultural factors influence the selection of medicinal plants in this region. Climate and substrate are the most important ecological factors that influence the distribution and abundance of plants, which are the biological factors that affect medicinal plant selection. Conclusion The study of edaphological and climatological factors, on the one hand, and culture, on the other, can help us to understand why a plant is replaced by another one for the same purposes, either in the
Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were
Dapson, R W; Bain, C L
Brazilin is a nearly colorless dye precursor obtained from the heartwood of several species of trees including brazilwood from Brazil, sappanwood from Asia and the Pacific islands, and to a minor extent from two other species in Central America, northern South America and the Caribbean islands. Its use as a dyeing agent and medicinal in Asia was recorded in the 2(nd) century BC, but was little known in Europe until the 12(th) century AD. Asian supplies were replaced in the 16(th) century AD after the Portuguese discovered vast quantities of trees in what is now Brazil. Overexploitation decimated the brazilwood population to the extent that it never fully recovered. Extensive environmental efforts currently are underway to re-create a viable, sustainable population. Brazilin is structurally similar to the better known hematoxylin, thus is readily oxidized to a colored dye, brazilein, which behaves like hematein. Attachment of the dye to fabric is by hydrogen bonding or in conjunction with certain metallic mordants by coordinative bonding. For histology, most staining procedures involve aluminum (brazalum) for staining nuclei. In addition to textile dyeing and histological staining, brazilin and brazilein have been and still are used extensively in Asian folk medicine to treat a wide variety of disorders. Recent pharmacological studies for the most part have established a scientific basis for these uses and in many cases have elucidated the biochemical pathways involved. The principal use of brazilwood today is for the manufacture of bows for violins and other stringed musical instruments. The dye and other physical properties of the wood combine to produce bows of unsurpassed tonal quality.
Abbassi, Feten; Hani, Khaled
Rhus tripartitum (African sumac) is a plant commonly used in Tunisian traditional medicine to treat diarrhoea and dysentery. In this study, we have demonstrated that R. tripartitum extracts exhibited a significant broad spectrum activity against one or more of the test microorganisms with a zone size ranging from 8 to 28 mm in diameter. These diameters are much higher than those obtained with standard antibiotics. The chloroformic extracts were found to be effective against bacterial and fungal strains tested, with MIC values ranging between 0.07 and 0.62 mg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. However, ethyl-acetate/methanol fractions showed a selective activity only against bacterial microorganisms with low MIC values between 0.07 and 0.15 mg mL(-1). The overall results suggested that the traditional use of R. tripartitum for the treatment of diarrhoea tract infections was attributed to the presence of antibacterial agents.
Dhillon, Amrith Kaur; Hattingh, Hendrika Laetitia; Stafford, Andrew; Hoti, Kreshnik
Home Medicines Review (HMR) is an Australian initiative introduced in 2001 to improve quality use of medicines. Medication management services such as HMRs have the potential to reduce medication related problems. In 2011, changes to the HMR program were introduced to allow for referrals directly to accredited pharmacists in addition to the community pharmacy referral model. These changes were introduced to improve efficiency of the process. This study explored the perceptions of Western Australian general practitioners (GPs) on benefits and barriers of the HMR service and process, including their insights into the direct referral model. Purposive sampling of GPs who had experience ensured that participants had a working knowledge of the HMR service. Semi structured interviews with 24 GPs from 14 metropolitan Western Australian medical centres between March and May 2013. Transcribing and thematic analysis of data were performed. Most GPs had positive attitudes towards the HMR service. Main perceived benefits of the service were poly-pharmacy reduction and education for both the GP and patient. Strategies identified to improve the service were introduction of a standard HMR report template for pharmacists and better use of technology. Whilst reliability and GPs' familiarity were the main perceived benefits of the direct referral model, a number of GPs agreed that patient unfamiliarity with the HMR pharmacist was a barrier. Despite recognition of the value of the HMR service participating GPs were of the opinion that there are aspects of the HMR service that could be improved. As one of the success factors of HMRs is relying on GPs to utilise this service, this study provides valuable insight into issues that need to be addressed to improve HMR uptake.
Muršić, Ivanka; Kuric, Igor; Raguž, Marija; Kovačević, Tatjana; Muršić, Dora
Scabies and pediculosis are common parasitic infestations of the skin and hair, manifesting with intense pruritus and effectively treated with modern medications. Because of the attached social stigma linking it with poverty and poor hygiene, patients will often attempt alternative folk-based remedies before confiding in their physicians. We conducted a comprehensive bibliographical study of historic folk literature and interviewed 70 individuals experienced in everyday application of folk medicine in order to categorize available remedies and provide a modern, scientific comment on their effectiveness and dangers. Compositions containing sulfur, copper sulfate, petroleum, coal, tar, and highly alkaline soaps and washing solutions undoubtedly have scabicidal and pediculicidal properties, but they are used either in high concentrations with greater possibility of intoxication and irritation or lower concentrations with questionable therapeutic benefit. These remedies, extracted from historical-cultural frameworks, are poorly adapted to modern standards and can lead to side-effects and complications. Physicians today have to be aware of the reasons their patients seek alternative remedies and know the substances and procedures they may use in self-healing, so as to be able to provide the help that may be needed if those complications occur.
O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P
Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.
Othong, Rittirak; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai
Diospyros rhodocalyx (Tako-Na) is a Thai folk medicine purported to promote longevity, treat impotence, etc. We present patients with hypokalemia, weakness and hypertension after consuming Tako-Na tea. Case 1: A 61-year-old man was brought in nine hours after drinking 400-500 mL of Tako-Na tea. One handful of Tako-Na bark was boiled in water to make tea. He had vomiting and watery diarrhea six hours after drinking it. He took no medications and had no history of hypertension. The only remarkable vital sign was BP 167/90 mmHg. Physical examination revealed generalized muscle weakness. Laboratory findings were potassium 2.7 mmol/L, bicarbonate 24 mmol/L, and transtubular potassium gradient (TTKG) 5.6. He was discharged the next day with a BP 140/90 mmHg and potassium 4.2 mmol/L. Case 2: A 78-year-old man, a friend of case 1, also drank Tako-Na tea from the same pot at the same time as case 1. He also had vomiting and diarrhea six hours later. He took no medications despite past history of hypertension (baseline SBP 140-160). Initial BP was 230/70 mmHg. He also had muscle weakness. Laboratory findings were potassium 3.3 mmol/L, bicarbonate 24 mmol/L, TTKG 7.37 and normal thyroid function. He was also discharged the next day with a BP 148/70 mmHg and potassium 4.2 mmol/L. Case 3-7: These were patients reported to a poison center and their potassium concentrations were 1.4, 1.4, 3.3, 1.3 and 1.2 mmol/L, respectively. Three of them were intubated and case 3 died. Tako-Na contains betulin, betulinic acid, taraxerone, lupeol, and lupenone. Their structures are similar to glycyrrhetic acid, the active metabolite of glycyrrhizic acid found in licorice which is well known to cause pseudoaldosteronism. Glycyrrhetic acid is potent in inhibiting 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and causes pseudoaldosteronism. We hypothesize that the compounds in Tako-Na act in the same way as glycyrrhetic acid in producing pseudoaldosteronism.
Dahlhaus, Anne; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Guethlin, Corina
The aim of this study was to investigate how general practitioners react when their cancer patients show interest in complementary medicine, and how their reaction is related to their knowledge in the field. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 German general practitioners. Interviewees came from 5 different federal states and varied in terms of urban/rural setting, single/joint practice, additional certifications, gender and length of professional experience. Interviews were electronically recorded, transcribed and then analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. General practitioners feel largely responsible for providing information on complementary medicine to their cancer patients. However, uncertainty and a lack of knowledge concerning CAM lead mainly to reactive responses to patients' needs, and the general practitioners base their recommendations on personal experiences and attitudes. They wish to support their cancer patients and thus, in order to keep their patients' hopes up and maintain a trusting relationship, sometimes support complementary medicine, regardless of their own convictions. Although general practitioners see themselves as an important source of information on complementary medicine for their cancer patients, they also speak of their uncertainties and lack of knowledge. General practitioners would profit from training in complementary medicine enabling them to discuss this topic with their cancer patients in a proactive, open and honest manner. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
Brown, S; Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G
There are a significant number of patients in society who have some form of psychiatric disorder. It is important that dental practitioners have an awareness of the more common psychiatric disorders and their potential implications as they are likely to encounter them in clinical practice.
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Ben-Arye, Eran
Complementary and traditional medicine (CTM) plays an important role in culture-centered care for cancer patients in the Middle East. In this article, we have studied the attitudes of Arab CTM therapists concerning integration of complementary medicine within the conventional supportive cancer care of Arab patients in northern Israel. Semistructured interviews were held with 27 Arab therapists who use medicinal herbs, the Quran, and various CTM modalities, with the aim of characterizing their treatment practices and learning about their perspectives regarding conventional cancer care. We first summarized the different characteristics of the various CTM therapists, including training, typical practice, and so on. Thematic analysis revealed that folk healers and complementary medicine therapists describe their role as supportive and secondary to that of physicians. Their goal was not to cure patients with cancer but rather to enhance their quality of life by reducing the severity of both the disease symptoms and the side effects of cancer treatment. Religious healers, by contrast, purport to cure the disease. While folk healers opt for parallel alternative care and complementary therapists support integrative care, religious healers claimed that they offer an alternative to conventional medicine in terms of both etiology and practice. The majority of Arab CTM therapists support integration of their treatments with the conventional system, but in practice, they are not sure how to bring about this change or create a parallel model in which 2 different systems are active, but not integrated. Our findings emphasized the need to promote doctor-CTM practitioner communication based on structured referral and bidirectional consultation. Moreover, we recommend intensifying research on the efficacy and safety of CTM in the Middle East and the potential role in promoting culture-based supportive care.
Godin, Gaston; Beaulieu, Dominique; Touchette, Jean-Sebastien; Lambert, Leo-Daniel; Dodin, Sylvie
The authors' goal was to identify factors explaining intention to encourage a patient to follow complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment among general practitioners (GPs), fourth-year medical students, and residents in family medicine. They surveyed 500 GPs and 904 medical students via a self-administered mailed questionnaire that…
Patel, Asmita; Toossi, Vahideh
While New Zealand has experienced an increase in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) based acupuncture, very little is known about the practitioners who provide this type of treatment modality. Therefore, this study was designed to identify differences associated with being a TCM practitioner in New Zealand compared to China. Ten Auckland-based TCM practitioners were individually interviewed. The interview schedule comprised of questions that were designed to identify any potential differences in practising TCM in New Zealand compared to China. Data were analysed using an inductive thematic approach. The main differences in practising between the two countries were related to the role and authority that a TCM practitioner had. This in turn resulted in differences between the conditions that were treated in these two countries. Differences in patient demography were also identified between the two countries. TCM is used as a form of alternative healthcare treatment in New Zealand for non-Chinese individuals. Acupuncture is the most utilised form of TCM treatment in New Zealand, and is predominantly used for pain management purposes. TCM treatment has been utilised by individuals from a number of different ethnic groups, reflecting the ethnic diversity of the New Zealand population.
Reproductive toxicology and clastogenic evaluation in mice of a phytotherapeutic formulation obtained from Cinchona calisaya Weddel (Rubiaceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine as female fertility stimulant.
do Amaral, Vera Lucia Langaro; Frajbat, Marcel; Petreanu, Marcel; Zermiani, Tailyn; de Freitas, Rilton Alves; Maistro, Edson Luis; Niero, Rivaldo; Bresolin, Tania Mari Bellé; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni
In Brazil, a phytotherapeutic preparation produced from a standardized tincture of Cinchona calisaya Weddel such that each mL of product contains 400µg of quinine, known in Portuguese as Água Inglesa(®) (English water), is indicated by the manufacturer as a tonic, appetite stimulant, and digestive. However, this preparation has long been used in folk medicine as a female fertility stimulant. Despite its widespread use in folk medicine to stimulate female fertility, no study has been undertaken to assess the potential teratogenic and genotoxic effects of this phytotherapeutic preparation. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible toxic reproductive effects in mice caused by exposure to Água Inglesa(®), either before mating or during the pre- and post-embryo implantation periods. The genotoxic potential was evaluated using the micronucleus assay. Virgin female mice, with at least one estrous cycle evidenced by vaginal cytology, were divided into five groups of 15 individuals each (Group I - control, Group II - treated with ethanol solution at 16%, Groups III, IV and V treated with phytotherapeutic preparation at 1.5mL/kg/day, 3.0mL/kg/day and 4.5mL/kg/day, respectively). After the first 28 days of treatment, females were caged individually with adult fertile males. Pregnant females continued to receive treatment for seven days (preimplantation period). Body weight was recorded weekly during treatment. Signs of toxicity (weight loss, food intake, piloerection, apathy, prostration, diarrhea, seizures, behavioral changes, and locomotion) were also observed. The females were sacrificed on the 15th day of pregnancy, uterine horns were evaluated for implantation, and the placental index was recorded. In the micronucleus test, 2000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) per animal, obtained from bone marrow, were scored. Results The results showed that exposure of the females during the pre- and post-implantation periods did not significantly alter the
Mykytyn, Courtney Everts
Having enjoyed tremendous growth for the past 5 years, the anti-aging medicine movement is redefining aging so that it becomes a target for biomedical intervention. Targeting aging for intervention dislodges popular understandings of aging: for anti-aging practitioners it no longer matters if aging is natural since it can be itself the target of therapy. So-called "age-associated" diseases like cancer are, in this framework, conceived of as symptoms of aging. Anti-aging medicine is a broad term that may comprise groups selling remedies over the Internet, companies touting the "anti-aging"ness of their products, practitioners who work outside of scientific medicine, and practitioners of anti-aging medicine in clinics who believe that their work is strictly scientific. This article, drawing from more than 3 years of ethnographic interviews, participant observation in clinics and conferences, and a review of the literature, considers the last group. It examines the involvement stories of anti-aging medicine practitioners in two Western United States metropolitan cities. These stories reflect the practices of anti-aging medicine practitioners and the accompanying rationale for involvement. Often originally patients themselves, practitioners frame their involvement with the anti-aging movement in three ways. First, they describe aging as it is currently experienced as a time of decline, suffering, and weakness. This anguish is not inevitable, they argue, and their work toward treating aging biomedically is situated as clearly moral. Secondly, intense frustration with the current biomedical environment has motivated practitioners to look for other ways in which to practice: anti-aging medicine is their chosen alternative. Finally, with dramatic expectations of future biotechnologies and disdain for current medical treatments of old age, anti-aging practitioners embrace a scientific revolutionary identity. These stories of migrations from patient to practitioner reveal
Streit, Judy A; Marano, Cinzia; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Moore, Thomas A; Brunette, Gary W; Kozarsky, Phyllis E
Infectious disease specialists who evaluate international travelers before or after their trips need skills to prevent, recognize, and treat an increasingly broad range of infectious diseases. Wide variation exists in training and percentage effort among providers of this care. In parallel, there may be variations in approach to pre-travel consultation and the types of travel-related illness encountered. Aggregate information from travel-medicine providers may reveal practice patterns and novel trends in infectious illness acquired through travel. The 1,265 members of the Infectious Disease Society of America's Emerging Infections Network were queried by electronic survey about their training in travel medicine, resources used, pre-travel consultations, and evaluation of ill-returning travelers. The survey also captured information on whether any of 10 particular conditions had been diagnosed among ill-returning travelers, and if these diagnoses were perceived to be changing in frequency. A majority of respondents (69%) provided both pre-travel counseling and post-travel evaluations, with significant variation in the numbers of such consultations. A majority of all respondents (61%) reported inadequate training in travel medicine during their fellowship years. However, a majority of recent graduates (55%) reported adequate preparation. Diagnoses of malaria, traveler's diarrhea, and typhoid fever were reported by the most respondents (84, 71, and 53%, respectively). The percent effort dedicated to pre-travel evaluation and care of the ill-returning traveler vary widely among infectious disease specialists, although a majority participate in these activities. On the basis of respondents' self-assessment, recent fellowship training is reported to equip graduates with better skills in these areas than more remote training. Ongoing monitoring of epidemiologic trends of travel-related illness is warranted. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.
Goldstein, Carly M; Minges, Karl E; Schoffman, Danielle E; Cases, Mallory G
Behavioral medicine training is due for an overhaul given the rapid evolution of the field, including a tight funding climate, changing job prospects, and new research and industry collaborations. The purpose of the present study was to collect responses from trainee and practicing members of a multidisciplinary professional society about their perceptions of behavioral medicine training and their suggestions for changes to training for future behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners. A total of 162 faculty and 110 students (total n = 272) completed a web-based survey on strengths of their current training programs and ideas for changes. Using a mixed-methods approach, the survey findings are used to highlight seven key areas for improved preparation of the next generation of behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners, which are grant writing, interdisciplinary teamwork, advanced statistics and methods, evolving research program, publishable products from coursework, evolution and use of theory, and non-traditional career paths.
Butler, Dennis J; Holloway, Richard L; Fons, Dominique
This article describes the development of a Behavioral Medicine track in a family medicine residency designed to train physicians to proactively and consistently apply advanced skills in psychosocial medicine, psychiatric care, and behavioral medicine. The Behavioral Medicine track emerged from a behavioral science visioning retreat, an opportunity to restructure residency training, a comparative family medicine-psychiatry model, and qualified residents with high interest in behavioral science. Training was restructured to increase rotational opportunities in core behavioral science areas and track residents were provided an intensive longitudinal counseling seminar and received advanced training in psychopharmacology, case supervision, and mindfulness. The availability of a Behavioral Medicine track increased medical student interest in the residency program and four residents have completed the track. All track residents have presented medical Grand Rounds on behavioral science topics and have lead multiple workshops or research sessions at national meetings. Graduate responses indicate effective integration of behavioral medicine skills and abilities in practice, consistent use of brief counseling skills, and good confidence in treating common psychiatric disorders. As developed and structured, the Behavioral Medicine track has achieved the goal of producing "assertive practitioners of behavioral science in family medicine" residents with advanced behavioral science skills and abilities who globally integrate behavioral science into primary care.
Stevens, Phillips, Jr., Ed.
This serial issue contains a special section with five articles all on the subject of "Folk Arts in Education": (1) "Folk Arts-in-Education Programs in New York State" (Kathleen Mundell); (2) "The Cultural Heritage Project: Presenting Traditional Arts in a Suburban Setting" (Kathleen Mundell); (3) "Folk Arts in…
Fisher, Carole; Adams, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David
To explore the prevalence with which Australian Western herbalists treat menstrual problems and their related treatment, experiences, perceptions, and interreferral practices with other health practitioners. Members of the Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative practice-based research network identifying as Western Herbalists (WHs) completed a specifically developed, online questionnaire. Western Herbalists regularly treat menstrual problems, perceiving high, though differential, levels of effectiveness. For menstrual problems, WHs predominantly prescribe individualised formulas including core herbs, such as Vitex agnus-castus, and problem-specific herbs. Estimated clients' weekly cost (median = $25.00) and treatment duration (median = 4-6 months) covering this Western herbal medicine treatment appears relatively low. Urban-based women are more likely than those rurally based to have used conventional treatment for their menstrual problems before consulting WHs (p = .001). Only 19% of WHs indicated direct contact by conventional medical practitioners regarding treatment of clients' menstrual problems despite 42% indicating clients' conventional practitioners recommended consultation with WH. Western herbal medicine may be a substantially prevalent, cost-effective treatment option amongst women with menstrual problems. A detailed examination of the behaviour of women with menstrual problems who seek and use Western herbal medicine warrants attention to ensure this healthcare option is safe, effective, and appropriately co-ordinated within women's wider healthcare use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Paterfamilial literature in Germany marked the emergence of a literary category, with its householder writings being precursors of some of a farm management theory. Its pamphlets on veterinary medicine reflected latest knowledge in its time in farming. A number of economy housebooks is presented together with the authors in an attempt to give a somewhat closer account of this literature category in populist veterinary medicine.
Lamorde, Mohammed; Tabuti, John R S; Obua, Celestino; Kukunda-Byobona, Collins; Lanyero, Hindam; Byakika-Kibwika, Pauline; Bbosa, Godfrey S; Lubega, Aloysius; Ogwal-Okeng, Jasper; Ryan, Mairin; Waako, Paul J; Merry, Concepta
In Uganda, there are over one million people with HIV/AIDS. When advanced, this disease is characterized by life-threatening opportunistic infections. As the formal health sector struggles to confront this epidemic, new medicines from traditional sources are needed to complement control efforts. This study was conducted to document herbal medicines used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections, and to document the existing knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV/AIDS recognition, control and treatment in Sembabule, Kamuli, Kabale and Gulu districts in Uganda. In this study, 25 traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The TMPs could recognize important signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS and its associated opportunistic infections. The majority of practitioners treated patients who were already receiving allopathic medicines including antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) prescribed by allopathic practitioners. There were 103 species of medicinal plants identified in this survey. Priority plants identified include Aloe spp., Erythrina abyssinica, Sarcocephalus latifolius, Psorospermum febrifugum, Mangifera indica and Warburgia salutaris. There was low consensus among TMPs on the plants used. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used except in Gulu where mono-preparations were common. Plant parts frequently used were leaves (33%), stem bark (23%) and root bark (18%). About 80% of preparations were administered orally in variable doses over varied time periods. The TMP had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Numerous medicinal plants for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients were identified in the four districts surveyed and the role of these plants in the management of opportunistic infections warrants further investigation as these plants may have a role in Uganda's public health approach to HIV/AIDS control. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All
To profile the profession of Western herbal medicine (WHM) in the UK. A self-completion postal questionnaire sent to a sample of practitioners of WHM in England. A typical practitioner of WHM in the UK is female, aged 41-50, white, and practises part-time from a shared clinic or from home. Motivations to embark on a career in WHM are grounded in an interest in natural healing and the desire to help others. The practice of WHM in the UK responds extensively to women's health needs. Tensions in the practice of WHM are identified between a framework of healthcare that is described as 'traditional' and the influences of evidence-based developments in healthcare. Women, both as practitioners and as patients, and women's health needs play a central role in the contemporary practice of WHM in the UK. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xiao; Liu, Yu; Pan, Hu; Miao, Xiaolou; Zhang, Jiyu
Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) is a perennial herbaceous orchid plant that grows widely throughout Europe and in temperate and subtropical zones of Asia. In China, its tuber has been used in traditional Chinese medicines, Tibetan medicines, Mongolian medicines and other ethnic medicines, and taken to treat numerous health conditions. The present paper provides a review of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicology to highlight the future prospects of the plant. More than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated, and the primary components are glucosides, dihydrostilbenes, phenanthrenes, aromatic compounds, and other compounds. G. conopsea and its active constituents possess broad pharmacological properties, such as the tonifying effect, anti-oxidative activity, anti-viral activity, immunoregulatory, antianaphylaxis, antigastric ulcer, sedative, and hypnotic activities, etc. However, overexploitation combined with the habitat destruction has resulted in the rapid decrease of the resources of this plant, and the sustainable use of G. conopsea is necessary to study. Meanwhile, the toxicity of this plant had not been comprehensively studied, and the active constituents and the mechanisms of action of the tuber were still unclear. Further, studies on G. conopsea should lead to the development of scientific quality control and new drugs and therapies for various diseases; thus, its use and development require additional investigation. PMID:28217096
Cottingham, Phillip; Adams, Jon; Vempati, Ram; Dunn, Jill; Sibbritt, David
Despite the popularity of naturopathic and herbal medicine in New Zealand there remains limited data on New Zealand-based naturopathic and herbal medicine practice. In response, this paper reports findings from the first national survey examining the characteristics, perceptions and experiences of New Zealand-based naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners across multiple domains relating to their role and practice. An online survey (covering 6 domains: demographics; practice characteristics; research; integrative practice; regulation and funding; contribution to national health objectives) was administered to naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners. From a total of 338 naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners, 107 responded providing a response rate of 32%. Data were statistically analysed using STATA. A majority of the naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners surveyed were female (91%), and aged between 45 and 54 years. Most practiced part-time (64%), with practitioner caseloads averaging 8 new clients and over 20 follow-up clients per month. Our analysis shows that researched information impacts upon and is useful for naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners to validate their practices. However, the sources of researched information utilised by New Zealand naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners remain variable, with many sources beyond publications in peer-reviewed journals being utilised. Most naturopathic and herbal medicine practitioners (82%) supported registration, with statutory registration being favoured (75%). Integration with conventional care was considered desirable by the majority of naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners surveyed (83%). Naturopaths and herbal medicine practitioners feel that they contribute to several key national health objectives, including: improved nutrition (93%); increased physical activity (85%); reducing incidence and impact of CVD (79%); reducing incidence and impact of cancer (68
McDowell, Andrew; Pai, Madhukar
Mumbai is a hot spot for drug-resistant TB, and private practitioners trained in AYUSH systems (Ayurveda, yoga, Unani, Siddha and homeopathy) are major healthcare providers. It is important to understand how AYUSH practitioners manage patients with TB or presumptive TB. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 175 Mumbai slum-based practitioners holding degrees in Ayurveda, homeopathy and Unani. Most providers gave multiple interviews. We observed 10 providers in clinical interactions, documenting: clinical examinations, symptoms, history taking, prescriptions and diagnostic tests. No practitioners exclusively used his or her system of training. The practice of biomedicine is frequent, with practitioners often using biomedical disease categories and diagnostics. The use of homeopathy was rare (only 4% of consultations with homeopaths resulted in homeopathic remedies) and Ayurveda rarer (3% of consultations). For TB, all mentioned chest x-ray while 31 (17.7%) mentioned sputum smear as a TB test. One hundred and sixty-four practitioners (93.7%) reported referring TB patients to a public hospital or chest physician. Eleven practitioners (6.3%) reported treating patients with TB. Nine (5.1%) reported treating patients with drug-susceptible TB with at least one second-line drug. Important sources of health care in Mumbai's slums, AYUSH physicians frequently use biomedical therapies and most refer patients with TB to chest physicians or the public sector. They are integral to TB care and control. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The current popularity of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) generates many challenges to medical ethics. The one discussed here is the advice offered by CAM practitioners. Using selected examples, the author tries to demonstrate that some of the advice issued through the popular media or provided by acupuncturists, chiropractors, herbalists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and doctors is misleading or dangerous. This, the author argues, can impinge on the main principle of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, and autonomy. We should work toward correcting this deplorable situation.
King, Rauni Prittinen
Biofield therapies (BTs) are increasingly employed in contemporary healthcare. In this white paper, we review specific challenges faced by biofield practitioners resulting from a lack of (1) a common scientific definition of BT; (2) common educational standards for BT training (including core competencies for clinical care); (3) collaborative team care education in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and in integrative health and medicine (IHM); (4) a focused agenda in BT research; and (5) standardized devices and scientifically validated mechanisms in biofield research. We present a description of BT and discuss its current status and challenges as an integrative healthcare discipline. To address the challenges cited and to enhance collaboration across disciplines, we propose (1) standardized biofield education that leads to professional licensure and (2) interprofessional education (IPE) competencies in BT training required for licensed healthcare practitioners and encouraged for other practitioners using these therapies. Lastly, we discuss opportunities for growth and a potential strategic agenda to achieve these goals. The Academy of Integrative Health and Medicine (AIHM) provides a unique forum to facilitate development of this emerging discipline, to facilitate IPE, and to further increase the availability of BT to patients. PMID:26665047
Teixeira, Daniel Câmara; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano; Arantes, Mariana Reis; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Sousa, Daniele Oliveira Bezerra; Pereira, Mirella Leite; Oliveira, Hermogenes David; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria
Among the Bauhinia species, B. cheilantha stands out for its seed protein content. However, there is no record of its nutritional value, being used in a nonsustainable way in the folk medicine and for large-scale extraction of timber. The aim of this study was to investigate the food potential of B. cheilantha seeds with emphasis on its protein quality to provide support for flora conservation and use as raw material or as prototype for the development of bioproducts with high added socioeconomic value. B. cheilantha seeds show high protein content (35.9%), reasonable essential amino acids profile, low levels of antinutritional compounds, and nutritional parameters comparable to those of legumes widely used such as soybean and cowpea. The heat treatment of the seeds as well as the protein extraction process (to obtain the protein concentrate) increased the acceptance of diets by about 100% when compared to that of raw Bc diet. These wild legume seeds can be promising alternative source of food to overcome the malnutrition problem faced by low income people adding socioeconomic value to the species.
Teixeira, Daniel Câmara; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano; Arantes, Mariana Reis; Oliveira, José Tadeu Abreu; Sousa, Daniele Oliveira Bezerra; Pereira, Mirella Leite; Oliveira, Hermogenes David; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria
Among the Bauhinia species, B. cheilantha stands out for its seed protein content. However, there is no record of its nutritional value, being used in a nonsustainable way in the folk medicine and for large-scale extraction of timber. The aim of this study was to investigate the food potential of B. cheilantha seeds with emphasis on its protein quality to provide support for flora conservation and use as raw material or as prototype for the development of bioproducts with high added socioeconomic value. B. cheilantha seeds show high protein content (35.9%), reasonable essential amino acids profile, low levels of antinutritional compounds, and nutritional parameters comparable to those of legumes widely used such as soybean and cowpea. The heat treatment of the seeds as well as the protein extraction process (to obtain the protein concentrate) increased the acceptance of diets by about 100% when compared to that of raw Bc diet. These wild legume seeds can be promising alternative source of food to overcome the malnutrition problem faced by low income people adding socioeconomic value to the species. PMID:23691507
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham Mohamed; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Masood, Imran; Low, Bee Yean; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Babar, Zaheer-ud-din
Objectives: In developing countries out-of-pocket payments (OOP) are as high as 80% of healthcare spending. Generic medicines can be instrumental in reducing this expenditure. The current study is aimed to explore the knowledge, perception, and attitude of general practitioners towards generic medicines in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: This exploratory, descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 289 randomly selected general practitioners who were dispensing at their private clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaires were distributed and collected by hand. Data was entered to SPSS version 17. Fischer’s exact test was applied to see the association between variables. Results: A total of 206 questionnaires were included in the study. A response rate of 71.3% was achieved. Out of 206 respondents, 139 (67.5%) were male while 67 (32.5%) respondents were female. Close to three quaters of the respondents (n= 148; 71.8%) showed correct knowledge about generic medicines being a ‘copy of the brand name medicines’ and ‘interchangeable with brand name medicines’ (n= 148; 71.8%). In terms of safety, the majority of respondents (n=85; 41.26%) incorrectly understood that the generic medicines are less safe than brand name medicines. The total percentage of correct responses was seen in 53% of the respondents. More than half of the respondents agreed that locally manufactured medicines are of the same effectiveness as brand name medicines (n=114; 55.4%). Male practitioners with practice experience of 11-15 years showed positive perception towards the quality of multinational products. The Majority of respondents believed that their prescribing decision is influenced by medical representatives (n=117; 56.8%). More than three-quarters of the respondents expressed their wish to prescribe low cost medicines in their practice (n=157; 76.2%). More than one third of the respondents expressed their uneasiness to prescribe products from all local manufacturers (n=72; 35
Ouelbani, Rayene; Bensari, Souheir; Mouas, Toma Nardjes; Khelifi, Douadi
Constantine and Mila regions have been investigated in an ethnobotanical study for the first time. A total of 102 medicinal plants have been cited to treat human ailments. Twenty-eight new species of 31 common plants with 151 new therapeutic applications and 12 new cited species including one endemic specie Zygophyllum cornutum Coss were found as compared to other Algerian regions. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, 369 new medicinal uses of 75 known plants, were reported for the first time in the Mediterranean basin. This study is aimed at contributing to safeguard world cultural heritage and document ethnomedicinal uses of plants in Algeria and the Mediterranean basin; data on the national and global uses in the world were obtained to extract new potential species for further phytochemical and clinical investigations. The survey was carried out in two cities in the northeast of Algeria: Constantine and Mila. It was based on semi-structured interviews of 79 local informants. Data were analyzed using quantitative indices, namely, informant consensus factor, fidelity level (FL), use value (UV), and relative frequency citation (RFC), to evaluate the reliability and richness of herbal knowledge in the region. The interviewed persons used 102 plant species belonging to 90 genera and distributed among 53 families, represented mainly by Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, and Asteraceae (30%, 13%, and 10%, respectively), which were used to treat 14 ailment categories. The category of most frequent ailments (16%) was digestive disorders (diarrhea, constipation, and stomach bloating). The highest RFC was found for Origanum glandulosum Desf. With regard to the fidelity level, a higher FL was found for Tilia cordata Mill. (100%), followed by Artemisia herba alba Asso. with an FL of 95.74% and Punica granatum L. with an FL of 93.09%) to treat gastrointestinal system diseases, and Aloe sp. L. with an FL of 96.67% for skin diseases. The highest UV was found for Origanum glandulosum
Rosa, Juliana da; Weber, Gabriela Gomes; Cardoso, Rafaela; Górski, Felipe; Da-Silva, Paulo Roberto
Better knowledge of medicinal plant species and their conservation is an urgent need worldwide. Decision making for conservation strategies can be based on the knowledge of the variability and population genetic structure of the species and on the events that may influence these genetic parameters. Achyrocline flaccida (Weinm.) DC. is a native plant from the grassy fields of South America with high value in folk medicine. In spite of its importance, no genetic and conservation studies are available for the species. In this work, microsatellite and ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to estimate the genetic variability and structure of seven populations of A. flaccida from southern Brazil. The microsatellite markers were inefficient in A. flaccida owing to a high number of null alleles. After the evaluation of 42 ISSR primers on one population, 10 were selected for further analysis of seven A. flaccida populations. The results of ISSR showed that the high number of exclusive absence of loci might contribute to the inter-population differentiation. Genetic variability of the species was high (Nei's diversity of 0.23 and Shannon diversity of 0.37). AMOVA indicated higher genetic variability within (64.7%) than among (33.96%) populations, and the variability was unevenly distributed (FST 0.33). Gene flow among populations ranged from 1.68 to 5.2 migrants per generation, with an average of 1.39. The results of PCoA and Bayesian analyses corroborated and indicated that the populations are structured. The observed genetic variability and population structure of A. flaccida are discussed in the context of the vegetation formation history in southern Brazil, as well as the possible anthropogenic effects. Additionally, we discuss the implications of the results in the conservation of the species.
General practitioners using complementary and alternative medicine differ from general practitioners using conventional medicine in their view of the risks of electromagnetic fields: a postal survey from Germany.
Kowall, Bernd; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
General practitioners (GPs) play a key role in consulting patients worried about health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF). We compared GPs using conventional medicine (COM) with GPs using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) concerning their perception of EMF risks. Moreover, we assessed whether the kind of alternative medicine has an influence on the results. A total of 2795 GPs drawn randomly from lists of German GPs were sent an either long or short self-administered postal questionnaire on EMF-related topics. Adjusted logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association of an education in alternative medicine with various aspects of perceiving EMF risks. Concern about EMF, misconceptions about EMF, and distrust toward scientific organizations are more prevalent in CAM-GPs. CAM-GPs more often falsely believed that mobile phone use can lead to head warming of more than 1°C (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5-3.3), more often distrusted the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.4-3.6), were more often concerned about mobile phone base stations (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.6-3.6), more often attributed own health complaints to EMF (OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.8-5.6), and more often reported at least 1 EMF consultation (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.6-3.9). GPs using homeopathy perceived EMF as more risky than GPs using acupuncture or naturopathic treatment. Concern about common EMF sources is highly prevalent among German GPs. CAM-GPs perceive stronger associations between EMF and health problems than COM-GPs. There is a need for evidence-based information about EMF risks for GPs and particularly for CAM-GPs. This is the precondition that GPs can inform patients about EMF and health in line with current scientific knowledge. © The Author(s) 2014.
Amidst the substantial change currently gripping primary health care are two developments central to contemporary debate regarding the very nature, territory and identity of general practice - the integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the rise of evidence-based medicine (EBM). This paper reports findings from a study based upon 25 in-depth interviews with general practitioners (GPs) personally practising complementary therapies alongside more conventional medicine to treat their NHS patients. The paper outlines the GPs' perceptions of EBM, its relationship to their personal development of CAM, and their notions of good clinical practice more generally. Analysis of the GPs' accounts demonstrates how CAM can be seen as a useful resource with which some GPs defend their clinical autonomy from what they perceive to be the threat of EBM. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Stevens, Phillips, Jr., Ed.
"Marketing Folk Art" is a special section (pages 43-89) of this serial issue addressing the folklorists' role in developing marketing strategies to improve the lot of folk artists and protect their traditional forms of expression from commercial exploitation. The following six articles, introduced by Rosemary Joyce, focus on these…
Instructional Technology Report, 1975
This issue is dedicated to folk media. Using Indonesia for his case study, Dr. Nat Colletta analyzes traditional culture as a medium for development. Juan Diaz Bordenave expresses doubts about adapting folk media to development objectives; Susan Hostetler and Arthur Gillette report on uses of the theater to promote development objectives; and…
Abbas, M A
Male sexual dysfunction is a serious problem which has an impact on the quality of life. In Jordanian folk medicine, 56 plant species were reported to be used by males to improve sexual potency and as aphrodisiacs. The aim of this study was to search for scientific evidence justifying their folk use. Of the 15 studied plants, only five were found to enhance spermatogenesis. The other 10 were reported to decrease spermatogenesis at least by one study. The majority of the studied plants possessed a protective effect on testis in different in vivo models as well as antioxidant activities. The effect of these plants on steroidogenesis and the hypothalamic-gonadal axis was also reviewed. The effect of only five plants was studied on sexual behaviour enhancement and three of them were active. Three of the four studied plants enhanced erection. The mechanism of action of active constituents isolated from the studied plants was also investigated. In conclusion, many plants used in Jordanian folk medicine decreased or had no effect on spermatogenesis in animal models. These plants have antioxidant and/or adaptogenic effects, and this may result in a beneficial action on male reproductive system. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Gottlieb, Richard M
folk medicine we need to create new models that are at consistent with our own more advanced findings and those of our neighboring disciplines.
Barikani, Ameneh; Beheshti, Akram; Javadi, Maryam; Yasi, Marzieh
Orientation of public and physicians to the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is one of the most prominent symbols of structural changes in the health service system. The aim of his study was a determination of knowledge, attitude, and practice of general practitioners in complementary and alternative medicine. This cross- sectional study was conducted in Qazvin, Iran in 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used for collecting data including four information parts: population information, physicians' attitude and knowledge, methods of getting information and their function. A total of 228 physicians in Qazvin comprised the population of study according to the deputy of treatment's report of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. A total of 150 physicians were selected randomly, and SPSS Statistical program was used to enter questionnaires' data. Results were analyzed as descriptive statistics and statistical analysis. Sixty percent of all responders were male. About sixty (59.4) percent of participating practitioners had worked less than 10 years.96.4 percent had a positive attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine. Knowledge of practitioners about traditional medicine in 11 percent was good, 36.3% and 52.7% had average and little information, respectively. 17.9% of practitioners offered their patients complementary and alternative medicine for treatment. Although there was little knowledge among practitioners about traditional medicine and complementary approaches, a significant percentage of them had attitude higher than the lower limit.
