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Sample records for fonte chaveada pwm-zcs

  1. Electrochemical Properties of LaNi<FONT SIZE=2>(sub 5-x)font>Ge SIZE=2>(sub x)font> Alloys in Ni-MH Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Witham, C.

    1997-01-01

    Electrochemical studies were performed on LaNi<FONT SIZE=2>(sub 5-x)font>Ge SIZE=2>(sub x)font> metal hydride alloys with 0 <= x <= 0.5. We carried out single-electrode studies to understand the effects of the Ge substituent on the hydrogen absorption characteristics, the electrochemical capacity, and the electrochemical kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption.

  2. Font generation of personal handwritten Chinese characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Chih-Yin; Ting, Chao-Lung; Chang, Ray-I.

    2014-01-01

    Today, digital multimedia messages have drawn more and more attention due to the great achievement of computer and network techniques. Nevertheless, text is still the most popular media for people to communicate with others. Many fonts have been developed so that product designers can choose unique fonts to demonstrate their idea gracefully. It is commonly believed that handwritings can reflect one's personality, emotion, feeling, education level, and so on. This is especially true in Chinese calligraphy. However, it is not easy for ordinary users to customize a font of their personal handwritings. In this study, we performed a process reengineering in font generation. We present a new method to create font in a batch mode. Rather than to create glyphs of characters one by one according to their codepoints, people create glyphs incrementally in an on-demand manner. A Java Implementation is developed to read a document image of user handwritten Chinese characters, and make a vector font of these handwritten Chinese characters. Preliminary experiment result shows that the proposed method can help ordinary users create their personal handwritten fonts easily and quickly.

  3. Kinetics Studies of the HO<FONT SIZE=2>(sub 2)font> + CIO Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Friedl, R. R.

    1997-01-01

    The HO<FONT SIZE=2>(sub 2)font> + CIO reaction is the key rate-limiting step in the chlorine-catalyzed destruction of ozone in the lower and middle stratosphere. Product channels leading to HOC1 and HC1 are both exothermic and a small HC1 channel will significantly alter the partitioning of inorganic chlorine in the lower stratosphere.

  4. Emotional and persuasive perception of fonts.

    PubMed

    Juni, Samuel; Gross, Julie S

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the latent affective and persuasive meaning attributed to text when appearing in two commonly used fonts. Two satirical readings were selected from the New York Times. These readings (one addressing government issues, the other education policy) were each printed in Times New Roman and Arial fonts of the same size and presented in randomized order to 102 university students, who ranked the readings on a number of adjective descriptors. Analysis showed that satirical readings in Times New Roman were perceived as more funny and angry than those in Arial, the combination of emotional perception which is congruent with the definition of satire. This apparent interaction of font type with emotional qualities of text has implications for marketing, advertising, and the persuasive literature. PMID:18459353

  5. Emotional and persuasive perception of fonts.

    PubMed

    Juni, Samuel; Gross, Julie S

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the latent affective and persuasive meaning attributed to text when appearing in two commonly used fonts. Two satirical readings were selected from the New York Times. These readings (one addressing government issues, the other education policy) were each printed in Times New Roman and Arial fonts of the same size and presented in randomized order to 102 university students, who ranked the readings on a number of adjective descriptors. Analysis showed that satirical readings in Times New Roman were perceived as more funny and angry than those in Arial, the combination of emotional perception which is congruent with the definition of satire. This apparent interaction of font type with emotional qualities of text has implications for marketing, advertising, and the persuasive literature.

  6. Character feature integration of Chinese calligraphy and font

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Jia, Wenhua; Xu, Canhui

    2013-01-01

    A framework is proposed in this paper to effectively generate a new hybrid character type by means of integrating local contour feature of Chinese calligraphy with structural feature of font in computer system. To explore traditional art manifestation of calligraphy, multi-directional spatial filter is applied for local contour feature extraction. Then the contour of character image is divided into sub-images. The sub-images in the identical position from various characters are estimated by Gaussian distribution. According to its probability distribution, the dilation operator and erosion operator are designed to adjust the boundary of font image. And then new Chinese character images are generated which possess both contour feature of artistical calligraphy and elaborate structural feature of font. Experimental results demonstrate the new characters are visually acceptable, and the proposed framework is an effective and efficient strategy to automatically generate the new hybrid character of calligraphy and font.

  7. Multi-font printed Mongolian document recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Hua; Jin, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Mongolian is one of the major ethnic languages in China. Large amount of Mongolian printed documents need to be digitized in digital library and various applications. Traditional Mongolian script has unique writing style and multi-font-type variations, which bring challenges to Mongolian OCR research. As traditional Mongolian script has some characteristics, for example, one character may be part of another character, we define the character set for recognition according to the segmented components, and the components are combined into characters by rule-based post-processing module. For character recognition, a method based on visual directional feature and multi-level classifiers is presented. For character segmentation, a scheme is used to find the segmentation point by analyzing the properties of projection and connected components. As Mongolian has different font-types which are categorized into two major groups, the parameter of segmentation is adjusted for each group. A font-type classification method for the two font-type group is introduced. For recognition of Mongolian text mixed with Chinese and English, language identification and relevant character recognition kernels are integrated. Experiments show that the presented methods are effective. The text recognition rate is 96.9% on the test samples from practical documents with multi-font-types and mixed scripts.

  8. Web-Based Menus: Font Size and Line Spacing Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Janice; Day, Barbara Taylor; Cribelli, Susan; Jordan, John; Murry, Brandon; Persichitte, Kay A.

    The study investigated the elements of font size and line spacing in World Wide Web menus for both a scrolled and not scrolled condition with a sample of undergraduate university students. Subjects were 185 students enrolled in 13 section of educational technology preservice teacher courses at the University of Northern Colorado. Students were…

  9. Generalization of Hindi OCR Using Adaptive Segmentation and Font Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Mudit; Ma, Huanfeng; Doermann, David

    In this chapter, we describe an adaptive Indic OCR system implemented as part of a rapidly retargetable language tool effort and extend work found in [20, 2]. The system includes script identification, character segmentation, training sample creation, and character recognition. For script identification, Hindi words are identified in bilingual or multilingual document images using features of the Devanagari script and support vector machine (SVM). Identified words are then segmented into individual characters, using a font-model-based intelligent character segmentation and recognition system. Using characteristics of structurally similar TrueType fonts, our system automatically builds a model to be used for the segmentation and recognition of the new script, independent of glyph composition. The key is a reliance on known font attributes. In our recognition system three feature extraction methods are used to demonstrate the importance of appropriate features for classification. The methods are tested on both Latin and non-Latin scripts. Results show that the character-level recognition accuracy exceeds 92% for non-Latin and 96% for Latin text on degraded documents. This work is a step toward the recognition of scripts of low-density languages which typically do not warrant the development of commercial OCR, yet often have complete TrueType font descriptions.

  10. Computer-simulated development process of Chinese characters font cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Mu, Zhichun; Sun, Dehui; Hu, Dunli

    2008-10-01

    The research of Chinese characters cognition is an important research aspect of cognitive science and computer science, especially artificial intelligence. In this paper, according as the traits of Chinese characters the database of Chinese characters font representations and the model of computer simulation of Chinese characters font cognition are constructed from the aspect of cognitive science. The font cognition of Chinese characters is actual a gradual process and there is the accumulation of knowledge. Through using the method of computer simulation, the development model of Chinese characters cognition was constructed. And this is the important research content of Chinese characters cognition. This model is based on self-organizing neural network and adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network. By Combining the SOFM and ART2 network, two sets of input were trained. Through training and testing methods, the development process of Chinese characters cognition based on Chinese characters cognition was simulated. Then the results from this model and could be compared with the results that were obtained only using SOFM. By analyzing the results, this simulation suggests that the model is able to account for some empirical results. So, the model can simulate the development process of Chinese characters cognition in a way.

  11. Font-specific priming following global amnesia and occipital lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, C J; Gabrieli, J D; Verfaellie, M; Fleischman, D; Askari, N

    1998-04-01

    Font-specificity in visual word-stem completion priming was examined in patients with global amnesia and Patient M.S., who had a right-occipital lobectomy. Word-stems appeared in the same or different font as study words. Amnesic patients showed normal font-specific priming (greater priming for words studied in the same than different font as test), despite impaired word-stem cued recall. Patient M.S. failed to exhibit font-specific priming, despite preserved declarative memory. Therefore, perceptual specificity in visual priming depends on visual processes mediated by the right-occipital lobe rather than medial temporal and diencephalic regions involved in declarative memory.

  12. Fontes binárias supermoles de raios X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as características físicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados ópticos e em altas energias, no âmbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de binárias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolométricas. Esse sistemas são compostos por uma anã branca realizando fusão em sua superfície, a partir de matéria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os resíduos de fusão se acumulam na superfície da anã branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cenários propostos para as explosões de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunicação o estado da arte das características físicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no âmbito das VCs. Procuramos também situar esses objetos em relação às variáveis galácticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracerísticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada é aquela pedagógico-cognitiva clássica de um trabalho de IC na área de ciências exatas.

  13. How Much Do Metamemory Beliefs Contribute to the Font-Size Effect in Judgments of Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao; Li, Tongtong; Zheng, Jun; Su, Ningxin; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that the font size of study items significantly influences judgments of learning (JOLs) and that people’s JOLs are generally higher for larger words than for smaller words. Previous studies have suggested that font size influences JOLs in a belief-based way. However, few studies have directly examined how much people’s beliefs contribute to the font-size effect in JOLs. This study investigated the degree to which font size influenced JOLs in a belief-based way. In Experiment 1, one group of participants (learners) studied words with different font sizes and made JOLs, whereas another group of participants (observers) viewed the learners' study phase and made JOLs for the learners. In Experiment 2, participants made both JOLs and belief-based recall predictions for large and small words. Our results suggest that metamemory beliefs play an important role in the font-size effect in JOLs. PMID:26556478

  14. A Special Font for People with Dyslexia: Does it Work and, if so, why?

    PubMed

    Marinus, Eva; Mostard, Michelle; Segers, Eliane; Schubert, Teresa M; Madelaine, Alison; Wheldall, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    In 2008 Christian Boer, a Dutch artist, developed a special font ("Dyslexie") to facilitate reading in children and adults with dyslexia. The font has received a lot of media attention worldwide (e.g., TheGuardian.com, Slate.com, TheAtlantic.com, USA Today, and io9.com). Interestingly, there is barely any empirical evidence for the efficacy of Dyslexie. This study aims to examine if Dyslexie is indeed more effective than a commonly used sans serif font (Arial) and, if so, whether this can be explained by its relatively large spacing settings. Participants were 39 low-progress readers who were learning to read in English. They were asked to read four different texts in four different font conditions that were all matched on letter display size (i.e., x-height), but differed in the degree to which they were matched for spacing settings. Results showed that low-progress readers performed better (i.e., read 7% more words per minute) in Dyslexie font than in standardly spaced Arial font. However, when within-word spacing and between-word spacing of Arial font was matched to that of Dyslexie font, the difference in reading speed was no longer significant. We concluded that the efficacy of Dyslexie font is not because of its specially designed letter shapes, but because of its particular spacing settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Special Font for People with Dyslexia: Does it Work and, if so, why?

    PubMed

    Marinus, Eva; Mostard, Michelle; Segers, Eliane; Schubert, Teresa M; Madelaine, Alison; Wheldall, Kevin

    2016-08-01

    In 2008 Christian Boer, a Dutch artist, developed a special font ("Dyslexie") to facilitate reading in children and adults with dyslexia. The font has received a lot of media attention worldwide (e.g., TheGuardian.com, Slate.com, TheAtlantic.com, USA Today, and io9.com). Interestingly, there is barely any empirical evidence for the efficacy of Dyslexie. This study aims to examine if Dyslexie is indeed more effective than a commonly used sans serif font (Arial) and, if so, whether this can be explained by its relatively large spacing settings. Participants were 39 low-progress readers who were learning to read in English. They were asked to read four different texts in four different font conditions that were all matched on letter display size (i.e., x-height), but differed in the degree to which they were matched for spacing settings. Results showed that low-progress readers performed better (i.e., read 7% more words per minute) in Dyslexie font than in standardly spaced Arial font. However, when within-word spacing and between-word spacing of Arial font was matched to that of Dyslexie font, the difference in reading speed was no longer significant. We concluded that the efficacy of Dyslexie font is not because of its specially designed letter shapes, but because of its particular spacing settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27194598

  16. Printing Method Considering Character Structures of Word-processed Sentenceswith Personal Fonts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, Tsunemasa; Kitagawa, Yoichi; Hayashi, Akihiro

    Although word-processed sentences are easy to read because of the use of standardized character fonts and their orderly arrangement, these sentences lack a writer’s individual style and thus fail to convey the writer’s true message. Recently in response to this, word-processed sentences with personal fonts are desired. On the other hand, distinguished calligraphers decide character arrangements in consideration of the character structures. In order to create word-processed sentences with personal fonts, we measure character arrangements and structures, and investigate the relationship between them by means of multiple-regression analysis. We propose based on the results a new printing method of word-processed sentences with personal fonts. When the method is used, character arrangements of word-processed sentences with personal fonts resemble handwritten sentences. Word-processed sentences made by this method give readers a better feeling than those made by the traditional one.

  17. Font adaptive word indexing of modern printed documents.

    PubMed

    Marinai, Simone; Marino, Emanuele; Soda, Giovanni

    2006-08-01

    We propose an approach for the word-level indexing of modern printed documents which are difficult to recognize using current OCR engines. By means of word-level indexing, it is possible to retrieve the position of words in a document, enabling queries involving proximity of terms. Web search engines implement this kind of indexing, allowing users to retrieve Web pages on the basis of their textual content. Nowadays, digital libraries hold collections of digitized documents that can be retrieved either by browsing the document images or relying on appropriate metadata assembled by domain experts. Word indexing tools would therefore increase the access to these collections. The proposed system is designed to index homogeneous document collections by automatically adapting to different languages and font styles without relying on OCR engines for character recognition. The approach is based on three main ideas: the use of Self Organizing Maps (SOM) to perform unsupervised character clustering, the definition of one suitable vector-based word representation whose size depends on the word aspect-ratio, and the run-time alignment of the query word with indexed words to deal with broken and touching characters. The most appropriate applications are for processing modern printed documents (17th to 19th centuries) where current OCR engines are less accurate. Our experimental analysis addresses six data sets containing documents ranging from books of the 17th century to contemporary journals.

  18. Reading performance with large fonts on high-resolution displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Maureen K.; Larimer, James O.; Gille, Jennifer; Liu, Hsien-Chang

    2004-06-01

    Reading is a fundamental task and skill in many environments including business, education, and the home. Today, reading often occurs on electronic displays in addition to traditional hard copy media such as books and magazines, presenting issues of legibility and other factors that can affect human performance [1]. In fact, the transition to soft copy media for text images is often met with worker complaints about their vision and comfort while reading [2-6]. Careful comparative evaluations of reading performance across hard and soft copy device types are rare, even though they are clearly important given the rapid and substantial improvements in soft copy devices available in the marketplace over the last 5 years. To begin to fill this evaluation gap, we compared reading performance on three different soft copy devices and traditional paper. This study does not investigate comfort factors such as display location, seating comfort, and more general issues of lighting, rather we focus instead on a narrow examination of reading performance differences across display types when font sizes are large.

  19. Writing and reading training effects on font type and size preferences by students with low vision.

    PubMed

    Atasavun Uysal, Songül; Düger, Tülin

    2012-06-01

    The effect of writing and reading training on preferred font type and size in low-vision students was evaluated in 35 children. An ophthalmologist confirmed low vision according to ICD-10-CM. Children identified the font type and size they could best read. The writing subtest of the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, read in 1 min., and legibility as measured by the number of readable written letters were used in evaluating the children. A writing and reading treatment program was conducted, beginning with the child's preferred font type and size, for 3 months, 2 days per week, for 45 min. per day at the child's school. Before treatment, the most preferred font type was Verdana; after treatment, the preferred font type and size changed. Students had gained reading and writing speed after training, but their writing legibility was not significantly better. Training might affect the preferred font type and size of students with low vision. Surprisingly, serif and sans-serif fonts were preferred about equally after treatment.

  20. Font Effects of Chinese Characters and Pseudo-Characters on the N400: Evidence for an Orthographic Processing View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lv, Caixia; Wang, Quanhong

    2012-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a Chinese character decision task to examine whether N400 amplitude is modulated by stimulus font. Results revealed large negative-going ERPs in an N400 time window of 300-500 ms to stimuli presented in degraded Xing Kai Ti (XKT) font compared with more intact Song Ti (ST) font regardless…

  1. A New Pixels Flipping Method for Huge Watermarking Capacity of the Invoice Font Image

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity. PMID:25489606

  2. Automatic generation of Chinese character using features fusion from calligraphy and font

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cao; Xiao, Jianguo; Xu, Canhui; Jia, Wenhua

    2014-02-01

    A spatial statistic based contour feature representation is proposed to achieve extraction of local contour feature from Chinese calligraphy character, and a features fusion strategy is designed to automatically generate new hybrid character, making well use of contour feature of calligraphy and structural feature of font. The features fusion strategy employs dilation and erosion operations iteratively to inject the extracted contour feature from Chinese calligraphy into font, which are similar to "pad" and "cut" in a sculpture progress. Experimental results demonstrate that the generated new hybrid character hold both contour feature of calligraphy and structural feature of font. Especially, two kinds of Chinese calligraphy skills called "Fei Bai" and "Zhang Mo" are imitated in the hybrid character. "Fei Bai" depicts a phenomenon that part of a stroke fade out due to the fast movement of hair brush or the lack of ink, and "Zhang Mo" describes a condition that hair brush holds so much ink that strokes overlap.

  3. A new pixels flipping method for huge watermarking capacity of the invoice font image.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qishuai; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  4. Comparative analysis between different font types and letter styles using a nonlinear invariant digital correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coronel-Beltrán, Ángel; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2010-01-01

    We present, in this paper, a comparative analysis of the letters in Times New Roman (TNR), Courier New (CN) and Arial (Ar) font types in plain and italic style and the effects of five foreground/background color combinations using an invariant digital correlation system with a nonlinear filter with k = 0.3. The evaluation of the output plane with this filter is given by the peak-to-correlation energy (PCE) metric. The results show that the letters in TNR font have a better mean PCE value when compared with the CN and Ar fonts. This result is in agreement with some studies on text legibility and for readability where the reaction time (RT) of some participant individuals reading a text is measured. We conclude that the PCE metric is proportional to 1/RT.

  5. A new pixels flipping method for huge watermarking capacity of the invoice font image.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qishuai; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity. PMID:25489606

  6. Effect of font size, italics, and colour count on web usability

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Ashok; Rajan, Nithin; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2013-01-01

    Web usability measures the ease of use of a website. This study attempts to find the effect of three factors – font size, italics, and colour count – on web usability. The study was performed using a set of tasks and developing a survey questionnaire. We performed the study using a set of human subjects, selected from the undergraduate students taking courses in psychology. The data computed from the tasks and survey questionnaire were statistically analysed to find if there was any effect of font size, italics, and colour count on the three web usability dimensions. We found that for the student population considered, there was no significant effect of font size on usability. However, the manipulation of italics and colour count did influence some aspects of usability. The subjects performed better for pages with no italics and high italics compared to moderate italics. The subjects rated the pages that contained only one colour higher than the web pages with four or six colours. This research will help web developers better understand the effect of font size, italics, and colour count on web usability in general, and for young adults, in particular. PMID:24358055

  7. Reading on the Computer Screen: Does Font Type Have Effects on Web Text Readability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri Mohamad; Wahid, Rahani; Samsudin, Khairulanuar; Idris, Muhammad Zaffwan

    2013-01-01

    Reading on the World Wide Web has become a daily habit nowadays. This can be seen from the perspective of changes in readers' tendency to be more interested in materials from the internet, than printed media. Taking these developments into account, it is important for web-based instructional designers to choose the appropriate font, especially for…

  8. Changing Fonts in Education: How the Benefits Vary with Ability and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, M. M. J.; Blood, Arabella; Bright, N. D.; Futak, Dez; Grohmann, M. J.; Hasthorpe, Alex; Heritage, John; Poland, Remy L.; Reece, Simon; Tabor, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that presenting educational materials in slightly harder to read fonts than is typical engenders deeper processing. This leads to better retention and subsequent recall of information. Before this extremely simple-to-implement and cost-effective adaptation can be made routinely to educational materials, it needs to be…

  9. Seeking Visual Clarity an Examination of Font Legibility and Visual Presentation for Elementary-Level Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Theresa Tetrick

    2010-01-01

    This study examined font and layout alternatives for mild special education children in third through sixth grade. Of this group, twelve were boys and two were girls, seven were suburban students and seven were urban students. During the first phase, the students were observed reading four different fonts, then the participant named the easiest…

  10. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  11. A matter of font type: The effect of serifs on the evaluation of scientific abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Wehlitz, Thea; von Knobelsdorff, Sara; Wulf, Tim; von Saldern, Marie Antoinette Oktavie

    2015-10-01

    Text-based communication is one of the substantial ways of spreading scientific information. While the content and contextual aspects of written words have been widely researched, the impact of font characteristics on text perception is an almost blank page. The following study deals with the influence of serifs on the evaluation of online-presented scientific abstracts. Yet there is only evidence for faster reading times when texts are presented in sans-serif fonts, although the opposite is stated in parts of the literature. The present work examines if the presence or absence of serifs also have an impact on the appraisal of scientific texts when all other important font characteristics do not change. For this purpose, 188 university students participated in an online experiment and rated different aspects of scientific abstracts as well as of the research outlined in the abstracts. The results show that missing serifs led to increased reading speed. However, and in contrast to the perceptual fluency hypothesis, the presence of serifs had a positive effect on all evaluation dimensions. The results of a second study with 187 participants also indicated that reading fluency counteracted the liking of texts. Implications for future studies and media production are discussed. PMID:25704872

  12. A matter of font type: The effect of serifs on the evaluation of scientific abstracts.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Kai; Wehlitz, Thea; von Knobelsdorff, Sara; Wulf, Tim; von Saldern, Marie Antoinette Oktavie

    2015-10-01

    Text-based communication is one of the substantial ways of spreading scientific information. While the content and contextual aspects of written words have been widely researched, the impact of font characteristics on text perception is an almost blank page. The following study deals with the influence of serifs on the evaluation of online-presented scientific abstracts. Yet there is only evidence for faster reading times when texts are presented in sans-serif fonts, although the opposite is stated in parts of the literature. The present work examines if the presence or absence of serifs also have an impact on the appraisal of scientific texts when all other important font characteristics do not change. For this purpose, 188 university students participated in an online experiment and rated different aspects of scientific abstracts as well as of the research outlined in the abstracts. The results show that missing serifs led to increased reading speed. However, and in contrast to the perceptual fluency hypothesis, the presence of serifs had a positive effect on all evaluation dimensions. The results of a second study with 187 participants also indicated that reading fluency counteracted the liking of texts. Implications for future studies and media production are discussed.

  13. Contagem de fontes de radio na direção de aglomerados ricos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreazza, C. M.; Andernach, H.

    A contagem de fontes de rádio, na direção de aglomerados ricos de galáxias, deve fornecer uma distribuçãto acima da média do campo devido aos efeitos do meio. No entanto, a distribução de radiofontes de alguns aglomerados, investigada por vários autores no passado, mostrou, em alguns casos, uma deficência de fontes fracas. Neste trabalho, analisamos os levantamentos em 2.7 GHz (Reuter e Andernach 1990, 1990A&AS...82..279R; Loiseau et al. 1988, 1988A&AS...75...67L) e o catálogo 6CII em 151 MHz (Hales et al. 1988, 1988MNRAS.234..919H). Nosso estudio da distribução de radiofontes, na direção de aglomerados ricos de galáxias, nestas duas frequências, mostra um excesso de fontes fortes somente nas regiões centrais dos aglomerados. Este resultado pode ser explicado devido à evidência de confinamento das radiofontes pelo gás, do meio intra-aglomerado, e devido aos processos de colisão, coalescência e canibalismo de galáxias.

  14. Selection of the optimum font type and size interface for on screen continuous reading by young adults: an ergonomic approach.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jayeeta; Bhattacharyya, Moushum

    2011-12-01

    There is a rapid shifting of media: from printed paper to computer screens. This transition is modifying the process of how we read and understand text. The efficiency of reading is dependent on how ergonomically the visual information is presented. Font types and size characteristics have been shown to affect reading. A detailed investigation of the effect of the font type and size on reading on computer screens has been carried out by using subjective, objective and physiological evaluation methods on young adults. A group of young participants volunteered for this study. Two types of fonts were used: Serif fonts (Times New Roman, Georgia, Courier New) and Sans serif fonts (Verdana, Arial, Tahoma). All fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. This study used a 6 X 3 (font type X size) design matrix. Participants read 18 passages of approximately the same length and reading level on a computer monitor. Reading time, ranking and overall mental workload were measured. Eye movements were recorded by a binocular eye movement recorder. Reading time was minimum for Courier New l4 point. The participants' ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The pupil diameter, fixation duration and gaze duration were least for Courier New 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended for fast reading while for on screen presentation Verdana is recommended. The outcome of this study will help as a guideline to all the PC users, software developers, web page designers and computer industry as a whole.

  15. Taxas de eventos para as fontes astrofísicas do detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, C. S.; Araujo, J. C. N.; Miranda, O. D.; Aguiar, O. D.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg será sensível a sinais que cheguem à Terra com amplitude h~10-21 e dentro da faixa em frequências que varia de 3,0 a 3,4 kHz. As principais fontes astrofísicas em condições de gerar um sinal detectável pela antena Schenberg são: colapsos estelares que produzam eventos do tipo supernova; instabilidades hidrodinâmicas em estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos modos fluído (modos f) de estrelas de nêutrons; excitação dos primeiros modos quadrupolares de buracos negros com massa ~ 3,8 M¤; coalescências de estrelas de nêutrons e buracos negros em sistemas binários e, ainda, espiralações de mini-buracos negros. Neste trabalho nós determinamos as taxas de eventos para o Schenberg associadas a dois tipos de fontes: através da de-excitação dos modos f de estrelas de nêutrons e através da coalescência de mini-buracos negros de 0,5 M¤ (que atualmente têm sido colocados como possíveis candidatos a objetos massivos do halo Galáctico). Nós mostramos que esses tipos de fontes poderão produzir sinais em ondas gravitacionais com uma taxa em torno de um evento por ano dentro da banda do Schenberg.

  16. Design of the ILC Prototype FONT4 Digital Intra-Train Beam-Based Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.; Christian, G.B.; Hartin, A.F.; Dabiri Khah, H.; White, G.R.; Clarke, C.C.; Perry, C.; Kalinin, A.; McCormick, D.J.; Molloy, S.; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

    2007-04-16

    We present the design of the FONT4 digital intra-train beam position feedback system prototype and preliminary results of initial beam tests at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK. The feedback system incorporates a fast analogue beam position monitor (BPM) front-end signal processor, a digital feedback board, and a kicker driver amplifier. The short bunchtrain, comprising 3 electron bunches separated by c. 150ns, in the ATF extraction line was used to test components of the prototype feedback system.

  17. Tests of the FONT3 Linear Collider Intra-Train Beam Feedback System at the ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Christian, G.; Clarke, C.; Hartin, A.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Frisch, J.C.; Markiewicz, T.W.; McCormick, D.J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; Kalinin, A.; Perry, C.; /Oxford Instruments

    2006-03-14

    We report preliminary results of beam tests of the FONT3 Linear Collider intra-train position feedback system prototype at the Accelerator Test Facility at KEK. The feedback system incorporates a novel beam position monitor (BPM) processor with a latency below 5 nanoseconds, and a kicker driver amplifier with similar low latency. The 56 nanosecond-long bunchtrain in the ATF extraction line was used to test the prototype BPM processor. The achieved latency will allow a demonstration of intra-train feedback on timescales relevant even for the CLIC Linear Collider design.

  18. The effect of font size on reading comprehension on second and fifth grade children: bigger is not always better.

    PubMed

    Katzir, Tami; Hershko, Shirley; Halamish, Vered

    2013-01-01

    Research on reading development has focused on the linguistic, cognitive, and recently, metacognitive skills children must master in order to learn to read. Less focus has been devoted to how the text itself, namely the perceptual features of the words, affects children's learning and comprehension. In this study, we manipulated perceptual properties of text by presenting reading passages in different font sizes, line lengths, and line spacing to 100 children in the second and fifth grades. For second graders (Experiment 1), decreasing font size, as well as increasing line length, yielded significantly lower comprehension scores. Line spacing had no effect on performance. For fifth graders (Experiment 2), decreasing font size yielded higher comprehension scores, yet there were no effects for line length and line spacing. Results are discussed within a "desirable difficulty" approach to reading development.

  19. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity).

  20. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity). PMID:27074013

  1. A New Font, Specifically Designed for Peripheral Vision, Improves Peripheral Letter and Word Recognition, but Not Eye-Mediated Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Aguilar, Carlos; Castet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Reading speed is dramatically reduced when readers cannot use their central vision. This is because low visual acuity and crowding negatively impact letter recognition in the periphery. In this study, we designed a new font (referred to as the Eido font) in order to reduce inter-letter similarity and consequently to increase peripheral letter recognition performance. We tested this font by running five experiments that compared the Eido font with the standard Courier font. Letter spacing and x-height were identical for the two monospaced fonts. Six normally-sighted subjects used exclusively their peripheral vision to run two aloud reading tasks (with eye movements), a letter recognition task (without eye movements), a word recognition task (without eye movements) and a lexical decision task. Results show that reading speed was not significantly different between the Eido and the Courier font when subjects had to read single sentences with a round simulated gaze-contingent central scotoma (10° diameter). In contrast, Eido significantly decreased perceptual errors in peripheral crowded letter recognition (-30% errors on average for letters briefly presented at 6° eccentricity) and in peripheral word recognition (-32% errors on average for words briefly presented at 6° eccentricity). PMID:27074013

  2. Nanosecond-Timescale Intra-Bunch-Train Feedback for the Linear Collider: Results of the FONT2 Run

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, R.; Dufau, M.; Kalinin, A.; Myatt, G.; Perry, C.; Burrows, P.N.; Hartin, T.; Hussain, S.M.; Molloy, S.; White, G.R.; Adolphsen, C.; Frisch, J.C.; Hendrickson, L.; Jobe, R.K.; Markiewicz, T.; McCormick, D.J.; Nelson, J.; Ross, M.C.; Smith, S.; Smith, T.J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-11

    We report on experimental results from the December 2003/January 2004 data run of the Feedback On Nanosecond Timescales (FONT) experiment at the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator at SLAC. We built a second-generation prototype intra-train beam-based feedback system incorporating beam position monitors, fast analogue signal processors, a feedback circuit, fast-risetime amplifiers and stripline kickers. We applied a novel real-time charge-normalization scheme to account for beam current variations along the train. We used the system to correct the position of the 170-nanosecond-long bunchtrain at NLCTA. We achieved a latency of 53 nanoseconds, representing a significant improvement on FONT1 (2002), and providing a demonstration of intra-train feedback for the Linear Collider.

  3. Distracted While Reading? Changing to a Hard-to-Read Font Shields against the Effects of Environmental Noise and Speech on Text Memory.

    PubMed

    Halin, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distractive effects of background speech, aircraft noise and road traffic noise on text memory and particularly to examine if displaying the texts in a hard-to-read font can shield against the detrimental effects of these types of background sounds. This issue was addressed in an experiment where 56 students read shorter texts about different classes of fictitious creatures (i.e., animals, fishes, birds, and dinosaurs) against a background of the aforementioned background sounds respectively and silence. For half of the participants the texts were displayed in an easy-to-read font (i.e., Times New Roman) and for the other half in a hard-to-read font (i.e., Haettenschweiler). The dependent measure was the proportion correct answers on the multiple-choice tests that followed each sound condition. Participants' performance in the easy-to-read font condition was significantly impaired by all three background sound conditions compared to silence. In contrast, there were no effects of the three background sound conditions compared to silence in the hard-to-read font condition. These results suggest that an increase in task demand-by displaying the text in a hard-to-read font-shields against various types of distracting background sounds by promoting a more steadfast locus-of-attention and by reducing the processing of background sound.

  4. Crystal Structure of Serine Racemase that Produces Neurotransmitter font-variant:small-caps">d-Serine for Stimulation of the NMDA Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Masaru

    font-variant:small-caps">d-Serine is an endogenous coagonist for the N-methyl-font-variant:small-caps">d-aspartate receptor and is involved in excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Mammalian pyridoxal 5’-phosphate-dependent serine racemase, which is localized in the mammalian brain, catalyzes the racemization of font-variant:small-caps">l-serine to yield font-variant:small-caps">d-serine and vice versa. We have determined the structures of three forms of the mammalian enzyme homolog from Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Lys57 and Ser82 located on the protein and solvent sides, respectively, with respect to the cofactor plane, are acid-base catalysts that shuttle protons to the substrate. The modified enzyme, which has a unique lysino-font-variant:small-caps">d-alanyl residue at the active site, also binds the substrate serine in the active site, suggesting that the lysino-font-variant:small-caps">d-alanyl residue acts as a catalytic base in the same manner as Lys57 of the wild type enzyme.

  5. Distracted While Reading? Changing to a Hard-to-Read Font Shields against the Effects of Environmental Noise and Speech on Text Memory.

    PubMed

    Halin, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distractive effects of background speech, aircraft noise and road traffic noise on text memory and particularly to examine if displaying the texts in a hard-to-read font can shield against the detrimental effects of these types of background sounds. This issue was addressed in an experiment where 56 students read shorter texts about different classes of fictitious creatures (i.e., animals, fishes, birds, and dinosaurs) against a background of the aforementioned background sounds respectively and silence. For half of the participants the texts were displayed in an easy-to-read font (i.e., Times New Roman) and for the other half in a hard-to-read font (i.e., Haettenschweiler). The dependent measure was the proportion correct answers on the multiple-choice tests that followed each sound condition. Participants' performance in the easy-to-read font condition was significantly impaired by all three background sound conditions compared to silence. In contrast, there were no effects of the three background sound conditions compared to silence in the hard-to-read font condition. These results suggest that an increase in task demand-by displaying the text in a hard-to-read font-shields against various types of distracting background sounds by promoting a more steadfast locus-of-attention and by reducing the processing of background sound. PMID:27555834

  6. Performance of the FONT3 Fast Analogue Intra-Train Beam-Based Feedback System at ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.; Christian, G.B.; Hartin, A.F.; Dabiri Khah, H.; White, G.R.; Clarke, C.C.; Perry, C.; Kalinin, A.; McCormick, D.J.; Molloy, S.; Ross, M.C.; /SLAC

    2007-04-16

    We report results of beam tests of the FONT3 intra-train position feedback system prototype at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK. The feedback system incorporates a novel beam position monitor (BPM) processor with latency below 5 nanoseconds, and a kicker driver amplifier with similar low latency. The 56 nanosecond-long bunchtrain in the ATF extraction line was used to test the prototype feedback system. The achieved latency of 23ns provides a demonstration of intra-train feedback on very short timescales relevant even for the CLIC Linear Collider design.

  7. Spectroscopic study of the degradation products in the holy water fonts in Santa Maria della Steccata Church in Parma (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bersani, D; Campani, E; Casoli, A; Lottici, P P; Marino, I-G

    2008-03-01

    Two holy water fonts (dated at the beginning of the XVII century) in the Santa Maria della Steccata Church in Parma (Italy) have recently been restored. Before the intervention, a detailed investigation on their degradation products was carried out to understand the mechanisms of alteration of the materials and to suggest appropriate restoration procedures. The analyses were performed by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and micro-Raman spectroscopies. Calcite, iron oxides, silicates and sodium chloride (from salted holy water) were found in the red coloured calcarenite. On and under the lead coverings, different lead oxides (mainly massicot), other lead salts (lead basic carbonate, cerussite, plumbonacrite Pb10O(OH)6(CO3)6 and lead-chlorine compounds as laurionite PbOHCl and phosgenite Pb2CO3Cl2) were identified by Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Haematite alpha-Fe2O3, goethite alpha-FeO(OH) and lepidocrocite gamma-FeO(OH) were found on and around the iron hinges. Lead compounds and sodium chloride, through crystallization and solubilization cycles, were responsible for the stone's degradation, whereas the iron corrosion materials on the hinges produced mechanical stress and cracks in the stone. Various suggestions have been given on how to restore these fonts and to remove the causes of damage.

  8. Distracted While Reading? Changing to a Hard-to-Read Font Shields against the Effects of Environmental Noise and Speech on Text Memory

    PubMed Central

    Halin, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distractive effects of background speech, aircraft noise and road traffic noise on text memory and particularly to examine if displaying the texts in a hard-to-read font can shield against the detrimental effects of these types of background sounds. This issue was addressed in an experiment where 56 students read shorter texts about different classes of fictitious creatures (i.e., animals, fishes, birds, and dinosaurs) against a background of the aforementioned background sounds respectively and silence. For half of the participants the texts were displayed in an easy-to-read font (i.e., Times New Roman) and for the other half in a hard-to-read font (i.e., Haettenschweiler). The dependent measure was the proportion correct answers on the multiple-choice tests that followed each sound condition. Participants’ performance in the easy-to-read font condition was significantly impaired by all three background sound conditions compared to silence. In contrast, there were no effects of the three background sound conditions compared to silence in the hard-to-read font condition. These results suggest that an increase in task demand—by displaying the text in a hard-to-read font—shields against various types of distracting background sounds by promoting a more steadfast locus-of-attention and by reducing the processing of background sound. PMID:27555834

  9. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  10. Revision of Fontes & Garnier's model for the initial 14C content of dissolved inorganic carbon used in groundwater dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, Liang-Feng; Plummer, L. Niel

    2013-01-01

    The widely applied model for groundwater dating using 14C proposed by Fontes and Garnier (F&G) (Fontes and Garnier, 1979) estimates the initial 14C content in waters from carbonate-rock aquifers affected by isotopic exchange. Usually, the model of F&G is applied in one of two ways: (1) using a single 13C fractionation factor of gaseous CO2 with respect to a solid carbonate mineral, εg/s, regardless of whether the carbon isotopic exchange is controlled by soil CO2 in the unsaturated zone, or by solid carbonate mineral in the saturated zone; or (2) using different fractionation factors if the exchange process is dominated by soil CO2 gas as opposed to solid carbonate mineral (typically calcite). An analysis of the F&G model shows an inadequate conceptualization, resulting in underestimation of the initial 14C values (14C0) for groundwater systems that have undergone isotopic exchange. The degree to which the 14C0 is underestimated increases with the extent of isotopic exchange. Examples show that in extreme cases, the error in calculated adjusted initial 14C values can be more than 20% modern carbon (pmc). A model is derived that revises the mass balance method of F&G by using a modified model conceptualization. The derivation yields a “global” model both for carbon isotopic exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 in the unsaturated zone, and for carbon isotopic exchange dominated by solid carbonate mineral in the saturated zone. However, the revised model requires different parameters for exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 as opposed to exchange dominated by solid carbonate minerals. The revised model for exchange dominated by gaseous CO2 is shown to be identical to the model of Mook (Mook, 1976). For groundwater systems where exchange occurs both in the unsaturated zone and saturated zone, the revised model can still be used; however, 14C0 will be slightly underestimated. Finally, in carbonate systems undergoing complex geochemical reactions, such as oxidation of

  11. A time for dogma, a time for the Bible, a time for condoms: Building a Catholic theology of prevention in the face of public health policies at Casa Fonte Colombo in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Casa Fonte Colombo (CFC) is a religious organisation that assists people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The funding for its activities comes from public sources such as the Brazilian National STD/AIDS Program as well as the Catholic Church. Capuchin (Franciscan) priests run the CFC, and it has an extensive group of volunteers made up mostly of women. Between 2006 and 2009, we observed daily life at the Casa Fonte Colombo and interviewed priests, volunteers, employees, service providers, and clients. We also attended meetings, group sessions, and celebrations. Everyday actions carried out by the CFC reveal the efforts to resolve the tension between the position of the Catholic Church and the Brazilian state in the politics of AIDS. These efforts affirm that the Casa Fonte Colombo presents itself as a space where the position of the Catholic Church, as much as the politics of public health, are re-worked, giving way to a progressive act of Catholic prevention and assistance for AIDS, that we call “theology of prevention.” PMID:21834734

  12. A Concepção de Universo entre Alunos do Ensino Médio de São Paulo e suas Fontes de Aquisição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. A. A.; Elias, D. C. N.; Amaral, L. H.; Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2006-08-01

    Nesse trabalho procurou-se identificar por meio de um questionário as concepções de Universo, de espaço e tempo que sustentam a visão de mundo de um grupo de 270 estudantes de Ensino Médio, pertencentes a três escolas de São Paulo. As questões relacionadas aos conhecimentos prévios dos estudantes permitiram constatar que há pouco conhecimento acerca dos temas investigados, destacando-se que apenas 20% dos alunos foram capazes de relacionar as semanas com as fases da lua, enquanto 28% associaram as estações do ano à inclinação do eixo de rotação da Terra e 23% tinham noções das distâncias entre objetos celestes próximos da Terra. Enquanto 56% conseguiram relacionar o Big Bang com a origem do Universo, verificou-se que 37% reconheciam ano-luz como unidade de distância e 60% concebiam o Sol como uma estrela. No que se refere às fontes de aquisição que proporcionaram esses conhecimentos, apesar de 60% dos alunos indicarem a escola como principal fonte dos conhecimentos de Ast! ronomia, verificou-se claramente que para a maioria dos alunos seus conceitos ainda são inadequados, havendo necessidade de aprimoramento da abordagem desses conteúdos, pois apesar de popular, a Astronomia ainda é veiculada de maneira pouco esclarecedora e com imprecisões. Nesse contexto, são discutidas algumas possíveis contribuições que podem ser dadas para o ensino de Astronomia pelo uso das ferramentas computacionais nas escolas.

  13. Self-correcting 100-font classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Henry S.; Nagy, George

    1994-03-01

    We have developed a practical scheme to take advantage of local typeface homogeneity to improve the accuracy of a character classifier. Given a polyfont classifier which is capable of recognizing any of 100 typefaces moderately well, our method allows it to specialize itself automatically to the single -- but otherwise unknown -- typeface it is reading. Essentially, the classifier retrains itself after examining some of the images, guided at first by the preset classification boundaries of the given classifier, and later by the behavior of the retrained classifier. Experimental trials on 6.4 M pseudo-randomly distorted images show that the method improves on 95 of the 100 typefaces. It reduces the error rate by a factor of 2.5, averaged over 100 typefaces, when applied to an alphabet of 80 ASCII characters printed at ten point and digitized at 300 pixels/inch. This self-correcting method complements, and does not hinder, other methods for improving OCR accuracy, such as linguistic contextual analysis.

  14. The Effect of Font Selection on Student Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of standards-based curriculums has resulted in an increased frequency of student testing, including high-stakes testing. Of students who take tests, up to 65% may experience test anxiety, which can have negative effects on student outcomes. For this reason, the purpose of this single-group, repeated measures design, quantitative…

  15. <FONT COLOR=#0E3193>Triplet deciphers genomes

    PubMed

    Hesketh

    2000-09-01

    particularly up to date features, Gerald Karp's book includes a section in the Cancer chapter on angiogenesis, as does Lodish et al., but in Karp the information imparted extends to a scheme showing the effect of endostatin on mouse tumours, replete with photographs of mice from such an experiment. All of this has resulted in a book that is focused but highly informative and a delight to browse through. If it appears by now that your reviewer is suggesting you should dash out and buy all three of these books, I can only admit that I am delighted to have them on my shelf. If you have to choose, for fundamental biochemical science with a fair degree of breadth thrown in it has to be Lehninger. For a comprehensive molecular biology course Lodish et al. is the equal of anything else on the market. For a broad grounding in cell and molecular biology that will appeal especially to medical students go for Karp.

  16. From the Fonts of Knowledge: The Partnership between Older Consumers and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, William J.; Scarisbrick-Hauser, Annemarie

    1995-01-01

    Discusses some of the underlying motivations of business with regard to the aging population of consumers and examines those of mature consumers as perceived by business. Proposes a partnership between business and the network of aging consumers. Presents a case study of the partnership between Rubbermaid and the Wise Owls. (Author/JOW)

  17. The Effects of Font Type and Spacing of Text for Online Readability and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojjati, Nafiseh; Muniandy, Balakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Texts are a group of letters which are printed or displayed in a particular style and size. In the course of the fast speed of technological development everywhere and expanding use of computer based instruction such as online courses, students spend more time on a computer screen than printed media. Texts have been the main element to convey…

  18. Perceptual Span Depends on Font Size during the Reading of Chinese Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ming; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual span (i.e., the physical extent of an area from which useful visual information is extracted during a single fixation) during the reading of Chinese sentences in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested whether the rightward span can go beyond 3 characters when visually similar masks were used. Results…

  19. Modelisation des systemes geothermiques a boucles horizontales pour chauffer les batiments et prevenir la fonte du pergelisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Pier-Olivier

    2011-12-01

    In northern regions, due to climate change, the increase in the annual mean air temperature increases the depth at which the permanently frozen ground (permafrost) is located. This melting causes soil instability and therefore, the instability of the buildings and transport structures above it. These regions are highly dependent on fossil fuels as a large quantity is used to heat buildings and generate electricity. A solution to these problems is presented in this memoir. It involves using a heat exchanger coupled to a horizontal geothermal heat pump for both heating a building and maintaining the integrity of the permafrost beneath it. A new analytical model for horizontal ground heat exchanger based on the finite line source is presented. This model extends to the transient case in the soil and to any desired pipe layout the steady state results for parallel horizontal pipes of Claesson et Dunand (1983). The heat transfer ratio can change along the pipe. The analytical model can not account for the groundwater phase change given the complexity of the phenomenon. When there is no phase change the analytical model is validated by a 3D finite element numerical model. When the phase change is accounted for in the numerical model, for weather data from northern regions, the analytical model still provides good approximations to the ground temperature during the intensive heating season, hence allowing to compute the heat extracted by the ground heat exchanger (GHE). However, summer ground temperature and thaw depth are overestimated by the analytical model, so that the analytical model gives conservative results. A case study using a geoexchange thermal system is presented. It consists in freezing the ground under a building and heat it at the same time. A typical building in Kuujjuaq (northern Canada) is analyzed. The GHE layout follows a spiral pattern characterized globally by 3 parameters : length L, depth D and spacing S. The influence of each parameter on the amount of heat extracted from the ground and on the maximum ground temperature at a control point is assessed. This study shows that the proposed solution is feasible. An impact analysis shows the most important external parameters for the system design. The thermal properties of the frozen ground prove to be decisive parameters. The model, the case study and the impact analysis provide useful GHE design guidelines in cold regions for the double purpose of ground freezing and heat extraction.

  20. The Energy Spectrum of Fronts: Time Evolution of Shocks in Burgers<FONT COLOR="RED">[lsquor] Equation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Andrews and Hoskins used semigeostrophic theory to argue that the energy spectrum of a front should decay like the 8/3 power of the wavenumber. They note, however, that their inviscid analysis is restricted to the very moment of breaking; that is, to the instant t = t when the vorticity first becomes infinite. In this paper, Burgers' equation is used to investigate the postbreaking behavior of fronts. We find that for t > t, the front rapidly evolves to a jump discontinuity. Combining our analysis with the Eady wave/Burgers[ldquor] study of Blumen, we find that the energy spectrum is more accurately approximated by the 8/3 power of the wavenumber, rather than by the k2 energy spectrum of a discontinuity, for less than two hours after the time of breaking.We also offer two corrections. Cai et al. improve a pseudospectral algorithm by fitting the spectrum of a jump discontinuity. This is not legitimate at t = t because the front initially forms with a cube root singularity and its spectral coefficients decay at a different rate. Whitham claims that for t > t, the characteristic equation has two roots. We show by explicit solution that there are actually three.

  1. A Rose in Any Other Font Would Not Smell as Sweet: Effects of Perceptual Fluency on Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M.; Frank, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Fluency--the ease with which people process information--is a central piece of information we take into account when we make judgments about the world. Prior research has shown that fluency affects judgments in a wide variety of domains, including frequency, familiarity, and confidence. In this paper, we present evidence that fluency also plays a…

  2. Maximiser la communication famille-ecole: Quand les TIC font mouche = Maximizing Family-School Communication: When ICT Hits the Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsenti, Thierry; Garnier, Yves Daniel

    2002-01-01

    A pilot project that created a school Web site and e-mail service demonstrated the importance of information technology to Montreal (Quebec) 4th-grade students and their teachers. E-mail allowed teachers to have more efficient and less time-consuming communications with parents and allowed parents to more closely engage in their children's school…

  3. High Level Analysis, Design and Validation of Distributed Mobile Systems with FontCategory="SansSerif" Type="Bold">CoreASM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahbod, R.; Glässer, U.; Jackson, P. J.; Vajihollahi, M.

    System design is a creative activity calling for abstract models that facilitate reasoning about the key system attributes (desired requirements and resulting properties) so as to ensure these attributes are properly established prior to actually building a system. We explore here the practical side of using the abstract state machine (ASM) formalism in combination with the CoreASM open source tool environment for high-level design and experimental validation of complex distributed systems. Emphasizing the early phases of the design process, a guiding principle is to support freedom of experimentation by minimizing the need for encoding. CoreASM has been developed and tested building on a broad scope of applications, spanning computational criminology, maritime surveillance and situation analysis. We critically reexamine here the CoreASM project in light of three different application scenarios.

  4. Growth and Superconducting Properties of YBa2Cu3O 7-<font face="symbol">dfont> Films on Conductive SrRuO3 and LaNiO3 Multilayers for

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, T.

    2000-02-07

    Conductive multilayers of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}/SrRuO{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} (YBCO/SRO/LNO), YBCO/SRO, and YBCO/LNO were grown epitaxially on single-crystal LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. Property characterizations revealed that the YBCO films on SRO and SRO/LNO buffer structures have excellent structural and superconducting properties. The YBCO/LNO, however, suffers degradation in superconducting transition temperatures and critical current densities, despite a good crystalline structure. The SRO/LNO bilayer showed excellent electrical contact with BCO. These results have demonstrated the structural and chemical compatibility of SRO/LNO multilayers with YBCO and their potential use as conductive buffer layers for YBCO-based coated conductors as well as for other high-temperature superconducting applications.

  5. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  6. Estudo da utilizacao da biomassa florestal como fonte de produtos quimicos e energia atraves de processos quimicos e biotechnologicos (Utilization of forest biomass for chemicals and energy by chemical and biotechnological processes). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    de Miranda, I.M.S.S.

    1989-04-01

    The chemical composition and the non-structural carbohydrate composition were determined for 1-year-old Eucalyptus globulus Labill trees, grown in an experimental plantation with different nutrient and water supplies (C-trees, where no treatment was made and IL-trees, which received a nutrient supply and irrigation). Leaf carbohydrates were determined for the same conditions. Pulping experiments were made using kraft cooks of eucalyptus wood. The results of the pretreatments are complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations. Average wood composition was: ash 1.6%, total extractives 5.2%, Klason lignin 21.0%, soluble lignin 3.1% (% of o.d. weight). The results did not show statistical significant differences between the two growth conditions. The average wood carbohydrate composition was: glucose 2.7%, frutose 4.1% sucrose 1.3% and starch 0.5%. The average carbohydrate composition of leaves was: glucose 1.0%, frutose 1.7%, sucrose 0.1% and starch 4.1%. The average yield for the kraft wood delinification was 49%. The saccharification of pretreated eucalyptus chips with a steam-explosion pretreatment was: For H2SO4 impregnation 26.6% and for H2O impregnation 44.2%.

  7. font-size: 14.0pt; mso-font-width: 100%;" lang="EN-GB">On the taxonomic status of the Europeanfont-size: 14.0pt; mso-font-width: 100%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;"> Scolelepis font-size: 14.0pt; mso-font-width: 100%; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;">(Scolelepis) squamata

    font-size: 14.0pt; mso-font-width: 100%;" lang="EN-GB">(Polychaeta: Spionidae), with description of a new species from southern Europe

    .

    PubMed

    Surugiu, Victor

    2016-01-01

    In order to clarify taxonomic problems relating to the identity of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) specimens from the Black Sea, the identified material was compared with specimens of Scolelepis cirratulus (Delle Chiaje, 1829) from the Mediterranean, of S. squamata (Abildgaard, in O.F. Müller, 1806) from the North Sea and the Atlantic coast of Spain, and with the syntypes of S. mesnili (Bellan & Lagardère, 1971) from the Atlantic coast of France. The examination of a large number of specimens (both juveniles and adults) reveals that the currently accepted morphological differences distinguishing all species show size-related patterns, suggesting that they all belong to one species. Therefore, this study supports the view that Scolelepis cirratulus and Scolelepis mesnili are junior synonyms of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata. As a result of the re-assessment of the species limits of Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata, a new species, Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov., is distinguished and described from the Cantabrian coast of Spain. It inhabits shallow sublittoral fine sands and was earlier misidentified and reported from the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Mediterranean Sea as Scolelepis squamata, Scolelepis mesnili, Scolelepis cantabra (Rioja, 1918), or Dispio uncinata Hartman, 1951. The new species is characterized by having a trilobate prostomium with an acuminate medial portion, a short peristomium with well-developed dorso-lateral wings, short palps with two longitudinal bands of elevated lobes, neuropodial postchaetal lamellae notched from chaetigers 14-41, and strongly curved bidentate neuropodial hooded hooks with a slight constriction on the shaft starting from chaetigers 19-49. The morphology, diagnostic characters and ecology of both Scolelepis (Scolelepis) squamata and Scolelepis (Scolelepis) neglecta sp. nov. are discussed. PMID:27615921

  8. 16 CFR 322.4 - Disclosures required in commercial communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the heading “IMPORTANT NOTICE,” which must be in bold face font that is two point-type larger than the... in bold face font that is two point-type larger than the font size of the required disclosures; and... this service, consider the following information.” The heading must be in bold face font that is...

  9. 37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... affecting § 1.52, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... a nonscript type font (e.g., Arial, Times Roman, or Courier, preferably a font size of 12)...

  10. 37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affecting § 1.52, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... a nonscript type font (e.g., Arial, Times Roman, or Courier, preferably a font size of 12)...

  11. The Role of Memory Activation in Creating False Memories of Encoding Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Using 3 experiments, I examined false memory for encoding context by presenting Deese-Roediger-McDermott themes (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) in usual-looking fonts and by testing related, but unstudied, lure items in a font that was shown during encoding. In 2 of the experiments, testing lure items in the font used to study their…

  12. 12 CFR 1015.4 - Disclosures required in commercial communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in bold face font that is two point-type larger than the font size of the required disclosures; and... the heading “IMPORTANT NOTICE,” which must be in bold face font that is two point-type larger than...

  13. 16 CFR 322.5 - Prohibition on collection of advance payments and related disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... bold face font that is two point-type larger than the font size of the required disclosure; or (c)(1... ABOUT THIS OFFER.” The heading must be in bold face font that is two-point-type larger than the...

  14. 12 CFR 1015.4 - Disclosures required in commercial communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in bold face font that is two point-type larger than the font size of the required disclosures; and... the heading “IMPORTANT NOTICE,” which must be in bold face font that is two point-type larger than...

  15. 12 CFR 1015.5 - Prohibition on collection of advance payments and related disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... this service, consider the following information.” The heading must be in bold face font that is two... OFFER.” The heading must be in bold face font that is two-point-type larger than the font size of...

  16. 16 CFR 322.4 - Disclosures required in commercial communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the heading “IMPORTANT NOTICE,” which must be in bold face font that is two point-type larger than the... in bold face font that is two point-type larger than the font size of the required disclosures;...

  17. 12 CFR 1015.5 - Prohibition on collection of advance payments and related disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this service, consider the following information.” The heading must be in bold face font that is two... OFFER.” The heading must be in bold face font that is two-point-type larger than the font size of...