Spychalla, Megan T; Heathman, Joanne H; Pearson, Katherine A; Herber, Andrew J; Newman, James S
Hospital medicine is a growing field with an increasing demand for additional healthcare providers, especially in the face of an aging population. Reductions in resident duty hours, coupled with a continued deficit of medical school graduates to appropriately meet the demand, require an additional workforce to counter the shortage. A major dilemma of incorporating nonphysician providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants (NPPAs) into a hospital medicine practice is their varying academic backgrounds and inpatient care experiences. Medical institutions seeking to add NPPAs to their hospital medicine practice need a structured orientation program and ongoing NPPA educational support. This article outlines an NPPA orientation and training program within the Division of Hospital Internal Medicine (HIM) at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. In addition to a practical orientation program that other institutions can model and implement, the division of HIM also developed supplemental learning modalities to maintain ongoing NPPA competencies and fill learning gaps, including a formal NPPA hospital medicine continuing medical education (CME) course, an NPPA simulation-based boot camp, and the first hospital-based NPPA grand rounds offering CME credit. Since the NPPA orientation and training program was implemented, NPPAs within the division of HIM have gained a reputation for possessing a strong clinical skill set coupled with a depth of knowledge in hospital medicine. The NPPA-physician model serves as an alternative care practice, and we believe that with the institution of modalities, including a structured orientation program, didactic support, hands-on learning, and professional growth opportunities, NPPAs are capable of fulfilling the gap created by provider shortages and resident duty hour restrictions. Additionally, the use of NPPAs in hospital medicine allows for patient care continuity that is otherwise missing with resident practice models.
Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather
The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.
Abstract The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations. PMID
The uptake of new medicines is slower in the UK than in many other countries. Previous research found that cost and price have little influence on general practitioner (GP) behaviour, but recent UK government policy may have heightened cost-consciousness. Focussing on new medicines, this review aimed to explore the determinants of uptake, the causes of geographical variations, and the influence of price, cost and financial incentives on prescribing behaviour. Two separate searches were conducted on nine electronic databases. Strategy 1, an update of a previous review, used key terms for primary care physicians, uptake, medicines and 'new'. Strategy 2 focussed on terms relating to incentives and prescribing. Records were screened for eligibility and data from relevant papers were extracted using Bonair and Persson's typology for determinants of the diffusion of innovation, which classified influences into three groups: actors, structural/environmental characteristics and product characteristics. The searches identified 550 records and 28 studies were included in the updated review. Prescribing of new medicines needs to be understood in the context of individual patient-centred care, which is characterized by stability and continuity. Hospital doctors, pharmaceutical representatives and prescribing advisers are all influential, but GP attitudes towards these actors vary and there are notable differences between high and low prescribers of new pharmaceuticals. Support systems can help provide appropriate guidance and increase the uptake of new medicines by identifying patients who may benefit from pharmaceutical therapy. There is evidence of a shift in GP attitudes towards central policy initiatives, with doctors slowly accepting the need for external scrutiny and national standards. Although cost does appear to inform prescribing decisions, it is typically of lower importance than both safety and efficacy concerns and does not represent a significant barrier to
Lee, Geraldine; Gilroy, Jo-Anne; Ritchie, Alistair; Grover, Vimal; Gull, Keetje; Gruber, Pascale
With a chronic shortage of doctors in intensive care, alternative roles are being explored. One of these is the role of the Advanced Critical Care Practitioner. The Advanced Critical Care Practitioner Curriculum was developed by the Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine and is used to provide a structured programme of training. The Advanced Critical Care Practitioner programme consists of an academic and clinical component. This article outlines a practical approach of how the programme was developed and is currently being delivered at a single institution. This new advanced practice role offers opportunities to fill gaps in the medical workforce, improve continuity of patient care, provide mentoring and training for less experienced staff as well as offering a rewarding clinical role.
Markel, Arie; Gavish, Israel; Kfir, Hila; Rimbrot, Sofia
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of sudden death in hospitalized medical patients. Despite the existence of guidelines for prevention and treatment of this disorder, their implementation in everyday life is not always accomplished. We performed a survey among directors of Internal Medicine departments in our country in order to evaluate their attitude and approach to this issue. A questionnaire with pertinent questions regarding prevention and treatment of VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) was sent to each one of the directors of Internal Medicine Departments around the country. Sixty-nine out of 97 (71%) of the Internal Medicine departments directors responded the questionnaire. We found that several of the current guidelines were followed in a reasonable way. On the other hand, heterogeneity of responses was also present and the performance of current guidelines was imperfectly followed, and showed to be deficient in several aspects. An effort should be done in order to reemphasize and put in effect current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of VTE among hospitalists and Internal Medicine practitioners.
Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad khabaz
The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases. PMID:28097039
Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz
The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases.
Yang, Lu; Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David William
Emerging evidence has shown that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a positive effect on arthritis. This research provides the first critical, systematic examination of TCM practitioners' perceptions of TCM use for people with arthritis. An online survey was distributed to all TCM professionals including acupuncturists and Chinese herbal medicine practitioners registered with the Practitioner Research and Collaborate Initiative (PRACI) practitioner database. The survey questions focus on practitioner characteristics, practice characteristics and clinical management approaches regarding arthritis care. The survey attracted a response rate of 53% (n=52). The average age of the respondents was 49.9 years, more than half were female, and the majority held a bachelor degree or higher qualification. More than two thirds of TCM practitioners in our study worked with other health professionals, while they had a high level of referral relationships with a wide range of conventional, allied health and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers. Most of the TCM practitioners reported that their patients with arthritis used other treatments alongside TCM and a large number of the TCM practitioners who participated believed that TCM was effective for treating arthritis. The TCM profession represents a substantial component of the healthcare field in Australia, and treating patients with arthritis appears to be an important area of TCM practice, among others. Further detailed research is needed to help ensure effective, safe patient care for those with arthritis who may be utilising TCM alongside a broader range of conventional medicine, allied health, and other CAM treatments. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Sarwar, Uzma N.; Sitar, Sandra; Ledgerwood, Julie E.
Recent case reports of viral hemorrhagic fever in Europe and the United States have raised concerns about the possibility for increased importation of filoviruses to non-endemic areas. This emerging threat is concerning because of the increase in global air travel and the rise of tourism in central and eastern Africa and the greater dispersion of military troops to areas of infectious disease outbreaks. Marburg viruses (MARV) and Ebola viruses (EBOV) have been associated with outbreaks of severe hemorrhagic fever involving high mortality (25 – 90% case fatality rates). First recognized in 1967 and 1976 respectively, subtypes of MARV and EBOV are the only known viruses of the Filoviridae family, and are among the world’s most virulent pathogens. This article focuses on information relevant for health care practitioners in travel medicine to include, the epidemiology and clinical features of filovirus infection and efforts toward development of a filovirus vaccine. PMID:21208830
Kadir, Mohammad Fahim; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Setu, Nurul Islam; Mostafa, Asif; Mia, M M K
There is very limited information regarding plants used by traditional healers in Bandarban Hill Tracts (BHT), Bangladesh for treating general as well as complex ailments. Current study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medical plants in BHT. Aim of the study This study aimed to collect, analyze and evaluate the rich ethnopharmacologic knowledge on medicinal plants in Thanchi, BHT and attempted to identify the important species used in traditional medicine. Further analysis was done by comparison of the traditional medicinal use of the plants with the available scientific literature data. The field survey was carried out in a period of several years in Thanchi upazilla of Bandarban districts, Bangladesh. A total of 53 Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) were interviewed through open-ended and semi structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. This ethnomedicinal knowledge was compared against the available scientific literature for reports of related uses and studies of phytochemical compounds responsible for respective ailments. A total of 84 species of plants, mostly herbs, belonging to 42 families were identified for the treatment of 70 types of ailments. These ailments were categorized into 16 categories. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts and juice is the mode of preparation of major portions of the plant species. The most common mode of administration was oral ingestion and topical application. Informant consensus factor (Fic) values of the present study reflected the high agreement in the use of plants in the treatment of digestive system and respiratory system disorders among the informants. Diseases of the digestive system had highest use-reports and 3 species of plants, namely Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. (dysentery), Justicia gendarussa L. (asthma) and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (coughing) had the highest fidelity level (FL) of 100
Ahmed, Md Nasir; Kabidul Azam, Md Nur
Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia.
Koehl, Benjamin; Muenstedt, Karsten; Micke, Oliver; Muecke, Ralph; Buentzel, Jens; Stoll, Christoph; Prott, Franz Josef; Dennert, Gabriele; Senf, Bianca; Huebner, Jutta
In total, 40-70% of cancer patients use complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). Many of them ask for advice from non-medical practitioners (NMPs). Our aim was to investigate the attitude of NMPs regarding their treatments for cancer patients. A survey was performed on members of NMP associations, using an online questionnaire on diagnosis and treatment, goals for using CAM, communication with the oncologist, and sources of information. Of the 1,500 members of the NMP associations, 299 took part. The treatments were found to be heterogeneous. Homeopathy is used by 45% of the NMPs; 10% believe it to be a treatment directly against cancer. Herbal therapy, vitamins, orthomolecular medicine, ordinal therapy, mistletoe preparations, acupuncture, and cancer diets are used by more than 10% of the NMPs. None of the treatments is discussed with the respective physician on a regular basis. Many therapies provided by NMPs are biologically based and therefore may interfere with conventional cancer therapy. Thus, patients are at risk of interactions, especially as most NMPs do not adjust their therapies to those of the oncologist. Moreover, risks may arise from these CAM methods as NMPs partly believe them to be useful anticancer treatments. This may lead to the delay or even omission of effective therapies. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Mist, Scott; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Aickin, Mikel
To investigate whether a training process that focused on a questionnaire-based diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and developing diagnostic consensus, would improve the agreement of TCM diagnoses among 10 TCM practitioners evaluating patients with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD). Evaluation of a diagnostic training program at the Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, and the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine, Portland, Oregon. Screened participants for a study of TCM for TMJD. PRACTITIONERS: Ten (10) licensed acupuncturists with a minimum of 5 years licensure and education in Chinese herbs. A training session using a questionnaire-based diagnostic form was conducted, followed by waves of diagnostic sessions. Between sessions, practitioners discussed the results of the previous round of participants with a focus on reducing variability in primary diagnosis and severity rating of each diagnosis: 3 waves of 5 patients were assessed by 4 practitioner pairs for a total of 120 diagnoses. At 18 months, practitioners completed a recalibration exercise with a similar format with a total of 32 diagnoses. These diagnoses were then examined with respect to the rate of agreement among the 10 practitioners using inter-rater correlations and kappas. The inter-rater correlation with respect to the TCM diagnoses among the 10 practitioners increased from 0.112 to 0.618 with training. Statistically significant improvements were found between the baseline and 18 month exercises (p < 0.01). Inter-rater reliability of TCM diagnosis may be improved through a training process and a questionnaire-based diagnosis process. The improvements varied by diagnosis, with the greatest congruence among primary and more severe diagnoses. Future TCM studies should consider including calibration training to improve the validity of results.
Coccaro, Emil F.; And Others
Assessed the attitudes of students, faculties, and practitioners associated with two schools of medicine toward gerontologic/geriatric medical education including specific items relating to course content during the preclinical and clinical years. Results revealed a consensus regarding course content in areas such as psychiatry, nutrition, and…
de Vries, Sieta T; van der Sar, Maartje J M; Cupelli, Amelia; Baldelli, Ilaria; Coleman, Anna Marie; Montero, Dolores; Šipić, Ivana; Andrić, Adriana; Wennberg, Annika; Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane; Denig, Petra; Mol, Peter G M
National competent authorities (NCAs) for medicines coordinate communication relating to the safety of medicines in Europe. The effectiveness of current communication practices has been questioned, particularly with regard to reaching general practitioners (GPs). The aim of this study was to assess current European NCA safety communication practices and to investigate European GPs' awareness of and preferences for safety communications on medicines. Web-based surveys were distributed among European NCAs and healthcare professionals (HCPs). The survey among regulators was emailed to a representative of each of the 27 European countries participating in the Strengthening Collaboration for Operating Pharmacovigilance in Europe (SCOPE) Joint Action. HCPs from nine European countries (Denmark, Spain, Croatia, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the UK) were asked about their preferences through a link to the survey on websites, in newsletters, and/or in a direct email. From this survey, data from GPs were used and descriptive analyses were conducted. Current NCA practices were reported for 26 countries. In 23 countries (88%), NCAs published direct healthcare professional communications (DHPCs, i.e. urgent communication letters for serious safety issues) on their website in addition to distribution to individual HCPs. Educational materials were available on the NCA's website in 10 countries (40%), and 21 NCAs (81%) indicated they had their own bulletin/newsletter, which is often presented on the NCA's website (15 countries; 60%). More than 90% of the 1766 GPs who completed the survey were aware of DHPCs. The most preferred senders of safety information were NCAs and professional bodies, while the preferred channels for keeping up to date with safety information were medicines reference books and clinical guidelines. GPs found the repetition of safety issues useful (range of 80% in the UK to 97% in Italy). Preference for an electronic copy rather than a
de Bruijn, Matthijs C; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Baarveld, Frank
Background In The Netherlands, sports medicine physicians are involved in the care of about 8% of all sports injuries that occur each year. Some patients consult a sports physician directly, without being referred by a general practitioner. This study aims to determine how many patients consult a sports physician directly, and to explore differences in the profiles of these patients compared with those who are referred. Methods This was an exploratory cross-sectional study in which all new patients presenting with an injury to a regional sports medical center during September 2010 were identified. The characteristics of patients who self-referred and those who were referred by other medical professionals were compared. Results A total of 234 patients were included (mean age 33.7 years, 59.1% male). Most of the injuries occurred during soccer and running, particularly injuries of the knee and ankle. In this cohort, 39.3% of patients consulted a sports physician directly. These patients were significantly more often involved in individual sports, consulted a sports physician relatively rapidly after the onset of injury, and had received significantly less care before this new event from medical professionals compared with patients who were referred. Conclusion In this study, 39.3% of patients with sports injuries consulted a sports physician directly without being referred by another medical professional. The profile of this group of patients differed from that of patients who were referred. The specific roles of general practitioners and sports physicians in medical sports care in The Netherlands needs to be defined further. PMID:24379706
Holikatti, Prabhakar C; Kar, Nilamadhab
It is common knowledge that patients seek treatment for psychiatric illnesses from various sources including the alternative medicine. Views and attitudes of clinicians often influence the provision of appropriate mental health care for these patients. In this context, it was intended to study the views of the practitioners of alternative medicine toward psychiatric disorders, patients and interventions. The study was conducted as a questionnaire-based survey among a sample of practitioners of alternative medicine specifically Ayurveda and Homeopathy, who were practicing in Solapur and adjoining areas of Maharashtra and Karnataka states in India. A semi-structured Attitudinal Inventory for Psychiatry questionnaire was used. Demographic and professional data were collected. Out of 62 practitioners approached, 50 responded (80.6%). There were no significant differences in the views of practitioners toward psychiatry and psychiatrists based on respondents' gender, place of residence, location of practice, type of alternative medicine, exposure to psychiatric patients, or if they knew someone with psychiatric illness. Attitudes were generally positive, but variable. Among negative observations were that approximately 60% of respondents felt that a patient can be disadvantaged by being given a psychiatric label and 58% believed that emotions are difficult to handle. A considerable proportion (40%) of the respondents felt doctors other than psychiatrists were unable to identify psychiatric disorders. This study's findings suggest that practitioners of alternative medicine have mixed views about mental illness, patients and treatment. Some of their negative views and perceived inability to identify psychiatric disorders may be addressed through further training, information sharing and collaborative work.
Kretchy, Irene A; Okere, Harry A; Osafo, Joseph; Afrane, Barima; Sarkodie, Joseph; Debrah, Philip
Integrative medicine refers to ongoing efforts to combine the best of conventional and evidence-based complementary therapies. While this effort for collaboration is increasing, traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TM-CAM) remains poorly integrated into the current healthcare system of Ghana. At present, it is not clear if practitioners of mainstream medicine favor integrative medicine. The present study, therefore, sought to explore the perceptions of conventional healthcare professionals on integrative medicine. A qualitative design composed of semi-structured interviews was conducted with 23 conventional healthcare professionals comprising pharmacists, physicians, nurses and dieticians from two quasi-government hospitals in Accra, Ghana. Participants' knowledge of TM-CAM was low, and although they perceived alternative medicine as important to current conventional healthcare in Ghana, they expressed anxieties about the potential negative effects of the use of TM-CAM. This paradox was found to account for the low levels of use among these professionals, as well as the low level of recommendation to their patients. The practitioners surveyed recommended that alternative medicine could be integrated into mainstream allopathic healthcare in Ghana through improving knowledge, training as well as addressing concerns of safety and efficacy. These findings are discussed under the themes: the knowledge gap, the paradox of TM-CAM, experience of use and prescription, and guided integration. We did not observe any differences in views among the participants. The conventional healthcare professionals were ready to accept the idea of integrative medicine based on knowledge of widespread use and the potential role of TM-CAM products and practices in improving healthcare delivery in the country. However, to achieve an institutional integration, practitioners' understanding of TM-CAM must be improved, with specific attention to issues of safety, regulation and
Samuel, C A; Faithfull, S
This study reviewed the confidence and perceived skills of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in providing care and symptom management for clients post cancer. An e-survey was mailed to approximately 21, 000 CAM practitioners, targeted at those working with clients who were experiencing consequences of cancer and its treatments. Questions were asked about the main symptoms and concerns of clients, the confidence and current skill levels of practitioners and additional training requirements. Six hundred and twelve practitioners responded to the survey, 507 of whom were working with individuals experiencing the consequences of cancer and its treatments. Forty-five per cent (n = 134) had undertaken training in cancer prior to working with cancer patients, 61% (n = 182) had undertaken courses or study days relative to cancer care in the past two years. The most often treated symptoms or concerns of patients were those of a psychosocial nature, pain management and lymphoedema. CAM practitioners with limited knowledge and training are providing support to cancer survivors, particularly in services where the National Health Service has limited provision. CAM practitioners may fulfil a future role in providing long-term support for cancer survivors; however, in order to properly safeguard patients they are in need of further training and development. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Schiff, Elad; Samuels, Noah; Ben-Arye, Eran
The use of complementary traditional medicine (CTM) is prevalent among patients with cancer. An understanding of cultural and religious values is needed to design an effective patient-centered supportive treatment program. To examine gender-related demographic and professional characteristics; treatment goals and approaches; and attitudes toward integration among Arab practitioners of CTM. Male and female Arab CTM practitioners treating patients with cancer were located by snowballing through practitioner and clientele networks. Participants underwent semi-structured, in-depth interviews which were analyzed thematically, with a focus on gender-related issues. A total of 27 Arab CTM practitioners participated in the study (17 males, 10 females). Female practitioners were found to be treating women exclusively, with male practitioners treating both genders. Female practitioners tend to be younger, unmarried, urban-based and non-Muslim. Male practitioners set out to "cure" the cancer, while female practitioners focus on symptoms and quality of life. Male practitioners employ a more schematic and structured therapeutic approach; female practitioners a more eclectic and practical one. Male practitioners employ a collectivist approach, involving family members, while female practitioners interact exclusively with the patient. Finally, male CTM practitioners see integration as a means for recognition, increasing their power base. In contrast, female practitioners perceive integration as a foothold in fields from which they have previously been shut out. A number of gender-related issues can have a significant impact on CTM therapy among Arab patients. Further research is needed in order to understand the implications of these differences.
Esterhuizen, Tonya; Gathiram, Prem
ABSTRACT Background Family physicians are trained to treat a wide range of diseases, treatment being centred on the patient, family and community irrespective of age, gender, or ethnic or racial background. To deal with inequalities in health care, the South African government introduced the concept of a district health system in 1997. It was only in August 2007, however, that family medicine was legislated as a speciality. This study was undertaken prior to the enactment of this legislation. Method A descriptive quantitative study using a self-administered questionnaire was undertaken. A convenience sampling technique was used (N = 60) to assess the reactions of medical practitioners towards the impending legislation. Results Overall, 60% of the sample was in favour of the legislation. There were no significant differences between those working in the private and public sectors or between generalists and specialists. With regard to those not in favour of the legislation compared to those in favour of the legislation, a significantly increased number answered the following statements in the affirmative: (i) ‘I already carry out the functions of a family physician’ (p = 0.001), (ii) ‘They [specialist family physicians] will not be as qualified as specialists in other categories’ (p = 0.005), (iii) ‘It will have a negative impact on general practice’ (p < 0.001), (iv) ‘It will increase competitiveness’ (p = 0.021), (v) ‘It will not have any effect on patient care’ (p = 0.010) and (vi) ‘There is no need for such a speciality’ (p = 0.001). Conclusion We concluded that the majority were in favour of the legislation being implemented.
Kassam, H; Tzortziou Brown, V; O'Halloran, P; Wheeler, P; Fairclough, J; Maffulli, N; Morrissey, D
Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) aims to manage sporting injuries and promote physical activity. This study explores general practitioners' (GPs) awareness, understanding and utilisation of their local SEM services. A questionnaire survey, including patient case scenarios, was administered between February and May 2011. 693 GPs working in Cardiff and Vale, Leicester and Tower Hamlets were invited to participate. 244 GPs responded to the questionnaire (35.2% response rate). Less than half (46%; 112/244) were aware of their nearest SEM service and only 38% (92/244) had a clear understanding on referral indications. The majority (82%; 199/244) felt confident advising less active patients about exercise. There were divergent management opinions about the case scenarios of patients who were SEM referral candidates. Overall, GPs were significantly more likely to refer younger patients and patients with sport-related problems rather than patients who would benefit from increasing their activity levels in order to prevent or manage chronic conditions (p<0.01). GPs with previous SEM training were significantly more likely to refer (p<0.01). The majority (62%; 151/244) had never referred patients to their local SEM clinics but of those who had 75% (70/93) rated the service as good. There is a lack of awareness and understanding among GPs on the role of SEM within the National Health Service which may be resulting in suboptimal utilisation especially for patients who could benefit from increasing their activity levels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Hamrosi, Kim K; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa
Providing written medicine information to consumers enables them to make informed decisions about their medicines, playing an important role in educating and improving health literacy. In Australia, standardized written medicine information called Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is available for medicines as package inserts, computer prints, or leaflets. Consumers want and read CMI, but may not always ask for it. General practitioners (GPs) and pharmacists are an important source of written medicine information, yet may not always provide CMI in their practice. To examine and compare the awareness, use and provision of CMI by consumers, pharmacists and general practitioners (GPs). Based on previous studies, structured questionnaires were developed and administered to a national sample of consumers (phone survey); community pharmacists and GPs (postal surveys) about utilization of CMI. Descriptive, comparative and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The respondents comprised of 349 pharmacists, 181 GPs and 1000 consumers. Two-thirds of consumers, nearly all (99%) pharmacists and 90% of GPs were aware of CMI. About 88% of consumers reported receiving CMI as a package insert, however most pharmacists (99%) and GPs (56%) reported providing computer-generated CMI. GPs' and pharmacists' main reason for providing CMI was on patient request. Reasons for not providing were predominantly because consumers were already taking the medicine, concerns regarding difficulty understanding the information, or potential non-adherence. Of the 691 consumers reportedly reading CMI, 35% indicated concerns after reading. Factors associated with reading included gender, type of CMI received and frequency of provision. Consumers want and read information about their medicines, especially when received from their GP or pharmacist. Healthcare professionals report usually discussing CMI when providing it to patients, although continued improvements in dissemination rates are
Background Written medicine information can play an important role in educating consumers about their medicines. In Australia, standardised, comprehensive written information known as Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is available for all prescription medicines. CMI is reportedly under-utilised by general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists in consultations, despite consumer desire for medicine information. This study aimed to determine consumers’, GPs’ and community pharmacists’ preferences for CMI provision and identify barriers and facilitators to its use. Method Structured questionnaires were developed and administered to a national sample of Australian consumers (phone survey), community pharmacists and GPs (postal surveys) surrounding utilisation of CMI. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted. Results Half of consumers surveyed wanted to receive CMI for their prescription medicine, with spoken information preferable to written medicine information for many consumers and healthcare professionals. GPs and pharmacists remained a preferred source of medicine information for consumers, although package inserts were appealing to many among all three cohorts. Overall pharmacists were the preferred provider of CMI primarily due to their medicine expertise, accessibility and perceived availability. GPs preferred CMI dissemination through both the GP and pharmacist. Some consumers preferred GPs as the provider of medicines information because of their knowledge of the patients’ medicines and/or medical history, regularity of seeing the patient and good relationship with the patient. Common barriers to CMI provision cited included: time constraints, CMI length and perceptions that patients are not interested in receiving CMI. Facilitators to enhance provision included: strategies to increase consumer awareness, longer consultation times and counseling appointments, and improvements to pharmacy software technology and workflow. Conclusion
Hamrosi, Kim K; Raynor, David K; Aslani, Parisa
Written medicine information can play an important role in educating consumers about their medicines. In Australia, standardised, comprehensive written information known as Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is available for all prescription medicines. CMI is reportedly under-utilised by general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists in consultations, despite consumer desire for medicine information. This study aimed to determine consumers', GPs' and community pharmacists' preferences for CMI provision and identify barriers and facilitators to its use. Structured questionnaires were developed and administered to a national sample of Australian consumers (phone survey), community pharmacists and GPs (postal surveys) surrounding utilisation of CMI. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted. Half of consumers surveyed wanted to receive CMI for their prescription medicine, with spoken information preferable to written medicine information for many consumers and healthcare professionals. GPs and pharmacists remained a preferred source of medicine information for consumers, although package inserts were appealing to many among all three cohorts. Overall pharmacists were the preferred provider of CMI primarily due to their medicine expertise, accessibility and perceived availability. GPs preferred CMI dissemination through both the GP and pharmacist. Some consumers preferred GPs as the provider of medicines information because of their knowledge of the patients' medicines and/or medical history, regularity of seeing the patient and good relationship with the patient. Common barriers to CMI provision cited included: time constraints, CMI length and perceptions that patients are not interested in receiving CMI. Facilitators to enhance provision included: strategies to increase consumer awareness, longer consultation times and counseling appointments, and improvements to pharmacy software technology and workflow. Medicine information is important to
the Naval Health Research Center (protocol NHRC.2000.0007). Data Sources In addition to our longitudinal survey instrument , other data sources...megavitamin therapy, homeopathic remedies, hypnosis , massage therapy, relaxation, and spiritual healing. For the purposes of these analyses...acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic care, energy healing, folk medicine, hypnosis , and massage therapy were grouped together as practitioner-assisted
Ip, Po Keung
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…
Wadley, Susan S., Ed.
The collection of articles in this volume focuses on different kinds of folk literature from Bengal, Tamilnad, Bihar, Hindi-speaking North India, and Nepal. An introductory article by S.S. Wadley discusses types of folk literature in Karimpur. The remaining articles are organized according to cultural themes: "The Lustful Stepmother in the…
Buckley, Thomas; Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Stuart, Meg; Dunn, Sandra V
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sources, both print and electronic formats, which Australian nurse practitioners (NPs) currently use to obtain information regarding quality use of medicines (QUM). An additional aim was to document NPs' preferences for continuing education in relation to QUM. A national electronic survey of Australian NPs was conducted in 2007 and again in 2010. Eighty percent of respondents accessed information on QUM from professional literature, which may include scholarly journal articles, reports, and independent publications. There was a decrease in the percentage of respondents who obtained information from drug industry representatives. NPs prefer to receive medicines information in an electronic form, rather than a paper-based version, and over the time period more NPs are utilizing electronic sources rather than paper. These findings provide important insights into medical information products for the developers who may be able to use these results to ensure that their products meet the needs of NP clinicians. Additionally, the finding that NPs prefer to receive their continuing information related to medicines in electronic format, but also highly value conference proceedings, may help to inform future planning of NP education needs in relation to QUM. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Lu, Zhaoxue; Moody, Jennifer; Marx, Benjamin L; Hammerstrom, Tracy
Complementary and alternative medicine is increasingly integrated into cancer care. We sought detail on the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) with acupuncture and oriental medicine (AOM) by surveying practitioners at integrative oncology (IO) sites across the United States. Online survey of licensed acupuncturists. IO sites in the United States. Fifteen licensed acupuncturists who completed the survey between February 2014 and June 2014. Demographics, IO setting characteristics, AOM treatment characteristics, and practitioner-reported outcomes. Respondents reported an average of 31.3 ± 17.2 patients per week, and one-third (10.1 mean; 7.2 standard deviation [SD]) were treated for CIPN. Medical doctors (86.7%) were the most common providers with whom respondents worked. Traditional Chinese medicine style acupuncture was utilized by a majority of respondents (86.7%), and the most commonly used points were local, typically in the hands and feet, such as Ba Feng, Ba Xie, LV3, and LI4. In addition to acupuncture, nutritional advice was the most frequent auxiliary modality provided by respondents (85.7%). On average, respondents provided 12.75 ± 4.17 treatments for CIPN patients, and a majority (53%) reported treating patients once per week. Timing of the treatments relative to chemotherapy infusion was evenly distributed between "1-2 days after infusion" (60%), "at time of infusion" (53.3%), and "1-2 days before infusion" (46.7%). Sixty percent of respondents rated outcomes as "moderately successful with moderate improvement seen." This survey provides detail regarding IO sites using acupuncture for CIPN as well as real-world treatment patterns, including common point combinations, visit characteristics, and practitioner-reported outcomes. This information contributes to the emerging evidence on the use of acupuncture to address unmet needs of CIPN patients, and supports the development of best practice guidelines for the treatment
Wardle, Jon L; Sibbritt, David W; Adams, Jon
AimThis study examines GP perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of complementary medicine (CM), and to understand contextual factors that influence these perceptions, attitudes and knowledge. CM use is increasing, and its influence on primary care becoming increasingly significant. Although general practitioners (GPs) often have central primary care gate-keeper roles within health systems, few studies have looked specifically at GPs' perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of CM. A questionnaire was mailed to all 1486 GPs registered as practicing in non-metropolitan areas of New South Wales. The survey included one free-text qualitative question, where respondents were invited to highlight issues associated with CM in their own words. Free-text responses were analyzed qualitatively using thematic analysis.FindingsIn total, 585 GPs responded to the survey (adjusted response rate 40.1%), with 152 (26.0%) filling in the free-text question. Central themes which emerged were risk as a primary concern; opposition to, resistance to and the inappropriateness of complementary therapies; struggles with complexity and ambivalent tolerance. GPs in Australia have a wide variety of perceptions toward CM. A minority of GPs have absolute views on CM, with most GPs having numerous caveats and qualifications of individual CM. Efficacy is only one aspect of CM critically evaluated by GPs when gauging support for individual therapies - risk, alignment with medical principles and an openness to exploring new avenues of treatment where others have failed, all appear to be equally important considerations when GPs form their views around CM.
Hai-Long, Zhai; Shimin, Chen; Yalan, Lu
Although self-limiting, the common cold (gǎn mào) is highly prevalent. There are no effective antivirals to cure the common cold and few effective measures to prevent it, However, for thousands years, Chinese people have treated the common cold with natural herbs, According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory ( zhōng yī lǐ lùn), the common cold is considered as an exterior syndrome, which can be further divided into the wind-cold type ( fēng hán xíng), the wind-heat type ( fēng rè xíng), and the summer heat dampness type ( shǔ rè xíng). Since the most common type of common cold caught in winter and spring is the wind-cold type, the article introduced some Chinese folk prescriptions for the wind-cold type common cold with normal and weak physique, respectively. For thousands of years, Chinese folk prescriptions for the common cold, as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué), have been proven to be effective, convenient, cheap, and most importantly, safe. The Chinese folk prescriptions ( zhōng guó mín jiān chǔ fāng) for the wind-cold type common cold are quite suitable for general practitioners or patients with the wind-cold type common cold, to treat the disease. Of course, their pharmacological features and mechanisms of action need to be further studied.
Dang, Catherine; Phuong, Thomas; Beddag, Mahmoud; Vega, Anabel; Denis, Céline
To present a data model for clinical legal medicine and the software based on that data model for both practitioners and researchers. The main functionalities of the presented software are computer-assisted production of medical certificates and data capture, storage and retrieval. The data model and the software were jointly developed by the department of forensic medicine of the Jean Verdier Hospital (Bondy, France) and an bioinformatics laboratory (LIMICS, Paris universities 6-13) between November 2015 and May 2016. The data model was built based on four sources: i) a template used in our department for producing standardised medical certificates; ii) a random sample of medical certificates produced by the forensic department; iii) anterior consensus between four healthcare professionals (two forensic practitioners, a psychologist and a forensic psychiatrist) and iv) anatomical dictionaries. The trial version of the open source software was first designed for examination of physical assault survivors. An UML-like data model dedicated to clinical legal practice was built. The data model describes the terminology for examinations of sexual assault survivors, physical assault survivors, individuals kept in police custody and undocumented migrants for age estimation. A trial version of a software relying on the data model was developed and tested by three physicians. The software allows files archiving, standardised data collection, extraction and assistance for certificate generation. It can be used for research purpose, by data exchange and analysis. Despite some current limitations of use, it is a tool which can be shared and used by other departments of forensic medicine and other specialties, improving data management and exploitation. Full integration with external sources, analytics software and use of a semantic interoperability framework are planned for the next months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights
Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.
Folklore and folk arts encompass the body of traditional knowledge learned and artifacts produced outside of formal institutions as a result of participation in folk groups. A great portion of daily life and culture is folk. Folklore and folk arts acquire distinctly local characteristics through the influences of geography, history, or talented…
Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide
Bulbine abyssinica A. Rich. is used in traditional medicine to treat rheumatism, dysentery, bilharzia, cracked lips, back pain, infertility, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal, vaginal, and bladder infections. Therefore, preliminary phytochemical screening, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties of the whole plant (acetone and aqueous extracts) were determined using standard procedures. The in vitro antioxidant model assays revealed that the plant possesses free radical scavenging potential varying with free radical species. The species showed significant protein denaturation inhibitory activity with good protection against erythrocyte membrane lysis indicating anti-inflammatory potential. The results also showed that the species was active against the growth of all the selected eight diabetic status opportunistic bacteria except one. Moreover, the species is characterized by appreciable amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, and alkaloids. Traces amounts of saponins and tannins were also observed. Amongst the identified phytochemicals present, empirical searches identified them being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. The identification of these phytochemical constituents with their known pharmacological properties indicates that this plant is a good source of the free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents. These findings also account for the multipharmacological use of B. abyssinica in fork medicine.
Background Many natural products used in preventive medicine have also been developed as cosmeceutical ingredients in skin care products, such as Scutellaria baicalensis and Gardenia jasminoides. Norartocarpetin is one of the antioxidant and antityrosinase activity compound in Artocarpus communis; however, the cytotoxicity, skin irritation and antimelanogenesis mechanisms of norartocarpetin have not been investigated yet. Methods In the present study, cell viability in vitro and skin irritation in vivo are used to determine the safety of norartocarpetin. The melanogenesis inhibition of norartocarpetin was determined by cellular melanin content and tyrosinase in B16F10 melanoma cell. Moreover, we examined the related-melanogenesis protein by western blot analysis for elucidating the antimelanogenesis mechanism of norartocarpin. Results The result of the present study demonstrated that norartocarpetin not only present non-cytotoxic in B16F10 and human fibroblast cells but also non-skin irritation in mice. Moreover, our result also first found that norartocarpetin downregulated phospho-cAMP response element-binding (phospho-CREB) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression, which in turn decreased both synthesis of tyrosinases (TRP-1 and TRP-2) and cellular melanin content. This process is dependent on norartocarpetin phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein kinases such as phospho-JNK and phospho-p38, and it results in decreased melanogenesis. Conclusion The present study suggests that norartocarpetin could be used as a whitening agent in medicine and/or cosmetic industry and need further clinical study. PMID:24325567
Duursma, S A
The Dutch College of General Practitioners published well documented guidelines for the management of osteoporosis. It is however incorrect to use the Z-score for the elderly and the T-score for other age groups. The guidelines balance the patient's and the physician's interests and the financial consequences of osteoporosis. They demand certainty about recommending the GP's interventions and accept less certainty where the influence on the GP's activities is limited. The guidelines contain weighed judgements by and for GP's; it is questionable whether they are adequate regarding the interaction with the increasingly well informed patient.
Afolayan, Anthony Jide
Vernonia mespilifolia Less. is a shrub of the Asteraceae family used in the South African traditional medicine system for the management of weight loss, hypertension, and heartwater disease. There is a need for scientific evaluation to validate its ethnomedicinal usage. In vitro assays were conducted to evaluate the polyphenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different solvent extracts (acetone, aqueous, and ethanol) of the whole plant of Vernonia mespilifolia spectrophotometric and agar dilution techniques, respectively. The result revealed varying amounts of polyphenolics in the different solvent extracts corresponding to the antioxidant activities. Also, only the acetone and ethanol extracts inhibited the growth of the selected bacteria and fungi. These findings reveal that the extracts have strong bioactive compounds and hence support its ethnomedicinal application. PMID:29756461
Adler, Shelley R.; Wrubel, Judith; Hughes, Ellen; Beinfield, Harriet
Older patients are more likely than ever to be under the care of both physicians and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, yet there is little research on older patients’ experience of these different relationships. This article addresses older breast cancer patients’ seeking of concurrent care and examines patients’ understandings of interactions with physicians and CAM practitioners. This is a qualitative study of a random, population-based sample of 44 older women with breast cancer who are simultaneously under the care of at least 1 physician and 1 CAM practitioner. PMID:19147647
van Dam, F S
As a result of the illness and treatment of the Dutch comedian Sylvia Millecam, who died of the consequences of an untreated mammary carcinoma following a quest for help from a series of practitioners of alternative medicine, the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate has proposed measures designed to prevent a repetition of such a shortcoming in the delivered care. The measures include the compulsory registration of practitioners of alternative medicine, the restriction of diagnostic procedures to regular physicians, the obligation to co-operate with the best possible treatment for the patient in question, mutual exchange of information between practitioners of regular and alternative medicine, and a compulsory protocol regarding the therapeutic agreement with the patient if the regular route is not followed. How feasible these measures are remains a question. A positive aspect of the report is the attention given to the shortcomings in the care provided by the alternative circuit and the deterrent effect of the present case.
Yamazaki, M; Son, L; Hayashi, T; Morita, N; Asamizu, T; Mourakoshi, I; Saito, K
Transgenic herbicide-resistant Scoparia dulcis plants were obtained by using an Ri binary vector system. The chimeric bar gene encoding phosphinothricin acetyltransferase flanked by the promoter for cauliflower mosaic virus 35S RNA and the terminal sequence for nopaline synthase was introduced in the plant genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation by means of scratching young plants. Hairy roots resistant to bialaphos were selected and plantlets (R0) were regenerated. Progenies (S1) were obtained by self-fertilization. The transgenic state was confirmed by DNA-blot hybridization and assaying of neomycin phosphotransferase II. Expression of the bar gene in the transgenic R0 and S1 progenies was indicated by the activity of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase. Transgenic plants accumulated scopadulcic acid B, a specific secondary metabolite of S. dulcis, in amounts of 15-60% compared with that in normal plants. The transgenic plants and progenies showed resistant trait towards bialaphos and phosphinothricin. These results suggest that an Ri binary system is one of the useful tools for the transformation of medicinal plants for which a regeneration protocol has not been established.
Ko, Mimi; Lee, Juah; Yun, Kyungjin; You, Sooseong; Lee, Myeongsoo
To survey assesses the perception of pattern identification (PI) diagnosis of Traditional Medicine (TM) by Korean medical doctors (KMDs). A total of 14,485 KMDs affiliated with the Association of Korean Medicine were sent surveys via email, and 1646 (11.1%) responded to the questionnaire on their perception of PI diagnosis. Of the 1646 respondents, more than ninety percent (1562, 94.9%) reported that they treated patients using PI. The most critical problem with PI diagnosis was the lack of objective diagnostic indicators (561, 34.1%). Ninety percent had issues diagnosing patients because of different diagnoses between KMDs (1491, 90.5% ). The majority of respondents thought herbal medicine was most related to PI (1528, 92.8%). Half of the respondents answered that PI of Ba Gang was the most commonly used PI system. Participants reported that it was most important to study standardisation of PI diagnosis and to develop standardised PI diagnoses using the classification system of the Korean Standard Classification of Diseases. The foremost PI type that physicians thought should be included in standardisation and objectification of PI ofTKM was the PI of Ba Gang. Our data suggest that we should focus on the standardisation of PI diagnosis and PI of Ba Gang in future research on PI diagnosis in TM. However, we cannot completely discount the possibility that a biased selection of subjects and a low response rate limit the generalisability of the findings.
Marshall, J; Edwards, C; Lambert, M
OBJECTIVE: To present the legal and professional issues related to nurse administration of drugs according to protocols, and describe the implementation and initial audit findings of such a scheme. SETTING: Accident and emergency (A&E) department of a district general hospital. METHODS: Analysis of legal and professional opinion. Protocols acceptable to the medical, nursing, and pharmacy professions were developed across a wide range of drugs appropriate for administration by accident and emergency nurse practitioners (ENPs). The first six months of the scheme were audited. Audit initially addressed general compliance with protocols and later the specific areas of tetanus immunisation and emergency contraception. RESULTS: ENPs assessed 2925 patients in six months (10.9% of all new patients); 455 patients (15.5% of the ENP patients) were given drugs according to protocols. There were no breaches of the protocols. Subsequent audit of tetanus immunisation showed 94-100% compliance with protocol standards and 71-100% compliance for emergency contraception. CONCLUSIONS: There are no legal or professional obstacles to the development of protocols for the administration of drugs to patients by nurses without reference to a doctor, providing the protocols meet all the requirements of the UKCC and have the support of consultant medical staff. Such a system must be subject to regular audit to promote a dynamic approach to protocols and training. The system safely enhanced the quality of care of patients treated by ENPs in A&E. Images Figure 1 PMID:9248912
Braga, Alexandre P; de Sousa, Francisca Ilnar; da Silva Junior, Geraldo Bezerra; Nations, Marilyn Kay; Barros, Adriana Rolim Campos; de Amorim, Rosendo Freitas
Candomble, a Brazilian religion of African origin that worships Orishas, promotes "healing" assistance during its worship rituals using therapy with plants and beliefs. From its ancestry tradition, the respect and beware with nature are expressed. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the perception of ethnoecology and health promotion among Candomble practitioners from a Candomble temple in the state of Ceará, Brazil. The ethnography was designed to allow greater immersion into the current mystique. This immersion results in the breaking of existing prejudices and admiration for their worldview. Thus, it can be observed that people seek Candomble to get rid of "bad" health difficulties, such as insomnia, depression, eyesight problems among others, which are commonly treated with herbal preparations, baths, and teas, using plants native to the region; however, their indications are not always in accordance with scientific evidence. In parallel with biomedicine, their hospitable and healthcare practices are considered by most as the equivalent to traditional healthcare actions, but greater recognition of biomedicine is necessary. Based on this perspective, the use of native plants in Candomble is examples of memory, hospitality, and humanization for the community wellness.
Rappaport, H; Dent, P L
In an effort to identify the characteristics of folk psychotherapy that could account for its tenacity in East Africa, a total of 31 Tanzanian shamans were studied. It was found that patients with emotional problems make use of both the folk and Western therapists and that a clear conceptual distinction is made between the services offered. The range of techniques used, style of service delivered, and the fundamental (or underlying) model of causation were all analysed. It was concluded that folk therapy is an effective approach to psychosocial disorders which, in the future, should be considered a dynamic supplement to Western practices. Additionally, based on the appeal of the medicine man, new directions for Western psychotherapy were suggested.
Romodanovsky, P O; Barinov, E Kh; Zharov, V V; Mikheeva, N A
The authors discuss the conceptual issues of the academic program designed to teach forensic medicine to the students of the stomatological faculties of educational medical institutions. The program has been elaborated in conformity with the federal state educational standard of higher professional education in the speciality stomatology'. It defines the goals and objectives of this discipline, the scope of its competences, the subject matter and the content, the requirements to the studies and educational work, control over the level of its success, academic progress, and other aspects of the training activities, with special emphasis being placed on the formation of the general professional competence of the students to enable them to work independently after they graduated from the institute. The program takes into consideration the latest achievements in forensic medical science and their practical applications. Much attention is given to the organizational and processual aspects of forensic medicine, thanatology, general and special traumatology, mechanical asphyxia, effects of the environmental factors, intoxication, forensic medical expertise of living subjects and material evidence.
Bellows, Jennifer Whitfield; Douglass, Katherine; Atilla, Ridvan; Smith, Jeffrey; Kapur, G Bobby
The specialty of Emergency Medicine has enjoyed recognition for nearly 20 years in Turkey. However, the majority of underserved and rural Turkish emergency departments are staffed by general practitioners who lack formal training in the specialty and have few opportunities to increase emergency medicine-specific knowledge and skills. To address this "practitioner gap," the authors developed a four-phase comprehensive emergency medicine education and training program for general practitioners practicing in government hospitals in Turkey. From April 2006 until June 2009, 42 courses were taught by 62 trainers across seven regions in Turkey. A total of 2,262 physicians were trained. The mean course pre-test score for all regions was 42.3 (95% CI 39.8 to 44.7). The mean course post-test score was 70.1 (95% CI 67.2 to 72.9). The difference between the mean scores was 27.8 (95% CI 25.3 to 30.4, P <0.0001), reflecting an improvement of 65.7%. A partnership between an academic emergency medicine department and an emergency medicine society to implement country-wide training of physicians practicing in public emergency departments can serve as a successful model for capacity-building global emergency medicine endeavors.
The importance of learning new movement skills is shown in relation to learning folk dances. Folk dancing not only improves physical skills, but also results in an understanding and appreciation of the richness of other cultures. (JN)
Zhang, Grant G; Lee, Wenlin; Bausell, Barker; Lao, Lixing; Handwerger, Barry; Berman, Brian
To ascertain if previous findings of low levels of agreement of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) pattern diagnoses made by TCM practitioners in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were a function of practitioner differences or would be replicated with a different sample of clinicians, and to examine the relationship between TCM diagnosis and herbal treatment plans. A prospective survey. General clinical research center, University of Maryland Hospital System, Baltimore, MD. Forty (40) patients with RA. PRACTITIONERS: Licensed acupuncturists with at least 5 years' experience and education in Chinese herbs. Three (3) TCM practitioners examined the same 40 RA patients separately, following the traditional Four Diagnostic Methods. Patients filled out questionnaires and physical examinations, including observations of the tongue and palpation of radial pulse, were conducted by the 3 practitioners. Each practitioner then provided both a TCM diagnosis and an herbal prescription. These diagnoses/prescriptions were examined with respect to the rate of agreement among the 3 practitioners. The average agreement with respect to the TCM diagnoses among the 3 TCM practitioners was 31.7 % (range, 27.5-35%). The degree to which the herbal prescriptions agreed with textbook recommended practice for each TCM diagnosis was 91.7% (range, 85-100%). The most commonly used TCM assessments in arriving at these diagnoses were inquiry about factors affecting pain and pulse diagnosis. No statistically significant differences were found between this study and our previous study regarding the level of agreement on TCM diagnosis. The average agreement of the diagnoses provided by 3 TCM practitioners was at the same low level as previously reported. No association was found between the diagnostic methods used and the consistency of diagnosis. Both studies, however, found a high degree of consistency between the TCM pattern diagnoses provided and the herbal treatment plans made as a result
Karabulut, Ebru Olcay; Dogan, Pinar Karacan
This research was carried out with the help of metaphor to determine the perception of folk dances trainers regarding the concept of folk dances. The study was carried out with a total of 141 folk dances trainers (85 men and 56 women), who depend on the Folk Dances Federation of Turkey. In the study, a semi-structured interview form was used to…
Swisher, Christopher C.
This description of the folk music "industry" as it exists in America and the British Isles focuses on the output of many small record labels which have evolved out of the folk revival. Addresses and descriptions of 16 major producers of folk music are included. Eleven references are cited. (EJS)
Maubach, Ninya; Hoek, Janet
To explore the range of opinions held by a sample of New Zealand general practitioners (GPs) toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. Depth interviews were conducted with 20 GPs. The interview protocol examined several aspects of the debate over DTCA, including its appropriateness, informativeness, and effect on doctors' relationships with their patients. The interview included five sets of forced choice statements that summarised key strands of the debate; these were used as preliminary stimuli to elicit doctors' views. The results reveal a low incidence of DTCA-related queries and a wide range of views on the appropriateness of DTCA. Respondents favourably viewed DTCA's ability to increase awareness of some health conditions, although they had serious concerns about the adequacy of the risk and contraindication information provided as well as the general absence of specific cost details. While some doctors resented having to deal with questions arising from DTCA, few considered that this advertising undermined the relationship they have with their patients. Overall, while the majority of respondents did not support a ban on DTCA, most of them thought that stricter regulation was necessary. These findings clarify the conclusions drawn from quantitative studies, and suggest doctors' views of DTCA may be more complex than previously reported.
Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Anderson, Cynthia
Folk herbal medicine knowledge and its utilization by aboriginal cultures are not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity, but also useful for community healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine was investigated. Information about fifty medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea, including the names of plants, parts used, mode and methods of preparation was obtained from 100 traditional healers and herbalists. This research is the first scientific work in the Middle East to collect data about plants used by traditional healers for treatments of diarrhea and their evidence based effects against this disease. The fidelity levels were 97% for Salvia fruticosa, Teucrium polium and Musa paradisiaca, 95% for Camellia sinensis and Aegle marmelos, 79% for Oryza sativa and Solanum tuberosum, 77% for Quercus boissieri, 66% for Psidium guajava, 56% for Anthemis palestina, 54% for Solanum nigrum and 52% for Juglans regia while the highest use and choice values were for S. fruticosa, T. polium and M. paradisiaca as well as the factor of informant's consensus for medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea was 0.505.The leaves were the most commonly used parts, followed by fruits, roots and rhizomes, while decoctions and infusions are the preferred methods of preparation. The Palestinian traditional medicine is rich with herbal remedies for treatment of diarrhea in comparison with other countries, but most of these herbal remedies lack standard in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations to establish their antidiarrheal effects. Therefore, the information obtained can serve as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies to determine their efficacy and safety which might contribute to a better integration of Palestinian traditional medicine into the national health
Myers, Peter L
The sociological concepts of the "moral panic" and the deviant "folk devil" apply to the drug panics in the United States over methamphetamine, heroin, and crack cocaine. Mothers or pregnant women who smoke crack cocaine, and their babies, are assigned exaggerated "demonic" attributes that result in stigma and societal rejection. Otherwise, ethnographic studies of drug users demonstrate realities that are other than what might be considered were one to merely look at their use and the consequences. These considerations are examined with respect to the image of folk devils, methadone program attendees, smokers of "blunts," opium den habitués, and others grouped together as negative influences as a result of their drug habits.
Even as the neuro-psychoanalytic field has matured, from a naturalist point of view, the epistemological status of Freudian interpretations still remains problematic at a naturalist point of view. As a result of the resurgence of hermeneutics, the claim has been made that psychoanalysis is an extension of folk psychology. For these “extensionists,” asking psychoanalysis to prove its interpretations would be as absurd as demanding the proofs of the scientific accuracy of folk psychology. I propose to show how Dennett’s theory of the intentional stance allows us to defend an extensionist position while sparing us certain hermeneutic difficulties. In conclusion, I will consider how Shevrin et al. (1996) experiments could turn extensionist conceptual considerations into experimentally testable issues. PMID:23525879
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Izatullah, Izatullah
In the study area, knowledge related to the traditional uses of medicinal plants is totally in the custody of elder community members and local herbalists. The younger generation is unaware of the traditional knowledge, however with only few exceptions. Therefore, this study was planned with objective to document the medicinal importance of plants, conserve this precious indigenous knowledge, and share it among other communities through published literature. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from the community members and local herbalists. The reported plants were collected post interviews and later on pressed on herbarium vouchers for reference. Afterwards, the data was analyzed through Use value (UV) and Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). In total, 79 medicinal plant species were used for the treatment of different ailments in the study region. Out of the total plant species, 28 species were not reported from any other mountainous communities across the country. In this study, the ethno-medicinal value of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell and Viola indica W.Becker was reported for the first time, which have moderate confidential level in terms of their medicinal uses in the study area. Important medicinal plants of the region with high UV are Berberis lycium Royle (0.94), V. indica (0.90), Isodon rugosus (Wall. ex Benth.) Codd (0.88), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (0.87), Peganum harmala L (0.86), Solanum virginianum L. (0.85), and Cassia fistula L. (0.79). Medicinal plants with higher RFC values are Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand. (0.86), Cannabis sativa L. (0.82), Mentha piperita L. (0.82), Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. (0.76), Allium sativum L. (0.73), Coriandrum sativum L. (0.73), and F. vulgare (0.72). Traditional knowledge on folk medicines is directly linked to the local culture, faith and perception. This knowledge is gaining high threat of extinction because of its limitation to a small portion of the society in the region
Howerter, Amy; Eaves, Emery R; Hall, John R; Buller, David B; Gordon, Judith S
Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists, are a growing presence in the US health care landscape and already provide health and wellness care to significant numbers of patients who use tobacco. For decades, conventional biomedical practitioners have received training to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation brief interventions (BIs) and referrals to cessation services as part of routine clinical care, whereas CAM practitioners have been largely overlooked for BI training. Web-based training has clear potential to meet large-scale training dissemination needs. However, despite the exploding use of Web-based training for health professionals, Web-based evaluation of clinical skills competency remains underdeveloped. Objective In pursuit of a long-term goal of helping CAM practitioners integrate evidence-based practices from US Public Health Service Tobacco Dependence Treatment Guideline into routine clinical care, this pilot protocol aims to develop and test a Web-based tobacco cessation training program tailored for CAM practitioners. Methods In preparation for a larger trial to examine the effect of training on CAM practitioner clinical practice behaviors around tobacco cessation, this developmental study will (1) adapt an existing in-person tobacco cessation BI training program that is specifically tailored for CAM therapists for delivery via the Internet; (2) develop a novel, Web-based tool to assess CAM practitioner competence in tobacco cessation BI skills, and conduct a pilot validation study comparing the competency assessment tool to live video role plays with a standardized patient; (3) pilot test the Web-based training with 120 CAM practitioners (40 acupuncturists, 40 chiropractors, 40 massage therapists) for usability, accessibility, acceptability, and effects on practitioner knowledge, self-efficacy, and competency with tobacco cessation; and (4) conduct
Communication of professional literature amongst European Acupuncturists affiliated to the ETCMA (European Traditional Chinese Medicine Association): explorative survey amongst Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners in Europe.
Biemans, Johanna M A E; Birch, Stephen; Bruentrup, Ines M
The primary aim of the survey was to explore the information needs and information seeking behavior amongst the ETCMA members concerning professional literature (scientific as well as practical background knowledge). A web-based survey comprising of 18 questions with a total of 25 items was carried out in 15 affiliated associations in 14 countries in June 2012. The survey consisted out of 4 parts: (1) Demographics, (2) Level of interest in and availability of professional literature, (3) Insight, needs and opinions on EBM (Evidence Based Medicine), and (4) Awareness of the science workshop at the TCM Rothenburg Congress. 2590 (25%) from 10,428 members completed the questionnaire, of which 58.8% was female. More than 50% of the respondents from eleven out of fourteen countries indicate an interest in more education on reading scientific literature. Case studies (range 3.19/4-3.86/4) are preferred compared to scientific (range 2.78/4-3.59/4) or philosophical knowledge (range 3.0/4-3.56/4). Exchange with colleagues (range 2.95/4-3.64/4) is preferred compared to deepening knowledge (range 2.57/4-3.05/4) in the theoretical spectrum. 61% has no knowledge of the EBM model and base clinical decisions on personal experience (range 3.47-3.82) and practical skills (range 3.47-3.74) compared to clinical practice guidelines (range 2.6-3.27). Due to heterogeneity in structure and size of the affiliated associations no strict conclusions can be made. We can conclude though that TCM practitioners rely mostly on practical knowledge and have less tendency toward more scientifically oriented models like the EBM model. We find this reflected in information needs as well as information seeking behavior patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ness, R C; Wintrob, R M
All societies have developed ways of dealing with physical and mental illness, defined as folk healing systems. The authors review the systems of folk healing that have evolved in different cultural groups in the United States. They describe the faith healing practices of fundamentalist Christian groups, the belief in rootwork among white and black people in the southeastern United States, curanderismo among Mexican-Americans, and espiritismo among Americans from Puerto Rico. Most believers in folk healing also go to physicians for medical care. The authors argue that physicians should familiarize themselves with patients' folk healing beliefs in order to serve them more effectively.
Chua, Gin Nie; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Awaisu, Ahmed
The objective of this study was to evaluate the general practitioners' (GPs') knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines in a northern state of Malaysia. A postal cross-sectional survey involving registered GPs in Penang, Malaysia was undertaken. A 23-item questionnaire was developed, validated and administered on the GPs. Eighty-seven GPs responded to the survey (response rate 26.8%). The majority of the respondents (85.1%) claimed that they actively prescribed generic medicines in their practice. On the other hand, only 4.6% of the respondents correctly identified the Malaysia's National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau's bioequivalence standard for generic products. There were misconceptions among the respondents about the concepts of "bioequivalence", "efficacy", "safety", and "manufacturing standards" of generic medicines. GPs in this survey believed that a standard guideline on brand substitution process, collaboration with pharmacists, patient education and information on safety and efficacy of generic medicines were necessary to ensure quality use of generics. Furthermore, advertisements and product bonuses offered by pharmaceutical companies, patient's socio-economic factors as well as credibility of manufacturers were factors reported to influence their choice of medicine. Although it appeared that GPs have largely accepted the use of generic medicines, they still have concerns regarding the reliability and quality of such products. GPs need to be educated and reassured about generic products approval system in Malaysia concerning bioequivalence, quality, and safety. The current findings have important implications in establishing generic medicines policy in Malaysia. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Canizares, Mayilee; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Gignac, Monique A. M.; Glazier, Richard H.; Badley, Elizabeth M.
Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing. However the factors contributing to changes over time and to birth cohort differences in CAM use are not well understood. Setting We used data from 10186 participants, who were aged 20–69 years at the first cycle of data collection in the longitudinal component of the Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994/95-2010/11). We examined chiropractic and other practitioner-based CAM use with a focus on five birth cohorts: pre-World War II (born 1925–1934); World War II (born 1935–1944); older baby boomers (born 1945–1954); younger baby boomers (born 1955–1964); and Gen Xers (born 1965–1974). The survey collected data every two years on predisposing (e.g., sex, education), enabling (e.g., income), behavior-related factors (e.g., obesity), need (e.g., chronic conditions), and use of conventional care (primary care and specialists). Results The findings suggest that, at corresponding ages, more recent cohorts reported greater CAM (OR = 25.9, 95% CI: 20.0; 33.6 for Gen Xers vs. pre-World War) and chiropractic use than their predecessors (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7; 2.8 for Gen Xers vs. pre-World War). There was also a secular trend of increasing CAM use, but not chiropractic use, over time (period effect) across all ages. Factors associated with cohort differences were different for CAM and chiropractic use. Cohort differences in CAM use were partially related to a period effect of increasing CAM use over time across all ages while cohort differences in chiropractic use were related to the higher prevalence of chronic conditions among recent cohorts. The use of conventional care was positively related to greater CAM use (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.6; 2.0) and chiropractic use (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1; 1.4) but did not contribute to changes over time or to cohort differences in CAM and chiropractic use. Conclusion The higher CAM use over time and in recent cohorts could reflect how recent
Background Together with the ambulances staffed with emergency medical technicians (EMTs), general practitioners (GPs) on call are the primary resources for handling emergencies outside hospitals in Norway. The benefit of the GP accompanying the ambulance to pre-hospital calls is a matter of controversy in Norway. The purpose of the present study was to gain better insight into the EMT’s experiences with the role of the GPs in the care for critically ill patients in the pre-hospital setting. Methods We conducted four focus group interviews with EMTs at four different ambulance stations in Norway. Three of the stations were located at least 2 hours driving distance from the nearest hospital. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using systematic text condensation. Results The EMTs described increasing confidence in emergency medicine during the last few years. However, they felt the need for GP participation in the ambulance when responding to a critically ill patient. The presence of GPs made the EMTs feel more confident, especially in unclear and difficult cases that did not fit into EMT guidelines. The main contributions of the GPs were described as diagnosis and decision-making. Bringing the physician to the patient shortened transportation time to the hospital and important medication could be started earlier. Several examples of sub-optimal treatment in the absence of the GP were given. The EMTs described discomfort with GPs not responding to the calls. They also experienced GPs responding to calls that did not function in the pre-hospital emergency setting. The EMTs reported a need for professional requirements for GPs taking part in out-of-hours work and mandatory interdisciplinary training on a regular basis. Conclusions EMTs want GPs to be present in challenging pre-hospital emergency settings. The presence of GPs is perceived as improving patient care. However, professional requirements are needed for GPs taking part in out-of-hours work, and
Waigandt, Alex; Chang, Jane
A study compared the pharmacology training of nurse practitioner programs with medical and dental programs. Seventy-three schools in 14 states (40 nurse practitioner programs, 19 schools of medicine, and 14 schools of dentistry) were surveyed by mailed questionnaire about the number of hours devoted to the study of pharmacology. The major findings…
Esakkimuthu, S; Mutheeswaran, S; Arvinth, S; Paulraj, M Gabriel; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S
The burden of cardiometabolic diseases such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension, visceral obesity and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and the use of traditional medicine for the management of such diseases are high in India; hence there is a need to document and analyze such therapies. This study documented and analyzed the medicinal plants prescribed for cardiometabolic diseases by the non-institutionally trained siddha practitioners of Tiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu, India. The field survey was conducted between December 2014 to November 2015. Successive free listing assisted with field-walks was used to interview the informants. After assessing the sampling sufficiency using rarefaction curve analysis, indices such as Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Index of Agreement on Remedies (IAR) were calculated for the data. The indicators of informant's medicinal plant knowledge such as Shannon's index, equitability index, etc., were regressed with the demographic profile of the informants. For this study 70 non-institutionally trained Siddha medical practitioners were approached; the data from 36 practitioners who were treating cardiometabolic diseases were documented. This study recorded the use of 188 species which were used to prepare 368 formulations to treat illnesses categorized under cardiometabolic diseases. In this, 53.04% claims were singletons. Regression analysis showed that single species dominance was reduced and the diversity of medicinal plants was increased with the increase in the age and experience. Increase in the years of formal education increased the equitability in the uses. The plants such as Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (cardiovascular diseases), Allium sativum L. (dyslipidemia), Cuminum cyminum L. (hypertension), Macrotyloma uniflorum Verdc. (obesity) and Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (type 2 diabetes) were the highly cited medicinal plants. This survey has identified the plants most commonly used by Siddha practitioners of
Morris, Rebecca L; Blakeman, Tom; Ashcroft, Darren M
Objectives To examine the role of individual and collective cognitive work in managing medicines for acute kidney injury (AKI), this being an example of a clinical scenario that crosses the boundaries of care organisations and specialties. Design Qualitative design, informed by a realist perspective and using semistructured interviews as the data source. The data were analysed using template analysis. Setting Primary, secondary and intermediate care in England. Participants 12 General practitioners, 10 community pharmacists, 7 hospital doctors and 7 hospital pharmacists, all with experience of involvement in preventing or treating AKI. Results We identified three main themes concerning participants' experiences of managing medicines in AKI. In the first theme, challenges arising from the clinical context, AKI is identified as a technically complex condition to identify and treat, often requiring judgements to be made about renal functioning against the context of the patient's general well-being. In the second theme, challenges arising from the organisational context, the crossing of professional and organisational boundaries is seen to introduce problems for the coordination of clinical activities, for example by disrupting information flows. In the third theme, meeting the challenges, participants identify ways in which they overcome the challenges they face in order to ensure effective medicines management, for example by adapting their work practices and tools. Conclusions These themes indicate the critical role of cognitive work on the part of healthcare practitioners, as individuals and as teams, in ensuring effective medicines management during AKI. Our findings suggest that the capabilities underlying this work, for example decision-making, communication and team coordination, should be the focus of training and work design interventions to improve medicines management for AKI or for other conditions. PMID:28100559
Szecsenyi, Joachim; Schneider, Antonius
In Germany, the change from the "traditional", experience-based general practitioner (GP) to the evidence-based practising co-ordinator may be accelerated by the introduction of disease management programmes. Here, we will discuss some tools that can help to meet this challenge. Also, a set of requirements will be defined that the health care system will have to provide in support of GPs. Maintaining the relationship between doctor and patient and also allowing for individual care on the basis of evidence-based medicine will remain a challenge.
Longitudinal analysis of associations between women's consultations with complementary and alternative medicine practitioners/use of self-prescribed complementary and alternative medicine and menopause-related symptoms, 2007-2010.
Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David W
This study aims to determine associations between consultations with complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners/use of self-prescribed CAM and menopause-related symptoms. Data were obtained from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Generalized estimating equations were used to conduct longitudinal data analyses, which were restricted to women born in 1946-1951 who were surveyed in 2007 (survey 5; n = 10,638) and 2010 (survey 6; n = 10,011). Women with menopause-related symptoms were more likely to use self-prescribed CAM but were not more likely to consult a CAM practitioner. Overall, CAM use was lower among women who had undergone hysterectomy or women who had undergone oophorectomy, compared with naturally postmenopausal women, and decreased with increasing age of postmenopausal women. Weak associations between CAM use and hot flashes were observed. Women experiencing hot flashes were more likely to consult a massage therapist (odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.20) and/or use self-prescribed herbal medicines (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23) than women not experiencing hot flashes. Consultations with CAM practitioners and use of self-prescribed CAM among naturally or surgically postmenopausal women are associated with menopause-related symptoms. Our study findings should prompt healthcare providers, in particular family medicine practitioners, to be cognizant of clinical evidence for CAM typically used for the management of common menopause-related symptoms in their aim to provide safe, effective, and coordinated care for women.
Sarmiento, Iván; Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil
Objectives Examine factors associated with use of traditional medicine during childbirth and in management of childhood diarrhoea. Design Cross-sectional cluster survey, household interviews in a stratified last stage random sample of 90 census enumeration areas; unstructured interviews with traditional doctors. Setting Oil-rich Cross River State in south-eastern Nigeria has 3.5 million residents, most of whom depend on a subsistence agriculture economy. Participants 8089 women aged 15–49 years in 7685 households reported on the health of 11 305 children aged 0–36 months in July–August 2011. Primary and secondary outcome measures Traditional medicine used at childbirth and for management of childhood diarrhoea; covariates included access to Western medicine and education, economic conditions, engagement with the modern state and family relations. Cluster-adjusted analysis relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure and Mantel extension. Results 24.1% (1371/5686) of women reported using traditional medicine at childbirth; these women had less education, accessed antenatal care less, experienced more family violence and were less likely to have birth certificates for their children. 11.3% (615/5425) of young children with diarrhoea were taken to traditional medical practitioners; these children were less likely to receive BCG, to have birth certificates, to live in households with a more educated head, or to use fuel other than charcoal for cooking. Education showed a gradient with decreasing use of traditional medicine for childbirth (χ2 135.2) and for childhood diarrhoea (χ2 77.2). Conclusions Use of traditional medicine is associated with several factors related to cultural transition and to health status, with formal education playing a prominent role. Any assessment of the effectiveness of traditional medicine should anticipate confounding by these factors, which are widely recognised to affect health in their own right. PMID:27094939
Sarmiento, Iván; Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil
Examine factors associated with use of traditional medicine during childbirth and in management of childhood diarrhoea. Cross-sectional cluster survey, household interviews in a stratified last stage random sample of 90 census enumeration areas; unstructured interviews with traditional doctors. Oil-rich Cross River State in south-eastern Nigeria has 3.5 million residents, most of whom depend on a subsistence agriculture economy. 8089 women aged 15-49 years in 7685 households reported on the health of 11,305 children aged 0-36 months in July-August 2011. Traditional medicine used at childbirth and for management of childhood diarrhoea; covariates included access to Western medicine and education, economic conditions, engagement with the modern state and family relations. Cluster-adjusted analysis relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure and Mantel extension. 24.1% (1371/5686) of women reported using traditional medicine at childbirth; these women had less education, accessed antenatal care less, experienced more family violence and were less likely to have birth certificates for their children. 11.3% (615/5425) of young children with diarrhoea were taken to traditional medical practitioners; these children were less likely to receive BCG, to have birth certificates, to live in households with a more educated head, or to use fuel other than charcoal for cooking. Education showed a gradient with decreasing use of traditional medicine for childbirth (χ(2) 135.2) and for childhood diarrhoea (χ(2) 77.2). Use of traditional medicine is associated with several factors related to cultural transition and to health status, with formal education playing a prominent role. Any assessment of the effectiveness of traditional medicine should anticipate confounding by these factors, which are widely recognised to affect health in their own right. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
D'Amico, Richard A; Saltz, Renato; Rohrich, Rod J; Kinney, Brian; Haeck, Phillip; Gold, Alan H; Singer, Robert; Jewell, Mark L; Eaves, Felmont
The American Society of Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery launched a joint Cosmetic Medicine Task Force to address the growing trend of non-plastic surgeons entering the cosmetic medicine field. The task force commissioned two surveys in 2007 to determine consumer attitudes about choosing cosmetic medicine providers and to learn about the cosmetic services that plastic surgeons offer. The first survey obtained responses from 1015 women who had undergone a cosmetic procedure or were considering having one within 2 years. The second survey obtained responses from 260 members of the two societies. Compared with other practitioners, plastic surgeons enjoy higher rates of satisfaction among their patients who undergo noninvasive procedures. Injectables present a particularly promising market for plastic surgeons. Half of consumers surveyed said they were very concerned about complications associated with injectables, and generally, the higher the perceived risk of the procedure, the higher the likelihood that a patient would choose a plastic surgeon to perform it. In addition, injectables were among the noninvasive treatments most frequently being considered by consumers. However, almost half of consumers said that if they had a positive experience with a non-plastic surgeon core provider for a noninvasive procedure, that physician would likely be their first choice for a surgical procedure. These findings suggest that plastic surgeons, and especially those who are building young practices, must expand their offerings of nonsurgical cosmetic services to remain at the core of the cosmetic medicine field.
Griffin, Robert J.
Folk music is musical expression of deep culture, and is therefore a useful tool in teaching culture in the language class. The use of Spanish music to teach Hispanic culture is described. Useful books and music are suggested. (CHK)
Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. A recent study on Chinese folk happiness using qualitative method seems to provide some empirical findings beyond anecdotal evidence on Chinese folk happiness. This paper critically examines the study's constructed image of Chinese folk happiness,…
Bishop, Felicity L; Amos, Nicola; Yu, He; Lewith, George T
The aim was to identify similarities and differences between private practice and the National Health Service (NHS) in practitioners' experiences of delivering acupuncture to treat pain. We wished to identify differences that could affect patients' experiences and inform our understanding of how trials conducted in private clinics relate to NHS clinical practice. Acupuncture is commonly used in primary care for lower back pain and is recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence's guidelines. Previous studies have identified differences in patients' accounts of receiving acupuncture in the NHS and in the private sector. The major recent UK trial of acupuncture for back pain was conducted in the private sector. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 acupuncturists who had experience of working in the private sector (n = 7), in the NHS (n =3), and in both the sectors (n = 6). The interviews lasted between 24 and 77 min (median=49 min) and explored acupuncturists' experiences of treating patients in pain. Inductive thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences across private practice and the NHS. The perceived effectiveness of acupuncture was described consistently and participants felt they did (or would) deliver acupuncture similarly in NHS and in private practice. In both the sectors, patients sought acupuncture as a last resort and acupuncturist-patient relationships were deemed important. Acupuncture availability differed across sectors: in the NHS it was constrained by Trust policies and in the private sector by patients' financial resources. There were greater opportunities for autonomous practice in the private sector and regulation was important for different reasons in each sector. In general, NHS practitioners had Western-focussed training and also used conventional medical techniques, whereas private practitioners were more likely to have Traditional Chinese training and to practise
Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Farhana Israt; Chowdhury, Anita Rani; Monjur-Ekhuda, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Shamiul Hasan; Aporna, Sadia Afrin; Jahan, Rownak; Samarrai, Walied; Islam, Farhana; Khatun, Zubaida; Rahmatullah, Mohammed
The Bedes form one of the largest tribal or indigenous communities in Bangladesh and are popularly known as the boat people or water gypsies because of their preference for living in boats. They travel almost throughout the whole year by boats on the numerous waterways of Bangladesh and earn their livelihood by selling sundry items, performing jugglery acts, catching snakes, and treating village people by the various riversides with their traditional medicinal formulations. Life is hard for the community, and both men and women toil day long. As a result of their strenuous lifestyle, they suffer from various types of pain, and have developed an assortment of formulations for treatment of pain in different parts of the body. Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in all parts of the world including Bangladesh. Although a number of drugs are available to treat pain, including non-steroidal, steroidal, and narcotic drugs, such drugs usually have side-effects like causing bleeding in the stomach over prolonged use (as in the case of rheumatic pain), or can be addictive. Moreover, pain arising from causes like rheumatism has no proper treatment in allopathic medicine. It was the objective of the present study to document the formulations used by the Bede traditional practitioners for pain treatment, for they claim to have used these formulations over centuries with success. Surveys were conducted among a large Bede community, who reside in boats on the Bangshi River by Porabari village of Savar area in Dhaka district of Bangladesh. Interviews of 30 traditional practitioners were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. It was observed that the Bede practitioners used 53 formulations for treatment of various types of pain, the main ingredient of all formulations being medicinal plants. Out of the 53 formulations, 25 were for treatment of rheumatic pain, either exclusively, or along with other types of
Wubetu, Muluken; Abula, Tefera; Dejenu, Getye
One of the services that plants provide for human beings is their wider medicinal application. Although it is not fully assessed, the practice and wider use of traditional medicine is frequent in Ethiopia. Studies conducted previously are confined to the perceptions of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. A total of 45 informants were selected purposefully from the study area. For collecting the data, semi-structured interviewees, observation and field walks were employed from August 10 to September 30/2014. To summarize the information, descriptive statistical methods were applied. Sixty species of medicinal plants distributed in 42 families were collected and identified applied locally for the treatment of 55 human disorders. The most commonly treated ones were evil eye, malaria, wound, peptic ulcer disease and rabies. According to this study, leaves were the commonly used plant parts (36.5%) and 39% of the preparations were decoctions. Oral route, 43 (44%) was the commonly used route of application whereas most (54.8%) remedies were administered only once. Fourteen percent of preparations caused vomiting in addition most (40.4%) of the formulations was contraindicated for pregnant patients. Only seventeen percent of the formulations possessed drug food interactions. Most preparations were stored within clothes, 31 (29.8%). There exists a high (ICF = 0.8) evenness of plant use among healers for treating respiratory problems. Alliumsativum (FI = 0.75) for evil eye, Phytolacca dodecandra (FI = 0.8) for rabies and Croton macrostachyus (FI = 0.78) for treating malaria were medicinal plants with highest fidelity levels showing consistency of knowledge on species best treating power. This study also documented that drought, overgrazing and firewood collection are major threats. Dega Damot district is loaded in its medicinal plant diversity and indigenous knowledge though plants are highly affected by drought, overgrazing and
Martinez, Leslie N.
A telephone survey was conducted with a large sample of Mexican Americans from border (n = 1,001) and nonborder (n = 1,030) regions in Texas. Patterns of traditional folk and mainstream complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use were analyzed with two binary logistic regressions, using gender, self-rated health, confidence in medical…
Cook, Nigel B; Eisele, Christian O; Klos, Rachel F; Bennett, Thomas B; McGuirk, Sheila M; Goodger, William J; Oetzel, Garrett R; Nordlund, Kenneth V
The University of Wisconsin School of Veterinary Medicine (UW-SVM) has implemented a variety of strategies to optimize teaching in dairy herd medicine. These include the provision of opportunities for dairy cow handling and management using a dairy teaching herd for veterinary students throughout the four-year curriculum, exposure for all students in their final year to a substantial first-opinion dairy case load using a private practice-based ambulatory clinic rotation, and, finally, the teaching of dairy herd health management and problem solving in a group of four final-year elective production medicine clinical rotations. On average, since 1986, 32.6% of each graduating class attended at least one elective production medicine rotation, with a range from 19.0% to 43.4%. For those University of Wisconsin students who could be traced, 65% were still actively involved in some aspect of dairy practice, representing a range of between seven and 17 students per year since the start of the program. The advantages and disadvantages of operating a "regional center of excellence" for training students from out-of-state institutions are discussed.