  18. 12 CFR 1015.5 - Prohibition on collection of advance payments and related disclosures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... this service, consider the following information.” The heading must be in bold face font that is two... OFFER.” The heading must be in bold face font that is two-point-type larger than the font size of...

  19. Text legibility and the letter superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, James E; Subbaram, Manoj V; Zimmerman, Aaron B; Hayes, John R

    2005-01-01

    Effects of font design and electronic display parameters upon text legibility were determined using a threshold size method. Participants' visual acuity (inverse of the minimum detection size, representing the threshold legibility for each condition) was measured using upper- and lowercase letters and lowercase words in combinations of 6 fonts, 3 font-smoothing modes, 4 font sizes, 10 pixel heights, and 4 stroke widths. Individual lowercase letters were 10% to 20% more legible than lowercase words (i.e., lowercase words must be 10%-20% larger to have the same threshold legibility). This letter superiority effect suggests that individual letters play a large role and word shape plays a smaller role, if any, in word identification at threshold. Pixel height, font, stroke width, and font smoothing had significant main effects on threshold legibility. Optimal legibility was attained at 9 pixels (10 points). Verdana and Arial were the most legible fonts; Times New Roman and Franklin were least legible. Subpixel rendering (ClearType) improved threshold legibility for some fonts and, in combination with Verdana, was the most legible condition. Increased stroke width (bold) improved threshold legibility but only at the thinnest width tested. Potential applications of this research include optimization of font design for legibility and readability. PMID:16553067

  20. Measurement of vibrational energy transfer of OH (A2S+,v'=1?0) in low-pressure flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartlieb, A. T.; Markus, D.; Kreutner, W.; Kohse-Höinghaus, K.

    1997-07-01

    Vibrational energy transfer (VET) and electronic quenching of OH (A2D+) was measured in a low-pressure H2/O2 flame for three rotational levels of OH (v'=1). Rate coefficients for collisions with H2O and N2 were determined. At 1600 K, kVET (N2) is (in 10-11 cm3s-1) 10.1<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">DŽ, 6.1<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">ǃ.8, and 3.8<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">ǃ.3 for N'=0, 5, and 13, respectively. The kVET (H2O) is <1.1<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">ǃ.8. The kQ (N2) is <2.4<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">NJ for both vibrational levels. The kQ (H2O) in v'=1 is 59.1<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">Lj.5, 54.7<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">Lj.4, and 54.9<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">Lj.6 for N'=0, 5, and 13, respectively, and, determined indirectly, 74.6<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">ᆞ.4, 70.6<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">ᆞ.3, and 63.4<FONT FACE="MetaPress 5">lj.3 for N'=0, 5, and 13 in v'=0. A multi-level model of OH population dynamics, which is being developed for the quantitative simulation of experimental LIF spectra, was extended to include VET. It was attempted to simulate state-to-state-specific VET coefficients for N2 collisions. From these simulations it appears that angular momentum conservation does not determine the N dependence of the vibrational relaxation step.

  1. 75 FR 39510 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Off-Campus Community Service Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA... following fonts: Times New Roman, Courier, Courier New, or Arial. An application submitted in any other font... a TIN from the Internal Revenue Service or the Social Security Administration. If you need a new...

  2. Displaying Special Characters and Symbols in Computer-Controlled Reaction Time Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friel, Brian M.; Kennison, Shelia M.

    A procedure for using MEL2 (Version 2.0 of Microcomputer Experimental Laboratory) and FontWINDOW to present special characters and symbols in computer-controlled reaction time experiments is described. The procedure permits more convenience and flexibility than in tachistocopic and projection techniques. FontWINDOW allows researchers to design…

  3. Samuel Dyer and His Contributions to Chinese Typography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Ibrahim bin

    1984-01-01

    This history of a London Missionary Society member's contributions to typography development in China highlights selection of 3,000 Chinese characters needed for purpose of printing Christian books, production of temporary font from wooden blocks, and use of European methods of punches and matrices to produce permanent metal font. (Twenty-seven…

  4. The Effect of Visual-Spatial Stimulation on Emergent Readers at Risk for Specific Learning Disability in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascavage, Victoria Selden; McKenzie, Ginger Kelley; Buot, Max; Woods, Carol; Orton-Gillingham, Fellow

    2012-01-01

    This study compared word recognition for words written in a traditional flat font to the same words written in a three-dimensional appearing font determined to create a right hemispheric stimulation. The participants were emergent readers enrolled in Montessori schools in the United States learning to read basic CVC (consonant, vowel, consonant)…

  5. Extending Research on Oral Reading Fluency Measures, Reading Speed, and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schall, Megan; Skinner, Christopher H.; Cazzell, Samantha; Ciancio, Dennis; Ruddy, Jonah; Thompson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Middle-school students completed a comprehension assessment. The following day, they read four, 120-word passages, two standard and two non-standard ransom-note passages with altered font sizes. Altering font sizes increased students' reading time (i.e., reduced reading speed) by an average of 3 s and decreased students' words correct per minute…

  6. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  7. Technology: Typefaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    2004-01-01

    Although the terms typeface, typeface family, typeface classification, font, and font family are often misused, they do have different meanings. A typeface is a particular design of type. A typeface family is a group of typefaces that have a similar design heritage or style, say, from original work done by a particular Italian master designer. A…

  8. 49 CFR 371.113 - May I provide individual shippers with a written estimate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... agreement must be printed on the written estimate and must be printed at no less than 7-point font size and with the font typeface Universe. (3) A copy of the waiver agreement must be retained as an addendum to... applicable to bills of lading. (d) You must keep the records required by this section for three...

  9. The Benefits of Making It Harder to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2011, a trio of researchers published the results of an experiment in which they demonstrated that students who read material in difficult, unfamiliar fonts learned it more deeply than students who read the same material in conventional, familiar fonts. Strange as that may seem, the finding stems from a well-established principle in…

  10. Memory Predictions Are Influenced by Perceptual Information: Evidence for Metacognitive Illusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Matthew G.; Castel, Alan D.

    2008-01-01

    Although perceptual information is utilized to judge size or depth, little work has investigated whether such information is used to make memory predictions. The present study examined how the font size of to-be-remembered words influences predicted memory performance. Participants studied words for a free-recall test that varied in font size and…

  11. Distinctive Information and False Recognition: The Contribution of Encoding and Retrieval Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments evaluated the role of encoding-based and retrieval-based factors in the production of false recognition. The association of unusual fonts with study items, the match between study and test font, and the duration of retrieval time allotted to subjects to make recognition memory decisions were varied in order to examine the role…

  12. The Effect of Text Typographical Features on Legibility, Comprehension, and Retrieval of EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soleimani, Hassan; Mohammadi, Elham

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the relationship between font type, font size, and line spacing and legibility, as measured by speed of reading, comprehension, and recalling. Instruments for testing legibility and reading comprehension were presented in eight typographical styles in print. The study tested 90 students for legibility and 76…

  13. The Use of Adjuvant Nutrition to Preserve and Increase Lean Body Mass in AIDS Patients with Muscle Wasting.

    SciTech Connect

    2000-01-03

    The studies conducted under this CRADA were aimed at determining if nutritional supplementation with HM<FONT FACE="Symbol">bFONT>, in combination with glutamine and arginine can ameliorate the AIDS-associated wasting syndrome and in turn improve the clinical course of the disease.

  14. Strong similarities in seasonal concentration ratios of SO42, NO3 and NH4+ in precipitation between Sweden and the northeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedin, Lars O.; Granat, Lennart; Likens, Gene E.; Rodhe, Henning

    1990-11-01

    We analyzed 21-year long records of precipitation chemistry from central Scandinavia and the north-eastern US to compare seasonal variations of three major pollutant ions, SO42-font-weight: bold">, NO3-font-weight: bold"> and NH4+. Seasonal variations in concentrations of the individual ions were distinctly different between the two regions. However, despite these differences, we found strong and unexpected similarities between the two regions in seasonal variations of the concentration ratios NO3-font-weight: bold">/SO42-font-weight: bold">, NH4+/NO3-font-weight: bold"> and NH4+/SO42-font-weight: bold">. A preliminary analysis suggests that these similarities are due to similarities between the two regions in chemical transformation and removal processes affecting SO42-font-weight: bold"> and NO3-font-weight: bold"> in the atmosphere, and to a coupling between NH4+ and SO42-font-weight: bold"> aerosol in long-range transport. Ion ratios appear to be less sensitive to seasonal variations in SO2 and NOx emissions compared to individual ion concentrations.

  15. Do serifs help in comprehension of printed text? An experiment with Cyrillic readers.

    PubMed

    Akhmadeeva, Leyla; Tukhvatullin, Ilnar; Veytsman, Boris

    2012-07-15

    The role of serifs for the comprehension of printed text has been controversial in the literature. The analysis was often confounded by the fact that fonts used for comparison have many differences besides being serif or sans-serif. In this study we use fonts from the same foundry and meta family to assess the differences in reading comprehension for Cyrillic readers (n=238). The results show no difference in the speed of reading and the comprehension between the serif and sans-serif texts. This conclusion is consistent with the ecological hypothesis recently formulated for font sizes.

  16. Respiratory Home Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Living > Living With Lung Disease > Respiratory Home Health Care Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition ... Disease Articles written by Respiratory Experts Respiratory Home Health Care Respiratory care at home can contribute to improved ...

  17. Macular Degeneration Partnership

    MedlinePlus

    AMD Macular Degeneration Partnership High Contrast Original + Font Size – Home About AMD Dry AMD Wet AMD Experience AMD Living with ... vision on a daily basis. AMD (Age Related Macular Degeneration) Partnership Listen AMD Month Public Service Announcement To ...

  18. 37 CFR 1.52 - Language, paper, writing, margins, compact disc specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 1123) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 1.52, see the List of CFR Sections... are 11/2 or double spaced; (ii) Text written in a nonscript type font (e.g., Arial, Times Roman,...

  19. NIHSeniorHealth Celebrating 10 Years of online health and wellness information! | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrating 10 Years of online health and wellness information! Senior-friendly Design Large font Easy navigation Short segments of information Open captioned videos Easy-to-read language Research- ...

  20. DANCE Your Way to Healthier Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthier Lungs Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy ... Reduce environmental hazards by Coping with Indoor Air Pollution and by Minimizing the Effects of Outdoor Air ...

  1. Human factors of visual displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several human factors issues in visual displays are addressed in this report. They are as follows: (1) the importance of luminance range and contrast; (2) uniformity of visual displays; (3) image quality; (4) color contrast; and (5) dot matrix fonts.

  2. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  3. Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    Contact Us Home > Healthy Living Font: Aerosol Delivery Oxygen Resources Immunizations Pollution Nutrition Exercise Coming Of Age Older Adults Allergy and Asthma Health Magazine Women Infant, Children and Teenagers Living ...

  4. 31. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert W. Kerrigan Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Historic American Buildings Survey Robert W. Kerrigan - Photographer Photo Taken: May 14, 1936 DETAIL OF FONT (Original) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  5. Frequency Stability of 1x10(sup -13) in a Compensated Sapphire Oscillator Operating Above 77K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, G. J.; Santiago, D. G.; Wang, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the design and test of a whispering gallery sapphire resonator for which the dominant (WGH<font size=1>(sub n11)font>) microwave mode family shows frequency-stable, compensated operation for temperatures above 77 kelvin. The resonator makes possible a new ultra-stable oscillator (USO) capability that promises performance improvements over the best available crystal quartz oscillators in a compact cryogenic package.

  6. The resolution of visual noise in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pae, Hye K; Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-06-01

    This study examined lexical processing in English by native speakers of Korean and Chinese, compared to that of native speakers of English, using normal, alternated, and inverse fonts. Sixty four adult students participated in a lexical decision task. The findings demonstrated similarities and differences in accuracy and latency among the three L1 groups. The participants, regardless of L1, had a greater advantage in nonwords than words for the normal fonts because they were able to efficiently detect the illegal letter strings. However, word advantages were observed in the visually distorted stimuli (i.e., alternated and inverse fonts). These results were explained from the perspectives of the theory of psycholinguistic grain size, L1-L2 distance, and the mechanism of familiarity discrimination. The native speakers of Chinese were more sensitive to visual distortions than the Korean counterpart, suggesting that the linguistic template established in L1 might play a role in word processing in English.

  7. The resolution of visual noise in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Pae, Hye K; Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-06-01

    This study examined lexical processing in English by native speakers of Korean and Chinese, compared to that of native speakers of English, using normal, alternated, and inverse fonts. Sixty four adult students participated in a lexical decision task. The findings demonstrated similarities and differences in accuracy and latency among the three L1 groups. The participants, regardless of L1, had a greater advantage in nonwords than words for the normal fonts because they were able to efficiently detect the illegal letter strings. However, word advantages were observed in the visually distorted stimuli (i.e., alternated and inverse fonts). These results were explained from the perspectives of the theory of psycholinguistic grain size, L1-L2 distance, and the mechanism of familiarity discrimination. The native speakers of Chinese were more sensitive to visual distortions than the Korean counterpart, suggesting that the linguistic template established in L1 might play a role in word processing in English. PMID:25283377

  8. Electrophysiological analysis of the role of novelty in the von Restorff effect

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Meeter, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    Items that are distinctive with respect to their context tend to be recalled better than nondistinctive items, a finding known as the von Restorff effect. The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of novelty in this effect. In two experiments, participants performed a dual task in which they had to study words presented visually while to-be ignored sounds were played over earphones. Sounds could be either standard or novel, and words could be presented in standard or novel font. Sounds were presented either simultaneously with the words (Experiment 1) or preceding them (Experiment 2). Electrophysiological correlates of novelty processing, the N2b and P3a ERP components, were recorded while the words were studied. It was seen that cued recall was better for words presented in novel fonts than for words in a standard font (the von Restorff effect). Words presented while novel sounds were played were remembered worse (Experiment 1) or equally well (Experiment 2) than those combined with standard sounds. Words presented in novel fonts elicited enhanced N2b, P3a, P3b, and N400 components; however, none of these components were specifically larger for subsequently recalled novel-font words. A larger N2b was found for recalled than for nonrecalled words, but this effect was not specific for words presented in novel font. We hypothesized that if novelty was beneficial for memory processing, the N2–P3 complex would be more enhanced for novel words that were later recalled than for those not recalled. The data showed otherwise. This suggests that novelty processing, as indexed by the N2–P3 novelty components, is not the main cause of the von Restorff effect. PMID:23531713

  9. [Visual reactions in children and adolescents on reading editions of various formats].

    PubMed

    Teksheva, L M; El'ksnina, E V; Perminov, M A; Zinchenko, E G

    2008-01-01

    At present, 93-96% of the respondent schoolchildren read extraschool literature. An investigation of the impact of edition format on readability has ascertained that due to the uniform distribution of brightness in the field of vision, large newspaper fonts prevents the development of visual fatigue and provides significantly higher performance and quality of visual work as compared with low book fonts. Experimental studies have yielded data on the stability of a near vision point; this phenomenon may be considered as adaptation to a learning process and myopia developing during learning may be regarded as the price of this adaptation. PMID:18507178

  10. Local unitary invariants for N-qubit pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.

    2010-11-15

    The concept of negativity font, a basic unit of multipartite entanglement, is introduced. Transformation properties of determinants of negativity fonts under local unitary (LU) transformations are exploited to obtain relevant N-qubit polynomial invariants and construct entanglement monotones from first principles. It is shown that entanglement monotones that detect the entanglement of specific parts of the composite system may be constructed to distinguish between states with distinct types of entanglement. The structural difference between entanglement monotones for an odd and even number of qubits is brought out.

  11. Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) diversity in Mediterranean Natural Parks of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belokobylskij, Sergey A; Falcó-Garí, Jose Vicente; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This work analyses the biodiversity of the Aspilota-group (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Alysiinae) in three Mediterranean Natural parks: Natural Park of La Font Roja, Natural Park of Las Lagunas de la Mata-Torrevieja and Natural Park of La Tinença de Benifassà. Samples were carried out from April 2004 to December 2007. In total, 822 specimens, belonging to 52 species, were collected. Alpha, beta and gamma diversities were analysed, and the Tinença Park was proven to have higher diversity than the Font Roja and Torrevieja. Also, the structure of the Aspilota-group community was analysed. PMID:25197232

  12. Analysis and Interpretation of Mars Dayglow Altitude Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Slanger, T. G.; Sharpee, B.; Fox, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Mariner 4 (1965), Mariner 6 and 7 (1969), Mariner 9 (1971-72), and Viking 1 and 2 (1976-80) missions provided the first quantitative information about the structure, energetics, and dynamics of the Mars atmosphere. Not until more than 20 years later did new generations of landers and orbiters revisit the planet. The initial Mariner dayglow observations [1] motivated numerous modeling studies and laboratory experiments. The most obvious source reaction is photodissociation and photoionization of ambient CO2, which is known in the laboratory to produce all four dayglow emitting states:

    (1) h<font face="symbol">n2 <font face="symbol">®1S), CO(a3<font face="symbol">P2+(A2<font face="symbol">Pu & B2<font face="symbol">Su+)

    If this simplest of models were sufficient, then the high altitude dayglow emissions would all share the same scale height, which would be that of CO2. The few Mariner dayglow observations [1, 2] provided weak statistics [3]. Addition of 4 months of Mars Express dayglow data [4], and including radio occultation and mass spectrometry data from other missions, have made the analyses and conclusions more robust. The CO(a3<font face="symbol">P2+(B2<font face="symbol">Su+) altitude profiles are consistent with Reaction (1). In contrast, the O(1S) scale heights are much larger and are consistent with source Reaction (2):

    (2) O2+ + e- <font face="symbol">®1S)

    Both sets of scale heights change with respect to solar activity roughly as suggested by modeling studies [5, 6].

    Acknowledgements: Supported by NASA Mars Data Analysis grant NNX06AE04G. SRI document MP 09-058.

    References:
    [1] Barth C. A. et al. (1971) JGR 76, 2213-2227.
    [2] Stewart A. I. et al. (1972) Icarus 17, 469.
    [3] Huestis D. L. et al. (2008) 3rd Workshop on the Mars Atmosphere (Williamsburg, VA).
    [4] Leblanc F. (private communication).
    [5] Fox J. L. et al. (1996). Adv. Space Res. 17, (11)203.
    [6] Krasnopolsky V. A. (2002) JGR 107, doi

  13. Eye movements, the perceptual span, and reading speed.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J; Bélanger, Nathalie N

    2010-12-01

    The perceptual span or region of effective vision during eye fixations in reading was examined as a function of reading speed (fast readers were compared with slow readers), font characteristics (fixed width vs. proportional width), and intraword spacing (normal or reduced). The main findings were that fast readers (reading at about 330 wpm) had a larger perceptual span than did slow readers (reading about 200 wpm) and that the span was not affected by whether or not the text was fixed width or proportional width. In addition, there were interesting font and intraword spacing effects that have important implications for the optimal use of space in a line of text.

  14. Similarity between runoff coefficient and perennial stream density in the Budyko framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Wu, L.

    2012-06-01

    Streams are categorized into perennial and temporal streams based on flow durations. Perennial stream is the basic network, and temporal stream (ephemeral or intermittent) is the expanded network. Connection between perennial stream and runoff generation at the mean annual scale exists since one of the hydrologic functions of perennial stream is to deliver runoff. The partitioning of precipitation into runoff and evaporation at the mean annual scale, on the first order, is represented by the Budyko hypothesis which quantifies the ratio of evaporation to precipitation (E/P) as a function of climate aridity index (Ep/P, ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation). In this paper, it is hypothesized that similarity exists between perennial stream density (Dp) and runoff coefficient (Q/P) as a function of climate aridity index, i.e., font-size: .7em; color: #000;">Dpfont-size: .7em; color: #000;">Dp* (font-size: .7em; color: #000;">Epfont-size: .7em; color: #000;">P) and font-size: .7em; color: #000;">Qfont-size: .7em; color: #000;">P (font-size: .7em; color: #000;">Epfont-size: .7em; color: #000;">P) where Dp* is a scaling factor and Q is mean annual runoff. To test the hypothesis, perennial stream densities for 185 watersheds in the United States are computed based on the high resolution national hydrography dataset (NHD). The similarity between perennial stream density and runoff coefficient is promising

  15. Eye movements, the perceptual span, and reading speed.

    PubMed

    Rayner, Keith; Slattery, Timothy J; Bélanger, Nathalie N

    2010-12-01

    The perceptual span or region of effective vision during eye fixations in reading was examined as a function of reading speed (fast readers were compared with slow readers), font characteristics (fixed width vs. proportional width), and intraword spacing (normal or reduced). The main findings were that fast readers (reading at about 330 wpm) had a larger perceptual span than did slow readers (reading about 200 wpm) and that the span was not affected by whether or not the text was fixed width or proportional width. In addition, there were interesting font and intraword spacing effects that have important implications for the optimal use of space in a line of text. PMID:21169577

  16. 75 FR 39923 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Pilot Program for Course Material Rental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA.... 1015b Note). Absolute Priority: For FY 2010 and any subsequent year in which we make awards from the... inch). Use one of the following fonts: Times New Roman, Courier, Courier New, or Arial. An...

  17. 75 FR 22763 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information: Underground Railroad Educational and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Program; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 Catalog of Federal Domestic... up to three years. Estimated Number of Awards: 2 to 3. Note: The Department is not bound by any... inch). Use one of the following fonts: Times New Roman, Courier, Courier New, or Arial. An...

  18. 40 CFR 1060.137 - How must I label and identify the fuel-system components I produce?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be properly labeled if they have space for 12 characters in six-point font (approximately 2 mm × 12... products, you may use the mold to apply the label. (2) Durable and readable for the equipment's entire life.... We will consider labels to be continuous if the space between repeating segments is no longer...

  19. Constructing Stylish Characters on Computer Graphics Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Gary S.

    1980-01-01

    Computer graphics systems typically produce a single, machine-like character font. At most, these systems enable the user to (1) alter the aspect ratio (height-to-width ratio) of the characters, (2) specify a transformation matrix to slant the characters, and (3) define a virtual pen table to change the lineweight of the plotted characters.…

  20. Typography for Children May Be Inappropriately Designed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Arnold; Cleave, Roanna; Grayson, Nicola; Wilson, Louise

    2009-01-01

    We present four studies indicating that the size and design of the typeface in textual material for children aged 7-9 may impair speed of reading and comprehension, and measurement of reading attainment. The first study compared the speed with which sample sentences were comprehended. The sentences were printed in Arial font with an x-height of…

  1. 7 CFR 3402.13 - National need narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false National need narrative. 3402.13 Section 3402.13... Preparation of an Application § 3402.13 National need narrative. HEP will determine the composition of the narrative for each competition, including page limits, font size, the number and the order of sections,...

  2. 7 CFR 3402.13 - National need narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false National need narrative. 3402.13 Section 3402.13... Preparation of an Application § 3402.13 National need narrative. HEP will determine the composition of the narrative for each competition, including page limits, font size, the number and the order of sections,...

  3. 7 CFR 3402.13 - National need narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false National need narrative. 3402.13 Section 3402.13... Preparation of an Application § 3402.13 National need narrative. HEP will determine the composition of the narrative for each competition, including page limits, font size, the number and the order of sections,...

  4. A Tool for Displaying Syntactic Trees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jerry L.

    A computer program for drawing syntactic phrase markers as trees is described. The program was developed for use on Texas Instruments Explorer Lisp machines. The tree is drawn by recursive descent, left to right. The tree-drawing function takes two arguments: (1) an atom constituting the tree, and (2) a font specification to be used in drawing the…

  5. Helvetica, the Film and the Face in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Dietmar R.

    2010-01-01

    Little historic context is generally provided regarding design phenomena; ideas, names, events and relationships are disregarded in design's typical superficial coverage; it is as though design exists in a vacuum. This paper seeks to put Helvetica, the face, the font and the movie into context by exploring its relationship to Swiss Design…

  6. Classic Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Flowsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Fallgren, Andrew James

    2015-02-13

    This is a flowsheet as well as a series of subsheets to be used for discussion on the standard design of a reprocessing plant. This flowsheet consists of four main sections: offgas handling, separations, solvent wash, and acid recycle. As well as having the main flowsheet, subsections have been broken off into their own sheets to provide for larger font and ease of printing.

  7. Competing Contingencies over Derived Relational Responding: A Behavioral Model of the Implicit Association Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Amanda; Roche, Bryan; Ruiz, Maria R.

    2008-01-01

    Subjects were exposed to a word-picture association training phase in which each of 2 arbitrary nonsense syllables printed in blue and red font, respectively, were paired with either sexual or aversive photographic images. Subjects were then exposed to an equivalence training procedure that led to the formation of 2 3-member equivalence relations,…

  8. An Accent on Access: Writing HTML for the Widest Possible Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reagan, Michael J.

    World Wide Web authors are often tempted to use the latest and sexiest means to present their information. "Hot" and "cool" sites use dancing graphics, frames, tables, specific fonts, and background and foreground colors to entice the reader and delight the eye. Sound clips often convey emotional content that cannot be expressed in text, and…

  9. Beginning at the Beginning: The Alphabet's Origins as the Foundation for Interdisciplinary Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Joel

    The origins of written language and the study of the alphabet's evolution from pictographic icon or glyph to phonetic, syllabic code are fundamental to the study of writing. Electronically-generated typographies have reawakened interest in letterforms, alphabets, typefaces, and the physical arrangement of words on the page. Fonts, a word that…

  10. Laserjet Control Program

    1992-07-02

    LC is a single program designed to serve as a Laser Jet printer controller. Options include specifying paper size, print orientation, number of lines per inch, top and bottom margins, end-of-line wrap, symbol set, typeface, style (upright or italic), stroke weight, proportional or fixed spaced font, and point size (height of character whose size can be scaled.

  11. Reducing False Recognition with Criterial Recollection Tests: Distinctiveness Heuristic versus Criterion Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, David A.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    We devised criterial recollection tests to investigate why testing memory for pictures elicits lower false recognition than testing memory for words. Subjects studied unrelated black words paired either with the same word in red font, a corresponding picture, or both. They then took three memory tests, always using black words: a recognition test…

  12. 12 CFR 708a.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means text in bold type in a font size at least one size larger than any other text used in the document (exclusive of headings), but in no event smaller than 12 point. Credit union has the same meaning as insured... meaning as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act. Mutual savings bank and savings...

  13. Building Intercultural Empathy through Writing: Reflections on Teaching Alternatives to Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Karen P.

    2007-01-01

    Writing assignments that focus on nonargumentative discourse can take many forms. Such assignments can prompt students to produce individually constructed writing, or they can be more collaborative in nature. They can focus on traditional formats, following MLA citation guidelines, using Times New Roman 12-point font, maintaining one-inch margins,…

  14. Effects of Typographic Variables on Eye-Movement Measures in Reading Chinese from a Screen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Nai-Shing; Tsai, Jie-Li; Chen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Arbee L. P.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the most efficient way to represent text in reading Chinese on computer displays, three typographic variables, character size (41[feet] arc/24 pixels and 60[feet] arc/32 pixels), character spacing (1/4 and 1/8 character width) and font type (Kai and Ming), were manipulated. Results showed that the reading speed for Chinese…

  15. An Integrated System for Creating Educational Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Ellis

    1988-01-01

    Describes the development of ScriptWriter, a computer program designed at the University of Southern California to help create software for computer assisted instruction. Topics discussed include the graphics editor; text editor; font editor; a programming language called IQ; its use with interactive video and speech; and current applications.…

  16. Left-Brain Finance for Right-Brain People: A Money Guide for the Creatively Inclined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Paula Ann

    This basic money book takes a creative approach for visual learners by using icons, varied fonts, and highlighted text. The book's design will appeal to holistic thinkers by allowing them to jump from point to point without losing overall meaning. It is divided into five sections, each with a subset of related topics: (1) "The Big Picture" looks…

  17. Personality and Type (but "Not" a Psychological Theory!)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst-Larkin, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Word processing is part of every writer's set of competencies today, and as readers, their expectations of type have risen well beyond the old Courier font of typewriters. Yet only recently have writers had access to the thousands of different typefaces available today and had such power in making design choices. Type has been much studied and…

  18. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  19. The Easy Way to Create Computer Slide Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Alice

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for creating computer slide shows. Topics include memory; format; color use; HyperCard and CD-ROM; font styles and sizes; graphs and graphics; the slide show option; special effects; and tips for effective presentation. (Author/AEF)

  20. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1313 - Tamper Resistant Driver's License

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Block graphics. (15) Security fonts and graphics with known hidden flaws. (16) Card stock, layer with colors. (17) Micro-graphics. (18) Retroflective security logos. (19) Machine readable technologies such... permit that has one or more of the following security features: (1) Ghost image. (2) Ghost graphic....

  1. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 1313 - Tamper Resistant Driver's License

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Block graphics. (15) Security fonts and graphics with known hidden flaws. (16) Card stock, layer with colors. (17) Micro-graphics. (18) Retroflective security logos. (19) Machine readable technologies such... permit that has one or more of the following security features: (1) Ghost image. (2) Ghost graphic....

  2. Word and Letter String Processing Networks in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Anomalies and Compensation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griego, Jacqueline A.; Cortes, Carlos R.; Nune, Sunitha; Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Tagamets, M.-A.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging studies show that in normal language correlated activity between anterior and posterior brain regions increases as the linguistic and semantic content (i.e., from false fonts, letter strings, pseudo words, to words) of stimuli increase. In schizophrenia however, disrupted functional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions…

  3. 7 CFR 3402.13 - National need narrative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National need narrative. 3402.13 Section 3402.13... Preparation of an Application § 3402.13 National need narrative. HEP will determine the composition of the narrative for each competition, including page limits, font size, the number and the order of sections,...

  4. The Time Course of Word Frequency and Case Alternation Effects on Fixation Times in Reading: Evidence for Lexical Control of Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingold, Eyal M.; Yang, Jinmian; Rayner, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Participants' eye movements were monitored while they read sentences in which high-frequency and low-frequency target words were presented either in normal font (e.g., account) or case alternated (e.g., aCcOuNt). The influence of the word frequency and case alternation manipulations on fixation times was examined. Although both manipulations had…

  5. A Study of the Radio Continuum Far Infrared Correlation at Small Scales in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Martinez, Monica I.; Allen, R. J.; Wiklind, T.; Loinard, L.

    2006-12-01

    We present a study of the behavior of the Radio Continuum (RC) Far Infrared (FIR) correlation on scales corresponding to the size of small molecular clouds. This was done by comparing the spatial distribution of RC emission and FIR emission from a sample of several regions, distributed within the range 79<font face="Lucida Sans Unicode">∘font> ≤ l ≤ 174<font face="Lucida Sans Unicode">∘font> in the Galaxy. We have examined the 408 and 1420 MHz mosaic images of the sample, from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS), which later were compared with images at 60 and 100 μm. Preliminary results suggest that the RC -FIR correlation still holds at small scales, since a good qualitative correlation between RC and FIR emission is found. The physical process involved that may cause such correlation will be discussed as well as the nature of the RC emission. This research makes use of data from the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey.

  6. Interplay Between the Object and Its Symbol: The Size-Congruency Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Manqiong; Xie, Jiushu; Liu, Wenjuan; Lin, Wenjie; Chen, Zhuoming; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Wang, Ruiming

    2016-01-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that conceptual processing shares cognitive resources with perceptual processing. Hence, conceptual processing should be affected by perceptual processing, and vice versa. The current study explored the relationship between conceptual and perceptual processing of size. Within a pair of words, we manipulated the font size of each word, which was either congruent or incongruent with the actual size of the referred object. In Experiment 1a, participants compared object sizes that were referred to by word pairs. Higher accuracy was observed in the congruent condition (e.g., word pairs referring to larger objects in larger font sizes) than in the incongruent condition. This is known as the size-congruency effect. In Experiments 1b and 2, participants compared the font sizes of these word pairs. The size-congruency effect was not observed. In Experiments 3a and 3b, participants compared object and font sizes of word pairs depending on a task cue. Results showed that perceptual processing affected conceptual processing, and vice versa. This suggested that the association between conceptual and perceptual processes may be bidirectional but further modulated by semantic processing. Specifically, conceptual processing might only affect perceptual processing when semantic information is activated. The current study PMID:27512529

  7. Perceptions and Understanding of Games Creation: Teacher Candidates Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell, Sheri M.; Smith, Mark A.; Pratt, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Games Creation (GC) is an instructional strategy that encourages students to develop problem-solving and critical thinking skills. Children who experience GC have the potential to construct knowledge and a deeper understanding of game play (Rovegno & Bandhauer, 1994) and positive outcomes in motor skill development (Dyson, 2001; LaFont,…

  8. 78 FR 45551 - Rebuild by Design-Competition and Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...: coastal communities, high-density urban environments, ecological and water body networks, and a catch-all... economy. (3) Ecological and water body networks: These networks are regional by nature; watersheds and... US Letter), including text, images, and/or drawings. Font size could not exceed 11 points; file...

  9. Reading behavior of emmetropic schoolchildren in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwen; Bao, Jinhua; Ou, Lirong; Thorn, Frank; Lu, Fan

    2013-06-28

    Knowing the actual behavior of readers will help us understand how near work influences a reader's eyes, comfort, reading efficiency, pleasure, and the ability to learn to read. We designed a methodology for reading behavior research, and investigated the reading behavior of emmetropic schoolchildren in China and factors that influence their reading. Children from grades 2 through 5 read text in an armchair, at a desk, and when reading and writing at the desk with three different font sizes. Their preferred reading distance was very near to the eyes, averaging 28.5±6.4cm in the armchair, 25.4±6.6cm at the desk and 20.6±6.5cm in the reading/writing task, and was always slightly closer for the smallest font. Second grade children averaged just a 16.3±4.1cm reading distance in the reading/writing task. Head tilt and angle of gaze were altered by reading condition and font size. Reading speed was fastest at the desk and for those with longer reading distances and, surprisingly, for the smallest font size. Reading behavior is not a fixed entity but differs with grade level and reading condition. This suggests that reading behavior can be altered through better ergonomics and text design which may reduce myopia, aesthenopia, and binocular anomalies and help children read better. PMID:23602999

  10. Easy on the Mind, Easy on the Wrongdoer: Discrepantly Fluent Violations Are Deemed Less Morally Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laham, Simon M.; Alter, Adam L.; Goodwin, Geoffrey P.

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment tested the hypothesis that discrepancies in processing fluency influence the perceived wrongness of moral violations. Participants were presented with numerous moral violations in easy or difficult to read fonts. For some violations, experienced perceptual fluency was consistent with the fluency associated with previous…

  11. National Institutes of Health Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases~National Resource Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language Publications (en español) | Asian-Language Publications NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ NIH National Resource Center ... Font Size | S S M M L L Bone Basics Osteoporosis Osteogenesis Imperfecta Paget’s Disease of Bone Related Topics ...

  12. Multiple Non-Roman Scripts in ALEPH--Israel's Research Library Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazinger, Susan S.; Levi, Judith

    1996-01-01

    Describes software solutions in the recent efforts of ALEPH, Israel's research library network, to create an online catalog system that could support the Roman, Hebrew, Arabic, and Cyrillic alphabets. The result is a multiscript, bidirectional system that uses soft fonts. (BEW)

  13. Designing a Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Ernest; Hartman, Karen

    2000-01-01

    Presents technical issues, design considerations and resource sites to consider when designing a Web site. Discusses fonts; colors; screen resolutions; statement of purpose; audience; content; layout; size and number of images; spacing and emphasis; browser-supported features; grammar and spelling; revision/improvement; and testing. (AEF)

  14. Generation and Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Lozito, Jeffrey P.; Rosner, Zachary A.

    2006-01-01

    Generation enhances memory for occurrence but may not enhance other aspects of memory. The present study further delineates the negative generation effect in context memory reported in N. W. Mulligan (2004). First, the negative generation effect occurred for perceptual attributes of the target item (its color and font) but not for extratarget…

  15. Desktop Publishing: Its Impact on Community College Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzywacz-Gray, John; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates the kinds of copy that can be created on Apple Macintosh computers and laser printers. Shows font and type specification options. Discusses desktop publishing costs, potential problems, and computer compatibility. Considers the use of computers in college journalism in production, graphics, accounting, advertising, and promotion. (AYC)

  16. The Resolution of Visual Noise in Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.; Lee, Yong-Won

    2015-01-01

    This study examined lexical processing in English by native speakers of Korean and Chinese, compared to that of native speakers of English, using normal, alternated, and inverse fonts. Sixty four adult students participated in a lexical decision task. The findings demonstrated similarities and differences in accuracy and latency among the three L1…

  17. Awareness Training Program on Responsible Gambling for Casino Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Isabelle; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert; Lachance, Stella; Dufour, Magali

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, several comprehensive training programs for problem gambling have been developed and implemented in various casinos around the world. However, the efficacy of these programs has rarely been assessed and evaluated scientifically. A workshop called "Des gens qui font la difference" (People Making a Difference) was developed to…

  18. Urea Transporter Inhibitors: En Route to New Diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Jeff M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A selective urea transporter UT-A1 inhibitor would be a novel type of diuretic, likely with less undesirable side-effects than conventional diureticssince it acts on the last portion of the nephron. Esteva-Font et al. (2013) develop suchan inhibitor by using a clever high-throughput screening assay, and document its selectivity. . PMID:24210002

  19. A formula for evaluating colour differences for thread sewn into fabric samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steder, Thorsten

    FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman','serif'; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">In-service rails can develop several types of structural defects due to fatigue and wear caused by rolling stock passing over them. Most rail defects will develop gradually over time thus permitting inspection engineers to detect them in time before final failure occurs. In the UK, certain types of severe rail defects such as tache ovales, require the fitting of emergency clamps and the imposing of an Emergency Speed Restriction (ESR) until the defects are removed. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques can be applied for the detection and continuous monitoring of defect growth therefore removing the need of imposing strict ESRs. The work reported herewith aims to develop a sound methodology for the application of AE in order to detect and subsequently monitor damage evolution in rails. To validate the potential of the AE technique, tests have been carried out under laboratory conditions on three and four-point bending samples manufactured from 260 grade rail steel. Further tests, simulating the background noise conditions caused by passing rolling stock have been carried out using special experimental setups. The crack growth events have been simulated using a pencil tip break..

  20. Newsletter for Asian and Middle Eastern Languages on Computer, Volume 1, Numbers 3 & 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Anthony, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Volume 1, numbers 3 and 4, of the newsletter on the use of non-Western languages with computers contains the following articles: "Reversing the Screen under MS/PC-DOS" (Dan Brink); "Comments on Diacritics Using Wordstar, etc. and CP/M Software for Non-Western Languages" (Michael Broschat); "Carving Tibetan in Silicon: A Tibetan Font for the…

  1. Imagining the Possibilities in Multimodal Curriculum Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of the "old page", or written hardcopy texts, to the "new" (Kress, 2003), or electronic page, means that today's learners have experience with reading a variety of texts. Image, music, and electronic inscription (font, style, flash, and so on) are features of multimodal texts that many learners prefer to read and create. With the screen…

  2. Adults' Prior Exposure to Print as a Predictor of the Legibility of Text on Paper and Laptop Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Deborah B.; Fisher, Sylvia K.; Eliot, John

    1999-01-01

    Investigates effects of variations in font, leading, and justification that account for differences in speed and accuracy between reading aloud from paper versus laptop computer. Finds that: (1) subjects' prior exposure to print significantly and positively related to predicting speed and miscue performance; (2) educational attainment…

  3. 5 CFR 2429.25 - Number of copies and paper size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Number of copies and paper size. 2429.25... Requirements § 2429.25 Number of copies and paper size. (a) General rule. Except as discussed in paragraph (b... attachments, must be on 81/2 by 11 inch size paper, using normal margins and font sizes. You must file...

  4. 5 CFR 2429.25 - Number of copies and paper size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Number of copies and paper size. 2429.25... Requirements § 2429.25 Number of copies and paper size. (a) General rule. Except as discussed in paragraph (b... attachments, must be on 81/2 by 11 inch size paper, using normal margins and font sizes. You must file...

  5. Carbon dioxide and methane in continental Europe: a climatology, and 222Radon-based emission estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Martina; Graul, Rolf.; Sartorius, Hartmut; Levin, Ingeborg

    1996-09-01

    4-year records of gas chromatographic carbon dioxide and methane observations from the continental mountain station Schauinsland in the Black Forest (Germany) are presented. These data are supplemented by continuous atmospheric 222Radon observations. The raw data of CO2 concentration show a large seasonal cycle of about 16ppm with monthly mean wintertime enhancements up to 10ppm higher and summer minima up to 5ppm lower than the maritime background level in this latitude. These offsets are caused by regional and continental scale CO2 sources and sinks. The mean CH4 concentration at Schauinsland is 31ppb higher than over the Atlantic ocean, due to the European continent acting as a net source of atmospheric CH4 throughout the year. No significant seasonal cycle of methane has been observed. The long term CO2 and CH4 increase rates at Schauinsland are found to be similar to background stations in the northern hemisphere, namely 1.5ppm CO2yr-font-weight: bold">1 and 8ppb CH4yr-font-weight: bold">1. On the time scale of hours and days, the wintertime concentrations of all three trace gases are highly correlated, the mean ratio of CH4/CO2 is 7.8±1.0ppb/ppm. The wintertime monthly mean concentration offsets relative to the maritime background level show a CH4/CO2 ratio of 6.5±1.1ppb/ppm, thus, not significantly different from the short term ratio. Using the wintertime regressions of CO2 and 222Radon respectively CH4 and 222Radon we estimate winter time CO2flux densities of 10.4±4.3mmol CO2 m-font-weight: bold">2h-font-weight: bold">1 (from monthly mean offsets) and 6.4±2.5mmol CO2 m-font-weight: bold">2h

  6. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Yong, Keir X X; Shakespeare, Timothy J; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M D; Warren, Jason D; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2014-08-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease.

  7. Accessibility attributes of blood glucose meter and home blood pressure monitor displays for visually impaired persons.

    PubMed

    Blubaugh, Morgan V; Uslan, Mark M

    2012-03-01

    The vast majority of diabetes-related self-management technology utilizes small visual displays (SVDs) that often produce a low level of contrast and suffer from high levels of reflection (glare). This is a major accessibility issue for the 3.5 million Americans with diabetes who have reduced vision. The purpose of this article is to gather comparative data on the key display attributes of the SVDs used in blood glucose meters (BGMs) and home blood pressure monitors (HBPMs) on the market today and determine which displays offer the best prospect for being accessible to people with reduced vision. Nine BGMs and eight HBPMs were identified for this study on the basis of amount of devices sold, fullfunctionality speech output, and advanced display technologies. An optical instrumentation system obtained contrast, reflection (glare), and font height measurements for all 17 displays. The contrast, reflection, and font-height values for the BGMs and HBPMs varied greatly between models. The Michelson contrast values for the BGMs ranged from 11% to 98% and font heights ranged 0.39-1.00 in. for the measurement results. The HBPMs had Michelson contrast values ranging 55-96% and font height ranging 0.28-0.94 in. for the measurement results. Due largely to the lack of display design standards for the technical requirements of SVDs, there is tremendous variability in the quality and readability of BGM and HBPM displays. There were two BGMs and one HBPM that exhibited high-contrast values and large font heights, but most of the devices exhibited either poor contrast or exceptionally high reflection.

  8. Cultivation and diversity of fungi buried in the Baltic Sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, N.

    2015-12-01

    @font-face { "MS 明朝"; }@font-face { "Century"; }@font-face { "Century"; }@font-face { "@MS 明朝"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0mm 0mm 0.0001pt; text-align: justify; font-size: 12pt; ; }.MsoChpDefault { ; }div.WordSection1 { page: WordSection1; } Studies on molecular biological and cultivation have been done for the prokaryotic microbial community in the deep biosphere. Compare to the prokaryotic community, few attempts have been done for eukaryotic microbial community. Here we report the study on fungi buried in deep-subsurface sediments by approaches of both cultivation and molecular diversity survey. Cultivation targeting fungi has been done using a sequential sediment samples obtained from the Baltic Sea, Landsort Deep site during the IODP expedition 347. 6 culture media with different nutrition and salt concentration have been tried for the fungi cultivation. 50 isolates of fungi were obtained from the sediment samples. The surface sediments showed richness of fungi strains but not for the deep sediments. Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of RNA genes were amplified and for the identification of the isolates. The isolates were classified to 11 different genera. Pseudeurotium bakeri was the dominant strain throughout the glacial and interglacial sediments. We also found different representative fungal strains from glacial and interglacial sediments, suggesting the cultivated strains are buried from different sources. The survey of fungal diversity was done by sequencing the 18S RNA genes in the total DNA extracted from selected sediment samples. Fungi community showed different cluster in the glacial and interglacial sediments.Our results revealed the presence and activity of fungi in the deep biosphere of the Baltic sea and provided evidence of fungal community response to the climate change.

  9. (Con)text-specific effects of visual dysfunction on reading in posterior cortical atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Keir X.X.; Shakespeare, Timothy J.; Cash, Dave; Henley, Susie M.D.; Warren, Jason D.; Crutch, Sebastian J.

    2014-01-01

    Reading deficits are a common early feature of the degenerative syndrome posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) but are poorly understood even at the single word level. The current study evaluated the reading accuracy and speed of 26 PCA patients, 17 typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) patients and 14 healthy controls on a corpus of 192 single words in which the following perceptual properties were manipulated systematically: inter-letter spacing, font size, length, font type, case and confusability. PCA reading was significantly less accurate and slower than tAD patients and controls, with performance significantly adversely affected by increased letter spacing, size, length and font (cursive < non-cursive), and characterised by visual errors (69% of all error responses). By contrast, tAD and control accuracy rates were at or near ceiling, letter spacing was the only perceptual factor to influence reading speed in the same direction as controls, and, in contrast to PCA patients, control reading was faster for larger font sizes. The inverse size effect in PCA (less accurate reading of large than small font size print) was associated with lower grey matter volume in the right superior parietal lobule. Reading accuracy was associated with impairments of early visual (especially crowding), visuoperceptual and visuospatial processes. However, these deficits were not causally related to a universal impairment of reading as some patients showed preserved reading for small, unspaced words despite grave visual deficits. Rather, the impact of specific types of visual dysfunction on reading was found to be (con)text specific, being particularly evident for large, spaced, lengthy words. These findings improve the characterisation of dyslexia in PCA, shed light on the causative and associative factors, and provide clear direction for the development of reading aids and strategies to maximise and sustain reading ability in the early stages of disease. PMID:24841985

  10. A eficiência de formação estelar em Musca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Roberto, A. J.., Jr.; Khan, R. P.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos os resultados de um survey no infravermelho próximo (bandas J e H), executado no Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, na direção da nuvem escura em forma de filamento de Musca (observamos ao longo de todo o filamento, além de todas as fontes pontuais IRAS e/ou fontes ROSAT brilhantes a uma distância de 2o da nuvem). Nosso objetivo é determinar a eficiência de formação estelar para esta nuvem escura (massa de estrelas formadas/massa da nuvem), procurando por objetos estelares jovens de pequena massa no seu interior e/ou evoluídos o suficiente para estarem afastados do local de nascimento, mas ainda mostrando características de objetos pré-seqüência principal como emissão de raios-X e excesso de emissão no infravermelho próximo. Este survey não estabeleceu nenhum viés na seleção de fontes pontuais IRAS ou fontes ROSAT, uma vez que a imensa maioria das fontes pontuais IRAS nesta região têm qualidade de fluxo ruim. Os candidatos a objetos estelares jovens foram selecionados pelo excesso no índice de cor (J-H), descontados os efeitos da extinção interestelar na linha de visada, determinada através da emissão estendida no infravermelho distante (IRAS). Estimativas de massa foram feitas para estes candidatos, através da relação massa-luminosidade, para calcular a eficiência de formação estelar de Musca.

  11. Visual feature learning in artificial grammar classification.

    PubMed

    Chang, Grace Y; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2004-05-01

    The Artificial Grammar Learning task has been used extensively to assess individuals' implicit learning capabilities. Previous work suggests that participants implicitly acquire rule-based knowledge as well as exemplar-specific knowledge in this task. This study investigated whether exemplar-specific knowledge acquired in this task is based on the visual features of the exemplars. When a change in the font and case occurred between study and test, there was no effect on sensitivity to grammatical rules in classification judgments. However, such a change did virtually eliminate sensitivity to training frequencies of letter bigrams and trigrams (chunk strength) in classification judgments. Performance of a secondary task during study eliminated this font sensitivity and generally reduced the contribution of chunk strength knowledge. The results are consistent with the idea that perceptual fluency makes a contribution to artificial grammar judgments.

  12. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene: tropospheric probes for Cl- and Br-atom reactions during the polar sunrise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariya, P. A.; Catoire, V.; Sander, R.; Niki, H.; Harris, G. W.

    1997-11-01

    We report the results of laboratory and modeling investigations of the atmospheric fate of chlorinated ethenes and their rôle as indicators of halogen reactions in the springtime Arctic troposphere. The kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase reactions of Cl- and Br-atoms with tetrachloroethene were studied using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) in 93.3kPa air and T = 296± 2 K. Along with our previous study on Cl and Br atom reactions of trichloroethene, using the known rate of the Cl + ethane reaction as reference, the values of 7.2±0.2×10-font-weight: bold">11 and 3.8±0.2×10-font-weight: bold">11 cm3 molecule-font-weight: bold">1 s-font-weight: bold">1 were obtained for the Cl-atom reaction rate constants of tri- and tetrachloroethene, respectively. For the Br-atom reactions, using ethene and propane as the reference molecules, we report the absolute values of 1.1±0.1×10-font-weight: bold">13 and 9.0±0.1×10-font-weight: bold">17 cm3 molecule-font-weight: bold">1 s-font-weight: bold">1 for the rates of Br attack on tri- and tetrachloroethene. The major products were XCl2C-C(O)Cl (X = H in trichloroethene and X = Cl in tetrachloroethene) and XBrClC-C(O)Cl in Cl-atom and Br-atom initiated reactions, respectively. We also observed phosgene and formyl chloride in the reactions of trichloroethene and phosgene in the tetrachloroethene reactions and report the branching ratios for these

  13. End of the rainbow indeed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammons, James I.

    2004-11-01

    Many thanks to Adam Light and Patrick J. Bartlein for their helpful and succinct article, The End of the Rainbow? Color Schemes for Improved Data Graphics, regarding color in data illustration (Eos, 85(40), 5 October 2004). I especially appreciate their point about the use of spectral schemes to illustrate sequential data. As a science writer and reader, I have often struggled with the Crayola-inspired illustrations that are prevalent today Overuse of color forces the reader into a myopic [paint by numbers] exercise to extract meaning. The situation reminds me of notes that I received just after Microsoft Windows developed the capability to print bit-mapped fonts. For a while, some authors seemed carried away by this new capability and marked each line, each change of voice, with a new font.

  14. Enhancements to IRAF/STSDAS graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenhamer, J. D.; Levay, Z. G.

    1992-01-01

    The IRAF graphics kernel, psikern, is a true encapsulated PostScript implementation, an improvement over the former SGI-based PostScript output available from IRAF. The psikern kernel implements many more capabilities of gio/gki such as cell arrays (grayscale images), color, filled area patterns and true PostScript fonts. Several of the general-purpose graphics tasks in STSDAS such as igi, sgraph, skymap, and wcslab have been modified to use these capabilities explicitly. Other graphics tasks not enhanced explicitly can also make use of new capabilities such as PostScript font support. We present an overview of psikern and several examples of output created by the enhanced STSDAS tasks.

  15. Dynamic Visual Acuity While Walking in Normals and Labyrinthine-Deficient Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, Edward J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; McDonald, P. Vernon; Cohen, Helen S.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a new, objective, easily administered test of dynamic visual acuity (DVA) while walking. Ten normal subjects and five patients with histories of severe bilateral vestibular dysfunctions participated in this study. Subjects viewed a visual display of numerals of different font sizes presented on a laptop computer while they stood still and while they walked on a motorized treadmill. Treadmill speed was adapted for 4 of 5 patients. Subjects were asked to identify the numerals as they appeared on the computer screen. Test results were reasonably repeatable in normals. The percent correct responses at each font size dropped slightly while walking in normals and dropped significantly more in patients. Patients performed significantly worse than normals while standing still and while walking. This task may be useful for evaluating post-flight astronauts and vestibularly impaired patients.

  16. The feeling of fluent perception: a single experience from multiple asynchronous sources.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, Pascal; Reber, Rolf; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2008-03-01

    Zeki and co-workers recently proposed that perception can best be described as locally distributed, asynchronous processes that each create a kind of microconsciousness, which condense into an experienced percept. The present article is aimed at extending this theory to metacognitive feelings. We present evidence that perceptual fluency-the subjective feeling of ease during perceptual processing-is based on speed of processing at different stages of the perceptual process. Specifically, detection of briefly presented stimuli was influenced by figure-ground contrast, but not by symmetry (Experiment 1) or the font (Experiment 2) of the stimuli. Conversely, discrimination of these stimuli was influenced by whether they were symmetric (Experiment 1) and by the font they were presented in (Experiment 2), but not by figure-ground contrast. Both tasks however were related with the subjective experience of fluency (Experiments 1 and 2). We conclude that subjective fluency is the conscious phenomenal correlate of different processing stages in visual perception.

  17. Implicit Self-Importance in an Interpersonal Pronoun Categorization Task

    PubMed Central

    Fetterman, Adam K.; Robinson, Michael D.; Gilbertson, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Object relations theories emphasize the manner in which the salience/importance of implicit representations of self and other guide interpersonal functioning. Two studies and a pilot test (total N = 304) sought to model such representations. In dyadic contexts, the self is a “you” and the other is a “me”, as verified in a pilot test. Study 1 then used a simple categorization task and found evidence for implicit self-importance: The pronoun “you” was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a larger font size, whereas the pronoun “me” was categorized more quickly and accurately when presented in a smaller font size. Study 2 showed that this pattern possesses value in understanding individual differences in interpersonal functioning. As predicted, arrogant people scored higher in implicit self-importance in the paradigm. Findings are discussed from the perspective of dyadic interpersonal dynamics. PMID:25419089

  18. Enhancements to IRAF/STSDAS Graphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, J. D.; Levay, Z. G.

    1993-01-01

    The IRAF graphics kernel, psikern, is a true encapsulated PostScript implementation, an improvement over the former SGI-based PostScript output available from IRAF. The psikern kernel implements many more capabilities of gio/gki such as cell arrays (grayscale images), color, filled-area patterns and true PostScript fonts. Several of the general-purpose graphics tasks in STSDAS such as igi, s-graph, skymap, newcont and wcslab have been modified to use these capabilities explicitly. Other graphics tasks not enhanced explicitly can also make use of new capabilities such as PostScript font support. We present an overview of psikern and several examples of output created by the enhanced STSDAS tasks.

  19. Non-Manhattan layout extraction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkhozhina, Aziza; Ahmadullin, Ildus; Allebach, Jan P.; Lin, Qian; Liu, Jerry; Tretter, Daniel; O'Brien-Strain, Eamonn; Hunter, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Automated publishing requires large databases containing document page layout templates. The number of layout templates that need to be created and stored grows exponentially with the complexity of the document layouts. A better approach for automated publishing is to reuse layout templates of existing documents for the generation of new documents. In this paper, we present an algorithm for template extraction from a docu- ment page image. We use the cost-optimized segmentation algorithm (COS) to segment the image, and Voronoi decomposition to cluster the text regions. Then, we create a block image where each block represents a homo- geneous region of the document page. We construct a geometrical tree that describes the hierarchical structure of the document page. We also implement a font recognition algorithm to analyze the font of each text region. We present a detailed description of the algorithm and our preliminary results.