Hubbert, Ann O
The paper presents a historically unique partnership between an American Southwestern, Catholic faith-based, urban hospital and a program it sponsored on the spirituality of American Indian Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) by a Comanche medicine man. A discussion is offered on the cultural partnerships, experiences and benefits achieved through the cultural accommodations of these spiritual beliefs and practices within this healthcare system. The theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality (Culture Care Theory), including the Sunrise Enabler, is applied in discussion of these past experiences to explore the relationships among and between the participating cultures. The intent of the partnerships within this program was not to 'learn Indian healing ceremonies' but to share the philosophy of TIM with all people (clients and professionals) as a means to enhance their own way of living. Examples of actual nursing decisions and actions are provided including outcomes from the program within the healthcare system and globally.
Xu, Yi; Hamamura, Takeshi
For the last several decades, Chinese society has experienced transformative changes. How are these changes understood among Chinese people? To examine this question, Part 1 in this research solicited folk beliefs of cultural change from a group of Chinese participants in an open-ended format, and the generated folk beliefs were rated by another group of participants in Part 2 to gage each belief's level of agreement. Part 3 plotted the folk beliefs retained in Part 2 using the Google Ngram Viewer in order to infer the amount of intellectual interests that each belief has received cross-temporarily. These analyses suggested a few themes in Chinese folk beliefs of cultural change (1) rising perceived importance of materialism and individualism in understanding contemporary Chinese culture and Chinese psychology relative to those of the past (2) rising perceived importance of freedom, democracy and human rights and (3) enduring perceived importance of family relations and friendship as well as patriotism. Interestingly, findings from Parts 2 and 3 diverged somewhat, illuminating possible divergence between folk beliefs and intellectual interests especially for issues related to heritage of Confucianism. PMID:25309491
Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan
Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.
Kawase, Akihiro; Tokosumi, Akifumi
In this study, we focus on the melodies of Japanese folk songs, and examine the basic structures of Japanese folk songs that represent the characteristics of different regions. We sample the five largest song genres within the music corpora of the Nihon Min-yo Taikan (Anthology of Japanese Folk Songs), consisting of 202,246 tones from 1,794 song pieces from 45 prefectures in Japan. Then, we calculate the probabilities of 24 transition patterns that fill the interval of the perfect fourth pitch, which is the interval that maintains most of the frequency for one-step and two-step pitch transitions within 11 regions, in order to determine the parameters for cluster analysis. As a result, we successively classify the regions into two basic groups, eastern Japan and western Japan, which corresponds to geographical factors and cultural backgrounds, and also match accent distributions in the Japanese language.
Heusser, Peter; Scheffer, Christian; Neumann, Melanie; Tauschel, Diethart; Edelhäuser, Friedrich
To develop the hypothesis that reductionism in medical anthropology, professional education and health care influences empathy development, communication and patient satisfaction. We identified relevant literature and reviewed the material in a structured essay. We reflected our hypothesis by applying it to Anthroposophic Medicine (AM), an example of holistic theory and practice. Reductionism in medical anthropology such as in conventional medicine seems to lead to a less empathetic and less communicative health care culture than holism such as in CAM disciplines. However, reductionism can be transformed into a systemic, multi-perspective holistic view, when the emergent properties of the physical, living, psychic, spiritual and social levels of human existence and the causal relations between them are more carefully accounted for in epistemology, medical anthropology and professional education. This is shown by the example of AM and its possible benefits for communication with and satisfaction of patients. A non-reductionistic understanding of the human being may improve communication with patients and enhance patient benefit and satisfaction. Interdisciplinary qualitative and quantitative studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and to understand the complex relations between epistemology, medical anthropology, education, health care delivery and benefit for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shih, Chun-Chuan; Huang, Lu-Hsiang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chen, Ta-Liang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Liao, Chien-Chang
Background. This study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with users of folk therapy in Taiwan. Methods. Using data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 16,750 adults aged 20 years and older. Sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, medical utilization, and health behaviors were compared between people using and not using folk therapy. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of factors associated with folk therapy were analyzed. Results. The one-month prevalence of folk therapy use was 6.8%, which was significantly associated with ages of 30–59 years (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.49–2.63), women (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.40–1.90), nonindigenous population (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.14–3.17), having two or more unhealthy lifestyle habits (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.26–1.81), high density of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physicians (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.20–1.62), and being ill without receiving medical care in past six months (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.76–2.53). Medical care utilization of TCM and Western medicine were also associated factors for folk therapy. Conclusions. The use of folk therapy is correlated with sociodemographics, lifestyle and health behaviors. PMID:26170878
Recent policy and organisational changes within UK primary care have emphasised graduated access to care, speed of access to the first available general practitioner (GP) and care being provided by a range of healthcare professionals. These trends have been strengthened by the current GP contract and Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). Concern has been expressed that the potential for personal care is being diminished as a result and that this will reduce quality standards. This paper presents data from a study that explored with patients and GPs what personal care means and whether it has continuing importance to them. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview participants and Framework Analysis supported analysis of emerging themes. Twenty-nine patients, mainly women with young children, and twenty-three GPs were interviewed from seven practices in Lothian, Scotland, ranged by practice size and relative deprivation score. Personal care was defined mainly, though not exclusively, as care given within the context of a continuing relationship in which there is an interpersonal connection and the doctor adopts a particular consultation style. Defined in this way, it was reported to have benefits for both health outcomes and patients' experience of care. In particular, such care was thought to be beneficial in attending to the emotions that can be elicited when seeking and receiving health care and in enabling patients to be known by doctors as legitimate seekers of care from the health service. Its importance was described as being dependent upon the nature of the health problem and patients' wider familial and social circumstances. In particular, it was found to provide support to patients in their parenting and other familial caring roles. Personal care has continuing salience to patients and GPs in modern primary care in the UK. Patients equate the experience of care, not just outcomes, with high quality care. As it is mainly conceptualised and
Dowell, J; Norbury, M; Steven, K; Guthrie, B
Widening access to medicine in the UK is a recalcitrant problem of increasing political importance, with associated strong social justice arguments but without clear evidence of impact on service delivery. Evidence from the United States suggests that widening access may enhance care to underserved communities. Additionally, rural origin has been demonstrated to be the factor most strongly associated with rural practice. However the evidence regarding socio-economic and rural background and subsequent practice locations in the UK has not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between general practitioners' (GPs) socio-economic and rural background at application to medical school and demographic characteristics of their current practice. The study design was a cross-sectional email survey of general practitioners practising in Scotland. Socio-economic status of GPs at application to medical school was assessed using the self-coded National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification. UK postcode at application was used to define urban-rural location. Current practice deprivation and remoteness was measured using NHS Scotland defined measures based on registered patients' postcodes. A survey was sent to 2050 Scottish GPs with a valid accessible email address, with 801 (41.5 %) responding. GPs whose parents had semi-routine or routine occupations had 4.3 times the odds of working in a deprived practice compared to those with parents from managerial and professional occupations (95 % CI 1.8-10.2, p = 0.001). GPs from remote and rural Scottish backgrounds were more likely to work in remote Scottish practices, as were GPs originating from other UK countries. This study showed that childhood background is associated with the population GPs subsequently serve, implying that widening access may positively affect service delivery in addition to any social justice rationale. Longitudinal research is needed to explore this association and the
Folk etymology is defined as a change in word or phrase form resulting from an incorrect popular idea of its origin or meaning. Irregular phonetic-semantic shifts are produced by inter-language borrowing or by intra-language passage from one period to another. These shifts are more common in periods when there are no, or few, normative factors…
Rocha, Samuel D.
This article will move in five parts. It begins with some priming notes on the relationship between philosophy of education and curriculum theory. Then it rehearses a collage of selected passages from a recent book, "Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person" (Rocha, 2015a). Then the author works in a more speculative…
Smith, Carl, Comp.
Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on using folk literature is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…
Brunner, Elizabeth Gentry
Imitations are sophisticated performances displaying regular patterns. The study of imitation allows linguists to understand speakers' perceptions of sociolinguistic variation. In this dissertation, I analyze imitations of non-native accents in order to answer two questions: what can imitation reveal about perception, and how are "folk linguistic…
The physical, social, and music attributes inherent to folk dancing make it an ideal component of music education curricula. The communal experience of folk dancing is unprecedented for many adults and children. These experiences are unique because folk dancing can foster individual and group learning through music, and noncompetitive play. There…
This book provides K-8 teachers with an introductory resource on folk tales. The book acknowledges that teachers are often very interested in folk tales but lack the time to research them. Each chapter contains some background information on a story type or a character. The book's six chapters are as follows: (1) "The Folk Tale Tradition"; (2)…
Creese, Angela; Wu, Chao-Jung; Blackledge, Adrian
This paper considers the processes of using folk stories for the teaching of community languages in a UK complementary school. We look at the appropriation of folk stories by teachers to teach young people Mandarin while also considering their possibilities as heritage texts. We consider how the teacher and students use the folk story as…
This paper makes a case for the existence and study of the wisdom of practice by looking at educational practitioners' concepts as its locus and source. (These concepts may also be described as the accumulated "folk wisdom" of the teaching community). These communal concepts, part of an accumulated lore regarding teaching and education…
Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy
The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.
Easom, Leisa R; Easom, Linda R
A multidisciplinary review of the literature reveals that prayer, in a multicultural context, may be viewed as both a folk home remedy and a practice of spirituality. Understanding cultural differences and similarities of the use of prayer as a variable for health promotion may have implications for tailoring treatment approaches to eliminate disparities in providing care to clients of diverse cultural backgrounds. This paper presents these similarities and differences within the cultural beliefs of the White, African-American, and Hispanic populations.
Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...
Fairley, Christopher K; Fehler, Glenda; Lewin, Sharon R; Pitts, Marian; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Hocking, Jane S
Rates of HIV in New South Wales (NSW) have been stable, but have increased significantly in other Australian states. The reasons for this are unknown and may be associated with differences in the management of sexually transmissible infections (STI) and HIV in different states in Australia. Our aim was to determine if the use of suppressive treatment for genital herpes, the treatment of HIV or STI screening practices were different between states in Australia. This study was a cross-sectional survey of medical practitioners who are S100 prescribers and members of the Australian Society for HIV Medicine. In general, there were no differences between the clinical practices of practitioners in NSW and other states except that in NSW fewer practitioners tested HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) for syphilis annually (NSW 78% v. others 87%, P = 0.04) or treated MSM with advanced HIV disease (CD4 < 150 x 10(6) cells L(-1)) with acicylovir in the absence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) (NSW 4% v. others 13%, P = 0.03), and more practitioners in NSW tested HIV-negative MSM for HSV type-specific serology (NSW 21% v. others 11%, P = 0.02). It is unlikely that the minor differences in HSV and HIV treatment or STI screening practices among practitioners in NSW and other Australian states explains the differences in HIV notifications between these two areas.
Jelercic, Stasa; Lingard, Heide; Spiegel, Wolfgang; Pichlhöfer, Otto; Maier, Manfred
The discipline of family medicine (FM) lacks a comprehensive methodology, which can be applied as a standard for assessing overall research output in both the field of FM and by general practitioners (GPs)/general practice institutions. It was the aim of this study to develop a sensitive search strategy for assessing publication output in the field of FM independent of the author's profession or affiliation and by GPs/general practice institutions independent of their field of scientific interest. Literature searches limited to the year 2005 were conducted in PubMed and ISI Web of Sciences (ISI WoS). In PubMed, all relevant MeSH terms were used. Search terms possibly contained in the author's affiliations have been collected. In ISI WoS, the same entry terms including their abbreviations and plural forms were applied. The final queries were validated by manual review and matching results with selected FM journals. A comprehensive list of combined search terms could be defined. For the field of general practice/FM more publications could be retrieved in PubMed. Almost twice as many publications by GPs/general practice institutions could be retrieved in ISI WoS, where--in contrast to PubMed--the affiliation is documented for all authors. To quantitatively assess publication output in the field of FM, PubMed was identified as the preferable database. To assess publication output by GPs/general practice institutions, the ISI WoS is recommended as the preferable database. Apparently, the ISI WoS is more suitable to compare the research productivity of different countries, authors or institutions.
Bahri, Salmah; Lee, Kah Seng; Adenan, Mohammad Aswady; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Neoh, Chin Fen; Long, Chiau Ming
Abstract In an effort to enhance public awareness, we develop Dikir Farmasi as an innovative approach to deliver health information. Dikir Farmasi combines the elements of dikir barat (a type of traditional folk song rhythm) and traditional sketches which are popular in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. These sketches and dikir barat rhythmic songs, with lyrics touch on issues such as drug abuse and regulation are presented in an entertaining and humorous way. Health promotion messages are disseminated using Dikir Farmasi in the form of compact disks, video compact disks, stage performance, exhibition, social media, printed media (signboard, brochure and flyer). PMID:27695527
The limited archival material and the scarcity of evidence from the oldest living representatives of various communities effectively restrict research on archaic astronomical knowledge within Italy to the Alpine area and the most northerly part of the Appenines. These are territories where, fortunately, the folk culture is historically recognized as being very conservative. The sky provided a series of "astral instruments" used for planning religious festivals, fairs, and work in the fields through an empirical-symbolic approach and ancient sidereal calendars with which the valley dwellers were able to arrange daily life.
Folk calendars are a good source for studying the knowledge and rituals of peoples from distant epochs. The turbulent history of the cultures in the Balkan Peninsula leads to a mixture of calendar traditions - different calendar types and naming systems of the calendar units (months and weekdays). Despite the differences, they share a common astronomical basis and the seasonal structure is of fundamental importance (i.e., dividing the year into two economic seasons - warm and cold). The Old Bulgarian 12-year calendar is also mentioned briefly.
Research on folk culture in twentieth-century Britain has focused on elite and transgressive political episodes, but these were not its mainstream manifestations. This article re-evaluates the place of folk culture in twentieth-century Britain in the context of museums. It argues that in the modern heritage landscape folk culture was in an active dialogue with the modern democracy. This story begins with the vexed, and ultimately failed, campaign for a national English folk museum and is traced through the concurrent successes of local, regional, and Celtic 'first wave' folk museums across Britain from the 1920s to the 1960s. The educational activities of these museums are explored as emblematic of a 'conservative modernity', which gave opportunities to women but also restricted their capacity to do intellectual work. By the 1970s, a 'second wave' folk museology is identified, revealing how forms of folk culture successfully accommodated the rapid social change of the later twentieth century, particularly in deindustrializing regions. From this new, museums' perspective, folk culture appears far less marginal to twentieth-century British society. In museums folk culture interacted with mainstream concerns about education, regionalism, and commercialization. © The Author . Published by Oxford University Press.
Folk devils have to date been significantly overlooked in previous studies of moral panics. While several studies have called attention to this problematic (Thornton and McRobbie 1995, De Young 2004, Lumsden 2009), no specific theoretical framework has been proposed for reading this dimension of a moral panic. This paper argues that a moral panic…
Background Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. Methods In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Results Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations). Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. Conclusion New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources. PMID:18162135
Sorghum is one of the main staple food crops for the poorest and most food insecure people of the world. As Ethiopia is the centre of origin and diversity for sorghum, the crop has been cultivated for many thousands of years. Hence, indigenous knowledge based sorghum classification and naming has a long tradition. In order to assess folk taxonomy, various research methods were employed, including, focus group interviews with 360 farmers, direct on-farm participatory monitoring with 120 farmers, key informant interviews with 60 farmers and development agents and semi-structured interviews with 250 farmers. In addition, diversity fairs were conducted with over 1200 farmers. Assessment of folk taxonomy consistency was assessed by 30 farmers' evaluation of 44 folk species. Farmers have been growing sorghum for at least 500 years (20 generations). Sorghum is named as Mishinga in the region. Farmers used twenty five morphological, sixty biotic and abiotic and twelve use-related traits in folk taxonomy of sorghum. Farmers classified their gene-pool by hierarchical classifications into parts that represented distinguishable groups of accessions. Folk taxonomy trees were generated in the highland, intermediate and lowland sorghum ecologies. Over 78 folk species have been identified. The folk species were named after morphological, use-related and breeding methodology used. Relative distribution of folk species over the region, folk taxonomy consistency, and comparison of folk and formal taxonomy are described. New folk taxonomy descriptors have been identified and suggested to be used as formal taxonomy descriptors. It is concluded that integrated folk-formal taxonomy has to be used for enhanced collection, characterisation and utilization of on farm genetic resources.
Waterman, Stephen H.; And Others
Conducted a case-control study to determine the magnitude of the problem of Latino patients who ingested rattlesnake capsules and then developed serious "Salmonella arizona" infections. Eighty-two percent of infected Latinos in 1986-87 who were questioned reported ingesting snake capsules. Discusses the association of ingesting snake…
This booklet provides a brief introduction to Hungarian arts and crafts. A discussion of the historical development and characteristics of Hungarian folk art supplies the background for a section in which regional styles of Hungarian folk art are described (Transdanubia, the Highlands of northern Hungary, Transylvania, and the Great Hungarian…
Thompson, Susan Conklin
Folk art tells the story of many generations and reflects cultures everywhere. It is a wonderful tool for introducing students to world cultures and traditions. This book brings the world of folk art into the classroom with extension activities that integrate art, social studies, science, language arts, and music. Organized into three sections,…
Congdon, Kristin G.
This article investigates the use of folk speech in the art criticism of people who are not art professionals. Maintains that if folk speech is recognized and evaluated in the art classroom, art educators may help expand both the visual and verbal perceptions and expressions of students. (JDH)
Congdon, Kristin G.
Proposes a definition for folk art based on analyzing and sorting the descriptors and identifiers used in the disciplines of art history, folklore, anthropology, and antique and folk art collection. The proposed definition is not meant to specify an undeniable category of art, but rather to suggest specific aspects which should be identified in…
Parasiz, Gökalp; Kervancioglu, M. Hanifi
Present study is a descriptive and applied study from different sides. It was aimed to make the applications prepared for the usability of Erzurum's folk songs available in music and instrument education. First literature review was conducted and totally 240 folk songs were determined to belong to Erzurum province. Among the songs determined,…
Brattico, Elvira; Tupala, Tiina; Glerean, Enrico; Tervaniemi, Mari
A chord deviating from the conventions of Western tonal music elicits an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) in inferofrontal brain regions. Here, we tested whether the ERAN is modulated by expertise in more than one music culture, as typical of folk musicians. Finnish folk musicians and nonmusicians participated in electroencephalography recordings. The cadences consisted of seven chords. In incongruous cadences, the third, fifth, or seventh chord was a Neapolitan. The ERAN to the Neapolitans was enhanced in folk musicians compared to nonmusicians. Folk musicians showed an enhanced P3a for the ending Neapolitan. The Neapolitan at the fifth position was perceived differently and elicited a late enhanced ERAN in folk musicians. Hence, expertise in more than one music culture seems to modify chord processing by enhancing the ERAN to ambivalent chords and the P3a to incongruous chords, and by altering their perceptual attributes. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Schiff, Elad; Ben-Arye, Eran; Shilo, Margalit; Levy, Moti; Schachter, Leora; Weitchner, Na'ama; Golan, Ofra; Stone, Julie
Recently, ethical guidelines regarding safe touch in CAM were developed in Israel. Publishing ethical codes does not imply that they will actually help practitioners to meet ethical care standards. The effectiveness of ethical rules depends on familiarity with the code and its content. In addition, critical self-examination of the code by individual members of the profession is required to reflect on the moral commitments encompassed in the code. For the purpose of dynamic self-appraisal, we devised a survey to assess how CAM practitioners view the suggested ethical guidelines for safe touch. We surveyed 781 CAM practitioners regarding their perspectives on the safe-touch code. There was a high level of agreement with general statements regarding ethics pertaining to safe touch with a mean rate of agreement of 4.61 out of a maximum of 5. Practitioners concurred substantially with practice guidelines for appropriate touch with a mean rate of agreement of 4.16 out of a maximum of 5. Attitudes toward the necessity to touch intimate areas for treatment purposes varied with 78.6% of respondents strongly disagreeing with any notion of need to touch intimate areas during treatment. 7.9% neither disagreed nor agreed, 7.9% slightly agreed, and 7.6% strongly agreed with the need for touching intimate areas during treatment. There was a direct correlation between disagreement with touching intimate areas for therapeutic purposes and agreement with general statements regarding ethics of safe touch (Spearman r=0.177, p<0.0001), and practice guidelines for appropriate touch (r=0.092, p=0.012). A substantial number of practitioners agreed with the code, although some findings regarding the need to touch intimate area during treatments were disturbing. Our findings can serve as a basis for ethical code development and implementation, as well as for educating CAM practitioners on the ethics of touch. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
For centuries physicians, scientists and others have postulated an important role, either as a cause of disease or as a mode of therapy, for magnetism in medicine. Although there is a straightforward role in the removal of magnetic foreign bodies, the majority of the proposed magnetic applications have been controversial and have often been attributed by mainstream practitioners to fraud, quackery or self-deception. Calculations indicate that many of the proposed methods of action, e.g., the field-induced alignment of water molecules or alterations in blood flow, are of negligible magnitude. Nonetheless, even at the present time, the use of small surface magnets (magnetotherapy) to treat arthritis and similar diseases is a widespread form of folk medicine and is said to involve sales of approximately one billion dollars per year. Another medical application of magnetism associated with Mesmer and others (eventually known as animal magnetism) has been discredited, but has had a culturally significant role in the development of hypnotism and as one of the sources of modern psychotherapy. Over the last two decades, in marked contrast to previous applications of magnetism to medicine, magnetic resonance imaging or MRI, has become firmly established as a clinical diagnostic tool. MRI permits the non-invasive study of subtle biological processes in intact, living organisms and approximately 150,000,000 diagnostic studies have been performed since its clinical introduction in the early 1980s. The dramatically swift and widespread acceptance of MRI was made possible by scientific and engineering advances - including nuclear magnetic resonance, computer technology and whole-body-sized, high field superconducting magnets - in the decades following World War Two. Although presently used much less than MRI, additional applications, including nerve and muscle stimulation by pulsed magnetic fields, the use of magnetic forces to guide surgical instruments, and imaging utilizing
Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G
Dental practitioners need knowledge of the diagnosis and management of medical emergencies. This paper deals with the general aspects of emergency treatment including basic management principles which are applicable to all emergencies. The next paper in this series, part 3, deals with more specific aspects of medical emergency management.
Background Traditional medicine in India can be classified into codified (Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy) and non-codified (folk medicine) systems. Both the systems contributing equally to the primary healthcare in India. The present study is aimed to understand the current scenario of medicinal practices of non-codified system of traditional medicine in Belgaum region, India. Methods The study has been conducted as a basic survey of identified non-codified traditional practitioners by convenience sampling with semi structured, open ended interviews and discussions. The learning process, disease diagnosis, treatment, remuneration, sharing of knowledge and socio-demographic data was collected, analysed and discussed. Results One hundred and forty traditional practitioners were identified and interviewed for the present study. These practitioners are locally known as “Vaidya”. The study revealed that the non-codified healthcare tradition is practiced mainly by elderly persons in the age group of 61 years and above (40%). 73% of the practitioners learnt the tradition from their forefathers, and 19% of practitioners developed their own practices through experimentation, reading and learning. 20% of the practitioners follow distinctive “Nadi Pariksha” (pulse examination) for disease diagnosis, while others follow bodily symptoms and complaints. 29% of the traditional practitioners do not charge anything, while 59% practitioners receive money as remuneration. Plant and animal materials are used as sources of medicines, with a variety of preparation methods. The preference ranking test revealed higher education and migration from villages are the main reasons for decreasing interest amongst the younger generation, while deforestation emerged as the main cause of medicinal plants depletion. Conclusion Patrilineal transfer of the knowledge to younger generation was observed in Belgaum region. The observed resemblance in disease diagnosis, plant collection and
Farley, Eugene S.; Piemme, Thomas E.
Eugene Farley describes the University of Rochester and Highland Hospital Family Medicine Program for teaching of primary care internists, primary care pediatricians, and family doctors. Thomas Piemme presents the George Washington University School of Medicine alternative, a 2-year program in an ambulatory setting leading to broad eligibility in…
Barkaoui, M; Katiri, A; Boubaker, H; Msanda, F
In Morocco, diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with more than 1.5 million cases in 2014. Medicinal plants are widely used by the Moroccan population to treat the illness. The aim of this work is to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the management of diabetes in Chtouka Ait Baha and Tiznit provinces. The survey was carried out by means of semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 380 interviews were conducted with traditional health practitioners and knowledgeable villagers. The data were analyzed through use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and relative frequency of citation (RFC). In total, 48 plant species belonging to 25 families were reported. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae were reported as the most represented families. Six plants are reported for the first time as used in traditional treatment of diabetes and one plant species was previously unknown for its medicinal use to treat diabetes in Morocco. The most frequently cited plant species are Allium sativum L., Salvia officinalis L., Marrubium vulgare L. and Lavandula dentata L. Leaves were the most cited plant part used, decoction is the preferred mode of preparation. This study showed the importance of folk medicine in the healthcare system for the local people living in the study area. The current study represents a useful documentation, which can contribute to preserving knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in this region and to explore the phytochemical and pharmacological potential of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kwasny, Michelle N.; Caine, Kelly E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.
In this paper we present preliminary results from a study of individual differences in privacy beliefs, as well as relate folk definitions of privacy to extant privacy theory. Focus groups were conducted with young adults aged 18–28 and older adults aged 65–75. Participants first shared their individual definitions of privacy, followed by a discussion of privacy in six scenarios chosen to represent a range of potentially invasive situations. Taken together, Westin’s and Altman’s theories of privacy accounted for both younger and older adults’ ideas about privacy, however, neither theory successfully accounted for findings across all age and gender groups. Whereas males tended to think of privacy in terms of personal needs and convenience, females focused more on privacy in terms of others, respecting privacy rights, and safety. Older adults tended to be more concerned about privacy of space rather than information privacy. Initial results reinforce the notion that targeting HCI design to the user population, even with respect to privacy, is critically important. PMID:29057397
Congdon, Kristin G.
Discussed are (1) the goals and practices of the Folk Artist in Education (FAIE) program, (2) the FAIE in relationship to the Artist in Education program criticisms, (3) improving FAIE programs, and (4) reasons for its support. (RM)
This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)
van Huyssteen, Mea; Milne, Pieter J; Campbell, Eileen E; van de Venter, Maryna
Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem in South Africa and of concern to traditional African health practitioners in the Nelson Mandela Metropole, because they experience a high incidence of diabetic cases in their practices. A collaborative research project with these practitioners focused on the screening of Bulbine frutescens, Ornithogalum longibracteatum, Ruta graveolens, Tarchonanthus camphoratus and Tulbaghia violacea for antidiabetic and cytotoxic potential. In vitro glucose utilisation assays with Chang liver cells and C2C12 muscle cells, and growth inhibition assays with Chang liver cells were conducted. The aqueous extracts of Bulbine frutescens (143.5%), Ornithogalum longibracteatum (131.9%) and Tarchonanthus camphoratus (131.5%) showed significant increased glucose utilisation activity in Chang liver cells. The ethanol extracts of Ruta graveolens (136.9%) and Tulbaghia violacea (140.5%) produced the highest increase in glucose utilisation in C2C12 muscle cells. The ethanol extract of Bulbine frutescens produced the most pronounced growth inhibition (33.3%) on Chang liver cells. These findings highlight the potential for the use of traditional remedies in the future for the management of diabetes and it is recommended that combinations of these plants be tested in future.
van de Wiel, A
The prevalence of problem drinking in the Dutch population, affecting about 750,000 persons, is much higher than that of abuse or addiction and contributes substantially to healthcare workload and costs. However, recognition, not only in primary care but also in the hospital environment, can be difficult. The symptoms are often non-specific and are not always immediately related to the use of alcohol. Even in cases of overt abuse, like in injuries and trauma, routine drinking histories are recorded poorly and identification and signalling are inadequate. It is estimated that up to 16% of all emergency room patients have consumed alcohol within six hours before their visit. Since a patient will benefit not only from the treatment of his symptoms but also from the uncovering of the underlying problem, more emphasis should be laid on the early identification of problem drinking. Especially in the early phase of problem drinking, interventions, in most cases by primary-care physicians or nurse practitioners, may be successful. Since the revised version of the practice guideline 'Problematic alcohol consumption' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners contains clear and practical advice on the early recognition and management of problem drinking, its use is recommended not only to primary-care physicians but also to hospital-specialist staff.
Tibuhwa, Donatha Damian
Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely affected by wild animals. In order
Background Maasai and Kurya form two main communities around the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania which are mainly pastoralists. Changing climate to excessive drought, have recently forced them to start practicing subsistence farming which is severely affected by wild animals. This study explored status of the folk taxonomy and uses of mushrooms in the two communities as a pave way for possibilities of introducing mushroom cultivation, an alternative crop which is hardly affected by wild animals. Methods Folk taxonomy and use mushrooms by the Kurya and Maasai communities were investigated. Information was collected by face to face interviews with 150 individuals in 6 selected villages. Using descriptive statistics by Statistic Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0, the demographic characteristics of informants were evaluated and cross relationships with the recorded data were analysed. Results Kurya are mycophilic with 94% of the informants recognizing utilization of the wild mushroom either as foodstuff or as tonics while the Maasai are mycophobic with 99% being unaware of the edibility of mushroom although 28% recognized mushrooms as tonic. For both communities, the knowledge of mushroom utilization and folk taxonomy increased with age of the informants, while it decreases with formal education level of the informants which imply that the basis of knowledge is mainly traditional. Comparing the two communities, the Maasai use mushrooms only for medicinal purposes and never sought them for food while the Kurya were well knowledgeable on the edibility and folk classification especially the Termitomyces species. Characters used in folkal taxonomy included color and size of the basidiomata, shape and size of the pseudorrhiza, habitats and edibility information. A new use of ascospores whereby they anaesthaesia bees during honey harvesting was discovered, and mushroom cultivation was widely welcomed (94.7%) as an alternative crop which is rarely
Hu, Jian-Shan; Li, Pu; Yang, Yong; Chen, Xin-Chun; Lin, Li
To investigated Shui nationality folk medicine's awareness to orthopedics & traumatology, the history of orthopedics & traumatology treatment, Shui nationality folk doctors' practicing medicine, heritage, diagnosis and treatment methods and tools, etc, through investigated drug resources category and distribution characteristics of Shui nationality medicine to orthopedics & traumatology treatment, explored and finished Shui nationality medicine orthopedics & traumatology treatment theoretical system. After more than 5 years' exploration and finishing, preliminarily formed the theoretical system framework and medicine application characteristics of Shui nationality medicine treating orthopedics & traumatology. Shui nationality medicine treatment orthopedics & traumatology has distinctive national style, and worthy to further exploration and research.
What Is Important During the Selection of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in a Health Care Reimbursement or Insurance System?" Critical Issues of Assessment from the Perspective of TCM Practitioners.
Zhang, Fang; Xie, Jing-Min; Zhang, Yi-Ye; Kong, Lin-Lin; Li, Shu-Chuen
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity over the last several decades internationally, leading to an increasing interest from decision makers and researchers as to how to assess the effectiveness of CAM. The attempts, however, have been unsatisfactory. The most important reason is a lack of attention to the theoretical characteristics of CAM, which are completely different from those of allopathic medicine or biomedicine. This study attempted to survey expert Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in China to elucidate critical issues when assessing the effectiveness of TCM. A questionnaire (with 20 close-ended and 2 open-ended questions) about the influencing factors of measuring the cost and effectiveness of TCM was distributed to TCM practitioners who had been working in the field of research for at least 5 years and had published at least one related scientific article in the last 5 years. Internal consistency test was performed for all questions to verify the reliability of the questionnaire. Principal-component analysis was performed for remaining items after Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) index and Bartlett's test of sphericity. A linear combination model was then built to evaluate the contribution of various factors involved for the selection of TCM into the health care reimbursement or insurance system. Of 429 questionnaires issued, 137 were returned from respondents from 31 medical and research institutions, giving a recovery rate of 31.93%. Internal consistency coefficient obtained was 0.745, indicating good reliability of this measurement scale, and the data passed the KMO test and Bartlett's test of sphericity (KMO index = 0.691). In addition, eight common factors were extracted after the rotation of principal-component analysis with a cumulative variance of 70.92%. Our findings suggested that factors to be considered during the selection of TCM in health care reimbursement or insurance system include patient
Pamjav, Horolma; Juhász, Zoltán; Zalán, Andrea; Németh, Endre; Damdin, Bayarlkhagva
Computer-aided comparison of folk music from different nations is one of the newest research areas. We were intrigued to have identified some important similarities between phylogenetic studies and modern folk music. First of all, both of them use similar concepts and representation tools such as multidimensional scaling for modelling relationship between populations. This gave us the idea to investigate whether these connections are merely accidental or if they mirror population migrations from the past. We raised the question; does the complex structure of musical connections display a clear picture and can this system be interpreted by the genetic analysis? This study is the first to systematically investigate the incidental genetic background of the folk music context between different populations. Paternal (42 populations) and maternal lineages (56 populations) were compared based on Fst genetic distances of the Y chromosomal and mtDNA haplogroup frequencies. To test this hypothesis, the corresponding musical cultures were also compared using an automatic overlap analysis of parallel melody styles for 31 Eurasian nations. We found that close musical relations of populations indicate close genetic distances (<0.05) with a probability of 82%. It was observed that there is a significant correlation between population genetics and folk music; maternal lineages have a more important role in folk music traditions than paternal lineages. Furthermore, the combination of these disciplines establishing a new interdisciplinary research field of "music-genetics" can be an efficient tool to get a more comprehensive picture on the complex behaviour of populations in prehistoric time.
... Statements Newsletters AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands. We ...
Proposes the use of pop, rock, and folk music as material far removed from the traditional and attuned to the learners' interests. Typical examples are analyzed with respect to phonology, grammar and semantics. A final category, "overall idea songs," linguistically unclassifiable, is found to be attractive and highly motivating. (IFS/WGA)
Step-by-step instructions and diagrams for 11 traditional folk dances of the southern Appalachian mountain region appropriate for beginners are provided. The dances are grouped into five broad categories: (1) openers, which use a leader to pick up participants as the dance progresses; (2) mixers (Oh, Susannah, Texas Schottische, Gary Gordon's…
Costantino, Guiseppe; And Others
Describes development of a new modality for Puerto Rican adolescents which presents Puerto Rican folk heros and heroines in modeling therapy targeted towards enhancing adolescents' pride in their ethnic heritage. Evaluation of therapy using 21 adolescents indicated subjects increased in self-disclosure and self-confidence, gained pride, learned…
Gomez, Aurelia; Sullivan, Laura Temple
New Mexican tinwork is a folk art tradition that developed out of Mexican and European silver work. Due to a lack of silver in New Mexico, tin became the material of choice. Rooted in European Hispanic traditions, this contemporary craft is yet another example of the resourceful ingenuity and adaptation that characterizes many New Mexican folk…
The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of teaching and learning the subjects of Social Studies with folk songs in secondary school students. This study is made in 2012-2013 Academic Year Spring Term with seventh grade students studying in secondary school bounded Mugla Provincial Directorate for National Education. 67 students have…
A nation's folk literature offers a window into its people and their beliefs across time and geographic locations. Whether the stories are tall tales, creation stories, or fairy tales, they reveal insights into the make-up of the populace--what they believe, what motivates them, what their attitudes are, how they behave, and how time and place…
Wilton, Antje; Stegu, Martin
As applied linguistics is mainly concerned with solving the language-related problems of laypeople, the examination of folk views constitutes an important research field and its relevance is illustrated in this issue of the AILA review. In this introductory article, we address some of the more general aspects that need to be considered in the…
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. American Folklife Center.
In an effort to encourage appreciation of the rich folk heritage of the United States, the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress presents this annual list of 30 recordings selected by a panel of distinguished experts from nearly two hundred titles submitted by producers, suggested by folklorists and ethnomusicologists, and proposed…
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. American Folklife Center.
Recognizing the need to inform the public about newly issued folk recordings and audio tapes, the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress initiates this annual list of selected titles, chosen by a panel of distinguished experts from a compilation of 1983 releases prepared by the Center staff. Although not a comprehensive list, it is…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the evolution of "folk" understandings of quality in higher hospitality education and the consequent implications of these understandings for current quality concerns in the field. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines a historical survey of the stated topic…
Davis, David Charles
This historical and comparative study examines the folk high school movement in Denmark from the standpoint of the New Humanism as expressed in the writings of Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, Sidney Jourard, and others. These schools are unique among the many educational forms and institutions western man has developed. Private, nonprofit residential…
Karvelis, Noah J.
In this article, I aim to critically analyze theories contained within Dr. Christopher Emdin's newest book "For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood (and the Rest of Ya'll Too!)" in the context of the music classroom. To begin, I summarize Christopher Emdin's theories of both "reality" and "pentecostal" pedagogy and then…
Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana
These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…
Compiles excerpts from two 1964 lectures that examine the use of folk and fairy tales for the teaching of prehistory, geography, and grammar. Provides a starting point for thinking about the power of literature as an integrating medium in the Montessori elementary classroom. (HTH)
Illuminating the pathway for the next generation of cardiovascular medicine practitioners and researchers: Highlights of the Joint PASCAR–SCC clinical symposium on hypertension and heart failure, Cameroon
Abanda, Martin H; Dzudie, Anastase; Nganhyim, Loryane; Dzekem, Bonaventure S; Dzudie, Anastase; Hamadou, Ba; Luma, Henry; Douala, Marie Solange; Priso, Eugene Belley; Dzudie, Anastase; Monkam, Yves; Luma, Henry; Douala, Marie Solange; Nana, Theophile N; Priso, Eugene Belley; Dzudie, Anastase; Nel, George; Mocumbi, Ana O; Sliwa, Karen; Dzudie, Anastase; Hamadou, Ba; Monkam, Yves; Mocumbi, Ana O; Stewart, Simon; Sliwa, Karen
Summary The Pan-African Society of Cardiology roadmap aims to achieve a 25% control of hypertension by the year 2025. Whether this is attainable or not depends largely on the capacity of healthcare providers and policy makers to address the rising prevalence of hypertension and its complications, including heart failure. Task sharing is fundamental in optimising hypertension control. The Clinical Research Education, Networking and Consultancy (CRENC) engaged with the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) and the Cameroon Cardiac Society (SCC) in a joint hypertension and heart failure symposium at the Douala General Hospital in 2016. The primary aims were to foster clinical research in cardiovascular medicine by raising awareness on cardiovascular diseases, to provide evidence-based training of an international standard, to encourage the conduction and dissemination of high-quality research, and to build programmes for continuing medical education. The secondary aim was to potentiate the 2nd Douala Research and Scientific Days. The symposium, which featured didactic lectures interspaced with oral/poster abstract presentations and a clinical visit, culminated in the launching of the book Heart of Africa, and the Young Investigator award. It is hoped that these served to capacitate existing cardiovascular structures, breed the next generation of cardiovascular physicians and researchers, and imprint a trail of clinical research excellence to be emulated in Cameroon and beyond. PMID:28906542
Young, Terrell A., Ed.
As an instructional tool, folk literature can foster literacy, promote cultural awareness, and create connections with the content areas. Yet few resources provide background about folk literature and how to use it your classroom. "Happily Ever After" fills this gap with a reader-friendly collection of articles that define folk literature and its…
Yeşilada, E; Gürbüz, I; Shibata, H
The anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of the extracts and fractions obtained from seven Turkish plants, which are used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ailments including peptic ulcers, were studied against one standard strain and eight clinical isolates of H. pylori by using the agar dilution method. Flowers of Cistus laurifolius and Spartium junceum, cones of Cedrus libani, herbs and flowers of Centaurea solstitialis ssp. solstitialis, fruits of Momordica charantia, herbaceous parts of Sambucus ebulus, and flowering herbs of Hypericum perforatum were evaluated in this study. Results showed that all except one extract from six of these plants showed activity against the microorganism with MICs between 1.95 and 250 microg/ml, with S. junceum being the only inactive species. Amongst the active plants the inhibitory properties of C. laurifolius were found prominent.
Villegas, L F; Fernández, I D; Maldonado, H; Torres, R; Zavaleta, A; Vaisberg, A J; Hammond, G B
Folk medicine practitioners in Perú employ plant preparations as wound-healing agents on superficial and internal wounds (gastric ulcers). The results of a scientific evaluation of the wound-healing activity of nine plants found in the Amazon jungle near Iquitos and in the Andes mountains is presented. The species studied were: Peperomia galioides, Mentzelia cordifolia, Mutisia acuminata, Himatanthus sucuuba, Spondias mombin, Eleutherine bulbosa, Muehlenbeckia tamnifolia, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. These plants have also been examined for their toxicological properties, their effect on blood pressure, smooth muscle and capillary permeability. Significant wound-healing activity was detected in Peperomia galioides, Anredera diffusa and Jatropha curcas. Extracts from Peperomia galioides and Anredera diffusa had no effect on cell proliferation and did not exhibit mutagenic activity.
Ying, Xiao-Lan; Xu, Jian; Markowitz, Morri; Yan, Chong-Huai
A case of lead poisoning resulting from the ingestion of a folk remedy for treating epilepsy is reported. The initial blood lead concentration of this 6-y-old boy was 63.6μg/dl upon admission. He presented with abdominal pain, constipation, and irritability. The patient's liver function tests were significantly increased. Through chelation therapy, the blood lead concentration dropped markedly and clinical symptoms greatly improved. His blood and urine samples were collected for the kinetic analysis of lead elimination. Folk prescriptions for epilepsy should be considered as potential sources of lead intoxication. Lead poisoning should be taken into consideration for unknown causes of abdominal pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wang, Jiaji; Miao, Zhenjiang; Guo, Hao; Zhou, Ziming; Wu, Hao
Labanotation uses symbols to describe human motion and is an effective means of protecting folk dance. We use motion capture data to automatically generate Labanotation. First, we convert the motion capture data of the biovision hierarchy file into three-dimensional coordinate data. Second, we divide human motion into element movements. Finally, we analyze each movement and find the corresponding notation. Our work has been supervised by an expert in Labanotation to ensure the correctness of the results. At present, the work deals with a subset of symbols in Labanotation that correspond to several basic movements. Labanotation contains many symbols and several new symbols may be introduced for improvement in the future. We will refine our work to handle more symbols. The automatic generation of Labanotation can greatly improve the work efficiency of documenting movements. Thus, our work will significantly contribute to the protection of folk dance and other action arts.
The plots of stories are known to follow general patterns in terms of their overall structure. This was the basic tenet of structuralist approaches to narratology. Vladimir Propp proposed a procedure for the generation of new tales based on his semi-formal description of the structure of Russian folk tales. This is one of the first existing instances of a creative process described procedurally. The present paper revisits Propp's morphology to build a system that generates instances of Russian folk tales. Propp's view of the folk tale as a rigid sequence of character functions is employed as a plot driver, and some issues that Propp declared relevant but did not explore in detail-such as long-range dependencies between functions or the importance of endings-are given computational shape in the context of a broader architecture that captures all the aspects discussed by Propp. A set of simple evaluation metrics for the resulting outputs is defined inspired on Propp's formalism. The potential of the resulting system for providing a creative story generation system is discussed, and possible lines of future work are discussed.
Standardised Chinese herbal treatment delivered by GPs compared with individualised treatment administered by practitioners of Chinese herbal medicine for women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.
Flower, Andrew; Harman, Kim; Lewith, George; Moore, Michael; Bishop, Felicity L; Stuart, Beth; Lampert, Nicholas
In the UK, urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection presented by women in primary care. Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) are defined as three episodes of UTI in the last 12 months, or two episodes in the last 6 months. Between 20 and 30 % of women who have had one episode of UTI will have an RUTI, and approximately 25 % of these will develop subsequent recurrent episodes. RUTIs can have a significant negative effect on the quality of life, and have a high impact on health care costs as a result of outpatient visits, diagnostic tests and prescriptions. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has a recorded history of treatments for the symptoms of UTIs for more than 2000 years. More recent clinical research in China has provided some preliminary evidence that CHM can alleviate the symptoms of UTIs and reduce the rate of recurrence, but more rigorous investigation is required. The RUTI trial is a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, feasibility trial. A total of 80 women will be randomised to 'individualised' herbs prescribed by a Chinese herbal practitioner or to 'standardised' herbs provided by primary care clinicians. Both arms will have herbs for prevention of UTIs and treatment of acute episodes. Treatment duration is for 16 weeks. The primary outcomes are the number of episodes of recurrent UTIs during the trial period and in the 6 months of follow-up, and the number of days of symptoms rated moderately bad or worse based on patient diaries. Secondary outcomes will assess participant expectations and beliefs, adherence to the treatment, adverse events and health economics and provide quantitative and qualitative assessments of the impact of recurrent infections on the lives of women. The RUTI trial is the first instance of CHM delivered as a clinical trial of an investigatory medicinal product in the UK. This study provides important information regarding the feasibility and acceptability of researching and using
Lei, Hou-Xing; Li, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Song-Ming; Fan, Li-Hua; Li, Shui-Fu; Cheng, Wen-Liang; Hua, Jin-Wei; Yu, Hua-Li; Dai, De-Xiong; Xie, Yuan-Wei
To make a thorough investigation of the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in our country, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and the endemic medicinal plant species, Field surveyed was conducted with 25 She people mainly lived area (county, district or city) throughout the country, the folk prescription and treatment cases provided by She's medical personnel, the drug usage and dosage, the commonly used traditional She's medicine and drug samples were collected. And the distribution, growing environment of these plants were investigated, their characteristics, photographs, GPS data and track were record , and the fresh wax leaf or plants specimens were collected. In total 1 600 varieties of folk medicine of She's nationality, 450 disease names and 1 016 prescriptions were collected. 520 kinds of these medicinal plants were commonly used, growing mainly distributed in the southeastern China, about 200 meters above sea level to 1 500 meters. There are 5 First-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), 15 second-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), and 11 She characteristic medicinal plants in our study, they belong to 144 families, 312 genera 494 species, 2 subspecies, 17 varieties, 3 forms and 1 cultivated varieties of She's nationality. Folk medicine usage is different from the traditional Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine. This survey finds out the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in China, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and commonly used drugs, and found the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the She's nationality endemic medicinal plants, which provides a basis for further development and use the traditional She's medicine resources.
Chotchoungchatchai, Somtanuek; Saralamp, Promchit; Jenjittikul, Thaya; Pornsiripongse, Saowapa; Prathanturarug, Sompop
Thai Traditional Medicine (TTM) is available in many modern hospitals in Thailand. However, there have been difficulties in integrating TTM, particularly the practices of the use of herbal medicines, into modern healthcare services. Kabchoeng Hospital is one hospital that has been able to overcome these difficulties. Thus, this study aimed to document the successful utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital. The documentation focused on both the knowledge of medicinal plants and the success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine in the context of a modern hospital in Thailand. Kabchoeng Hospital was intentionally selected for this case study. Participatory observation was used for the data collection. There were six groups of key informants: three applied Thai Traditional Medicine practitioners (ATTMPs), a pharmacist, two physicians, two folk healers, the head of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and 190 patients. The plant specimens were collected and identified based on the botanical literature and a comparison with authentic specimens; these identifications were assisted by microscopic and thin layer chromatography (TLC) techniques. Eighty-nine medicinal plants were used for the herbal preparations. The ATTMPs used these plants to prepare 29 standard herbal preparations and occasional extemporaneous preparations. Moreover, in this hospital, seven herbal preparations were purchased from herbal medicine manufacturers. In total, 36 preparations were used for 10 groups of symptoms, such as the treatment of respiratory system disorders, musculo-skeletal system disorders, and digestive system disorders. Four success factors that facilitated the utilization of herbal medicine at Kabchoeng Hospital were determined. These factors included a proper understanding of the uses of herbal medicines, the successful integration of the modern and TTM healthcare teams, the support of an herbal cultivation and collection group, and the
Sanford, Christopher A; Pottinger, Paul S
Given the ever-changing nature of travel medicine, practitioners who provide pretravel and posttravel care are obligatorily students for the duration of their professional careers. A large variety of resources are available for medical practitioners. Providers should join at least one travel or tropical medicine professional association, attend its annual meeting, and read its journal. The largest general travel medicine association is the International Society of Travel Medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kovalchuk, L I; Prokopchuk, Y V; Naydyonova, O V
The article presents the experience of postgraduate training of general practitioners--family medicine. Identified current trends, forms and methods of pedagogical innovations that enhance the quality of learning and mastering the practical skills of primary professionals providing care.
Millennium Cohort survey instrument to assess CAM use. Although these questions were not intended to encompass the full spectrum of CAM possibilities...response: acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic care, energy healing, folk remedies, herbal therapy, high dose/ megavitamin therapy, homeopathy, hypnosis ...National Center for CAM (24). Acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic care, energy healing, folk medicine, hypnosis , and massage were grouped together as
Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo
The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.
Martin, Gary; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Kool, Anneleen
Background The trade of plant roots as traditional medicine is an important source of income for many people around the world. Destructive harvesting practices threaten the existence of some plant species. Harvesters of medicinal roots identify the collected species according to their own folk taxonomies, but once the dried or powdered roots enter the chain of commercialization, accurate identification becomes more challenging. Methodology A survey of morphological diversity among four root products traded in the medina of Marrakech was conducted. Fifty-one root samples were selected for molecular identification using DNA barcoding using three markers, trnH-psbA, rpoC1, and ITS. Sequences were searched using BLAST against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives submitted to NCBI GenBank. Principal Findings Combining psbA-trnH, rpoC1, and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to species level. Few of the species level barcoding identifications matched the scientific names given in the literature, including the most authoritative and widely cited pharmacopeia. Conclusions/Significance The four root complexes selected from the medicinal plant products traded in Marrakech all comprise more than one species, but not those previously asserted. The findings have major implications for the monitoring of trade in endangered plant species as morphology-based species identifications alone may not be accurate. As a result, trade in certain species may be overestimated, whereas the commercialization of other species may not be recorded at all. PMID:24416210
Sironi, Vittorio A; Riva, Michele A
Neurological and neuropsychological aspects of folk music and traditional dance have been poorly investigated by historical and scientific literature. Some of these performances could be indeed the manifestation of latent pathological conditions or the expression of liberation rituals. This chapter aimed at analyzing the relationships between traditional dance, folk music, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. Since ancient times, dance has been used in the individual or collective as treatment of some diseases, including epilepsy and movement disorders (dyskinesia, chorea, etc.). Dionysia in Ancient Greece, St. Vitus dance in the Middle Age, tarantism and other traditional dances of southern Italy and of non-Western countries might be credited as curative rituals of these neurological and psychiatric conditions. During the nineteenth century, dance was also used for the treatment of psychiatric patients; the relationship between dance and insanity could also be reflected in classical ballets and music of that period. Nowadays, neuropsychiatric manifestations could also be evidenced in modern dances (mass fainting at rock concerts, flash mobs); some ballroom dances are commonly used for the rehabilitation of patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric conditions. Interdisciplinary research on these subjects (ethnomusicology and cultural anthropology, clinical neurology and dynamic psychology, neuroradiology and neurophysiology, and socioneurology and neuromusicology) should be increased. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... nurse with a graduate degree in advanced practice nursing. This type of provider may also be referred to as an ARNP (Advanced Registered Nurse Practitioner) or APRN (Advanced Practice Registered Nurse). Types of health care providers is a related topic.
Moonsammy, Rita Zorn
This New Jersey Folk Artists in Education program brings community educators together with professional educators to enrich students' appreciation of their own and others' traditional cultures at the same time as they develop basic skills. The life stories of nine folk artists and their communities, as well as the stories of how they work together…
Kulich, Jindra; Bron-Wojciechowska, Agnieszka
Polish folk high schools are modeled after schools developed in the mid-1850s in Denmark to provide general, non-credit education for young adults in rural areas. The main objectives of the folk high schools are to provide a climate for individual student development and to serve as centers where young adults can learn about their cultural…
Elyagutu, Dilek Cantekin; Hazar, Muhsin
In this research, Movement Notation (Laban) and Traditional Method in Folk dance Teaching were compared in terms of learning success. Movement notation group (n = 14) and Traditional group (n = 14) consisting of students from the S.U. State Conservatory Turkish Folk Dance Department were formed. During the 14-week-long study, the symbols of the…
Paulston, Rolland G.
The book presents 13 articles which examine objectives, practices, sociocultural influences, and limitations of folk high schools in Northern Europe and North America from 1800 to the 1970s. Folk high schools are residential education institutions for young adults which are based upon heightening individual consciousness and commitment to a…
As Chinese traditional folk culture, folk games have unique educational value which can boost the development of young children's fine motor. Based on previous investigation of fine motor skill of children in Nanchong, Sichuan Province, the researcher chose a middle class in public city kindergarten A with lower survey score as the study object.…
African-American Inst., New York, NY. School Services Div.
This module contains two African folk tales about death, two descriptions of African funerals, a lesson plan with 11 questions exploring the finality of and customs surrounding death, and a bibliography of five books which deal with African religious beliefs. The folk tales present concepts of death and immortality of the soul. The descriptions of…
Brose, David A.
Folk and settlement schools have served predominantly Anglo-American constituents and have focused upon Anglo-American and western European traditions. The John C. Campbell Folk School (JCCFS) was founded in southwestern North Carolina in 1925. The school's founder, Olive Dame Campbell, was considered progressive in her time in desiring to serve…
Smith. KC, Ed.
This information and activity booklet discusses the Florida Folk Festival, a celebration that offers students and teachers an opportunity to hear music, taste foods, see folk art demonstrations, observe dance, and listen to stories that celebrate Florida's cultural and ethnic legacies. The booklet offers resources for learning about Florida…
This paper, after shortly introducing "Folk Linguistics" by defining its domain of competence [cf. Preston, Dennis R., ed. 1999. "Handbook of Perceptual Dialectology." Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Niedzielski, Nancy A., and Dennis R. Preston. 2003. "Folk Linguistics." Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter], attempts to draw an…
Tuft, Mia; Nakken, Karl O; Kverndokk, Kyrre
In Norway and Sweden, epilepsy has for many centuries been considered a strange and mysterious disease. The explanations of its causes have been many and imaginative. One being that epilepsy was caused by the hidden people inhabiting the woods and the mountains. To avoid the disease, these hidden people should not be annoyed. One commonly used treatment principle was to try to place the disease back to the ground, or passing the diseased through a hole or an opening in the nature. Fresh blood from criminals was also considered to have strong antiepileptic properties. In the Scandinavian countries, some of these folk beliefs have been very tenacious. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boyer, Pascal; Petersen, Michael Bang
The domain of "folk-economics" consists in explicit beliefs about the economy held by laypeople, untrained in economics, about such topics as e.g., the causes of the wealth of nations, the benefits or drawbacks of markets and international trade, the effects of regulation, the origins of inequality, the connection between work and wages, the economic consequences of immigration, or the possible causes of unemployment. These beliefs are crucial in forming people's political beliefs, and in shaping their reception of different policies. Yet, they often conflict with elementary principles of economic theory and are often described as the consequences of ignorance, irrationality or specific biases. As we will argue, these past perspectives fail to predict the particular contents of popular folk-economic beliefs and, as a result, there is no systematic study of the cognitive factors involved in their emergence and cultural success. Here we propose that the cultural success of particular beliefs about the economy is predictable if we consider the influence of specialized, largely automatic inference systems that evolved as adaptations to ancestral human small-scale sociality. These systems, for which there is independent evidence, include free-rider detection, fairness-based partner-choice, ownership intuitions, coalitional psychology, and more. Information about modern mass-market conditions activates these specific inference-systems, resulting in particular intuitions, e.g., that impersonal transactions are dangerous or that international trade is a zero-sum game. These intuitions in turn make specific policy proposals more likely than others to become intuitively compelling, and as a consequence exert a crucial influence on political choices.
Hamm, Eric; Muramoto, Myra L; Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Govindarajan, Lubna
To provide a snapshot of provider-based complementary and alternative medicine (pbCAM) use among adult smokers and assess the opportunity for these providers to deliver tobacco cessation interventions. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2002 and 2007 National Health Interview Surveys. Nationally representative sample. A total of 54,437 (31,044 from 2002; 23,393 from 2007) adults 18 years and older. The analysis focuses on 10 types of pbCAM, including acupuncture, Ayurveda, biofeedback, chelation therapy, chiropractic care, energy therapy, folk medicine, hypnosis, massage, and naturopathy. The proportions of current smokers using any pbCAM as well as specific types of pbCAM in 2002 and 2007 are compared using SAS SURVEYLOGISTIC. Between 2002 and 2007, the percentage of recent users of any pbCAM therapy increased from 12.5% to 15.4% (p = .001). The largest increases occurred in massage, chiropractic, and acupuncture. Despite a decrease in the national average of current smokers (22.0% to 19.4%; p = .001), proportions of smokers within specific pbCAM disciplines remained consistent. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners, particularly those in chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage, represent new cohorts in the health care community to promote tobacco cessation. There is an opportunity to provide brief tobacco intervention training to CAM practitioners and engage them in public health efforts to reduce the burden of tobacco use in the United States.
Hansen, Karen Kirhofer
Reviews a variety of folk remedies such as coining (Southeast Asia), cupping (primarily Russia), and moxibustion (Asia), which may be confused with child abuse. It especially considers the Hispanic folk illness "caida de mollera" (fallen fontanelle) but rejects the idea in the literature that folk treatment can cause the injuries seen in…
Natanzon, Iris; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Götz, Katja; Joos, Stefanie
Due to a--depending on the region--already existent or predicted lack of general practitioners, the German health care is confronted with a serious problem. Besides the political general conditions and problems regarding the vocational training, social changes can influence the attractiveness of general practitioners' profession, thereby possibly also effecting a lack of young general practitioners. The aim of this study was to explore, which image exists of general practitioners' profession from their viewpoint and which social developments influence their image. A qualitative study was undertaken by interviewing 16 general practitioners in their practices or in the Department of General Practice and Health Service Research, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Germany. From the general practitioners' point of view, the image they have is positive in people from rural districts and the elder generation, but negative in younger people and urbanites. The image is influenced by the following social changes: declining social competencies, obligation and responsibility, an increasing distance to illness and sick persons as well as an increasing flexibility. Since particularly younger people have a negative opinion of general practitioners and young physicians belong to that target group, the subject general medicine might be less attractive to trainees. That is why the general practitioner is not perceived as a professional future perspective. Social changes influencing the choice of career should increasingly be considered as a starting point for the development of approaches directed against the lack of trainees in general medicine.
Yeşilada, E; Ustün, O; Sezik, E; Takaishi, Y; Ono, Y; Honda, G
In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 55 extracts or fractions obtained from 10 plant species on interleukin-1 (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) biosynthesis were studied. The following plant materials from Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases which are thought to be inflammatory in nature e.g. rheumatism, fever, infections, edemas or related inflammatory diseases were selected as the subject of this study: Cistus laurifolius leaves, Clematis flammna flowering herbs, Crataegus orientalis roots, Daphne oleoides ssp. oleoides whole plant, Ecbalium elaterium roots, Rosa canina roots, Rubus discolor roots, Rubus hirtus roots, Sambucus ebulus flowers and leaves, Sambucus nigra flowers and leaves. All plants showed inhibitory activity against at least one of these models in various percentages depending upon the concentration, thus supporting the folkloric utilization. Daphne oleoides was found to be the most active plant against the test models.
Binder, Louis S.; Chappell, James A.
The Scientific Board of the California Medical Association presents the following inventory of items of progress in emergency medicine. Each item, in the judgment of a panel of knowledgeable physicians, has recently become reasonably firmly established, both as to scientific fact and important clinical significance. The items are presented in simple epitome, and an authoritative reference, both to the item itself and to the subject as a whole, is generally given for those who may be unfamiliar with a particular item. The purpose is to assist busy practitioners, students, researchers, or scholars to stay abreast of these items of progress in emergency medicine that have recently achieved a substantial degree of authoritative acceptance, whether in their own field of special interest or another. The items of progress listed below were selected by the Advisory Panel to the Section on Emergency Medicine of the California Medical Association, and the summaries were prepared under its direction. PMID:1949777
Hackeling, Joan, Comp.
This list of print and electronic resources is designed to act as a springboard to assist practitioners in finding information to start implementing sustainability efforts on their campuses. The resources are listed in the following categories: general, international, K-12, policy/partnerships, campus environmental assessments, green building,…
I have been delivering the flexible family work approaches outlined in this supplement at Aquarius for the past 8 years. Aquarius is an English Midlands-based addictions charity working with people who have problems with alcohol, drugs, or gambling and supporting their family members/concerned others. I have been a practitioner participating in…
Overcoming the following obstacles will set the stage for meaningful school reform: (1) asking the wrong questions; (2) inadequate teacher preparation for reform; (3) opinions of "friendly" critics and inadequate advocates; (4) contempt for practitioners working directly with children; and (5) the criteria used to judge success. (SLD)
Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C; Kruse-Weber, Silke
The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres.
Benedek, Mathias; Borovnjak, Barbara; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.; Kruse-Weber, Silke
The music genre of jazz is commonly associated with creativity. However, this association has hardly been formally tested. Therefore, this study aimed at examining whether jazz musicians actually differ in creativity and personality from musicians of other music genres. We compared students of classical music, jazz music, and folk music with respect to their musical activities, psychometric creativity and different aspects of personality. In line with expectations, jazz musicians are more frequently engaged in extracurricular musical activities, and also complete a higher number of creative musical achievements. Additionally, jazz musicians show higher ideational creativity as measured by divergent thinking tasks, and tend to be more open to new experiences than classical musicians. This study provides first empirical evidence that jazz musicians show particularly high creativity with respect to domain-specific musical accomplishments but also in terms of domain-general indicators of divergent thinking ability that may be relevant for musical improvisation. The findings are further discussed with respect to differences in formal and informal learning approaches between music genres. PMID:24895472
Focuses on Walt Disney and Shelley Duvall, mass media producers who furnish children with fairy-folklore. Compares and contrasts what Disney and Duvall do and do not convey through their fairy-folk tales. (MS)
Ferreira, Felipe S; Brito, Samuel V; Ribeiro, Samuel C; Saraiva, Antônio A F; Almeida, Waltécio O; Alves, Rômulo R N
Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species. A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises). The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products - and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in alternative medicine is fundamental to the
Ferreira, Felipe S; Brito, amuel V; Ribeiro, Samuel C; Saraiva, Antônio AF; Almeida, Waltécio O; Alves, Rômulo RN
Background Human communities consistently develop a detailed knowledge of the therapeutical and medicinal properties of the local flora and fauna, and these folk remedies often substitute medicines produced by the pharmaceutical industry. Animals (and their derived products) are essential ingredients in the preparation of many traditional remedies. The present work prepared an inventory of the animals sold in public markets in the cities of Crato and Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará State, Brazil. Methods Information was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires in interviews held with 27 merchants of medicinal animals (18 in the municipality of Juazeiro do Norte [11 men and 7 women] and 9 people in the municipality of Crato [6 men and 3 women]). We calculated the Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) to determine the consensus over which species are effective for particular ailments, as well as the species Use Value (UV) to determine the extent of utilization of each species. Results A total of 31 animal species, distributed among 21 families were identified as being used medicinally. The taxa most represented were: insects (8 species), mammals (7), fish (5), reptiles (5) and birds (4). The animals sold in these markets are used to treat a total of 24 ailments, with rheumatism, asthma, and inflammations having the largest numbers of citations. Three species not previously reported as having medicinal use were encountered: Leporinus steindachneri (utilized for treating cholesterol problems), Gryllus assimilis (utilized in treating urinary infections), and Phrynops tuberosus (used to treat asthma, rheumatism and bruises). Conclusion The composition of the local fauna, the popular culture, and commercial considerations are factors that maintain and drive the market for therapeutic animal products – and the lack of monitoring and regulation of this commerce is worrisome from a conservationist perspective. A detailed knowledge of the fauna utilized in
Lai, Ruanne Y J; Krasnow, Donna; Thomas, Martin
The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns of communication between professional and pre-professional dancers and medical practitioners. One survey was developed and randomly conducted among family physicians, sports medicine physicians, chiropractors, physical therapists, and registered massage therapists. A second survey involved volunteer ballet and modern dancers in professional dance training programs, college and university dance programs, and independent dance artists. One hundred and ninety questionnaires were distributed to medical practitioners, and 50 were returned. Of 380 questionnaires given to dancers, 202 were returned. The dancers were 18 to 49 years old, with a majority between the ages of 18 and 20. They averaged more than 10 years of dance training. All of the questionnaires were distributed in a single large Canadian city. The data shows that medical practitioners rarely communicated with each other concerning a common (dance) patient. They also failed to communicate, in most cases, with the dancers' teachers, choreographers, and directors. This was not disconcerting to injured dancers, who tended to believe that such communication was not important to their recovery. Significantly, dancers did not fully understand the nature of their injuries when they sought medical advice, and they did not press the medical practitioners for additional information. Both groups generally believed that dancers would benefit by learning more about human anatomy.
Greenfield, Robert H.; Kardaun, Jan W. P. F.
The " crisis" in rural health care i. e. the decreasing number of practitioners is partially caused by the increasing use of technology in health care. Health care practitioners in rural Canada are progressively finding their practice more difficult because of their isolation from the population centers housing many of the services and supplies needed in the modern practice of medicine. The centralization of these supplies and services results from the increasing use of technology in medicine. It is uneconomical to place expensive equipment highly trained technicians and consultants and well-stocked and current information sources in rural locations where they are underutilized. Thus over the years the increasing use of technology makes rural practice more difficult and less attractive in comparison to an urban practice that can easily and cheaply employ the benefits of technology and expert consultation. The Saskatchewan situation is examined using data collected by the authors and compared to other rural areas reported in the literature. The ways that computer communications can help alleviate this situation are explained and illustrated through a review of North American telematics activities. Telematic services for physicians are developing in North America. This is in synergy with the increasing ownership of computers by physicians. We contrast the Canadian scene with the American. Telematics is a technological approach that can be employed to reduce the isolation of rural health care practitioners. It can provide
Templin, Thomas J.; And Others
Seven articles discuss research by and for practitioners. The topics include demystification of research for practitioners, experiences with helping teacher researchers, an application of a collaborative action research model, one health practitioner's experience, creating a dance research database, basic data analysis for nonresearchers, and why…
Gray, D. J. Pereira
Primary medical care can be provided either by a bureaucratic hierarchical organization or alternatively by independent contractors. Most members of the caring professions in medicine, nursing, and social work are employed in bureaucracies, whereas general medical practitioners, general dental practitioners, opticians, and pharmacists are independent contractors. The independent contractor status has recently been heavily attacked from within the medical and nursing professions, and also from outside. It has been suggested that contracting for services is an inappropriate and anomalous way of arranging medical care, which should now be stopped. However, this process of contracting for services can be analysed, using perspectives from some of the behavioural sciences, to reveal hidden depths in the independent contractor status which suggest that the provision of primary medical care is best carried out by independent contractors. PMID:616865
Delcambre, Angie C., Comp.; And Others
This finding aid is a selected list of supernatural-related narratives recorded in the United States and held in the Archive of Folk Culture of the Library of Congress. Brief descriptions of the recordings are accompanied by identification numbers. Information about listening to or ordering any of the listed recordings is available from the…
Background CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Discussion Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Summary Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health workforce shortages
CAM practitioners are a valuable but underutilizes resource in Australian health care. Despite increasing public support for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) little is known about the CAM workforce. Apart from the registered professions of chiropractic, osteopathy and Chinese medicine, accurate information about the number of CAM practitioners in the workforce has been difficult to obtain. It appears that many non-registered CAM practitioners, although highly qualified, are not working to their full capacity. Increasing public endorsement of CAM stands in contrast to the negative attitude toward the CAM workforce by some members of the medical and other health professions and by government policy makers. The marginalisation of the CAM workforce is evident in prejudicial attitudes held by some members of the medical and other health professions and its exclusion from government policy making. Inconsistent educational standards has meant that non-registered CAM practitioners, including highly qualified and competent ones, are frequently overlooked. Legitimising their contribution to the health workforce could alleviate workforce shortages and provide opportunities for redesigned job roles and new multidisciplinary teams. Priorities for better utilisation of the CAM workforce include establishing a guaranteed minimum education standard for more CAM occupation groups through national registration, providing interprofessional education that includes CAM practitioners, developing courses to upgrade CAM practitioners' professional skills in areas of indentified need, and increasing support for CAM research. Marginalisation of the CAM workforce has disadvantaged those qualified and competent CAM practitioners who practise evidence-informed medicine on the basis of many years of university training. Legitimising and expanding the important contribution of CAM practitioners could alleviate projected health workforce shortages, particularly for the prevention and
Rubens, D; Gyurkovics, D; Hornacek, K
Despite powerful opposition, natural medicine (NM) has achieved a toe-hold in the state-run biomedical system in the Slovak Republic. The physician-leader of the NM movement hopes to leverage his ministerial post as NM 'supreme expert' and his interlocking NM clinical and research facilities to achieve a complex, unified health care system under control of medical doctors. This health care model simultaneously reinforces biomedical hegemony and decenters classical medicine by substituting a bioenergetical paradigm. NM includes, among other diagnostic and healing modalities, acupuncture, herbal therapies, bee therapy, reflexology, iridology. However, its paradigmatic form is bioterapia, the focus of this paper. Bioterapia is a form of psychic healing or therapeutic touch. According to its practitioners, it is based on bioenergetic and information-processing principles. Conceptually, bioterapia unifies psyche, soma and energy dimensions of the human body and situates the human organism in an extended transpersonal social, physical and cosmological environment. Bioterapia is a scientized and medicalized reconstruction of a folk healing tradition whose appropriation simultaneously secularized and re-sacralized this tradition by re-locating its practice from lay healers to medical doctors, from the religious domain to the venerated scientific domain, from deviant science to normal science. The reconfiguration into bioterapia as part of the creation of an academic secular parapsychology in the former Soviet Bloc in the late 1960s, illustrates the use of the privileged discourse of science for a cultural production that seems to have both supported and subverted the regime.
Nemutandani, Simon M; Hendricks, Stephen J; Mulaudzi, Mavis F
The indigenous health system was perceived to be a threat to the allopathic health system. It was associated with 'witchcraft', and actively discouraged, and repressed through prohibition laws. The introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 of 2007 brought hope that those centuries of disrespect for traditional health systems would change. The study examined the perceptions and experiences of allopathic health practitioners on collaboration with traditional health practitioners in post-apartheid South Africa. Qualitative descriptive research methodology was used to collect data from allopathic health practitioners employed by Limpopo's Department of Health. In-depth focus group discussions and meetings were conducted between January and August 2014. Perceptions and experiences of working with traditional health practitioners were explored. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Pretoria and approval from the Department's Research Committee. Dominant views were that the two health systems were not compatible with respect to the science involved and the source of knowledge. Overall, quality of health care will be compromised if traditional health practitioners are allowed to work in public health facilities. Allopathic health practitioners do not appear ready to work with traditional health practitioners, citing challenges of quality of health care, differences regarding concept of sciences and source of knowledge; and lack of policy on collaboration. Lack of exposure to traditional medicine seems to impede opportunities to accept and work with traditional healers. Exposure and training at undergraduate level regarding the traditional health system is recommended. Policy guidelines on collaborations are urgently required.
Need of Department of General Practice / Family Medicine at AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences): Why the apex medical institute in India should also contribute towards training and education of general practitioners and family physicians.
Pal, Ranabir; Kumar, Raman
Family medicine or general practice is the practicing discipline of the majority doctors in India, however formal academic departments of general practice (or family medicine) do not exist in India, as it is not a mandatory requirement as prescribed by the Medical Council of India; the principal regulator of medical education. Currently India has capacity to produce more than 60,000 medical graduates per year, majority of whom are expected to become general practitoners or primary care doctors without under going any vocational training in general practice or family medicine. The 92 nd parliamentary standing committee report (on health and family welfare) of the Indian Parliament recommended that Government of India in coordination with State Governments should establish robust postgraduate programs in Family Medicine and facilitate introducing Family Medicine discipline in all medical colleges. This will not only minimize the need for frequent referrals to specialist and decrease the load on tertiary care but also provide continuous health care for the individuals and families. The authors concur with the parliament of India and strongly feel that "Family Medicine" (community-based comprehensive clinical practice) deserves dedicated and distinct department at all medical colleges in India in order to availability of qualified medical doctors in the community-based health system. AIIMS, New Delhi, along with other newly established AIIMS, should rise to their foundation mandate of supporting excellence in all disciplines of medical science and to this historic responsibility; and not just remain an ivory tower of tertiary care based fragmented (into sub specialties) hospital culture.
Gao, Cai-Yun; Ma, Ting; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi
Physagulides M-O, three new withanolides (1-3), were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis angulata L. Their structures were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations (22-R) of these new compounds were determined by CD analysis. Compounds 1 and 3 showed significant selective cytotoxic activities on the MG-63 cell line, with IC50 values of 4.28 and 5.44 μM, respectively.
Moreno-Salazar, S F; Robles-Zepeda, R E; Johnson, D E
This paper describes the herbal remedies used by ethnic groups from Sonora, Mexico, for treatment of gastrointestinal diseases. Twelve types of these illnesses are cured using 85 different species which belong to 38 families. Thirty nine spp. are used to treat diarrhea, 28 for stomach-ache, 12 for constipation, 9 for intestinal parasites, 6 for indigestion, 3 for stomach or intestinal cancer, 3 for stomach inflammation and only 1 to treat gastrointestinal sicknesses, ulcers, gastritis, colitis and colic. Regarding the use of species of plant per ethnic group the following was observed: Mayo 47; Seri, 27; Yaqui, 13; Guarijio, 12, Pima, 5 and Papago, 3. The plants are used by two or more tribes, for the same or different illness but always related to the gastrointestinal system.
Maruyama, Takuro; Kawamura, Maiko; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro
In the course of our study on the quality of dietary supplements in Japan, both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence of nrDNA and the rps16 intron sequence of cpDNA of products labeled as "Kwao Keur" were investigated. As a result, the DNA sequence of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, which is the source plant of Kwao Keur, was observed in only about half of the products. Inferred from the determined sequences, source plants in the other products included Medicago sativa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Pachyrhizus erosus, and Ipomoea batatas, etc. These inferior products are estimated to lack the efficacy implied by their labeling. In order to guarantee the quality of dietary supplements, it is important to identify the source materials exactly; in addition, an infrastructure that can exclude these inferior products from the market is needed for the protection of consumers from potential damage to their health and finances. The DNA analysis performed in this study is useful for this purpose.
Arenas, P; Azorero, R M
Information on the use of plants for contraception and abortion inducement among the rural indigenous inhabitants of Paraguay was collected by surveying 223 obstetricians and 17 local vendors. Information obtained on 33 commonly used plants is presented in tabular form. For each plant, the table provides 1) the scientific name; 2) the local name; 3) the part of the plant used; 4) how the plant is prepared for consumption; 5) the quantity used, described as a bunch, a handful, a few roots, or pieces; and 6) the taste, described as either pleasant, bitter, or sour. 2 or more of these plants are frequently mixed and administered in combination. The proportions used in these combinations are not very exact. The plants are taken in combination either to create a more concentrated effect or to insure that at least one effective drug will be consumed. 14 of these combinations are presented.