  20. Perceptual Simulation in Gender Categorization: Associations between Gender, Vertical Height, and Spatial Size

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Qiong; Eskine, Kendall J.; Zuo, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The current studies extend perceptual symbol systems theory to the processing of gender categorization by revealing that gender categorization recruits perceptual simulations of spatial height and size dimensions. In study 1, categorization of male faces were faster when the faces were in the “up” (i.e., higher on the vertical axis) rather than the “down” (i.e., lower on the vertical axis) position and vice versa for female face categorization. Study 2 found that responses to male names depicted in larger font were faster than male names depicted in smaller font, whereas opposite response patterns were given for female names. Study 3 confirmed that the effect in Study 2 was not due to metaphoric relationships between gender and social power. Together, these findings suggest that representation of gender (social categorization) also involves processes of perceptual simulation. PMID:24587022

  1. Education techniques for lifelong learning: making a PowerPoint presentation.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jannette

    2004-01-01

    Most radiologists are now creating their own image and text slides for oral presentations. PowerPoint software offers a tremendous number of options for personalizing slides. Having choices of font, color scheme, display options, sound, and graphics provide an opportunity to enhance a presentation in ways that were not possible with 35-mm slides and slide projectors. However, inappropriate use of PowerPoint features can substantially degrade the quality of a presentation. Many of the "rules" for creating an effective presentation given with slide projectors apply to electronic presentations, but some of the options available with only electronic presentations (eg, building, transitioning, and sound) necessitate new "rules." The article provides tips on how to develop effective text and image slides for electronic presentation by using PowerPoint, including the appropriate use of text, font, color, sound, graphics, slide display, and radiologic images.

  2. Discovery of the radio counterpart for 2MASX J20183871+4041003 within the error-box of IGR J2018-4043 and of the AGILE variable gamma-ray source in the Cygnus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Giacani, E.; Bykov, A. M.; Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Uvarov, Yu. A.

    2008-05-01

    <FONT FACE='Times, serif'><FONT SIZE=3>Based on C-configuration VLA observations carried out on December 9 and 12, 2006 at 1423 and 4885 MHz (program ag728), we report on the presence of a radio point source centered exactly at the position of 2MASX J20183871+4041003 within the error box of the discovered AGILE variable gamma-ray source (ATEL #1492, ATEL #1497 and ATEL #1498).

  3. Similarity measures for pattern matching on-the-fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caluori, Ursina; Simon, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we presented a new OCR-concept [1] for historic prints. The core part is the glyph recognition based on pattern matching with patterns that are derived from computer font glyphs and are generated on-the-fly. The classification of a sample is organized as a search process for the most similar glyph pattern. In this paper, we investigate several similarity measures which are of vital importance for this concept.

  4. N170 ERPs could represent a logographic processing strategy in visual word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory; Petit, Laurent; Bernard, Christian; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Background Occipito-temporal N170 component represents the first step where face, object and word processing are discriminated along the ventral stream of the brain. N170 leftward asymmetry observed during reading has been often associated to prelexical orthographic visual word form activation. However, some studies reported a lexical frequency effect for this component particularly during word repetition that appears in contradiction with this prelexical orthographic step. Here, we tested the hypothesis that under word repetition condition, discrimination between words would be operated on visual rather than orthographic basis. In this case, N170 activity may correspond to a logographic processing where a word is processed as a whole. Methods To test such an assumption, frequent words, infrequent words and pseudowords were presented to the subjects that had to complete a visual lexical decision task. Different repetition conditions were defined 1 – weak repetition, 2 – massive repetition and 3 – massive repetition with font alternation. This last condition was designed to change visual word shape during repetition and therefore to interfere with a possible visual strategy during word recognition. Results Behavioral data showed an important frequency effect for the weak repetition condition, a lower but significant frequency effect for massive repetition, and no frequency effect for the changing font repetition. Moreover alternating font repetitions slowed subject's responses in comparison to "simple" massive repetition. ERPs results evidenced larger N170 amplitude in the left hemisphere for frequent than both infrequent words and pseudowords during massive repetition. Moreover, when words were repeated with different fonts this N170 effect was not present, suggesting a visual locus for such a N170 frequency effect. Conclusion N170 represents an important step in visual word recognition, consisting probably in a prelexical orthographic processing. But during

  5. Voice synthesis using the three-dimensional digital waveguide mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speed, Matthew DA

    FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman','serif'; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">The acoustic response of the vocal tract is fundamental to our interpretation of voice production. As an acoustic filter, it shapes the spectral envelope of vocal fold vibration towards resonant modes, or formants, whose behaviours form the most basic building blocks of phonetics. Physical models of the voice exploit this effect by modelling the nature of wave propagation in abstracted cylindrical constructs. Whilst effective, the accuracy of such approaches is limited due to their limited geometrical analogue. Developments in numerical acoustics modelling meanwhile have seen the formalisation of higher dimensionality configurations of the same technologies, allowing a much closer geometrical representation of an acoustic field. The major focus of this thesis is the application of such a technique to the vocal tract, and comparison of its performance with lower dimensionality approaches. To afford the development of such models, a body of data is collected from Magnetic Resonance Imaging for a range of subjects, and procedures are developed for the decomposition of this imaging into suitable, efficient data structures for simulation. The simulation technique is exhaustively validated using a combination of bespoke measurement/inversion techniques and analytical determination of lower frequency behaviours. Finally, voice synthesis based on each numerical model is compared with acoustic recordings of the subjects involved and with equivalent simulations from lower dimensionality methods. It is found that application of a higher dimensionality method typically yields a more accurate frequency-domain representation of the voice, although in some cases lower dimensionality equivalents are seen to perform better at low frequencies..

  6. Program Aids In Printing FORTRAN-Coded Output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akian, Richard A.

    1993-01-01

    FORPRINT computer program prints FORTRAN-coded output files on most non-Postscript printers with such extra features as control of fonts for Epson and Hewlett Packard printers. Rewrites data to printer and inserts correct printer-control codes. Alternative uses include ability to separate data or ASCII file during printing by use of editing software to insert "1" in first column of data line that starts new page. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  7. OCR enhancement through neighbor embedding and fast approximate nearest neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. C.

    2012-10-01

    Generic optical character recognition (OCR) engines often perform very poorly in transcribing scanned low resolution (LR) text documents. To improve OCR performance, we apply the Neighbor Embedding (NE) single-image super-resolution (SISR) technique to LR scanned text documents to obtain high resolution (HR) versions, which we subsequently process with OCR. For comparison, we repeat this procedure using bicubic interpolation (BI). We demonstrate that mean-square errors (MSE) in NE HR estimates do not increase substantially when NE is trained in one Latin font style and tested in another, provided both styles belong to the same font category (serif or sans serif). This is very important in practice, since for each font size, the number of training sets required for each category may be reduced from dozens to just one. We also incorporate randomized k-d trees into our NE implementation to perform approximate nearest neighbor search, and obtain a 1000x speed up of our original NE implementation, with negligible MSE degradation. This acceleration also made it practical to combine all of our size-specific NE Latin models into a single Universal Latin Model (ULM). The ULM eliminates the need to determine the unknown font category and size of an input LR text document and match it to an appropriate model, a very challenging task, since the dpi (pixels per inch) of the input LR image is generally unknown. Our experiments show that OCR character error rates (CER) were over 90% when we applied the Tesseract OCR engine to LR text documents (scanned at 75 dpi and 100 dpi) in the 6-10 pt range. By contrast, using k-d trees and the ULM, CER after NE preprocessing averaged less than 7% at 3x (100 dpi LR scanning) and 4x (75 dpi LR scanning) magnification, over an order of magnitude improvement. Moreover, CER after NE preprocessing was more that 6 times lower on average than after BI preprocessing.

  8. General-Purpose Graphics-Library Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Joseph E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) computer program is general-purpose graphics-library program for use with many computer-based-engineering and management application programs. Software offers many features providing user with flexibility in creating graphics. Includes two- and three-dimensional plotting, splines and polynomial interpolation, area blanking control, multiple log/linear axes, legends and text control, curve-thickness control, and multiple text fonts. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  9. A Fluid Mechanics Hypercourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, James A.; Sonwalkar, Nishikant

    1996-05-01

    This CD-ROM is designed to accompany James Fay's Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. An enhanced hypermedia version of the textbook, it offers a number of ways to explore the fluid mechanics domain. These include a complete hypertext version of the original book, physical-experiment video clips, excerpts from external references, audio annotations, colored graphics, review questions, and progressive hints for solving problems. Throughout, the authors provide expert guidance in navigating the typed links so that students do not get lost in the learning process. System requirements: Macintosh with 68030 or greater processor and with at least 16 Mb of RAM. Operating System 6.0.4 or later for 680x0 processor and System 7.1.2 or later for Power-PC. CD-ROM drive with 256- color capability. Preferred display 14 inches or above (SuperVGA with 1 megabyte of VRAM). Additional system font software: Computer Modern postscript fonts (CM/PS Screen Fonts, CMBSY10, and CMTT10) and Adobe Type Manager (ATM 3.0 or later). James A. Fay is Professor Emeritus and Senior Lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at MIT.

  10. Document zone classification using sizes of connected components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jisheng; Phillips, Ihsin T.; Ha, Jaekyu; Haralick, Robert M.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a feature based supervised zone classifier using only the knowledge of the widths and the heights of the connected-components within a given zone. The distribution of the widths and the heights of the connected-components is encoded into a n multiplied by m dimensional vector in the decision making. Thus, the computational complexity is in the order of the number of connected-components within the given zone. A binary decision tree is used to assign a zone class on the basis of its feature vector. The training and testing data sets for the algorithm are drawn from the scientific document pages in the UW-I database. The classifier is able to classify each given scientific and technical document zone into one of the eight labels: text of font size 8-12, text of font size 13-18, text of font size 19-36, display math, table, halftone, line drawing, and ruling, in real time. The classifier is able to discriminate text from non-text with an accuracy greater than 97%.

  11. The dependence of crowding on flanker complexity and target-flanker similarity

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Chung, Susana T.L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the spatial complexity of flankers and target-flanker similarity on the performance of identifying crowded letters. On each trial, observers identified the middle character of random strings of three characters (“trigrams”) briefly presented at 10° below fixation. We tested the 26 lowercase letters of the Times-Roman and Courier fonts, a set of 79 characters (letters and non-letters) of the Times-Roman font, and the uppercase letters of two highly complex ornamental fonts, Edwardian and Aristocrat. Spatial complexity of characters was quantified by the length of the morphological skeleton of each character, and target-flanker similarity was defined based on a psychometric similarity matrix. Our results showed that (1) letter identification error rate increases with flanker complexity up to a certain value, beyond which error rate becomes independent of flanker complexity; (2) the increase of error rate is slower for high-complexity target letters; (3) error rate increases with target-flanker similarity; and (4) mislocation error rate increases with target-flanker similarity. These findings, combined with the current understanding of the faulty feature integration account of crowding, provide some constraints of how the feature integration process could cause perceptual errors. PMID:21730225

  12. What happened (and what didn’t): Discourse constraints on encoding of plausible alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Benjamin, Aaron S.; Watson, Duane G.

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constrained. Participants read discourses in which some true propositions had salient alternatives (e.g., British scientists found the endangered monkey when the discourse also mentioned French scientists) and completed a recognition memory test. In Experiments 1 and 2, font emphasis in the initial presentation increased participants’ ability to later reject false statements about salient alternatives but not about unmentioned items (e.g., Portuguese scientists). In Experiment 3, font emphasis helped reject false statements about plausible alternatives, but not about less plausible alternatives that were nevertheless established in the discourse. These results suggest readers encode a narrow set of only those alternatives plausible in the particular discourse. They also indicate that multiple manipulations of linguistic prominence, not just prosody, can lead to consideration of alternatives. PMID:24014934

  13. Legibility Evaluation with Oculomotor Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Daisuke; Saito, Keiichi; Saito, Masao

    Web page legibility is important because of WWW dissemination and color combinations between a foreground and a background are the crucial factors to provide sufficient legibility. In our previous studies, the visibilities of several web-safe color combinations were examined using a psychological method. In those studies, simple stimuli were used because of experimental restriction. In this study, legibility of sentences on Web sites was examined using a psychophisiological method by oculomotor and the effect of the achromatic color combinations, that is contrast, was examined with calculated reading time. The presentation stimuli were positive coloration whose font color luminance is lower than background color, and negative coloration whose font color luminance is higher than background color. And the number of characters per line in each page was arranged in the same number, and the four achromatic colors that is, the contrast between the background color and font color are 92.5, 75.0, 50.0 and 25.0 percent, were examined. As the results, it was shown that reading time of became long when the contrast. However, in the negative coloration, there were great differences between individuals. Therefore, considering web accessibility, the legibility is found to be useful for using a positive coloration.

  14. The cycle of atmospheric cadmium over the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Thomas L.; Duce, Robert A.

    1991-02-01

    Bulk aerosol, cascade impactor, precipitation, and seawater samples were collected for a study of atmospheric cadmium at two sites in the Central North Pacific Ocean. The results of the analyses of these samples strongly suggest that the primary source of atmospheric Cd is the long-range transport of anthropogenic pollutant aerosol from Asia and Japan. The atmospheric concentration of Cd ranged from 1 to 60pg m-font-weight: bold">3 and was strongly correlated with the atmospheric Pb concentration. The deposition rate of atmospheric Cd was estimated to be between 6 and 70ng m-font-weight: bold">2 d-font-weight: bold">1 during the spring, and this flux is an insignificant source of Cd found in the surface waters of the Central North Pacific. The dissolubility of atmospheric Cd in seawater was determined. Virtually all of the Cd was released into an operationally defined dissolved state within 6h.

  15. What happened (and what didn't): Discourse constraints on encoding of plausible alternatives.

    PubMed

    Fraundorf, Scott H; Benjamin, Aaron S; Watson, Duane G

    2013-10-01

    Three experiments investigated how font emphasis influences reading and remembering discourse. Although past work suggests that contrastive pitch contours benefit memory by promoting encoding of salient alternatives, it is unclear both whether this effect generalizes to other forms of linguistic prominence and how the set of alternatives is constrained. Participants read discourses in which some true propositions had salient alternatives (e.g., British scientists found the endangered monkey when the discourse also mentioned French scientists) and completed a recognition memory test. In Experiments 1 and 2, font emphasis in the initial presentation increased participants' ability to later reject false statements about salient alternatives but not about unmentioned items (e.g., Portuguese scientists). In Experiment 3, font emphasis helped reject false statements about plausible alternatives, but not about less plausible alternatives that were nevertheless established in the discourse. These results suggest readers encode a narrow set of only those alternatives plausible in the particular discourse. They also indicate that multiple manipulations of linguistic prominence, not just prosody, can lead to consideration of alternatives.

  16. Effects of speech on proofreading: can task-engagement manipulations shield against distraction?

    PubMed

    Halin, Niklas; Marsh, John E; Haga, Andreas; Holmgren, Mattias; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2014-03-01

    This article reports 2 experiments that examine techniques to shield against the potentially disruptive effects of task-irrelevant background speech on proofreading. The participants searched for errors in texts that were either normal (i.e., written in Times New Roman font) or altered (i.e., presented either in Haettenschweiler font or in Times New Roman but masked by visual noise) in 2 sound conditions: a silent condition and a condition with background speech. Proofreading for semantic/contextual errors was impaired by speech, but only when the text was normal. This effect of speech was completely abolished when the text was written in an altered font (Experiment 1) or when it was masked by visual noise (Experiment 2). There was no functional difference between the 2 ways to alter the text with regard to the way the manipulations influenced the effects of background speech on proofreading. The results indicate that increased task demands, which lead to greater focal-task engagement, may shield against the distracting effects of background speech on proofreading.

  17. Atomistic simulations of dislocation-interface interactions in the Cu-Ni multilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. I.; Hazzledine, P. M.

    2000-09-01

    , alter the barrier strengths by three mechanisms: firstly, they reduce the density of van der Merwe misfit dislocations, secondly, they enhance the Koehler barrier by altering the elastic constants of both Cu and Ni and, thirdly, non-glide stress components change the core structure of gliding dislocations, thereby altering the Koehler barrier. Overall, the barrier strength of (111) interfaces is independent of the wavelength of the multilayer and about 0.02mu up to the wavelength of <FONT FACE="MetaPress 7">uc, the coherence wavelength limit. At Cu(001)-Ni(001) interfaces the total barrier strength decreases from a value of 0.02mu at long wavelengths (<FONT FACE="MetaPress 7">u <FONT FACE="MetaPress 6">, <FONT FACE="MetaPress 6">X) to about 0.01mu at <FONT FACE="MetaPress 7">u = <FONT FACE="MetaPress 7">uc, as considered by Rao et al. in 1995 in their yield stress model for Cu-Ni multilayered structures. Slip-plane misorientations provide powerful barriers to slip transmission. Even at a (111) twinned interface in a coherent Cu-Ni multilayer, screw dislocations cross-slip on to the interface rather than into Ni because the stacking-fault energy at the interface is lower than in Ni. The blocking strength of the same interface to 60° dislocations (which must leave a step and a residual dislocation in the boundary) is very large, 0.03-0.04mu.

  18. Calibração do sistema imageador do telescópio MASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, J.; D'Amico, F.; Villela, T.; Braga, J.

    2003-08-01

    O MASCO (MÁScara COdificada) é um telescópio imageador de raios-X e gama atualmente configurado para operar na faixa de 50 a 600 keV com uma resolução angular de 14 minutos de arco num campo de visada total circular de 23,5° de diâmetro. O MASCO está totalmente operacional e deverá ser lançado em um balão estratosférico no segundo semestre de 2003 para realizar observações durante ~20 horas a ~40 km de altitude. O telescópio utiliza uma máscara codificada de padrão uniformemente redundante modificado (MURA) de dimensões 19 ´ 19. Esse padrão pertence a uma subclasse de MURAs que apresenta anti-simetria de 90° e conseqüentemente permite a utilização da técnica de subtração de variações sistemáticas de ruído de fundo através de utilização da configuração anti-máscara, obtida com uma simples rotação da máscara. Neste trabalho apresentamos resultados de calibrações em laboratório que tiveram como objetivo testar o sistema imageador. Imagens de fontes radioativas foram obtidas com o telescópio em configuração de vôo, com a máscara girando. Serão discutidos os resultados desses testes e as técnicas desenvolvidas para eliminar ambigüidades de posição de fontes, otimização da relação sinal-ruído e observação de fontes fora do campo totalmente codificado. O sistema de máscara/antimáscara mostrou-se capaz de aumentar a relação sinal-ruído de ~60% para fontes intensas (100 s). Com a máscara girando, a técnica de reconstrução de imagens desenvolvida identificou a posição exata da fonte e não introduziu perda de sensibilidade. Imagens de uma fonte colocada a 8,3° - fora do campo totalmente codificado do telescópio -, mostraram uma diminuição de ~40% na relação sinal/ruído em relação ao centro do campo de visada, o que se deve à codificação incompleta pela máscara e à absorção parcial do fluxo pelos detectores de blindagem.

  19. Software for portable laser light show system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buruchin, Dmitrey J.; Leonov, Alexander F.

    1995-04-01

    Portable laser light show system LS-3500-10M is connected to the parallel port of IBM PC/AT compatible computer. Computer performs output of digital control data describing images. Specially designed control device is used to convert digital data coming from parallel port to the analog signal driving scanner. Capabilities of even cost nothing 286 computer are quite enough for laser graphics control. Technology of scanning used in laser graphics system LS-3500-10M essentially differs from widely spread systems based on galvanometers with mobile core or with mobile magnet. Such devices are based on the same principle of work as electrically driven servo-mechanism. As scanner we use elastic system with hydraulic dampen oscillations and opened loop. For most of applications of laser graphics such system provides satisfactory precision and speed of scanning. LS-3500-10M software gives user ability to create on PC and play his own laser graphics demonstrations. It is possible to render recognizable text and pictures using different styles, 3D and abstract animation. All types of demonstrations can be mixed in slide-show. Time synchronization is supported. Software has the following features: (1) Different types of text output. Built-in text editor for typing and editing of textural information. Different fonts can be used to display text. User can create his own fonts using specially developed font editor. (2) Editor of 3D animation with library of predefined shapes. (3) Abstract animation provided by software routines. (4) Support of different graphics files formats (PCX or DXF). Original algorithm of raster image tracing was implemented. (5) Built-in slide-show editor.

  20. Neural correlates for aesthetic appraisal of pictograph and its referent: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Lai, Siyan; He, Xianyou; Zhao, Xueru; Lai, Shuxian

    2016-05-15

    As one kind of language symbols, pictograph has a graphical structure based on its referential object. Are the aesthetic qualities of these referential objects reflected in the cognitive and neural processing of the font structure of pictographs? In this present study, participants performed aesthetic judgments on both pictographs and their referential object images whilst acquiring fMRI data. Square luminance judgment was served as baseline to control for activity in motor brain regions associated with the key responses. Behavioral results showed both font structures of pictographs and their corresponding object images which refer to beautiful objects were rated significantly higher on beauty than those refer to ugly objects. Functional MRI revealed regions of occipital lobe, frontal lobe and inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that were commonly activated for pictographs and object images referring to beautiful objects in the direct contrasts between beautiful judgment and luminance judgment. Moreover, only the aesthetic judgments of beauty for the pictographs but not the object images elicited activation of motor areas, which implied relevant embodied experience was elicited during the aesthetic perception of novel pictographs. In contrast, activities associated with pictographs referring to ugly objects were limited to visual processing regions of the bilateral inferior occipital gyri, which could be due to the intentions of avoiding ugly or aversive stimulus. In addition, object images were associated with broader recruitment in cortical areas than pictographs, likely due to the increased visual processing demands for the more visually complex object images. These findings indicate that aesthetic perceptions for the font structures of pictographs were derived from their referential objects, which could arouse a similar sense of beauty supported by common neural mechanisms with other aesthetic objects. PMID:26952886

  1. Effects of display factors on Chinese proofreading performance and preferences.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alan H S; Ng, Annie W Y

    2012-01-01

    This experiment investigated the influence of four display factors, viz. typeface (Ming Liu and Jheng Hei), font size (10-point and 14-point), text direction (horizontal and vertical) and copy placement (left-right and top-bottom) on Chinese proofreading performance and subjective preferences. Proofreading performance was measured in terms of time and accuracy, and preferences were examined in terms of comfort, ease and fatigue. It was found that the horizontal text direction resulted in faster proofreading than the vertical one, but the other three factors were non significant. The faster proofreading using the horizontal text direction was valid for both the left-right and the top-bottom arrangements. There was an interaction between typeface and font size such that, for the smaller character size (10-point), the Ming Liu style produced a faster performance than the Jheng Hei style. However, for the larger character size (14-point), the Jheng Hei style produced a faster performance than the Ming Liu style. Regarding proofreading accuracy, the number of non-detected missing words and related false alarm in left-right copy placement setting was significantly larger than that in top-down setting. Greater accuracy was obtained in proofreading at the cost of a speed-accuracy trade-off--the higher the accuracy in the proofreading task, the longer the proofreading time. Font size and text direction had significant effects on proofreading preferences, but typeface and copy placement did not. Practitioner Summary: This study examined four display factors on Chinese proofreading performance and subjective preferences. The findings of this experiment provide information and recommendations that should prove useful for the design of proofreading interfaces to improve proofreading time and accuracy, and to satisfy proofreaders' preference.

  2. Neural correlates for aesthetic appraisal of pictograph and its referent: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Lai, Siyan; He, Xianyou; Zhao, Xueru; Lai, Shuxian

    2016-05-15

    As one kind of language symbols, pictograph has a graphical structure based on its referential object. Are the aesthetic qualities of these referential objects reflected in the cognitive and neural processing of the font structure of pictographs? In this present study, participants performed aesthetic judgments on both pictographs and their referential object images whilst acquiring fMRI data. Square luminance judgment was served as baseline to control for activity in motor brain regions associated with the key responses. Behavioral results showed both font structures of pictographs and their corresponding object images which refer to beautiful objects were rated significantly higher on beauty than those refer to ugly objects. Functional MRI revealed regions of occipital lobe, frontal lobe and inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that were commonly activated for pictographs and object images referring to beautiful objects in the direct contrasts between beautiful judgment and luminance judgment. Moreover, only the aesthetic judgments of beauty for the pictographs but not the object images elicited activation of motor areas, which implied relevant embodied experience was elicited during the aesthetic perception of novel pictographs. In contrast, activities associated with pictographs referring to ugly objects were limited to visual processing regions of the bilateral inferior occipital gyri, which could be due to the intentions of avoiding ugly or aversive stimulus. In addition, object images were associated with broader recruitment in cortical areas than pictographs, likely due to the increased visual processing demands for the more visually complex object images. These findings indicate that aesthetic perceptions for the font structures of pictographs were derived from their referential objects, which could arouse a similar sense of beauty supported by common neural mechanisms with other aesthetic objects.

  3. River Protection Project (RPP) Level 0 Logic

    SciTech Connect

    SEEMAN, S.E.

    2000-01-20

    The following modifications were made to the River Protection Project Level-0 logic in going from Rev. I to Rev. 2. The first change was the change to the heading at the top of the drawing: ''TWRS Program Logic'' to ''River Protection Project Mission Logic''. Note that purely format changes (e.g., fonts, location of boxes, date format, addition of numbers to ''ghost'' boxes) are not discussed. However, the major format change was to show DOE-BNFL Inc. Interface Control Documents (ICDs) on the logic.

  4. Relativistic distorted-wave collision strengths for Δn = 0 transitions in the 67 Li-like, F-like and Na-like ions with 26 ≤ Z ≤ 92

    DOE PAGES

    Fontes, Christopher J.; Zhang, Hong Lin

    2016-05-04

    We calculated relativistic distorted-wave collision strength for all possible Δn=0 transitions, where n denotes the valence shell of the ground level, in the 67 Li-like, F-like and Na-like ions with Z in the range 26 ≤ Z ≤92. This choice produces 3 transitions with n=2 in the Li-like and F-like ions, and 10 transitions with n=3 in the Na-like ions. Moreover, for the Li-like and F-like ions, the calculations were made for the six final, or scattered, electron energies E'=0.008,0.04,0.10,0.21,0.41, and 0.75, where E' is in units of Zmore » $$2\\atop{eff}$$ Ry with Zeff = Z- 1.66 for Li-like ions and Zeff= Z- 6.667 for F-like ions. For the Na-like ions, the calculations were made for the six final electron energies E'=0.0025,0.015,0.04,0.10,0.21, and 0.40, with Zeff = Z- 8.34. In the present calculations, an improved “top-up” method, which employs relativistic plane waves, was used to obtain the high partial-wave contribution for each transition, in contrast to the partial-relativistic Coulomb–Bethe approximation used in previous works by Zhang, Sampson and Fontes [H.L. Zhang, D.H. Sampson, C.J. Fontes, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 44 (1990) 31; H.L. Zhang, D.H. Sampson, C.J. Fontes, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 48 (1991) 25; D.H. Sampson, H.L. Zhang, C.J. Fontes, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 44 (1990) 209]. In those previous works, collision strengths were also provided for Li-, F- and Na-like ions, but for a more comprehensive set of transitions. Finally, the collision strengths covered in the present work should be more accurate than the corresponding data given in those previous works and are presented here to replace those earlier results.« less

  5. Information Science Research Institute: 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, K.O.; Cray, R.

    1994-09-01

    This is a second annual research report of the UNLV Information Science Research Institute. It includes the annual OCR Technology Assessment test results and gives an overview of other ISRI projects. In the Assessment test the relationship between character accuracy and page quality, skew, resolution, and font features is investigated. Measures of significance to text retrieval applications are presented. Two voting systems were tested, both able to correct large percentages of OCR errors but limited when processing degraded text. A new version of ISRI experimental tools used to test foreign language OCR systems is introduced. An overview of the interest in the relationship between OCR accuracy and retrieval effectiveness is also presented.

  6. The Genetics of Reading Disabilities: From Phenotypes to Candidate Genes

    PubMed Central

    Raskind, Wendy H.; Peter, Beate; Richards, Todd; Eckert, Mark M.; Berninger, Virginia W.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of (a) issues in definition and diagnosis of specific reading disabilities at the behavioral level that may occur in different constellations of developmental and phenotypic profiles (patterns); (b) rapidly expanding research on genetic heterogeneity and gene candidates for dyslexia and other reading disabilities; (c) emerging research on gene-brain relationships; and (d) current understanding of epigenetic mechanisms whereby environmental events may alter behavioral expression of genetic variations. A glossary of genetic terms (denoted by bold font) is provided for readers not familiar with the technical terms. PMID:23308072

  7. Climate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-05-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emissions scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g. economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. The base scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, lead in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 font-size: .7em; color: #000;">mWfont-size: .7em; color: #000;">m²in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29 font-size: .7em; color: #000;">mWClimate impact of supersonic air traffic: an approach to optimize a potential future supersonic fleet - results from the EU-project SCENIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Stenke, A.; Ponater, M.; Sausen, R.; Pitari, G.; Iachetti, D.; Rogers, H.; Dessens, O.; Pyle, J.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Gulstad, L.; Søvde, O. A.; Marizy, C.; Pascuillo, E.

    2007-10-01

    The demand for intercontinental transportation is increasing and people are requesting short travel times, which supersonic air transportation would enable. However, besides noise and sonic boom issues, which we are not referring to in this investigation, emissions from supersonic aircraft are known to alter the atmospheric composition, in particular the ozone layer, and hence affect climate significantly more than subsonic aircraft. Here, we suggest a metric to quantitatively assess different options for supersonic transport with regard to the potential destruction of the ozone layer and climate impacts. Options for fleet size, engine technology (nitrogen oxide emission level), cruising speed, range, and cruising altitude, are analyzed, based on SCENIC emission scenarios for 2050, which underlay the requirements to be as realistic as possible in terms of e.g., economic markets and profitable market penetration. This methodology is based on a number of atmosphere-chemistry and climate models to reduce model dependencies. The model results differ significantly in terms of the response to a replacement of subsonic aircraft by supersonic aircraft, e.g., concerning the ozone impact. However, model differences are smaller when comparing the different options for a supersonic fleet. Those uncertainties were taken into account to make sure that our findings are robust. The base case scenario, where supersonic aircraft get in service in 2015, a first fleet fully operational in 2025 and a second in 2050, leads in our simulations to a near surface temperature increase in 2050 of around 7 mK and with constant emissions afterwards to around 21 mK in 2100. The related total radiative forcing amounts to 22 font-size: .7em; color: #000;">mWfont-size: .7em; color: #000;">m2 in 2050, with an uncertainty between 9 and 29

  8. Microstructure encryption and decryption techniques in optical variable and invariable devices in printed documents for security and forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambadiyil, Sajan; K. G, Jayan; Prabhu, Radhakrishna; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2015-05-01

    Today, document counterfeiting is a global menace because of the advanced technologies available at ever decreasing prices. Instead of eschew the paper documents; applying efficient cost effective security methodologies are the feasible solutions. This paper reports a novel cost effective and simple optical technique using micro text encrypted optical variable device (OVD) threads, ultra-violet (UV) based optical invariable device (OID) patterns and artistic fonts for secure preparation of the documents and its forensic application. Applying any one of the above technique or together can effectively enhance the level of security of the most valuable document. The genuineness of the documents can be verified using simple decryption techniques.

  9. Introduction: From Efficient Quantum Computation to Nonextensive Statistical Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosen, Tomaz

    These few pages will attempt to make a short comprehensive overview of several contributions to this volume which concern rather diverse topics. I shall review the following works, essentially reversing the sequence indicated in my title: • First, by C. Tsallis on the relation of nonextensive statistics to the stability of quantum motion on the edge of quantum chaos. • Second, the contribution by P. Jizba on information theoretic foundations of generalized (nonextensive) statistics. font-size:1.1em">• Third, the contribution by J. Rafelski on a possible generalization of Boltzmann kinetics, again, formulated in terms of nonextensive statistics. font-size:1.1em">• Fourth, the contribution by D.L. Stein on the state-of-the-art open problems in spin glasses and on the notion of complexity there. font-size:1.1em">• Fifth, the contribution by F.T. Arecchi on the quantum-like uncertainty relations and decoherence appearing in the description of perceptual tasks of the brain. font-size:1.1em">• Sixth, the contribution by G. Casati on the measurement and information extraction in the simulation of complex dynamics by a quantum computer. Immediately, the following question arises: What do the topics of these talks have in common? Apart from the variety of questions they address, it is quite obvious that the common denominator of these contributions is an approach to describe and control "the complexity" by simple means. One of the very useful tools to handle such problems, also often used or at least referred to in several of the works presented here, is the concept of Tsallis entropy and nonextensive statistics.

  10. Utilisation of chip thickness models in grinding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, Roger

    Grinding is now a well established process utilised for both stock removal and finish applications. Although significant research is performed in this field, grinding still experiences problems with burn and high forces which can lead to poor quality components and damage to equipment. This generally occurs in grinding when the process deviates from its safe working conditions. In milling, chip thickness parameters are utilised to predict and maintain process outputs leading to improved control of the process. This thesis looks to further the knowledge of the relationship between chip thickness and the grinding process outputs to provide an increased predictive and maintenance modelling capability. Machining trials were undertaken using different chip thickness parameters to understand how these affect the process outputs. The chip thickness parameters were maintained at different grinding wheel diameters for a constant productivity process to determine the impact of chip thickness at a constant material removal rate.. FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman','serif'; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">Additional testing using a modified pin on disc test rig was performed to provide further information on process variables. The different chip thickness parameters provide control of different process outputs in the grinding process. These relationships can be described using contact layer theory and heat flux partitioning. The contact layer is defined as the immediate layer beneath the contact arc at the wheel workpiece interface. The size of the layer governs the force experienced during the process. The rate of contact layer removal directly impacts the net power required from the system. It was also found that the specific grinding energy of a process is more dependent on the productivity of a grinding process

  11. Ionisation induced collapse of minihaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, Trevor

    2013-08-01

    In order to analyse the turbine blade life, the damage due to the combined thermal and mechanical loads should be adequately accounted for. This is more challenging when detailed component geometry is limited. Therefore, a compromise between the level of geometric detail and the complexity of the lifing method to be implemented would be necessary. This research focuses on how the life assessment of aero engine turbine blades can be done, considering the balance between available design inputs and adequate level of fidelity. Accordingly, the thesis contributes to developing a generic turbine blade lifing method that is based on the engine thermodynamic cycle; as well as integrating critical design/technological factors and operational parameters that influence the aero engine blade life. To this end, thermo-mechanical fatigue was identified as the critical damage phenomenon driving the life of the turbine blade.. FONT-FAMILY: 'Times New Roman','serif'; FONT-SIZE: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: Calibri; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">The developed approach integrates software tools and numerical models created using the minimum design information typically available at the early design stages. Using finite element analysis of an idealised blade geometry, the approach captures relevant impacts of thermal gradients and thermal stresses that contribute to the thermo-mechanical fatigue damage on the gas turbine blade. The blade life is evaluated using the Neu/Sehitoglu thermo-mechanical fatigue model that considers damage accumulation due to fatigue, oxidation, and creep. The leading edge is examined as a critical part of the blade to estimate the damage severity for different design factors and operational parameters. The outputs of the research can be used to better understand how the environment and the operating conditions of the aircraft affect the

  12. Digitization Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Fei; Holtkamp, Irma S.; Knudson, Frances L.

    2012-07-31

    This project involved performing tests and documenting results to determine best practices for digitizing older print documents. The digitization process is complicated, especially when original documents exhibit non-standard fonts and are faded. Tests focused on solutions to improve high quality scanning, increase OCR accuracy, and efficiently use embedded metadata. Results are summarized. From the test results on the right sides, we know that when we plan to digitize documents, we should balance Quantity and Quality based on our expectation, and then make final decision for the digitization process.

  13. References for scientific papers: why not standardise to one global style?

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R

    2013-09-21

    The different reference styles demanded by journals, both for in-text citations and manuscript bibliographies, require that significant time and attention be paid to minute detail that constitute a tedious obstacle on the road to publication for all authors, but especially for those from resource-limited countries and/or writing in a second language. To illustrate this, we highlight different reference styles requested by five popular journals to which operational research papers are often submitted. We call for a simpler, standardised format for in-text and bibliography reference citations, so that researchers can concentrate on the science and its interpretation rather than fonts and punctuation.

  14. Memorial V.J.Glaser

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plusieurs orateurs rendent hommage au grand physicien et scientifique Vladimir Jurko Glaser (1924 - 1984) qui travaillait au Ruder Boscovic Institut à Zagreb avant de venir au Cern en 1957 où il trouvait un poste permanent au département de physique théorique. Walter Tearing, Harry Lehmann,Henry Epstein, Jacques Bros et André Martin font des résumés biographiques de leurs collègue et ami en honorant ses grands qualités d'homme et ses remarquables conquêtes de la science et leurs accomplissement.

  15. Publishing large DNA sequence data in reduced spaces and lasting formats, in paper or PDF.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Alexandre Pires

    2013-01-01

    Scientific publications carry a practical moral duty: they must last. Along that line of thinking, some methods are proposed to allow economically and structurally viable publication of DNA sequence data of any size in printed matter and PDFs. The proposal is primarily aimed at contributing for preserving information for the future, while allowing authors to avoid information splitting and complement storage ex situ, that is, in server machines, outside the publication proper. The technique may also help to solve the impasse between the ICZN Code requirement that a new nomen be associated to diagnostic characters for the taxon vs. the phylogenetic definition of taxa, based on cladograms only: sequence data are characters, and can now be easily and comfortably included in taxonomic publications, with direct textual mention to their diagnostic sections. The compression level achieved allows the inclusion of all wanted DNA or RNA sequences in the same printed matter or PDF publications where the sequences are cited and discussed. Reduced font sizes, invisible fonts, and original 2D black & white and color barcodes are illustrated and briefly discussed. The level of data compression achieved can allow each full page of sequence data, or about 5000 characters, to be precisely coded into a color barcode as small as a square of 1.5 mm. A practical example is provided with Taeniogonalos woodorum Smith (Hymenoptera, Trigonalidae). Free software to generate publishable barcodes from txt or FASTA files is provided at www.systaxon.ufes.br/dna. PMID:24699621

  16. How colorful! A feature it is, isn't it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebowsky, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    A display's color subpixel geometry provides an intriguing opportunity for improving readability of text. True type fonts can be positioned at the precision of subpixel resolution. With such a constraint in mind, how does one need to design font characteristics? On the other hand, display manufactures try hard in addressing the color display's dilemma: smaller pixel pitch and larger display diagonals strongly increase the total number of pixels. Consequently, cost of column and row drivers as well as power consumption increase. Perceptual color subpixel rendering using color component subsampling may save about 1/3 of color subpixels (and reduce power dissipation). This talk will try to elaborate the following questions, based on simulation of several different layouts of subpixel matrices: Up to what level are display device constraints compatible with software specific ideas of rendering text? How much of color contrast will remain? How to best consider preferred viewing distance for readability of text? How much does visual acuity vary at 20/20 vision? Can simplified models of human visual color perception be easily applied to text rendering on displays? How linear is human visual contrast perception around band limit of a display's spatial resolution? How colorful does the rendered text appear on the screen? How much does viewing angle influence the performance of subpixel layouts and color subpixel rendering?

  17. Task effects on BOLD signal correlates of implicit syntactic processing.

    PubMed

    Caplan, David

    2010-07-01

    BOLD signal was measured in sixteen participants who made timed font change detection judgments in visually presented sentences that varied in syntactic structure and the order of animate and inanimate nouns. Behavioral data indicated that sentences were processed to the level of syntactic structure. BOLD signal increased in visual association areas bilaterally and left supramarginal gyrus in the contrast of sentences with object- and subject-extracted relative clauses without font changes in which the animacy order of the nouns biased against the syntactically determined meaning of the sentence. This result differs from the findings in a non-word detection task (Caplan et al, 2008a), in which the same contrast led to increased BOLD signal in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The difference in areas of activation indicates that the sentences were processed differently in the two tasks. These differences were further explored in an eye tracking study using the materials in the two tasks. Issues pertaining to how parsing and interpretive operations are affected by a task that is being performed, and how this might affect BOLD signal correlates of syntactic contrasts, are discussed. PMID:20671983

  18. Numerical investigation of stability of breather-type solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calini, A.; Schober, C. M.

    2013-09-01

    In this article we present the results of a broad numerical investigation on the stability of breather-type solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, specifically the one- and two-mode breathers for an unstable plane wave, which are frequently used to model rogue waves. The numerical experiments involve large ensembles of perturbed initial data for six typical random perturbations. Ensemble estimates of the "closeness", <font face="Lucida Calligraphy">A(t), of the perturbed solution to an element of the respective unperturbed family indicate that the only neutrally stable breathers are the ones of maximal dimension, that is: given an unstable background with N unstable modes, the only neutrally stable breathers are the N-dimensional ones (obtained as a superimposition of N simple breathers via iterated Backlund transformations). Conversely, breathers which are not fully saturated are sensitive to noisy environments and are unstable. Interestingly, <font face="Lucida Calligraphy">A(t) is smallest for the coalesced two-mode breather indicating the coalesced case may be the most robust two-mode breather in a laboratory setting. The numerical simulations confirm and provide a realistic realization of the stability behavior established analytically by the authors.

  19. Text vectorization based on character recognition and character stroke modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhigang; Zhou, Bingfeng; Tse, Francis; Mu, Yadong; He, Tao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a text vectorization method is proposed using OCR (Optical Character Recognition) and character stroke modeling. This is based on the observation that for a particular character, its font glyphs may have different shapes, but often share same stroke structures. Like many other methods, the proposed algorithm contains two procedures, dominant point determination and data fitting. The first one partitions the outlines into segments and second one fits a curve to each segment. In the proposed method, the dominant points are classified as "major" (specifying stroke structures) and "minor" (specifying serif shapes). A set of rules (parameters) are determined offline specifying for each character the number of major and minor dominant points and for each dominant point the detection and fitting parameters (projection directions, boundary conditions and smoothness). For minor points, multiple sets of parameters could be used for different fonts. During operation, OCR is performed and the parameters associated with the recognized character are selected. Both major and minor dominant points are detected as a maximization process as specified by the parameter set. For minor points, an additional step could be performed to test the competing hypothesis and detect degenerated cases.

  1. Learning to Read an Alphabet of Human Faces Produces Left-lateralized Training Effects in the Fusiform Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Michelle W.; Durisko, Corrine; Perfetti, Charles A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous functional neuroimaging studies have shown that most orthographic stimuli, such as printed English words, produce a left-lateralized response within the fusiform gyrus (FG) at a characteristic location termed the visual word form area (VWFA). We developed an experimental alphabet (FaceFont) comprising 35 face–phoneme pairs to disentangle phonological and perceptual influences on the lateralization of orthographic processing within the FG. Using functional imaging, we found that a region in the vicinity of the VWFA responded to FaceFont words more strongly in trained versus untrained participants, whereas no differences were observed in the right FG. The trained response magnitudes in the left FG region correlated with behavioral reading performance, providing strong evidence that the neural tissue recruited by training supported the newly acquired reading skill. These results indicate that the left lateralization of the orthographic processing is not restricted to stimuli with particular visual-perceptual features. Instead, lateralization may occur because the anatomical projections in the vicinity of the VWFA provide a unique interconnection between the visual system and left-lateralized language areas involved in the representation of speech. PMID:24168219

  2. LaT/sub E/X memos and letters

    SciTech Connect

    Sydoriak, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Letters and memos at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are formatted in accordance with rules established in the Laboratory's Office Procedures Manual. LaT/sub E/X style files were written to let people produce letters and memos without worrying about a complicated set of rules. Macro and template files are distributed through the Laboratory's Change Control system for use on VAX/UNIX, VAX/VMS, Sun, Apollo, and IBMPC. A testbed of several hundred test files is used to minimize bugs in the distributed versions. There is a choice of Computer Modern fonts or PostScript fonts. Memos and letters can be printed in Roman or typewriter typefaces. When called for, classification labels will be printed on every page. Headers on pages following the first page are compiled from information found on the first page. Letters can handle multiple addresses. Default options are provided where applicable, and error messages warn users about missing information fields. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  3. From Languishing Dyslexia to Thriving Dyslexia: Developing a New Conceptual Approach to Working with People with Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Kannangara, Chathurika S.

    2015-01-01

    This is an account of personal narratives shared by several people with dyslexia. Most of these are presented in their original quotation format to provide personal accounts of the lives of people with dyslexia. In this paper the author shares her conversations with her participants. This paper provides an original conceptual model, which is currently been tested empirically. Dyslexia affects the learning process in areas as such reading, and spelling. Conversely abilities or strengths can be seen in other areas, such as developing coping strategies to manage and overcome challenges. This research aims to adapt positive psychology techniques to support individuals with dyslexia. To develop positive psychology interventions, individuals will be helped to discover their five signature strengths. The VIA (Values in Action) Strengths Survey has been hosted in a website which has been developed in the form of a dyslexia user friendly format, such as providing the ability for respondents to change fonts and font sizes, colors and a text to speech option. This paper introduces the theoretical model of ‘How to move from Languishing Dyslexia to Thriving Dyslexia.’ PMID:26733933

  4. Perfil de temperatura dos funis magnetosféricos de estrelas T Tauri com aquecimento alfvênico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas T Tauri Clássicas são objetos jovens circundados por discos de gás e poeira e que apresentam uma intensa atividade magnética. Seu espectro mostra linhas de emissão alargadas que são razoavelmente reproduzidas nos modelos de acresção magnetosférica. No entanto, o perfil de temperatura dos funis magnéticos é desconhecido. Aquecimento magnético compressional e difusão ambipolar foram considerados para estas estruturas, porém as temperaturas obtidas não são suficientes para explicar as observações. Neste trabalho, examinamos o aquecimento gerado pelo amortecimento de ondas Alfvén através de quatro mecanismos, os amortecimentos não-linear, turbulento, viscoso-resistivo e colisional como função da freqüência da onda. Inicialmente, a temperatura é ajustada para reproduzir as observações e o grau de turbulência requerido para que o mecanismo seja viável é calculado. Os resultados mostram que este é compatível com os dados observacionais. Apresentam-se, também, resultados preliminares do cálculo auto-consistente do perfil de temperatura dos funis, levando-se em conta fontes de aquecimento Alfvênica e fontes de resfriamento.

  5. Sub-word image clustering in Farsi printed books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

    2015-02-01

    Most OCR systems are designed for the recognition of a single page. In case of unfamiliar font faces, low quality papers and degraded prints, the performance of these products drops sharply. However, an OCR system can use redundancy of word occurrences in large documents to improve recognition results. In this paper, we propose a sub-word image clustering method for the applications dealing with large printed documents. We assume that the whole document is printed by a unique unknown font with low quality print. Our proposed method finds clusters of equivalent sub-word images with an incremental algorithm. Due to the low print quality, we propose an image matching algorithm for measuring the distance between two sub-word images, based on Hamming distance and the ratio of the area to the perimeter of the connected components. We built a ground-truth dataset of more than 111000 sub-word images to evaluate our method. All of these images were extracted from an old Farsi book. We cluster all of these sub-words, including isolated letters and even punctuation marks. Then all centers of created clusters are labeled manually. We show that all sub-words of the book can be recognized with more than 99.7% accuracy by assigning the label of each cluster center to all of its members.

  6. Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina

    2009-01-01

    The Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance During Launch (Visual Performance) investigation will determine visual performance limits during operational vibration and g-loads on the Space Shuttle, specifically through the determination of minimum readable font size during ascent using planned Orion display formats. Research Summary: The aim of the Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance during Launch (Visual Performance) investigation is to provide supplementary data to that collected by the Thrust Oscillation Seat Detailed Technical Objective (DTO) 695 (Crew Seat DTO) which will measure seat acceleration and vibration from one flight deck and two middeck seats during ascent. While the Crew Seat DTO data alone are important in terms of providing a measure of vibration and g-loading, human performance data are required to fully interpret the operational consequences of the vibration values collected during Space Shuttle ascent. During launch, crewmembers will be requested to view placards with varying font sizes and indicate the minimum readable size. In combination with the Crew Seat DTO, the Visual Performance investigation will: Provide flight-validated evidence that will be used to establish vibration limits for visual performance during combined vibration and linear g-loading. o Provide flight data as inputs to ongoing ground-based simulations, which will further validate crew visual performance under vibration loading in a controlled environment. o Provide vibration and performance metrics to help validate procedures for ground tests and analyses of seats, suits, displays and controls, and human-in-the-loop performance.

  7. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W; Graham, Elizabeth R; Burke, Deborah M

    2015-10-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  8. Anthropomorphic robot for recognition and drawing generalized object images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Vera M.

    1998-10-01

    The process of recognition, for instance, understanding the text, written by different fonts, consists in the depriving of the individual attributes of the letters in the particular font. It is shown that such process, in Nature and technique, can be provided by the narrowing the spatial frequency of the object's image by its defocusing. In defocusing images remain only areas, so-called Informative Fragments (IFs), which all together form the generalized (stylized) image of many identical objects. It is shown that the variety of shapes of IFs is restricted and can be presented by `Geometrical alphabet'. The `letters' for this alphabet can be created using two basic `genetic' figures: a stripe and round spot. It is known from physiology that the special cells of visual cortex response to these particular figures. The prototype of such `genetic' alphabet has been made using Boolean algebra (Venn's diagrams). The algorithm for drawing the letter's (`genlet's') shape in this alphabet and generalized images of objects (for example, `sleeping cat'), are given. A scheme of an anthropomorphic robot is shown together with results of model computer experiment of the robot's action--`drawing' the generalized image.

  9. Effects of intraword and interword spacing on eye movements during reading: exploring the optimal use of space in a line of text.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Timothy J; Rayner, Keith

    2013-08-01

    Two eye movement experiments investigated intraword spacing (the space between letters within words) and interword spacing (the space between words) to explore the influence these variables have on eye movement control during reading. Both variables are important factors in determining the optimal use of space in a line of text, and fonts differ widely in how they employ these spaces. Prior research suggests that the proximity of flanking letters influences the identification of a central letter via lateral inhibition or crowding. If so, decrements in intraword spacing may produce inhibition in word processing. Still other research suggests that increases in intraword spacing can disrupt the integrity of word units. In English, interword spacing has a large influence on word segmentation and is important for saccade target selection. The results indicate an interplay between intra- and interword spacing that influences a font's readability. Additionally, these studies highlight the importance of word segmentation processes and have implications for the nature of lexical processing (serial vs. parallel).

  10. True and false memory for colour names versus actual colours: support for the visual distinctiveness heuristic in memory for colour information.

    PubMed

    Eslick, Andrea N; Kostic, Bogdan; Cleary, Anne M

    2010-06-01

    In a colour variation of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, participants studied lists of words critically related to a nonstudied colour name (e.g., "blood, cherry, scarlet, rouge ... "); they later showed false memory for the critical colour name (e.g., "red"). Two additional experiments suggest that participants generate colour imagery in response to such colour-related DRM lists. First, participants claim to experience colour imagery more often following colour-related than standard non-colour-related DRM lists; they also rate their colour imagery as more vivid following colour-related lists. Second, participants exhibit facilitative priming for critical colours in a dot selection task that follows words in the colour-related DRM list, suggesting that colour-related DRM lists prime participants for the actual critical colours themselves. Despite these findings, false memory for critical colour names does not extend to the actual colours themselves (font colours). Rather than leading to source confusion about which colours were self-generated and which were studied, presenting the study lists in varied font colours actually worked to reduce false memory overall. Results are interpreted within the framework of the visual distinctiveness hypothesis.

  11. Allographic agraphia: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Menichelli, Alina; Rapp, Brenda; Semenza, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of patient MN, diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia, who exhibited a severe impairment in writing letters and words in upper-case print in the face of accurate production of the same stimuli in lower-case cursive. In contrast to her written production difficulties, MN was unimpaired in recognizing visually presented letters and words in upper-case print. We find a modest benefit of visual form cueing in the written production of upper-case letters, despite an inability to describe or report visual features of letters in any case or font. This case increases our understanding of the allographic level of letter-shape representation in written language production. It provides strong support for previous reports indicating the neural independence of different types of case and font-specific letter-shape information; it provides evidence that letter-shape production does not require explicit access to information about the visual attributes of letter shapes and, finally, it reveals the possibility of interaction between processes involved in letter-shape production and perception. PMID:18489965

  12. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  13. Forensic analysis of laser printed ink by X-ray fluorescence and laser-excited plume fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Chun; Cai, Bruno Yue; Tsoi, Yeuk Ki; Yuen, Ronald; Leung, Kelvin S Y; Cheung, Nai-Ho

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrated a minimally destructive two-tier approach for multielement forensic analysis of laser-printed ink. The printed document was first screened using a portable-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) probe. If the results were not conclusive, a laser microprobe was then deployed. The laser probe was based on a two-pulse scheme: the first laser pulse ablated a thin layer of the printed ink; the second laser pulse at 193 nm induced multianalytes in the desorbed ink to fluoresce. We analyzed four brands of black toners. The toners were printed on paper in the form of patches or letters or overprinted on another ink. The XRF probe could sort the four brands if the printed letters were larger than font 20. It could not tell the printing sequence in the case of overprints. The laser probe was more discriminatory; it could sort the toner brands and reveal the overprint sequence regardless of font size while the sampled area was not visibly different from neighboring areas even under the microscope. In terms of general analytical performance, the laser probe featured tens of micrometer lateral resolution and tens to hundreds of nm depth resolution and atto-mole mass detection limits. It could handle samples of arbitrary size and shape and was air compatible, and no sample pretreatment was necessary. It will prove useful whenever high-resolution and high sensitivity 3D elemental mapping is required.

  14. Handwriting generates variable visual input to facilitate symbol learning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Julia X.; James, Karin H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that handwriting practice facilitates letter categorization in young children. The present experiments investigated why handwriting practice facilitates visual categorization by comparing two hypotheses: That handwriting exerts its facilitative effect because of the visual-motor production of forms, resulting in a direct link between motor and perceptual systems, or because handwriting produces variable visual instances of a named category in the environment that then changes neural systems. We addressed these issues by measuring performance of 5 year-old children on a categorization task involving novel, Greek symbols across 6 different types of learning conditions: three involving visual-motor practice (copying typed symbols independently, tracing typed symbols, tracing handwritten symbols) and three involving visual-auditory practice (seeing and saying typed symbols of a single typed font, of variable typed fonts, and of handwritten examples). We could therefore compare visual-motor production with visual perception both of variable and similar forms. Comparisons across the six conditions (N=72) demonstrated that all conditions that involved studying highly variable instances of a symbol facilitated symbol categorization relative to conditions where similar instances of a symbol were learned, regardless of visual-motor production. Therefore, learning perceptually variable instances of a category enhanced performance, suggesting that handwriting facilitates symbol understanding by virtue of its environmental output: supporting the notion of developmental change though brain-body-environment interactions. PMID:26726913

  15. From Languishing Dyslexia to Thriving Dyslexia: Developing a New Conceptual Approach to Working with People with Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, Chathurika S

    2015-01-01

    This is an account of personal narratives shared by several people with dyslexia. Most of these are presented in their original quotation format to provide personal accounts of the lives of people with dyslexia. In this paper the author shares her conversations with her participants. This paper provides an original conceptual model, which is currently been tested empirically. Dyslexia affects the learning process in areas as such reading, and spelling. Conversely abilities or strengths can be seen in other areas, such as developing coping strategies to manage and overcome challenges. This research aims to adapt positive psychology techniques to support individuals with dyslexia. To develop positive psychology interventions, individuals will be helped to discover their five signature strengths. The VIA (Values in Action) Strengths Survey has been hosted in a website which has been developed in the form of a dyslexia user friendly format, such as providing the ability for respondents to change fonts and font sizes, colors and a text to speech option. This paper introduces the theoretical model of 'How to move from Languishing Dyslexia to Thriving Dyslexia.' PMID:26733933

  16. Timing the impact of literacy on visual processing.

    PubMed

    Pegado, Felipe; Comerlato, Enio; Ventura, Fabricio; Jobert, Antoinette; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Buiatti, Marco; Ventura, Paulo; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Kolinsky, Régine; Morais, José; Braga, Lucia W; Cohen, Laurent; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2014-12-01

    Learning to read requires the acquisition of an efficient visual procedure for quickly recognizing fine print. Thus, reading practice could induce a perceptual learning effect in early vision. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in literate and illiterate adults, we previously demonstrated an impact of reading acquisition on both high- and low-level occipitotemporal visual areas, but could not resolve the time course of these effects. To clarify whether literacy affects early vs. late stages of visual processing, we measured event-related potentials to various categories of visual stimuli in healthy adults with variable levels of literacy, including completely illiterate subjects, early-schooled literate subjects, and subjects who learned to read in adulthood (ex-illiterates). The stimuli included written letter strings forming pseudowords, on which literacy is expected to have a major impact, as well as faces, houses, tools, checkerboards, and false fonts. To evaluate the precision with which these stimuli were encoded, we studied repetition effects by presenting the stimuli in pairs composed of repeated, mirrored, or unrelated pictures from the same category. The results indicate that reading ability is correlated with a broad enhancement of early visual processing, including increased repetition suppression, suggesting better exemplar discrimination, and increased mirror discrimination, as early as ∼ 100-150 ms in the left occipitotemporal region. These effects were found with letter strings and false fonts, but also were partially generalized to other visual categories. Thus, learning to read affects the magnitude, precision, and invariance of early visual processing.