Weiland, Sandra A
This Gadamerian hermeneutic study was undertaken to understand the meaning of autonomy as interpreted by nurse practitioners (NPs) through their lived experiences of everyday practice in primary health care. A purposive sample of nine NPs practicing in primary health care was used. Network sampling achieved a broad swath of primary care NPs and practice settings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews. Because NP autonomy is concerned with gender and marginalization, Gilligan's feminist perspective was utilized during interpretive analysis. Having Genuine NP Practice was the major theme, reflecting the participants' overall meaning of their autonomy. Practicing alone with the patient provided the context within which participants shaped the meaning of Having Genuine NP Practice. Having Genuine NP Practice had four subthemes: relationships, self-reliance, self-empowerment, and defending the NP role. The understanding of Having Genuine NP Practice will enable NPs to articulate their autonomy clearly and better influence healthcare reform. Implications for advanced practice nursing education include integrating findings into classroom discussion to prompt self-reflection of what autonomy means and socialization to the NP role. ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Need of Department of General Practice / Family Medicine at AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences): Why the apex medical institute in India should also contribute towards training and education of general practitioners and family physicians
Pal, Ranabir; Kumar, Raman
Family medicine or general practice is the practicing discipline of the majority doctors in India, however formal academic departments of general practice (or family medicine) do not exist in India, as it is not a mandatory requirement as prescribed by the Medical Council of India; the principal regulator of medical education. Currently India has capacity to produce more than 60,000 medical graduates per year, majority of whom are expected to become general practitoners or primary care doctors without under going any vocational training in general practice or family medicine. The 92nd parliamentary standing committee report (on health and family welfare) of the Indian Parliament recommended that Government of India in coordination with State Governments should establish robust postgraduate programs in Family Medicine and facilitate introducing Family Medicine discipline in all medical colleges. This will not only minimize the need for frequent referrals to specialist and decrease the load on tertiary care but also provide continuous health care for the individuals and families. The authors concur with the parliament of India and strongly feel that “Family Medicine” (community-based comprehensive clinical practice) deserves dedicated and distinct department at all medical colleges in India in order to availability of qualified medical doctors in the community-based health system. AIIMS, New Delhi, along with other newly established AIIMS, should rise to their foundation mandate of supporting excellence in all disciplines of medical science and to this historic responsibility; and not just remain an ivory tower of tertiary care based fragmented (into sub specialties) hospital culture. PMID:29302511
van Gameren, Edwin
Objectives I analyze the effect of coverage by health insurance on the use of alternative medicine such as folk healers and homeopaths, in particular if it complements or substitutes conventional services. Methods Panel data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) is used to estimate bivariate probit models in order to explain the use of alternative medicine while allowing the determinant of interest, access to health insurance, to be an endogenous factor. Results The findings indicate that households with insurance coverage less often use alternative medicine, and that the effect is much stronger among poor than among rich households. Conclusions Poor households substitute away from traditional medicine towards conventional medicine. PMID:20546965
Li, Jiawei; Kendall, Graham
In evolutionary game theory, evolutionarily stable states are characterised by the folk theorem because exact solutions to the replicator equation are difficult to obtain. It is generally assumed that the folk theorem, which is the fundamental theory for non-cooperative games, defines all Nash equilibria in infinitely repeated games. Here, we prove that Nash equilibria that are not characterised by the folk theorem do exist. By adopting specific reactive strategies, a group of players can be better off by coordinating their actions in repeated games. We call it a type-k equilibrium when a group of k players coordinate their actions and they have no incentive to deviate from their strategies simultaneously. The existence and stability of the type-k equilibrium in general games is discussed. This study shows that the sets of Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable states have greater cardinality than classic game theory has predicted in many repeated games. PMID:26288088
Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos
The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alviano, Wagner S; Alviano, Daniela S; Diniz, Cláudio G; Antoniolli, Angelo R; Alviano, Celuta S; Farias, Luiz M; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora R; Souza, Margareth M G; Bolognese, Ana Maria
This study aims to determine antibacterial activities of Cocos nucifera (husk fiber), Ziziphus joazeiro (inner bark), Caesalpinia pyramidalis (leaves), aqueous extracts and Aristolochia cymbifera (rhizomes) alcoholic extract against Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus casei. The antioxidant activity and acute toxicity of these extracts were also evaluated. The plant extracts antibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth micro-dilution assay. The bacterial killing kinetic was also evaluated for all extracts. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was tested in vitro on artificial oral biofilms. The acute toxicity of each extract was determined in according to Lorke [Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch Toxicol 1983;54:275-87] and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH photometric assay [Mensor LL, Menezes FS, Leitão GG, Reis AS, Santos TC, Coube CS, et al. Screening of Brazilian plants extract for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytother Res 2001;15:127-30]. MIC and the bactericidal concentrations were identical, for each evaluated extract. However, microbes of artificial biofilms were less sensitive to the extracts than the planktonic strains. A. cymbifera extract induced the highest bactericidal effect against all tested bacteria, followed by C. nucifera, Z. joazeiro and C. pyramidalis extracts, respectively. All extracts showed good antioxidant potential, being C. nucifera and C. pyramidalis aqueous extracts the most active ones. In conclusion, all oral bacteria tested (planktonic or in artificial biofilms) were more susceptible to, and rapidly killed in presence of A. cymbifera, C. pyramidalis and C. nucifera than Z. joazeiro extracts, respectively. Thus, these extracts may be of great interest for future studies about treatment of oral diseases, considering their potent antioxidant activity and low toxicity.
Mancini, Joseph A.
This applied dissertation presented a mixed method design to gain a broader perspective of the perceptions of classroom management practitioners within a particular school district. Many teachers, or practitioners, experience issues with classroom management because of their understanding of strategies they use. Because of the researcher's…
Kiili, Rebecca Kapolei
The author's introduction to the field of qualitative research in the EdD program began with analyzing the artistry of a practitioner researcher. Arriving in the space of an emerging artist practitioner researcher has been soulfully synchronistic and life affirming because of the magic the author has experienced in the convergence and alignment of…
Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; de Jong, Frank P. C. M.; Vanderlinde, Ruben
This special issue recognizes EAPRIL as being a platform for practitioner and practice-based research and by organizing the 10th annual conference for practitioner research on improving learning in education and professional practice. Papers in this conference and in this special issue are rooted in practice-based research or practitioner…
This paper examines the concept of "empathetic validity," that is, the potential of practitioner research in its processes and outcomes to transform the emotional dispositions of people towards each other, such that greater empathy and regard are created. The paper argues that practitioner research that is high in empathetic validity…
Chinese folk art, known as "the small skills of carving insects," differs from artworks produced by skilled or highly educated Chinese artisans. Folk art is defined as works that are created by ordinary citizens and that often are items designed for personal use. The designation, "the small skills of carving insects," occurred…
Culig, Edna Aurora C.
In this quanto-historical study, the author conducted a content analysis of Asian-Pacific (AP) folk songs in 18 American elementary music textbooks published from 1967 to 2008. The researcher addressed the questions: (1) To what degree are AP folk songs included in the printed and recorded repertoire of elementary music textbook series published…
This article briefly discusses a seminar that will focus on the fifth annual Folk Art Festival at the Museum of International Folk Art in Santa Fe, with additional emphasis on Georgia O'Keeffe's life and art in New Mexico, and Hispanic and Native American cultural traditions. Activities include museum visits, field trips, invited speakers,…
Erickson, Erik Kristian
This study explored the influence attending a Norwegian folk high school had on the long-term well-being of former students. The Norwegian folk high schools represent a unique form of publicly funded education with an emphasis on learning through shared experience and that by law, the schools cannot issue grades, give formal examinations, or…
Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham
Recent literature suggests that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the pedagogical conventions of formal music education. Whilst several recent studies have tended to define these non-classical-music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk music that was recently introduced…
Kang, Sangmi; Yoo, Hyesoo
The purpose of this study was to reveal the effects of Westernized arrangements of traditional Korean folk music on music familiarity and preference. Two separate labs in one intact class were assigned to one of two treatment groups of either listening to traditional Korean folk songs (n?=?18) or listening to Western arrangements of the same…
Srivastava, T. N.; Rajasekharan, S.; Badola, D. P.; Shah, D. C.
Kesar has been an important ingredient of the recipes of our ancient physicians in the field of Indian systems of medicine and its cultivation is a monopoly of Jammu and Kashmir. This paper presents in detail the historical review, botanical description, vernacular names, distribution in India and world, cultivation, collection, preservation and storage, adulterants, purity tests, chemical composition, action and uses, folk – lore claims and markets with special reference to its medicinal utility. PMID:22557503
Ludden-Schlatter, Alicia; Wells, Jack; Kruse, Robin L
Procedural training is integral to family medicine residencies. Although accreditation bodies require that family medicine residency programs train residents in procedures relevant to their practices, there are no standards defining the scope of family medicine. We compared the perceived importance of 31 procedures by faculty, residents, and recent graduates of one institution. An online survey was sent to current residents and faculty of a large academic family medicine residency, as well as community practitioners who had graduated from that residency within the past 5 years. The survey asked participants to rate how important 31 procedures are for family medicine practices. The overall response rate was 37%. Most respondents provided outpatient care, and few provided or intended to provide obstetric care. Dermatologic and musculoskeletal procedures were rated as having high importance by all groups, whereas obstetric and inpatient procedures received lower ratings. Residents ascribed higher importance than faculty or recent graduates for nearly all procedures. Most residents, faculty, and community practitioners provided outpatient care and rated dermatologic and musculoskeletal procedures as important. Inpatient and obstetric care are less common career paths, and related procedures were rated as less important. Resident physicians ascribed greater importance than community practitioners for many procedures, which may be due misperceptions of their future practice needs or imposed requirements for graduation.
Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in
Harris, Cordelia Graves
Preparation for teaching dance to orthopedically handicapped students is discussed in addition to specific suggestions for teaching popular dance, square dance, folk dance, modern dance, and ballet. Dancing is seen as a way to give orthopedically handicapped students physical education success without competition. Recommended music for each type…
This interdisciplinary, bilingual curriculum resource, contains a 29-minute videotape program, 20 colorplate posters, and a curriculum guide. The resource presents an examination of the folklife and folklore expressions of the Hispanic people of New Mexico. The focus of the curriculum is the relationship of survival-based folk activities to the…
Kubicek, Katrina; Carpineto, Julie; McDavitt, Bryce; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F.; Au, Chi-Wai; Kerrone, Dustin; Martinez, Miguel; Kipke, Michele D.
Risks associated with HIV are well documented in research literature. Although a great deal has been written about high-risk sex, little research has been conducted to examine how young men who have sex with men (YMSM) perceive and define high-risk sexual behavior. In this study, we compare the "professional" and "folk" models of HIV risk based on…
Chen, Yu-Ting; Walsh, Daniel J.
Drawing on Bruner's notion of folk pedagogy, this research explores how Chinese aesthetic education is perceived and valued at two elementary schools in Taiwan. Using qualitative methods, the research explores how arts teachers guide children to experience arts through the arts curricula in school and the local culture. The study reveals that the…
Orators of folk literature and nursery rhymes entertain, inform, and persuade their audiences through the straightforward plots in those genres. Because nursery rhymes recitations usually happen in groups, they help children acquire the mechanics of oral communication and promote communal bonding. Although nursery rhymes have a simpler form than…
Han, Ruochen; Leung, Bo Wah
In mainland China, the implementation of the junior secondary school's music curriculum is highly dependent on music teachers' attitudes towards music and music education. This study investigated the possible relationship between teachers' attitudes towards teaching Chinese folk music and their music teaching practice in junior secondary schools…
Robbins, Rockey; Hong, Ji; Jennings, Aaron M.
This article employs a qualitative case study approach to describe the views and perspectives of a folk healer (White Bear) regarding spiritual healing. White Bear argues for a mobile, in-the-moment form of diagnosis and a "pause," in which the mind ceases to tyrannize and the healer is no longer absorbed in his or her emotions. He contends that a…
Demirci, Sirin Akbulut
The article presents the results of a study carried out within the scope of a project entitled, "Arranged Bursa Folk Songs for Fourhands Piano Extended Piano Techniques and Teaching in Music Education Departments." It is number KUAP (E)-2014/28 of the Uludag University Scientific Research Projects Unit and was supported by the Bursa…
Miller, Howard M., Ed.
Argues that multicultural education, if it is to be effective and meaningful, needs to be woven throughout the curriculum. Discusses 11 children's books that take into account the age and maturity level of students as they tell forthright stories of the victims, heroes, and just plain folks of the Holocaust, slavery, and the involuntary of…
Bernardita Silva; Marilynne Mann; Harold Daniel
Festivals and events are becoming increasingly important drivers of tourism activity in Maine. Based on a survey of festival visitors, this study used an IMPLANTM input-output model to estimate the economic impact of the 2008 American Folk Festival in Bangor, ME. The Center for Tourism Research and Outreach estimated that 95,626 local and...
Silnutzer, Randi, Ed.; Watrous, Beth Eildin, Ed.
Each chapter of this document describes a different project and approach for introducing students (elementary to high school) to oral history and folk arts. All chapters use a standard format in which a general overview of the project, describing themes, philosophies, and methods are followed by sample lesson plans, teacher guidelines, and student…
Elstad, Eyvind; Christophersen, Knut Andreas; Turmo, Are
The folk high school (FHS) is a Nordic contribution to global education and is a unique approach to non-university adult education. Because expanded tuition is the true nature of Norwegian FHS, it is important for FHS that its teachers perform discretionary individual extra-role behaviour advantageous to the school organization, a phenomenon…
Dogan, Pinar Karacan
The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between social values perceptions and moral maturity levels of folk dancers, and evaluate this relation in terms of some variables. The relational screening model was used in the study. The "Multi-dimensional Social Values Scale," which was developed by Bolat (2013), and the…
Bennett, Paul W.
Discusses the Salem witchcraft trials as a reflection of the social and moral values of colonial Massachusetts and New France. Traces the history of the trials. Describes other instances of witchcraft and folk superstitions during that same historical period. Provides primary sources of a picture, map, and excerpts from letters pertaining to the…
An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...
Tall Bull, Henry; Weist, Tom
The book takes its title from the first of nine Northern Cheyenne folk tales, illustrated by Indian children in grades 2-8. The stories are: "The Turtle Went to War" about a turtle who makes war on the Indians and takes two scalps; "The Cat", explaining why cats eat first and wash later; "The Frog and the Watersnake",…
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of folk dance training on 5-6 year old Pre-school children's physical and social development. The experimental design with an experimental and control group was used in accordance with the quantitative research methods in this research. The research has been conducted with the participation of 40…
Lovorn, Michael G.
Social studies content is more meaningful to students when they can empathize with the people they study. Such empathy can be fostered via content material that is presented in a relevant, emotional, intimate, and even entertaining manner. Folk music offers this type of creative and constructive approach. The elementary school classroom is the…
Following a folk linguistic approach, this investigation of first-, second- and fourth-year learners' accounts of German found that (1) few had held pre-conceived notions about German prior to language study; (2) most pre-conceived notions concerned German pronunciation; (3) pre-conceived notions about vocabulary were most likely to influence the…
Yoo, Hyesoo; Kang, Sangmi
This article introduces a pedagogical approach to teaching one of the renowned Korean folk songs ("Arirang") based on the comprehensive musicianship approach and the 2014 Music Standards (competencies in performing, creating, and responding to music). The authors provide in-depth information for music educators to help their students…
A teaching/learning plan designed to provide the elementary classroom teacher with an overview of the geography, environment, culture, and people of Southeast Asia includes five sections on the following subjects: geography, animals, plants, social roles and occupations, and religion. Through the use of folk tales from each of six Southeast Asian…
Foght, H. W.
This bulletin contains the third section of Harold W. Foght's report on the rural schools of Denmark. This section of the report pertains almost wholly to the folk high schools, which have by common consent been the most important factor in the transformation in the rural life of Denmark and in the phenomenal economic and social development of…
Cho, Grace E.; Sandel, Todd L.; Miller, Peggy J.; Wang, Su-hua
The study investigates European American and Taiwanese grandmothers' folk theories of childrearing and self-esteem, building on an earlier comparison of mothers from the same families. Adopting methods that privilege local meanings, we bring grandmothers' voices into the conversation about childrearing, thereby contributing to a deeper…
This paper reviews and compares folk theories and empirical evidence about the influence of parenthood on happiness and life satisfaction. The review of attitudes toward parenthood and childlessness reveals that people tend to believe that parenthood is central to a meaningful and fulfilling life, and that the lives of childless people are…
Zamudio, Fernando; Hilgert, Norma I
Not long ago Eugene Hunn suggested using a combination of cognitive, linguistic, ecological and evolutionary theories in order to account for the dynamic character of ethnoecology in the study of folk classification systems. In this way he intended to question certain homogeneity in folk classifications models and deepen in the analysis and interpretation of variability in folk classifications. This paper studies how a rural culturally mixed population of the Atlantic Forest of Misiones (Argentina) classified honey-producing stingless bees according to the linguistic, cognitive and ecological dimensions of folk classification. We also analyze the socio-ecological meaning of binomialization in naming and the meaning of general local variability in the appointment of stingless bees. We used three different approaches: the classical approach developed by Brent Berlin which relies heavily on linguistic criteria, the approach developed by Eleonor Rosch which relies on psychological (cognitive) principles of categorization and finally we have captured the ecological dimension of folk classification in local narratives. For the second approximation, we developed ways of measuring the degree of prototypicality based on a total of 107 comparisons of the type "X is similar to Y" identified in personal narratives. Various logical and grouping strategies coexist and were identified as: graded of lateral linkage, hierarchical and functional. Similarity judgments among folk taxa resulted in an implicit logic of classification graded according to taxa's prototypicality. While there is a high agreement on naming stingless bees with monomial names, a considerable number of underrepresented binomial names and lack of names were observed. Two possible explanations about reported local naming variability are presented. We support the multidimensionality of folk classification systems. This confirms the specificity of local classification systems but also reflects the use of grouping
To examine overall job satisfaction and its association with extrinsic and intrinsic characteristics of job satisfaction among nurse practitioners at the chosen practice site. The objectives were to identify relevant retention and recruitment strategies, from the nurse practitioners perspective, by examining (1) what role aspects are most satisfying, and (2) approaches for successful, professional development and integration in the role. Supportive professional practice environments are particularly important to nurses' satisfaction with their work and the quality of patient care provided. Hence, research that examines nurse practitioners practice implications and barriers in today's healthcare system is essential. A descriptive-correlational design using survey methodology. A nonprobability sample of convenience was used. The outcome measures were: The Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Scale and two investigator-developed surveys. Participants expressed dissatisfaction with professional and monetary recognition, assertive influence, administrative support and collegial relationships. Interaction of subscale factors on overall job satisfaction and demographic survey findings has important implications for health administrators and nurse practitioners in similar organisations. Stakeholders in healthcare milieus need to be fully engaged in the redesign of the American healthcare system heeding the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine to provide safer health systems to the public. By doing this, issues related to frustration by nurse practitioners related to job satisfaction will be addressed. The need for cooperation, participation, collaboration and instrumental communication are essential in the delivery of safe, quality patient care. A better understanding of intrinsic professional rewards needs to be learned by nurse practitioners who want to seek professional satisfaction and engage in the survival and growth of the profession. Nurse
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements. However, insufficiently elaborated, rich funds of oriental medical and pharmaceutical handwriting testify that Oriental science has nurtured in these areas as well, and that the Arabic component in a specific way was intertwined with other cultures and traditions of B&H. The Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina have museums which contain important exhibits and libraries rich in books, among which many from the field of medicine and pharmacy. Muslim mosques, also, had small libraries with Arabic books used for spreading medical knowledge. The second category was folk doctors and practitioners who were on disposition to the people of any religion. Some of them listened to lectures in medicine during the studies of theology and philosophy. However, most did not have any medical education, but by reading books and teaching experience they made their own recipe collection. Special books, called "Ljekaruše" (Books of recipes) were also born during the study when they came into contact with an even larger number of health books. However, it should not be neglected that a lot of them contained folk medicines that were used in some environments depending on the habits and available herbs. Although it has been proven that many recipes from Ljekaruše are pharmacologically and medically justified, one should not ignore the knowledge and skill behind
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements. However, insufficiently elaborated, rich funds of oriental medical and pharmaceutical handwriting testify that Oriental science has nurtured in these areas as well, and that the Arabic component in a specific way was intertwined with other cultures and traditions of B&H. The Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina have museums which contain important exhibits and libraries rich in books, among which many from the field of medicine and pharmacy. Muslim mosques, also, had small libraries with Arabic books used for spreading medical knowledge. The second category was folk doctors and practitioners who were on disposition to the people of any religion. Some of them listened to lectures in medicine during the studies of theology and philosophy. However, most did not have any medical education, but by reading books and teaching experience they made their own recipe collection. Special books, called “Ljekaruše” (Books of recipes) were also born during the study when they came into contact with an even larger number of health books. However, it should not be neglected that a lot of them contained folk medicines that were used in some environments depending on the habits and available herbs. Although it has been proven that many recipes from Ljekaruše are pharmacologically and medically justified, one should not ignore the knowledge and skill behind
Never have there been such a vast number of career opportunities for all levels of staff within the perioperative environment including healthcare support workers, operating department practitioners and nurses.
... nurses, or APNs) have a master's degree in nursing (MS or MSN) and board certification in their ... Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP) and through local hospitals or nursing schools. Also, many doctors share office space with ...
Hendricks, Stephen J.; Mulaudzi, Mavis F.
Background The indigenous health system was perceived to be a threat to the allopathic health system. It was associated with ‘witchcraft’, and actively discouraged, and repressed through prohibition laws. The introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 of 2007 brought hope that those centuries of disrespect for traditional health systems would change. The study examined the perceptions and experiences of allopathic health practitioners on collaboration with traditional health practitioners in post-apartheid South Africa. Methods Qualitative descriptive research methodology was used to collect data from allopathic health practitioners employed by Limpopo’s Department of Health. In-depth focus group discussions and meetings were conducted between January and August 2014. Perceptions and experiences of working with traditional health practitioners were explored. Ethical clearance was obtained from the University of Pretoria and approval from the Department’s Research Committee. Results Dominant views were that the two health systems were not compatible with respect to the science involved and the source of knowledge. Overall, quality of health care will be compromised if traditional health practitioners are allowed to work in public health facilities. Conclusion Allopathic health practitioners do not appear ready to work with traditional health practitioners, citing challenges of quality of health care, differences regarding concept of sciences and source of knowledge; and lack of policy on collaboration. Lack of exposure to traditional medicine seems to impede opportunities to accept and work with traditional healers. Exposure and training at undergraduate level regarding the traditional health system is recommended. Policy guidelines on collaborations are urgently required. PMID:27380856
Sampson, Deborah A
Nurse practitioner legislation varies among states, particularly in relation to practice without physician oversight, altering the legal environment within which nurse practitioners can use knowledge and skills to meet patient needs. Using New Hampshire as a case study, this historical analysis of nurse practitioners' negotiations over time for independent practice, defined in state practice acts, illuminates the complex social and economic factors affecting nurses' struggle to gain legal rights over their own professional practice without supervision and intervention from another profession. In New Hampshire, not only did organized medicine oppose nurses rights to practice, but pharmacists demanded the right to control all aspects of medication management, including who could prescribe and under what circumstances prescribing could occur. Shifting social and political terrain as well as changes in legislative and state professional board leadership affected the environment and negotiations of a small group of nurses who were ultimately successful in obtaining the right to define their own professional practice.
"Microcosmic syndrome", "treatment based on syndrome differentiation", and "combination of disease identification and syndrome differentiation" generally refer to a mode: following the syndrome if with no disease identified, following the disease if with no syndrome type differentiated. For example, Chinese medical treatment of hypertension, high blood lipids, increased transaminase, and so on candirectly use Chinese recipes, but no longer with syndrome differentiation. Clinical application of Chinese patent medicine can also obtain favorable clinical. Western doctors need not follow syndrome differentiation. The invention of artemisinin was screened from more than 40 000 kinds of compounds and herbs, but with no reference of any traditional Chinese medical theory. A lot of folk remedy and empirical recipes have obtained effective efficacy but unnecessarily with profound Chinese medical theories. Various evidences showed that disease can also be cured without syndrome differentiation. I held that it might be associated with the same mechanism of Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Any disease can be cured or alleviated by Chinese medicine is a result from its modern pharmacological effect, which is achieved by improving etiologies, and pathogeneses. I was inspired by whether we can directly use traditional Chinese medicine with modern pharmacological effects to treat symptomatic disease. So I raised an idea of microcosmic Chinese medicine used by Western medicine, i.e., we find and use Chinese herbs with relatively effective modern pharmacological effect to treat diseases targeting at patients' clinical symptoms and signs, as well as various positive laboratory results (collectively called as microscopic dialectical indicators). More Western doctors would use it to treat disease due to omission of complicated and mysterious syndrome differentiation. This will promote extensive application and expansion of Chi- nese medicine and pharmacy, enlarge the team of
Way, Anthony B.; Rowley, Blair A.; White, Melanie A.
We have developed a set of protocols on a microcomputer to assist in the management of a geographically isolated nurse practitioner. If a mid-level practitioner is supervised by a physician, some system is needed to ensure that approved care is being provided. The currently available paper-based protocols do not adequately serve all the needs for training, auditing, and record keeping. Conversely, adequate systems based on large computers are not feasible for small clinics. We have therefore developed a microcomputer-based system of protocols for a small rural nurse-practitioner's clinic. Our programs are designed for direct use by the practitioners while the patient is in the clinic. The user is given immediate feedback about any errors. The supervisor is later provided with a summary of the protocol uses and errors, and a copy of any erroneous records. The system appears to be easy to use by the nurse practitioner. The protocols are quickly learned and auditing is facilitated.
Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M V; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K
Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance.
Achanta, Shanta; Jaju, Jyoti; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Bandi, Sasidhar Kumar; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Harries, Anthony David; Nair, Sreenivas Achutan; Dewan, Puneet K.
Setting Private medical practitioners in Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Objectives To evaluate self-reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices amongst private medical practitioners against benchmark practices articulated in the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC), and factors associated with compliance with ISTC. Design Cross- sectional survey using semi-structured interviews. Results Of 296 randomly selected private practitioners, 201 (68%) were assessed for compliance to ISTC diagnostic and treatment standards in TB management. Only 11 (6%) followed a combination of 6 diagnostic standards together and only 1 followed a combination of all seven treatment standards together. There were 28 (14%) private practitioners who complied with a combination of three core ISTC (cough for tuberculosis suspects, sputum smear examination and use of standardized treatment). Higher ISTC compliance was associated with caring for more than 20 TB patients annually, prior sensitization to TB control guidelines, and practice of alternate systems of medicine. Conclusion Few private practitioners in Visakhapatnam, India reported TB diagnostic and treatment practices that met ISTC. Better engagement of the private sector is urgently required to improve TB management practices and to prevent diagnostic delay and drug resistance. PMID:23967158
Sledzik, P S; Bellantoni, N
Folk beliefs associated with death and disease can impact on the bioarcheological record. Unusual postmortem actions by humans and distinctive paleopathological evidence may be clues to these beliefs. This report presents bioarcheological and paleopathological evidence in support of a 19th century New England folk belief in vampires with a particular reference to a colonial period burial. The New England folk belief in vampires revolves around the ability of a deceased tuberculosis victim to return from the dead as a vampire and cause the "wasting away" of the surviving relatives. To stop the actions of the vampire, the body of the consumptive was exhumed and disrupted in various ways. Twelve historic accounts of this activity indicate that the belief was not uncommon in 19th century New England. This creative interpretation of contagion is consistent with the etiology of tuberculosis. Three pieces of evidence are important in this case. The skeletal of a 50- to 55-year-old male from a mid-19th century Connecticut cemetery exhibiting pulmonary tuberculosis rib lesions are discussed. In addition, certain bones in the skeleton were rearranged after decomposition was complete. A historic vampire account from the same time period and geographical location place the belief within the parameters of the cemetery.
This paper examines the issues surrounding the cultural transfer of educational practices and institutions between industrialised countries and developing societies. It pays particular attention to adult education, and - using the case study of the Folk High Schools of Sweden and the Folk Development Colleges of Tanzania between 1975 and 1996 - it tries to develop an argument about the conditions under which such transfers may be successful. It suggests that there needs to be something of a match between the ideologies, discourse and functions of the educational institution within both societies; that the transfer of more than one element of any educational system would assist take-up; that the issue of whether the transfer is a top-down or a bottom-up one is also important; and that such transfers are most successful when the receiving society takes control of the transfer and comes to own it and to adapt it to their own usages. The case study is based on a two year evaluation of the Tanzanian Folk Development Colleges under the aid programme of the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida).
Salerno, Giovanni; Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Caneva, Giulia
Background Research was carried out into agricultural and domestic-handicraft uses in folk traditions in the Tyrrhenian sector of the Basilicata region (southern Italy), as it is typically representative of ethnobotanical applications in the Mediterranean area. From the point of view of furnishing a botanical support for the study of local "material culture" data was collected through field interviews of 49 informants, most of whom were farmers. Results The taxa cited are 60, belonging to 32 botanical families, of which 18 are employed for agricultural uses and 51 for domestic-handicraft folk uses. Data show a diffuse use of plants for many purposes, both in agricultural (present uses 14%; past uses 1%) and for domestic-handicraft use (present uses 40%; past uses 45%); most of the latter are now in decline. Conclusion 60 data look uncommon or typical of the places studied. Some domestic-handicraft folk uses are typical of southern Italy (e.g. the use of Ampelodesmos mauritanicus for making ties, ropes, torches, baskets or that of Acer neapolitanum for several uses). Other uses (e.g. that of Inula viscosa and Calamintha nepeta for peculiar brooms, and of Origanum heracleoticum for dyeing wool red) are previously unpublished. PMID:16270919
Ripley, Kenneth; Hoad, Bridget
Assistant practitioners, also known as associate practitioners, provide support to the registered healthcare workforce, practising with advanced knowledge and skills. Assistant practitioners require substantial training to obtain the skills and knowledge required for the role. This article identifies the challenges trainee assistant practitioners may encounter, and makes recommendations for how they can be best supported. The core areas where trainee assistant practitioners require support from their colleagues and mentors are workload, role clarity, mentoring, academic challenge and recognition as learners.
Penka, C E; Kirk, S A
Contrary to popular belief, social workers are evaluating their practice, but what they do falls short of the use of quantitative procedures that researchers have promoted. Data obtained from a survey of social workers drawn from the National Association of Social Workers national membership list suggest that the gap between practitioners and clinical researchers may stem in part from different mindsets as well as from actual differences in the commitment to the importance of clinical evaluation. Moreover, in the minds of practitioners there appears to be a sharp distinction between formal single-subject design studies and the general evaluative tasks in which they routinely engage.
Suzuki, Rika; Goebert, Deborah; Ahmed, Iqbal; Lu, Brett
To study if Asian ethnic groups in Hawaii today maintain folk-based beliefs about dementia, have inadequate biomedical understanding of dementia, and differ among each other regarding perceptions of dementia. The study adapts and expands a 2004 survey of ethnic groups on perceptions of Alzheimer disease demonstrating that ethnic minority groups hold more folk perceptions and less biomedical perceptions of dementia than Caucasians. This study surveys particular ethnic minority family members of elders admitted to four long-term care and inpatient facilities in Hawaii. Seventy-one family members completed surveys, including 23 Chinese, 18 Filipino, and 30 Japanese participants. Elders may or may not have had the diagnosis of dementia, though an estimated half of elders in all four facilities already held the diagnosis of dementia. Findings indicated that Japanese and Chinese respondents in this study held perceptions about dementia that were more consistent with current biomedical understanding compared with their Filipino counterparts (mean differences/percent correct for Japanese: 57%, Chinese: 56% versus Filipino: 38%; F = 6.39, df = 2,55, p = 0.003). Filipino respondents were less likely than Japanese and Chinese respondents to report that persons with dementia can develop physical and mental problems-97% of Japanese participants and 82% of Chinese participants responded correctly compared with 63% of Filipino participants (Fisher's Exact test p = 0.009). With regard to folk beliefs about dementia, variation occurred with no consistent trend among the groups. Low levels of biomedical understanding of dementia were reflected by all three subgroups of Asians living in Hawaii with less prominence of folk beliefs compared with prior studies of ethnic minority perceptions. Education did not predict variability in dementia perceptions among the groups. Lower levels of acculturation, suggested by primary home language other than English, may correlate with a perception
Soyolt; Galsannorbu; Yongping; Wunenbayar; Liu, Guohou; Khasbagan
Folk names of plants are the root of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. In pace with social change and economic development, Mongolian knowledge concerning plant diversity is gradually vanishing. Collection and analysis of Mongolian folk names of plants is extremely important. During 2008 to 2012, the authors have been to the Arhorchin National Nature Reserve area 5 times. Fieldwork was done in 13 villages, with 56 local Mongol herdsmen being interviewed. This report documents plant folk names, analyzes the relationship between folk names and scientific names, looks at the structure and special characteristics of folk names, plant use information, and comparative analysis were also improved. Ethnobotanical interviewing methods of free-listing and open-ended questionnaires were used. Ethnobotanical interview and voucher specimen collection were carried out in two ways as local plant specimens were collected beforehand and then used in interviews, and local Mongol herdsmen were invited to the field and interviewed while collecting voucher specimens. Mongolian oral language was used as the working language and findings were originally recorded in Mongolian written language. Scientific names of plants are defined through collection and identification of voucher specimens by the methods of plant taxonomy. A total of 146 folk names of local plants are recorded. Plant folk names corresponded with 111 species, 1 subspecies, 7 varieties, 1 form, which belong to 42 families and 88 genera. The correspondence between plant folk names and scientific names may be classified as one to one correspondence, two or three to one correspondence, and one to multitude correspondence. The structure of folk names were classified as primary names, secondary names and borrowed names. There were 12 folk names that contain animal names and they have correspondence with 15 species. There are nine folk names that contain usage information and they have correspondence with 10 species in
Sources In addition to our longitudinal survey instrument , other data sources include the Standard Inpatient Data Record (SIDR), which is an...therapy, high-dose megavita- min therapy, homeopathic remedies, hypnosis , massage therapy, relaxation, and spiritual healing. For the pur- poses of these...analyses, acupuncture, biofeedback, chiro- practic care, energy healing, folk medicine, hypnosis , and massage therapy were grouped together as practi
Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler
Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.
Erin Parks; Andrew Holdnak
Job satisfaction among recreation professionals can be affected by many working conditions. This study has investigated the impact fourteen variables had on the job satisfaction of recreation practitioners. The sample consisted of 106 responses from members of the Resort and Commercial Recreation Association (RCRA). The results of the regression analysis for job...
Mills, Deborah J; Kohl, Sarah E
Travel medicine practitioners, perhaps more so than medical practitioners working in other areas of medicine, require a constant flow of information to stay up-to-date, and provide best practice information and care to their patients. Many travel medicine providers are unaware of the popularity and potential of the Twitter platform. Twitter use among our travellers, as well as by physicians and health providers, is growing exponentially. There is a rapidly expanding body of published literature on this information tool. This review provides a brief overview of the ways Twitter is being used by health practitioners, the advantages that are peculiar to Twitter as a platform of social media, and how the interested practitioner can get started. Some key points about the dark side of Twitter are highlighted, as well as the potential benefits of using Twitter as a way to disseminate accurate medical information to the public. This article will help readers develop an increased understanding of Twitter as a tool for extracting useful facts and insights from the ever increasing volume of health information. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Recent publications in Dutch national newspapers on palliative sedation have raised concerns about its use in general practice. There is now evidence that there is no significant increase in the incidence of palliative sedation. Euthanasia requests were pending in 20.8% of the cases in which palliative sedation was performed, but the general practitioners could clearly justify why they made this choice. This is important because it indicates that they are aware of a sharp distinction between euthanasia and palliative sedation. Although the decision to perform palliative sedation was discussed with almost all cancer patients, patient involvement was less present in non-cancer conditions. This may be related to different disease trajectories, but it also indicates that attention should be devoted to earlier identification of patients in need of palliative care. The findings confirm that the practice of palliative sedation by general practitioners largely reflects the recommendations of the Dutch National Guideline on Palliative Sedation.
The humanistic practice of medicine requires that the practitioner have sufficient time and appropriate focus. Both elements, however, are under assault by the high-speed, distraction-filled environment within which primary care is delivered today. Despite or perhaps because of modern medicine's technological advances, the potentially healing bond between doctor and patient is being frayed and the quality of care consequently degraded.
Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.
We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.
Beal, J A; Maguire, D; Carr, R
To define how neonatal nurse practitioners (NNPs) perceive their identity as advanced practice nurses. Non-experimental descriptive and correlational survey. Nationwide random sample drawn from NNPs certified by the National Certification Corporation. Two hundred fifty-eight neonatal nurse practitioners practicing in neonatal intensive-care units across the United States. Neonatal Nurse Practitioners indicated on a visual analogue scale at which point their philosophy of practice fell on a continuum from nursing to medicine and specified on a 5-point bipolar Likert scale how various role socialization factors influenced their identity. The NNPs predominantly were certificate-prepared and aligned themselves with a medical philosophy. Those NNPs who were master's-prepared (p < .01), precepted by another NNP (p < .05), espoused a philosophy of nursing (p < .001), belonged to a professional nursing organization (p < .05), and had an NNP role model (p < .001) were more likely to have a strong nursing identity (95% confidence interval). The issues of role differentiation, socialization, and identity of advanced practice nurses in tertiary care need further exploration. These data support the American Nurses' Association mandate of graduate nursing education for advanced nurse practitioners.
Ben Abdelaziz, A; Harrabi, I; Rahmani, S; Ghedira, A; Gaha, K; Ghannem, H
The therapeutic knowledge of physicians is the corner stone to the rational use of medicines; however information about medicines is generally obtained from the pharmaceutical industry via their sales representatives (reps). We aimed to identify general practitioners' (GPs) attitudes to pharmaceutical reps and the information they provide. We surveyed 140 GPs using a self-administered questionnaire. The response rate was 78% (72 GPs from the public sector and 68 from the private sector). About 10% of the GPs said they received daily visits from pharmaceutical reps; 84% of GPs considered them an efficient source of information and 31% said they might change their therapeutic prescribing following visits from these reps. Because of their positive perception of pharmaceutical reps, GPs are susceptible to the information they provide. Controlling the validity of the therapeutic information imparted by the pharmaceutical industry is thus a fundamental component of the programme for the rational use of medicines.
Walz, Alexander; Tschudi, Peter; Badertscher, Nina; Hatz, Christoph
Up to 65 % of travellers seek pre-travel advice at their general practitioner. Professionals should inform about the most common and most dangerous health threats, requiring up-to-date knowledge about epidemiology of respective disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of pre-travel advice given by general practitioners in order to provide them with better expert support from travel medicine specialists. One third of them perform pre-travel advice weekly, and some two thirds do so at least monthly. The most frequently discussed topics are malaria, immunisation, insect bite prevention and travellers' diarrhoea. Less than half of the advice sessions included talking about the risk of accidents. Apart from the need for yellow fever vaccination, referral to travel medicine experts was highest for immunocompromised and pregnant travellers, and for trips to "high risk" countries. A considerable number of practitioners do not comply with the Swiss recommendations, continuously updated in the Bulletin of the Federal Office of Public Health, possibly because only 21 % consult them at regular intervals.
Protopapadakis, E.; Grammatikopoulou, A.; Doulamis, A.; Grammalidis, N.
The possibility of accurate recognition of folk dance patterns is investigated in this paper. System inputs are raw skeleton data, provided by a low cost sensor. In particular, data were obtained by monitoring three professional dancers, using a Kinect II sensor. A set of six traditional Greek dances (without their variations) consists the investigated data. A two-step process was adopted. At first, the most descriptive skeleton data were selected using a combination of density based and sparse modelling algorithms. Then, the representative data served as training set for a variety of classifiers.
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is a North-American folk remedy for treating and preventing infection. Research has identified an anti-adhesive mechanism of cranberry-proanthocyanidins that inhibit docking of bacteria on tissues "in vitro". This efficacy mechanism can be traced in the patient's urine following oral intake of cranberry juice. The efficacy of cranberry juice and extracts as a prophylactic agent against recurrent urinary infections is well documented in women. The anti-adhesion effect of cranberry-proanthocyandins can also be applied for treatment of other common diseases of bacterial pathogenesis, e.g. Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and dental caries/periodontal disease.