  17. Reading faces: investigating the use of a novel face-based orthography in acquired alexia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michelle W; Brendel, Paul C; Fiez, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Skilled visual word recognition is thought to rely upon a particular region within the left fusiform gyrus, the visual word form area (VWFA). We investigated whether an individual (AA1) with pure alexia resulting from acquired damage to the VWFA territory could learn an alphabetic "FaceFont" orthography, in which faces rather than typical letter-like units are used to represent phonemes. FaceFont was designed to distinguish between perceptual versus phonological influences on the VWFA. AA1 was unable to learn more than five face-phoneme mappings, performing well below that of controls. AA1 succeeded, however, in learning and using a proto-syllabary comprising 15 face-syllable mappings. These results suggest that the VWFA provides a "linguistic bridge" into left hemisphere speech and language regions, irrespective of the perceptual characteristics of a written language. They also suggest that some individuals may be able to acquire a non-alphabetic writing system more readily than an alphabetic writing system.

  18. The influence of forward and backward associative strength on false memories for encoding context.

    PubMed

    Arndt, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of forward associative strength (FAS) and backward associative strength (BAS) on false recollection of unstudied lure items. Themes were constructed such that four associates were strongly related to a lure item in terms of FAS or BAS and four associates were weakly related to a lure item in terms of FAS or BAS. Further, when FAS was manipulated, BAS was controlled across strong and weak associates, while FAS was controlled across strong and weak associates when BAS was manipulated. Strong associates were presented in one font while weak associates were presented in a second font. At test, lure items were disproportionately attributed to the source used to present lures' strong associates compared to lures' weak associates, both when BAS was manipulated and when FAS was manipulated. This outcome demonstrates that both BAS and FAS influence lure item false recollection, which favours global-matching models' explanation of false recollection over the explanation offered by spreading activation theories. PMID:25312499

  19. Recruiting Healthy Volunteers for Research Participation via Internet Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Bramstedt, Katrina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Internet is frequently used as a tool to recruit research subjects, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provides general guidance regarding such advertising. The goal of this study was to explore the incidence and nature of ethically inappropriate recruiting advertisements on the Internet and to provide descriptive guidance to researchers for responsible Internet recruiting. Methods: In this study, 119 advertisements recruiting health volunteers and listed on the CenterWatch Clinical Trials Listing Service website were reviewed for content as well as text style and visual effects. Results: The majority of advertisements satisfied FDA guidance. However, 21 (18%) were ethically troubling with regard to font size, font style, and/or verbiage. In many advertisements, it was unclear if “medication” meant “investigational drug,” “over-the-counter medication” or US FDA approved “prescription medication.” Nearly 30% of the 119 advertisements used the terms “free,” “no charge” or “no cost” as lures. Conclusion: Ethically problematic recruiting advertisements can be coercive and misleading. Descriptive guidance provided in this paper can help clinical researchers create ethically appropriate recruiting advertisements. PMID:17607043

  20. Task effects on BOLD signal correlates of implicit syntactic processing

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David

    2010-01-01

    BOLD signal was measured in sixteen participants who made timed font change detection judgments in visually presented sentences that varied in syntactic structure and the order of animate and inanimate nouns. Behavioral data indicated that sentences were processed to the level of syntactic structure. BOLD signal increased in visual association areas bilaterally and left supramarginal gyrus in the contrast of sentences with object- and subject-extracted relative clauses without font changes in which the animacy order of the nouns biased against the syntactically determined meaning of the sentence. This result differs from the findings in a non-word detection task (Caplan et al, 2008a), in which the same contrast led to increased BOLD signal in the left inferior frontal gyrus. The difference in areas of activation indicates that the sentences were processed differently in the two tasks. These differences were further explored in an eye tracking study using the materials in the two tasks. Issues pertaining to how parsing and interpretive operations are affected by a task that is being performed, and how this might affect BOLD signal correlates of syntactic contrasts, are discussed. PMID:20671983

  1. Aging, Emotion, Attention, and Binding in the Taboo Stroop Task: Data and Theories

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Donald G.; Johnson, Laura W.; Graham, Elizabeth R.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2015-01-01

    How does aging impact relations between emotion, memory, and attention? To address this question, young and older adults named the font colors of taboo and neutral words, some of which recurred in the same font color or screen location throughout two color-naming experiments. The results indicated longer color-naming response times (RTs) for taboo than neutral base-words (taboo Stroop interference); better incidental recognition of colors and locations consistently associated with taboo versus neutral words (taboo context-memory enhancement); and greater speed-up in color-naming RTs with repetition of color-consistent than color-inconsistent taboo words, but no analogous speed-up with repetition of location-consistent or location-inconsistent taboo words (the consistency type by repetition interaction for taboo words). All three phenomena remained constant with aging, consistent with the transmission deficit hypothesis and binding theory, where familiar emotional words trigger age-invariant reactions for prioritizing the binding of contextual features to the source of emotion. Binding theory also accurately predicted the interaction between consistency type and repetition for taboo words. However, one or more aspects of these phenomena failed to support the inhibition deficit hypothesis, resource capacity theory, or socio-emotional selectivity theory. We conclude that binding theory warrants further test in a range of paradigms, and that relations between aging and emotion, memory, and attention may depend on whether the task and stimuli trigger fast-reaction, involuntary binding processes, as in the taboo Stroop paradigm. PMID:26473909

  2. The feeling of fluent perception: a single experience from multiple asynchronous sources.

    PubMed

    Wurtz, Pascal; Reber, Rolf; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2008-03-01

    Zeki and co-workers recently proposed that perception can best be described as locally distributed, asynchronous processes that each create a kind of microconsciousness, which condense into an experienced percept. The present article is aimed at extending this theory to metacognitive feelings. We present evidence that perceptual fluency-the subjective feeling of ease during perceptual processing-is based on speed of processing at different stages of the perceptual process. Specifically, detection of briefly presented stimuli was influenced by figure-ground contrast, but not by symmetry (Experiment 1) or the font (Experiment 2) of the stimuli. Conversely, discrimination of these stimuli was influenced by whether they were symmetric (Experiment 1) and by the font they were presented in (Experiment 2), but not by figure-ground contrast. Both tasks however were related with the subjective experience of fluency (Experiments 1 and 2). We conclude that subjective fluency is the conscious phenomenal correlate of different processing stages in visual perception. PMID:17697788

  3. Image-understanding approach to reading business transaction documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oddo, Louis A.; McNamara, James F.; Smith, Robert W.

    1994-02-01

    One high-payoff applications of image character recognition (ICR) technology is the automatic processing of business transaction documents. For remittance types of transactions, these documents consist of checks and invoices. While the general layout of a check is consistent with respect to types of data fields present, there is variability in the locations of the data fields printed on the document. Furthermore, checks are printed using multiple fonts, character sizes, and line spacing on a single document. In contrast, invoice contents and layouts vary widely from business to business. The high degree of layout variability of business documents poses significant problems with respect to data field location and extraction in preparation for ICR. This paper describes an image understanding approach for locating and extracting data fields from various business documents. This approach is shown to be tolerant to image rotation, multiple fonts, multiple character sizes, and line spacing. Actual checks and invoices are processed using the described algorithms. The resulting field isolation and extraction performance, together with the resulting ICR read rates, are statistically analyzed and presented.

  4. Study of style effects on OCR errors in the MEDLINE database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Penny; Davis, Diane L.; Andersen, Tim L.; Barney Smith, Elisa H.

    2005-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine has developed a system for the automatic extraction of data from scanned journal articles to populate the MEDLINE database. Although the 5-engine OCR system used in this process exhibits good performance overall, it does make errors in character recognition that must be corrected in order for the process to achieve the requisite accuracy. The correction process works by feeding words that have characters with less than 100% confidence (as determined automatically by the OCR engine) to a human operator who then must manually verify the word or correct the error. The majority of these errors are contained in the affiliation information zone where the characters are in italics or small fonts. Therefore only affiliation information data is used in this research. This paper examines the correlation between OCR errors and various character attributes in the MEDLINE database, such as font size, italics, bold, etc. and OCR confidence levels. The motivation for this research is that if a correlation between the character style and types of errors exists it should be possible to use this information to improve operator productivity by increasing the probability that the correct word option is presented to the human editor. We have determined that this correlation exists, in particular for the case of characters with diacritics.

  5. Study of style effects on OCR errors in the MEDLINE database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, Penny; Davis, Diane L.; Andersen, Tim L.; Barney Smith, Elisa H.

    2004-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine has developed a system for the automatic extraction of data from scanned journal articles to populate the MEDLINE database. Although the 5-engine OCR system used in this process exhibits good performance overall, it does make errors in character recognition that must be corrected in order for the process to achieve the requisite accuracy. The correction process works by feeding words that have characters with less than 100% confidence (as determined automatically by the OCR engine) to a human operator who then must manually verify the word or correct the error. The majority of these errors are contained in the affiliation information zone where the characters are in italics or small fonts. Therefore only affiliation information data is used in this research. This paper examines the correlation between OCR errors and various character attributes in the MEDLINE database, such as font size, italics, bold, etc. and OCR confidence levels. The motivation for this research is that if a correlation between the character style and types of errors exists it should be possible to use this information to improve operator productivity by increasing the probability that the correct word option is presented to the human editor. We have determined that this correlation exists, in particular for the case of characters with diacritics.

  6. Extraction of text-related features for condensing image documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomberg, Dan S.; Chen, Francine R.

    1996-03-01

    A system has been built that selects excerpts from a scanned document for presentation as a summary, without using character recognition. The method relies on the idea that the most significant sentences in a document contain words that are both specific to the document and have a relatively high frequency of occurrence within it. Accordingly, and entirely within the image domain, each page image is deskewed and the text regions of are found and extracted as a set of textblocks. Blocks with font size near the median for the document are selected and then placed in reading order. The textlines and words are segmented, and the words are placed into equivalence classes of similar shape. The sentences are identified by finding baselines for each line of text and analyzing the size and location of the connected components relative to the baseline. Scores can then be given to each word, depending on its shape and frequency of occurrence, and to each sentence, depending on the scores for the words in the sentence. Other salient features, such as textblocks that have a large font or are likely to contain an abstract, can also be used to select image parts that are likely to be thematically relevant. The method has been applied to a variety of documents, including articles scanned from magazines and technical journals.

  7. Identificação de radiofontes puntiformes presentes na região observada pelo telescópio BEAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. S.; Wuensche, C. A.; Leonardi, R.; Tello, C.

    2003-08-01

    Radiofontes extragalácticas são um dos principais contaminantes nas medidas da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) em freqüências abaixo de 200 GHz. O estudo de seu comportamento espectral permite determinar a contribuição destas fontes às anisotropias intrísincas da RCF. Um dos experimentos recentes concebidos para estudar a RCF é o BEAST (Background Emission Anisotropy Scanning Telescope), cujos primeiros resultados foram publicados em fevereiro de 2003. Nos últimos meses, geramos mapas do céu nas freqüências de 30 GHz e 41 GHz, para um total de 648 horas de observação entre julho e outubro de 2002. Identificamos 4 fontes puntiformes extragalácticas na região do céu situada entre 0h < RA < 24 h e +32° < DEC < +42°, com relação S/R > 4,3 e situadas a pelo menos 25° acima do Plano Galáctico. Suas contrapartidas em 5 GHz, segundo o catálogo GB6, são: J1613+3412, J1635+3808, J0927+3902 e J1642+3948. Estas fontes também foram identificadas pelo satélite WMAP sendo que três coincidem com as observadas pelo BEAST dentro da incerteza do feixe do telescópio e a quarta encontra-se bastante próxima (J1613+3412), embora não seja coincidente. As estimativas preliminares de fluxos obtidas para esses objetos são, respectivamente, 0,51; 0,97; 1,08 e 1,6 Jy em 41 GHz. Usando estes resultados e medidas de fluxos em outras frequências existentes na literatura, apresentamos uma estimativa dos índices espectrais destes objetos no intervalo de frequências entre 4,85 GHz e 41 GHz.

  8. Page Recognition: Quantum Leap In Recognition Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Larry

    1989-07-01

    No milestone has proven as elusive as the always-approaching "year of the LAN," but the "year of the scanner" might claim the silver medal. Desktop scanners have been around almost as long as personal computers. And everyone thinks they are used for obvious desktop-publishing and business tasks like scanning business documents, magazine articles and other pages, and translating those words into files your computer understands. But, until now, the reality fell far short of the promise. Because it's true that scanners deliver an accurate image of the page to your computer, but the software to recognize this text has been woefully disappointing. Old optical-character recognition (OCR) software recognized such a limited range of pages as to be virtually useless to real users. (For example, one OCR vendor specified 12-point Courier font from an IBM Selectric typewriter: the same font in 10-point, or from a Diablo printer, was unrecognizable!) Computer dealers have told me the chasm between OCR expectations and reality is so broad and deep that nine out of ten prospects leave their stores in disgust when they learn the limitations. And this is a very important, very unfortunate gap. Because the promise of recognition -- what people want it to do -- carries with it tremendous improvements in our productivity and ability to get tons of written documents into our computers where we can do real work with it. The good news is that a revolutionary new development effort has led to the new technology of "page recognition," which actually does deliver the promise we've always wanted from OCR. I'm sure every reader appreciates the breakthrough represented by the laser printer and page-makeup software, a combination so powerful it created new reasons for buying a computer. A similar breakthrough is happening right now in page recognition: the Macintosh (and, I must admit, other personal computers) equipped with a moderately priced scanner and OmniPage software (from Caere

  9. Concentration, size-distribution and deposition of mineral aerosol over Chinese desert regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao Y.; Arimoto, R.; Zhu, G. H.; Chen, T.; Zhang, G. Y.

    1998-09-01

    The mass-particle size distributions (MSDs) of 9 elements in ground-based aerosol samples from dust storm (DS) and non-dust storm (N-DS) periods were determined for 12 sites in 9 major desert regions in northern China. The masses of the 9 elements (Al, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sc, Si, Sr and Ti) in the atmosphere were dominated by local mineral dust that averaged 270μg m-font-weight: bold">3, and the MSDs for the elements were approximately log-normal. On the basis of Al data, the<10μm particles account for ~font-weight: bold" align="BOTTOM">84% of the total dust mass over the deserts. Model-calculated ("100-step" method) dry deposition velocities (Vd) for the 9 dust-derived elements during N-DS periods ranged from 4.4 to 6.8cms-font-weight: bold">1, with a median value of 5.6cms-1. On the basis of a statistical relationship between D99% (the dust particle diameter corresponding to the uppermost 1% of the cumulative mass distribution) and Vd, one can also predict dry velocities, especially when D99% ranges from 30 to 70μm. This provides a simple way to reconstruct Vd for dust deposits (like aeolian loess sediments in the Loess Plateau). The estimated daily dry deposition fluxes were higher during DS vs. N-DS periods, but in most cases, the monthly averaged fluxes were mainly attributable to N-DS dust. Two regions with high dust loading and fluxes are identified: the "Western High-Dust Desert" and the "Northern High-Dust Desert", with Taklimakan Desert and Badain Juran Desert as their respective centers. These are energetic regions in which desert-air is actively exchanged, and these apparently are the major source areas for Asian dust.

  10. Spring summer imbalance of dissolved inorganic carbon in the mixed layer of the north-western Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Olivier; Monfray, Patrick; Bates, Nicholas R.

    1996-02-01

    The surface concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS) decreased gradually by ca. 30μmol kg-font-weight: bold">1from April to October in 1989. This decrease occurred almost in the absence of measurable nitrate in the mixed layer. Although ancillary data about the C system point to the possible importance of lateral transport, horizontal gradients in surface [DIC] and the mean flow in the area indicate that local effects should prevail in the seasonal drawdown of DIC. On the basis of an one-dimensional model, we hence estimate the mixed layer budget of DIC for this period, from surface [DIC] data, temperature profiles, and concomitant meteorological records. According to model uncertainties, the [DIC] drawdown should be mostly explained (71 93%) by a net community production (NCP) averaging 1.4 2.3 mgC m-font-weight: bold">3 d-font-weight: bold">1, and to a lesser extent, by outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere. These losses are partially compensated (<30%) by mixing with DIC-rich waters of the thermocline. This NCP must be regarded as a lower estimate, since the mean flow from the northeast should bring waters with slightly higher [DIC] to the mixed layer at the BATS site. The model, which is sensitive to short-term variations in atmospheric forcing (<1day), indicates that this layer has never reached the nitrocline for spring summer 1989, even as a hurricane passed through the region. Hence, the surface NCP should not have been supported by unsampled, pulse-like supplies of deep nutrients. Wet atmospheric deposition of nitrogen measured concurrently on Bermuda could contribute to the biological N requirement (10 20%). According to historical estimates, N2 fixation seems however, insufficient to

  11. Correcting OCR text by association with historical datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Schlaifer, Jonathan; Sabir, Tehseen F.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Straughan, Scott; Thoma, George R.

    2003-01-01

    The Medical Article Records System (MARS) developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications uses scanning, OCR and automated recognition and reformatting algorithms to generate electronic bibliographic citation data from paper biomedical journal articles. The OCR server incorporated in MARS performs well in general, but fares less well with text printed in small or italic fonts. Affiliations are often printed in small italic fonts in the journals processed by MARS. Consequently, although the automatic processes generate much of the citation data correctly, the affiliation field frequently contains incorrect data, which must be manually corrected by verification operators. In contrast, author names are usually printed in large, normal fonts that are correctly converted to text by the OCR server. The National Library of Medicine"s MEDLINE database contains 11 million indexed citations for biomedical journal articles. This paper documents our effort to use the historical author, affiliation relationships from this large dataset to find potential correct affiliations for MARS articles based on the author and the affiliation in the OCR output. Preliminary tests using a table of about 400,000 author/affiliation pairs extracted from the corrected data from MARS indicated that about 44% of the author/affiliation pairs were repeats and that about 47% of newly converted author names would be found in this set. A text-matching algorithm was developed to determine the likelihood that an affiliation found in the table corresponding to the OCR text of the first author was the current, correct affiliation. This matching algorithm compares an affiliation found in the author/affiliation table (found with the OCR text of the first author) to the OCR output affiliation, and calculates a score indicating the similarity of the affiliation found in the table to the OCR affiliation. Using a ground truth set of 519 OCR author/OCR affiliation/correct affiliation

  12. Moving mobile: using an open-sourced framework to enable a web-based health application on touch devices.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Joseph; McLean, J Allen; Bains, Amrita; Ying, Tom; Kuo, M H

    2013-01-01

    Computer devices using touch-enabled technology are becoming more prevalent today. The application of a touch screen high definition surgical monitor could allow not only high definition video from an endoscopic camera to be displayed, but also the display and interaction with relevant patient and health related data. However, this technology has not been quickly embraced by all health care organizations. Although traditional keyboard or mouse-based software programs may function flawlessly on a touch-based device, many are not practical due to the usage of small buttons, fonts and very complex menu systems. This paper describes an approach taken to overcome these problems. A real case study was used to demonstrate the novelty and efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:23388290

  13. The transformations of Tibetan medicine.

    PubMed

    Janes, C R

    1995-03-01

    This article presents a cultural and historical analysis of 20th-century Tibetan medicine. In its expansion into the state bureaucracy, Tibetan medicine has acceded to institutional modernity through transformations in theory, practice, and methods for training physicians. Despite Chinese rule in Tibet, however, Tibetan medicine has not yielded completely to state interests. With the collapsing of the traditionally pluralistic Tibetan health system into the professional sector of Tibetan medicine, contemporary Tibetan medicine has become to the laity a font of ethnic revitalization and resistance to the modernization policies of the Chinese state. These processes are particularly evident in the elaboration of disorders of rlung, a class of sicknesses that, collectively, have come to symbolize the suffering inherent in rapid social, economic, and political change.

  14. There must be a prokaryote somewhere: microbiology's search for itself

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woese, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    While early microbiologists showed considerable interest in the problem of the natural (evolutionary) relationships among prokaryotes, by the middle of this century that problem had largely been discarded as being unsolvable. In other words, the science of microbiology developed without an evolutionary framework, the lack of which kept it a weak discipline, defined largely by external forces. Modern technology has allowed microbiology finally to develop the needed evolutionary framework, and with this comes a sense of coherence, a sense of identity. Not only is this development radically changing microbiology itself, but also it will change microbiology's relationship to the other biological disciplines. Microbiology of the future will become the primary biological science, the base upon which our future understanding of the living world rests, and the font from which new understanding of it flows.

  15. Effects of VDT resolution on visual fatigue and readability: an eye movement approach.

    PubMed

    Miyao, M; Hacisalihzade, S S; Allen, J S; Stark, L W

    1989-06-01

    The effects of VDT resolution on visual fatigue and readability were studied. Two kinds of displays with different resolutions (1664 x 1200 pixels and 720 x 350 pixels) and fonts were used. In the first experiment, the subjects read from each display for 1 h to induce fatigue. Reading speed and blink rate while reading were measured. Eye movements during visual smooth pursuit tracking tasks were studied before and after reading; quantitative scoring of eye movement performance showed no significant changes. In the second experiment, readability tests with three different character sizes on both displays were conducted and resulting reading eye movements were analysed. For readability of sufficiently large characters, no significant difference between the high and the standard VDT could be detected. However, for very small characters, higher resolution improved readability.

  16. Children's naive theories of intelligence influence their metacognitive judgments.

    PubMed

    Miele, David B; Son, Lisa K; Metcalfe, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the metacognitive judgments adults infer from their experiences of encoding effort vary in accordance with their naive theories of intelligence. To determine whether this finding extends to elementary schoolchildren, a study was conducted in which 27 third graders (M(age) = 8.27) and 24 fifth graders (M(age) = 10.39) read texts presented in easy- or difficult-to-encode fonts. The more children in both grades viewed intelligence as fixed, the less likely they were to interpret effortful or difficult encoding as a sign of increasing mastery and the more likely they were to report lower levels of comprehension as their perceived effort increased. This suggests that children may use naive theories of intelligence to make motivationally relevant inferences earlier than previously thought. PMID:23574195

  17. Digital system of invariant correlation to position and rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solorza, Selene; Álvarez-Borrego, Josué

    2010-10-01

    A new correlation digital system invariant to position and rotation is presented. This new algorithm requires low computational cost, because it uses uni-dimensional signatures (vectors). The signature of the target so like the signature of the object to be recognized in the problem image is obtained using a binary ring mask constructed based on the real positive values of the Fourier transform of the corresponding image. In this manner, each image will have one unique binary ring mask, avoiding in this form the relevant information leak. Using linear and non-linear correlations, this methodology is applied first in the identification of the alphabet letters in Arial font style and then in the classification of fossil diatoms images. Also, this system is tested using the diatom images with additive Gaussian noise. The non-linear correlation results were excellent, obtaining in this way a simple but efficient method to achieve rotation and translation invariance pattern recognition.

  18. US Topo Product Standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Michael J.; Davis, Larry R.; Fishburn, Kristin A.; Lestinsky, Helmut; Moore, Laurence R.

    2011-01-01

    A full-size style sheet template in PDF that defines the placement of map elements, marginalia, and font sizes and styles accompanies this standard. The GeoPDF US Topo maps are fashioned to conform to this style sheet so that a user can print out a map at the 1:24,000-scale using the dimensions of the traditional standard 7.5-minute quadrangle. Symbology and type specifications for feature content are published separately. In addition, the GeoPDF design allows for custom printing, so that a user may zoom in and out, turn layers on and off, and view or print any combination of layers or any map portion at any desired scale.

  19. Visual Experience Shapes Orthographic Representations in the Visual Word Form Area

    PubMed Central

    Wimmer, Heinz; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Current neurocognitive research suggests that the efficiency of visual word recognition rests on abstract memory representations of written letters and words stored in the visual word form area (VWFA) in the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex. These representations are assumed to be invariant to visual characteristics such as font and case. In the present functional MRI study, we tested this assumption by presenting written words and varying the case format of the initial letter of German nouns (which are always capitalized) as well as German adjectives and adverbs (both usually in lowercase). As evident from a Word Type × Case Format interaction, activation in the VWFA was greater to words presented in unfamiliar case formats relative to familiar case formats. Our results suggest that neural representations of written words in the VWFA are not fully abstract and still contain information about the visual format in which words are most frequently perceived. PMID:27435995

  20. The influence of vertical motor responses on explicit and incidental processing of power words.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianjiao; Sun, Lining; Zhu, Lei

    2015-07-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating that power judgment is affected by vertical information. Such interaction between vertical space and power (i.e., response facilitation under space-power congruent conditions) is generally elicited in paradigms that require participants to explicitly evaluate the power of the presented words. The current research explored the possibility that explicit evaluative processing is not a prerequisite for the emergence of this effect. Here we compared the influence of vertical information on a standard explicit power evaluation task with influence on a task that linked power with stimuli in a more incidental manner, requiring participants to report whether the words represented people or animals or the font of the words. The results revealed that although the effect is more modest, the interaction between responses and power is also evident in an incidental task. Furthermore, we also found that explicit semantic processing is a prerequisite to ensure such an effect.

  1. Fast frequency domain method to detect skew in a document image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sunita; Walia, Ekta; Dutta, Maitreyee

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new fast frequency domain method based on Discrete Wavelet Transform and Fast Fourier Transform has been implemented for the determination of the skew angle in a document image. Firstly, image size reduction is done by using two-dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform and then skew angle is computed using Fast Fourier Transform. Skew angle error is almost negligible. The proposed method is experimented using a large number of documents having skew between -90° and +90° and results are compared with Moments with Discrete Wavelet Transform method and other commonly used existing methods. It has been determined that this method works more efficiently than the existing methods. Also, it works with typed, picture documents having different fonts and resolutions. It overcomes the drawback of the recently proposed method of Moments with Discrete Wavelet Transform that does not work with picture documents.

  2. Effects of meaning and symmetry on judgments of size.

    PubMed

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that people judge words as having bigger font size than non-words. This finding has been interpreted in terms of processing fluency, with higher fluency leading to judgments of bigger size. If so, symmetric numbers (e.g., 44) which can be processed more fluently are predicted to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts the notion that the mechanism underlying judgments of size is processing fluency.

  3. The design and application of effective written instructional material: a review of published work

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    This review will consider the evidence base for the format of educational material drawing on academic papers and the practice of the design industry. The core issues identified from the review are drawn together in guidelines for educational posters, text and web based material. The review deals with the design of written material both for use in leaflets and books as well as the impact of factors such as font type and size as well as colour on poster design. It sets these aspects of educational material within a research framework, which looks at impact on learning and subsequent change in practice. These issues are examined through a practical example of a poster designed for a regional gastroenterology meeting. PMID:17823226

  4. General-Purpose Software For Computer Graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Joseph E.

    1992-01-01

    NASA Device Independent Graphics Library (NASADIG) is general-purpose computer-graphics package for computer-based engineering and management applications which gives opportunity to translate data into effective graphical displays for presentation. Features include two- and three-dimensional plotting, spline and polynomial interpolation, control of blanking of areas, multiple log and/or linear axes, control of legends and text, control of thicknesses of curves, and multiple text fonts. Included are subroutines for definition of areas and axes of plots; setup and display of text; blanking of areas; setup of style, interpolation, and plotting of lines; control of patterns and of shading of colors; control of legends, blocks of text, and characters; initialization of devices; and setting of mixed alphabets. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. Super high compression of line drawing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Models which can be used to accurately represent the type of line drawings which occur in teleconferencing and transmission for remote classrooms and which permit considerable data compression were described. The objective was to encode these pictures in binary sequences of shortest length but such that the pictures can be reconstructed without loss of important structure. It was shown that exploitation of reasonably simple structure permits compressions in the range of 30-100 to 1. When dealing with highly stylized material such as electronic or logic circuit schematics, it is unnecessary to reproduce configurations exactly. Rather, the symbols and configurations must be understood and be reproduced, but one can use fixed font symbols for resistors, diodes, capacitors, etc. Compression of pictures of natural phenomena such as can be realized by taking a similar approach, or essentially zero error reproducibility can be achieved but at a lower level of compression.

  6. Design considerations for solar furnace focal zone apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, R.H. Jr.; Knasel, T.M.; McDonnell, M.; Gordon, B.; Woods, S.; Malinowski, R.

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc. has used the principal solar furnaces in conjunction with its study of the effect of high thermal fluxes and fluences on soil surfaces for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Apparatus to perform these tests has evolved from tests on the furnaces at the White Sands Missile Range, Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta; Centre National de Recherche Scientifique in Font Romeu, France; and Kirtland AFB, NM over the past 6 years. The apparatus is still evolving as it is adapted to additional furnaces and to obtain a greater variety of data. The evolution of the apparatus is traced to illustrate the interaction of experiment objectives; furnace capabilities, configuration, and support; apparatus design; data collection; and response to lessons learned.

  7. Visual Experience Shapes Orthographic Representations in the Visual Word Form Area.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Heinz; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Richlan, Fabio; Kronbichler, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Current neurocognitive research suggests that the efficiency of visual word recognition rests on abstract memory representations of written letters and words stored in the visual word form area (VWFA) in the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex. These representations are assumed to be invariant to visual characteristics such as font and case. In the present functional MRI study, we tested this assumption by presenting written words and varying the case format of the initial letter of German nouns (which are always capitalized) as well as German adjectives and adverbs (both usually in lowercase). As evident from a Word Type × Case Format interaction, activation in the VWFA was greater to words presented in unfamiliar case formats relative to familiar case formats. Our results suggest that neural representations of written words in the VWFA are not fully abstract and still contain information about the visual format in which words are most frequently perceived. PMID:27435995

  8. Multilingual system using Internet imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tadashi; Hata, Yoshitsugu; Iida, Ryouji; Kakugawa, Hirotsugu; Ae, Tadashi; Murakami, Hisae

    2000-12-01

    In these years, multilingual system becomes important, but, most computer environment cannot handle all languages (scripts) in ths world. This paper presents a multilingual imaging system on the Internet. In this system, characters are converted into bitmaps, and therefore, we can display multilingual text on WWW browsers. In order to convert multilingual plain text into bitmap images, we have developed software named ctext2pgm and VFlib. VFlib is a software component to rasterize fonts in various file formats, and ctext2pgm generates bitmap image files form multilingual plain texts. Ctext2pgm is an application program of VFlib, and it supports about 30 languages. We also introduce a language education system for various languages. This is an example of the multilingual system using internet imaging.

  9. Evaluation of Information Leakage via Electromagnetic Emanation and Effectiveness of Tempest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hidema

    It is well known that there is relationship between electromagnetic emanation and processing information in IT devices such as personal computers and smart cards. By analyzing such electromagnetic emanation, eavesdropper will be able to get some information, so it becomes a real threat of information security. In this paper, we show how to estimate amount of information that is leaked as electromagnetic emanation. We assume the space between the IT device and the receiver is a communication channel, and we define the amount of information leakage via electromagnetic emanations by its channel capacity. By some experimental results of Tempest, we show example estimations of amount of information leakage. Using the value of channel capacity, we can calculate the amount of information per pixel in the reconstructed image. And we evaluate the effectiveness of Tempest fonts generated by Gaussian method and its threshold of security.

  10. A position, rotation, and scale invariant image descriptor based on rays and circular paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solorza-Calderón, Selene

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a rotation, scale and translation (RST) invariant image descriptor based on 1D signatures is presented. The position invariant is obtained using the amplitude spectrum of the Fourier transform of the image. That spectrum is introduced in the analytical Fourier-Mellin transform (AFMT) to obtain the scale invariance. From the normalized AFMT amplitude spectrum two 1D signatures are constructed. To build a 1D circular signature, circular path binary masks are used to filter the spectrum image. On the other hand, ray path binary filters are utilized in the construction of the 1D ray signature. These 1D signatures are RST invariant image descriptors. The Latin alphabet letters in Arial font style were used to test the descriptor efficiency. According with the statistical analysis of bootstrap with a constant replacement B = 1000 and normal distribution, the descriptor has a confidence level at least of 95%.

  11. Inscription and stabilization of ferromagnetic patterns on arrays of magnetic nanocylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, E.; Vogel, E. E.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic Nanocylinders (MNs) result axially parallel and forming triangular arrays immersed in the membrane used to produce them. As the individual magnetization points along each cylinder axis either inward or outward of the membrane plane, the net magnetization of the set is nil. However, a localized and strong enough magnetic field applied over such MNs array can revert the magnetization of individual MNs. This fact opens the possibility to inscribe ferromagnetic patterns (FPs) over the membrane surface as an alternative way to store fixed information. Patterns with different geometrical shapes and also letters under the arial font were tested. In this frame we have studied the total energy per cylinder for FPs within a circular membrane containing a huge amount of MNs. To prevent spontaneous magnetization reversion, with the consequently information lost, we propose a simple stabilization mechanism.

  12. SparkClouds: visualizing trends in tag clouds.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bongshin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Karlson, Amy K; Carpendale, Sheelash

    2010-01-01

    Tag clouds have proliferated over the web over the last decade. They provide a visual summary of a collection of texts by visually depicting the tag frequency by font size. In use, tag clouds can evolve as the associated data source changes over time. Interesting discussions around tag clouds often include a series of tag clouds and consider how they evolve over time. However, since tag clouds do not explicitly represent trends or support comparisons, the cognitive demands placed on the person for perceiving trends in multiple tag clouds are high. In this paper, we introduce SparkClouds, which integrate sparklines into a tag cloud to convey trends between multiple tag clouds. We present results from a controlled study that compares SparkClouds with two traditional trend visualizations—multiple line graphs and stacked bar charts—as well as Parallel Tag Clouds. Results show that SparkClouds ability to show trends compares favourably to the alternative visualizations.

  13. The high-technology classroom: A preview of coming attractions

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor, M.S.; Andrews, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on computer usage and the computer's impact on the functionality and design of the classroom. In particular, we focus on how a classroom can be designed or redesigned to maximize the potential of both the instructor and the computer to provide the best instructional experience for students. Although the lecture mode of instruction is not expected to be abandoned, the role of the instructor is changing from a font of information to a learning facilitator with tools to aid in that facilitation. The design of a high technology classroom is provided in the paper, along with some examples of use of the classroom. Central to this design are emerging technologies. The paper provides a guideline for institutions considering updating their facilities. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  14. SVG-Based Web Publishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jerry Z.; Zhu, Eugene; Shim, Simon

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing applications of the Web in e-commerce, advertising, and publication, new technologies are needed to improve Web graphics technology due to the current limitation of technology. The SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) technology is a new revolutionary solution to overcome the existing problems in the current web technology. It provides precise and high-resolution web graphics using plain text format commands. It sets a new standard for web graphic format to allow us to present complicated graphics with rich test fonts and colors, high printing quality, and dynamic layout capabilities. This paper provides a tutorial overview about SVG technology and its essential features, capability, and advantages. The reports a comparison studies between SVG and other web graphics technologies.

  15. Impact of representational systems on color selections for graphic user interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Brownson, L.W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper is based on a study involving representational systems and color preference on graphic user interfaces (GUI). The study is an extension of a general exploratory experiment (GEE) conducted in October of 1993, wherein individuals` favored sensory representational systems (visual, auditory and kinesthetic) (FRS) were compared to their GUI comfort parameters. The results of the study show that an individual`s FRS is a significant factor in their acceptance of a GUI design, and that further in-depth study of the various display attributes to an individual`s FRS is required. This research is the first in the series of follow-up studies to be conducted regarding specific characteristics of GUI (i.e., fonts, character density, etc.) with respect to an individual`s FRS. The study focus on the attribute of color preferences for GUI design.

  16. What differs in visual recognition of handwritten vs. printed letters? An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Longcamp, Marieke; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Hari, Riitta

    2011-08-01

    In models of letter recognition, handwritten letters are considered as a particular font exemplar, not qualitatively different in their processing from printed letters. Yet, some data suggest that recognizing handwritten letters might rely on distinct processes, possibly related to motor knowledge. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare the neural correlates of perceiving handwritten letters vs. standard printed letters. Statistical analysis circumscribed to frontal brain regions involved in hand-movement triggering and execution showed that processing of handwritten letters is supported by a stronger activation of the left primary motor cortex and the supplementary motor area. At the whole-brain level, additional differences between handwritten and printed letters were observed in the right superior frontal, middle occipital, and parahippocampal gyri, and in the left inferior precentral and the fusiform gyri. The results are suggested to indicate embodiment of the visual perception of handwritten letters. PMID:20669164

  17. Hémorragies digestives hautes révélant une sangsue

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Djafar; Diarra, Mahamadou; Ahidan, Rabiou; Garba, Moumouni; Idrissi, Mounia; Hida, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Les hémorragies digestives hautes sont un motif fréquent de consultation aux urgences pédiatriques et font généralement suite à des causes multiples comme les œsophagites, gastrites. Cependant son étiologie liée à l'ingestion accidentelle d'un corps étranger comme la sangsue est rarement décrite. Nous rapportons le cas d'un enfant de 3ans admis aux urgences pédiatriques pour des hémorragies digestives hautes chez qui l'endoscopie digestive avait mis en évidence une sangsue enclavée derrière la glotte. La prise en charge consistait en une extraction de ce corps étranger avec surveillance des constantes vitales. PMID:26889336

  18. Technical Note: The Normal Quantile Transformation and its application in a flood forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Cloke, H. L.

    2011-10-01

    The Normal Quantile Transform (NQT) has been used in many hydrological and meteorological applications in order to make the Cumulated Density Function (CDF) of the observed, simulated and forecast river discharge, water level or precipitation data Gaussian. It is also the heart of the meta-Gaussian model for assessing the total predictive uncertainty of the Hydrological Uncertainty Processor (HUP) developed by Krzysztofowicz. In the field of geo-statistics this transformation is better known as Normal-Score Transform. In this paper some possible problems caused by small sample sizes for the applicability in flood forecasting systems will be discussed and illustrated by examples. For the practical implementation commands and examples from the freely available and widely used statistical computing language R (R Development Core Team, 2011) will be given (represented in Courier font) and possible solutions are suggested by combining extreme value analysis and non-parametric regression methods.

  19. Measuring strategic control in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Norman, Elisabeth; Price, Mark C; Jones, Emma

    2011-12-01

    In response to concerns with existing procedures for measuring strategic control over implicit knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL), we introduce a more stringent measurement procedure. After two separate training blocks which each consisted of letter strings derived from a different grammar, participants either judged the grammaticality of novel letter strings with respect to only one of these two grammars (pure-block condition), or had the target grammar varying randomly from trial to trial (novel mixed-block condition) which required a higher degree of conscious flexible control. Random variation in the colour and font of letters was introduced to disguise the nature of the rule and reduce explicit learning. Strategic control was observed both in the pure-block and mixed-block conditions, and even among participants who did not realise the rule was based on letter identity. This indicated detailed strategic control in the absence of explicit learning.

  20. The relationship between strategic control and conscious structural knowledge in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Norman, Elisabeth; Scott, Ryan B; Price, Mark C; Dienes, Zoltan

    2016-05-01

    We address Jacoby's (1991) proposal that strategic control over knowledge requires conscious awareness of that knowledge. In a two-grammar artificial grammar learning experiment all participants were trained on two grammars, consisting of a regularity in letter sequences, while two other dimensions (colours and fonts) varied randomly. Strategic control was measured as the ability to selectively apply the grammars during classification. For each classification, participants also made a combined judgement of (a) decision strategy and (b) relevant stimulus dimension. Strategic control was found for all types of decision strategy, including trials where participants claimed to lack conscious structural knowledge. However, strong evidence of strategic control only occurred when participants knew or guessed that the letter dimension was relevant, suggesting that strategic control might be associated with - or even causally requires - global awareness of the nature of the rules even though it does not require detailed knowledge of their content.

  1. There must be a prokaryote somewhere: microbiology's search for itself.

    PubMed Central

    Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    While early microbiologists showed considerable interest in the problem of the natural (evolutionary) relationships among prokaryotes, by the middle of this century that problem had largely been discarded as being unsolvable. In other words, the science of microbiology developed without an evolutionary framework, the lack of which kept it a weak discipline, defined largely by external forces. Modern technology has allowed microbiology finally to develop the needed evolutionary framework, and with this comes a sense of coherence, a sense of identity. Not only is this development radically changing microbiology itself, but also it will change microbiology's relationship to the other biological disciplines. Microbiology of the future will become the primary biological science, the base upon which our future understanding of the living world rests, and the font from which new understanding of it flows. PMID:8177167

  2. [The Vargas Dictatorship in Brazil (1937-1945) and the Primer Franquismo in Spain (1939-1945): power and counter-power of nurses].

    PubMed

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Gomes, Maria da Luz Barbosa; Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa de; Almeida Filho, Antonio José de

    2012-01-01

    This is a historical and social study, which aimed to describe the main characteristics of the Vargas and Franco dictatorships, and to analyze the implications of these to the institutionalization of nursing in Brazil and Spain. As fonts, it was used written documents located in the historical Brazilian and Spanish archives, in addition to the literature on the subject. Data analysis, supported by concepts of Pierre Bourdieu's World Social Theory, showed that, in Brazil and Spain, in referring to the social division of labor, the meeting point between Church and the State was the seclusion of women in private space. It is concluded that the feminine qualities were capitalized by the nurses to legitimize their actions in public space, even to reproduce in that space, consented to by the State and Church, occupations appropriate to femininity.

  3. matplotlib -- A Portable Python Plotting Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, P.; Hunter, J.; Miller, J. T.; Hsu, J.-C.; Greenfield, P.

    2005-12-01

    matplotlib is a portable 2D plotting and imaging package aimed primarily at visualization of scientific, engineering, and financial data. matplotlib can be used interactively from the Python shell, called from python scripts, or embedded in a GUI application (GTK, Wx, Tk, Windows). Many popular hardcopy outputs are supported including JPEG, PNG, PostScript and SVG. Features include the creation of multiple axes and figures per page, interactive navigation, many predefined line styles and symbols, images, antialiasing, alpha blending, date and financial plots, W3C compliant font management and FreeType2 support, legends and tables, pseudocolor plots, mathematical text and more. It works with both numarray and Numeric. The goals of the package, basic architecture, current features (illustrated with examples), and planned enhancements will be described.

  4. University of Virginia {open_quotes}virtual{close_quotes} reactor facility tours

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, D.R.; Mulder, R.U.

    1995-12-31

    An electronic information and tour book has been constructed for the University of Virginia reactor (UVAR) facility. Utilizing the global Internet, the document resides on the University of Virginia World Wide Web (WWW or W) server within the UVAR Homepage at http://www.virginia. edu/{approximately}reactor/. It is quickly accessible wherever an Internet connection exists. The UVAR Homepage files are accessed with the hypertext transfer protocol (http) prefix. The files are written in hypertext markup language (HTML), a very simple method of preparing ASCII text for W3 presentation. The HTML allows use of various hierarchies of headers, indentation, fonts, and the linking of words and/or pictures to other addresses-uniform resource locators. The linking of texts, pictures, sounds, and server addresses is known as hypermedia.

  5. A distinguishing method of printed and handwritten legal amount on Chinese bank check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ningbo; Lou, Zhen; Yang, Jingyu

    2003-09-01

    While carrying out Optical Chinese Character Recognition, distinguishing the font between printed and handwritten characters at the early phase is necessary, because there is so much difference between the methods on recognizing these two types of characters. In this paper, we proposed a good method on how to banish seals and its relative standards that can judge whether they should be banished. Meanwhile, an approach on clearing up scattered noise shivers after image segmentation is presented. Four sets of classifying features that show discrimination between printed and handwritten characters are well adopted. The proposed approach was applied to an automatic check processing system and tested on about 9031 checks. The recognition rate is more than 99.5%.

  6. License Plate Recognition System for Indian Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanap, P. R.; Narote, S. P.

    2010-11-01

    We consider the task of recognition of Indian vehicle number plates (also called license plates or registration plates in other countries). A system for Indian number plate recognition must cope with wide variations in the appearance of the plates. Each state uses its own range of designs with font variations between the designs. Also, vehicle owners may place the plates inside glass covered frames or use plates made of nonstandard materials. These issues compound the complexity of automatic number plate recognition, making existing approaches inadequate. We have developed a system that incorporates a novel combination of image processing and artificial neural network technologies to successfully locate and read Indian vehicle number plates in digital images. Commercial application of the system is envisaged.

  7. Anévrysme de l'artère hépatique révélé par une pancréatite - à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Soufi, Mehdi; Settaf, Abdelatif; Mohammed, Bouziane; Harroudi, Tijani; Messrouri, Rahal; Mdaghri, Jalil; Taghy, Ahmed; Chad, Bouziane

    2014-01-01

    Les anévrysmes de l'artère hépatique sont rares et pourvoyeurs de complications graves. La pancréatite est reste une mode de révélation inhabituel. À travers une observation d'un anévrysme de l'artère hépatique propre et les auteurs font une mise au point sur les anévrysmes de l'artère hépatique, les auteurs discutent le rôle de la chirurgie et le rétablissement du flux hépatique artériel dans le traitement de ces lésions vasculaires. PMID:25478045

  8. A Unix Print Filter for Controlling an HP Laserjet Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix lpr command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter is included in Appendix A and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included in Appendix B and C.

  9. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard`s Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  10. Compositermes bani sp.n. (Isoptera, Termitidae, Apicotermitinae), a new species of soldierless termite from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Carrijo, Tiago F; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H; Křeček, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Species of neotropical Apicotermitinae (Termitidae) are soldierless, restricting species identification in this group to workers or seasonally present winged imagos. All neotropical Apicotermitinae were placed in the genus Anoplotermes, until Mathews (1977) described two new genera, Grigiotermes and Ruptitermes. Fontes (1986) described two more genera, Aparatermes and Tetimatermes. Twenty years passed without any taxonomic advances in this group until Scheffrahn et al. 2006 described two new Anoplotermes species from the West Indies and Bourguignon et al. 2010 described Longustitermes manni, (=Anoplotermes manni Snyder), Anoplotermes janus, and placed six other species into synonymy. Finally, Scheffrahn 2013 described a new genus and species, Compositermes vindai, characterized by a ring of sclerotized paddles at the junction of the enteric valve seating (EVS) and paunch (P3). PMID:25947512

  11. The color of sin: white and black are perceptual symbols of moral purity and pollution.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Gary D; Clore, Gerald L

    2009-08-01

    Three studies examined automatic associations between words with moral and immoral meanings and the colors black and white. The speed of color naming in a Stroop task was faster when words in black concerned immorality (e.g., greed), rather than morality, and when words in white concerned morality (e.g., honesty), rather than immorality. In addition, priming immorality by having participants hand-copy an unethical statement speeded identification of words in the black font. Making immorality salient in this way also increased the moral Stroop effect among participants who had not previously shown it. In the final study, participants also rated consumer products. Moral meanings interfered with color naming most strongly among those participants who rated personal cleaning products as especially desirable. The moderation of the moral Stroop effect by individual differences in concerns about personal cleanliness suggests that ideas about purity and pollution are central to seeing morality in black and white.

  12. Detection of text strings from mixed text/graphics images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chien-Hua; Papachristou, Christos A.

    2000-12-01

    A robust system for text strings separation from mixed text/graphics images is presented. Based on a union-find (region growing) strategy the algorithm is thus able to classify the text from graphics and adapts to changes in document type, language category (e.g., English, Chinese and Japanese), text font style and size, and text string orientation within digital images. In addition, it allows for a document skew that usually occurs in documents, without skew correction prior to discrimination while these proposed methods such a projection profile or run length coding are not always suitable for the condition. The method has been tested with a variety of printed documents from different origins with one common set of parameters, and the experimental results of the performance of the algorithm in terms of computational efficiency are demonstrated by using several tested images from the evaluation.

  13. Visuospatial deficits with preserved reading ability in a patient with posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mendez, M F

    2001-09-01

    Visuospatial deficits are characteristic of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). A 58 year old woman had progressive dressing apraxia and environmental disorientation but continued to read voraciously. Positron emission tomography revealed hypometabolism of the occipitoparietal regions bilaterally, consistent with PCA. The symptoms suggested predominant dysfunction of the dorsal ("where") stream with abnormalities in visual localization and visuospatial integration; however, the patient also had a less pronounced apperceptive object agnosia. Further analysis of her preserved reading ability was performed. Familiar irregular words were read rapidly, but nonsense words were read slowly in a letter-by-letter fashion. She had a word superiority effect for embedded words and words with obscured letters but had difficulty reading stylized script or printing in unusual fonts. These findings suggested a dissociation between reading routes. Although the patient had a phonological dyslexia, her visuospatial processing was sufficient for access to preserved visual word forms for efficient lexical reading. PMID:11721864

  14. A 1.36μW 312-315MHz synchronized-OOK receiver for wireless sensor networks using 65nm SOTB CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Minh-Thien; Sugii, Nobuyuki; Ishibashi, Koichiro

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents a receiver design operating at 312-315 MHz frequency band for wireless sensor networks. The proposed architecture uses synchronized on-off-keying (S-OOK) modulation scheme, which includes clock information together with data, providing self-synchronization ability for the receiver without a separate clock and data recovery circuit. In addition, a new technique is also proposed to reduce active time of the RF font-end for better energy efficiency. The receiver architecture is verified by using discrete RF modules and FPGAs, then VLSI design is carried out on 65 nm Silicon-On-Thin-Buried-Oxide (SOTB) CMOS technology and simulated using SPICE models to illustrate effectiveness of the proposed architecture. Post-layout simulation shows -58.5 dBm sensitivity with 1.36 μW and 8.39 μW power consumption corresponding to 10 kbps and 100 kbps data rate, respectively.

  15. Interdependent self-construal and neural representations of self and mother.

    PubMed

    Ray, Rebecca D; Shelton, Amy L; Hollon, Nick G; Matsumoto, David; Frankel, Carl B; Gross, James J; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-06-01

    Representations of self are thought to be dynamically influenced by one's surroundings, including the culture one lives in. However, neuroimaging studies of self-representations have either ignored cultural influences or operationalized culture as country of origin. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of individual differences in interdependent self-construal. Participants rated whether trait adjectives applied to themselves or their mothers, or judged their valence or font. Findings indicated that individual differences in interdependent self-construal correlated positively with increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulated cortex when making judgments about one-self vs making judgments about one's mother. This suggests that those with greater interdependent self-construals may rely more upon episodic memory, reflected appraisals, or theory of mind to incorporate social information to make judgments about themselves. PMID:19822601

  16. WebAlchemist: a Web transcoding system for mobile Web access in handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Yonghyun; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Jihong; Chung, Sungkwon

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of WebAlchemist, a prototype web transcoding system, which automatically converts a given HTML page into a sequence of equivalent HTML pages that can be properly displayed on a hand-held device. The Web/Alchemist system is based on a set of HTML transcoding heuristics managed by the Transcoding Manager (TM) module. In order to tackle difficult-to-transcode pages such as ones with large or complex table structures, we have developed several new transcoding heuristics that extract partial semantics from syntactic information such as the table width, font size and cascading style sheet. Subjective evaluation results using popular HTML pages (such as the CNN home page) show that WebAlchemist generates readable, structure-preserving transcoded pages, which can be properly displayed on hand-held devices.

  17. Observations and Modelling of Helium Lines in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Labrosse, N.; Kerr, G. S.

    2016-04-01

    We explore the response of the He II 304 Å and He I 584 Å line intensities to electron beam heating in solar flares using radiative hydrodynamic simulations. Comparing different electron beams parameters, we found that the intensities of both He lines are very sensitive to the energy flux deposited in the chromosphere, or more specifically to the heating rate, with He <font size=2>II 304 Å being more sensitive to the heating than He I 584 Å. Therefore, the He line ratio increases for larger heating rates in the chromosphere. A similar trend is found in observations, using SDO/EVE He irradiance ratios and estimates of the electron beam energy rate obtained from hard X-ray data. From the simulations, we also found that spectral index of the electrons can affect the He ratio but a similar effect was not found in the observations.

  18. The roles of occipitotemporal cortex in reading, spelling, and naming.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Rajani; Gomez, Yessenia; Leigh, Richard; Davis, Cameron; Newhart, Melissa; Hillis, Argye E

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that Brodmann's area (BA) 37 within left occipitotemporal cortex has at least two important functions in lexical processing. One role is the computation of case-, font-, location-, and orientation-independent grapheme descriptions for written word recognition and production (reading and spelling). This role may depend on the medial part of BA 37, in left midfusiform gyrus. The second role is in accessing modality-independent lexical representations for output, for naming and for reading and spelling of irregular or exception words. This role may depend on the lateral part of BA 37 in inferior temporal cortex. We tested these hypotheses in 234 participants with acute left hemisphere ischaemic stroke who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and language testing within 48 hours of onset of stroke symptoms.

  19. Mapping the reading circuitry for skilled deaf readers: an fMRI study of semantic and phonological processing.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; Weisberg, Jill; McCullough, Stephen; Petrich, Jennifer A F

    2013-08-01

    We examined word-level reading circuits in skilled deaf readers whose primary language is American Sign Language, and hearing readers matched for reading ability (college level). During fMRI scanning, participants performed a semantic decision (concrete concept?), a phonological decision (two syllables?), and a false-font control task (string underlined?). The groups performed equally well on the semantic task, but hearing readers performed better on the phonological task. Semantic processing engaged similar left frontotemporal language circuits in deaf and hearing readers. However, phonological processing elicited increased neural activity in deaf, relative to hearing readers, in the left precentral gyrus, suggesting greater reliance on articulatory phonological codes, and in bilateral parietal cortex, suggesting increased phonological processing effort. Deaf readers also showed stronger anterior-posterior functional segregation between semantic and phonological processes in left inferior prefrontal cortex. Finally, weaker phonological decoding ability did not alter activation in the visual word form area for deaf readers.

  20. The eureka error: inadvertent plagiarism by misattributions of effort.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jesse; Wegner, Daniel M

    2007-04-01

    The authors found that the feeling of authorship for mental actions such as solving problems is enhanced by effort cues experienced during mental activity; misattribution of effort cues resulted in inadvertent plagiarism. Pairs of participants took turns solving anagrams as they exerted effort on an unrelated task. People inadvertently plagiarized their partners' answers more often when they experienced high incidental effort while working on the problem and reduced effort as the solution appeared. This result was found for efforts produced when participants squeezed a handgrip during the task (Experiment 1) or when the anagram was displayed in a font that was difficult to read (Experiments 2, 3a, and 3b). Plagiarism declined, however, when participants attended to the source of the effort cues (Experiments 3a and 3b). These results suggest that effort misattribution can influence authorship processing for mental activities. PMID:17469945

  1. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  2. Translation priming between the native language and a second language: new evidence from Dutch-French bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Duyck, Wouter; Warlop, Nele

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, bilingual research has adopted the masked translation priming paradigm as a tool to investigate the architecture of the bilingual language system. Although there is now a consensus about the existence of forward translation priming (from native language primes (L1) to second language (L2) translation equivalent targets), the backward translation priming effect (from L2 to L1) has only been reported in studies with bilinguals living in an L2 dominant environment. In a lexical decision experiment, we obtained significant translation priming in both directions, with unbalanced Dutch-French bilinguals living in an L1 dominant environment. Also, we demonstrated that these priming effects do not interact with a low-level visual prime feature such as font size. The obtained backward translation priming effect is consistent with the model of bilingual lexicosemantic organization of Duyck and Brysbaert (2004), which assumes strong mappings between L2 word forms and underlying semantic representations.

  3. The transformations of Tibetan medicine.

    PubMed

    Janes, C R

    1995-03-01

    This article presents a cultural and historical analysis of 20th-century Tibetan medicine. In its expansion into the state bureaucracy, Tibetan medicine has acceded to institutional modernity through transformations in theory, practice, and methods for training physicians. Despite Chinese rule in Tibet, however, Tibetan medicine has not yielded completely to state interests. With the collapsing of the traditionally pluralistic Tibetan health system into the professional sector of Tibetan medicine, contemporary Tibetan medicine has become to the laity a font of ethnic revitalization and resistance to the modernization policies of the Chinese state. These processes are particularly evident in the elaboration of disorders of rlung, a class of sicknesses that, collectively, have come to symbolize the suffering inherent in rapid social, economic, and political change. PMID:7697551

  4. Recognition of Handwriting from Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Linderman, Michael; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Erlichman, Joseph S.

    2009-01-01

    Handwriting – one of the most important developments in human culture – is also a methodological tool in several scientific disciplines, most importantly handwriting recognition methods, graphology and medical diagnostics. Previous studies have relied largely on the analyses of handwritten traces or kinematic analysis of handwriting; whereas electromyographic (EMG) signals associated with handwriting have received little attention. Here we show for the first time, a method in which EMG signals generated by hand and forearm muscles during handwriting activity are reliably translated into both algorithm-generated handwriting traces and font characters using decoding algorithms. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of recreating handwriting solely from EMG signals – the finding that can be utilized in computer peripherals and myoelectric prosthetic devices. Moreover, this approach may provide a rapid and sensitive method for diagnosing a variety of neurogenerative diseases before other symptoms become clear. PMID:19707562

  5. On-sun first operation of a 150 kWth pilot solar receiver using dense particle suspension as heat transfer fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Inmaculada Pérez; Benoit, Hadrien; Gauthier, Daniel; Sans, Jean-Louis; Guillot, Emmanuel; Cavaillé, Roland; Mazza, German; Flamant, Gilles

    2016-05-01

    A 50-150 kWth pilot solar rig comprising the key equipments of a real plant and that uses silicon carbide Dense Particles Suspension as the heat transfer fluid has been tested at the 1 MW solar furnace at Odeillo-Font Romeu, France. The tests were carried out under large ranges of operating parameters and controlling the mass flow rate when higher temperature was required and when changes on DNI (direct normal irradiation) occurred. This paper presents experimental results on particle outlet temperature, dynamic response of the system to solid mass flow rate and solar power variations, and receiver thermal efficiency (η). Mean and maximum particles' temperature up to 585°C and 720°C respectively was reached. The receiver thermal efficiency was measured in the range 50-90%.

  6. Ostéchondromatose synoviale de l'articulation carpo-métacarpienne du pouce chez une patiente atteinte d'un lupus érythémateux systémique

    PubMed Central

    Loukil, Hanen; Frikha, Faten; Snoussi, Mouna; Garbaa, Saida; Salah, Raida Ben; Bahloul, Zouhir

    2015-01-01

    L'ostéchondromatose synoviale est une métaplasie du tissu synovial. Elle engendre de petites masses cartilagineuses qui font saillie à la face interne de la synoviale, puis, se pédiculisent et enfin s'en détachent en développant des chondromes libres. On en distingue deux formes d'ostéchondromatose, la forme primitive, qui est rare, et la forme secondaire plus fréquente dont l'origine est généralement l'arthrose. Nous rapportons un cas d'ostéchondromatose synoviale de l'articulation carpo-métacarpienne du pouce chez une patiente atteinte d'un lupus érythémateux systémique. PMID:26918080

  7. Toward integrated scene text reading.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

    2014-02-01

    The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state-of-the-art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:24356356

  8. Braking formula for electrons of relativistic speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethe, H.; Bartschat, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The current translation is by Klaus Bartschat, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311, USA. An attempt has been made to preserve Bethe's writing style as much as possible, including his use of "Volt" instead of "electron volt". Even though the term "stopping power" is quite common in present scientific English, we generally use "braking [capability]" rather than "stopping [power]", in order to emphasize the act [and ability] of slowing down the particle rather than the ultimate result of bringing it to a complete halt. Also, a few typographical errors were kept in the English translation to ensure the translation replicates the original paper. Please, see Section 3 of the annotation to Bethe's article [Fontes, C.J., Bostock, C.J. and Bartschat, K. 2014. Eur. Phys. J. H, 39: 517-536] for a list. The references were converted to EPJH style, and the footnotes are numbered consecutively.

  9. Laboratory Experiments Lead to a New Understanding of Wildland Fire Spread

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, J. D.; Finney, M.; McAllister, S.

    2015-12-01

    font-size:="font-size:" 12pt;"="12pt;"">Wildfire flame spread results from a sequence of ignitions where adjacent fuel particles heat from radiation and convection leading to their ignition. Surprisingly, after decades of fire behavior research an experimentally based, fundamental understanding of wildland fire spread processes has not been established. Modelers have commonly assumed radiation to be the dominant heating mechanism; that is, radiation heat transfer primarily determines wildland fire spread. We tested this assumption by focusing on how fuel ignition occurs with a renewed emphasis on experimental research. Our experiments show that fuel particle size can non-linearly influence a fuel particle's convective heat transfer. Fine fuels (less than 1 mm) can convectively cool in ambient air such that radiation heating is insufficient for ignition and thus fire spread. Given fire spread with insufficient radiant heating, fuel particle ignition must occur convectively from flame contact. Further experimentation reveals that convective heating and particle ignition occur when buoyancy-induced instabilities and vorticity force flames down and forward to produce intermittent contact with the adjacent fuel bed. Experimental results suggest these intermittent forward flame extensions are buoyancy driven with predictable average frequencies for flame zones ranging from laboratory (10-2 m) to field scales (101m). Measured fuel particle temperatures and boundary conditions during spreading laboratory fires reveal that convection heat transfer from intermittent flame contact is the principal mechanism responsible for heating fine fuel particles to ignition. Our experimental results describe how fine fuel particles convectively heat to ignition from flame contact related to the buoyant dynamics of spreading flame fronts. This research has caused a rethinking of some of the most basic concepts in wildland fuel particle ignition and flame spread.

  10. Do preschool children learn to read words from environmental prints?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word form information from environmental prints. To exclude the phonological-cue confound, this study tested children's knowledge of Chinese words embedded in familiar logos. The four environmental logos were employed and transformed into four versions with the contextual cues (i.e., something apart from the presentation of the words themselves in logo format like the color, logo and font type cues) gradually minimized. Children aged from 3 to 5 were tested. We observed that children of different ages all performed better when words were presented in highly familiar logos compared to when they were presented in a plain fashion, devoid of context. This advantage for familiar logos was also present when the contextual information was only partial. However, the role of various cues in learning words changed with age. The color and logo cues had a larger effect in 3- and 4- year-olds than in 5-year-olds, while the font type cue played a greater role in 5-year-olds than in the other two groups. Our findings demonstrated that young children did not easily learn words by extracting their visual form information even from familiar environmental prints. However, children aged 5 begin to pay more attention to the visual form information of words in highly familiar logos than those aged 3 and 4. PMID:24465677

  11. The time course of reading processes in children with and without dyslexia: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Hasko, Sandra; Groth, Katarina; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The main diagnostic criterion for developmental dyslexia (DD) in transparent orthographies is a remarkable reading speed deficit, which is often accompanied by spelling difficulties. These deficits have been traced back to both deficits in orthographic and phonological processing. For a better understanding of the reading speed deficit in DD it is necessary to clarify which processing steps are degraded in children with DD during reading. In order to address this question the present study used EEG to investigate three reading related ERPs: the N170, N400 and LPC. Twenty-nine children without DD and 52 children with DD performed a phonological lexical decision (PLD)—task, which tapped both orthographic and phonological processing. Children were presented with words, pseudohomophones, pseudowords and false fonts and had to decide whether the presented stimulus sounded like an existing German word or not. Compared to control children, children with DD showed deficits in all the investigated ERPs. Firstly, a diminished mean area under the curve for the word material-false font contrasts in the time window of the N170 was observed, indicating a reduced degree of print sensitivity; secondly, N400 amplitudes, as suggested to reflect the access to the orthographic lexicon and grapheme-phoneme conversion, were attenuated; and lastly, phonological access as indexed by the LPC was degraded in children with DD. Processing differences dependent on the linguistic material in children without DD were observed only in the LPC, suggesting that similar reading processes were adopted independent of orthographic familiarity. The results of this study suggest that effective treatment should include both orthographic and phonological training. Furthermore, more longitudinal studies utilizing the same task and stimuli are needed to clarify how these processing steps and their time course change during reading development. PMID:24109444

  12. Neurocognitive mechanisms of learning to read: print tuning in beginning readers related to word-reading fluency and semantics but not phonology.

    PubMed

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature. PMID:24863157

  13. Neurocognitive mechanisms of learning to read: print tuning in beginning readers related to word-reading fluency and semantics but not phonology.

    PubMed

    Eberhard-Moscicka, Aleksandra K; Jost, Lea B; Raith, Margit; Maurer, Urs

    2015-01-01

    During reading acquisition children learn to recognize orthographic stimuli and link them to phonology and semantics. The present study investigated neurocognitive processes of learning to read after one year of schooling. We aimed to elucidate the cognitive processes underlying neural tuning for print that has been shown to play an important role for reading and dyslexia. A 128-channel EEG was recorded while 68 (Swiss-)German monolingual first grade children (mean age: 7.6) performed a one-back task with different types of letter and false-font strings. Print tuning was indexed by the N1 difference in the ERPs between German words and false-font strings, while the N1 lexicality effect was indexed by the difference between German words and pseudowords. In addition, we measured reading fluency, rapid automatized naming, phonological awareness, auditory memory span, and vocabulary. After one year of formal reading instruction N1 print tuning was clearly present at the group level, and could be detected at the individual level in almost 90% of the children. The N1 lexicality effect, however, could not be reliably found. On the cognitive level, next to word-reading fluency, vocabulary was also associated with N1 print tuning, but not measures reflecting phonological processing. These results demonstrate the presence of print tuning in the first year of reading acquisition and its development at the individual level. Moreover, individual differences in print tuning are not only related to word-reading fluency, but also to semantic knowledge, indicating that at early stages of learning to read the top-down modulation of print tuning is semantic rather than phonological in nature.

  14. Sound speed and oscillation frequencies for a solar model evolved with Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Fontes, Christopher; Walczak, Przemyslaw; Wood, Suzannah R.; Mussack, Katie

    2015-08-01

    Los Alamos has calculated a new generation of radiative opacities for elements with atomic number Z=1-30 with improved physics input, updated atomic data, and finer temperature grid to replace the Los Alamos LEDCOP opacities released in the year 2000. We calculate the evolution of a standard solar model including these new opacities, and compare with a model evolved using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OPAL opacities released about 1996. We use the solar abundance mixture of Asplund, Grevesse, Sauval, and Scott (2009), including 2015 updates. The Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities (Colgan et al. 2013a,b) are somewhat higher than those of OPAL for temperatures and densities near the base of the solar convection zone. We compare the calculated nonadiabatic solar oscillation frequencies and solar interior sound speed to observed frequencies and helioseismic inferences. We discuss the potential for increased opacities to partially mitigate the ‘solar abundance problem’.References:J. Colgan, D.P. Kilcrease, N.H. Magee, Jr., G.S.J. Armstrong, J. Abdallah, Jr., M.E. Sherrill, C.J. Fontes, H.L. Zhang and P. Hakel, Eighth International Conference on Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications: ICAMDATA, Gaithersburg, MD 2012, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1545, (AIP, New York, 2013a), pp. 17-26.J. Colgan, D.P. Kilcrease, N.H. Magee, Jr, G.S.J. Armstrong, J. Abdallah, Jr., M.E. Sherrill, C.J. Fontes, H.L. Zhang and P. Hakel, High Energy Density Physics 9, 369 (2013b).

  15. The effect of letter-stroke boldness on reading speed in central and peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Kumar, Girish; Junge, Jasmine; Chung, Susana T L

    2013-05-24

    People with central vision loss often prefer boldface print over normal print for reading. However, little is known about how reading speed is influenced by the letter-stroke boldness of font. In this study, we examined the reliance of reading speed on stroke boldness, and determined whether this reliance differs between the normal central and peripheral vision. Reading speed was measured using the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where observers with normal vision read aloud short single sentences presented on a computer monitor, one word at a time. Text was rendered in Courier at six levels of boldness, defined as the stroke-width normalized to that of the standard Courier font: 0.27, 0.72, 1, 1.48, 1.89 and 3.04× the standard. Testings were conducted at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field. Print sizes used were 0.8× and 1.4× the critical print size (smallest print size that can be read at the maximum reading speed). At the fovea, reading speed was invariant for the middle four levels of boldness, but dropped by 23.3% for the least and the most bold text. At 10° eccentricity, reading speed was virtually the same for all boldness <1, but showed a poorer tolerance to bolder text, dropping by 21.5% for 1.89× boldness and 51% for the most bold (3.04×) text. These results could not be accounted for by the changes in print size or the RMS contrast of text associated with changes in stroke boldness. Our results suggest that contrary to the popular belief, reading speed does not benefit from bold text in the normal fovea and periphery. Excessive increase in stroke boldness may even impair reading speed, especially in the periphery. PMID:23523572

  16. The effect of letter-stroke boldness on reading speed in central and peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Baptiste; Kumar, Girish; Junge, Jasmine; Chung, Susana T L

    2013-05-24

    People with central vision loss often prefer boldface print over normal print for reading. However, little is known about how reading speed is influenced by the letter-stroke boldness of font. In this study, we examined the reliance of reading speed on stroke boldness, and determined whether this reliance differs between the normal central and peripheral vision. Reading speed was measured using the rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where observers with normal vision read aloud short single sentences presented on a computer monitor, one word at a time. Text was rendered in Courier at six levels of boldness, defined as the stroke-width normalized to that of the standard Courier font: 0.27, 0.72, 1, 1.48, 1.89 and 3.04× the standard. Testings were conducted at the fovea and 10° in the inferior visual field. Print sizes used were 0.8× and 1.4× the critical print size (smallest print size that can be read at the maximum reading speed). At the fovea, reading speed was invariant for the middle four levels of boldness, but dropped by 23.3% for the least and the most bold text. At 10° eccentricity, reading speed was virtually the same for all boldness <1, but showed a poorer tolerance to bolder text, dropping by 21.5% for 1.89× boldness and 51% for the most bold (3.04×) text. These results could not be accounted for by the changes in print size or the RMS contrast of text associated with changes in stroke boldness. Our results suggest that contrary to the popular belief, reading speed does not benefit from bold text in the normal fovea and periphery. Excessive increase in stroke boldness may even impair reading speed, especially in the periphery.

  17. Stroop interference in a delayed match-to-sample task: evidence for semantic competition

    PubMed Central

    Sturz, Bradley R.; Green, Marshall L.; Locker, Lawrence; Boyer, Ty W.

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of the source of the Stroop interference effect continue to pervade the literature. Semantic competition posits that interference results from competing semantic activation of word and color dimensions of the stimulus prior to response selection. Response competition posits that interference results from competing responses for articulating the word dimension vs. the color dimension at the time of response selection. We embedded Stroop stimuli into a delayed match-to-sample (DMTS) task in an attempt to test semantic and response competition accounts of the interference effect. Participants viewed a sample color word in black or colored fonts that were congruent or incongruent with respect to the color word itself. After a 5 s delay, participants were presented with two targets (i.e., a match and a foil) and were instructed to select the correct match. We probed each dimension independently during target presentations via color targets (i.e., two colors) or word targets (i.e., two words) and manipulated whether the semantic content of the foil was related to the semantic content of the irrelevant sample dimension (e.g., word sample “red” in blue font with the word “red” as the match and the word “blue” as the foil). We provide evidence for Stroop interference such that response times (RTs) increased for incongruent trials even in the presence of a response option with semantic content unrelated to the semantic content of the irrelevant sample dimension. Accuracy also deteriorated during the related foil trials. A follow-up experiment with a 10 s delay between sample and targets replicated the results. Results appear to provide converging evidence for Stroop interference in a DMTS task in a manner that is consistent with an explanation based upon semantic competition and inconsistent with an explanation based upon response competition. PMID:24298264

  18. The time course of reading processes in children with and without dyslexia: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Hasko, Sandra; Groth, Katarina; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Jürgen; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    The main diagnostic criterion for developmental dyslexia (DD) in transparent orthographies is a remarkable reading speed deficit, which is often accompanied by spelling difficulties. These deficits have been traced back to both deficits in orthographic and phonological processing. For a better understanding of the reading speed deficit in DD it is necessary to clarify which processing steps are degraded in children with DD during reading. In order to address this question the present study used EEG to investigate three reading related ERPs: the N170, N400 and LPC. Twenty-nine children without DD and 52 children with DD performed a phonological lexical decision (PLD)-task, which tapped both orthographic and phonological processing. Children were presented with words, pseudohomophones, pseudowords and false fonts and had to decide whether the presented stimulus sounded like an existing German word or not. Compared to control children, children with DD showed deficits in all the investigated ERPs. Firstly, a diminished mean area under the curve for the word material-false font contrasts in the time window of the N170 was observed, indicating a reduced degree of print sensitivity; secondly, N400 amplitudes, as suggested to reflect the access to the orthographic lexicon and grapheme-phoneme conversion, were attenuated; and lastly, phonological access as indexed by the LPC was degraded in children with DD. Processing differences dependent on the linguistic material in children without DD were observed only in the LPC, suggesting that similar reading processes were adopted independent of orthographic familiarity. The results of this study suggest that effective treatment should include both orthographic and phonological training. Furthermore, more longitudinal studies utilizing the same task and stimuli are needed to clarify how these processing steps and their time course change during reading development.

  19. Pseudoxanthome élastique généralisé et évolutif chez une mélanoderme

    PubMed Central

    Andonaba, Jean Baptiste; Barro-Traoré, Fatou; Korsaga, Somé; Diallo, Boukary; Diallo, Jean Wilfried; Traoré, Adama

    2013-01-01

    Le pseudoxanthome élastique (PXE) est une maladie héréditaire du tissu élastique affectant principalement la peau, les yeux et les artères. Nous rapportons une forme évolutive compliquée pour souligner la nécessité de la précocité du diagnostic et du suivi, de l'approche multidisciplinaire et la prise en charge des complications. Une femme de 51 ans, a consulté pour des nappes fripées de papules typiquement en « peau de chagrin » associées à une baisse de l'acuité visuelle, des stries angioïdes compliquées de néovaisseaux choroïdiens aux deux yeux. Les lésions cutanées étaient disséminées à tout le corps mais prédominaient aux plis et les régions adjacentes. Cette forme généralisée et compliquée serait due au retard au diagnostic et à la consultation, habituelle dans notre pays. Les atteintes extra cutanées font toute la gravité de cette maladie qui nécessite une surveillance à vie. Les diagnostics différentiels se font avec la peau citréine, la papulose cervicale fibro-élastique et les PXE exogènes. Aucun traitement spécifique n'est disponible à ce jour. Le PXE nécessite une approche multidisciplinaire pour un conseil génétique et pour sa prise en charge globale et précoce. PMID:24847394

  20. Attitudes and preferences of consumers toward food allergy labeling practices by diagnosis of food allergies

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Se-young; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-earn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to investigate food allergens and prevalence rates of food allergies, followed by comparison of consumer attitudes and preferences regarding food allergy labeling by diagnosis of food allergies. SUBJECTS/METHODS A total of 543 individuals living in Seoul and Gyeonggi area participated in the survey from October 15 to 22 in 2013. RESULTS The results show that the prevalence of doctor-diagnosed food allergies was 17.5%, whereas 6.4% of respondents self-reported food allergies. The most common allergens of doctor-diagnosed and self-reported food allergy respondents were peaches (30.3%) and eggs (33.3%), respectively, followed by peanuts, cow's milk, and crab. Regarding consumer attitudes toward food labeling, checking food allergens as an item was only significantly different between allergic and non-allergic respondents among all five items (P < 0.001). All respondents reported that all six items (bold font, font color, box frame, warning statement, front label, and addition of potential allergens) were necessary for an improved food allergen labeling system. PLSR analysis determined that the doctor-diagnosed group and checking of food allergens were positively correlated, whereas the non-allergy group was more concerned with checking product brands. CONCLUSIONS An effective food labeling system is very important for health protection of allergic consumers. Additionally, government agencies must develop policies regarding prevalence of food allergies in Korea. Based on this information, the food industry and government agencies should provide clear and accurate food labeling practices for consumers. PMID:26425282

  1. Electrons Emitted from 33-TeV Pb Ions During Penetratiaon of Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Grafstroem, P.; Knudsen, H.; Krause, H.F.; Mikkelsen, U.; Moeller, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuch, R.H.; Uggerhoj, E.; Vane, C.R.; Vilikazi, Z.

    1999-07-22

    At ultrarelativistic energies, ionization cross sections exceed electron capture cross sections by several orders of magnitude (1,2). Effectively, all electrons transferred to a highly relativistic heavy ion moving in a solid or gaseous target medium are stripped in a relatively short distance. Above ~20 GeV/nucleon, the principal mechanism for electron capture is from pair production (ECPP) (2). The total cross sections for ECPP are te&nically important for making reliable predictions of operating limitations for relativistic heavy-ion colliders, e.g., RHIC and LHC (3). In ECPP, it is expected that ~30% of capture proceeds to excited states of the capturing ion. Some of these relatively weakly bound electrons are radiatively long-lived and easily lost in secondary collisions in solid targets, making measurements of their contributions to total capture experimentally difficult. Electrons lost from high-energy ions in collisions with target atoms form a cusp-shaped spectral peak in the forward direction in the laboratory frame centered at the velocity of the moving ion (4-5). The shape of this electron loss to projectile continuum (ELC) peak has been shown (5,6) to depend on the initial atomic bound state from which the electron is ionized. We have measured and compared ELC electrons from direct ionization of hydrogenlike 33-TeV Pb81+(ls) ions (Lorentz factory <font face="symbol">gfont> = 168) in Al with similar data for electrons created by ECPP for bare Pb82+ ions in Au - followed by ionization. Both measured ELC peaks are narrow in momentum and angle and very similar in shape.

  2. Does Controlling for Temporal Parameters Change the Levels-of-Processing Effect in Working Memory?

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Vanessa M; Camos, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The distinguishability between working memory (WM) and long-term memory has been a frequent and long-lasting source of debate in the literature. One recent method of identifying the relationship between the two systems has been to consider the influence of long-term memory effects, such as the levels-of-processing (LoP) effect, in WM. However, the few studies that have examined the LoP effect in WM have shown divergent results. This study examined the LoP effect in WM by considering a theoretically meaningful methodological aspect of the LoP span task. Specifically, we fixed the presentation duration of the processing component a priori because such fixed complex span tasks have shown differences when compared to unfixed tasks in terms of recall from WM as well as the latent structure of WM. After establishing a fixed presentation rate from a pilot study, the LoP span task presented memoranda in red or blue font that were immediately followed by two processing words that matched the memoranda in terms of font color or semantic relatedness. On presentation of the processing words, participants made deep or shallow processing decisions for each of the memoranda before a cue to recall them from WM. Participants also completed delayed recall of the memoranda. Results indicated that LoP affected delayed recall, but not immediate recall from WM. These results suggest that fixing temporal parameters of the LoP span task does not moderate the null LoP effect in WM, and further indicate that WM and long-term episodic memory are dissociable on the basis of LoP effects. PMID:27152126

  3. Earth's copper resources estimated from tectonic diffusion of porphyry copper deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, Stephen E.; Wilkinson, Bruce H.

    2008-03-01

    Improved estimates of global mineral endowments are relevantto issues ranging from strategic planning to global geochemicalcycling. We have used a time-space model for the tectonic migrationof porphyry copper deposits vertically through the crust tocalculate Earth's endowment of copper in mineral deposits. Themodel relies only on knowledge of numbers and ages of porphyrycopper deposits, Earth's most widespread and important sourceof copper, in order to estimate numbers of eroded and preserveddeposits in the crust. Model results indicate that ~125,895 porphyrycopper deposits were formed during Phanerozoic time, that only~47,789 of these remain at various crustal depths, and that thesecontain ~1.7 <FONT FACE="arial,helvetica">x 1011 tonnes (t) of copper. Assuming that othertypes of copper deposits behave similarly in the crust and haveabundances proportional to their current global production yieldsan estimate of 3 <FONT FACE="arial,helvetica">x 1011 t for total global copper resourcesat all levels in Earth's crust. Thus, ~0.25% of the copper inthe crust has been concentrated into deposits through Phanerozoictime, and about two-thirds of this has been recycled by upliftand erosion. The amount of copper in deposits above 3.3 km,a likely limit of future mining, could supply current worldmine production for 5500 yr, thus quantifying the highly unusualand nonrenewable nature of mineral deposits.

  4. Training reveals the sources of Stroop and Flanker interference effects.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antao; Tang, Dandan; Chen, Xuefei

    2013-01-01

    In the field of cognitive control, dimensional overlap and pathway automaticity are generally believed to be critical for the generation of congruency effects. However, their specific roles in the generation of congruency effects are unclear. In two experiments, with the 4:2 mapping design, we investigated this issue by examining the training-related effects on congruency effects (the Stroop interference effect and the Flanker interference effect in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively) normally expressed as incongruent minus congruent difference and on their subcomponents (the stimulus interference and response interference). Experiment 1 revealed that the stimulus interference in the Stroop task, wherein the task-relevant (printed color of word) and the task-irrelevant (semantics of word) dimensions of the stimuli were processed in different pathways, was present during early training but was virtually eliminated at the late stage of training. This indicates that the two dimensions overlap at the early stage but separate at the late stage. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that the response interference in a variant of the Flanker task, wherein the task-relevant (central color word printed in black font) and the task-irrelevant (flanking color words printed in black font) dimensions of the stimuli were processed in the same pathway, was enhanced after training. This indicates that the enhanced automaticity of irrelevant-dimension processing induces stronger response competition, which therefore results in the larger response interference. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that (1) dimensional overlap is necessary for the generation of congruency effects, (2) pathway automaticity can affect the size of congruency effects, and (3) training enhances the degree of automatic processing in a given pathway.

  5. Markers of automaticity in sleep-associated consolidation of novel words.

    PubMed

    Tham, Elaine K H; Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M Gareth

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments investigated effects of sleep on consolidation and integration of novel form-meaning mappings using size congruity and semantic distance paradigms. Both paradigms have been used in previous studies to measure automatic access to word meanings. When participants compare semantic or physical font size of written word-pairs (e.g. BEE-COW), judgments are typically faster if relative sizes are congruent across both dimensions. Semantic distance effects are also found for wellestablished words, with semantic size judgements faster for pairs that differ substantially on this dimension. English-speaking participants learned novel form-meaning mappings with Mandarin (Experiment 1) or Malay (Experiment 2) words and were tested following overnight sleep or a similar duration awake. Judgements on English words controlled for circadian effects. The sleep group demonstrated selective stronger size congruity and semantic distance effects for novel word-pairs. This benefit occurred in Experiment 1 for semantic size comparisons of novel words, and in Experiment 2 on comparisons where novel pairs had large distances and font differences (for congruity effects) or in congruent trials (for semantic distance effects). Conversely, these effects were equivalent across sleep and wake for English words. Experiment 2 included polysomnography data and revealed that changes in the strength of semantic distance and congruity effects were positively correlated with slow-wave sleep and sleep spindles respectively. These findings support systems consolidation accounts of declarative learning and suggest that sleep plays an active role in integrating new words with existing knowledge, resulting in increased automatic access of the acquired knowledge. PMID:25817848

  6. A benthic carbon budget for the continental slope off Cape Hatteras, N.C.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.J.; Blair, N.E.; DeMaster, D.J.; Jahnke, R.A.; Martens, C.S.

    1999-01-31

    The continental slope off Cape Hatteras, N.C. from approximately 36{degree} 00 minutes N to 35{degree} 20 minutes N is a region of relatively rapid sediment accumulation, organic matter deposition and subsequent remineralization. The measured fluxes are the highest reported for the slope off the eastern US Sediment accumulation rates range from 40 to 140 cm ky{sup -1}. Organic carbon deposition rates range from 3.5 to 7.4 moles C m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. The areal coverage of this ''depocenter'' is probably controlled by interactions between physical oceanographic processes and the rugged topography of the seafloor. The organic matter deposited on the seafloor is primarily marine in origin and a mix of old and fresh particles. 73-93% of the depositing detritus is rapidly oxidized near the sediment/water interface. The controls on subsurface remineralization appear to be a complex function of the relative amount of metabolizable carbon delivered to the seabed both now and in the distant past (>=500ybp) and the extent of seabed irrigation. The age of DIC and CH{sub 4} produced within the seabed indicates that relatively young, reactive carbon is advected below the sediment surface and fuels subsurface remineralization. The stable isotopic composition of DIC produced within the seabed indicates the selective degradation of {sup 13}C-enriched fractions of the organic matter. The metabolizable fraction has a carbon isotopic signature of approx. -18{per_thousand};, while the organic matter that survives degradation and is buried has a <FONT FACE=''Symbol''>dFONT>{sup 13}C closer to -20{per_thousand}.

  7. Hydrocarbon measurements in the spring arctic troposphere during the ARCTOC 95 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramacher, Bjørn; Rudolph, Jochen; Koppmann, Ralf

    1997-11-01

    The hydrocarbon measurements made during the ARCTOC 95 field campaign (16 April 10 June 1995) at Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen (78°55''N, 11°56'E) allow the estimation of Cl and Br atom concentrations during periods of low ozone concentrations in the lower troposphere. In-situ analyses for nonmethane hydrocarbons and selected halocarbons were carried out with two GC-FID/ECD systems allowing a time resolution of about 2 hours and detection limits in the lower ppt range. A third GC was used to monitor the CO mixing ratio with a 5 min time resolution. Additionally, about 70 whole air samples were collected in stainless steel canisters and analysed for hydrocarbons (C2-C8), some halocarbons, methane, CO, and CO2 at the laboratory in Jülich. 15 of those samples were taken at the measurement site, the others were collected on top of Zeppelin Mountain (474 m a.s.l., distance from measurement site 1000m). In-situ measurements as well as canister samples showed that all nonmethane hydrocarbons were present at low mixing ratios. CO levels were found to be between 100 and 140ppb showing a nearly constant decrease from April to June. During an ozone depletion event (18-24 April) the hydrocarbon pattern changed drastically. The mixing ratios of alkanes and ethyne decreased together with ozone, whereas benzene, chloromethane, and CO mixing ratios remained nearly constant. From the ratio of NMHC background mixing ratios and those during low ozone periods the time integrated Cl and Br atom concentrations were calculated to some 1010 moleculesscm-font-weight: bold">3 and 51012 moleculesscm-font-weight: bold">3, respectively.

  8. Concentrations and δ13C values of atmospheric CO2 from oceanic atmosphere through time: polluted and non-polluted areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo; Selmo, Enrico

    2005-11-01

    ="/entityImage/script/2212.gif" alt="-" border="0" style="font-weight: bold">1 in excellent agreement with the NOAA/WMO data from land-based stations). Simultaneously, the mean δ13C value of atmospheric CO2 over the Central Indian Ocean (Equator) decreased from -7.92‰ at the end of 1998 to -8.22‰ at the end of 2003; the mean decrease rate being of about -0.06‰ yr-font-weight: bold">1. This rate as well as that calculated at 12°S (-0.05‰ yr-font-weight: bold">1) are not far from the rates that may be calculated according to the data from the nearest NOAA sites (Crozet and Mahe islands); the rates calculated South of Australia and between Tasmania and N.Z. are almost identical to those calculated according to the data from Cape Grim NOAA site (Tasmania).

  9. Intraocular retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Humayun, M S

    2001-01-01

    stimulus duration (P < .05). In all groups, short duration pulses (40, 80, and 120 microseconds) were more efficient in terms of total charge (the product of pulse amplitude and pulse duration) than longer (500 and 1,000 microseconds) pulses (P < .05). In all groups, applying a pulse train did not lead to more efficient charge usage (P < .05). Psychophysical experiments: In high-contrast tests, facial recognition rates of over 75% were achieved for all subjects with dot sizes of up to 31.5 minutes of arc when using a 25 x 25 grid with 4.5 arc minute gaps, a 30% dropout rate, and 6 gray levels. Even with a 4 x 4 array of pixels, some subjects were able to accurately describe 2 of the objects. Subjects who were able to read the 4-pixel letter height sentences (on the 6 x 10 and 16 x 16 array) seemed to have a good scanning technique. Scanning at the proper velocity tends to bring out more contrast in the lettering. The reading speed for the 72-point font is a bit slower than for the next smaller font. This may be due to the limited number of letters (3) visible in the window with this large font. CONCLUSIONS: Specific parameters needed to stimulate the retina were identified. Delineating the optimum parameters will decrease the current requirements. Psychophysical tests show that with limited pixels and image processing, useful vision is possible. Both these findings should greatly simplify the engineering of an electronic retinal prosthesis. PMID:11797315

  10. Influence of Combined Whole-Body Vibration Plus G-Loading on Visual Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard D.; Beutter, Brent Robert; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Stone, Leland S.; Anderson, Mark R.; Renema, Fritz; Paloski, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Recent engineering analyses of the integrated Ares-Orion stack show that vibration levels for Orion crews have the potential to be much higher than those experienced in Gemini, Apollo, and Shuttle vehicles. Of particular concern to the Constellation Program (CxP) is the 12 Hz thrust oscillation (TO) that the Ares-I rocket develops during the final 20 seconds preceding first-stage separation, at maximum G-loading. While the structural-dynamic mitigations being considered can assure that vibration due to TO is reduced to below the CxP crew health limit, it remains to be determined how far below this limit vibration must be reduced to enable effective crew performance during launch. Moreover, this "performance" vibration limit will inform the operations concepts (and crew-system interface designs) for this critical phase of flight. While Gemini and Apollo studies provide preliminary guidance, the data supporting the historical limits were obtained using less advanced interface technologies and very different operations concepts. In this study, supported by the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Human Research Program, we investigated display readability-a fundamental prerequisite for any interaction with electronic crew-vehicle interfaces-while observers were subjected to 12 Hz vibration superimposed on the 3.8 G loading expected for the TO period of ascent. Two age-matched groups of participants (16 general population and 13 Crew Office) performed a numerical display reading task while undergoing sustained 3.8 G loading and whole-body vibration at 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 g in the eyeballs in/out (x-axis) direction. The time-constrained reading task used an Orion-like display with 10- and 14-pt non-proportional sans-serif fonts, and was designed to emulate the visual acquisition and processing essential for crew system monitoring. Compared to the no-vibration baseline, we found no significant effect of vibration at 0.15 and 0.3 g on task error rates (ER

  11. Demonstration of High Current Density YBCO Coated Conductors on RE2O3-Buffered Ni Substrates with Two New Alternative Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, D.B.; Chirayil, T.G.; Christen, D.K.; Cui, X.; Feenstra, R.; Goyal, A.; Kroeger, D.M.; Lee, D.F.; Martin, P.M.; Mathis, J.E.; Morrell, J.S.; Norton, D.P.; Paranthaman, M.; Specht, E.D.; Verebelyi, D.T.

    1999-07-12

    In continuation of our effort to develop single buffer layer architectures for YBCO (YBa2Cu3O7-<font face="symbol">gfont>) coated tape conductors, we have studied RE2O3 (RE = Y, and rare earths) as candidate materials. Three types of crystal structures including the preferred cubic phase are known for the rare earth oxides. High quality simple cubic RE2O3 buffer layers were grown epitaxiahy on {100}<001> textured Ni substrates using both reactive evaporation and sol-gel processing. Detailed X-ray studies have shown that the Y2O3, Eu2O3, Gd2O3, and Yb2O3 were grown with a single epitaxial orientation. SEM micrographs indicated that both e-beam and sol-gel grown films were dense, continuous and crack free. High Jc YBCO films were grown on RE2O3-buffered Ni substrates with sputtered cap layers. Two new alternative buffer layer architectures were developed. A high Jc of 1.8 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films with a layer sequence of YBCO (pulsed laser deposition)/Yb2O3 (sputtered)/Y2O3 (e-beam)/Ni. Also, a high Jc of over 1 MA/cm2 at 77 K and self-field was obtained on YBCO films with a layer sequence of YBCO (ex-situ BaF2 process)/CeO2 (sputtered)YSZ sputtered)/RE2O3 (sol-gel or e-beam)Ni. The performance of sol-gel grown buffers approached the quality of e-beam grown buffers.

  12. Disentangling Genuine Semantic Stroop Effects in Reading from Contingency Effects: On the Need for Two Neutral Baselines

    PubMed Central

    Lorentz, Eric; McKibben, Tessa; Ekstrand, Chelsea; Gould, Layla; Anton, Kathryn; Borowsky, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The automaticity of reading is often explored through the Stroop effect, whereby color-naming is affected by color words. Color associates (e.g., “sky”) also produce a Stroop effect, suggesting that automatic reading occurs through to the level of semantics, even when reading sub-lexically (e.g., the pseudohomophone “skigh”). However, several previous experiments have confounded congruency with contingency learning, whereby faster responding occurs for more frequent stimuli. Contingency effects reflect a higher frequency-pairing of the word with a font color in the congruent condition than in the incongruent condition due to the limited set of congruent pairings. To determine the extent to which the Stroop effect can be attributed to contingency learning of font colors paired with lexical (word-level) and sub-lexical (phonetically decoded) letter strings, as well as assess facilitation and interference relative to contingency effects, we developed two neutral baselines: each one matched on pair-frequency for congruent and incongruent color words. In Experiments 1 and 3, color words (e.g., “blue”) and their pseudohomophones (e.g., “bloo”) produced significant facilitation and interference relative to neutral baselines, regardless of whether the onset (i.e., first phoneme) was matched to the color words. Color associates (e.g., “ocean”) and their pseudohomophones (e.g., “oshin”), however, showed no significant facilitation or interference relative to onset matched neutral baselines (Experiment 2). When onsets were unmatched, color associate words produced consistent facilitation on RT (e.g., “ocean” vs. “dozen”), but pseudohomophones (e.g., “oshin” vs. “duhzen”) failed to produce facilitation or interference. Our findings suggest that the Stroop effects for color and associated stimuli are sensitive to the type of neutral baseline used, as well as stimulus type (word vs. pseudohomophone). In general, contingency learning plays

  13. Modelling forest growth and carbon storage in response to increasing CO2 and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.

    1999-11-01

    The response of plant growth to increasing climate change remains one of the unresolved issues in understanding the future of the terrestrial biosphere. It was investigated here by using the comprehensive forest growth model CenW 1.0.5 which integrates routines for the fluxes of carbon and water, interception of radiation and the cycling of nutrients. It was run with water and/or nutrient limitations on a background of naturally observed climate at Canberra, Australia. It was parameterised for Pinus radiata, the commercially most important plantation species in Australia. The simulations showed that under water-limited conditions, forest growth was highly sensitive to doubling CO2,with growth increases of over 50% on average and even greater increases in dry years. In contrast, when water supply was adequate, but nutrients were limiting, growth increases were smaller, with an initial increase of about 15% during the first year after CO2 was doubled. This growth increase diminished further over subsequent years so that after 20years, there was virtually no remaining effect. This diminishing response was due to developing nutrient limitations caused by extra carbon input which immobilised nutrients in the soil. When both water and nutrients were adequate, growth was increased by about 15 20% with no decrease over time. Increasing ambient temperature had a positive effect on growth under nutrient limited conditions by stimulating nitrogen mineralisation rates, but had very little effect when nutrients were non-limiting. Responses were qualitatively similar when conditions were changed gradually. In response to increasing CO2 by 2µmol mol-font-weight: bold">1year-font-weight: bold">1 over 50years, growth was increased by only 1% under nutrient-limited condition but by 16% under water-limited conditions. When temperature and CO2

  14. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  15. Disentangling Genuine Semantic Stroop Effects in Reading from Contingency Effects: On the Need for Two Neutral Baselines.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, Eric; McKibben, Tessa; Ekstrand, Chelsea; Gould, Layla; Anton, Kathryn; Borowsky, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The automaticity of reading is often explored through the Stroop effect, whereby color-naming is affected by color words. Color associates (e.g., "sky") also produce a Stroop effect, suggesting that automatic reading occurs through to the level of semantics, even when reading sub-lexically (e.g., the pseudohomophone "skigh"). However, several previous experiments have confounded congruency with contingency learning, whereby faster responding occurs for more frequent stimuli. Contingency effects reflect a higher frequency-pairing of the word with a font color in the congruent condition than in the incongruent condition due to the limited set of congruent pairings. To determine the extent to which the Stroop effect can be attributed to contingency learning of font colors paired with lexical (word-level) and sub-lexical (phonetically decoded) letter strings, as well as assess facilitation and interference relative to contingency effects, we developed two neutral baselines: each one matched on pair-frequency for congruent and incongruent color words. In Experiments 1 and 3, color words (e.g., "blue") and their pseudohomophones (e.g., "bloo") produced significant facilitation and interference relative to neutral baselines, regardless of whether the onset (i.e., first phoneme) was matched to the color words. Color associates (e.g., "ocean") and their pseudohomophones (e.g., "oshin"), however, showed no significant facilitation or interference relative to onset matched neutral baselines (Experiment 2). When onsets were unmatched, color associate words produced consistent facilitation on RT (e.g., "ocean" vs. "dozen"), but pseudohomophones (e.g., "oshin" vs. "duhzen") failed to produce facilitation or interference. Our findings suggest that the Stroop effects for color and associated stimuli are sensitive to the type of neutral baseline used, as well as stimulus type (word vs. pseudohomophone). In general, contingency learning plays a large role when repeating congruent

  16. The scavenging of two different types of marine aerosol particles calculated using a two-dimensional detailed cloud model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flossmann, Andrea I.

    1991-07-01

    nucleation scavenging. About 30% of the aerosol material in the rain at the ground is due to scavenging below cloud base. (5) The scavenging coefficient of the considered storm was on the order of 10-font-weight: bold">4 s-font-weight: bold">1. Differences between two commonly used formulations for calculating the scavenging coefficient Λ can be explained in terms of humidity changes of the atmosphere.

  17. The Nova Outburst: Thermonuclear Runaways on Degenerated Dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.; Sparks, W.M.

    1999-07-08

    Observational and theoretical studies of the outbursts of classical novae have provided critical insights into a broad range of astrophysical phenomena. Thermonuclear runaways (TNRs) in accreted hydrogen-rich envelopes on the white dwarf (WD) components of close binary systems constitute not only the outburst mechanism for a classical nova explosion, but also the recurrent novae and a fraction of the symbiotic novae explosions. Studies of the general characteristics of these explosions, both in our own galaxy and in neighboring galaxies of varying metallicity, can teach us about binary stellar evolution, while studies of the evolution of nova binary systems can constrain models for the (as yet unidentified) progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Further, the empirical relation between the peak luminosity of a nova and the rate of decline, which presents a challenge to theoretical models, allows novae to be utilized as standard candles for distance determinations out to the Virgo Cluster. E xtensive studies of novae with IUE and the resulting abundance determinations have revealed the existence of oxygen-neon white dwarfs in some systems. The high levels of enrichment of novae ejecta in elements ranging from carbon to sulfur confirm that there is significant dredge-up of matter from the core of the underlying white dwarf and enable novae to contribute to the chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium. Observations of the epoch of dust formation in the expanding shells of novae allow important constraints to be placed on the dust formation process and confirm that graphite, SiC, and SiO{sub 2} grains are formed by the outburst. It is possible that grains from novae were injected into the pre-solar nebula and can be identified with some of the pre-solar grains or ''stardust'' found in meteorites. Finally, <font face=''symbol''>gfont>-ray observations during the first several years of their outburst, using the next generation of satellite observatories, could confirm

  18. Espectroscopia infravermelha de núcleos ativos de galáxias: resultados adicionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ardila, A.; Viegas, S.; Pastoria, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos resultados parciais de um levantamento espectroscópico na região do infravermelho próximo (NIR) realizado em 30 núcleos ativos de galáxias (AGN), incluindo vários objetos selecionados do catálogo PG com z de até 0.55. O objetivo é estudar a natureza do contínuo observado e as condições físicas do gas emissor. Todas as fontes de tipo 1 apresentam uma mudança na inclinação do contínuo na região de 1.2mm, associada ao término da contribuição do contínuo emitido pelo AGN e ao início da contribuição do contínuo emitido pela poeira quente atribuída ao tórus que rodeia a fonte central. O índice espectral associado à segunda contribuição varia apreciavelmente de objeto para objeto. Este resultado é comparado com distribuições espectrais de energia preditas por modelos de toroides para testar a validez do modelo unificado. A partir das linhas de FeII observado nos espectros deriva-se, pela primeira vez nessa região espectral, um template empírico de FeII para estudar a intensidade e a origem dessa emissão. A intensidade do FeII é estudada em conjunto com aquela da região visível e comparada às predições de modelos teóricos que incluem fluorescência de Lya, excitação colisional e auto-fluorescência como mecanismos dominantes de exitação. Encontra-se que os dois primeiros processos dominam na formação do espectro de FeII observado. Indicadores de avermelhamento, entre eles Brg/Pab, Pab/Pag, Pab/Pad e [FeII] 1.257/1.644 mm são utilizados para mapear a distribuição de poeira nas regiões emissoras de linhas. Encontra-se valores de extinção Av~3 associados ao último indicador e valores significativamente menores (Av~1.5) para os restantes, o que sugere que o [FeII] se forma em uma região separada da maior parte do gás emissor de linhas estreitas.

  19. Rotação do jato em DG tau próximo à região de sua formação: análise comparativa das velocidades radiais simuladas e observadas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, A. H.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os modelos magneto-centrífugos utilizados para explicar a formação dos jatos Herbig-Haro assumem a presença de um disco de acresção em rotação kepleriana na base de lançamento do jato. Neste cenário, o jato transmite a informação da rotação do disco para regiões distantes da fonte central, além da superfície de Alfvén, na região de colimação inicial do jato. Recentemente, Bacciotti et al. (2002, ApJ, 537, L49) obtiveram pela primeira vez uma evidência observacional de rotação em um jato HH, o jato em DG Tau, em regiões próximas da fonte central, compatível (qualitativa e quantitativamente) com o esperado a partir dos modelos magneto-centrífugos para a produção e colimação inicial de jatos HH. No presente trabalho, apresentamos mapas de velocidade radial, obtidos através de simulações numéricas tri-dimensionais SPH, para um jato com características semelhantes ao jato em DG Tau, objetivando uma comparação com os mapas de velocidade radiais obtidos por Bacciotti et al.. Nossos resultados, embora preliminares, indicam que a inclusão de efeitos como a precessão, evidenciada em DG Tau (Dougados et al. 2000, A&A, 357, L61) devem ser levadas em consideração na análise da presença de rotação não só em DG Tau mas em qualquer sistema, com o uso das velocidades radias observadas. A ausência de um grau elevado de simetria axial (quebrada, por exemplo, pela precessão do eixo do jato; ou pela presença de uma superfície interna de trabalho, ou seja, um bow shock interno), implica também em uma maior complexidade nos mapas, com conseqüências relevantes para suas interpretações.

  20. Disentangling Genuine Semantic Stroop Effects in Reading from Contingency Effects: On the Need for Two Neutral Baselines.

    PubMed

    Lorentz, Eric; McKibben, Tessa; Ekstrand, Chelsea; Gould, Layla; Anton, Kathryn; Borowsky, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The automaticity of reading is often explored through the Stroop effect, whereby color-naming is affected by color words. Color associates (e.g., "sky") also produce a Stroop effect, suggesting that automatic reading occurs through to the level of semantics, even when reading sub-lexically (e.g., the pseudohomophone "skigh"). However, several previous experiments have confounded congruency with contingency learning, whereby faster responding occurs for more frequent stimuli. Contingency effects reflect a higher frequency-pairing of the word with a font color in the congruent condition than in the incongruent condition due to the limited set of congruent pairings. To determine the extent to which the Stroop effect can be attributed to contingency learning of font colors paired with lexical (word-level) and sub-lexical (phonetically decoded) letter strings, as well as assess facilitation and interference relative to contingency effects, we developed two neutral baselines: each one matched on pair-frequency for congruent and incongruent color words. In Experiments 1 and 3, color words (e.g., "blue") and their pseudohomophones (e.g., "bloo") produced significant facilitation and interference relative to neutral baselines, regardless of whether the onset (i.e., first phoneme) was matched to the color words. Color associates (e.g., "ocean") and their pseudohomophones (e.g., "oshin"), however, showed no significant facilitation or interference relative to onset matched neutral baselines (Experiment 2). When onsets were unmatched, color associate words produced consistent facilitation on RT (e.g., "ocean" vs. "dozen"), but pseudohomophones (e.g., "oshin" vs. "duhzen") failed to produce facilitation or interference. Our findings suggest that the Stroop effects for color and associated stimuli are sensitive to the type of neutral baseline used, as well as stimulus type (word vs. pseudohomophone). In general, contingency learning plays a large role when repeating congruent

  1. Melena as presentation of primary small intestine inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in an adult woman. A case report.

    PubMed

    Alloni, Rossana; Ancona, Gianluca; Gallo, Ida; Crescenzi, Anna; Coppola, Roberto

    2015-07-29

    È il caso di una paziente di 32 anni affetta da Miofibroblastoma non noto, trasferita da altra struttura sanitaria presso il nostro reparto perché affetta da melena da fonte non determinata. All’anamnesi risultava un precedente ricovero in altro Pronto Soccorso per un quadro clinico caratterizzato da dispnea, cefalea, tachicardia e astenia profonda., oltre a profonda anemia (Hg 5.8 g/dl). La gastroscopia non aveva evidenziato alcun motivo di sanguinamento e l’ecografia addomino-pelvica era risultata negativa. Dopo ripetute emotrasfusioni la tentata rettosigmoidoscopia era stata interrotto per intolleranza della paziente. Una volta stabilizzata si era proceduto al trasferimento presso la nostra struttura, e qui alla Risonanza Magnetica dell’addome veniva evidenziato, un ispessimento parietale esteso per 8 cm a del digiuno medio distale, in corrispondenza del fianco destro, antero – lateralmente al duodeno, ed adiacente ad esso una formazione ipervascolare solida di 20 mm. In prima ipotesi poteva trattarsi di un tratto invaginato del piccolo intestino con all’apice una lesione parietale solida, verosimile causa del sanguinamento. Persistendo il quadro anemico e avendo localizzato una lesione sospetta, la paziente è stata sottoposta ad intervento chirurgico, che portava alla conferma dell’esistenza di una lesione nodulare parietale del piccolo intestino, per cui si procedeva ad una sua resezione segmentaria comprendente la suddetta massa, sottoponendo il pezzo operatorio ad esame istologico definitivo. L’anatomo-patologo formulava la diagnosi isto-immunologica di pseudotumore infiammatorio (c.d. Tumore miofibroblastico infiammatorio) responsabile di invaginazione digiuno-digiunale. I margini di resezione risultavano indenni. Dimessa dopo un decorso postoperatorio senza complicanze, al follow-up di 6 mesi non si è ripresentato alcun sintomo di nuovo sanguinamento. Il sanguinamento della neoformazione responsabile della melena da fonte ignota era

  2. In-situ, sunphotometer and Raman lidar observations of aerosol transport events in the western Mediterranean during the June 2013 ChArMEx campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totems, Julien; Sicard, Michael; Bertolin, Santi; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Chazette, Patrick; Comeron, Adolfo; Dulac, Francois; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Lange, Diego; Marnas, Fabien; Munoz, Constantino; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2014-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aerosol observations performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean at two stations set up in Barcelona and Menorca (Spain) in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project. The Barcelona station was equipped with the following fixed instruments belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC): an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun-photometer, an MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) lidar and the UPC multi-wavelength lidar. The MPL lidar works at 532 nm and has a depolarization channel, while the UPC lidar works at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and also includes two N2- (at 387 and 607 nm) and one H2O-Raman (at 407 nm) channels. The MPL system works continuously 24 hour/day. The UPC system was operated on alert in coordination with the research aircrafts plans involved in the campaign. In Cap d'en Font, Menorca, the mobile laboratory of the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement hosted an automated (AERONET) and a manual (Microtops) 5-lambda sunphotometer, a 3-lambda nephelometer, a 7-lambda aethalometer, as well as the LSCE Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI). This mini Raman lidar, first developed and validated for the HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) campaign in 2012, works at 355 nm for eye safety and is designed with a short overlap distance (<300m) to probe the lower troposphere. It includes depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels. H2O observations have been calibrated on-site by different methods and show good agreement with balloon measurements. Observations at Cap d'en Font were quasi-continuous from June 10th to July 3rd, 2013. The lidar data at both stations helped direct the research aircrafts and balloon launches to interesting plumes of particles in real time for in-situ measurements. Among some light pollution background from the European continent, a typical Saharan dust event and an unusual American dust/biomass burning event are

  3. Construction and destruction of a volcanic island developed inside an oceanic rift: Graciosa Island, Terceira Rift, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibrant, A. L. R.; Marques, F. O.; Hildenbrand, A.

    2014-09-01

    There is a great lack of knowledge regarding the evolution of islands inside active oceanic rifts, in particular the meaning of the different evolutionary steps. Therefore, we conducted an investigation in Graciosa Island, which lies at the northwestern end of the Terceira Rift in the Azores Triple Junction, with the objective of constraining the evolution of the island in terms of volcanic growth and mass wasting, in particular the meaning and age of the destruction events. From digital elevation model (DEM) analysis, stratigraphic and tectonic observations, K/Ar dating on key samples, and available bathymetry and gravity data, we propose that Graciosa comprises five main volcanic complexes separated by major unconformities related to large scale mass wasting: (1) The older volcanic edifice (Serra das Fontes Complex) grew until ca. 700 ka, and was affected by a major flank collapse towards the southwest, which removed the whole SW flank, the summit and a part of the NE flank. (2) The Baía do Filipe Complex developed between at least 472 ka and 433 ka in two different ways: in the SW (presently offshore) as a main volcano, and in the NE unconformably over the sub-aerial remnants of the Serra das Fontes Complex, as secondary volcanic edifices. (3) The Baía do Filipe Complex was affected by a major flank collapse towards the SW, again removing most of the edifice. (4) The remnants of the Baía do Filipe Complex were covered in unconformity by the Serra Dormida Complex between ca. 330 and 300 ka, which in turn was unconformably covered by the younger Basaltic Cover Complex between ca. 300 ka and 214 ka. These two units were affected by a third major sector collapse that removed the whole western flank, the summit and part of the eastern flank of the Serra Dormida and Basaltic Cover complexes. (5) Despite the relatively young age of Graciosa, the collapse scars are not well preserved, and not active anymore. (6) A central-type volcano has been growing since at least

  4. Visualizing Geoscience Concepts Through Textbook Art (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshak, S.

    2013-12-01

    Many, if not most, college students taking an introductory geoscience course purchase, borrow, download, or rent one of several commercial textbooks currently available. Art used in such books has evolved significantly over the past three decades. Concepts once conveyed only by black-and-white line drawings, drawn by hand in ink, have gradually been replaced by full-color images produced digitally. Multiple high-end graphics programs, when used in combination, can yield images with super-realistic textures and palettes so that, in effect, anything that a book author wants to be drawn can be drawn. Because of the time and skill level involved in producing the art, the process commonly involves professional artists. In order to produce high-quality geoscience art that can help students (who are, by definition, non-experts) understand concepts, develop geoscience intuition, and hone their spatial-visualization skills, an author must address two problems. First, design a figure which can convey complex concepts through visual elements that resonate with students. Second, communicate the concepts to a professional artist who does not necessarily have personal expertise in geoscience, so that the figure rendered is both technically correct and visually engaging. The ultimate goal of geoscience art in textbooks is to produce an image that avoids unnecessary complexity that could distract from the art's theme, includes sufficient realism for a non-expert to relate the image to the real world, provides a personal context in which to interpret the figure, and has a layout that conveys relationships among multiple components of the art so that the art tells a coherent story. To accomplish this goal, a chain of choices--about perspective, sizes, colors, texture, labeling, captioning, line widths, and fonts--must be made in collaboration between the author and artist. In the new world of computer-aided learning, figures must also be able to work both on the computer screen and

  5. Armor and Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2013-01-01

    For many civilians, the high-tech weapons, armor, and military medicine with which U.S. soldiers are equipped present an image of lethal capacity and physical invulnerability. But, as this article explores, soldiers themselves just as often associate the life-sustaining technology of modern warfare with feelings that range from a pragmatic ambivalence about exposure to harm all the way to profoundly unsettling vulnerability. This article, based on fieldwork among soldiers and military families at the U.S. Army’s Ft. Hood, examines sensory and affective dimensions of soldiers’ intimate bodily relationships with the technologies that alternately or even simultaneously keep them alive and expose them to harm. I argue that modern military discipline and technology conspire to cultivate soldiers as highly durable, capable, unfeeling, interchangeable bodies, or what might be called, after Susan Buck-Morss (1992), anesthetic subjects. But for soldiers themselves, their training, combat environment, protective gear, and weapons are a rich font of both emotional and bodily feeling that exists in complex tension with the also deeply felt military imperative to carry on in the face of extreme discomfort and danger. PMID:22574391

  6. On the typography of flight-deck documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf

    1992-01-01

    Many types of paper documentation are employed on the flight-deck. They range from a simple checklist card to a bulky Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM). Some of these documentations have typographical and graphical deficiencies; yet, many cockpit tasks such as conducting checklists, way-point entry, limitations and performance calculations, and many more, require the use of these documents. Moreover, during emergency and abnormal situations, the flight crews' effectiveness in combating the situation is highly dependent on such documentation; accessing and reading procedures has a significant impact on flight safety. Although flight-deck documentation are an important (and sometimes critical) form of display in the modern cockpit, there is a dearth of information on how to effectively design these displays. The object of this report is to provide a summary of the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed matter. The report attempts 'to bridge' the gap between basic research about typography, and the kind of information needed by designers of flight-deck documentation. The report focuses on typographical factors such as type-faces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Some graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are also discussed. In addition, several aspects of cockpit reading conditions such as glare, angular alignment, and paper quality are addressed. Finally, a list of recommendations for the graphical design of flight-deck documentation is provided.