James, J A; Harris, D J; Mott, M G; Oakhill, A
An information pack covering important aspects of paediatric oncology has been developed for general practitioners. Sixty general practitioners who received the information pack found that it helped them in managing children with neoplastic disease and their families. The pack has also improved communications between the oncology unit and general practitioners. Similar packs could be produced by paediatricians working in other specialties. PMID:3122972
Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions
Norful, Allison A; de Jacq, Krystyna; Carlino, Richard; Poghosyan, Lusine
Various models of care delivery have been investigated to meet the increasing demands in primary care. One proposed model is comanagement of patients by more than 1 primary care clinician. Comanagement has been investigated in acute care with surgical teams and in outpatient settings with primary care physicians and specialists. Because nurse practitioners are increasingly managing patient care as independent clinicians, our study objective was to propose a model of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement. We conducted a literature search using the following key words: comanagement; primary care; nurse practitioner OR advanced practice nurse. From 156 studies, we extracted information about nurse practitioner-physician comanagement antecedents, attributes, and consequences. A systematic review of the findings helped determine effects of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement on patient care. Then, we performed 26 interviews with nurse practitioners and physicians to obtain their perspectives on nurse practitioner-physician comanagement. Results were compiled to create our conceptual nurse practitioner-physician comanagement model. Our model of nurse practitioner-physician comanagement has 3 elements: effective communication; mutual respect and trust; and clinical alignment/shared philosophy of care. Interviews indicated that successful comanagement can alleviate individual workload, prevent burnout, improve patient care quality, and lead to increased patient access to care. Legal and organizational barriers, however, inhibit the ability of nurse practitioners to practice autonomously or with equal care management resources as primary care physicians. Future research should focus on developing instruments to measure and further assess nurse practitioner-physician comanagement in the primary care practice setting. © 2018 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
This article extends the current scholarly focus within the geographies of education and the geographies of children, youth and families through an original examination of the Woodcraft Folk - a British youth organization founded in 1925 that aimed to create a world built on equality, friendship and peace. This article illustrates how voluntary uniformed youth organizations had a much wider spatial remit and more complex institutional geographies than have been hitherto acknowledged, with their active involvement in the training of adults (namely parents and volunteers ) as well as the education of children and young people. Drawing on archival research and a range of sources, the article explores the Woodcraft Folk's philosophies and political activities across its first 50 years, and in doing so, makes two central academic contributions to the discipline. First, the article provides a timely focus on training and its analytical purchase for geographers as part of a growing body of work on the geographies of education. Second, the article shows how geographers can account for both children and adults' geographies in institutional spaces, in this case through mapping out the enlivened historical geographies of voluntarism across the lifecourse. This article demonstrates the complex and often fluid relationship between formal and informal education, as well as the important connections between parenting and volunteering. Overall, the article reflects on the subsequent challenges and opportunities for researchers concerned with debates on education, youth and volunteering within geography and beyond.
Donnelly, W J; Spykerboer, J E; Thong, Y H
Approximately 45% of asthmatic families and 47% of non-asthmatic families had consulted an alternative-medicine practitioner at some time. The most popular form of alternative medicine was chiropractic (21.1% and 26.4%, respectively), followed by homoeopathy/naturopathy (18.8% and 12.7%, respectively), acupuncture (9.4% and 10.9%, respectively), and herbal medicine (4.7% and 6.4%, respectively), while the remainder (20.3% and 11.8% respectively) was distributed among iridology, osteopathy, hypnosis, faith healing and megavitamin therapy. More families were satisfied with orthodox medicine (87.1% and 93.6%, respectively) than with alternative medicine (84.2% and 75.1%, respectively). Crosstabulation analysis of pooled data both from asthma and from non-asthma groups showed that 76.4% were satisfied both with orthodox and with alternative medicine, and 16.4% were satisfied with orthodox, but not with alternative, medicine. In contrast, only 2.7% were dissatisfied with orthodox medicine and satisfied with alternative medicine (chi2 = 9.33; P less than 0.01). These findings do not support the view that patients who use alternative medicine are those who are disgruntled with orthodox medicine.
Sweeney, Casey Fryer; LeMahieu, Anna; Fryer, George E
Nurse practitioners (NPs) are often identified in medical malpractice claims. However, the use of malpractice data to inform the development of nursing curriculum is limited. The purpose of this study is to examine medical errors committed by NPs. Using National Practitioner Data Bank public use data, years 1990 to 2014, NP malpractice claims were classified by event type, patient outcome, setting, and number of practitioners involved. The greatest proportion of malpractice claims involving nurse practitioners were diagnosis related (41.46%) and treatment related (30.79%). Severe patient outcomes most often occurred in the outpatient setting. Nurse practitioners were independently responsible for the event in the majority of the analyzed claims. Moving forward, nurse practitioner malpractice data should be continuously analyzed and used to inform the development of nurse practitioner education standards and graduate program curriculum to address areas of clinical weakness and improve quality of care and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Croppi, Emanuele; Cioppi, Federica; Vitale, Corrado
Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease the genesis of which is influenced by genetic, metabolic and environmental factors which determine a series of alterations in the urinary excretion of a number of substances, the cause of the disease itself. The general practitioner is often the first professional to be consulted as regards clinical and therapeutic treatment at the moment of the onset of nephrolithiasis, renal colic, inasmuch as contacted directly by the patient. His role however should not be limited to this initial phase but becomes of strategic importance throughout the subsequent diagnostic procedure; this is especially true with regard to relapses, in correctly placing the patient and, if necessary, referring him/her to the most appropriate specialist area. Running through the entire process which the lithiasic patient encounters from the onset of the disease until therapeutic treatment begins, it is clear how an appropriate initial approach can, in many cases, simplify and optimise such process. On the basis therefore of a complete medical record, and a few simple, biochemical and instrumental tests, the general practitioner is in a position to decide whether to treat the patient directly or to refer him/her to the most appropriate specialist field for investigation at a higher level. Over the last decades nephrolithiasis has progressively changed from being a disease of mainly surgical pertinence to being one of multidisciplinary medical interest in which the figure of the General Practitioner has a primary role, both during the initial diagnostic phase, by means of the correct physio-pathological identification of the problem, and in the subsequent phases as regards the choice and co-ordination of the various specialists involved. PMID:22460998
Thomson, Jennifer; Haesler, Emily; Anderson, Katrina; Barnard, Amanda
The Australian general practitioner (GP) teaching workforce will need to expand in order to provide for the increasing number of medical students and doctors-in-training. Understanding factors that motivate GPs to become involved in teaching in their clinical practice environments is important for developing recruitment and retention strategies. Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with a cross section of GP teachers and were subjected to thematic analysis. Themes were identified and further classified as motivations and prerequisites for teaching. The desire to update clinical knowledge was the most frequently mentioned motivation for teaching, and was described as a strategy for GP teachers to preserve clinical competence through the opportunity to learn new aspects of medicine from junior colleagues. Other motivations included personal fulfillment and enjoyment of teaching, the opportunity to pass on general practice skills and knowledge, promoting general practice as a career, and fulfilling a sense of responsibility to the profession and community. Peers, students and patients also influenced the decision to teach. Most GPs identified that time, workload, availability of space and adequate financial remuneration were prerequisites for teaching. Practice owners also often determined the GP teachers' capacity to teach. To increase the recruitment and retention of GP teachers, it is recommended that teaching organisations give more recognition to teaching as a clinical professional development activity, place more emphasis on GPs' personal enjoyment, professional responsibility and pride in teaching, and increase engagement with practice owners. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Messmer, P R; Parchment, Y
Mary Grant Seacole was born in 1805, in Kingston, Jamaica, to a Jamaican doctress (medicine woman) and a Scottish naval officer. Later Seacole became a doctress, nursing British soldiers during epidemics of cholera, dysentery, and yellow fever in Jamaica, Cuba, and Panama. After refusals by both the British government and Florence Nightingale to be allowed to practice in Scutari, she financed her own way to the scene of the Crimean War and then established the British Hotel to serve both the comfort and medical needs of the wounded soldiers. At night, Seacole worked side by side with Nightingale at Scutari as a volunteer nurse. Seacole's fame grew proportionately after she was seen helping wounded soldiers on the battlefields even while the battles were still raging. Seacole died on May 14, 1881, in London. One hundred years later, many members of the London black community, a few members of the Nurses Association of Jamaica and the Friends of Mary Seacole marched to her grave, honoring her as one of the greatest women of all times. Mary Grant Seacole rose above the barriers of racial prejudice and demonstrated the determinism, compassion, and caring that have became the hallmark of nurse practitioners.
The nighttime television series Queer as Folk (U.S.) was set in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, but was filmed in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Beginning with a brief textual analysis of the representation of lesbians on Queer as Folk, this audience reception study outlines how Canadian viewers who claimed a wide range of sexualities interpreted the representations of lesbians on the series in vastly different ways. While some viewers described the lesbian characters, Melanie and Lindsay, as "an embarrassment" and "more like a parody of lesbians," others enjoyed the "accuracy" and "realism" of these characters.
LaMarche, Kimberley; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan
To examine the level of job satisfaction and its association with extrinsic and intrinsic job satisfaction characteristics among Canadian primary healthcare nurse practitioners (NPs). A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data on NPs' job satisfaction and on the factors that influence their job satisfaction. A convenience sample of licensed Canadian NPs was recruited from established provincial associations and special-interest groups. Data about job satisfaction were collected using two valid and reliable instruments, the Misener Nurse Practitioner Job Satisfaction Survey and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to describe the results. The overall job satisfaction for this sample ranged from satisfied to highly satisfied. The elements that had the most influence on overall job satisfaction were the extrinsic category of partnership/collegiality and the intrinsic category of challenge/autonomy. These findings were consistent with Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory of Job Satisfaction. The outcomes of this study will serve as a foundation for designing effective human health resource retention and recruitment strategies that will assist in enhancing the implementation and the successful preservation of the NP's role.
Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham
Literature reviews suggest that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the conventions of formal music education. Whilst many recent studies have tended to define these non-classical music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk transmission music appears to be much more complex…
Camacho, Juana; Gomez, Jose Luis
This exhibit guide (in Spanish, with translation in English printed on adjoining columns on each page), describes an exhibition of folk art by Mexican migrant farmworkers presented by thre Folk Arts Program of the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center. The exhibit is divided into four major themes that farmworkers presented by the BOCES Geneseo Migrant…
Danquah, Daniel A; Buabeng, Kwame O; Asante, Kwaku P; Mahama, Emmanuel; Bart-Plange, Constance; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
Ghana has scaled-up malaria control strategies over the past decade. Much as malaria morbidity and mortality seem to have declined with these efforts, there appears to be increased consumption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). This study explored the perception and experiences of community members and medicines outlet practitioners on malaria case detection using rapid diagnostic test (RDTs) to guide malaria therapy. This was a cross-sectional study using both quantitative and qualitative approaches for data. In-depth interviews with structured questionnaires were conducted among 197 practitioners randomly selected from community pharmacies and over-the-counter medicine sellers shops within two metropolis (Kumasi and Obuasi) in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Two focus group discussions were also held in the two communities among female adult caregivers. Medicine outlet practitioners and community members often used raised body temperature of individuals as an index for malaria case detection. The raised body temperature was presumptively determined by touching the forehead with hands. Seventy percent of the practitioners' perceived malaria RDTs are used in hospitals and clinics but not in retail medicines outlets. Many of the practitioners and community members agreed to the need for using RDT for malaria case detection at medicine outlets. However, about 30% of the practitioners (n = 59) and some community members (n = 6) held the view that RDT negative results does not mean no malaria illness and would use ACT. Though malaria RDT use in medicines outlets was largely uncommon, both community members and medicine outlet practitioners welcomed its use. Public education is however needed to improve malaria case detection using RDTs at the community level, to inform appropriate use of ACT.
El Enshasy, Hesham; Elsayed, Elsayed A.; Aziz, Ramlan; Wadaan, Mohamad A.
The ethnopharmaceutical approach is important for the discovery and development of natural product research and requires a deep understanding not only of biometabolites discovery and profiling but also of cultural and social science. For millennia, epigeous macrofungi (mushrooms) and hypogeous macrofungi (truffles) were considered as precious food in many cultures based on their high nutritional value and characterized pleasant aroma. In African and Middle Eastern cultures, macrofungi have long history as high nutritional food and were widely applied in folk medicine. The purpose of this review is to summarize the available information related to the nutritional and medicinal value of African and Middle Eastern macrofungi and to highlight their application in complementary folk medicine in this part of the world. PMID:24348710
Wallace, K A
Susan Sherwin's No Longer Patient: Feminist Ethics and Health Care is a readable book that is accessible to a wide range of medical practitioners. It presupposes no prior training in ethics or feminism (and for just this reason, it may be somewhat less satisfying, although not necessarily less useful, for philosophers). The book is a feminist bioethics primer that introduces medical practitioners to issues that feminist theory makes prominent and that illuminate tensions in the structure and practice of medicine.
Guo, Zhi-Yong; Li, Ping; Huang, Wen; Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Yu-Jing; Liu, Bo; Wang, Ye-Ling; Wu, Shi-Biao; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-Lin
Eight compounds including four caffeoyl phenylpropanoid glycosides, jasnervosides A-D (1-4), one monoterpenoid glycoside, jasnervoside E (5), and three secoiridoid glycosides, jasnervosides F-H (10-12), were isolated from the stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour. (Oleaceae), along with four known compounds, poliumoside (6), verbascoside (7), α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)-1-O-E-caffeoyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (8), and jaspolyanthoside (9). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of their physicochemical and spectroscopic properties. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 11 displayed potent antioxidant activities in the DPPH assay, while 2 and 3 displayed good activities against LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in BV2 cells. Compounds 1-5 and 10-12 were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (A-549, Bel-7402, and HCT-8), but none displayed significant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xia; Li, Yuan; Yang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Boyang
The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Talinum paniculatum (Caryophyllale), a source of pharmaceutical efficacy similar to ginseng, and a widely distributed and planted edible vegetable, were sequenced and analyzed. The cp genome size of T. paniculatum is 156,929 bp, with a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,751 bp separated by a large single copy (LSC) region of 86,898 bp and a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,529 bp. The genome contains 83 protein-coding genes, 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and four pseudogenes. Fifty one (51) repeat units and ninety two (92) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were found in the genome. The pseudogene rpl23 (Ribosomal protein L23) was insert AATT than other Caryophyllale species by sequence alignment, which located in IRs region. The gene of trnK-UUU (tRNA-Lys) and rpl16 (Ribosomal protein L16) have larger introns in T. paniculatum , and the existence of matK (maturase K) genes, which usually located in the introns of trnK-UUU , rich sequence divergence in Caryophyllale. Complete cp genome comparison with other eight Caryophyllales species indicated that the differences between T. paniculatum and P. oleracea were very slight, and the most highly divergent regions occurred in intergenic spacers. Comparisons of IR boundaries among nine Caryophyllales species showed that T. paniculatum have larger IRs region and the contraction is relatively slight. The phylogenetic analysis among 35 Caryophyllales species and two outgroup species revealed that T. paniculatum and P. oleracea do not belong to the same family. All these results give good opportunities for future identification, barcoding of Talinum species, understanding the evolutionary mode of Caryophyllale cp genome and molecular breeding of T. paniculatum with high pharmaceutical efficacy.
Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Dirsch, Verena M.; Saukel, Johannes; Kopp, Brigitte
Ethnopharmacological relevance In Austria, like in most Western countries, knowledge about traditional medicinal plants is becoming scarce. Searching the literature concerning Austria's ethnomedicine reveals its scant scientific exploration. Aiming to substantiate the potential of medicinal plants traditionally used in Austria, 63 plant species or genera with claimed anti-inflammatory properties listed in the VOLKSMED database were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. Material and methods 71 herbal drugs from 63 plant species or genera were extracted using solvents of varying polarities and subsequently depleted from the bulk constituents, chlorophylls and tannins to avoid possible interferences with the assays. The obtained 257 extracts were assessed for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of the inflammatory mediators E-selectin and interleukin-8 (IL-8), induced by the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in endothelial cells. The potential of the extracts to activate the nuclear factors PPARα and PPARγ and to inhibit TNF-α-induced activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase reporter gene assays. Results In total, extracts from 67 of the 71 assessed herbal drugs revealed anti-inflammatory activity in the applied in vitro test systems. Thereby, 30 could downregulate E-selectin or IL-8 gene expression, 28 were strong activators of PPARα or PPARγ (inducing activation of more than 2-fold at a concentration of 10 µg/mL) and 21 evoked a strong inhibition of NF-κB (inhibition of more than 80% at 10 µg/mL). Conclusion Our research supports the efficacy of herbal drugs reported in Austrian folk medicine used for ailments associated with inflammatory processes. Hence, an ethnopharmacological screening approach is a useful tool for the discovery of new drug leads. PMID:23770053
Badawi, Ramsey D.
Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)
... not enough, and you need to take cholesterol medicines. You should still continue with the lifestyle changes even though you are taking medicines. Who needs cholesterol medicines? Your health care provider ...
... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...
NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.
Dickinson, Annette R; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb
This hermeneutic phenomenological study explores the relationship between health professionals and families who have a child with a chronic illness. Study participants included 10 family groups who had a child with a chronic illness and 12 practitioners from the disciplines of nursing, medicine, dietetics, physiotherapy and speech therapy. Data were collected by narrative audiotaped interviewing. The results of this study revealed that chronic childhood illness 'throws' families and practitioners together into a web of relationships, which must work for the sake of the child. However, children are usually excluded from the relationship. To understand and manage the child's illness, practitioners and families 'go around' and act 'in-between' relationships. While the quality of the relationship from the family perspective is not essential, relationships are more successful when practitioners recognize the uniqueness of each family web. The nature of the relationship is often simple, yet it coexists with complexity.
Casey, Mary; O'Connor, Laserina; Nicholson, Emma; Smith, Rita; O'Brien, Denise; O'Leary, Denise; Fealy, Gerard M; Mcnamara, Martin S; Stokes, Diarmuid; Egan, Claire
To explore the perceptions of key stakeholders of the roles of specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practitioners. There is evidence that the contribution of these roles to patient care is poorly understood. This research took place over 2 months in 2015 and is part of a larger study involving a rapid review to inform policy development on the specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practice in Ireland. As an added value, a qualitative element involving thematic analysis was undertaken with key stakeholders. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted incorporating semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders (n = 15). Purposive sampling with maximum diversity was used to recruit a wide range of perspectives. Participant's perspectives led to seven themes: Impact of these roles; role preparation, experience and organizational support; specialist and advanced practice roles in an interdisciplinary context; different folks but not such different roles; impact of specialist and advanced practice roles on patient outcomes; barriers and facilitators to enacting specialist and advanced practice roles; future development of these roles. There is acknowledgement of the positive impact of specialist and advanced practitioners; however, the evidence is currently not conclusive. Preparation for these roles needs to reflect changes in the calibre of today's professional applicants, and organizational support is paramount to their successful execution. The contribution of their activity to patient outcome needs to be made visible to enhance these roles and to justify the development of new roles across a variety of healthcare areas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
General practitioners predominate in osteopathic as compared with allopathic medicine, perhaps because of the student selection process, features of osteopathic education, training in osteopathic hospitals, required rotating internship, and more high-quality general practitioner role models. Personality differences may account for differences in…
Thibeault, Matthew D.
This column presents an interview with Nathaniel Braddock, who created and teaches an ensemble devoted to Beck's "Song Reader" at the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois. "Song Reader" is a collection of 20 compositions published as sheet music for musicians to record and release, with over 17,000 versions…
The article presents an outline of the history of Folk High Schools in Sweden. The analysis includes mainly social and political determinants of their functioning in Poland's northern neighbor. The main trends of the evolution of social functions of these institutions has also been presented in the article encompassing 145 years of their…
Recent studies of folk biology clearly reveal the detailed empirical knowledge of living things which is an important and characteristic element of pre-scientific cultures. This paper attempts a contribution to the study of such systems of knowledge by analyzing the comparable skills of a few American birdwatchers. The process of identification of…
In previous studies on the American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana), it was demonstrated that callicarpenal and intermedeol were responsible for the arthropod repellent and feeding deterrent activity of this folk remedy. Both compounds showed significant bite-deterring activity against Aedes aeg...
Dogan, Pinar Karacan
The purpose of this study was to analyze and examine the relationship between the fear of negative evaluation and the anxiety for social appearance in folk dancers. The relational survey method was used in the study. "The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) Scale", which was developed by Leary (1983) and the "Social Appearance…
Bredin, Elizabeth Shear
This guide prepares students for a visit to the Hemphill Folk Art Collection at the Smithsonian American Art Museum. The guide includes a map showing the six states from where the art works originated; questions and answers about the art; and activities for students. As students read the guide and look at the photographs of the art works, they are…
Oreb, Goran; Ruzić, Lana; Matković, Branka; Misigoj-Duraković, Marjeta; Vlasić, Jadranka; Ciliga, Dubravka
The study investigated differences in morphological, motor and functional abilities between folk and ballet dancers. The sample comprised 51 female subjects: Croatian National Ballet (N=30) and Croatian National Folk Ensemble "LADO" (N=21). The data regarding menstrual cycle, menarche, number of births and smoking habit were collected and the morphological, motor and functional abilities measured. Significant correlations between the amount of fat tissue and number of births were found in both groups. Folk dancers were as tall as ballet dancers but weighted more and had a larger body frame (p<0.001). Ballet dancers were more flexible but there were no differences in absolute maximal oxygen uptake (2.65 vs. 2.35 L/min, p=0.101). Still, as the ballet dancers weighted less, their relative maximal oxygen uptake was significantly higher (37.62 vs. 50.22 mL/kg/min, p<0.001). Also, a high number of 45% of smokers among professional ballet and professional folk dancers was found.
Borgen, Solveig T.; Borgen, Nicolai T.
High dropout rates from upper secondary school are related to substantial societal costs, and are hence a major policy concern. The Norwegian folk high schools provide a non-academic education in an intimate and nurturing environment where interpersonal and social skills are emphasised, and where individuals grow in sense of self-esteem and sense…
Vakeva, Lauri; Kurkela, Vesa
This paper reports a project organized by Sibelius-Academy Department of Folk Music and Tampere University, Department of Music Anthropology in 2008-2010. The goal of the project was to develop and implement a master program for "rytmimusiikki" (lit. "rhythm music" in Seinajoki, Finland--a musically active provincial area…
Although happiness as a state of mind may be universal, its meaning takes culture-specific forms. Drawing on the concept of folk theories, this study attempted to uncover lay beliefs about the nature of happiness in Germany and South Africa. To that end, 57 German and 44 black South African students wrote free-format essays in response to the…
Hillery, Mable A.; Simmons, Patricia M.
This teaching guide is the first of three volumes designed to teach Afro-American children street/folk/musical games in the elementary classroom. It is one of the Interdependent Learning Models (ILM) whose overall objective is for teachers to use the cultures of their students as vehicles for teaching academic skills and content. This volume…
... Certified Holding To Try Acupuncture or Oriental Medicine Treatment, Find a Practitioner ... to the Website Dr. Kory Ward-Cook, Ph.D., MT(ASCP), CAE serves as the Chief Executive Officer for the ...
Kao, Jessica Ching-Yi
This paper provides a brief review of the literature on traditional Chinese medicine in both China and the United States and presents observations from a preliminary study of Chinese practitioners in the Chinatown section of Los Angeles, California. The dualistic health care system in Chinese culture is described as comprising both scholarly and…
Leider, Jonathon P; Juliano, Chrissie; Castrucci, Brian C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Dilley, Abby; Nelson, Rachel; Kaiman, Sherry; Sprague, James B
National efforts are underway to classify a minimum set of public health services that all jurisdictions throughout the United States should provide regardless of location. Such a set of basic programs would be supported by crosscutting services, known as the "foundational capabilities" (FCs). These FCs are assessment services, preparedness and disaster response, policy development, communications, community partnership, and organizational support activities. To ascertain familiarity with the term and concept of FCs and gather related perspectives from state and local public health practitioners. In fall 2013, we interviewed 50 leaders from state and local health departments. We asked about familiarity with the term "foundational capabilities," as well as the broader concept of FCs. We attempted to triangulate the utility of the FC concept by asking respondents about priority programs and services, about perceived unique contributions made by public health, and about prevalence and funding for the FCs. Telephone-based interviews. Fifty leaders of state and local health departments. Practitioner familiarity with and perspectives on the FCs, information about current funding streams for public health, and the likelihood of creating nationwide FCs that would be recognized and accepted by all jurisdictions. Slightly more than half of the leaders interviewed said that they were familiar with the concept of FCs. In most cases, health departments had all of the capabilities to some degree, although operationalization varied. Few indicated that current funding levels were sufficient to support implementing a minimum level of FCs nationally. Respondents were not able to articulate the current or optimal levels of services for the various capabilities, nor the costs associated with them. Further research is needed to understand the role of FCs as part of the foundational public health services.
Nichols, Sue; Cormack, Phil
How does practitioner inquiry impact education? Examining the experiences of practitioners who have participated in inquiry projects, the authors present ways in which this work has enabled educators to be positive change agents. They reveal the difference that practitioner inquiry has made in their professional practice, their understanding of…
Describes the fundamental difference between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and holistic medicine, highlighting holistic medicine's emphasis on the promotion of healthy lifestyles for practitioners and patients alike. Asserts that offering physicians-to-be more course work in holistic medicine could lay the groundwork for future…
The scholar-practitioner leader operates reflexively in the boundaries between theory and practice, striving to create exemplars of democracy and social justice within schools while simultaneously meeting modern accountability demands. This article outlines a theoretical underpinning for scholar practitioner leadership and provides means of…
Cahill, Susan M.; McGuire, Beatriz; Krumdick, Nathaniel D.; Lee, Michelle M.
Objective: This study describes perceived levels of involvement in school-based Response to Intervention (RtI) initiatives as reported by occupational therapy (OT) practitioners from different types of communities (i.e., rural, suburban, and urban). In addition, it identifies differences among practice patterns of rural OT practitioners, compared…
Wong, Cecilia H.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Ho, Wing-chung, E-mail: email@example.com
The effectiveness of social impact assessment (SIA) hinges largely on the capabilities and ethics of the practitioners, yet few studies have dedicated to discuss the expectations for these professionals. Recognising this knowledge gap, we employed the systemic review approach to construct a framework of roles of SIA practitioners from literature. Our conceptual framework encompasses eleven roles, namely project manager of SIA, practitioner of SIA methodologies, social researcher, social strategy developer, social impact management consultant, community developer, visionary, public involvement specialist, coordinator, SIA researcher, and educator. Although these roles have been stratified into three overarching categories, the project, community and SIAmore » development, they are indeed interrelated and should be examined together. The significance of this study is threefold. First, it pioneers the study of the roles of SIA practitioners in a focused and systematic manner. Second, it informs practitioners of the expectations of them thereby fostering professionalism. Third, it prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment. - Highlights: • We adopt systematic review to construct a framework of roles of social impact assessment (SIA) practitioners from literature. • We use three overarching categorises to stratify the eleven roles we proposed. • This work is a novel attempt to study the work as a SIA practitioner and build a foundation for further exploration. • The framework informs practitioners of the expectations on them thus reinforcing professionalism. • The framework also prepares the public for SIAs by elucidating the functions and values of the assessment.« less
Sportsman, Susan; Hawley, Linda J.; Pollock, Susan; Varnell, Gayle
An expert panel identified 20 business concepts important for a family nurse practitioner curriculum. A focus group of practitioners verified the concepts and clarified relevant information to be taught. The business concepts center on management and operations of a clinical practice. (SK)
One of the aims of the Library and Information Science Research Coalition is to promote library and information science practitioner research. Successfully meeting this aim should result in greater use of the existing knowledge base and the creation of new knowledge on Library and Information Science (LIS) practice. LIS practitioner engagement in…
Mackey, Thomas A; McNiel, Nancy O; Klingensmith, Kenneth
Nurse practitioner managed practices face multiple business and clinical processes. While most practice managers are prepared as clinicians, they are not well prepared to deal with the daily multiple business infrastructure issues they face. To provide for increased efficiency and effectiveness, nurse practitioner practices should consider outsourcing context business functions.
Neff, Bonita Dostal; Walker, Gael; Smith, Michael F.; Creedon, Pam J.
Uses data from the national survey described elsewhere in this issue to develop profiles of the desired characteristics of entry-level and advanced-level practitioners, and for educators teaching public relations in undergraduate and graduate programs. Finds unexpectedly strong agreement between educators and practitioners regarding these issues,…
... may self-query. Information under the HCQIA is reported by medical malpractice payers, state medical... Organizations (QIOs). Individual health care practitioners and entities may self-query. Information under... have access to this information. Individual practitioners, providers, and suppliers may self-query the...
Cox, Rebecca D.
Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…
Moyo, Mpatisi; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A.; Weller, Jennifer; Robb, Gillian; Shulruf, Boaz
Personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners influence their clinical decisions. Understanding these values for individuals and across healthcare professions can help improve patient-centred decision-making by individual practitioners and interprofessional teams, respectively. We aimed to identify these values and integrate them…
... Data Bank AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Final rule... ``National Practitioner Data Bank'' which appeared in the April 5, 2013, issue of the Federal Register. The... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Director, Division of Practitioner Data Banks, Bureau of Health Professions...
Jugenheimer, Donald W.
A questionnaire survey of 300 advertising practitioners was used to determine the degree of job and career satisfaction among advertising practitioners. The subjects were separated according to whether they worked for advertising agencies, advertisers, or advertising media; 100 subjects in each area were selected from the prestigious directories…
The "Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education" announces the establishment of a new section, "The Practitioner's Corner," a section that will provide the opportunity for practitioners from many educational environments to share information about issues, controversies, and programs in personnel evaluation that reflect practice. (SLD)
CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...
Hao, Da-Cheng; Gu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Peigen
The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales), comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant "omics" platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.
Hennen, B K
Fifty years ago family practice in Canada had no academic presence. Stimulated by a number of general practitioners and with the support of the Canadian Medical Association, the College of General Practitioners of Canada (CGPC) was founded in 1954. In 1962, conferences on education for general practice attended by the Association of Canadian Medical Colleges and the CGPC led to pilot postgraduate residencies in family practice supported by Department of National Health and Welfare. The first certification examination was held in 1969 and, by 1974, all Canadian medical schools had a family medicine residency program. Today departments of family medicine contribute substantially to undergraduate education in all 16 schools. In Canada, the medical profession, governments and the medical schools have demonstrated the importance they place on appropriate education for family physicians. PMID:8477381
Duffaud, Sylvain; Liébart, Sandra
There is no consensus on prescription of medicines in many situations in general medicine. The aim of this study was to identify the strategies used by general practitioners to limit prescriptions in order to make their prescriptions more effective. A mixed sample of general practitioners in terms of age and types of practice were interviewed using the focus group method until a sufficient number of data were obtained. Fourteen women and ten men aged between 32 and 64 years were interviewed by means of three group interviews. Various strategies were identified: the practitioner's attitude (rapid identification of the patient's needs, listening and evaluation of symptoms, support by physical examination) and the use of resources (reference tools and news) during the consultation; the importance of the conclusion of the consultation (written advice or visit report, review of the previous prescription) and explanation (reasons for limitation, reassurance, arguments, proposal of a follow-up visit). Limitation of prescriptions also depends on the practitioner's own reasons (initial and continued training, motivation and personal objectives, part of a peer group) but equally on the health care system (institutional, specialist support). The study highlights numerous approach to facilitate limitation of prescriptions: training and informing practitioners and patients, consultation management, promote communication at the heart of the health care system and policy-makers. Training organizations and health authorities could facilitate these strategies for the benefit of patients.
Chanthasri, Wipawee; Puangkeaw, Nuntitporn; Kunworarath, Nongluk; Jaisamut, Patcharawalai; Limsuwan, Surasak; Maneenoon, Katesarin; Choochana, Piyapong; Chusri, Sasitorn
Uses of polyherbal formulations have played a major role in traditional medicine. The present study is focused on the formulations used in traditional Thai folkloric medicine as tonics or bracers. Twenty documented polyherbal mixtures, used as nourishing tonics by the folk healers in Phatthalung and Songkhla provinces in southern Thailand, are targeted. Despite traditional health claims, there is no scientific evidence to support the utilization of polyherbal formulations. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of the polyherbal formulations and a series of antioxidant tests were applied to measure their capability as preventive or chain-breaking antioxidants. In addition, the cytotoxic activity of effective formulations was assayed in Vero cells. Ninety-eight plant species belonging to 45 families were used to prepare the tested formulation. The preliminary results revealed that water extracts of THP-R016 and THP-R019 contain a high level of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and exhibit remarkable antioxidant activities, as tested by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The extract of THP-R019 also showed the strongest metal chelating activities, whereas THP-R016 extract possessed notable superoxide anion and peroxyl radical scavenging abilities. The data provide evidence that the water extracts of folkloric polyherbal formulations, particularly THP-R016, are a potential source of natural antioxidants, which will be valuable in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. The free radical scavenging of THP-R016 may be due to the contribution of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Useful characteristics for the consumer, such as the phytochemical profiles of active ingredients, cellular based antioxidant properties and beneficial effects in vivo, are under further investigation.
Sarkar, Indra Neil
Biomedical informatics involves a core set of methodologies that can provide a foundation for crossing the "translational barriers" associated with translational medicine. To this end, the fundamental aspects of biomedical informatics (e.g., bioinformatics, imaging informatics, clinical informatics, and public health informatics) may be essential in helping improve the ability to bring basic research findings to the bedside, evaluate the efficacy of interventions across communities, and enable the assessment of the eventual impact of translational medicine innovations on health policies. Here, a brief description is provided for a selection of key biomedical informatics topics (Decision Support, Natural Language Processing, Standards, Information Retrieval, and Electronic Health Records) and their relevance to translational medicine. Based on contributions and advancements in each of these topic areas, the article proposes that biomedical informatics practitioners ("biomedical informaticians") can be essential members of translational medicine teams.
Moreno Villares, José Manuel
Facing those who defend that Medicine is not but an applied science, Pellegrino argues that the ultimate goal of Medicine is facing to a human being in his illness condition. Thus, it is not sufficient to have scientific knowledge but proximity to man kindness. Cure is not the only goal -achievable in only a few cases- but healing, caring with a person as an ill person and as a person. For this reason, professional competence is not enough; the physician needs to have the necessary dispositions to be a good person, a good professional. To get the goals of Medicine, the physician has to achieve those qualities who allow him to do the good he is intended to, that is, he needs to be virtuous. Prudence -phronesis- is the virtue that allows him to apply a general rule to a particular case and, furthermore, addresses his actions to be not only technically correct, but excellent. Prudence is, then, the link between intellectual virtues and moral virtues. Pellegrino's main objective has been to elaborate a Philosophy of Medicine, different from the Philosophy of Science, useful for clinical practice and used by clinical practitioners. By nurturing prudence, a small bit of the final goal is reached: the healing, the goodness for the sick. This should be possible if we are embedded in a moral community, and for Pellegrino, sharing knowledge and ethical values is the way of being part of a moral community.
To avoid certain errors in practice, Charles Brenner offered an holistic substitute for the Freudian structural model of the mind. He used the term compromise formation ambiguously to refer to both actions and states, so as to render unnecessary what he considered artificial, judgmental attitudes embodied in images of psychic structures. He believed that a theory of conflicting structures transforms the phenomenological drama of the patient's actual life-world into an artificial drama of contending intrapsychic parties that may reflect the analyst's values. According to Brenner, the meaning of life, with its desires, fears, and regrets, is structured forever in the first articulation of the family drama, and that is all the structure a practitioner should have in mind. In principle, the ambiguity of the term compromise formation allows for observed continuities in human life, and might have inspired an ambitious theoretician to exploit that option for an account of character, but that aspect of theory moves in a direction opposite to Brenner's practical mission. For the same practical reason Brenner refused to acknowledge gradations of mental operation, such as differences in maturity, or style or level of thinking, so the theory cannot say how change can take place, analytic or otherwise. These lacunae in theory were unblinkingly (if implicitly) accepted in pursuit of Brenner's goal, which was not to polish up theory but to cleanse the analyst's mind of concepts that subtly interfere with the essential nondirectiveness of treatment. His theoretical minimalism and exclusive concern with practical consequences can be recognized as a peculiarly North American attitude to psychoanalysis.
Alves, Rômulo RN
Background Animal-based remedies constitute an integral part of Brazilian Traditional Medicine. Due to its long history, zootherapy has in fact become an integral part of folk medicine both in rural and urban areas of the country. In this paper we summarize current knowledge on zootherapeutic practices in Northeast of Brazil, based on information compiled from ethnobiological scientific literature. Methods In order to examine the diversity of animals used in traditional medicine in Northeast of Brazil, all available references or reports of folk remedies based on animals sources were examined. 34 sources were analyzed. Only taxa that could be identified to species level were included in assessment of medicinal animal species. Scientific names provided in publications were updated. Results The review revealed that at least 250 animal species (178 vertebrates and 72 invertebrates) are used for medicinal purposes in Northeast of Brazil. The inventoried species comprise 10 taxonomic categories and belong to 141 Families. The groups with the greatest number of species were fishes (n = 58), mammals (n = 47) and reptiles (n = 37). The zootherapeutical products are used for the treatment of different illnesses. The most widely treated condition were asthma, rheumatism and sore throat, conditions, which had a wide variety of animals to treat them with. Many animals were used for the treatment of multiple ailments. Beyond the use for treating human diseases, zootherapeutical resources are also used in ethnoveterinary medicine Conclusion The number of medicinal species catalogued was quite expressive and demonstrate the importance of zootherapy as alternative therapeutic in Northeast of Brazil. Although widely diffused throughout Brazil, zootherapeutic practices remain virtually unstudied. There is an urgent need to examine the ecological, cultural, social, and public health implications associated with fauna usage, including a full inventory of the animal species used for
Every healthcare worker plays a vital part in minimising the risk of cross infection. Infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners have the skills and competencies to assist organisations in improving engagement among staff and play a vital part in achieving this. IPC practitioners have skills in clinical practice, education, research and leadership, and these skills ensure high-quality care for patients and support strategies for engaging staff. This article highlights how IPC practitioners' skills and competencies are required for preventing infection and improving staff engagement. Engaged staff generate positive outcomes for both patients and staff, which is a welcome result for all healthcare organisations.