  7. Integrated Arrival and Departure Schedule Optimization Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In terminal airspace, integrating arrivals and departures with shared waypoints provides the potential of improving operational efficiency by allowing direct routes when possible. Incorporating stochastic evaluation as a post-analysis process of deterministic optimization, and imposing a safety buffer in deterministic optimization, are two ways to learn and alleviate the impact of uncertainty and to avoid unexpected outcomes. This work presents a third and direct way to take uncertainty into consideration during the optimization. The impact of uncertainty was incorporated into cost evaluations when searching for the optimal solutions. The controller intervention count was computed using a heuristic model and served as another stochastic cost besides total delay. Costs under uncertainty were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations. The Pareto fronts that contain a set of solutions were identified and the trade-off between delays and controller intervention count was shown. Solutions that shared similar delays but had different intervention counts were investigated. The results showed that optimization under uncertainty could identify compromise solutions on Pareto fonts, which is better than deterministic optimization with extra safety buffers. It helps decision-makers reduce controller intervention while achieving low delays.

  8. Jersey number detection in sports video for athlete identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qixiang; Huang, Qingming; Jiang, Shuqiang; Liu, Yang; Gao, Wen

    2005-07-01

    Athlete identification is important for sport video content analysis since users often care about the video clips with their preferred athletes. In this paper, we propose a method for athlete identification by combing the segmentation, tracking and recognition procedures into a coarse-to-fine scheme for jersey number (digital characters on sport shirt) detection. Firstly, image segmentation is employed to separate the jersey number regions with its background. And size/pipe-like attributes of digital characters are used to filter out candidates. Then, a K-NN (K nearest neighbor) classifier is employed to classify a candidate into a digit in "0-9" or negative. In the recognition procedure, we use the Zernike moment features, which are invariant to rotation and scale for digital shape recognition. Synthetic training samples with different fonts are used to represent the pattern of digital characters with non-rigid deformation. Once a character candidate is detected, a SSD (smallest square distance)-based tracking procedure is started. The recognition procedure is performed every several frames in the tracking process. After tracking tens of frames, the overall recognition results are combined to determine if a candidate is a true jersey number or not by a voting procedure. Experiments on several types of sports video shows encouraging result.

  9. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (λ = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (λ = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase λ for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  10. Bringing text display digital radio to consumers with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Ellyn G; Starling, Michael; Schwab, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Radio is migrating to digital transmission, expanding its offerings to include captioning for individuals with hearing loss. Text display radio requires a large amount of word throughput with minimal screen display area, making good user interface design crucial to its success. In two experiments, we presented hearing, hard-of-hearing, and deaf consumers with National Public Radio stories converted to text and examined their preferences for and reactions to midsized and small radio text displays. We focused on physical display attributes such as text color, font style, line length, and scrolling type as well as emergency alert messages and emergency prompts for drivers, announcer identification schemes, and synchronization of audio and text. Results suggest that midsized, Global Positioning System (GPS)-style displays were well liked, synchronization of audio and text was important to comprehension and retrieval of story details, identification of announcers was served best with a combination of name change in parenthesis and color change, and a mixture of color and flashing symbols was preferred for emergency alerting.

  11. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  12. The effect of animacy on metamemory.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Xinyu; Li, Weijian

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that the animacy quality of materials affects basic cognitive processes such as memory (i.e., animate stimuli are remembered better than are inanimate stimuli). This is referred to as the animacy effect. Little research has examined, however, whether this effect can be extended to higher cognitive processes such as metamemory. In the present studies, we investigated the influence of animacy on judgments of learning (JOLs) and the underlying basis of the animacy effect, namely, processing fluency and beliefs about the animacy effect. In Experiment 1, participants studied animate and inanimate words and made immediate JOLs. Results revealed that participants gave higher estimates for animate than they did for inanimate words. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we evaluated the contribution of processing fluency to the animacy effect either by measuring self-paced study time or by disrupting fluency by presenting half of the words in an easy or difficult font style. Results from both experiments indicated that processing fluency contributes minimally to the animacy effect. In questionnaire-based Experiment 3, participants estimated hypothetical participants would better remember the animate words than the inanimate words, suggesting the potential role of beliefs on the animacy effect on JOLs. To conclude, these findings suggest that animacy is a reliable cue when people monitor their learning in higher cognitive processes. The beliefs, not processing fluency, contribute substantially to the animacy effect on JOLs.

  13. From the Bob/Kirk effect to the Benoit/Éric effect: Testing the mechanism of name sound symbolism in two languages.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2016-09-01

    Although it is often assumed that language involves an arbitrary relationship between form and meaning, many studies have demonstrated that nonwords like maluma are associated with round shapes, while nonwords like takete are associated with sharp shapes (i.e., the Maluma/Takete effect, Köhler, 1929/1947). The majority of the research on sound symbolism has used nonwords, but Sidhu and Pexman (2015) recently extended this effect to existing labels: real English first names (i.e., the Bob/Kirk effect). In the present research we tested whether the effects of name sound symbolism generalize to French speakers (Experiment 1) and French names (Experiment 2). In addition, we assessed the underlying mechanism of name sound symbolism, investigating the roles of phonology and orthography in the effect. Results showed that name sound symbolism does generalize to French speakers and French names. Further, this robust effect remained the same when names were presented in a curved vs. angular font (Experiment 3), or when the salience of orthographic information was reduced through auditory presentation (Experiment 4). Together these results suggest that the Bob/Kirk effect is pervasive, and that it is based on fundamental features of name phonemes.

  14. Bottom-up and top-down attentional contributions to the size congruity effect.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Kenith V; Puri, Amrita M; Faulkenberry, Thomas J

    2016-07-01

    The size congruity effect refers to the interaction between the numerical and physical (i.e., font) sizes of digits in a numerical (or physical) magnitude selection task. Although various accounts of the size congruity effect have attributed this interaction to either an early representational stage or a late decision stage, only Risko, Maloney, and Fugelsang (Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 75, 1137-1147, 2013) have asserted a central role for attention. In the present study, we used a visual search paradigm to further study the role of attention in the size congruity effect. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed that manipulating top-down attention (via the task instructions) had a significant impact on the size congruity effect. The interaction between numerical and physical size was larger for numerical size comparison (Exp. 1) than for physical size comparison (Exp. 2). In the remaining experiments, we boosted the feature salience by using a unique target color (Exp. 3) or by increasing the display density by using three-digit numerals (Exps. 4 and 5). As expected, a color singleton target abolished the size congruity effect. Searching for three-digit targets based on numerical size (Exp. 4) resulted in a large size congruity effect, but search based on physical size (Exp. 5) abolished the effect. Our results reveal a substantial role for top-down attention in the size congruity effect, which we interpreted as support for a shared-decision account.

  15. Standards update -- 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    What a year this has been! Not since 1986, when SGML was being finished, has there been so much activity in the SGML world. In ISO, there are new standards being completed and old ones (some of which are not really all that old) being revised. As you`ll be hearing, there is lots of SGML activity in the applications world--particularly on the Internet--and that`s causing other kinds of standards activity. WG8 divides its work into five ``Rapporteur Groups`` (or ``RGs``) for DSSSL, Font Description and Interchange, SGML, SPDL, and Hypermedia Languages. Since interest is in DSSSL, SGML, and Hypermedia Languages, the author only mentions that the other groups have been active, too. The Fronts group has been doing amendments to its standards, ISO/IEC 9541 and ISO/IEC 10036. The Fronts groups has been active in providing support for ISO/IEC 10646, the massive character coding standard that has drawn a lot of attention in the SGML world. The SPDL group has at long last finished its standard, the Standard Page Description Language (ISO/IEC 10180) and is about to publish it. More detailed discussions are given for activity in SGML, DSSSL, and Hypermedia Languages.

  16. Compound character recognition by run-number-based metric distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garain, Uptal; Chaudhuri, B. B.

    1998-04-01

    This paper concerns automatic OCR of Bangla, a major Indian Language Script which is the fourth most popular script in the world. A Bangla OCR system has to recognize about 300 graphemic shapes among which 250 compound characters have quite complex stroke patterns. For recognition of such compound characters, feature based approaches are less reliable and template based approaches are less flexible to size and style variation of character font. We combine the positive aspects of feature based and template based approaches. Here we propose a run number based normalized template matching technique for compound character recognition. Run number vectors for both horizontal and vertical scanning are computed. As the number of scans may very from pattern to pattern, we normalize and abbreviate the vector. We prove that this normalized and abbreviated vector induces metric distance metric distance. Moreover, this vector is invariant to scaling, insensitive to character style variation and more effective for more complex-shaped characters than simple-shaped ones. We use this vector representation for matching within a group of compound characters. We notice that the matching is more efficient if the vector is reorganized with respect to the centroid of the pattern. We have tested our approach on a large set of segmented compounds characters at different point sizes as well as different styles. Italic characters are subject to preprocessing. The overall correct recognition rate is 99.69 percent.

  17. Negative affect promotes encoding of and memory for details at the expense of the gist: affect, encoding, and false memories.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin

    2013-01-01

    I investigated whether negative affective states enhance encoding of and memory for item-specific information reducing false memories. Positive, negative, and neutral moods were induced, and participants then completed a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory task. List items were presented in unique spatial locations or unique fonts to serve as measures for item-specific encoding. The negative mood conditions had more accurate memories for item-specific information, and they also had fewer false memories. The final experiment used a manipulation that drew attention to distinctive information, which aided learning for DRM words, but also promoted item-specific encoding. For the condition that promoted item-specific encoding, false memories were reduced for positive and neutral mood conditions to a rate similar to that of the negative mood condition. These experiments demonstrated that negative affective cues promote item-specific processing reducing false memories. People in positive and negative moods encode events differently creating different memories for the same event.

  18. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  19. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  20. Sources et impacts potentiels des micropolluants chimiques sur un écosystème littoral exploité: l'exemple des côtes des Charente-Maritime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramand, P.; Guyot, T.; Pigeot, J.

    2003-06-01

    Le littoral picto-charentais est une zone à fortes activités économiques liées à l'aquaculture, à la pêche et au tourisme. Toutes ces activités demandent une très bonne qualité des eaux et de l'environnement en général. Or, cette zone littorale est soumise à de nombreux apports de micropolluants: métaux lourds, phytosanitaires, hydrocarbures, organochlorés.... Les sources en sont nombreuses: apports fluviatiles et atmosphériques, rejets diffus et rejets directs. Les risques dus à cette pollution sont multiples que ce soit au niveau dcs organismes, au niveau des écosystèmes ou des consommateurs. De ce fait, les contaminants majeurs (métaux lourds, organochlorés. hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques) et leurs impacts éventuels sur les écosystèmes font l'objet de veille environnementale (réseaux de surveillance ou d'observatoires de l'environnement) et de mesures de prévention se traduisant par la définition de normes de rejets ou de contamination décidées à l'échelle européenne.

  1. Les surfaces croches de l'univers d'Einstein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lareau-Dussault, Rosemonde

    Dans ce mémoire, on introduit l'univers d'Einstein et on présente plusieurs façons conceptuelles et paramétriques de représenter cet espace. On présente ensuite différents objets de l'univers d'Einstein. L'accent est mis sur la visualisation de ces objets en dimension deux et trois. Finalement, on décrit les surfaces croches. Les surfaces croches servent à borner des domaines fondamentaux, de la même façon que les surfaces équidistantes le font en géométrie euclidienne. Le but de ce mémoire est de présenter certaines propriétés des surfaces croches. En particulier, on montre qu'elles ont deux côtés. Si ce n'était pas le cas, il serait impossible de trouver des surfaces croches disjointes. Mots clés : Structures lorentziennes, Univers d'Einstein, Géométrie conforme, Action de groupe, Groupe associé à une surface.

  2. FunRich: An open access standalone functional enrichment and interaction network analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Pathan, Mohashin; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Ang, Ching-Seng; Gangoda, Lahiru; Quek, Camelia Y J; Williamson, Nicholas A; Mouradov, Dmitri; Sieber, Oliver M; Simpson, Richard J; Salim, Agus; Bacic, Antony; Hill, Andrew F; Stroud, David A; Ryan, Michael T; Agbinya, Johnson I; Mariadason, John M; Burgess, Antony W; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    As high-throughput techniques including proteomics become more accessible to individual laboratories, there is an urgent need for a user-friendly bioinformatics analysis system. Here, we describe FunRich, an open access, standalone functional enrichment and network analysis tool. FunRich is designed to be used by biologists with minimal or no support from computational and database experts. Using FunRich, users can perform functional enrichment analysis on background databases that are integrated from heterogeneous genomic and proteomic resources (>1.5 million annotations). Besides default human specific FunRich database, users can download data from the UniProt database, which currently supports 20 different taxonomies against which enrichment analysis can be performed. Moreover, the users can build their own custom databases and perform the enrichment analysis irrespective of organism. In addition to proteomics datasets, the custom database allows for the tool to be used for genomics, lipidomics and metabolomics datasets. Thus, FunRich allows for complete database customization and thereby permits for the tool to be exploited as a skeleton for enrichment analysis irrespective of the data type or organism used. FunRich (http://www.funrich.org) is user-friendly and provides graphical representation (Venn, pie charts, bar graphs, column, heatmap and doughnuts) of the data with customizable font, scale and color (publication quality).

  3. Guidelines for Effective Usage of Text Highlighting Techniques.

    PubMed

    Strobelt, Hendrik; Oelke, Daniela; Kwon, Bum Chul; Schreck, Tobias; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Semi-automatic text analysis involves manual inspection of text. Often, different text annotations (like part-of-speech or named entities) are indicated by using distinctive text highlighting techniques. In typesetting there exist well-known formatting conventions, such as bold typeface, italics, or background coloring, that are useful for highlighting certain parts of a given text. Also, many advanced techniques for visualization and highlighting of text exist; yet, standard typesetting is common, and the effects of standard typesetting on the perception of text are not fully understood. As such, we surveyed and tested the effectiveness of common text highlighting techniques, both individually and in combination, to discover how to maximize pop-out effects while minimizing visual interference between techniques. To validate our findings, we conducted a series of crowdsourced experiments to determine: i) a ranking of nine commonly-used text highlighting techniques; ii) the degree of visual interference between pairs of text highlighting techniques; iii) the effectiveness of techniques for visual conjunctive search. Our results show that increasing font size works best as a single highlighting technique, and that there are significant visual interferences between some pairs of highlighting techniques. We discuss the pros and cons of different combinations as a design guideline to choose text highlighting techniques for text viewers.

  4. Text Detection in Natural Scene Images by Stroke Gabor Words.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, based on stroke components and descriptive Gabor filters, to detect text regions in natural scene images. Text characters and strings are constructed by stroke components as basic units. Gabor filters are used to describe and analyze the stroke components in text characters or strings. We define a suitability measurement to analyze the confidence of Gabor filters in describing stroke component and the suitability of Gabor filters on an image window. From the training set, we compute a set of Gabor filters that can describe principle stroke components of text by their parameters. Then a K -means algorithm is applied to cluster the descriptive Gabor filters. The clustering centers are defined as Stroke Gabor Words (SGWs) to provide a universal description of stroke components. By suitability evaluation on positive and negative training samples respectively, each SGW generates a pair of characteristic distributions of suitability measurements. On a testing natural scene image, heuristic layout analysis is applied first to extract candidate image windows. Then we compute the principle SGWs for each image window to describe its principle stroke components. Characteristic distributions generated by principle SGWs are used to classify text or nontext windows. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm can handle complex backgrounds and variant text patterns (font, color, scale, etc.).

  5. Preventing errors in laterality.

    PubMed

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2015-04-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in separate colors. This allows the radiologist to correlate all detected laterality terms of the report with the images open in PACS and correct them before the report is finalized. The system is monitored every time an error in laterality was detected. The system detected 32 errors in laterality over a 7-month period (rate of 0.0007 %), with CT containing the highest error detection rate of all modalities. Significantly, more errors were detected in male patients compared with female patients. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that with our system, laterality errors can be detected and corrected prior to finalizing reports.

  6. Robust Optical Recognition of Cursive Pashto Script Using Scale, Rotation and Location Invariant Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Riaz; Naz, Saeeda; Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan; Amin, Sayed Hassan; Breuel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a large number of unique shapes called ligatures in cursive languages, along with variations due to scaling, orientation and location provides one of the most challenging pattern recognition problems. Recognition of the large number of ligatures is often a complicated task in oriental languages such as Pashto, Urdu, Persian and Arabic. Research on cursive script recognition often ignores the fact that scaling, orientation, location and font variations are common in printed cursive text. Therefore, these variations are not included in image databases and in experimental evaluations. This research uncovers challenges faced by Arabic cursive script recognition in a holistic framework by considering Pashto as a test case, because Pashto language has larger alphabet set than Arabic, Persian and Urdu. A database containing 8000 images of 1000 unique ligatures having scaling, orientation and location variations is introduced. In this article, a feature space based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) along with a segmentation framework has been proposed for overcoming the above mentioned challenges. The experimental results show a significantly improved performance of proposed scheme over traditional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA). PMID:26368566

  7. Real-Time Lexicon-Free Scene Text Localization and Recognition.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lukas; Matas, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    An end-to-end real-time text localization and recognition method is presented. Its real-time performance is achieved by posing the character detection and segmentation problem as an efficient sequential selection from the set of Extremal Regions. The ER detector is robust against blur, low contrast and illumination, color and texture variation. In the first stage, the probability of each ER being a character is estimated using features calculated by a novel algorithm in constant time and only ERs with locally maximal probability are selected for the second stage, where the classification accuracy is improved using computationally more expensive features. A highly efficient clustering algorithm then groups ERs into text lines and an OCR classifier trained on synthetic fonts is exploited to label character regions. The most probable character sequence is selected in the last stage when the context of each character is known. The method was evaluated on three public datasets. On the ICDAR 2013 dataset the method achieves state-of-the-art results in text localization; on the more challenging SVT dataset, the proposed method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods and demonstrates that the proposed pipeline can incorporate additional prior knowledge about the detected text. The proposed method was exploited as the baseline in the ICDAR 2015 Robust Reading competition, where it compares favourably to the state-of-the art. PMID:26540676

  8. A segmentation-free approach to Arabic and Urdu OCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbour, Nazly; Shafait, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generic Optical Character Recognition system for Arabic script languages called Nabocr. Nabocr uses OCR approaches specific for Arabic script recognition. Performing recognition on Arabic script text is relatively more difficult than Latin text due to the nature of Arabic script, which is cursive and context sensitive. Moreover, Arabic script has different writing styles that vary in complexity. Nabocr is initially trained to recognize both Urdu Nastaleeq and Arabic Naskh fonts. However, it can be trained by users to be used for other Arabic script languages. We have evaluated our system's performance for both Urdu and Arabic. In order to evaluate Urdu recognition, we have generated a dataset of Urdu text called UPTI (Urdu Printed Text Image Database), which measures different aspects of a recognition system. The performance of our system for Urdu clean text is 91%. For Arabic clean text, the performance is 86%. Moreover, we have compared the performance of our system against Tesseract's newly released Arabic recognition, and the performance of both systems on clean images is almost the same.

  9. VennDIS: a JavaFX-based Venn and Euler diagram software to generate publication quality figures.

    PubMed

    Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Ignatchenko, Alexandr; Sinha, Ankit; Boutros, Paul C; Kislinger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Venn diagrams are graphical representations of the relationships among multiple sets of objects and are often used to illustrate similarities and differences among genomic and proteomic datasets. All currently existing tools for producing Venn diagrams evince one of two traits; they require expertise in specific statistical software packages (such as R), or lack the flexibility required to produce publication-quality figures. We describe a simple tool that addresses both shortcomings, Venn Diagram Interactive Software (VennDIS), a JavaFX-based solution for producing highly customizable, publication-quality Venn, and Euler diagrams of up to five sets. The strengths of VennDIS are its simple graphical user interface and its large array of customization options, including the ability to modify attributes such as font, style and position of the labels, background color, size of the circle/ellipse, and outline color. It is platform independent and provides real-time visualization of figure modifications. The created figures can be saved as XML files for future modification or exported as high-resolution images for direct use in publications. PMID:25545689

  10. A conceptual basis to encode and detect organic functional groups in XML.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Krief, Alain; Vijayasarathi, Durairaj

    2013-06-01

    A conceptual basis to define and detect organic functional groups is developed. The basic model of a functional group is termed as a primary functional group and is characterized by a group center composed of one or more group center atoms bonded to terminal atoms and skeletal carbon atoms. The generic group center patterns are identified from the structures of known functional groups. Accordingly, a chemical ontology 'Font' is developed to organize the existing functional groups as well as the new ones to be defined by the chemists. The basic model is extended to accommodate various combinations of primary functional groups as functional group assemblies. A concept of skeletal group is proposed to define the characteristic groups composed of only carbon atoms to be regarded as equivalent to functional groups. The combination of primary functional groups with skeletal groups is categorized as skeletal group assembly. In order to make the model suitable for reaction modeling purpose, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed to define the functional groups and to encode in XML format appropriate to detect them in chemical structures. The system is capable of detecting multiple instances of primary functional groups as well as the overlapping poly-functional groups as the respective assemblies. PMID:23666030

  11. Application Reuse Library for Software, Requirements, and Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Thronesbery, Carroll

    1994-01-01

    Better designs are needed for expert systems and other operations automation software, for more reliable, usable and effective human support. A prototype computer-aided Application Reuse Library shows feasibility of supporting concurrent development and improvement of advanced software by users, analysts, software developers, and human-computer interaction experts. Such a library expedites development of quality software, by providing working, documented examples, which support understanding, modification and reuse of requirements as well as code. It explicitly documents and implicitly embodies design guidelines, standards and conventions. The Application Reuse Library provides application modules with Demo-and-Tester elements. Developers and users can evaluate applicability of a library module and test modifications, by running it interactively. Sub-modules provide application code and displays and controls. The library supports software modification and reuse, by providing alternative versions of application and display functionality. Information about human support and display requirements is provided, so that modifications will conform to guidelines. The library supports entry of new application modules from developers throughout an organization. Example library modules include a timer, some buttons and special fonts, and a real-time data interface program. The library prototype is implemented in the object-oriented G2 environment for developing real-time expert systems.

  12. Coronagraphic wavefront sensing with COFFEE: high spatial-frequency diversity and other news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugnier, L. M.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Herscovici-Schiller, O.; Baudoz, P.; Galicher, R.; Le Duigou, J.-M.

    2016-07-01

    The final performance of current and future instruments dedicated to exoplanet detection and characterization is limited by intensity residuals in the scientific image plane, which originate in uncorrected optical aberrations. In order to reach very high contrasts, these aberrations needs to be compensated for. We have proposed a focalplane wave-font sensor called COFFEE (for COronagraphic Focal-plane wave-Front Estimation for Exoplanet detection), which consists in an extension of conventional phase diversity to a coronagraphic system. In this communication, we study the extension of COFFEE to the joint estimation of the phase and the amplitude in the context of space-based coronagraphic instruments: we optimize the diversity phase in order to minimize the reconstruction error; we also propose and optimize a novel low-amplitude high-frequency diversity that should allow the phase-diverse images to still be used for science. Lastly, we perform a first experimental validation of COFFEE in the very high, space-like contrast conditions of the THD bench and show that COFFEE is able to distinguish between phase and amplitude aberrations.

  13. Enhanced magneto-optical imaging of internal stresses in the removed surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agalidi, Yuriy; Kozhukhar, Pavlo; Levyi, Sergii; Turbin, Dmitriy

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes a software method of reconstructing the state of the removed surface layer by visualising internal stresses in the underlying layers of the sample. Such a problem typically needs to be solved as part of forensic investigation that aims to reveal original marking of a sample with removed surface layer. For example, one may be interested in serial numbers of weapons or vehicles that had the surface layer of metal removed from the number plate. Experimental results of studying gradient internal stress fields in ferromagnetic sample using the NDI method of magneto-optical imaging (MOI) are presented. Numerical modelling results of internal stresses enclosed in the surface marking region are analysed and compared to the experimental results of magneto-optical imaging (MOI). MOI correction algorithm intended for reconstructing internal stress fields in the removed surface layer by extracting stresses retained by the underlying layers is described. Limiting ratios between parameters of a marking font are defined for the considered correction algorithm. Enhanced recognition properties for hidden stresses left by marking symbols are experimentally verified and confirmed.

  14. Navajo coal and air quality in Shiprock, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.; Garcia, Linda V.

    2006-01-01

    Among the Navajo people, high levels of respiratory disease, such as asthma, exist in a population with low rates of cigarette smoking. Air quality outdoors and indoors affects respiratory health. Many Navajo Nation residents burn locally mined coal in their homes for heat, as coal is the most economical energy source. The U.S. Geological Survey and Dine College, in cooperation with the Navajo Division of Health, are conducting a study in the Shiprock, New Mexico, area to determine if indoor use of this coal might be contributing to some of the respiratory health problems experienced by the residents. Researchers in this study will (1) examine respiratory health data, (2) identify stove type and use, (3) analyze samples of coal that are used locally, and (4) measure and characterize air quality inside selected homes. This Fact Sheet summarizes the interim results of the study in both English and Navajo. This Fact Sheet is available in three versions: * English [800-KB PDF file ] * Navajo [computer must have Navajo language fonts installed - 304-KB PDF file] * Image of the Navajo language version [19.8-MB PDF file

  15. Maxmin lambda allocation for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wei K.; Ros, Jordi

    2002-08-01

    We present a heuristic for solving the discrete maximum-minimum (maxmin) rates for dense WDM- (DWDM-) based optical subnetworks. Discrete maxmin allocation is proposed here as the preferred way of assigning wavelengths to the flows found to be suitable for lightpath switching. The discrete maxmin optimality condition is shown to be a unifying principle underlying both the continuous maxmin and discrete maxmin optimality conditions. Among the many discrete maxmin solutions for each assignment problem, lexicographic optimal solutions can be argued to be the best in the true sense of maxmin. However, the problem of finding lexicographic optimal solutions is known to be NP-complete (NP is the class that a nondeterministic Turing machine accepts in polynomial time). The heuristic proposed here is tested against all possible networks such that |Gj + jW| <FONT FACE="Symbol">£ 10, where G and W are the set of links and the set of flows of the network, respectively. From 1,084,112 possible networks, the heuristic produces the exact lexicographic solutions with 99.8% probability. Furthermore, for 0.2% cases in which the solutions are nonoptimal, 99.8% of these solutions are within the minimal possible distance from the true lexicographic optimal solutions.

  16. Keep logging in! Experimental evidence showing the relation of affiliation needs to the idea of online social networking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Chia; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2013-06-01

    As social networking sites (SNS) increasingly provide social connections that meet the need for affiliation, people are developing symbiotic relationships with these sites. Drawing on the notion that people motivated by affiliation may increase their attention to sources that provide social connections, we conducted a lab experiment to explore whether priming affiliation needs would prompt the idea of online social networking. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three between-subjects conditions (affiliation arousal, social exclusion, control) in which we employed the scrambled-sentence paradigm to manipulate affiliation motivations. Each experimental condition was followed by a modified Stroop task (a color naming task) to test reaction times to SNS and non-SNS terms (including general terms and brand names). People who were primed to think about a topic typically showed slowed reaction times for naming the color of related words (i.e., Stroop interference), as those words become more interesting and accessible. Confirming our hypothesis, participants took longer to name the font color of SNS-related words than that of matched general words when affiliation motivation was evoked. Moreover, priming with affiliation motivation created more Stroop interference for SNS brand names rather than for other global brand names. These results suggest that the idea of online social networking seems to have become deeply rooted in human social practices. PMID:23427848

  17. Angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénal bénin: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Bagayogo, Tidiani; Othmane, Yddoussalah; Tarik, Karmouni; Khalid, Elkhader; Abdellatif, Koutani; Ahmed, Ibn Attya Andaloussi

    2015-01-01

    Les angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénaux (AMLeR) sont des tumeurs rares (identifiées chez moins de 0,1 patients pour 1000 habitants) et représentent 8% des angiomyolipomes (AML) opérés. Il a longtemps été considérécomme un hamartome mais plusieurs articles récents font penser qu'il s'agir d'une tumeur dérivant de cellules épithélioïdespérivasculaires. L'angiomyolipome épithélioïde est une forme rare d'angiomyolipome à potentiel malin, composé decellules épithélioïdes posant des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les carcinomes à cellules rénales. L'immunohistochimie,en révélant la positivité des cellules épithélioïdes au marqueur HMB45 est essentielle au diagnostic. Les auteursrapportent l'aspect tomodensitométrique et histologique d'angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes chez deux patientes. PMID:26953738

  18. Robust Optical Recognition of Cursive Pashto Script Using Scale, Rotation and Location Invariant Approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Riaz; Naz, Saeeda; Afzal, Muhammad Zeshan; Amin, Sayed Hassan; Breuel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a large number of unique shapes called ligatures in cursive languages, along with variations due to scaling, orientation and location provides one of the most challenging pattern recognition problems. Recognition of the large number of ligatures is often a complicated task in oriental languages such as Pashto, Urdu, Persian and Arabic. Research on cursive script recognition often ignores the fact that scaling, orientation, location and font variations are common in printed cursive text. Therefore, these variations are not included in image databases and in experimental evaluations. This research uncovers challenges faced by Arabic cursive script recognition in a holistic framework by considering Pashto as a test case, because Pashto language has larger alphabet set than Arabic, Persian and Urdu. A database containing 8000 images of 1000 unique ligatures having scaling, orientation and location variations is introduced. In this article, a feature space based on scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) along with a segmentation framework has been proposed for overcoming the above mentioned challenges. The experimental results show a significantly improved performance of proposed scheme over traditional feature extraction techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA). PMID:26368566

  19. Enhanced UK teletext: Experimental equipment for high-quality picture coding and other enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. L.

    1983-07-01

    The construction of a pair of microcomputer-based units which will serve as a research tool in engineering teletext enhancements, one unit a transmitter and the other a receiver in a closed-circuit teletext transmission is described. The microcomputer system and frame store design is basically similar to that currently used by Logica in the Flair electronic graphics equipment. Considerable effort was devoted to the development of software handling. The units are equipped with a CP/M operating system, which is already widely known. This greatly simplifies the management of files and includes compiling routines and a software debugging tool. Software is being prepared in PASCAL. Routines were developed to receive, generate, edit and transmit teletext in its present form. Early attention was given to demonstrating that picture teletext is feasible through a crudely-coded slow-scan television system. An acceptable sampling structure for these pictures and optimizing the coding of data to fit in with a hierarchy of coding embracing other aspects of enhanced teletext, for example, geometric drawing, electronic painting and telesoftware are addressed. A high quality character font was incorporated to improve the display of text.

  20. Dynamic scenario of metabolic pathway adaptation in tumors and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Peppicelli, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Calorini, Lido

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells need to regulate their metabolic program to fuel several activities, including unlimited proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this work is to revise this complex scenario. Starting from proliferating cancer cells located in well-oxygenated regions, they may express the so-called “Warburg effect” or aerobic glycolysis, meaning that although a plenty of oxygen is available, cancer cells choose glycolysis, the sole pathway that allows a biomass formation and DNA duplication, needed for cell division. Although oxygen does not represent the primary font of energy, diffusion rate reduces oxygen tension and the emerging hypoxia promotes “anaerobic glycolysis” through the hypoxia inducible factor-1α-dependent up-regulation. The acquired hypoxic phenotype is endowed with high resistance to cell death and high migration capacities, although these cells are less proliferating. Cells using aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis survive only in case they extrude acidic metabolites acidifying the extracellular space. Acidosis drives cancer cells from glycolysis to OxPhos, and OxPhos transforms the available alternative substrates into energy used to fuel migration and distant organ colonization. Thus, metabolic adaptations sustain different energy-requiring ability of cancer cells, but render them responsive to perturbations by anti-metabolic agents, such as inhibitors of glycolysis and/or OxPhos. PMID:25897425

  1. Differential light responses of Mediterranean tree saplings: linking ecophysiology with regeneration niche in four co-occurring species.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Valladares, Fernando; Zamora, Regino

    2006-07-01

    The ecophysiological mechanisms underlying plant-plant interactions and forest regeneration processes in Mediterranean ecosystems are poorly understood, and the experimental evidence for the role of light availability in these processes is particularly scant. We analyzed the effects of high and low irradiances on 31 ecological, morphological and physiological variables in saplings of four late-successional Mediterranean trees, two deciduous (Acer opalus subsp. granatense (Boiss.) Font Quer & Rothm. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and two evergreen (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco and Quercus ilex L.), which coexist in mature montane forests. Species differed in both their capacity to withstand high radiation and in their shade tolerance. The two deciduous species were the least tolerant to high radiation, exhibiting both dynamic and chronic photoinhibition in full sunlight, with severe implications for gas exchange and photosynthetic performance. Excess light severely limited the survival of A. opalus subsp. granatense, even minor reductions of excessive radiation (from full sunlight to 80% sunlight) being crucial for sapling survival. Among species, P. nigra was the most tolerant of high irradiances but showed the poorest shade acclimation. Interspecific differences in the mechanisms of response to light provide a partial explanation of the differential regeneration patterns previously reported for these species, with shade-tolerant plants (i.e., deciduous broadleaf species) benefiting the most from associations with nurse plants. We conclude that light availability is an important environmental factor defining the regeneration niche of Mediterranean woody species.

  2. Invariant correlation to position and rotation using a binary mask applied to binary and gray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Borrego, Josué; Solorza, Selene; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper more alternative ways to generate the binary ring masks are studied and a new methodology is presented when in the analysis the image come with some distortion due to rotation. This new algorithm requires low computational cost. Signature vectors of the target so like signature vectors of the object to be recognized in the problem image are obtained using a binary ring mask constructed in accordance with the real or the imaginary part of their Fourier transform analyzing two different conditions in each one. In this manner, each image target or problem image, will have four unique binary ring masks. The four ways are analyzed and the best is chosen. In addition, due to any image with rotation include some distortion, the best transect is chosen in the Fourier plane in order to obtain the best signature through the different ways to obtain the binary mask. This methodology is applied to two cases: to identify different types of alphabetic letters in Arial font and to identify different fossil diatoms images. Considering the great similarity between diatom images the results obtained are excellent.

  3. Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  4. Integrated Arrays on Silicon at Terahertz Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhayay, Goutam; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecil; Lin, Robert; Peralta, Alessandro; Mehdi, Imran; Llombert, Nuria; Thomas, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architecture for use in integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies and use of novel integrated antennas with silicon micromachining are reported. We report novel stacking of micromachined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages which easily leads to the development of 2- dimensioanl multi-pixel receiver front-ends in the terahertz frequency range. We also report an integrated micro-lens antenna that goes with the silicon micro-machined front-end. The micro-lens antenna is fed by a waveguide that excites a silicon lens antenna through a leaky-wave or electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonant cavity. We utilized advanced semiconductor nanofabrication techniques to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a super-compact, low-mass submillimeter-wave heterodyne frontend. When the micro-lens antenna is integrated with the receiver front-end we will be able to assemble integrated heterodyne array receivers for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

  5. Evaluation of an automatic markup system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghva, Kazem; Condit, Allen; Borsack, Julie

    1995-03-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, we present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device we use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Our automatic markup program, which we call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy is compared to the output of our markup system to determine its correctness.

  6. Practical strategies for effective lectures.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Peter H; McCallister, Jennifer W; Luks, Andrew M; Le, Tao T; Fessler, Henry E

    2015-04-01

    Lecturing is an essential teaching skill for scientists and health care professionals in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. However, few medical or scientific educators have received training in contemporary techniques or technology for large audience presentation. Interactive lecturing outperforms traditional, passive-style lecturing in educational outcomes, and is being increasingly incorporated into large group presentations. Evidence-based techniques range from the very simple, such as inserting pauses for audience discussion, to more technologically advanced approaches such as electronic audience response systems. Alternative software platforms such as Prezi can overcome some of the visual limits that the ubiquitous PowerPoint imposes on complex scientific narratives, and newer technology formats can help foster the interactive learning environment. Regardless of the technology, adherence to good principles of instructional design, multimedia learning, visualization of quantitative data, and informational public speaking can improve any lecture. The storyline must be clear, logical, and simplified compared with how it might be prepared for scientific publication. Succinct outline and summary slides can provide a roadmap for the audience. Changes of pace, and summaries or other cognitive breaks inserted every 15-20 minutes can renew attention. Graphics that emphasize clear, digestible data graphs or images over tables, and simple, focused tables over text slides, are more readily absorbed. Text slides should minimize words, using simple fonts in colors that contrast to a plain background. Adherence to these well-established principles and addition of some new approaches and technologies will yield an engaging lecture worth attending. PMID:25746051

  7. Étude micromécanique de la disparition du seuil de fissuration par fatigue d'un alliage de titane biphasé à fort K_{max}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, F.; Doquet, V.; Sarrazin-Baudoux, C.; Petit, J.

    2003-03-01

    L'alliage Ti6246 présente, lors d'essais de fissuration par fatigue à K_{max} constant et ΔK décroissant un comportement atypique : lorsque K_{max}ge 0.7KIC, on observe, sous air comme sous vide, au lieu du seuil attendu, un régime de propagation à vitesse constante, dix fois plus élevée à l'ambiante qu'à 500^{circ}C. Le fluage, qui se manifeste dès l'ambiante dans cet alliage semble jouer un rôle dans ce phénomène. Toutefois, des analyses par spectrométrie de masse d'ions secondaires font apparaître une sur-concentration en hydrogène au voisinage d'une fissure développée dans le régime anormal. Des essais de fissuration, traction et fluage sont donc entrepris sur le matériau brut, appauvri ou enrichi en hydrogène, pour partie dans la chambre d'un microscope électronique à balayage, dans le but d'explorer ce phénomène. On constate qu'un enrichissement en hydrogène augmente la ductilité du matériau et sa tendance au fluage à l'ambiante et un enrichissement plus prononcé la diminue.

  8. Organical residue and agriculture like energetic reservoir: Study of economic and environmental effects in electricity production from biomass in Venice county

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, G.; Tromboni, S.

    1996-12-31

    The study proposes, through a technical analysis of feasibility, the individulation of a concrete solution that allows an reduction of pollution`s fonts that they burden on the Venice`s basin. This area, for his particular formation and position, contains a strongs intrinsic brittleness that progressively gets worse because of organic nature environmental pollution. This particularly forms of pollution are provoked by the agricultural activity and by other economic activity. This study examine an alternative and integrated system to utilize organic material coming from livestock farming, urban communities and various production activities that gravitates on the Venice`s logoon. This research exploits an innovative context where {open_quotes}waste implementation{close_quotes} by different methodologies is none of the most powerful means to defend the environment and to recuperate their potential energetical resources. In the present study we will try to transform the current concept of {open_quotes}eliminating and destroying{close_quotes} into a more progressive one where organic wastes take the role of raw material to be converted in energy. The loss of a high quantity of the potential energy that they present can be avoided by technologies and know-how, now available, by which we are able to transform such latent energy in alternative forms that can be directly utilized.

  9. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-03-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the "unplugged" tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given "passwords" and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The "passwords" of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original "passwords." The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed.

  10. “Drinking Won’t Get You Thinking”: A Content Analysis of Adolescent-Created Print Alcohol Counter-Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Hecht, Michael L.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in creating anti-alcohol advertisements generates enthusiasm among adolescents, however, little is known about the messages adolescents develop for these activities. In this paper, we present a content analysis of 72 print alcohol counter-advertisements created by high school (age 14–17 years old) and college (18–25 years old) students. The posters were content analyzed for poster message content, persuasion strategies, and production components, and we compared high school and college student posters. All of the posters used a slogan to highlight the main point/message of the ad and counter-arguments/consequences to support the slogans. The most frequently depicted consequences were negative consequences of alcohol use followed by negative-positive consequence comparison. Persuasion strategies were sparingly used in advertisements and included having fun/one of the gang, humor/unexpected, glamour/sex appeal, and endorsement. Finally, posters displayed a number of production techniques including depicting people, clear setting, multiple colors, different font sizes, and object placement. College and high school student constructed posters were similar on many features (for instance, posters displayed similar frequency of utilization of slogans, negative consequences and positive-negative consequence comparisons), but were different on the use of positive consequences of not using alcohol and before-after comparisons. Implications for teaching media literacy and involving adolescents and youth in developing alcohol prevention messages are discussed. PMID:23980705

  11. The Constellations of the Zodiac: Astronomy for Low Vision and Blind People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, B.; Cicero, A.; Farrando, M.; Bruno, P.

    2006-08-01

    One thinks, in general, there exist areas of the knowledge to which it is not possible to be acceded if one of the senses is diminished. Nevertheless, the reality is far from this false concept: it is not necessary to hear to compose music, nor to see to come near to the starred sky. This book has the purpose to introduce to the readers with visual difficulties the amazing world of astronomy, by means of the transmission of basic concepts of positional astronomy (cardinal points, Earth movements, apparent movement of the celestial sphere), with special emphasis in: movement of precession, the concept of stellar magnitude, its representation in celestial charts, and relation to mythology. On the other hand, the figures associated with the 13 constellations in the region of the plane of the ecliptic are described. The texts and the images are displayed in two formats: for visually diminished people, one worked on the basis of the original engravings of the Uranographia by Hevelius (1690). These were adapted and simplified for their better understanding, and a recommended font size. For blind people, we use tactile feature for the figures and Braille for the text.

  12. Re-typograph phase I: a proof-of-concept for typeface parameter extraction from historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamiroy, Bart; Bouville, Thomas; Blégean, Julien; Cao, Hongliu; Ghamizi, Salah; Houpin, Romain; Lloyd, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase of an attempt to create a full retro-engineering pipeline that aims to construct a complete set of coherent typographic parameters defining the typefaces used in a printed homogenous text. It should be stressed that this process cannot reasonably be expected to be fully automatic and that it is designed to include human interaction. Although font design is governed by a set of quite robust and formal geometric rulesets, it still heavily relies on subjective human interpretation. Furthermore, different parameters, applied to the generic rulesets may actually result in quite similar and visually difficult to distinguish typefaces, making the retro-engineering an inverse problem that is ill conditioned once shape distortions (related to the printing and/or scanning process) come into play. This work is the first phase of a long iterative process, in which we will progressively study and assess the techniques from the state-of-the-art that are most suited to our problem and investigate new directions when they prove to not quite adequate. As a first step, this is more of a feasibility proof-of-concept, that will allow us to clearly pinpoint the items that will require more in-depth research over the next iterations.

  13. Clustering of Farsi sub-word images for whole-book recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soheili, Mohammad Reza; Kabir, Ehsanollah; Stricker, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Redundancy of word and sub-word occurrences in large documents can be effectively utilized in an OCR system to improve recognition results. Most OCR systems employ language modeling techniques as a post-processing step; however these techniques do not use important pictorial information that exist in the text image. In case of large-scale recognition of degraded documents, this information is even more valuable. In our previous work, we proposed a subword image clustering method for the applications dealing with large printed documents. In our clustering method, the ideal case is when all equivalent sub-word images lie in one cluster. To overcome the issues of low print quality, the clustering method uses an image matching algorithm for measuring the distance between two sub-word images. The measured distance with a set of simple shape features were used to cluster all sub-word images. In this paper, we analyze the effects of adding more shape features on processing time, purity of clustering, and the final recognition rate. Previously published experiments have shown the efficiency of our method on a book. Here we present extended experimental results and evaluate our method on another book with totally different font face. Also we show that the number of the new created clusters in a page can be used as a criteria for assessing the quality of print and evaluating preprocessing phases.

  14. SDBI 1904: Human Factors Assessment of Vibration Effects on Visual Performance during Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby G.; Holden, Kritina; Root, Phillip; Ebert, Douglas; Jones, Jeffery; Adelstein, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the of Human Factors Short Duration Bioastronautics Investigation (SDBI) 1904 is to determine visual performance limits during operational vibration and g-loads, specifically through the determination of minimal usable font sized using Orion-type display formats. Currently there is little to no data available to quantify human visual performance under these extreme conditions. Existing data on shuttle vibration magnitude and frequency is incomplete, does not address sear and crew vibration in the current configuration, and does not address human visual performance. There have been anecdotal reports of performance decrements from shuttle crews, but no structured data has been collected. The SDBI is a companion effort to the Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 695, which will measure shuttle seat accelerations (vibration) during ascent. Data fro the SDBI will serve an important role in interpreting the DTO vibration data. This data will be collected during the ascent phase of three shuttle missions (STS-119, 127, and 128). Both SDBI1904 and DTO 695 are low impact with respect to flight resources, and combined they represent an efficient and focused problem solving approach. The SDBI and DTO data will be correlated to determine the nature of perceived visual performance under varying vibrations and g-loads. This project will provide: 1) Immediate data for developing preliminary human performance vibration requirements; 2) Flight validated inputs for ongoing and future ground-based research; and 3) Information of functional needs that will drive Orion display format design decisions.

  15. A Brain Area for Visual Numerals

    PubMed Central

    Shum, Jennifer; Hermes, Dora; Foster, Brett L.; Dastjerdi, Mohammad; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Winawer, Jonathan; Miller, Kai J.; Parvizi, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Is there a distinct area within the human visual system that has a preferential response to numerals, as there is for faces, words, or scenes? We addressed this question using intracranial electrophysiological recordings and observed a significantly higher response in the high-frequency broadband range (high γ, 65–150 Hz) to visually presented numerals, compared with morphologically similar (i.e., letters and false fonts) or semantically and phonologically similar stimuli (i.e., number words and non-number words). Anatomically, this preferential response was consistently localized in the inferior temporal gyrus and anterior to the temporo-occipital incisure. This region lies within or close to the fMRI signal-dropout zone produced by the nearby auditory canal and venous sinus artifacts, an observation that may account for negative findings in previous fMRI studies of preferential response to numerals. Because visual numerals are culturally dependent symbols that are only learned through education, our novel finding of anatomically localized preferential response to such symbols provides a new example of acquired category-specific responses in the human visual system. PMID:23595729

  16. Adolescent girls and young adult women's perceptions of superslims cigarette packaging: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Allison; Moodie, Crawford; Purves, Richard; MacKintosh, Anne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore perceptions of superslims packaging, including compact ‘lipstick’ packs, in line with 3 potential impacts identified within the impact assessment of the European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive: appeal, harm perceptions and the seriousness of warning of health risks. Design Qualitative focus group study. Setting Informal community venues in Scotland, UK. Participants 75 female non-smokers and occasional smokers (age range 12–24). Results Compact ‘lipstick’-type superslims packs were perceived most positively and rated as most appealing. They were also viewed as less harmful than more standard sized cigarette packs because of their smaller size and likeness to cosmetics. Additionally, ‘lipstick’ packs were rated as less serious in terms of warning about the health risks associated with smoking, either because the small font size of the warnings was difficult to read or because the small pack size prevented the text on the warnings from being displayed properly. Bright pack colours and floral designs were also thought to detract from the health warning. Conclusions As superslims packs were found to increase appeal, mislead with respect to level of harm, and undermine the on-pack health warnings, this provides support for the decision to ban ‘lipstick’-style cigarette packs in the EU and has implications for policy elsewhere. PMID:26747040

  17. Dynamic scenario of metabolic pathway adaptation in tumors and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Peppicelli, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Calorini, Lido

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells need to regulate their metabolic program to fuel several activities, including unlimited proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasion and metastasis. The aim of this work is to revise this complex scenario. Starting from proliferating cancer cells located in well-oxygenated regions, they may express the so-called "Warburg effect" or aerobic glycolysis, meaning that although a plenty of oxygen is available, cancer cells choose glycolysis, the sole pathway that allows a biomass formation and DNA duplication, needed for cell division. Although oxygen does not represent the primary font of energy, diffusion rate reduces oxygen tension and the emerging hypoxia promotes "anaerobic glycolysis" through the hypoxia inducible factor-1α-dependent up-regulation. The acquired hypoxic phenotype is endowed with high resistance to cell death and high migration capacities, although these cells are less proliferating. Cells using aerobic or anaerobic glycolysis survive only in case they extrude acidic metabolites acidifying the extracellular space. Acidosis drives cancer cells from glycolysis to OxPhos, and OxPhos transforms the available alternative substrates into energy used to fuel migration and distant organ colonization. Thus, metabolic adaptations sustain different energy-requiring ability of cancer cells, but render them responsive to perturbations by anti-metabolic agents, such as inhibitors of glycolysis and/or OxPhos. PMID:25897425

  18. A unified framework for multioriented text detection and recognition.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cong; Bai, Xiang; Liu, Wenyu

    2014-11-01

    High level semantics embodied in scene texts are both rich and clear and thus can serve as important cues for a wide range of vision applications, for instance, image understanding, image indexing, video search, geolocation, and automatic navigation. In this paper, we present a unified framework for text detection and recognition in natural images. The contributions of this paper are threefold: 1) text detection and recognition are accomplished concurrently using exactly the same features and classification scheme; 2) in contrast to methods in the literature, which mainly focus on horizontal or near-horizontal texts, the proposed system is capable of localizing and reading texts of varying orientations; and 3) a new dictionary search method is proposed, to correct the recognition errors usually caused by confusions among similar yet different characters. As an additional contribution, a novel image database with texts of different scales, colors, fonts, and orientations in diverse real-world scenarios, is generated and released. Extensive experiments on standard benchmarks as well as the proposed database demonstrate that the proposed system achieves highly competitive performance, especially on multioriented texts. PMID:25203989

  19. Al Jazirah, Sudan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Al Jazirah (also Gezira) is one of the 26 states of Sudan. The state lies between the Blue Nile and the White Nile in the east-central region of the country. It is a well populated area suitable for agriculture. The area was at the southern end of Nubia and little is known about its ancient history and only limited archaeological work has been conducted in this area. The region has benefited from the Gezira Scheme, a program to foster cotton farming begun in 1925. At that time the Sennar Dam and numerous irrigation canals were built. Al Jazirah became the Sudan's major agricultural region with more than 2.5 million acres (10,000 km<font size='-2'2 ) under cultivation. The initial development project was semi-private, but the government nationalized it in 1950. Cotton production increased in the 1970s but by the 1990s increased wheat production has supplanted a third of the land formerly seeded with cotton.

    The image was acquired December 25, 2006, covers an area of 56 x 36.4 km, and is located near 14.5 degrees north latitude, 33.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Evaluating the basis of the between-group production effect in recognition.

    PubMed

    Taikh, Alexander; Bodner, Glen E

    2016-06-01

    Reading a list of words aloud can improve recognition over silently reading them. This between-groups production effect (PE) cannot be due to relative distinctiveness because each group studies only 1 type of item. We tested 2 other possibilities. By a strategy account, a pure-aloud group might benefit from use of a production-based distinctiveness strategy at test (e.g., "Did I say this word aloud?"). By a strength account, aloud items may simply be more strongly encoded than silent items. To evaluate these accounts, we tested whether a between-group PE occurs when participants experience a salient within-group manipulation of font size, generation, or imagery at study. The answer was yes, except when imagery was the within-group task. This pattern, and aspects of participants' strategy reports, fit well with a strategy account if it is assumed that the imagery task led participants to abandon a production-based strategy. However, many of our findings were also compatible with an evaluated strength account if it is assumed that the imagery task led participants to abandon evaluating memory strength. In conjunction with recent findings, we suggest that multiple processes may contribute to the PE, and the relevant subset in play will differ as a function of study design, study task, and memory test. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27244360

  1. Characteristics of outpatient clinical summaries in the United States.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Christopher; O'Conor, Rachel; Singh, Sereena; Ramaswamy, Ravishankar; Kannry, Joseph; Wolf, Michael S; Federman, Alex D

    2016-10-01

    In the United States, federal regulations require that outpatient practices provide a clinical summary to ensure that patients understand what transpired during their appointment and what to do before the next visit. To determine whether clinical summaries are appropriately designed to achieve these objectives, we examined their content and formatting and their usability. We obtained a convenience sample of clinical summaries from 13 diverse practices across the U.S. and assessed their characteristics using validated measures. We also interviewed key informants at these practices to assess their views of the documents. The summaries were generated by seven different electronic health record platforms. They had small font sizes (median, 10 point) and high reading grade levels (median, 10). Suitability, measured with the Suitability Assessment of Materials was low (median score, 61%) and understandability and actionability, measured with the Patient Education Materials Assessment Test, were fair to moderate (65% and 78%, respectively). Content and order of content were inconsistent across the summaries. Among physicians, 46% found the summaries helpful for clarifying medications while 38% found them helpful for conveying follow-up information. Results suggest that clinical summaries in the U.S. may often be suboptimally designed for communicating important information with patients. A patient-centered approach to designing them is warranted. PMID:27573314

  2. Historical aspects of propolis research in modern times.

    PubMed

    Kuropatnicki, Andrzej K; Szliszka, Ewelina; Krol, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) has been known for centuries. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians were aware of the healing properties of propolis and made extensive use of it as a medicine. In the middle ages propolis was not a very popular topic and its use in mainstream medicine disappeared. However, the knowledge of medicinal properties of propolis survived in traditional folk medicine. The interest in propolis returned in Europe together with the renaissance theory of ad fontes. It has only been in the last century that scientists have been able to prove that propolis is as active and important as our forefathers thought. Research on chemical composition of propolis started at the beginning of the twentieth century and was continued after WW II. Advances in chromatographic analytical methods enabled separation and extraction of several components from propolis. At least 180 different compounds have been identified so far. Its antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anesthetic, and healing properties have been confirmed. Propolis has been effectively used in treatment of dermatological, laryngological, and gynecological problems, neurodegenerative diseases, in wound healing, and in treatment of burns and ulcers. However, it requires further research that may lead to new discoveries of its composition and possible applications.