Stockton, Rex; Morran, Keith
We offer comments regarding two articles in this issue, one titled "Bridging the Practitioner-Scientist Gap in Group Psychotherapy Research" and a complementary article providing the results of a survey, entitled "A Survey of Canadian Group Psychotherapist Association Members' Perceptions of Psychotherapy Research." We also make several recommendations for collaborative research between practitioners and scientists, such as the inclusion of clinicians on the research team, practice research networks, and improved approaches to communicating clinically relevant research findings. Also discussed are reflections and recommendations from the authors' experience as scientist-practitioners.
Pacheco, Ernesto; Hoyos, Diana P; Watt, Willinton J; Lema, Lucía; Arango, Carlos M
The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL.
McKinney, P E
Ingestion of small amounts of elemental mercury is generally thought to be harmless. However, in 4 previously reported cases, ingested mercury became sequestered in the appendix, causing appendicitis in one. We present a case in which elemental mercury was administered as a Mexican-American folk remedy for abdominal pain and became sequestered in the appendix. A 10-year-old Hispanic male presented with 3 days of right-sided abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and malaise. On admission, his temperature was 41.5 degrees C and he had right abdominal tenderness. Urinalysis showed 3 WBCs, 9 RBCs, occasional bacteria, and 1+ protein. An abdominal CT scan suggested right focal pyelonephritis, but also showed multiple intraabdominal metallic densities. On further questioning, the family admitted giving him elemental mercury as a remedy for "empacho." He was treated with intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam and gentamicin for a focal pyelonephritis. Because of mercury remaining in the gastrointestinal tract, activated charcoal and sorbitol were given. By hospital day 3, mercury filled the appendix as shown by abdominal radiograph. He was placed in the left lateral decubitus position overnight, and by the next morning, the mercury partially emptied from the appendix. By hospital day 8, his symptoms had resolved and mercury was no longer seen in the appendix. There were only minimal increases in urine mercury levels (18 mg/L). At 5-month follow-up, he has remained asymptomatic.
This article extends the current scholarly focus within the geographies of education and the geographies of children, youth and families through an original examination of the Woodcraft Folk – a British youth organization founded in 1925 that aimed to create a world built on equality, friendship and peace. This article illustrates how voluntary uniformed youth organizations had a much wider spatial remit and more complex institutional geographies than have been hitherto acknowledged, with their active involvement in the training of adults (namely parents and volunteers) as well as the education of children and young people. Drawing on archival research and a range of sources, the article explores the Woodcraft Folk’s philosophies and political activities across its first 50 years, and in doing so, makes two central academic contributions to the discipline. First, the article provides a timely focus on training and its analytical purchase for geographers as part of a growing body of work on the geographies of education. Second, the article shows how geographers can account for both children and adults’ geographies in institutional spaces, in this case through mapping out the enlivened historical geographies of voluntarism across the lifecourse. This article demonstrates the complex and often fluid relationship between formal and informal education, as well as the important connections between parenting and volunteering. Overall, the article reflects on the subsequent challenges and opportunities for researchers concerned with debates on education, youth and volunteering within geography and beyond. PMID:29708116
This is a brief history of what I consider as very important, some of which truly seminal, contributions made by young Korean nuclear theorists, mostly graduate students working on PhD thesis in 1990s and early 2000s, to nuclear effective field theory, nowadays heralded as the first-principle approach to nuclear physics. The theoretical framework employed is an effective field theory anchored on a single scale-invariant hidden local symmetric Lagrangian constructed in the spirit of Weinberg's "Folk Theorem" on effective field theory. The problems addressed are the high-precision calculations on the thermal np capture, the solar pp fusion process, the solar hep process — John Bahcall's challenge to nuclear theorists — and the quenching of g A in giant Gamow-Teller resonances and the whopping enhancement of first-forbidden beta transitions relevant in astrophysical processes. Extending adventurously the strategy to a wild uncharted domain in which a systematic implementation of the "theorem" is far from obvious, the same effective Lagrangian is applied to the structure of compact stars. A surprising, unexpected, result on the properties of massive stars, totally different from what has been obtained up to day in the literature, is predicted, such as the precocious onset of conformal sound velocity together with a hint for the possible emergence in dense matter of hidden symmetries such as scale symmetry and hidden local symmetry.
Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom
People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants ( N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.
Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom
People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people’s social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people’s judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants (N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior – (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people’s intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human. PMID:29184519
Hutto, Daniel D
Philosophy of psychiatry faces a tough choice between two competing ways of understanding mental disorders. The folk psychology (FP) view puts our everyday normative conceptual scheme in the driver's seat - on the assumption that it, and it only, tells us what mental disorders are (1). Opposing this, the scientific image (SI) view (2, 3) holds that our understanding of mental disorders must come, wholly and solely, from the sciences of the mind, unfettered by FP. This paper argues that the FP view is problematic because it is too limited: there is more to the mind than FP allows; hence, we must look beyond FP for properly deep and illuminating explanations of mental disorders. SI promises just this. But when cast in its standard cognitivist formulations, SI is unnecessarily and unjustifiably neurocentric. After rejecting both the FP view, in its pure form, and SI view, in its popular cognitivist renderings, this paper concludes that a more liberal version of SI can accommodate what is best in both views - once SI is so formulated and the FP view properly edited and significantly revised, the two views can be reconciled and combined to provide a sound philosophical basis for a future psychiatry.
Šimić, Kristina; Zamboni, Ivana; Fazinić, Stjepko; Mudronja, Domagoj; Sović, Lea; Gouasmia, Sabrina; Soljačić, Ivo
Textile is essential for everyday life in all societies. It is used in clothes for protection and warmth but also to indicate class and position, show wealth and social status. Threads from precious metals have also been used in combination with fibres for decoration in order to create luxury fabrics for secular and religious elites. We performed elemental analysis of 17th to 20th century metal threads from various textile articles of liturgical vestments and festive folk costumes collected in the museums of northern, southern and central Croatian regions. In order to determine elemental concentrations in threads we performed comparative X-ray Spectroscopy measurements using: (i) Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) at the Faculty of Textile Technology, (ii) X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF) at the Croatian Conservation Institute and (iii) Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscopy (PIXE) at the Ruđer Bošković Institute Tandem Accelerator Facility using ion micro beam. Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) was performed as well on selected samples. SEM-EDX investigations of cross-sections along with the surfaces were also performed. In this work we report and discuss the results obtained by the three X-ray methods and RBS for major (gold, silver, copper) and minor elements on different threads like stripes, wires and "srma" (metal thread wrapped around textile yarn).
This paper discusses the use of pop, rock, and folk music in foreign language teaching. Modern music represents an idiom familiar to a broad span of young people, and has an important place in the life of students ranging in age from ten to thirty-five years of age. It also tends to follow and comment on the important trends of modern society.…
... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...
... Recipes Nutrition Information Prevention Guidelines Home > Health Library Herbal Medicine See related health topics and resources Diseases and ... to treat a specific condition, such as depression. Herbal supplements, unlike medicines, are not required to be standardized to ensure ...
Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D.
Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13–18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant’s venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.
Karwowski, Mateusz P; Morman, Suzette A; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D
Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13-18 mcg/dL, reference level <5 mcg/dL) in a 9-month-old infant, linked to a non-commercial Malaysian folk diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant's venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.
With the Australian healthcare system struggling to keep up with surging demand, nurse practitioners are ideally placed and suited to fulfill the role for which they were envisioned. Natalie Dragon looks at the challenges to realize the NP potential.
Literacy Practitioner, 1997
This theme issue of a newsletter for adult literacy practitioners focuses on community development. Nine articles on this topic include the following: "Adult Literacy and Community Development" (Hal Beder); "Why Community Development?" (Kirk Baker); "Freire's Revolution" (Ruth Pelz); "Impacting Communities…
Heck, Daniel J.; Tarr, James E.; Hollebrands, Karen F.; Walker, Erica N.; Berry, Robert Q., III; Baltzley, Patricia C.; Rasmussen, Chris L.; King, Karen D.
The NCTM Research Committee developed this article to address a distinctly important activity that links research and practice: writing research-based articles for practitioner journals. Six guiding principles are described. (Contains 6 figures.)
Izuka, Nkeonye J; Alexander, Matthew A W; Balasooriya-Smeekens, Chantal; Mant, Jonathan; De Simoni, Anna
Secondary prevention medications reduce risk of stroke recurrence, yet many people do not receive recommended treatment, nor take medications optimally. Exploring how patients report making use of practitioners' advice on secondary prevention medicines on an online forum and what feedback was received from other participants. Thematic analysis of the archive of Talkstroke (2004-2011), UK. Posts including any secondary prevention medication terms, General Practitioner (GP) and their replies were identified. Fifity participants talked about practitioners' advice on secondary prevention medications in 43 discussion threads. Patients consulted practitioners for reassurance and dealing with side effects. Practitioners' advice varied from altering to maintaining current treatment. Three main themes emerged from the use of practitioners' advice: patients following advice (reassured, happy when side effects made tolerable, or still retaining anxiety about treatment); patients not following advice (admitting adherence on-off or stopping medications as side effects still not tolerable); asking other participants for feedback on advice received. Practitioners' advice was disregarded mainly when related to dealing with statin side effects, after one or two consultations. Themes for feedback involved sharing experience, directing back to practitioners, or to external evidence. Side effects of secondary prevention medications and statins in particular, cause anxiety and resentment in some patients, and their concerns are not always addressed by practitioners. Practitioners could consider more proactive strategies to manage such side effects. Forum feedback was appropriate and supportive of the practitioners' advice received. Our findings from peer-to-peer online conversations confirm and widen previous research. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Hawkins, J W; Roberto, D
This article focuses on the process of development of protocols for family planning nurse practitioners. A rationale for the use of protocols, a definition of the types and examples, and the pros and cons of practice with protocols are presented. A how-to description for the development process follows, including methods and a suggested tool for critique and evaluation. The aim of the article is to assist nurse practitioners in developing protocols for their practice.
Rowell, Donna M.; Kroll, David J.
Survey of 50 pharmacy schools investigated the degree to which instruction in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was included in the pharmacy curriculum, and use of alternative practitioners as instructors. Almost three-quarters offered coursework in herbal medicine or other areas of CAM; about half offered other alternative medicine…
McLemore, Jerri; Hallengren, Aaron L
The authors present a case of a deceased man with numerous subcutaneous nodules identified as foreign bodies on radiographic films. The foreign bodies were gemstones inserted underneath the skin as a form of holistic medicine. The X-ray findings of this case and a review of the literature for similar subcutaneously implanted foreign bodies used in holistic, alternative, or folk medicine are presented. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Muhaisen, Hasan M H; Ab-Mous, Miftah Mailoud; Ddeeb, Fadel A; Rtemi, Aboclaid Ali; Taba, Omer M; Parveen, Mehtab
To test the in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of water and methanol extracts of 23 plant species that are commonly used in Libyan folk medicine. The antimicrobial activity was determined using the well-diffusion method. Four test microorganisms were used namely, Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for the high biologically active crude plant extracts. Among 23 medicinal plants used in the study, only 5 methanolic extracts [Rosmarinus offcinalis L., Carduus marianium L., Lantana camara L., Rhus tripartite (ueria) Grande, and Thymus capitatus (L.) Hoffm (link)] showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella species, while 22 methanolic and aqueous extracts showed moderate to weak antimicrobial activity on all tested organisms. However 19 of the extracts showed no activity at all against Gram-ve and Gram +ve microorganisms. MIC was found to be 1.25 mg/mL (Thymus capitatus), 3 mg/mL (Rhus tripartite), 4 mg/mL (Carduus marianium), 5 mg/mL (Rosamarinus officinalis) and 5 mg/mL (Lantana camara), respectively. The present results revealed that, crude methanolic extracts of the investigated Libyan folk medicinal plants exhibited mild to high in vitro antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.
Grienke, Ulrike; Zöll, Margit; Peintner, Ursula; Rollinger, Judith M
In particular five polypore species, i.e. Laetiporus sulphureus, Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Piptoporus betulinus, and Laricifomes officinalis, have been widely used in central European folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases, e.g. dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, bladder disorders, pyretic diseases, treatment of coughs, cancer, and rheumatism. Prehistoric artefacts going back to over 5000 years underline the long tradition of using polypores for various applications ranging from food or tinder material to medicinal-spiritual uses as witnessed by two polypore species found among items of Ötzi, the Iceman. The present paper reviews the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activity of the five mentioned polypores. All available information on the selected polypore taxa used in traditional folk medicine was collected through evaluation of literature in libraries and searches in online databases using SciFinder and Web of Knowledge. Mycochemical studies report the presence of many primary (e.g. polysaccharides) and secondary metabolites (e.g. triterpenes). Crude extracts and isolated compounds show a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. The investigated polypores possess a longstanding ethnomycological tradition in Europe. Here, we compile biological results which highlight their therapeutic value. Moreover, this work provides a solid base for further investigations on a molecular level, both compound- and target-wise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Latalski, Maciej; Skórzyńska, Hanna; Pacian, Anna
The goal of this paper is to evaluate the consumption of painkillers among patients on the basis of the opinions of general practitioners. The most frequent ailments including pain symptoms were the cases of long-continued pain (64.3%); less frequent were acute pain syndromes in the course of a disease (35.7%). The phenomenon of the excessive use of painkillers among patients with long-continued pain syndromes is observed by the GPs. Uncontrolled self-treatment is possible owing to an easy access to this type of medicaments. The excessive use of analgesic medicines in therapy frequently results from the lack of simultaneous application of other methods of pain treatment e.g., in physiotherapy, psychotherapy. Long lasting use of various types of painkillers can lead to drug addiction. This problem is observed by over a half of the GPs (67.1%).
Alami, Sophie; Boutron, Isabelle; Desjeux, Dominique; Hirschhorn, Monique; Meric, Gwendoline; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge
Purpose To identify the views of patients and care providers regarding the management of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to reveal potential obstacles to improving health care strategies. Methods We performed a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews of a stratified sample of 81 patients (59 women) and 29 practitioners (8 women, 11 general practitioners [GPs], 6 rheumatologists, 4 orthopedic surgeons, and 8 [4 GPs] delivering alternative medicine). Results Two main domains of patient views were identified: one about the patient–physician relationship and the other about treatments. Patients feel that their complaints are not taken seriously. They also feel that practitioners act as technicians, paying more attention to the knee than to the individual, and they consider that not enough time is spent on information and counseling. They have negative perceptions of drugs and a feeling of medical uncertainty about OA, which leads to less compliance with treatment and a switch to alternative medicine. Patients believe that knee OA is an inevitable illness associated with age, that not much can be done to modify its evolution, that treatments are of little help, and that practitioners have not much to propose. They express unrealistic fears about the impact of knee OA on daily and social life. Practitioners' views differ from those of patients. Physicians emphasize the difficulty in elaborating treatment strategies and the need for a tool to help in treatment choice. Conclusions This qualitative study suggests several ways to improve the patient–practitioner relationship and the efficacy of treatment strategies, by increasing their acceptability and compliance. Providing adapted and formalized information to patients, adopting more global assessment and therapeutic approaches, and dealing more accurately with patients' paradoxal representation of drug therapy are main factors of improvement that should be addressed. PMID:21573185
Norman, Armando Henrique; Russell, Andrew J; Macnaughton, Jane
This article explores some effects of the British payment for performance model on general practitioners' principles and practice, which may contribute to issues related to financial incentive modalities and quality of primary healthcare services in low and middle-income countries. Aiming to investigate what general practitioners have to say about the effect of the British payment for performance on their professional ethos we carried out semi-structured interviews with 13 general practitioner educators and leaders working in academic medicine across the UK. The results show a shift towards a more biomedical practice model and fragmented care with nurse practitioners and other health care staff focused more on specific disease conditions. There has also been an increased medicalisation of the patient experience both through labelling and the tendency to prescribe medications rather than non-pharmacological interventions. Thus, the British payment for performance has gradually strengthened a scientific-bureaucratic model of medical practice which has had profound effects on the way family medicine is practiced in the UK.
Ramalingum, Nelvana; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi
Pharmaceutical and nutritional sciences have recently witnessed a bloom in the scientific literature geared towards the use of food plants for their diversified health benefits and potential clinical applications. Health professionals now recognize that a synergism of drug therapy and nutrition might confer optimum outcomes in the fight against diseases. The prophylactic benefits of food plants are being investigated for potential use as novel medicinal remedies due to the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly growing, there is still a paucity of updated compilation of data and concerns about the rationale of these health-foods still persist in the literature. This paper attempts to congregate the nutritional value, phytochemical composition, traditional uses, in vitro and in vivo studies of 10 common medicinal food plants used against chronic noncommunicable and infectious diseases. Food plants included were based on the criteria that they are consumed as a common food in a typical diet as either fruit or vegetable for their nutritive value but have also other parts which are in common use in folk medicine. The potential challenges of incorporating these medicinal foods in the diet which offers prospective opportunities for future drug development are also discussed. PMID:24822061
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse practitioner services. 440.166 Section 440... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.166 Nurse practitioner services. (a) Definition of nurse practitioner services. Nurse practitioner services means services that...
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse practitioner services. 441.22 Section 441.22... General Provisions § 441.22 Nurse practitioner services. With respect to nurse practitioner services that... State plan must meet the following requirements: (a) Provide that nurse practitioner services are...
... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nurse practitioner services. 441.22 Section 441.22... General Provisions § 441.22 Nurse practitioner services. With respect to nurse practitioner services that... State plan must meet the following requirements: (a) Provide that nurse practitioner services are...
... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nurse practitioner services. 440.166 Section 440... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS SERVICES: GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 440.166 Nurse practitioner services. (a) Definition of nurse practitioner services. Nurse practitioner services means services that...
Chang, Rosemary L.; Richardson, Jennifer C.; Banky, George P.; Coller, Brianno D.; Jaksa, Mark B.; Lindsay, Euan D.; Maier, Holger R.
This paper reports on an investigation of student engagement with e-learning, using practitioner reflection as a lens. Five e-learning practitioners each provided a case study from their teaching, which was the focus of practitioners' reflective accounts. Each of the practitioners had used e-learning as a way of promoting both learning and…
... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE PRACTITIONERS Canons of Ethics The Practitioner's Duties and Responsibilities Toward A Client § 1103.20 Practitioner's fees and related practices... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Practitioner's fees and related practices. 1103.20...
Lochmiller, Chad R.; Lester, Jessica Nina
In this conceptual article, we draw upon recent literature to describe the theoretical, epistemological, and methodological anchors that can inform a working conception of practitioner-scholarship. We position practitioner-scholarship at the intersection of an individual's work as a practitioner and researcher, wherein a practitioner focuses on…
Eaves, Emery R.; Nichter, Mark; Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Gordon, Judith S.; Muramoto, Myra L.
Printed educational materials (PEMs) have long demonstrated their usefulness as economical and effective media for health communication. In this article, we evaluate the impact of targeted tobacco cessation PEMS for use along with a brief intervention training designed for three types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners: chiropractic, acupuncture, and massage. We describe how PEMs in CAM practitioners’ offices were perceived and used by practitioners and by patients. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 53 practitioners and 38 of their patients. This analysis specifically focused on developing and distributing project-related posters and pamphlets in CAM practice. Our findings indicate that materials (1) legitimated tobacco-related expertise among CAM practitioners and tobacco-related conversations as part of routine CAM practice, (2) increased practitioners’ willingness to approach the topic of tobacco with patients, (3) created an effective way to communicate tobacco-related information and broaden the reach of brief intervention initiatives, and (4) were given to patients who were not willing to engage in direct discussion of tobacco use with practitioners. PMID:27591225
An earlier paper in this journal reported on the perception and experience of 77 allopathic health practitioners (AHPs) and health managers about working together with South African traditional health practitioners (THPs). The paper stated that the abolishment of the Witchcraft Suppression Act of 1957 and the introduction of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No. 22 of 2007 is a milestone in the development of traditional health knowledge, and for the eventual incorporation thereof into modern health care practices. The authors also comment that a decolonisation of mindset and a change of attitude is required to change one’s perception of traditional healer practices and to develop them parallel to allopathic health practice. This opinion paper is a response to the paper, to negate its claims about the Witchcraft Suppression Act of 1957 and to provide clarity on the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No. 22 of 2007 and related policies and regulations. Although this Act recognises THP, the Act and other regulations actually require THP to conform to practices analogous to those of AHP. It is rather a systematic and scientific ‘mindset’ that is required to develop THP parallel to AHP. The Traditional Health Practitioners Act of 2007 and the Draft Policy on African Traditional Medicine (TM) for South Africa dictate that a substantial THP sectoral transformation is required before there can be a parallel system. Legislation and regulations have excluded THP and African TM from operating (present and future) in the same space as AHP. PMID:28470077
Higgins, Helen M.; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F.; Green, Martin J.
In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged “unacceptable” by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional
Higgins, Helen M; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F; Green, Martin J
In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional
Wilson, F C
This article describes the history and process of credentialing: accreditation of programs and certification of individual practitioners. Under accreditation, general (institutional) and discipline-specific requirements, both for residencies and fellowships, are considered, along with possible outcomes and the appeals mechanism for an unfavorable review. Under certification, the relationship between individual specialty boards and the American Board of Medical Specialties is defined, followed by a consideration of the principles underlying subspecialty certification and recertification. It is concluded that enforced standards of learning are one of the pillars of accountability upon which a profession must rest; that if medicine abdicates its responsibility to impose credible standards on itself, its place will be taken by very interested, but less knowledgeable, others; and that we must, therefore, rededicate ourselves to the requirement of reasonable standards as a professional obligation and use the best means possible to meet that responsibility.
Organic pathologies with psychoaffective aetiology are numerous, and in all diseases, mental and rational elements are concomitant with the organic situation. Aware of the psycho-dynamic mechanisms he sets in motion by his actions and appreciating those underlying the symptomatology he has to deal with, the hypnologist transcends the overspecialisation of medical science to restore the patient's psycho-physical unitary reality. This explains both the possibilities of hypnositherapy in general medicine and its impassable limits. The hypnositherapy that the general practitioner can (and most implement must be perfected by a qualified psychotherapeutist when symptomatology cannot be eradicated without tackling the aetiological factor with a serious analysis of the profound. Hypnosis is, therefore, an extra therapeutic possibility for the physician and this is why it can only be used with science, awareness and on the basis of ethics.
As the oral cavity marks the beginning of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), it is not surprising that it frequently mirrors disease that occurs lower in the GIT. Increasingly, clinical signs in the oral cavity are recognized as future predictors and prognostic indicators of GIT and, indeed, other systemic disease. This paper discusses recent advances in the overlap area of Oral Medicine and Gastroenterology and the significant role of the dental practitioner in the management of these patients.
Ratcliffe, Norman; Azambuja, Patricia; Mello, Cicero Brasileiro
Except for honey as food, and silk for clothing and pollination of plants, people give little thought to the benefits of insects in their lives. This overview briefly describes significant recent advances in developing insect natural products as potential new medicinal drugs. This is an exciting and rapidly expanding new field since insects are hugely variable and have utilised an enormous range of natural products to survive environmental perturbations for 100s of millions of years. There is thus a treasure chest of untapped resources waiting to be discovered. Insects products, such as silk and honey, have already been utilised for thousands of years, and extracts of insects have been produced for use in Folk Medicine around the world, but only with the development of modern molecular and biochemical techniques has it become feasible to manipulate and bioengineer insect natural products into modern medicines. Utilising knowledge gleaned from Insect Folk Medicines, this review describes modern research into bioengineering honey and venom from bees, silk, cantharidin, antimicrobial peptides, and maggot secretions and anticoagulants from blood-sucking insects into medicines. Problems and solutions encountered in these endeavours are described and indicate that the future is bright for new insect derived pharmaceuticals treatments and medicines. PMID:24883072
Scotts, H; Carter, M
This article discusses some of the issues raised in the Interim Report of the current Review of Registration of Health Practitioners being conducted for the Victorian Health Department. The Report attempts to develop the framework in which the registration Boards will operate as part of a cohesive registration system. It proposed a mechanism and criteria for the registration of new groups as well as principles which can be applied to the ongoing review of each existing Board. The Review takes the perspective that registration of health practitioners carries with it both advantages and disadvantages for the general community. Under the proposed new system the controls exercised over health care providers by Registration Boards would be evaluated on the basis of to what extent the benefits to the public outweighed the potential costs. It is in this context that the Report addresses issues such as consumer complaints handling, registration of individual practitioners and controls over professional advertising and other business practices.
White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane
There is a paucity of research into the perceptions of elderly Australian ethnic minorities towards public health services related to quality use of medicines. Among the six fastest growing ethnic groups in Australia, the Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Vietnamese constitute the largest elderly populations with poor English skills. This paper investigates the relationships of elderly Chinese and Vietnamese migrants with medicines, general practitioners and pharmacists, and how these relationships influence their awareness and attitudes of the home medicines review (HMR) program. Two semi-structured focus groups were held with a total of 17 HMR-eligible patients who have never received a HMR, one with Chinese and one with Vietnamese respondents, each in the respective community language. Confusion about medications and an intention to have a HMR were pronounced among all participants although none of them had heard of the program before participating in the focus groups. Respondents reported difficulties locating a pharmacist who spoke their native language, which contributed to an increased unmet need for medicine information. The Chinese group additionally complained about a lack of support from their general practitioners in relation to their medicine concerns and was adamant that they would prefer to have a HMR without the involvement of their general practitioner. Our results indicate a distinct HMR need but not use among elderly Chinese and Vietnamese eligible patients with poor English skills. Home medicines review service use and perceived medication problems are likely to improve with an increasing availability of bilingual and culturally sensitive health care providers.
Carpenter, Lindsey M; Hubbard, Grace B
The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying. As more children and adolescents obtain access to the Internet, mobile devices, and social networking sites, the exposure to bullying in the virtual format increases. Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern and can affect mental health and school performance. Cyberbullying often results in a range of psychiatric symptoms and has been linked to suicide attempts and completions. The psychiatric nurse practitioner is uniquely prepared to provide a range of interventions for patients, families, and communities who have experienced cyberbullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Darius, H T; Drescher, O; Ponton, D; Pawlowiez, R; Laurent, D; Dewailly, E; Chinain, M
Ciguatera fish poisoning is a seafood intoxication commonly afflicting island communities in the Pacific. These populations, which are strongly dependent on fish resources, have developed over centuries various strategies to decrease the risk of intoxication, including the use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two folk tests commonly used in Raivavae Island (Australes, French Polynesia): the rigor mortis test (RMT) and the bleeding test (BT). A total of 107 fish were collected in Raivavae Lagoon, among which 80 were tested by five testers using the RMT versus 107 tested by four testers using BT. First, the performance between testers was compared. Second, the efficiency of these tests was compared with toxicity data obtained via the receptor binding assay (RBA) by assessing various parameter's values such as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Comparisons of outcomes between folk tests and RBA analyses were considered: tests used separately or in a parallel versus the series approach by each tester. The overall efficiency of the RMT and BT tests was also evaluated when the judgments of all testers were "pooled". The results demonstrate that efficiencies varied between testers with one showing the best scores in detecting toxic fish: 55% with RMT and 69.2% with BT. BT gave the best results in detecting toxic fish as compared with RMT, giving also better agreement between testers. If high NPV and Se values were to be privileged, the data also suggest that the best way to limit cases of intoxication would be to use RMT and BT tests in a parallel approach. The use of traditional knowledge and a good knowledge of risky versus healthy fishing areas may help reduce the risk of intoxication among communities where ciguatera fish poisoning is highly prevalent.
Garfield, Sol L., Ed.
Contains 18 articles discussing the uses of behavioral medicine in such areas as obesity, smoking, hypertension, and headache. Reviews include discussions of behavioral medicine and insomnia, chronic pain, asthma, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary-prone behavior. Newly emerging topics include gastrointestinal disorders, arthritis,…
Bochner, Arthur P.
In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…
It is only since the late 20th century that Sport and Exercise Medicine has emerged as a distinct entity in health care. In Israel, sports medicine is regulated by a State Law and a sport physician is certified after graduating a structured program. In the past, sports medicine was related to the diagnosis and treatment of injuries encountered by top athletes. In recent years, the scope of sport medicine has broadened to reflect the awareness of modern society of the dangers of physical inactivity. In this perspective the American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM) recently launched a program--"Exercise is Medicine", to promote physical activity in order to improve health and well-being and prevention of diseases through physical activity prescriptions. This program is from doctors and healthcare providers, adjusted to the patient or trainee. The sport physician does not replace a medical specialist, but having a thorough understanding about the etiology of a sport-related injury enables him to better focus on treatment and prevention. Therefore, Team Physicians in Elite Sport often play a role regarding not only the medical care of athletes, but also in the physiological monitoring of the athlete and correcting aberrations, to achieve peak physical performance. The broad spectrum of issues in sport and exercise medicine cannot be completely covered in one issue of the Journal. Therefore, the few reports that are presented to enhance interest and understanding in the broad spectrum of issues in sports and exercise medicine are only the tip of the iceberg.
Davis, Jeffrey R.
This abstract describes the content of a presentation for ground rounds at Mt. Sinai School of Medicine. The presentation contains three sections. The first describes the history of aerospace medicine beginning with early flights with animals. The second section of the presentation describes current programs and planning for future missions. The third section describes the medical challenges of exploration missions.
Soós, Sándor Árpád; Eőry, Ajándék; Eőry, Ajándok; Harsányi, László; Kalabay, László
The patients initiate the use of complementary and alternative medicine and this often remains hidden from their primary care physician. To explore general practitioners' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine, and study the need and appropriate forms of education, as well as ask their opinion on integration of alternative medicine into mainstream medicine. A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was used on two conferences for general practitioners organized by the Family Medicine Department of Semmelweis University. Complementary and alternative medicine was defined by the definition of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and certified modalities were all listed. 194 general practitioners answered the questionnaire (39.8% response rate). 14% of the responders had licence in at least one of the complementary and alternative therapies, 45% used complementary and alternative therapy in their family in case of illness. It was the opinion of the majority (91.8%) that it was necessary to be familiar with every method used by their patients, however, 82.5% claimed not to have enough knowledge in complementary medicine. Graduate and postgraduate education in the field was thought to be necessary by 86% of the responders; increased odds for commitment in personal education was found among female general practitioners, less than 20 years professional experience and personal experience of alternative medicine. These data suggest that general practitioners would like to know more about complementary and alternative medicine modalities used by their patients. They consider education of medical professionals necessary and a special group is willing to undergo further education in the field.
Background This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri—one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants’ attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru’s working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Results Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. Conclusions In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations—either with humans
Ferreira, Emmanoela N; da S Mourão, José; Rocha, Pollyana D; Nascimento, Douglas M; da S Q Bezerra, Dandara Monalisa Mariz
Background Folk taxonomy is a sub-area of ethnobiology that study the way of how traditional communities classify, identify and name their natural resources. The work present was undertaken in two traditional communities (Barra de Mamanguape and Tramataia). The objective of this study was investigate the ethnobiological classification of the local crabs and swimming crabs used by the crustaceous gatherers of the Mamanguape River Estuary (MRE), Paraíba State, Brazil. Methods The methodology used here involved a combination of qualitative methods (open interviews, semi-structured interviews, direct observations, guided tours, surveys, and interviews in synchronic and diachronic situations that crossed-checked and repeated identifications) and quantitative methods (Venn diagram). A total of 32 men and women were interviewed in the two communities. Specimens of the local crustaceans were collected and identified by the harvesters themselves, subsequently fixed in formalin, conserved in 70% ethyl alcohol, identified using appropriate specialized literature, and then deposited in the laboratory of the Zoology Department of the University State of Paraiba. Results The crustaceous gatherers we studied were observed to group crustaceans according to their similarities and differences, producing a hierarchical classification system containing four levels of decreasing taxonomic order: unique beginner, life-form, generic, and specific. A sequential and/or semantic system classification system that is used to classify the ontogeny of the female swimming crab was also identified. Of the nine folk generics identified, 44.5% were monotypic. 55.5% were polytypic and were subdivided into 15 folk specifics. An identification key was elaborated with the data obtained about the folk polytypics generics. Conclusion The detailed knowledge concerning the crabs and swimming crabs revealed by the MRE crustaceous gatherers demonstrates that these people detain a vast knowledge concerning
Blaisdell, Amy; Vindal Ødegaard, Cecilie
This article explores how people in the Andes incorporate beliefs from both biomedical and ethnomedical systems in treating folk illnesses that often involve spiritual beings. The article focuses on the kharisiri-one who is believed to steal fat and blood from unsuspecting humans to make exchanges with the devil. The kharisiri in turn is rewarded with good fortune. Victims of kharisiris, however, fall ill and may die if untreated. Historically, kharisiri victims relied on ethnomedicine for treatment, but it appears biomedical pills are now perceived by some as an effective treatment. By drawing on participants' attitudes towards biomedicine, and how people in the Andes conceptualize health, this article theorizes as to why biomedical pills are sought to treat kharisiri attacks but not for other folk illnesses. Fieldwork was conducted in Arequipa and Yunguyo among market vendors, who make up a significant portion of Peru's working population. This type of work increases the risk of different illnesses due to work conditions like exposure to extreme temperatures, long-distance travel, and social dynamics. Biomedical and ethnomedical products are often sold in and around marketplaces, making vendors a compelling group for exploring issues relating to treatment systems. Qualitative data was collected in 2011 with a follow-up visit in 2013. Participant observation, informal conversations, and unstructured interviews with 29 participants informed the study. Participants unanimously reported that biomedical pills are not capable of treating folk illnesses such as susto and mal de ojo. Several participants reported that pharmaceutical pills can cure kharisiri victims. In comparison to other folk illnesses that involve spiritual beings, those who fall ill from a kharisiri attack lose physical elements (fat and blood) rather than their soul (ánimo) or becoming ill due to a misbalance in reciprocal relations-either with humans or non-human beings such as Pachamama. Because
Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ernst, Madeleine; Grace, Olwen M; Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Nilsson, Niclas; Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Rønsted, Nina
The genus Euphorbia (spurges, Euphorbiaceae) is the third largest genus of flowering plants, with almost 2000 species. Its exceptional diversity of growth forms and near-cosmopolitan distribution have attracted human interest since ancient times. For instance in Australia, topical application of latex of Euphorbia peplus L. is used as a home treatment for skin cancer and actinic keratosis. Its use in Australian folk medicine has inspired the release of the drug Picato® (ingenol mebutate), and further fostered interest in natural products and medicinal uses of Euphorbia in recent years. To provide an indicative overview of medicinal uses of the genus Euphorbia driven by the recent interest in biologically active natural products from Euphorbia in drug discovery. We assess documented medicinal knowledge and value of the genus Euphorbia and the taxonomic distribution of this value. We undertook an extensive survey of over 260 multidisciplinary publications on the online repository JSTOR using the search term "Euphorbia medicinal". Medicinal uses were identified for >5% of the species in the genus, including descriptions of treatments for a variety of diseases. The most-cited medicinal uses around the world were treatments for digestive system disorders, skin ailments and, especially in the Southern hemisphere, infections. Consensus ratios indicated that the most-valued medicinal uses of Euphorbia species are in the treatment of digestive and respiratory complaints, inflammation and injuries, especially by members of Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce. The present study gives a first indicative overview of Euphorbia species used for health and wellbeing around the world. The exceptional diversity of the genus Euphorbia is not only represented by its growth forms but also by its diverse medicinal uses. Our results highlight the importance of research into medicinal uses of Euphorbia species and their importance as a source of natural products. Furthermore the medicinally
... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...
The Basque Museum of the History of Medicine was founded in 1982 to preserve the historic memory of medicine in the Basque Country and conserve its scientific heritage. Its permanent exposition comprises approx. 6,000 medical objects of the 19th and 20th centuries arranged, thematically in 24 rooms devoted to different medical specialities: folk medicine, unconventional medicine, pharmacy, weights and measures, asepsis and antisepsis, microscopes, laboratory material, X-rays, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, anesthesia, endoscope, odontology, cardiology, ophthalmology, electrotherapy, pathological anatomy and natural sciences. Temporary exhibitions are also held. The Museum is located on the university campus (UPV/EHU) and is important in the training of students in the Faculty of Medicine and the students coming from other faculties. Teaching and research constitute two of the pillars of the Museum that are complemented with publications and the organization of conferences, lectures and other activities.
Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331
Rose, Patricia B.; Miller, Debra A.
Finds little or no difference in the interest of small market advertising and public relations practitioners in professional courses. Lends support to the idea of a common curriculum (an Integrated Marketing Communications program) to fulfill the educational needs of both groups. (SR)
In this article it is argued that in order to be an effective artist teacher it is helpful to be a reflective practitioner. Initially a working definition of the artist teacher is formulated and the artist teacher scheme that has developed in England over recent years is discussed regarding its importance in offering both accredited and…
Shams, Marie-Lise Antoun
This study was designed to identify core journals for the nurse practitioner specialty and to determine the extent of their indexing in bibliographic databases. As part of a larger project for mapping the literature of nursing, this study followed a common methodology based on citation analysis. Four journals designated by nurse practitioners as sources for their practice information were selected. All cited references were analyzed to determine format types and publication years. Bradford's Law of Scattering was applied to identify core journals. Nine bibliographic databases were searched to estimate the index coverage of the core titles. The findings indicate that nurse practitioners rely primarily on journals (72.0%) followed by books (20.4%) for their professional knowledge. The majority of the identified core journals belong to non-nursing disciplines. This is reflected in the indexing coverage results: PubMed/MEDLINE more comprehensively indexes the core titles than CINAHL does. Nurse practitioners, as primary care providers, consult medical as well as nursing sources for their information. The implications of the citation analysis findings are significant for collection development librarians and indexing services.
Keith, Novella Zett
How can we support campus-based practitioners of civic and community engagement in moving from normalized engagement toward practices that engage others democratically and respectfully across borders created by social race, class, gender, status, and other markers of difference? The article presents a framework derived from practice theory, a…
Sweeney, Thomas J.
Written with the practitioner in mind, this overview of the theory and practice of Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology explains the dimensions and uses of natural and logical consequences--the twin bases of Adlerian/Individual Psychology. The text takes a practical approach to the topic, and covers a variety of settings (school, home, community,…
This reflective essay presents a personal account of experiences and models that have shaped the development of the author as a leader in tertiary education. It is presented from the perspective of a practitioner whose career has led her through academic and administrative roles in Australian and UK institutions into her current position as…
Freeling, P.; Burton, R. H.
The ways in which `medical audit' can be used in the continuing education of general practitioners are examined, and certain rules for the conduct of such education in small groups of peers are put forward. However, it proved impossible to evaluate the outcome of the educational exercise because those taking part refused to audit twice any single aspect of their daily work. PMID:7086756