  3. New Capabilities of the ADS Abstract and Article Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    The ADS abstract service at: http://adswww.harvard.edu has been updated considerably in the last year. New capabilities in the search engine include searching for multi-word phrases and searching for various logical combinations of search terms. Through optimization of the custom built search software, the search times were decreased by a factor of 4 in the last year. The WWW interface now uses WWW cookies to store and retrieve individual user preferences. This allows our users to set preferences for printing, accessing mirror sites, fonts, colors, etc. Information about most recently accessed references allows customized retrieval of the most recent unread volume of selected journals. The information stored in these preferences is kept completely confidential and is not used for any other purposes. Two mirror sites (at the CDS in Strasbourg, France and at NAO in Tokyo, Japan) provide faster access for our European and Asian users. To include new information in the ADS as fast as possible, new indexing and search software was developed to allow updating the index data files within minutes of receipt of time critical information (e.g., IAU Circulars which report on supernova and comet discoveries). The ADS is currently used by over 10,000 users per month, which retrieve over 4.5 million references and over 250,000 full article pages each month.

  4. Modelling normal and impaired letter recognition: implications for understanding pure alexic reading.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ya-Ning; Furber, Steve; Welbourne, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Letter recognition is the foundation of the human reading system. Despite this, it tends to receive little attention in computational modelling of single word reading. Here we present a model that can be trained to recognise letters in various spatial transformations. When presented with degraded stimuli the model makes letter confusion errors that correlate with human confusability data. Analyses of the internal representations of the model suggest that a small set of learned visual feature detectors support the recognition of both upper case and lower case letters in various fonts and transformations. We postulated that a damaged version of the model might be expected to act in a similar manner to patients suffering from pure alexia. Summed error score generated from the model was found to be a very good predictor of the reading times of pure alexic patients, outperforming simple word length, and accounting for 47% of the variance. These findings are consistent with a hypothesis suggesting that impaired visual processing is a key to understanding the strong word-length effects found in pure alexic patients. PMID:22841988

  5. An evaluation of an automatic markup system

    SciTech Connect

    Taghva, K.; Condit, A.; Borsack, J.

    1995-04-01

    One predominant application of OCR is the recognition of full text documents for information retrieval. Modern retrieval systems exploit both the textual content of the document as well as its structure. The relationship between textual content and character accuracy have been the focus of recent studies. It has been shown that due to the redundancies in text, average precision and recall is not heavily affected by OCR character errors. What is not fully known is to what extent OCR devices can provide reliable information that can be used to capture the structure of the document. In this paper, the authors present a preliminary report on the design and evaluation of a system to automatically markup technical documents, based on information provided by an OCR device. The device the authors use differs from traditional OCR devices in that it not only performs optical character recognition, but also provides detailed information about page layout, word geometry, and font usage. Their automatic markup program, which they call Autotag, uses this information, combined with dictionary, lookup and content analysis, to identify structural components of the text. These include the document title, author information, abstract, sections, section titles, paragraphs, sentences, and de-hyphenated words. A visual examination of the hardcopy will be compared to the output of their markup system to determine its correctness.

  6. Recognizing cursive typewritten text using segmentation-free system.

    PubMed

    Khorsheed, Mohammad S

    2015-01-01

    Feature extraction plays an important role in text recognition as it aims to capture essential characteristics of the text image. Feature extraction algorithms widely range between robust and hard to extract features and noise sensitive and easy to extract features. Among those feature types are statistical features which are derived from the statistical distribution of the image pixels. This paper presents a novel method for feature extraction where simple statistical features are extracted from a one-pixel wide window that slides across the text line. The feature set is clustered in the feature space using vector quantization. The feature vector sequence is then injected to a classification engine for training and recognition purposes. The recognition system is applied to a data corpus which includes cursive Arabic text of more than 600 A4-size sheets typewritten in multiple computer-generated fonts. The system performance is compared to a previously published system from the literature with a similar engine but a different feature set. PMID:25961075

  7. Historical Aspects of Propolis Research in Modern Times

    PubMed Central

    Kuropatnicki, Andrzej K.; Krol, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) has been known for centuries. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians were aware of the healing properties of propolis and made extensive use of it as a medicine. In the middle ages propolis was not a very popular topic and its use in mainstream medicine disappeared. However, the knowledge of medicinal properties of propolis survived in traditional folk medicine. The interest in propolis returned in Europe together with the renaissance theory of ad fontes. It has only been in the last century that scientists have been able to prove that propolis is as active and important as our forefathers thought. Research on chemical composition of propolis started at the beginning of the twentieth century and was continued after WW II. Advances in chromatographic analytical methods enabled separation and extraction of several components from propolis. At least 180 different compounds have been identified so far. Its antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anesthetic, and healing properties have been confirmed. Propolis has been effectively used in treatment of dermatological, laryngological, and gynecological problems, neurodegenerative diseases, in wound healing, and in treatment of burns and ulcers. However, it requires further research that may lead to new discoveries of its composition and possible applications. PMID:23710243

  8. Advances on interdisciplinary approaches to urban carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.

    2015-12-01

    North American urban areas are emerging as climate policy and technology innovators, urbanization process laboratories, fonts of carbon relevant experiments, hubs for grass-roots mobilization, and centers for civil-society experiments to curb carbon emissions and avoid widespread and irreversible climate impacts. Since SOCCR diverse lines of inquiry on urbanization, urban areas and the carbon cycle have advanced our understanding of some of the societal processes through which energy and land uses affect carbon. This presentation provides an overview of these diverse perspectives. It suggests the need for approaches that complement and combine the plethora of existing insights into interdisciplinary explorations of how different urbanization processes, and socio-ecological and technological components of urban areas affect the spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions, differentially over time and within and across cities. It also calls for a more holistic approach to examining the carbon implications of urbanization and urban areas as places, based not only on demographics or income, but also on such other interconnected features of urban development pathways as urban form, economic function, economic growth policies and climate policies.

  9. On the Balancing of the SMOS Ocean Salinity Retrieval Cost Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabia, R.; Camps, A.; Portabella, M.; Talone, M.; Ballabrera, J.; Gourrion, J.; Gabarró, C.; Aretxabaleta, A. L.; Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    producing spurious retrievals. In [4] it has been studied the impact of the different auxiliary salinity uncertainties in the accuracy of the retrieval. It has been shown that using physically-consistent salinity field uncertainties of the order of less than 0.5 psu (either as the standard deviation of the considered SSS field or as the standard deviation of the misfit between the original and the auxiliary SSS field) the SSS term turns out to be too constraining. A half-way solution could be envisaged by using empirical weights (regularization factors) which could smooth the overall influence of the SSS term still using the auxiliary fields with their corresponding physically-sounded uncertainties. This operation should be performed for the SST and wind speed term as well. The need for a comprehensive balancing of the different terms included in the cost function is also stressed by recent studies [5], which point out that the even the observational term (TBs) will need to be properly weighted by an effective ratio, taking into account the specific correlation patterns existing in the MIRAS measurements. Simulated data using the SMOS End-to-end Processor Simulator (SEPS), in its full-mode, including the measured antenna patterns for each antenna and all the instrument errors, are used in this study. The salinity retrieval process and the SSS maps (for each satellite overpass) are performed with UPC SMOS-Level 2 Processor Simulator (SMOS-L2PS). The relative weight for each of the terms included in the cost function (observational and background terms) is assessed in different cost function configurations. Regularization factors are introduced to ensure that SMOS information content is fully exploited. Preliminary results on the cost function balancing will be shown at the conference. References [1] Font, J., G. Lagerloef, D. Le Vine, A. Camps, and O.Z. Zanife, The Determination of Surface Salinity with the European SMOS Space Mission, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 42

  10. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  11. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; da Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    Resumo O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20428503

  12. Tracking the intrusion of unwanted memories into awareness with event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Involuntary retrieval of unwanted memories is a common symptom in several clinical disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. With an aim to track the temporal dynamics of such memory intrusions, we recorded electrophysiological measures of brain activity while participants engaged in a Think/No-Think task. We presented the left hand word (the cue) of previously encoded word pairs in green or red font. We asked participants to think of the associated right hand word (the associate) when the cue appeared in green (Think condition) and to avoid thinking of the associate when the cue appeared in red (No-Think condition). To isolate cases when participants experienced an intrusive memory, at the end of each trial, participants judged whether the response had come to mind; we classified memories that came to mind during No-Think trials, despite efforts to stop retrieval, as intrusions. In an event-related potential (ERP) analysis, we observed a negative going slow wave (NSW) effect that indexed the duration of a trace in mnemonic awareness; whereas voluntary retrieval and maintenance of the associate was related to a sustained NSW that lasted throughout the 3-s recording epoch, memory intrusions generated short-lived NSWs that were rapidly truncated. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that the intrusion-NSW reflects the associate briefly penetrating working memory. More broadly, these findings exploit the high temporal resolution of ERPs to track the online dynamics of memory intrusions. PMID:27396675

  13. Propagating Dipolarization Fronts Earthward of 6 Earth Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaspina, D.; Andersson, L.; Ergun, R.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kletzing, C.; Reeves, G. D.; Skoug, R. M.; Larsen, B.

    2014-12-01

    During geomagnetically active conditions, the Van Allen Probes observe magnetic dipolarizations associated with enhancements in > 1 keV electron energy flux and the presence of nonlinear electric field structures (e.g. double layers and phase space holes) in the inner magnetosphere (4-6 Re). These dipolarization events are observed most frequently between dusk and midnight, though some appear between midnight and dawn. In some cases, nonlinear electric field power shows abrupt onset that is nearly simultaneous with electron energy flux enhancements across a range of energies. By comparing magnetic field, electric field, and particle data from both spacecraft, recorded when the twin Van Allen Probes are in close proximity, it is found that some of these abrupt onset features can be identified as earthward-propagating fonts with speeds on the order of 30 km/s. The presence of coherent propagating dipolarization fronts well inside the nominal flow breaking region (9 - 12 Re) suggests that earthward plasma flows may influence the magnetospheric plasma environment at the radial distances associated with the ring current and radiation belts. Possible mechanisms for this influence include the localized injection of particles adiabatically energized by their earthward transport, and wave-particle interactions related to the high amplitude parallel electric fields associated with the nonlinear electric field structures observed near these propagating fronts.

  14. Education resources in remote Australian Indigenous community dog health programs: a comparison of community and extra-community-produced resources.

    PubMed

    Constable, Sophie Elizabeth; Dixon, Roselyn May; Dixon, Robert John

    2013-09-01

    Commercial dog health programs in Australian Indigenous communities are a relatively recent occurrence. Health promotion for these programs is an even more recent development, and lacks data on effective practices. This paper analyses 38 resources created by veterinary-community partnerships in Indigenous communities, to 71 resources available through local veterinary service providers. On average, community-produced resources used significantly more of the resource area as image, more imagery as communicative rather than decorative images, larger fonts and smaller segments of text and used images of people with a range of skin tones. As well as informal registers of Standard Australian English, community-produced resources used Aboriginal English and/or Creole languages in their text, while extra-community (EC)-produced resources did not. The text of EC resources had Flesh-Kincaid reading grade levels that excluded a large proportion of community recipients. Also, they did not cover some topics of importance in communities, used academic, formal and technical language, and did not depict people of a representative range of skin tones. As such, community-produced resources were more relevant to the unique situations in remote communities, while EC resources were often inappropriate and in some cases could even distance recipients by using inappropriate language, formats and imagery.

  15. Solar physical vapor deposition: A new approach for preparing magnesium titanate nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, Irina; Saravanan, K. Venkata; Monty, Claude J. A.; Vilarinho, Paula M.

    2013-11-01

    Solar energy is a major factor in the equation of energy, because of the unlimited potential of the sun that eclipses all other renewable sources of energy. Solar physical vapor deposition (SPVD) is a core innovative, original and environmentally friendly process to prepare nanocrystalline materials in a powder form. The principle of this process is to melt the material under concentrated solar radiation, which evaporates and condenses as nanopowders on a cold surface. We synthesized nanopowders of magnesium titanate by the SPVD process at PROMES Laboratory in Odeillo-Font Romeu, France. The SPVD system consists of a parabolic mirror concentrator, a mobile plane mirror ("heliostat") tracking the sun and a solar reactor "heliotron". The synthesized nanopowders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to know their crystalline structure and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for determining the surface morphology. We have shown that the characteristics of obtained nanotitanates were determined by the targets' composition and SPVD process parameters such as the working pressure inside the solar reactor and evaporation duration (process time).

  16. Performance of three image-quality metrics in ink-jet printing of plain papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David L.; Winslow, Alan T.

    1993-07-01

    Three image-quality metrics are evaluated: Hamerly's edge raggedness, or tangential edge profile; Granger and Cupery's subjective quality factor (SQF) derived from the second moment of the line spread function; and SQF derived from Gur and O'Donnell's reflectance transfer function. These metrics are but a handful of many in the literature. Standard office papers from North America and Europe representing a broad spectrum of what is commercially available were printed with a 300-dpi Hewlett-Packard Deskjet printer. An untrained panel of eight judges viewed text, in a variety of fonts, and a graphics target and assigned each print an integer score based on its overall quality. Analysis of the metrics revealed that Granger's SQF had the highest correlation with panel rank, and achieved a level of precision approaching single-judge error, that is, the ranking error made by an individual judge. While the other measures correlated in varying degrees, they were less precise. This paper reviews their theory, measurement, and performance.

  17. Optical character recognition (OCR) in uncontrolled environments using optical correlators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Andre; Bergeron, Alain; Prevost, Donald; Radloff, Ernst A.

    1999-03-01

    With the emergence of a global economy, companies are more than ever pressured for improved efficiency. Int he transportation industry there is a growing need for better tracking of the status of containers in transit. This would lead to improved handling operation, reduce the number of errors, increase the throughput and enable the use of electronic data interchange (EDI). As electronic tags are not generalized in this industry, containers identification must rely on optical character recognition of the codes printed on the containers. OCR has been one of the first applications envisaged for optical correlation technologies as a result of their high-speed direct detection and identification capabilities. Until now though, most of the work in this area had been performed on computer-generated symbols. Field applications however, must cope with varying symbol fonts and sizes, colors and backgrounds, illumination levels, etc. Environmental variables such as dust, dirt and rust must also be accounted for. Together, these variables lead to a hard-to- solve problem. This paper presents INO's optical correlator and discusses the methods used to generate the identification vectors from which the OCR classification is achieved. It is shown that good results can be obtained on gray-scale real- life images when a multiple composite-filters strategy combined to an innovative classification method.

  18. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  19. Memory recall in arousing situations – an emotional von Restorff effect?

    PubMed Central

    Wiswede, Daniel; Rüsseler, Jascha; Hasselbach, Simone; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated a relationship between memory recall and P300 amplitude in list learning tasks, but the variables mediating this P300-recall relationship are not well understood. In the present study, subjects were required to recall items from lists consisting of 12 words, which were presented in front of pictures taken from the IAPS collection. One word per list is made distinct either by font color or by a highly arousing background IAPS picture. This isolation procedure was first used by von Restorff. Brain potentials were recorded during list presentation. Results Recall performance was enhanced for color but not for emotional isolates. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) showed a more positive P300-component for recalled non-isolated words and color-isolated words, compared to the respective non-remembered words, but not for words isolated by arousing background. Conclusion Our findings indicate that it is crucial to take emotional mediator variables into account, when using the P300 to predict later recall. Highly arousing environments might force the cognitive system to interrupt rehearsal processes in working memory, which might benefit transfer into other, more stable memory systems. The impact of attention-capturing properties of arousing background stimuli is also discussed. PMID:16863589

  20. Le spasme du sanglot chez les nourrissons

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Des enfants qui fréquentent ma clinique ont des épisodes semblables à des convulsions pendant lesquels ils pleurent et retiennent leur souffle au point de faire survenir une cyanose et de perdre conscience. Les résultats à l’examen ou aux investigations sont normaux et les pédiatres consultés ne font pas d’autres investigations. Les spasmes du sanglot sont-ils communs et quels genres d’investigations faut-il faire? Réponse Le spasme du sanglot est un trouble non épileptique paroxysmal bénin qui se produit chez les enfants en santé de six à 48 mois. Les épisodes commencent par une provocation, comme un bouleversement émotionnel ou une blessure mineure, et peuvent progresser en une retenue de la respiration, une cyanose et une syncope. Les épisodes sont extrêmement effrayants à regarder mais ont des conséquences bénignes. Une fois le diagnostic clinique posé, on recommande de faire passer un électrocardiogramme et d’exclure la possibilité d’une anémie, mais aucune autre investigation ou demande de consultation n’est nécessaire.

  1. Modelisation des emissions de particules microniques et nanometriques en usinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khettabi, Riad

    La mise en forme des pieces par usinage emet des particules, de tailles microscopiques et nanometriques, qui peuvent etre dangereuses pour la sante. Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les emissions de ces particules pour fins de prevention et reduction a la source. L'approche retenue est experimentale et theorique, aux deux echelles microscopique et macroscopique. Le travail commence par des essais permettant de determiner les influences du materiau, de l'outil et des parametres d'usinage sur les emissions de particules. E nsuite un nouveau parametre caracterisant les emissions, nomme Dust unit , est developpe et un modele predictif est propose. Ce modele est base sur une nouvelle theorie hybride qui integre les approches energetiques, tribologiques et deformation plastique, et inclut la geometrie de l'outil, les proprietes du materiau, les conditions de coupe et la segmentation des copeaux. Il ete valide au tournage sur quatre materiaux: A16061-T6, AISI1018, AISI4140 et fonte grise.

  2. Optimizing color fidelity for display devices using contour phase predictive coding for text, graphics, and video content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebowsky, Fritz

    2013-02-01

    High-end monitors and TVs based on LCD technology continue to increase their native display resolution to 4k2k and beyond. Subsequently, uncompressed pixel data transmission becomes costly when transmitting over cable or wireless communication channels. For motion video content, spatial preprocessing from YCbCr 444 to YCbCr 420 is widely accepted. However, due to spatial low pass filtering in horizontal and vertical direction, quality and readability of small text and graphics content is heavily compromised when color contrast is high in chrominance channels. On the other hand, straight forward YCbCr 444 compression based on mathematical error coding schemes quite often lacks optimal adaptation to visually significant image content. Therefore, we present the idea of detecting synthetic small text fonts and fine graphics and applying contour phase predictive coding for improved text and graphics rendering at the decoder side. Using a predictive parametric (text) contour model and transmitting correlated phase information in vector format across all three color channels combined with foreground/background color vectors of a local color map promises to overcome weaknesses in compression schemes that process luminance and chrominance channels separately. The residual error of the predictive model is being minimized more easily since the decoder is an integral part of the encoder. A comparative analysis based on some competitive solutions highlights the effectiveness of our approach, discusses current limitations with regard to high quality color rendering, and identifies remaining visual artifacts.

  3. Evaluation of the first international teleconference in ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Papakostopoulos, D; Williams, A; Ramani, V; Hart, C J; Dodson, K; Papakostopoulos, S

    1999-01-01

    The First International Teleconference in Ophthalmology was held during March 1998 between five sites in the UK, USA, Greece and Malaysia. ISDN transmission at 128 kbit/s was used to reduce costs while maintaining the clarity of the presented material. Specialized lecture theatres were not available at all sites and conventional halls had to be adapted for videoconferencing. For this reason initial point-to-point testing was carried with Bristol to simplify problem solving. Thereafter, a multipoint bridge was used to connect all sites together. During the conference a number of individual presentations were given, all followed by extensive discussion periods. Special instructions were given beforehand on the production of slide material, with particular reference to font sizes and colour combinations. Full use was made of various presentation media, including slides, videos and live demonstrations. The conference was attended by over 500 delegates, all of whom were specialists in ophthalmology. The technology employed was ideal for teaching purposes. However, if used in a clinical field, it should be kept in mind that the choice of transmission rate makes certain features not easily apparent in images but they become clearer when pointed out by the presenter.

  4. What automaticity deficit? Activation of lexical information by readers with dyslexia in a rapid automatized naming Stroop-switch task.

    PubMed

    Jones, Manon W; Snowling, Margaret J; Moll, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with nondyslexic readers. We combined the RAN task with a Stroop-switch manipulation to test the automaticity of dyslexic and nondyslexic readers' lexical access directly within a fluency task. Participants named letters in 10 × 4 arrays while eye movements and speech responses were recorded. Upon fixation, specific letter font colors changed from black to a different color, whereupon the participant was required to rapidly switch from naming the letter to naming the letter color. We could therefore measure reading group differences on "automatic" lexical processing, insofar as it was task-irrelevant. Readers with dyslexia showed obligatory lexical processing and a timeline for recognition that was overall similar to typical readers, but a delay emerged in the output (naming) phase. Further delay was caused by visual-orthographic competition between neighboring stimuli. Our findings outline the specific processes involved when researchers speak of "impaired automaticity" in dyslexic readers' fluency, and are discussed in the context of the broader literature in this field. PMID:26414305

  5. A ventral visual stream reading center independent of visual experience.

    PubMed

    Reich, Lior; Szwed, Marcin; Cohen, Laurent; Amedi, Amir

    2011-03-01

    The visual word form area (VWFA) is a ventral stream visual area that develops expertise for visual reading. It is activated across writing systems and scripts and encodes letter strings irrespective of case, font, or location in the visual field with striking anatomical reproducibility across individuals. In the blind, comparable reading expertise can be achieved using Braille. This study investigated which area plays the role of the VWFA in the blind. One would expect this area to be at either parietal or bilateral occipital cortex, reflecting the tactile nature of the task and crossmodal plasticity, respectively. However, according to the metamodal theory, which suggests that brain areas are responsive to a specific representation or computation regardless of their input sensory modality, we predicted recruitment of the left-hemispheric VWFA, identically to the sighted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that activation during Braille reading in blind individuals peaks in the VWFA, with striking anatomical consistency within and between blind and sighted. Furthermore, the VWFA is reading selective when contrasted to high-level language and low-level sensory controls. Thus, we propose that the VWFA is a metamodal reading area that develops specialization for reading regardless of visual experience. PMID:21333539

  6. VennDIS: a JavaFX-based Venn and Euler diagram software to generate publication quality figures.

    PubMed

    Ignatchenko, Vladimir; Ignatchenko, Alexandr; Sinha, Ankit; Boutros, Paul C; Kislinger, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Venn diagrams are graphical representations of the relationships among multiple sets of objects and are often used to illustrate similarities and differences among genomic and proteomic datasets. All currently existing tools for producing Venn diagrams evince one of two traits; they require expertise in specific statistical software packages (such as R), or lack the flexibility required to produce publication-quality figures. We describe a simple tool that addresses both shortcomings, Venn Diagram Interactive Software (VennDIS), a JavaFX-based solution for producing highly customizable, publication-quality Venn, and Euler diagrams of up to five sets. The strengths of VennDIS are its simple graphical user interface and its large array of customization options, including the ability to modify attributes such as font, style and position of the labels, background color, size of the circle/ellipse, and outline color. It is platform independent and provides real-time visualization of figure modifications. The created figures can be saved as XML files for future modification or exported as high-resolution images for direct use in publications.

  7. How does increasingly plainer cigarette packaging influence adult smokers’ perceptions about brand image? An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, M A; Germain, D; Durkin, S J

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cigarette packaging is a key marketing strategy for promoting brand image. Plain packaging has been proposed to limit brand image, but tobacco companies would resist removal of branding design elements. Method: A 3 (brand types) × 4 (degree of plain packaging) between-subject experimental design was used, using an internet online method, to expose 813 adult Australian smokers to one randomly selected cigarette pack, after which respondents completed ratings of the pack. Results: Compared with current cigarette packs with full branding, cigarette packs that displayed progressively fewer branding design elements were perceived increasingly unfavourably in terms of smokers’ appraisals of the packs, the smokers who might smoke such packs, and the inferred experience of smoking a cigarette from these packs. For example, cardboard brown packs with the number of enclosed cigarettes displayed on the front of the pack and featuring only the brand name in small standard font at the bottom of the pack face were rated as significantly less attractive and popular than original branded packs. Smokers of these plain packs were rated as significantly less trendy/stylish, less sociable/outgoing and less mature than smokers of the original pack. Compared with original packs, smokers inferred that cigarettes from these plain packs would be less rich in tobacco, less satisfying and of lower quality tobacco. Conclusion: Plain packaging policies that remove most brand design elements are likely to be most successful in removing cigarette brand image associations. PMID:18827035

  8. Study of the Histology of Leafy Axes and Male Cones of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. (Cenomanian Flints of Charente-Maritime, France) Using Synchrotron Microtomography Linked with Palaeoecology.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Jean-David; Néraudeau, Didier; Tafforeau, Paul; Dépré, Éric

    2015-01-01

    We report exceptionally well-preserved plant remains ascribed to the extinct conifer Glenrosa J. Watson et H.L. Fisher emend. V. Srinivasan inside silica-rich nodules from the Cenomanian of the Font-de-Benon quarry, Charente-Maritime, western France. Remains are preserved in three dimensions and mainly consist of fragmented leafy axes. Pollen cones of this conifer are for the first time reported and in some cases remain connected to leafy stems. Histology of Glenrosa has not previously been observed; here, most of internal tissues and cells are well-preserved and allow us to describe a new species, Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov., using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography, a non-destructive technique. Leafy axes consist of characteristic helically arranged leaves bearing stomatal crypts. Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. differs from the other described species in developing a phyllotaxy 8/21, claw-shaped leaves, a thicker cuticle, a higher number of papillae and stomata per crypt. Pollen cones consist of peltate, helically arranged microsporophylls, each of them bearing 6-7 pollen sacs. The new high resolution tomographic approach tested here allows virtual palaeohistology on plants included inside a dense rock to be made. Most tissues of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. are described. Lithological and palaeontological data combined with xerophytic features of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. suggest that this conifer has been adapted to survive in harsh and instable environments such as coastal area exposed to hot, dry conditions.

  9. Text line detection based on cost optimized local text line direction estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yandong; Sun, Yufang; Bauer, Peter; Allebach, Jan P.; Bouman, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Text line detection is a critical step for applications in document image processing. In this paper, we propose a novel text line detection method. First, the connected components are extracted from the image as symbols. Then, we estimate the direction of the text line in multiple local regions. This estimation is, for the first time, to our knowledge, formulated in a cost optimization framework. We also propose an efficient way to solve this optimization problem. Afterwards, we consider symbols as nodes in a graph, and connect symbols based on the local text line direction estimation results. Last, we detect the text lines by separating the graph into subgraphs according to the nodes' connectivities. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method is very robust to non-uniform skew within text lines, variability of font sizes, and complex structures of layout. Our new method works well for documents captured with flat-bed and sheet-fed scanners, mobile phone cameras, and with other general imaging assets.

  10. Cost analysis of a project to digitize classic articles in neurosurgery*

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    In summer 2000, the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale University began a demonstration project to digitize classic articles in neurosurgery from the late 1800s and early 1900s. The objective of the first phase of the project was to measure the time and costs involved in digitization, and those results are reported here. In the second phase, metadata will be added to the digitized articles, and the project will be publicized. Thirteen articles were scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software, and the resulting text files were carefully proofread. Time for photocopying, scanning, and proofreading were recorded. This project achieved an average cost per item (total pages plus images) of $4.12, a figure at the high end of average costs found in other studies. This project experienced high costs for two reasons. First, the articles contained many images, which required extra processing. Second, the older fonts and the poor condition of many of these articles complicated the OCR process. The average article cost $84.46 to digitize. Although costs were high, the selection of historically important articles maximized the benefit gained from the investment in digitization. PMID:11999182

  11. Effects of ozone on net primary production and carbon sequestration in the conterminous United States using a biogeochemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, B.; Kicklighter, D.; Melillo, J.; Wang, C.; Zhuang, Q.; Prinn, R.

    2004-07-01

    The effects of air pollution on vegetation may provide an important control on the carbon cycle that has not yet been widely considered. Prolonged exposure to high levels of ozone, in particular, has been observed to inhibit photosynthesis by direct cellular damage within the leaves and through possible changes in stomatal conductance. We have incorporated empirical equations derived for trees (hardwoods and pines) and crops into the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model to explore the effects of ozone on net primary production (NPP) and carbon sequestration across the conterminous United States. Our results show a 2.6 6.8% mean reduction for the United States in annual NPP in response to modelled historical ozone levels during the late 1980s-early 1990s. The largest decreases (over 13% in some locations) occur in the Midwest agricultural lands, during the mid-summer when ozone levels are highest. Carbon sequestration since the 1950s has been reduced by 18 38 Tg C yr-font-weight: bold">1 with the presence of ozone. Thus the effects of ozone on NPP and carbon sequestration should be factored into future calculations of the United States' carbon budget.

  12. Reproducible Computing: a new Technology for Statistics Education and Educational Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessa, Patrick

    2009-05-01

    This paper explains how the R Framework (http://www.wessa.net) and a newly developed Compendium Platform (http://www.freestatistics.org) allow us to create, use, and maintain documents that contain empirical research results which can be recomputed and reused in derived work. It is illustrated that this technological innovation can be used to create educational applications that can be shown to support effective learning of statistics and associated analytical skills. It is explained how a Compendium can be created by anyone, without the need to understand the technicalities of scientific word processing (L style="font-variant: small-caps">ATEX) or statistical computing (R code). The proposed Reproducible Computing system allows educational researchers to objectively measure key aspects of the actual learning process based on individual and constructivist activities such as: peer review, collaboration in research, computational experimentation, etc. The system was implemented and tested in three statistics courses in which the use of Compendia was used to create an interactive e-learning environment that simulated the real-world process of empirical scientific research.

  13. Innovative and Community-Guided Evaluation and Dissemination of a Prostate Cancer Education Program for African-American Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Dawnyea D; Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Dubose-Morris, Ragan

    2015-12-01

    African Americans (AA) are more likely to develop and die from cancer than any other racial or ethnic group. The aims of this research were to (1) evaluate current education materials being implemented in a community-based prostate cancer education program for AA communities, (2) refine materials based on findings from aim 1, (3) share updated materials with participants from aim 1 for additional improvements, and (4) disseminate and evaluate the improved education program through a statewide videoconference with AA men and women. AA individuals evaluated the current education program through a mail survey (n=32) and community forum (n=38). Participants reported that the existing prostate cancer education program content could be understood by lay persons, but recommendations for improvement were identified. They included the following: defining unknown and/or scientific terminology, increasing readability by increasing font size and enlarging images, and including more recent and relevant statistics. Following refinement of the education materials based on survey and forum feedback, a statewide videoconference was implemented. Following the videoconference, participants (25 men; 3 women) reported that they would encourage others to learn more about prostate cancer, talk to their doctor about whether or not to get screened for prostate cancer, and recommend the conference to others. There is great potential for using this type of iterative approach to education program development with community and clinical partners for others conducting similar work.

  14. The neural underpinnings of reading skill in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Weisberg, Jill

    2016-09-01

    We investigated word-level reading circuits in skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=19.5years) and less skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=12years) who were all highly proficient users of American Sign Language. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a semantic decision (concrete concept?), a phonological decision (two syllables?), and a false-font control task (string underlined?). No significant group differences were observed with the full participant set. However, an analysis with the 10 most and 10 least skilled readers revealed that for the semantic task (vs. control task), proficient deaf readers exhibited greater activation in left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri than less proficient readers. No group differences were observed for the phonological task. Whole-brain correlation analyses (all participants) revealed that for the semantic task, reading ability correlated positively with neural activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and in a region associated with the orthography-semantics interface, located anterior to the visual word form area. Reading ability did not correlate with neural activity during the phonological task. Accuracy on the semantic task correlated positively with neural activity in left anterior temporal lobe (a region linked to conceptual processing), while accuracy on the phonological task correlated positively with neural activity in left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (a region linked to syllabification processes during speech production). Finally, reading comprehension scores correlated positively with vocabulary and print exposure measures, but not with phonological awareness scores. PMID:27448530

  15. Stroop effects in persons with traumatic brain injury: selective attention, speed of processing, or color-naming? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Nguyen, Linh L T; van Lieshout, Pascal H H M

    2011-03-01

    The color word Stroop test is the most common tool used to assess selective attention in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A larger Stroop effect for TBI patients, as compared to controls, is generally interpreted as reflecting a decrease in selective attention. Alternatively, it has been suggested that this increase in Stroop effects is influenced by group differences in generalized speed of processing (SOP). The current study describes an overview and meta-analysis of 10 studies, where persons with TBI (N = 324) were compared to matched controls (N = 501) on the Stroop task. The findings confirmed that Stroop interference was significantly larger for TBI groups (p = .008). However, these differences may be strongly biased by TBI-related slowdown in generalized SOP (r² = .81 in a Brinley analysis). We also found that TBI-related changes in sensory processing may affect group differences. Mainly, a TBI-related increase in the latency difference between reading and naming the font color of a color-neutral word (r² = .96) was linked to Stroop effects. Our results suggest that, in using Stroop, it seems prudent to control for both sensory factors and SOP to differentiate potential changes in selective attention from other changes following TBI.

  16. Stroop proactive control and task conflict are modulated by concurrent working memory load.

    PubMed

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai; Davelaar, Eddy J; Usher, Marius

    2015-06-01

    Performance on the Stroop task reflects two types of conflict-informational (between the incongruent word and font color) and task (between the contextually relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant, but automatic, word-reading task). According to the dual mechanisms of control theory (DMC; Braver, 2012), variability in Stroop performance can result from variability in the deployment of a proactive task-demand control mechanism. Previous research has shown that when proactive control (PC) is diminished, both increased Stroop interference and a reversed Stroop facilitation (RF) are observed. Although the current DMC model accounts for the former effect, it does not predict the observed RF, which is considered to be behavioral evidence for task conflict in the Stroop task. Here we expanded the DMC model to account for Stroop RF. Assuming that a concurrent working memory (WM) task reduces PC, we predicted both increased interference and an RF. Nineteen participants performed a standard Stroop task combined with a concurrent n-back task, which was aimed at reducing available WM resources, and thus overloading PC. Although the results indicated common Stroop interference and facilitation in the low-load condition (zero-back), in the high-load condition (two-back), both increased Stroop interference and RF were observed, consistent with the model's prediction. These findings indicate that PC is modulated by concurrent WM load and serves as a common control mechanism for both informational and task Stroop conflicts.

  17. University of Wyoming, College of Engineering, Undergraduate Senior Design Project: the talking hand.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jennifer R; Amin, Ruchik; Barrett, Steven F

    2004-01-01

    A glove was built using flex sensors to produce a voltage according to the amount of bend each finger produces when signing a letter of the alphabet. The glove detects and outputs in text the letter of the alphabet being signed as the wearer signs the different letters. The amount of bend causes a change in resistance, which in turn produces a specific voltage in accordance to the letter being signed. That voltage is then fed into a data acquisition card that runs into a personal computer. Through intensive programming and training of a special algorithm called a neural network; the input voltage to the data acquisition card will result in that letter being displayed in font on the monitor of the computer. The computer is then programmed to take the text that is displayed on the monitor and run it out of the PC into a store bought chipset that will convert the text to speech. Therefore, a person will be able to put on this glove, sign all twenty-six letters of the alphabet, see the letter they are currently signing output on the monitor, and hear it spoken in a pre-recorded voice. PMID:15133999

  18. Character segmentation and thresholding in low-contrast scene images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winger, Lowell L.; Jernigan, M. Ed; Robinson, John A.

    1996-03-01

    We are developing a portable text-to-speech system for the vision impaired. The input image is acquired with a lightweight CCD camera that may be poorly focused and aimed, and perhaps taken under inadequate and uneven illumination. We therefore require efficient and effective thresholding and segmentation methods which are robust with respect to character contrast, font, size, and format. In this paper, we present a fast thresholding scheme which combines a local variance measure with a logical stroke-width method. An efficient post- thresholding segmentation scheme utilizing Fisher's linear discriminant to distinguish noise and character components functions as an effective pre-processing step for the application of commercial segmentation and character recognition methods. The performance of this fast new method compared favorably with other methods for the extraction of characters from uncontrolled illumination, omnifont scene images. We demonstrate the suitability of this method for use in an automated portable reader through a software implementation running on a laptop 486 computer in our prototype device.

  19. Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.

    2003-08-01

    Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

  20. Psychotherapy, antidepressants, and their combination for chronic major depressive disorder: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spijker, Jan; van Straten, Annemieke; Bockting, Claudi L H; Meeuwissen, Jolanda A C; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2013-07-01

    Objectif : Les recommandations de traitement du trouble dépressif majeur chronique (TDMc) sont principalement basées sur les expériences cliniques et la littérature sur la dépression réfractaire au traitement (DRT) mais pas sur une revue systématique de la littérature. Méthode : Nous avons mené une revue systématique de 10 essais randomisés contrôlés (ERC), ainsi que 17 comparaisons entre antidépresseurs (AD), psychothérapie, ou combinaison des deux interventions. Résultats : La meilleure évidence va à la combinaison de psychothérapie et AD, et spécialement à la combinaison du système d’analyse cognitivo-comportementale de la psychothérapie avec les AD. L’évidence est très faible pour les AD seuls et la psychothérapie seule. L’évaluation de la DRT était presque absente des études. Conclusion : Le meilleur traitement du TDMc est une combinaison de psychothérapie et d’AD. Cependant, les ERC bien menés sur les AD et la psychothérapie, et sur leur combinaison pour le TDMc, font défaut. Ces conclusions sont donc préliminaires.

  1. Progress in recognizing typeset mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateman, Richard J.; Tokuyasu, Taku A.

    1996-03-01

    Printed mathematics has a number of features which distinguish it from conventional text. These include structure in two dimensions (fractions, exponents, limits), frequent font changes, symbols with variable shape (quotient bars), and substantially differing notational conventions from source to source. When compounded with more generic problems such as noise and merged or broken characters, printed mathematics offers a challenging arena for recognition. Our project was initially driven by the goal of scanning and parsing some 5,000 pages of elaborate mathematics (tables of definite integrals). While our prototype system demonstrates success on translating noise-free typeset equations into Lisp expressions appropriate for further processing, a more semantic top-down approach appears necessary for higher levels of performance. Such an approach may benefit the incorporation of these programs into a more general document processing viewpoint. We intend to release to the public our somewhat refined prototypes as utility programs in the hope that they will be of general use in the construction of custom OCR packages. These utilities are quite fast even as originally prototyped in Lisp, where they may be of particular interest to those working on 'intelligent' optical processing. Some routines have been re-written in C++ as well. Additional programs providing formula recognition and parsing also form a part of this system. It is important however to realize that distinct conflicting grammars are needed to cover variations in contemporary and historical typesetting, and thus a single simple solution is not possible.

  2. NASA Advanced Propeller Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.; Bober, Lawrence J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic and aerodynamic research at NASA Lewis Research Center on advanced propellers is reviewed including analytical and experimental results on both single and counterrotation. Computational tools used to calculate the detailed flow and acoustic i e l d s a r e described along with wind tunnel tests to obtain data for code verification . Results from two kinds of experiments are reviewed: ( 1 ) performance and near field noise at cruise conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 8-by 6-Foot Wind Tunnel and ( 2 ) farfield noise and performance for takeoff/approach conditions as measured in the NASA Lewis 9-by 15-Font Anechoic Wind Tunnel. Detailed measurements of steady blade surface pressures are described along with vortex flow phenomena at off design conditions . Near field noise at cruise is shown to level out or decrease as tip relative Mach number is increased beyond 1.15. Counterrotation interaction noise is shown to be a dominant source at take off but a secondary source at cruise. Effects of unequal rotor diameters and rotor-to-rotor spacing on interaction noise a real so illustrated. Comparisons of wind tunnel acoustic measurements to flight results are made. Finally, some future directions in advanced propeller research such as swirl recovery vanes, higher sweep, forward sweep, and ducted propellers are discussed.

  3. How Readable are Spanish-Language Medicaid Applications?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Julie S.; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Nationally, Hispanics comprise nearly one-quarter of all non-elderly Medicaid recipients. We evaluated readability, layout characteristics, and document complexity of state-issued Spanish-language Medicaid enrollment applications. We located and analyzed Internet-based Spanish enrollment applications from 37 states and the District of Columbia. We calculated the readability of each Medicaid enrollment application “Signature” page using the Spanish Lexile Analyzer. We assessed application layout characteristics utilizing the User-Friendliness Tool, and we evaluated document complexity using the PMOSE/IKIRSCH scale. The average Lexile score estimated an 11th–12th grade reading level (M = 1184, SD = 192) for “Signature” pages of enrollment applications. Most applications used small font size and lacked adequate white space. Document complexity ranged from level 3 (moderate) to level 5 (very high); the majority of applications ranked at level 4 (high). Spanish-language Medicaid enrollment applications should be revised to adhere to low-literacy guidelines, which may improve the accessibility of Medicaid coverage for eligible Spanish-speaking families. PMID:21213122

  4. Large scale brain functional networks support sentence comprehension: evidence from both explicit and implicit language tasks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zude; Fan, Yuanyuan; Feng, Gangyi; Huang, Ruiwang; Wang, Suiping

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sentences are comprehended via widespread brain regions in the fronto-temporo-parietal network in explicit language tasks (e.g., semantic congruency judgment tasks), and through restricted temporal or frontal regions in implicit language tasks (e.g., font size judgment tasks). This discrepancy has raised questions regarding a common network for sentence comprehension that acts regardless of task effect and whether different tasks modulate network properties. To this end, we constructed brain functional networks based on 27 subjects' fMRI data that was collected while performing explicit and implicit language tasks. We found that network properties and network hubs corresponding to the implicit language task were similar to those associated with the explicit language task. We also found common hubs in occipital, temporal and frontal regions in both tasks. Compared with the implicit language task, the explicit language task resulted in greater global efficiency and increased integrated betweenness centrality of the left inferior frontal gyrus, which is a key region related to sentence comprehension. These results suggest that brain functional networks support both explicit and implicit sentence comprehension; in addition, these two types of language tasks may modulate the properties of brain functional networks.

  5. User stress detection in human-computer interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jing; Barreto, Armando B; Chin, Craig; Li, Chao

    2005-01-01

    The emerging research area of Affective Computing seeks to advance the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) by enabling computers to interact with users in ways appropriate to their affective states. Affect recognition, including the use of psychophysiologcal measures (e.g. heart rate), facial expressions, speech recognition etc. to derive an assessment of user affective state based on factors from the current task context, is an important foundation required for the development of Affective Computing. Our research focuses on the use of three physiological signals: Blood Volume Pulse (BVP), Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) and Pupil Diameter (PD), to automatically monitor the level of stress in computer users. This paper reports on the hardware and software instrumentation development and signal processing approach used to detect the stress level of a subject interacting with a computer, within the framework of a specific experimental task, which is called the 'Stroop Test'. For this experiment, a computer game was implemented and adapted to make the subject experience the Stroop Effect, evoked by the mismatch between the font color and the meaning of a certain word (name of a color) displayed, while his/her BVP, GSR and PD signals were continuously recorded. Several data processing techniques were applied to extract effective attributes of the stress level of the subjects throughout the experiment. Current results indicate that there exists interesting similarity among changes in those three signals and the shift in the emotional states when stress stimuli are applied to the interaction environment.

  6. Autonomous Mobile Robot That Can Read

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létourneau, Dominic; Michaud, François; Valin, Jean-Marc

    2004-12-01

    The ability to read would surely contribute to increased autonomy of mobile robots operating in the real world. The process seems fairly simple: the robot must be capable of acquiring an image of a message to read, extract the characters, and recognize them as symbols, characters, and words. Using an optical Character Recognition algorithm on a mobile robot however brings additional challenges: the robot has to control its position in the world and its pan-tilt-zoom camera to find textual messages to read, potentially having to compensate for its viewpoint of the message, and use the limited onboard processing capabilities to decode the message. The robot also has to deal with variations in lighting conditions. In this paper, we present our approach demonstrating that it is feasible for an autonomous mobile robot to read messages of specific colors and font in real-world conditions. We outline the constraints under which the approach works and present results obtained using a Pioneer 2 robot equipped with a Pentium 233 MHz and a Sony EVI-D30 pan-tilt-zoom camera.

  7. 18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula to attenuate behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Eggan, Branden L; McCallum, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    Systemic 18-methoxycoronaridine, an alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonist, slows the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine (Glick et al., 1996; 2011). The primary mechanism of action of 18-MC is believed to be the inhibition of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which are densely expressed in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus (Pace et al., 2004; Glick et al., 2012). Recently, these habenular nicotinic receptors and their multiple roles in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been increasingly emphasized (Antolin-Fontes et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of 18-MC on both behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine. Daily systemic administration of 18-MC slowed the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine but failed to block the expression of a sensitized locomotor response when absent. In contrast, in nicotine sensitized animals, systemic 18-MC significantly reduced the expression of behavioral sensitization. Results from intra-habenular administration of 18-MC paralleled these findings in that the expression of behavioral sensitization was also reduced in sensitized animals. Consistent with its effects on behavioral sensitization, intra-MHb treatment with 18-MC completely abolished sensitized dopamine responses in the nucleus accumbens in nicotine sensitized animals. These results show that α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the MHb contribute to nicotine sensitization, a phenomenon associated with drug craving and relapse.

  8. Seeing the same words differently: the time course of automaticity and top-down intention in reading.

    PubMed

    Strijkers, Kristof; Bertrand, Daisy; Grainger, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    We investigated how linguistic intention affects the time course of visual word recognition by comparing the brain's electrophysiological response to a word's lexical frequency, a well-established psycholinguistic marker of lexical access, when participants actively retrieve the meaning of the written input (semantic categorization) versus a situation where no language processing is necessary (ink color categorization). In the semantic task, the ERPs elicited by high-frequency words started to diverge from those elicited by low-frequency words as early as 120 msec after stimulus onset. On the other hand, when categorizing the colored font of the very same words in the color task, word frequency did not modulate ERPs until some 100 msec later (220 msec poststimulus onset) and did so for a shorter period and with a smaller scalp distribution. The results demonstrate that, although written words indeed elicit automatic recognition processes in the brain, the speed and quality of lexical processing critically depends on the top-down intention to engage in a linguistic task.

  9. The neural underpinnings of reading skill in deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Weisberg, Jill

    2016-09-01

    We investigated word-level reading circuits in skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=19.5years) and less skilled deaf readers (N=14; mean reading age=12years) who were all highly proficient users of American Sign Language. During fMRI scanning, participants performed a semantic decision (concrete concept?), a phonological decision (two syllables?), and a false-font control task (string underlined?). No significant group differences were observed with the full participant set. However, an analysis with the 10 most and 10 least skilled readers revealed that for the semantic task (vs. control task), proficient deaf readers exhibited greater activation in left inferior frontal and middle temporal gyri than less proficient readers. No group differences were observed for the phonological task. Whole-brain correlation analyses (all participants) revealed that for the semantic task, reading ability correlated positively with neural activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and in a region associated with the orthography-semantics interface, located anterior to the visual word form area. Reading ability did not correlate with neural activity during the phonological task. Accuracy on the semantic task correlated positively with neural activity in left anterior temporal lobe (a region linked to conceptual processing), while accuracy on the phonological task correlated positively with neural activity in left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (a region linked to syllabification processes during speech production). Finally, reading comprehension scores correlated positively with vocabulary and print exposure measures, but not with phonological awareness scores.

  10. Universal brain systems for recognizing word shapes and handwriting gestures during reading.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kimihiro; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Pegado, Felipe; Cohen, Laurent; Tzeng, Ovid J L; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2012-12-11

    Do the neural circuits for reading vary across culture? Reading of visually complex writing systems such as Chinese has been proposed to rely on areas outside the classical left-hemisphere network for alphabetic reading. Here, however, we show that, once potential confounds in cross-cultural comparisons are controlled for by presenting handwritten stimuli to both Chinese and French readers, the underlying network for visual word recognition may be more universal than previously suspected. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a semantic task with words written in cursive font, we demonstrate that two universal circuits, a shape recognition system (reading by eye) and a gesture recognition system (reading by hand), are similarly activated and show identical patterns of activation and repetition priming in the two language groups. These activations cover most of the brain regions previously associated with culture-specific tuning. Our results point to an extended reading network that invariably comprises the occipitotemporal visual word-form system, which is sensitive to well-formed static letter strings, and a distinct left premotor region, Exner's area, which is sensitive to the forward or backward direction with which cursive letters are dynamically presented. These findings suggest that cultural effects in reading merely modulate a fixed set of invariant macroscopic brain circuits, depending on surface features of orthographies.

  11. Page segmentation using script identification vectors: A first look

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Cannon, M.; Kelly, P.; White, J.

    1997-07-01

    Document images in which different scripts, such as Chinese and Roman, appear on a single page pose a problem for optical character recognition (OCR) systems. This paper explores the use of script identification vectors in the analysis of multilingual document images. A script identification vector is calculated for each connected component in a document. The vector expresses the closest distance between the component and templates developed for each of thirteen scripts, including Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, and Roman. The authors calculate the first three principal components within the resulting thirteen-dimensional space for each image. By mapping these components to red, green, and blue, they can visualize the information contained in the script identification vectors. The visualization of several multilingual images suggests that the script identification vectors can be used to segment images into script-specific regions as large as several paragraphs or as small as a few characters. The visualized vectors also reveal distinctions within scripts, such as font in Roman documents, and kanji vs. kana in Japanese. Results are best for documents containing highly dissimilar scripts such as Roman and Japanese. Documents containing similar scripts, such as Roman and Cyrillic will require further investigation.

  12. "Drinking won't get you thinking": a content analysis of adolescent-created print alcohol counter-advertisements.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Hecht, Michael L; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in creating antialcohol advertisements generates enthusiasm among adolescents; however, little is known about the messages adolescents develop for these activities. In this article, we present a content analysis of 72 print alcohol counteradvertisements created by high school (age 14-17 years old) and college (18-25 years old) students. The posters were content analyzed for poster message content, persuasion strategies, and production components, and we compared high school and college student posters. All of the posters used a slogan to highlight the main point/message of the ad and counterarguments/consequences to support the slogans. The most frequently depicted consequences were negative consequences of alcohol use, followed by negative-positive consequence comparison. Persuasion strategies were sparingly used in advertisements and included having fun/one of the gang, humor/unexpected, glamour/sex appeal, and endorsement. Finally, posters displayed a number of production techniques including depicting people, clear setting, multiple colors, different font sizes, and object placement. College and high school student-constructed posters were similar on many features (e.g., posters displayed similar frequency of utilization of slogans, negative consequences, and positive-negative consequence comparisons), but were different on the use of positive consequences of not using alcohol and before-after comparisons. Implications for teaching media literacy and involving adolescents and youth in developing alcohol prevention messages are discussed.

  13. Study of the Histology of Leafy Axes and Male Cones of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. (Cenomanian Flints of Charente-Maritime, France) Using Synchrotron Microtomography Linked with Palaeoecology

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Jean-David; Néraudeau, Didier; Tafforeau, Paul; Dépré, Éric

    2015-01-01

    We report exceptionally well-preserved plant remains ascribed to the extinct conifer Glenrosa J. Watson et H.L. Fisher emend. V. Srinivasan inside silica-rich nodules from the Cenomanian of the Font-de-Benon quarry, Charente-Maritime, western France. Remains are preserved in three dimensions and mainly consist of fragmented leafy axes. Pollen cones of this conifer are for the first time reported and in some cases remain connected to leafy stems. Histology of Glenrosa has not previously been observed; here, most of internal tissues and cells are well-preserved and allow us to describe a new species, Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov., using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography, a non-destructive technique. Leafy axes consist of characteristic helically arranged leaves bearing stomatal crypts. Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. differs from the other described species in developing a phyllotaxy 8/21, claw-shaped leaves, a thicker cuticle, a higher number of papillae and stomata per crypt. Pollen cones consist of peltate, helically arranged microsporophylls, each of them bearing 6–7 pollen sacs. The new high resolution tomographic approach tested here allows virtual palaeohistology on plants included inside a dense rock to be made. Most tissues of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. are described. Lithological and palaeontological data combined with xerophytic features of Glenrosa carentonensis sp. nov. suggest that this conifer has been adapted to survive in harsh and instable environments such as coastal area exposed to hot, dry conditions. PMID:26288019

  14. Comparison of Extraction Methods of Chitin from Ganoderma lucidum Mushroom Obtained in Submerged Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ospina Álvarez, Sandra Patricia; Ramírez Cadavid, David Alexander; Ossa Orozco, Claudia Patricia; Zapata Ocampo, Paola; Atehortúa, Lucía

    2014-01-01

    The chitin was isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged cultures mycelium as potential source of chitin under biotechnological processes. The extraction of chitin was carried out through 5 different assays which involved mainly three phases: pulverization of the mushroom, deproteinization of the mycelia with NaOH solution, and a process of decolorization with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The chitin contents extracted from 9-day mycelia were 413, 339, 87, 78, and 144 mg/g−1 (milligrams of chitin/grams of dry biomass) for A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5, respectively. Obtained chitin was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by thermal analysis (TGA). The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum chitin has similar characteristic of chitin from different fonts. The advantage of the biotechnological processes and the fact that Ganoderma lucidum fungus may be used as a potential raw material for chitin production were demonstrated. PMID:24551839

  15. Development of a spiritually based educational intervention to increase informed decision making for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Wynn, Theresa A; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2009-09-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor(CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were developed and pilot tested with extensive community participation of church-attending African American men age-eligible for screening. The intervention development phase consisted of ideas solicited from an advisory panel of African American men (N = 10), who identified core content and developed the spiritual themes. In the intervention pilot testing phase, prototypes of the intervention materials were pilot tested for graphic appeal in two focus groups (N = 16), and content was tested for acceptability and comprehension using individual cognitive response interviews (N = 10). Recommendations were made for project branding and logo and for use of graphics of real people in the educational materials. Significant feedback was obtained from the focus groups, on the graphics, colors, fonts, continuity, titles, and booklet size/shape. The importance of working closely with the community when developing interventions is discussed, as well as the importance of pilot testing of educational materials. PMID:19731129

  16. "Drinking won't get you thinking": a content analysis of adolescent-created print alcohol counter-advertisements.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Hecht, Michael L; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Involvement in creating antialcohol advertisements generates enthusiasm among adolescents; however, little is known about the messages adolescents develop for these activities. In this article, we present a content analysis of 72 print alcohol counteradvertisements created by high school (age 14-17 years old) and college (18-25 years old) students. The posters were content analyzed for poster message content, persuasion strategies, and production components, and we compared high school and college student posters. All of the posters used a slogan to highlight the main point/message of the ad and counterarguments/consequences to support the slogans. The most frequently depicted consequences were negative consequences of alcohol use, followed by negative-positive consequence comparison. Persuasion strategies were sparingly used in advertisements and included having fun/one of the gang, humor/unexpected, glamour/sex appeal, and endorsement. Finally, posters displayed a number of production techniques including depicting people, clear setting, multiple colors, different font sizes, and object placement. College and high school student-constructed posters were similar on many features (e.g., posters displayed similar frequency of utilization of slogans, negative consequences, and positive-negative consequence comparisons), but were different on the use of positive consequences of not using alcohol and before-after comparisons. Implications for teaching media literacy and involving adolescents and youth in developing alcohol prevention messages are discussed. PMID:23980705

  17. EyeMap: a software system for visualizing and analyzing eye movement data in reading.

    PubMed

    Tang, Siliang; Reilly, Ronan G; Vorstius, Christian

    2012-06-01

    We have developed EyeMap, a freely available software system for visualizing and analyzing eye movement data specifically in the area of reading research. As compared with similar systems, including commercial ones, EyeMap has more advanced features for text stimulus presentation, interest area extraction, eye movement data visualization, and experimental variable calculation. It is unique in supporting binocular data analysis for unicode, proportional, and nonproportional fonts and spaced and unspaced scripts. Consequently, it is well suited for research on a wide range of writing systems. To date, it has been used with English, German, Thai, Korean, and Chinese. EyeMap is platform independent and can also work on mobile devices. An important contribution of the EyeMap project is a device-independent XML data format for describing data from a wide range of reading experiments. An online version of EyeMap allows researchers to analyze and visualize reading data through a standard Web browser. This facility could, for example, serve as a front-end for online eye movement data corpora. PMID:21994183

  18. Practical strategies for effective lectures.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Peter H; McCallister, Jennifer W; Luks, Andrew M; Le, Tao T; Fessler, Henry E

    2015-04-01

    Lecturing is an essential teaching skill for scientists and health care professionals in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. However, few medical or scientific educators have received training in contemporary techniques or technology for large audience presentation. Interactive lecturing outperforms traditional, passive-style lecturing in educational outcomes, and is being increasingly incorporated into large group presentations. Evidence-based techniques range from the very simple, such as inserting pauses for audience discussion, to more technologically advanced approaches such as electronic audience response systems. Alternative software platforms such as Prezi can overcome some of the visual limits that the ubiquitous PowerPoint imposes on complex scientific narratives, and newer technology formats can help foster the interactive learning environment. Regardless of the technology, adherence to good principles of instructional design, multimedia learning, visualization of quantitative data, and informational public speaking can improve any lecture. The storyline must be clear, logical, and simplified compared with how it might be prepared for scientific publication. Succinct outline and summary slides can provide a roadmap for the audience. Changes of pace, and summaries or other cognitive breaks inserted every 15-20 minutes can renew attention. Graphics that emphasize clear, digestible data graphs or images over tables, and simple, focused tables over text slides, are more readily absorbed. Text slides should minimize words, using simple fonts in colors that contrast to a plain background. Adherence to these well-established principles and addition of some new approaches and technologies will yield an engaging lecture worth attending.

  19. Recognition of sport players' numbers using fast-color segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verleysen, Cédric; De Vleeschouwer, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    This paper builds on a prior work for player detection, and proposes an efficient and effective method to distinguish among players based on the numbers printed on their jerseys. To extract the numbers, the dominant colors of the jersey are learnt during an initial phase and used to speed up the segmentation of the candidate digit regions. An additional set of criteria, considering the relative position and size (compared to the player bounding box) and the density (compared to the digit rectangular support) of the digit, are used to filter out the regions that obviously do not correspond to a digit. Once the plausible digit regions have been extracted, their recognition is based on feature-based classification. A number of original features are proposed to increase the robustness against digit appearance changes, resulting from the font thickness variability and from the deformations of the jersey during the game. Finally, the efficiency and the effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated on a real-life basketball dataset. It shows that the proposed segmentation runs about ten times faster than the mean-shift algorithm, but also outlines that the proposed additional features significantly increase the digit recognition accuracy. Despite significant deformations, 40% of the samples, that can be visually recognized as digits, are well classified as numbers. Out of these classified samples, more than 80% of them are correctly recognized. Besides, more than 95% of the samples, that are not numbers, are correctly identified as non-numbers.

  20. Improving pediatric liquid medication labeling of the hospital information system in Malaysia: qualitative analysis of pharmacists’ perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inadequacies of drug labeling have been frequently reported among Malaysian healthcare institutes, in which the Hospital Information System (HIS) is used. Objective: To identify potential areas to improve the existing labels used for pediatric liquid medications. Methods: This study was qualitative in nature, whereby focus group discussions (FGDs), face-to-face interviews (FTFIs), and onsite observation were used for data collection. Pharmacists stationed at three units (outpatient, inpatient and clinical pharmacy) of a tertiary hospital were targeted. Both FGDs and FTFIs were facilitated using a semi-structured interview guide, video-recorded and transcribed verbatim. All transcripts were thematically analyzed using content analysis approach. Results: Thirteen pharmacists participated in FGDs, while five were approached for FTFIs. Data analysis resulted in four major themes: format of labels, presentation of medication instructions, insufficiency of information, and the need for external aids and education. Participants unanimously agreed on the need for enlarging font sizes of key information. Suggestions were made to use more specific instructions for administration times and pictograms to illustrate important directions. The absence of information about storage, stability and handling of liquid medications was also highlighted. While discussion mainly focused on improving drug labeling, participants consistently stressed the need for an instruction sheet and pharmacist-based, one-to-one education regarding medication instructions. Conclusion: This study provides important insights into critical shortcomings in current labeling practice, underlying the need for developing a new label that incorporates a new format, additional information and pictograms for pediatric liquid medications. PMID:27382422

  1. Using hypermedia to develop an intelligent tutorial/diagnostic system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Daniel; Williams, Robert; Yarborough, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    This is a tutorial/diagnostic system for training personnel in the use of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) Simulation Lab. It also provides a diagnostic capable of isolating lab failures at least to the major lab component. The system was implemented using Hypercard, which is an program of hypermedia running on Apple Macintosh computers. Hypercard proved to be a viable platform for the development and use of sophisticated tutorial systems and moderately capable diagnostic systems. This tutorial/diagnostic system uses the basic Hypercard tools to provide the tutorial. The diagnostic part of the system uses a simple interpreter written in the Hypercard language (Hypertalk) to implement the backward chaining rule based logic commonly found in diagnostic systems using Prolog. Some of the advantages of Hypercard in developing this type of system include sophisticated graphics, animation, sound and voice capabilities, its ability as a hypermedia tool, and its ability to include digitized pictures. The major disadvantage is the slow execution time for evaluation of rules (due to the interpretive processing of the language). Other disadvantages include the limitation on the size of the cards, that color is not supported, that it does not support grey scale graphics, and its lack of selectable fonts for text fields.

  2. Professional burnout, stress and job satisfaction of nursing staff at a university hospital1

    PubMed Central

    Portero de la Cruz, Silvia; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to describe the social and work characteristics of the nursing staff at a tertiary hospital in the Public Health Service of Andalucía, to assess the degree of professional professional burnout and job satisfaction of those professionals and to study the possible relation between the professional burnout variables and the stress and job satisfaction levels on the one hand and social and employment variables on the other. METHOD: descriptive and cross-sectional study in a sample of 258 baccalaureate and auxiliary nurses. As research instruments, an original and specific questionnaire was used to collect social and employment variables, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Nursing Stress Scale and the Font-Roja questionnaire. Descriptive, inferential statistics and multivariate analysis were applied. RESULTS: average scores were found for professional stress and satisfaction, corresponding to 44,23 and 65,46 points, respectively. As regards professional burnout, an average score was found on the emotional exhaustion subscale; a high score for depersonalization and a low score for professional accomplishment. Studies are needed to identify the scores on these subscales in health organizations and to produce knowledge on their interrelations. PMID:26155012

  3. Historical aspects of propolis research in modern times.

    PubMed

    Kuropatnicki, Andrzej K; Szliszka, Ewelina; Krol, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) has been known for centuries. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians were aware of the healing properties of propolis and made extensive use of it as a medicine. In the middle ages propolis was not a very popular topic and its use in mainstream medicine disappeared. However, the knowledge of medicinal properties of propolis survived in traditional folk medicine. The interest in propolis returned in Europe together with the renaissance theory of ad fontes. It has only been in the last century that scientists have been able to prove that propolis is as active and important as our forefathers thought. Research on chemical composition of propolis started at the beginning of the twentieth century and was continued after WW II. Advances in chromatographic analytical methods enabled separation and extraction of several components from propolis. At least 180 different compounds have been identified so far. Its antibacterial, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, anesthetic, and healing properties have been confirmed. Propolis has been effectively used in treatment of dermatological, laryngological, and gynecological problems, neurodegenerative diseases, in wound healing, and in treatment of burns and ulcers. However, it requires further research that may lead to new discoveries of its composition and possible applications. PMID:23710243

  4. Conversion of the Haydn symphonies into electronic form using automatic score recognition: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Nicholas P.

    1994-03-01

    As part of the development of an automatic recognition system for printed music scores, a series of `real-world' tasks are being undertaken. The first of these involves the production of a new edition of an existing 104-page, engraved, chamber-music score for Oxford University Press. The next substantial project, which is described here, has begun with a pilot study with a view to conversion of the 104 Haydn symphonies from a printed edition into machine- readable form. The score recognition system is based on a structural decomposition approach which provides advantages in terms of speed and tolerance of significant variations in font, scale, rotation and noise. Inevitably, some editing of the output data files is required, partially due to the limited vocabulary of symbols supported by the system and their permitted superimpositions. However, the possibility of automatically processing the bulk of the contents of over 600 pages of orchestral score in less than a day of compute time makes the conversion task manageable. The influence that this undertaking is having on the future direction of system development also is discussed.

  5. Une cause rare de dysurie chez la femme : le léiomyome de l’urètre et du col vésical

    PubMed Central

    Benazzouz, Mohamed Hicham; Laadam, Karima; Essatara, Younes; Sayegh, Hachem El; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Jahid, Ahmed; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Le léiomyome de l’urètre est une tumeur bénigne rare constituée de tissus musculaires lisses. Cette tumeur se traduit par une variété de signes cliniques ; le recours à l’histologie est donc nécessaire pour poser le diagnostic. Le traitement de choix est l’exérèse chirurgicale. Aucun cas de dégénérescence maligne n’a été signalé jusqu’à présent, mais une récidive locale est possible en cas d’exérèse incomplète. Les auteurs font état d’un nouveau cas de léiomyome intéressant à la fois le col vésical et l’urètre, et se traduisant par la dysurie chez une patiente ; ils proposent également une revue de la littérature concernant cette pathologie. PMID:25553165

  6. Word and Letter String Processing Networks in Schizophrenia: Evidence for Anomalies and Compensation

    PubMed Central

    Griego, Jacqueline A.; Cortes, Carlos R.; Nune, Sunitha; Fisher, Joscelyn E.; Tagamets, M-A.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging studies show that in normal language correlated activity between anterior and posterior brain regions increases as the linguistic and semantic content (i.e., from false fonts, letter strings, pseudo words, to words) of stimuli increase. In schizophrenia however, disrupted functional connectivity between frontal and posterior brain regions has been frequently reported and these disruptions may change the nature of language organization. We characterized basic linguistic operations in word and letter string processing in a region-of-interest network using structural equation modeling (SEM). Healthy volunteers and volunteers with schizophrenia performed an fMRI one-back matching task with real words and consonant letter strings. We hypothesized that left hemisphere network dysfunction in schizophrenia would be present during processes dealing with linguistic/semantic content. The modeling results suggest aberrant left hemisphere function in schizophrenia, even in tasks requiring minimal access to language. Alternative mechanisms included increases in right hemisphere involvement and increased top-down influence from frontal to posterior regions. PMID:18829095

  7. Le stérilet migrateur: à propos de deux cas et revue de la littérature

    PubMed Central

    Lachiri, Boutaina; Hafidi, Moulay Rachid; Zazi, Abdelgheni; Fagouri, Houda; Kouach, Jaouad; Rahali, Driss Moussaoui; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La pose d'un dispositif intra-utérin constitue un geste courant en pratique gynécologique. Elle n'est cependant pas anodine et la survenue d'une perforation utérine peut être grave. La douleur pelvienne est le principal symptôme révélateur. Quinze pour cent des perforations entraineraient une lésion d'organe de voisinage. Devant une suspicion de stérilet ectopique, l’échographie pelvienne est l'examen de première intention. Si le dispositif intra-utérin n'est pas visualisé, une radiographie d'abdomen sans préparation (ASP) s'impose. Le retrait des dispositifs intra-utérins ectopiques est recommandé. A partir de deux observations rarissimes de migration intra abdominale de stérilet, les auteurs font une revue de la littérature concernant les migrations des dispositifs intra-utérins en intra-abdominale et leurs complications. PMID:25932074

  8. Le Pseudomonas: Experience du Centre des Brules D’Annaba et Revue de la Litterature

    PubMed Central

    Chaibdraa, A.; Medjellekh, M.S.; Saouli, A.; Bentakouk, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Le Pseudomonasest un agent pathogène à l'origine d'infections nosocomiales graves dans les centres des brûlés. Son opportunisme et sa virulence en font une préoccupation majeure. Ce travail se propose d'évaluer la place de cette bactérie dans l'écologie bactérienne locale et d'en apprécier la sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Cette étude rétrospective préliminaire porte sur la période de juin 2003 à décembre 2005. Elle intéresse l'ensemble des prélèvements bactériologiques ayant pu être réalisés au centre des brûlés d'Annaba. L'effectif est de 633 micro-organismes isolés dont 128 Pseudomonas (20,2%): 127 aeruginosa (99,2%), 1 fluorescens (0,8%); distribution selon le site de prélèvement: écouvillon (87,5%), prélèvement trachéobronchique (4,6%), hémoculture (3,1%), cathéters (1,6%), urine (1,6%) et sonde urinaire (1,6%). Le pyocyanique se situe après le staphylocoque pour les prélèvements précoces et repasse en tête après un séjour supérieur à une semaine, où 89% des pyocyaniques sont identifiés. Il est en première position dans les pneumopathies sous ventilation assistée invasive. Il se classe troisième dans les hémocultures et les cultures de cathéters. Dans les infections urinaires il est devancé par Candida et la flore périnéale. Les 128 antibiogrammes regroupent 314 réponses sensibles. La sensibilité à plus de deux antibiotiques est de 68%, à deux antibiotiques 24% et à un antibiotique 8%. Seules quatre molécules restent actives: ciprofloxacine > péfloxacine > pipéracilline > ceftazidime. Une résistance absolue est retrouvée pour trois Pseudomonas (2,4%). Le pronostic sévère des infections nosocomiales à pyocyanique et les risques d'options thérapeutiques très limitées font toute leur gravité, d'où l'intérêt de respecter des règles strictes de prescription des antibiotiques et des mesures de prévention. PMID:21991140

  9. Evolution of complex organic molecules in hot molecular cores. Synthetic spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, R.; Schilke, P.; Stéphan, G.; Bergin, E.; Möller, T.; Schmiedeke, A.; Zernickel, A.

    2015-03-01

    Context. Hot molecular cores (HMCs) are intermediate stages of high-mass star formation and are also known for their rich chemical reservoirs and emission line spectra at (sub-)mm wavebands. Complex organic molecules (COMs) such as methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH), dimethyl ether (CH3OCH3), and methyl formate (HCOOCH3) produce most of these observed lines. The observed spectral feature of HMCs such as total number of emission lines and associated line intensities are also found to vary with evolutionary stages. Aims: We aim to investigate the spectral evolution of these COMs to explore the initial evolutionary stages of high-mass star formation including HMCs. Methods: We developed various 3D models for HMCs guided by the evolutionary scenarios proposed by recent empirical and modeling studies. We then investigated the spatio-temporal variation of temperature and molecular abundances in HMCs by consistently coupling gas-grain chemical evolution with radiative transfer calculations. We explored the effects of varying physical conditions on molecular abundances including density distribution and luminosity evolution of the central protostar(s) among other parameters. Finally, we simulated the synthetic spectra for these models at different evolutionary timescales to compare with observations. Results: Temperature has a profound effect on the formation of COMs through the depletion and diffusion on grain surface to desorption and further gas-phase processing. The time-dependent temperature structure of the hot core models provides a realistic framework for investigating the spatial variation of ice mantle evaporation as a function of evolutionary timescales. We find that a slightly higher value (15 K) than the canonical dark cloud temperature (10 K) provides a more productive environment for COM formation on grain surface. With increasing protostellar luminosity, the water ice evaporation font (~100 K) expands and the spatial distribution of gas phase abundances of

  10. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    font-weight:bold;font-size:14px">From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur

  11. Emissão de hidrogênio molecular e [FeII] em núcleos Seyfert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Viegas, S.

    2003-08-01

    Um dos problemas fundamentais em núcleos ativos de galáxias (AGN) é determinar os mecanismos de excitação dominantes do gás emissor de linhas estreitas, seja este excitado por mecanismos não-estelares (fotoionização por uma fonte central ou choques produzidos por um jato rádio no gás circumnuclear) ou estelares (fotoionização por estrelas OB ou choques originados por um remanescente de supernova em expansão). Essa ambiguedade se faz mais evidente ao intepretar o espectro de espécies tais como H2 e [FeII]. Na primeira, fluorescência UV, processos térmicos (choques e/ou aquecimento por fótons) ou illuminação por raios-x, podem ser responsáveis pelo espectro observado enquanto que na segunda, os dois últimos mechanismos seriam relevantes. Neste trabalho, utilizando espectroscópia JHK de média resolução para uma amostra de AGN encontramos que o H2 observado é gerado principalmente por processos térmicos associados à presença de episódios de formação estelar circumnuclear. No entanto, em galáxias tais como NGC4151 as observações mostram que o hidrogênio molecular origina-se, principalmente, da interação entre o jato radio e o gás da NLR. Esses resultados baseiam-se nos valores das razões de linhas H2 2.24/2.12 mm e H2 2.03/2.22 mm. H2 2.24/2.12 separa claramente processos não-térmicos dos térmicos enquanto H2 2.03/2.22 serve como indicador de temperatura da componente térmica, e portanto, discrimina entre choques e associações OB. Já para o [FeII], as observações são compatíveis com excitação produzida diretamente pela fonte central ou choques associados com o jato rádio. A comparação da largura dos perfis de linhas observados permite concluir que não há correlação entre a emissão de H2 e [FeII]. Em praticamente todos os casos analisados, os perfis das linhas de H2 são não-resolvidos, enquanto que os perfis de [FeII] indicam, em alguns casos, velocidades de até 600 km/s.

  12. Open Thermodynamic System Concept for Fluviokarst Underground Temperature and Discharge Flow Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machetel, P.; Yuen, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we propose to use Open Thermodynamic System (OTS) frameworks to assess temperatures and discharges of underground flows in fluviokarstic systems. The theoretical formulation is built on the first and second laws of thermodynamics. However, such assumptions would require steady states in the Control Volume to cancel the heat exchanges between underground water and embedding rocks. This situation is obviously never perfectly reached in Nature where flow discharges and temperatures vary with rainfalls, recessions and seasonal or diurnal fluctuations. First, we will shortly show that the results of a pumping test campaign on the Cent-Font (Hérault, France) fluviokarst during summer 2005 are consistent with this theoretical approach. Second, we will present the theoretical formalism of the OTS framework that leads to equation systems involving the temperatures and/or the discharges of the underground and surface flows.Third, this approach will be applied to the white (2003) conceptual model of fluviokarst, and we will present the numerical model built to assess the applicability of these assumptions. The first order of the field hydrologic properties observed at the Cent-Fonts resurgence are well described by the calculations based on this OTS framework. If this agreement is necessary, it is not sufficient to validate the method. In order to test its applicability, the mixing process has been modelized as a cooling reaction in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) for which matrix and intrusive flows are introduced continuously while effluent water is recovered at the output. The enthalpy of the various flows is conserved except for the part that exchanges heat with the embedding rocks. However the numerical model shows that in the water saturated part of the CS, the matrix flow swepts heat by convective-advective processes while temporal heat fluctuations from intrusive flows cross the CV walls. The numerical model shows that the convective flow from

  13. Analytical Chemistry (edited by R. Kellner, J.- M. Mermet, M. Otto, and H. M. Widmer)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Reviewed By Robert Q.

    2000-04-01

    This text, written in English, was developed by the Division of Analytical Chemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies to support the university-level Eurocurriculum in analytical chemistry, a major effort of academics and other analytical scientists throughout Europe and an outgrowth of the economic unification of European countries. The goal of a uniform curriculum and text for analytical chemistry across national borders is laudable, and the editors, led by the late Robert Kellner, deserve commendation for their accomplishments. (The U.S., in contrast, has been late in considering the analytical chemistry curriculum and only recently has published a pamphlet, Curricular Developments in the Analytical Sciences, an outgrowth of several NSF-sponsored workshops.) I can't remember another analytical text that begins with mention of the "big bang" and the beginnings of the universe (!), but I don't believe that the authors and publisher are looking to export their curriculum to neighboring planets. However, I am sure that they are interested in the North American market and its strong analytical chemistry community. It is in this context and in comparison with leading analytical texts in the U.S. that I write this review. At first glance, Analytical Chemistry overwhelms. It is a large book of more than 900 pages, a mass of 2.3 kg, and a volume of nearly 3 L. It is not a book that is easy to stuff into a backpack for the trip to class or lab. Students also may resent paying top dollar for a book that might not last the semester, given that the pages of my review copy began to pull away from the binding after only a few days of gentle use. Beneath the snazzy cover there is a dearth of color printing and photographs. This, combined with a smallish font and figures that are inconsistent in size, quality, and font, makes for a book that is not especially easy on the eyes. The large margins provide ample space for the numerous figures, figure captions, and

  14. The relative contributions of summer and cool-season precipitation to groundwater recharge, Spring Mountains, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winograd, Isaac J.; Riggs, Alan C.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    A comparison of the stable-isotope signatures of spring waters, snow, snowmelt, summer (July thru September) rain, and cool season (October thru June) rain indicates that the high-intensity, short-duration summer convective storms, which contribute approximately a third of the annual precipitation to the Spring Mountains, provide only a small fraction (perhaps 10%) of the recharge to this major upland in southern Nevada, USA. Late spring snowmelt is the principal means of recharging the fractured Paleozoic-age carbonate rocks comprising the central and highest portion of the Spring Mountains. Daily discharge measurements at Peak Spring Canyon Creek during the period 1978-94 show that snowpacks were greatly enhanced during El Niño events. Résumé La comparaison des signatures isotopiques stables des eaux de sources, de neige, de fonte de neige, des pluies d'été (juillet à septembre) et de saison froide (octobre à juin) montre que les précipitations convectives d'été de forte intensité et de courte durée, apportant un tiers des précipitations annuelles reçues par les Monts Spring, ne participent que pour une faible part (10%) à la recharge de cette importante zone d'altitude du sud du Nevada (États-Unis). La fonte tardive de la neige au printemps constitue l'essentiel de la recharge des roches carbonatées fracturées d'âge paléozoïque formant la partie centrale et la plus haute des Monts Spring. Les données journalières de débit sur la rivière du canyon de Peak Spring, entre 1978 et 1994, montrent que les hauteurs de neige ont été plus élevées pendant les événements El Niño. Resumen La comparación entre las marcas isotópicas de aguas de manantiales, nieve, deshielo, lluvias de verano (julio a septiembre) y resto de lluvias (octubre a junio) indican que las tormentas de verano, de corta duración y gran intensidad, las cuales suponen alrededor de un tercio de la precipitación total anual en las Spring Mountains, proporcionan sólo una

  15. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Chaibdraa, A; Medjellekh, M S; Saouli, A; Bentakouk, M C

    2008-12-31

    Le Pseudomonasest un agent pathogène à l'origine d'infections nosocomiales graves dans les centres des brûlés. Son opportunisme et sa virulence en font une préoccupation majeure. Ce travail se propose d'évaluer la place de cette bactérie dans l'écologie bactérienne locale et d'en apprécier la sensibilité aux antibiotiques. Cette étude rétrospective préliminaire porte sur la période de juin 2003 à décembre 2005. Elle intéresse l'ensemble des prélèvements bactériologiques ayant pu être réalisés au centre des brûlés d'Annaba. L'effectif est de 633 micro-organismes isolés dont 128 Pseudomonas (20,2%): 127 aeruginosa (99,2%), 1 fluorescens (0,8%); distribution selon le site de prélèvement: écouvillon (87,5%), prélèvement trachéobronchique (4,6%), hémoculture (3,1%), cathéters (1,6%), urine (1,6%) et sonde urinaire (1,6%). Le pyocyanique se situe après le staphylocoque pour les prélèvements précoces et repasse en tête après un séjour supérieur à une semaine, où 89% des pyocyaniques sont identifiés. Il est en première position dans les pneumopathies sous ventilation assistée invasive. Il se classe troisième dans les hémocultures et les cultures de cathéters. Dans les infections urinaires il est devancé par Candida et la flore périnéale. Les 128 antibiogrammes regroupent 314 réponses sensibles. La sensibilité à plus de deux antibiotiques est de 68%, à deux antibiotiques 24% et à un antibiotique 8%. Seules quatre molécules restent actives: ciprofloxacine > péfloxacine > pipéracilline > ceftazidime. Une résistance absolue est retrouvée pour trois Pseudomonas (2,4%). Le pronostic sévère des infections nosocomiales à pyocyanique et les risques d'options thérapeutiques très limitées font toute leur gravité, d'où l'intérêt de respecter des règles strictes de prescription des antibiotiques et des mesures de prévention.

  16. On the nonlinear feedback loop and energy cycle of the non-dissipative Lorenz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, B.-W.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we discuss the role of the nonlinear terms and linear (heating) term in the energy cycle of the three-dimensional (X-Y-Z) non-dissipative Lorenz model (3D-NLM). (X, Y, Z) represent the solutions in the phase space. We first present the closed-form solution to the nonlinear equation d2 X/dτ2+ (X2/2)X = 0, τ is a non-dimensional time, which was never documented in the literature. As the solution is oscillatory (wave-like) and the nonlinear term (X2) is associated with the nonlinear feedback loop, it is suggested that the nonlinear feedback loop may act as a restoring force. We then show that the competing impact of nonlinear restoring force and linear (heating) force determines the partitions of the averaged available potential energy from Y and Z modes, respectively, denoted as APEY and APEZ. Based on the energy analysis, an energy cycle with four different regimes is identified with the following four points: A(X, Y) = (0,0), B = (Xt, Yt), C = (Xm, Ym), and D = (Xt, -Yt). Point A is a saddle point. The initial perturbation (X, Y, Z) = (0, 1, 0) gives (Xt, Yt) = (font-size:larger"> √ 2σr , r) and (Xm, Ym) = (2font-size:larger">√ σr , 0). σ is the Prandtl number, and r is the normalized Rayleigh number. The energy cycle starts at (near) point A, A+ = (0, 0+) to be specific, goes through B, C, and D, and returns back to A, i.e., A- = (0,0-). From point A to point B, denoted as Leg A-B, where the linear (heating) force dominates, the solution X grows gradually with { KE↑, APEY↓, APEZ↓}. KE is the averaged kinetic energy. We use the upper arrow

  17. Design and Development of Functionally Effective Human-Machine Interfaces for Firing Room Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Henry

    2013-01-01

    This project involves creating software for support equipment used on the Space l aunch System (SLS). The goal is to create applications and displays that will be used to remotely operate equipment from the firing room and will continue to support the SLS launch vehicle to the extent of its program. These displays include design practices that help to convey information effectively, such as minimizing distractions at normal operating state and displaying intentional distractions during a warning or alarm state. The general practice for creating an operator display is to reduce the detail of unimportant aspects of the display and promote focus on data and dynamic information. These practices include using minimalist design, using muted tones for background colors, using a standard font at a readable text size, displaying alarms visible for Immediate attention, grouping data logically, and displaying data appropriately varying on the type of data. Users of these displays are more likely to stay focused on operating for longer periods by using design practices that reduce eye strain and fatigue. Effective operator displays will improve safety by reducing human errors during operation, which will help prevent catastrophic accidents. This report entails the details of my work on developing remote displays for the Hypergolics ground system. Before developing a prototype display, the design and requirements of the system are outlined and compiled into a document. Then each subsystem has schematic representations drawn tha.t meet the specifications detailed in the document. The schematics are then used as the outline to create display representations of each subsystem. Each display is first tested individually. Then the displays are integrated with a prototype of the master system, and they are tested in a simulated environment then retested in the real environment. Extensive testing is important to ensure the displays function reliably as intended.

  18. Practical automatic Arabic license plate recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Since 1970's, the need of an automatic license plate recognition system, sometimes referred as Automatic License Plate Recognition system, has been increasing. A license plate recognition system is an automatic system that is able to recognize a license plate number, extracted from image sensors. In specific, Automatic License Plate Recognition systems are being used in conjunction with various transportation systems in application areas such as law enforcement (e.g. speed limit enforcement) and commercial usages such as parking enforcement and automatic toll payment private and public entrances, border control, theft and vandalism control. Vehicle license plate recognition has been intensively studied in many countries. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic license plate recognition system is different for each country. [License plate detection using cluster run length smoothing algorithm ].Generally, an automatic license plate localization and recognition system is made up of three modules; license plate localization, character segmentation and optical character recognition modules. This paper presents an Arabic license plate recognition system that is insensitive to character size, font, shape and orientation with extremely high accuracy rate. The proposed system is based on a combination of enhancement, license plate localization, morphological processing, and feature vector extraction using the Haar transform. The performance of the system is fast due to classification of alphabet and numerals based on the license plate organization. Experimental results for license plates of two different Arab countries show an average of 99 % successful license plate localization and recognition in a total of more than 20 different images captured from a complex outdoor environment. The results run times takes less time compared to conventional and many states of art methods.

  19. Asymmetric Particle Systems on ℝ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, J.; García, J.

    2000-04-01

    We study interacting particle systems on the real line which generalize the Hammersley process [D. Aldous and P. Diaconis, Prob. Theory Relat. Fields 103:199-213 (1995)]. Particles jump to the right to a randomly chosen point between their previous position and that of the forward neighbor at a rate which may depend on the distance to the neighbor. A class of models is identified for which the invariant particle distribution is Poisson. The bulk of the paper is devoted to a model where the jump rate is constant and the jump length is a random fraction r of the distance to the forward neighbor drawn from a probability density φ( r) on the unit interval. This is a special case of the random average process of Ferrari and Fontes [ El. J. Prob. 3 (1998)]. The discrete-time version of the model has been considered previously in the context of force propagation in granular media [S. N. Coppersmith et al., Phys. Rev. E 53:4673 (1996)]. We show that the stationary two-point function of particle spacings factorizes for any choice of φ( r). Under the assumption that this implies pairwise independence, the invariant density of interparticle spacings for the case of uniform φ( r) is found to be a gamma distribution with parameter ν, where ν=1/2, 1, and 2 for continuous-time, backward sequential, and discrete-time dynamics respectively. A heuristic derivation of a nonlinear diffusion equation is presented, and the tracer diffusion coefficient is computed for arbitrary φ( r) and different types of dynamics.

  20. L’utilisation d’objets comme outils: un développement continu

    PubMed Central

    Kahrs, Björn Alexander; Lockman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Le débat autour des origines développementales de la capacité humaine à utiliser des outils de manière souple reste ouvert. Alors que l’approche dominante se focalise sur un changement qualitatif cognitif vers la fin de la première année, la théorie perception-action fournit des indices importants sur la manière dont les comportements exploratoires plus précoces des nourrissons jettent les bases pour l’émergence de cette capacité. En particulier, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont les tentatives des nourrissons de mettre en rapport les objets et les surfaces leur permettent d’apprendre comment les objets peuvent servir d’extension de la main et fournissent l’occasion d’exercer des actions qui seront recrutées plus tard pour l’utilisation d’outils. Dans ce contexte, nous discutons des études comportementales et cinématiques portant sur la manipulation d’objets, qui montrent que les nourrissons font interagir les objets et les surfaces avec discernement et que leur contrôle de la frappe (banging) augmente au cours de leur première année. En conclusion, une perspective perception-action suggère que l’utilisation d’outils émerge de manière plus continue au cours du développement que ce qui a été traditionnellement envisagé. PMID:24511151

  1. PSTOOLS - FOUR PROGRAMS THAT INTERPRET/FORMAT POSTSCRIPT FILES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, D.

    1994-01-01

    PSTOOLS is a package of four programs that operate on files written in the page description language, PostScript. The programs include a PostScript previewer for the IRIS workstation, a PostScript driver for the Matrix QCRZ film recorder, a PostScript driver for the Tektronix 4693D printer, and a PostScript code beautifier that formats PostScript files to be more legible. The three programs PSIRIS, PSMATRIX, and PSTEK are similar in that they all interpret the PostScript language and output the graphical results to a device, and they support color PostScript images. The common code which is shared by these three programs is included as a library of routines. PSPRETTY formats a PostScript file by appropriately indenting procedures and code delimited by "saves" and "restores." PSTOOLS does not use Adobe fonts. PSTOOLS is written in C-language for implementation on SGI IRIS 4D series workstations running IRIX 3.2 or later. A README file and UNIX man pages provide information regarding the installation and use of the PSTOOLS programs. A six-page manual which provides slightly more detailed information may be purchased separately. The standard distribution medium for this package is one .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. PSIRIS (the largest program) requires 1.2Mb of main memory. PSMATRIX requires the "gpib" board (IEEE 488) available from Silicon Graphics. Inc. The programs with graphical interfaces require that the IRIS have at least 24 bit planes. This package was developed in 1990 and updated in 1991. SGI, IRIS 4D, and IRIX are trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc. Matrix QCRZ is a registered trademark of the AGFA Group. Tektronix 4693D is a trademark of Tektronix, Inc. Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. PostScript is a registered trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories.

  2. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords “Readability and Package Leaflet” and “Readability and Package Insert” in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the

  3. Le pneumothorax spontané comme une manifestation évolutive de la polyarthrite rhumatoide: à propos d'une observation clinique et revue de la litterature

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Magaye; Ndiaye, Assane; Fall, Mouhamed Lamine; Diatta, Souleymane; Dieng, Papa Adama; Ba, Papa Salmane; Ciss, Amadou Gabriel; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou

    2015-01-01

    La polyarthrite rhumatoïde est une maladie systémique inflammatoire caractérisée par une destruction des synoviales articulaires et des lésions systémiques extra articulaires. Les nodules pulmonaires font partie de ces dernières. Leur évolution peut aboutir à un pneumothorax spontané. Nous rapportons le cas d'un adulte jeune au long passé de polyarthrite rhumatoïde qui a présenté deux épisodes de pneumothorax spontané. Il était admis dans notre service, en urgence, pour un pneumothorax droit spontané et massif sur terrain de polyarthrite rhumatoïde au stade de déformation. Il était sous méthotrexate. La radiographie standard du thorax et la tomodensitométrie montraient un décollement pleural complet droit, des nodules et des images excavées sur les deux champs pulmonaires. Il a bénéficié d'un drainage thoracique aspiratif permettant une bonne ré-expansion pulmonaire. Le pneumothorax spontané constitue une manifestation rare des lésions pulmonaire de la polyarthrite rhumatoïde. Il s'agit le plus souvent d'une manifestation évolutive de la maladie mais aussi une circonstance de découverte de cette dernière. L'implication des immunosuppresseurs reste à être prouvée. Ainsi la polyarthrite rhumatoïde doit être considérée dans la recherche étiologique d'un pneumothorax spontané. PMID:26977228

  4. A kite-based approach for water-vapor lidar calibration and application to multi-platform intercomparison in the Western Mediterranean during ChArMEx/ADRIMED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totems, Julien; Chazette, Patrick; Dulac, François; Hassanzadeh, Sahar

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the ADRIMED campaign included in the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) research program, performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean, the mobile Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI) developed by LSCE was deployed at Cap d'en Font on the island of Menorca (Spain). Alongside an elastic backscatter channel, it features depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels, the two latter yielding profiles of atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR). The water content thus provided by the lidar is essential to validate models or satellite water vapor products for meteorological purposes. It also proved to be very helpful in characterizing particle types and sources, especially for the multi-layer situations observed during the ChArMEx/ADRIMED special observation period. Beforehand, however, a precise calibration of the WVMR had to be done on-site. Balloon rawindsoundings performed by CNES were available about 10 km off-site on Saint-Lluis aerodrome or 100 km away on Majorca for this purpose, but strong inhomogeneities in the WVMR observed under 2 km altitude prevent an accurate calibration and the determination of the lidar overlap factor, which biases WVMR retrieval under 300 m. Instead, we propose the use of a lightweight Pressure-Temperature-Relative Humidity (PTU) sound carried under a simple kite to perform a co-localized sounding. Modern kites indeed combine the advantages of an easy deployment and the possibility of longer, more precise soundings in the low troposphere. After showing that this approach leads to calibration with less than 2% error from 80 m altitude, we validate it against rawindsounding WVMR profiles, with very good agreement at high altitude. We also present further comparisons between the lidar-derived WVMR and the one given by meteorological model reanalyses (AROME, ECMWF) or satellite inversion products (IASI).

  5. "The Electric City": Sherbrooke et son paysage hydroelectrique (1880--1930)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillemette, Remi

    Ce memoire presente l'imbrication des elements hydroelectrique au sein du paysage de la ville de Sherbrooke entre 1880 et 1930. Nous cherchons a comprendre comment les nouveaux elements energetiques s'integrent a celui-ci et comment la population sherbrookoise se represente ces espaces transformes. Comment le paysage hydroelectrique, en tant qu'espace vu et vecu, interagit-il avec la societe sherbrookoise ? A l'interieur de cette problematique generale, nous chercherons a repondre a trois sous-questions. Quelles sont les transformations physiques et materielles engendrees par l'implantation de cette nouvelle technologie hydroelectrique sur le paysage urbain sherbrookois ? Qu'est-ce que les differents groupes valorisent au sein du paysage ? Quel sens prennent ces nouveaux paysages pour les Sherbrookois ? En effet, l'etude du developpement rapide du potentiel hydroelectrique de la riviere Magog nous amene a demontrer que l'exploitation des ressources energetiques a profondement transforme le paysage de Sherbrooke : vastes modifications du trace des cours d'eau, apparition de batiments specifiques a la production energetique, structures de distributions et infrastructures permettant l'illumination de la ville. Nous avancons aussi que differents groupes d'individus ne valorisent pas les memes elements paysagers. Finalement, nous proposons que le regard porte par les citoyens sur le paysage energetique est tributaire de l'usage qu'ils en font. Comme la fonction des elements energetiques paysagers evolue, le regard qu' ils portent vers ces structures se transforme lui aussi. Mots cles: histoire de Sherbrooke, paysage, hydroelectricite, electricite, transformation de l'espace, histoire environnementale

  6. Creation of an Accurate Algorithm to Detect Snellen Best Documented Visual Acuity from Ophthalmology Electronic Health Record Notes

    PubMed Central

    French, Dustin D; Gill, Manjot; Mitchell, Christopher; Jackson, Kathryn; Kho, Abel; Bryar, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual acuity is the primary measure used in ophthalmology to determine how well a patient can see. Visual acuity for a single eye may be recorded in multiple ways for a single patient visit (eg, Snellen vs. Jäger units vs. font print size), and be recorded for either distance or near vision. Capturing the best documented visual acuity (BDVA) of each eye in an individual patient visit is an important step for making electronic ophthalmology clinical notes useful in research. Objective Currently, there is limited methodology for capturing BDVA in an efficient and accurate manner from electronic health record (EHR) notes. We developed an algorithm to detect BDVA for right and left eyes from defined fields within electronic ophthalmology clinical notes. Methods We designed an algorithm to detect the BDVA from defined fields within 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes with visual acuity data present. About 5668 unique responses were identified and an algorithm was developed to map all of the unique responses to a structured list of Snellen visual acuities. Results Visual acuity was captured from a total of 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes during the study dates. The algorithm identified all visual acuities in the defined visual acuity section for each eye and returned a single BDVA for each eye. A clinician chart review of 100 random patient notes showed a 99% accuracy detecting BDVA from these records and 1% observed error. Conclusions Our algorithm successfully captures best documented Snellen distance visual acuity from ophthalmology clinical notes and transforms a variety of inputs into a structured Snellen equivalent list. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first attempt at capturing visual acuity accurately from large numbers of electronic ophthalmology notes. Use of this algorithm can benefit research groups interested in assessing visual acuity for patient centered outcome. All codes used for this study are currently

  7. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Rock magnetic and geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerasingam, S.; Venkatachalapathy, R.; Basavaiah, N.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Deenadayalan, K.

    2014-06-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT) had a major impact on the geomorphology and sedimentology of the east coast of India. Estimation of the magnitude of the tsunami from its deposits is a challenging topic to be developed in studies on tsunami hazard assessment. Two core sediments (C1 and C2) from Nagapattinam, southeast coast of India were subjected to textural, mineral, geochemical and rock-magnetic measurements. In both cores, three zones (zone I, II and III) have been distinguished based on mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic data. Zone II is featured by peculiar rock-magnetic, textural, mineralogical and geochemical signatures in both sediment cores that we interpret to correspond to the 2004 IOT deposit. Textural, mineralogical, geochemical and rock-magnetic investigations showed that the tsunami deposit is featured by relative enrichment in sand, quartz, feldspar, carbonate, SiO 2, TiO 2, K 2O and CaO and by a depletion in clay and iron oxides. These results point to a dilution of reworked ferromagnetic particles into a huge volume of paramagnetic materials, similar to what has been described in other nearshore tsunami deposits (Font et al. 2010). Correlation analysis elucidated the relationships among the textural, mineral, geochemical and magnetic parameters, and suggests that most of the quartz-rich coarse sediments have been transported offshore by the tsunami wave. These results agreed well with the previously published numerical model of tsunami induced sediment transport off southeast coast of India and can be used for future comparative studies on tsunami deposits.

  8. Aquaporin-1 gene deletion reduces breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in tumor-producing MMTV-PyVT mice

    PubMed Central

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Jin, Byung-Ju; Verkman, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a plasma membrane water-transporting protein expressed strongly in tumor microvascular endothelia. We previously reported impaired angiogenesis in implanted tumors in AQP1-deficient mice and reduced migration of AQP1-deficient endothelial cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the consequences of AQP1 deficiency in mice that spontaneously develop well-differentiated, luminal-type breast adenomas with lung metastases [mouse mammary tumor virus-driven polyoma virus middle T oncogene (MMTV-PyVT)]. AQP1+/+ MMTV-PyVT mice developed large breast tumors with total tumor mass 3.5 ± 0.5 g and volume 265 ± 36 mm3 (se, 11 mice) at age 98 d. Tumor mass (1.6±0.2 g) and volume (131±15 mm3, 12 mice) were greatly reduced in AQP1−/− MMTV-PyVT mice (P<0.005). CD31 immunofluorescence showed abnormal microvascular anatomy in tumors of AQP1−/− MMTV-PyVT mice, with reduced vessel density. HIF-1α expression was increased in tumors in AQP1−/− MMTV-PyVT mice. The number of lung metastases (5±1/mouse) was much lower than in AQP1+/+ MMTV-PyVT mice (31±8/mouse, P<0.005). These results implicate AQP1 as an important determinant of tumor angiogenesis and, hence, as a potential drug target for adjuvant therapy of solid tumors.—Esteva-Font, C., Jin, B.-J., Verkman, A. S. Aquaporin-1 gene deletion reduces breast tumor growth and lung metastasis in tumor-producing MMTV-PyVT mice. PMID:24334548

  9. Morphable Word Clouds for Time-Varying Text Data Visualization.

    PubMed

    Chi, Ming-Te; Lin, Shih-Syun; Chen, Shiang-Yi; Lin, Chao-Hung; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2015-12-01

    A word cloud is a visual representation of a collection of text documents that uses various font sizes, colors, and spaces to arrange and depict significant words. The majority of previous studies on time-varying word clouds focuses on layout optimization and temporal trend visualization. However, they do not fully consider the spatial shapes and temporal motions of word clouds, which are important factors for attracting people's attention and are also important cues for human visual systems in capturing information from time-varying text data. This paper presents a novel method that uses rigid body dynamics to arrange multi-temporal word-tags in a specific shape sequence under various constraints. Each word-tag is regarded as a rigid body in dynamics. With the aid of geometric, aesthetic, and temporal coherence constraints, the proposed method can generate a temporally morphable word cloud that not only arranges word-tags in their corresponding shapes but also smoothly transforms the shapes of word clouds over time, thus yielding a pleasing time-varying visualization. Using the proposed frame-by-frame and morphable word clouds, people can observe the overall story of a time-varying text data from the shape transition, and people can also observe the details from the word clouds in frames. Experimental results on various data demonstrate the feasibility and flexibility of the proposed method in morphable word cloud generation. In addition, an application that uses the proposed word clouds in a simulated exhibition demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed method.

  10. The importance of accurate atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Dylan; Schroeder, John; Liang, Pang

    2014-11-01

    This paper will focus on the effect of atmospheric conditions on EO sensor performance using computer models. We have shown the importance of accurately modeling atmospheric effects for predicting the performance of an EO sensor. A simple example will demonstrated how real conditions for several sites in China will significantly impact on image correction, hyperspectral imaging, and remote sensing. The current state-of-the-art model for computing atmospheric transmission and radiance is, MODTRAN® 5, developed by the US Air Force Research Laboratory and Spectral Science, Inc. Research by the US Air Force, Navy and Army resulted in the public release of LOWTRAN 2 in the early 1970's. Subsequent releases of LOWTRAN and MODTRAN® have continued until the present. Please verify that (1) all pages are present, (2) all figures are correct, (3) all fonts and special characters are correct, and (4) all text and figures fit within the red margin lines shown on this review document. Complete formatting information is available at http://SPIE.org/manuscripts Return to the Manage Active Submissions page at http://spie.org/submissions/tasks.aspx and approve or disapprove this submission. Your manuscript will not be published without this approval. Please contact author_help@spie.org with any questions or concerns. The paper will demonstrate the importance of using validated models and local measured meteorological, atmospheric and aerosol conditions to accurately simulate the atmospheric transmission and radiance. Frequently default conditions are used which can produce errors of as much as 75% in these values. This can have significant impact on remote sensing applications.

  11. Complex interactions between the laminin 4 subunit and integrins regulate endothelial cell behavior in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Annette M.; Gonzales, Meredith; Herron, G. Scott; Nagavarapu, Usha; Hopkinson, Susan B.; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Jones, Jonathan C. R.

    2002-12-01

    The 4 laminin subunit is a component of the basement membrane of blood vessels where it codistributes with the integrins v3, 31, and 61. An antibody against the G domain (residues 919-1207; G919-1207) of the 4 laminin subunit inhibits angiogenesis in a mouse-human chimeric model, indicating the functional importance of this domain. Additional support for the latter derives from the ability of recombinant G919-1207 to support endothelial cell adhesion. In particular, endothelial cell adhesion to G919-1207 is half-maximal at 1.4 nM, whereas residues 919-1018 and 1016-1207 of the G domain are poor cellular ligands. Function blocking antibodies against integrins v3 and 1 and a combination of antibodies against 3 and α6 integrin subunits inhibit endothelial cell attachment to G919-1207. Moreover, both αvβ3 and α3β1 integrin bind with high affinity to G919-1207. Together, our studies demonstrate that the G domain of laminin α4 chain is a specific, high affinity ligand for the αvβ3 and α3β1 integrin heterodimers and that these integrins, together with α6β1, function cooperatively to mediate endothelial cell-α4 laminin interaction and hence blood vessel development. We propose a model based on these data that reconcile apparent discrepancies in the recent literature with regard to the role of the αvβ3 integrin in angiogenesis. <FONT SIZE="-1">matrix | matrix receptor | blood vessels

  12. Is VIRTU4L larger than VIR7UAL? Automatic processing of number quantity and lexical representations in leet words.

    PubMed

    García-Orza, Javier; Comesaña, Montserrat; Piñeiro, Ana; Soares, Ana Paula; Perea, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Recent research has shown that leet words (i.e., words in which some of the letters are replaced by visually similar digits; e.g., VIRTU4L) can be processed as their base words without much cost. However, it remains unclear whether the digits inserted in leet words are simply processed as letters or whether they are simultaneously processed as numbers (i.e., in terms of access to their quantity representation). To address this question, we conducted 2 experiments that examined the size congruity effect (i.e., when comparisons of the physical size of numbers are affected by their numerical magnitudes) in a physical-size judgment task. Participants were presented with pairs of leet words that were nominally identical except for the embedded digit (e.g., VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L) and were asked to decide as quickly and accurately as possible which word in the pair appeared in a bigger font. In Experiment 1, we examined the congruity effect (congruent: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL vs. incongruent: VIR7UAL-VIRTU4L vs. neutral: VIR7UAL-VIR7UAL) and the numerical distance effect (distance 1: PAN3L-P4NEL vs. distance 3: VIRTU4L-VIR7UAL). To examine whether the meaning of these words was accessed, we also manipulated word frequency (i.e., a marker of lexical access) in Experiment 2. Results revealed effects of congruity, distance, and word frequency, thus suggesting automatic access to both number quantity and word representations for leet words. These findings favor multidimensional accounts of number/word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Stroop effects in Alzheimer's disease: selective attention speed of processing, or color-naming? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Tewari, Anita; Shakuf, Vered; Van Lieshout, Pascal H H M

    2014-01-01

    Selective attention, an essential part of daily activity, is often impaired in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Usually, it is measured by the color-word Stroop test. However, there is no universal agreement whether performance on the Stroop task changes significantly in AD patients; or if so, whether an increase in Stroop effects reflects a decrease in selective attention, a slowing in generalized speed of processing (SOP), or is the result of degraded color-vision. The current study investigated the impact of AD on Stroop performance and its potential sources in a meta-analysis and mathematical modeling of 18 studies, comparing 637 AD patients with 977 healthy age-matched participants. We found a significant increase in Stroop effects for AD patients, across studies. This AD-related change was associated with a slowing in SOP. However, after correcting for a bias in the distribution of latencies, SOP could only explain a moderate portion of the total variance (25%). Moreover, we found strong evidence for an AD-related increase in the latency difference between naming the font-color and reading color-neutral stimuli (r2 = 0.98). This increase in the dimensional imbalance between color-naming and word-reading was found to explain a significant portion of the AD-related increase in Stroop effects (r2 = 0.87), hinting on a possible sensory source. In conclusion, our analysis highlights the importance of controlling for sensory degradation and SOP when testing cognitive performance and, specifically, selective attention in AD patients. We also suggest possible measures and tools to better test for selective attention in AD.

  14. Microscopie interférentielle X-UV : un outil pour l'étude des endommagements des surfaces optiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamelot, G.; Ros, D.; Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Kozlová, M.; Mocek, T.; Homer, P.; Polan, J.; Stupka, M.

    2006-12-01

    Nous présentons des résultats récents concernant des premières investigations de microscopie interférentielle par laser X-UV d'endommagement optique. Le laser X-UV utilisé est un laser collisionnel en régime quasi-stationnaire émettant à 21.2 nm, développé au Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS, Prague, République Tchèque). Des échantillons de silice fondue de haute qualité, avec ou sans rayure, étaient irradiées en face avant par un laser bleu, correspondant au 3selectfontfontsize{7{9}{textrm{ème}}} harmonique du laser à iode du PALS (1.315 μ m), servant également à réaliser le laser X-UV à 21.2 nm. Celui-ci était utilisé, 5 ns après l'irradiation pour réaliser une imagerie microscopique et interférentielle de la face arrière de l'échantillon. Les résultats font apparaître des déformations locales transitoires. Des premières analyses mettent en évidence une probable variation de la rugosité de la surface. Cette démonstration expérimentale encourageante ouvre la voie à de futures investigations, notamment sur notre prochaine installation laser : LASERIX.

  15. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results.

  16. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  17. Run-length encoding graphic rules, biochemically editable designs and steganographical numeric data embedment for DNA-based cryptographical coding system

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Tomonori

    2013-01-01

    There have been a wide variety of approaches for handling the pieces of DNA as the “unplugged” tools for digital information storage and processing, including a series of studies applied to the security-related area, such as DNA-based digital barcodes, water marks and cryptography. In the present article, novel designs of artificial genes as the media for storing the digitally compressed data for images are proposed for bio-computing purpose while natural genes principally encode for proteins. Furthermore, the proposed system allows cryptographical application of DNA through biochemically editable designs with capacity for steganographical numeric data embedment. As a model case of image-coding DNA technique application, numerically and biochemically combined protocols are employed for ciphering the given “passwords” and/or secret numbers using DNA sequences. The “passwords” of interest were decomposed into single letters and translated into the font image coded on the separate DNA chains with both the coding regions in which the images are encoded based on the novel run-length encoding rule, and the non-coding regions designed for biochemical editing and the remodeling processes revealing the hidden orientation of letters composing the original “passwords.” The latter processes require the molecular biological tools for digestion and ligation of the fragmented DNA molecules targeting at the polymerase chain reaction-engineered termini of the chains. Lastly, additional protocols for steganographical overwriting of the numeric data of interests over the image-coding DNA are also discussed. PMID:23750303

  18. Ion heating and energy redistribution across supercritical perpendicular shocks: Application to planetary and interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Liu, Y. D.; Richardson, J. D.; Parks, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate how the ion dissipative process across supercritical perpendicular shocks depends on the shock front micro-structures. At a collisionless plasma shock, the dissipation and micro-structure of the shock font are dominated by wave-particle interactions. Comparison of the ion thermalization at different kinds of shocks, e.g., planetary and interplanetary shocks, can quantify how much interaction is occurring at the shock boundary. Investigation of this problem for diverse solar wind (SW) conditions will yield important information on the dependences of the ion thermalization and energy redistribution on plasma parameters. With the aid of a successful automatic separation method [Yang et al., 2009], the incident ions at the shock can be divided into two parts: reflected (R) ions and directly transmitted (DT) ions. Corresponding heating efficiency of each population of ions at the shock can be calculated respectively. Wilkinson & Schwartz [1990] have theorized that the amount of reflected ions at perpendicular shocks depends on plasma parameters. Based on the Rankine-Hugoniot (R-H) conservation laws, they found that the fraction reflected is strongly dependent on the magnitude of the ratio of specific heat capacities γ chosen in the R-H relations. The main goal of this work is to investigate how the plasma parameters, e.g. the particle velocity distribution, the plasma beta value, seed populations, etc. (from a particle dynamic point of view), control the amount of reflected ions by using one-dimensional (1-D) full-particle-cell simulations. The simulation results may help to explain the ion heating efficiency and energy redistribution at shocks observed by Cluster, Wind, Voyager, etc.

  19. Modelling Lyman α forest cross-correlations with LyMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lochhaas, Cassandra; Weinberg, David H.; Peirani, Sébastien; Dubois, Yohan; Colombi, Stéphane; Blaizot, Jérémy; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Pichon, Christophe; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We use the Lyα Mass Association Scheme (LyMAS) to predict cross-correlations at z = 2.5 between dark matter haloes and transmitted flux in the Lyα forest, and compare to cross-correlations measured for quasars and damped Lyα systems (DLAs) from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) by Font-Ribera et al. We calibrate LyMAS using Horizon-AGN hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of a (100 h- 1 Mpc)3 comoving volume. We apply this calibration to a (1 h- 1 Gpc)3 simulation realized with 20483 dark matter particles. In the 100 h- 1 Mpc box, LyMAS reproduces the halo-flux correlations computed from the full hydrodynamic gas distribution very well. In the 1 h- 1 Gpc box, the amplitude of the large-scale cross-correlation tracks the halo bias bh as expected. We provide empirical fitting functions that describe our numerical results. In the transverse separation bins used for the BOSS analyses, LyMAS cross-correlation predictions follow linear theory accurately down to small scales. Fitting the BOSS measurements requires inclusion of random velocity errors; we find best-fitting rms velocity errors of 399 and 252 {km} {s}^{-1} for quasars and DLAs, respectively. We infer bias-weighted mean halo masses of M_h/10^{12} h^{-1} M_{⊙}=2.19^{+0.16}_{-0.15} and 0.69^{+0.16}_{-0.14} for the host haloes of quasars and DLAs, with ˜0.2 dex systematic uncertainty associated with redshift evolution, intergalactic medium parameters, and selection of data fitting range.

  20. The ν2GC Simulations : Quantifying the Dark Side of the Universe in the Planck Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki

    2015-08-01

    We present the evolution of dark matter halos in six large cosmological N-body simulations, called the ν2GC (New Numerical Galaxy Catalog) simulations on the basis of the LCDM cosmology consistent with observational results obtained by the Planck satellite. The largest simulation consists of 81923 (550 billion) dark matter particles in a box of 1.12h-1Gpc (a mass resolution of 2.20×108 h-1M⊙). Among simulations utilizing boxes larger than 1h-1Gpc, our simulation yields the highest resolution simulation that has ever been achieved. Compared with the Millennium simulation (Springel et al. 2005), our simulation offers the advantages of a mass resolution that is four times better and a spatial volume that is 11 times larger. A ν2GC simulation with the smallest box consists of eight billions particles in a box of 70h-1Mpc (a mass resolution of 3.44×106font-size:13px; line-height:20.7999992370605px"> -1M⊙). These simulations can follow the evolution of halos over masses of eight orders of magnitude, from small dwarf galaxies to massive clusters. Using the unprecedentedly high resolution and powerful statistics of the ν2GC simulations, we provide statistical results of the halo mass function, mass accretion rate, formation redshift, and merger statistics, and present accurate fitting functions for the Planck cosmology, from redshift 10 to 0. By combining the ν2GC simulations with our new semi-analytic galaxy formation model, we are able to prepare mock catalogs of galaxies and active galactic nuclei, which will be made publicly available in the near future.